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Sample records for adobe acrobat pdf

  1. Threat Modelling Adobe PDF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    on the MS Windows Server, Sun Solaris , IBM AIX, Red Hat or SUSE platforms. Figure 15. A registry setting for the Adobe Reader lockdown If an...be typed into the Acrobat console and executed. The console is designed for testing. 3. Batch JavaScript: a powerful batch system for the execution

  2. Source Fingerprinting in Adobe PDF Files

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    todo.com/tools/peepdf-pdf-analysis-tool [22] G. Delugré and F. Raynal, “ Origami - Sogeti ESEC lab,” Sogeti, 24 May 2011. [Online]. Available: http://esec...lab.sogeti.com/pages/ Origami 39 [23] D. Stevens, “Quickpost: About the physical and logical structure of PDF files | Didier Stevens,” 9

  3. Adobe acrobat: an alternative electronic teaching file construction methodology independent of HTML restrictions.

    PubMed

    Katzman, G L

    2001-03-01

    The goal of the project was to create a method by which an in-house digital teaching file could be constructed that was simple, inexpensive, independent of hypertext markup language (HTML) restrictions, and appears identical on multiple platforms. To accomplish this, Microsoft PowerPoint and Adobe Acrobat were used in succession to assemble digital teaching files in the Acrobat portable document file format. They were then verified to appear identically on computers running Windows, Macintosh Operating Systems (OS), and the Silicon Graphics Unix-based OS as either a free-standing file using Acrobat Reader software or from within a browser window using the Acrobat browser plug-in. This latter display method yields a file viewed through a browser window, yet remains independent of underlying HTML restrictions, which may confer an advantage over simple HTML teaching file construction. Thus, a hybrid of HTML-distributed Adobe Acrobat generated WWW documents may be a viable alternative for digital teaching file construction and distribution.

  4. Using built-in functions of Adobe Acrobat Pro DC to help the selection process in systematic reviews of randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Nur, Selin; Adams, Clive E; Brailsford, David F

    2016-02-18

    This letter describes a simple way of using Adobe Acrobat Pro DC to help select and auto-extract data from Portable Document Format (PDFs) of randomised trials in order to assist swift early selection of trials for a systematic review.

  5. Desktop document delivery using portable document format (PDF) files and the Web.

    PubMed Central

    Shipman, J P; Gembala, W L; Reeder, J M; Zick, B A; Rainwater, M J

    1998-01-01

    Desktop access to electronic full-text literature was rated one of the most desirable services in a client survey conducted by the University of Washington Libraries. The University of Washington Health Sciences Libraries (UW HSL) conducted a ten-month pilot test from August 1996 to May 1997 to determine the feasibility of delivering electronic journal articles via the Internet to remote faculty. Articles were scanned into Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) files and delivered to individuals using Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) standard e-mail attachments and the Web. Participants retrieved scanned articles and used the Adobe Acrobat Reader software to view and print files. The pilot test required a special programming effort to automate the client notification and file deletion processes. Test participants were satisfied with the pilot test despite some technical difficulties. Desktop delivery is now offered as a routine delivery method from the UW HSL. PMID:9681165

  6. Deep PDF parsing to extract features for detecting embedded malware.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Cross, Jesse S.

    2011-09-01

    The number of PDF files with embedded malicious code has risen significantly in the past few years. This is due to the portability of the file format, the ways Adobe Reader recovers from corrupt PDF files, the addition of many multimedia and scripting extensions to the file format, and many format properties the malware author may use to disguise the presence of malware. Current research focuses on executable, MS Office, and HTML formats. In this paper, several features and properties of PDF Files are identified. Features are extracted using an instrumented open source PDF viewer. The feature descriptions of benign and malicious PDFs can be used to construct a machine learning model for detecting possible malware in future PDF files. The detection rate of PDF malware by current antivirus software is very low. A PDF file is easy to edit and manipulate because it is a text format, providing a low barrier to malware authors. Analyzing PDF files for malware is nonetheless difficult because of (a) the complexity of the formatting language, (b) the parsing idiosyncrasies in Adobe Reader, and (c) undocumented correction techniques employed in Adobe Reader. In May 2011, Esparza demonstrated that PDF malware could be hidden from 42 of 43 antivirus packages by combining multiple obfuscation techniques [4]. One reason current antivirus software fails is the ease of varying byte sequences in PDF malware, thereby rendering conventional signature-based virus detection useless. The compression and encryption functions produce sequences of bytes that are each functions of multiple input bytes. As a result, padding the malware payload with some whitespace before compression/encryption can change many of the bytes in the final payload. In this study we analyzed a corpus of 2591 benign and 87 malicious PDF files. While this corpus is admittedly small, it allowed us to test a system for collecting indicators of embedded PDF malware. We will call these indicators features throughout

  7. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  8. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  9. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  10. Extra dimensions: 3d and time in pdf documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, N. A.

    2008-07-01

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

  11. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-10

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

  12. Attentional Focus Effects in Balance Acrobats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Performing and learning motor skills has been shown to be enhanced if the performer adopts an external relative to internal focus (or no focus) of attention (Wulf, 2007). The present study examined the generalizability of this effect to top-level performers (balance acrobats). Participants performed a balance task (standing on an inflated rubber…

  13. Active Tails Enhance Arboreal Acrobatics in Geckos

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-18

    SI Movie 6). Discovering that active tails allow arboreal acrobatics in geckos opens the door for future studies of the tail’s neurome- chanical...declare no conflict of interest. This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option. *Present...ranging from 2.5 to 8.0 ms1. We mounted transparent Plexiglas sidewalls around the opening of the wind tunnel. This prevented geckos from maneuvering

  14. Web Standard: PDF - When to Use, Document Metadata, PDF Sections

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PDF files provide some benefits when used appropriately. PDF files should not be used for short documents ( 5 pages) unless retaining the format for printing is important. PDFs should have internal file metadata and meet section 508 standards.

  15. Extra dimensions: 3D and time in PDF documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  16. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

    2012-04-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  17. Preservation of adobe buildings. Study of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velosa, A.; Rocha, F.; Costa, C.; Varum, H.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe buildings are common in the central region of Portugal due to the lack of natural stone in the surrounding area. This type of construction technique lasted until the 20th Century, at which time cementitious materials, with faster hardening and greater structural capacity substituted traditional materials and techniques. Currently, a significant percentage of these buildings is vacant and many are degraded and in need of conservation actions. Adobes from central Portugal are distinctive as they are lightly coloured and made from air lime and quarry sand. Although some adobes were manufactured locally, most were produced almost 'industrially' and sold to nearby regions. In order to preserve this heritage, conservation actions must be undertaken. So as to ensure the adequacy of these actions and compatibility between original materials and new ones, a thorough study of adobe compostion is mandatory. The current study is an initial step in the characterization of earth based construction materials from central Portugal. Adobe samples were collected from residential buildings in two different locations. The determination of the composition of adobe blocks encompassed the determination of the binder fraction and of their chemical composition and also the particle size analysis of the aggregate. For this purpose FRX analysis, acid dissolution and dry sieving were performed. Methylene blue test was also executed in order to determine the clay fraction. Additionally, the mineral composition of powder samples and oriented samples was performed using XRD analysis in order to determine the clay minerals present in the blocks. As adobe blocks are extremely prone to the action of water the Geelong test was undertaken in order to provide information in terms of durability. It was concluded that air lime was generally used in adobe compositions. However, the clay content varies in adobes from different regions, providing distinct durability characteristics to these materials.

  18. Shock compression of simulated adobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, C. H.; Church, P. D.; Gould, P. J.; Stewart, B.; Jardine, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    A series of plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the shock response of a simulant for adobe, a traditional form of building material widely used around the world. Air dried bricks were sourced from the London brick company, dry machined and impacted at a range of velocities in a single stage gas gun. The shock Hugoniot was determined (Us =2.26up+0.37) as well as release information. The material was found to behave in a manner which was similar to that of loose sand and considerably less stiff than a weak porous sandstone. The effect of any cementing of the grains was examined by shocking powdered samples contained within a cell arrangement.

  19. Conservational PDF Equations of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2010-01-01

    Recently we have revisited the traditional probability density function (PDF) equations for the velocity and species in turbulent incompressible flows. They are all unclosed due to the appearance of various conditional means which are modeled empirically. However, we have observed that it is possible to establish a closed velocity PDF equation and a closed joint velocity and species PDF equation through conditions derived from the integral form of the Navier-Stokes equations. Although, in theory, the resulted PDF equations are neither general nor unique, they nevertheless lead to the exact transport equations for the first moment as well as all higher order moments. We refer these PDF equations as the conservational PDF equations. This observation is worth further exploration for its validity and CFD application

  20. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-30

    extend methodologies for the modeling and simulation of turbulent combustion. Probability density function (PDF) calculations were performed of piloted...were developed to implement the combined methodology of large-eddy simulation (LES) and filtered density function (FDF). Second-order schemes were...was to advance and extend methodologies for the modeling and simulation of turbulent combustion. Probability density function (PDF) calculations were

  1. When a Parent Loses a Limb: Helping Children Cope

    MedlinePlus

    ... us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Click here for optional PDF format. Requires Adobe Acrobat ... socket, limb, residual limb and prosthetist. Avoid adverse reactions, such as a child who cries or screams ...

  2. 78 FR 53183 - Request for Public Comments Regarding the Interim Environmental Review of the Trans-Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... This Site'' on the left side of the home page). The www.regulations.gov Web site allows users to... Microsoft Word (.doc) or Adobe Acrobat (.pdf). If the submission is in an application other than those...

  3. 76 FR 11456 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Chartered Science...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... six major program areas: Air, Climate, and Energy; Safe and Sustainable Water Resources; Sustainable...-mail (acceptable file format: Adobe Acrobat PDF, MS Word, WordPerfect, MS PowerPoint, or Rich...

  4. Digital Imaging: An Adobe Photoshop Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces digital imaging, an Adobe Photoshop course at Shrewsbury High School in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. Students are able to earn art credits to graduate by successfully completing the course. Digital imaging must cover art criteria as well as technical skills. The course begins with tutorials created by the instructor and other…

  5. PDF Lecture Materials for Online and ``Flipped'' Format Astronomy Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kary, D. M.; Eisberg, J.

    2013-04-01

    Online astronomy courses typically rely on students reading the textbook and/or a set of text-based lecture notes to replace the “lecture” material. However, many of our students report that this is much less engaging than in-person lectures, especially given the amount of interactive work such as “think-pair-share” problems done in many astronomy classes. Students have similarly criticized direct lecture-capture. To address this, we have developed a set of PowerPoint-style presentations with embedded lecture audio combined with prompts for student interaction including think-pair-share questions. These are formatted PDF packages that can be used on a range of different computers using free software. The presentations are first developed using Microsoft PowerPoint software. Audio recordings of scripted lectures are then synchronized with the presentations and the entire package is converted to PDF using Adobe Presenter. This approach combines the ease of editing that PowerPoint provides along with the platform-independence of PDF. It's easy to add, remove, or edit individual slides as needed, and PowerPoint supports internal links so that think-pair-share questions can be inserted with links to feedback based on the answers selected. Modern PDF files support animated visuals with synchronized audio and they can be read using widely available free software. Using these files students in an online course can get many of the benefits of seeing and hearing the course material presented in an in-person lecture format. Students needing extra help in traditional lecture classes can use these presentations to help review the materials covered in lecture. Finally, the presentations can be used in a “flipped” format in which students work through the presentations outside of class time while spending the “lecture” time on in-class interaction.

  6. Astronaut Alan Bean doing acrobatics in OWS dome area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, doing acrobatics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. The dome area is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  7. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Blocks Consolidation of an Acrobatic Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Dichgans, Johannes; Schulz, Jorg B.; Luft, Andreas R.; Buitrago, Manuel M.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether motor skill learning depends on de novo protein synthesis, adult rats were trained in an acrobatic locomotor task (accelerating rotarod) for 7 d. Animals were systemically injected with cycloheximide (CHX, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before sessions 1 and 2 or sessions 2 and 3. Control rats received vehicle injections before…

  8. Astronaut Jack Lousma doing acrobatics in OWS dome area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, doing acrobatics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. The dome area is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  9. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    experimentally by Cabra et al. (2002). These two studies are based on the composition PDF method incorporated in Fluent (Masri et al. 2004), and on the...currently investigating the lifted methane flames studied by Cabra et al. (2002, 2005). The calculations are based on the joint PDF method used...mass .0.06 2 27 4• fractions of CH 4 , 02, CO 2 , H 2 0, CO, H 2 0:0.04 0* and OH. Symbols: Measurement by . 0.0 00 00 1 0 J 5 1 Cabra et al. 2005

  10. Acrobatic courtship display coevolves with brain size in manakins (Pipridae).

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Willow R; Houck, Justin T; Giuliano, Claire E; Day, Lainy B

    2015-01-01

    Acrobatic display behaviour is sexually selected in manakins (Pipridae) and can place high demands on many neural systems. Manakin displays vary across species in terms of behavioural complexity, differing in number of unique motor elements, production of mechanical sounds, cooperation between displaying males, and construction of the display site. Historically, research emphasis has been placed on neurological specializations for vocal aspects of courtship, and less is known about the control of physical, non-vocal displays. By examining brain evolution in relation to extreme acrobatic feats such as manakin displays, we can vastly expand our knowledge of how sexual selection acts on motor behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that sexual selection for complex motor displays has selected for larger brains across the Pipridae. We found that display complexity positively predicts relative brain weight (adjusted for body size) after controlling for phylogeny in 12 manakin species and a closely related flycatcher. This evidence suggests that brain size has evolved in response to sexual selection to facilitate aspects of display such as motor, sensorimotor, perceptual, and cognitive abilities. We show, for the first time, that sexual selection for acrobatic motor behaviour can drive brain size evolution in avian species and, in particular, a family of suboscine birds.

  11. Centre of pressure correlates with pyramid performance in acrobatic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Floría, Pablo; Gómez-Landero, Luis Arturo; Harrison, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Acrobatic gymnasts need excellent balance control to execute pyramids where one gymnast is supported by another. The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe balance performance by assessing the centre of pressure displacement in a group of acrobatic gymnasts executing pyramids; (2) to determine the relationship between the parameters describing the centre of pressure oscillations and pyramid score; and (3) to examine the role of each foot in providing a solid base of support to maintain the balance of the pyramid. Sixteen acrobatic gymnasts grouped in pairs performed a Half pyramid and a Straddle pyramid held for 7 s on two force platforms. Path length, variance, range trajectory, and surface area of the centre of pressure of each foot were examined to analyse the balance of the pyramid. The path length was correlated with the pyramid score (Straddle: p = 0.692 [large]; Half: p = 0.407 [moderate]). There were differences in the functions of each leg to maintain balance, with the non-preferred leg supporting a higher weight of the pyramid while the preferred leg performed control movements to maintain balance. The results suggested that quantitative analysis of balance can provide important information on pyramid performance.

  12. PDF Modelling of Turbulent Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    calculations are compared to the experimental data of Cabra et al. (2002). These studies: reveal the stabilization mechanism of these flames; show the...have been performed of the lifted hydrogen flames studied experimentally by Cabra et al. (2002). These two studies are based on the composition PDF...and ’P =1). Black: exact solution; Red: CPIM; Blue: RCCE. 7 REFERENCES Barlow, R.S. and J.H. Frank (1998). Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1087-1095. Cabra , R

  13. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3)) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3) were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  14. Residential Mercury Contamination in Adobe Brick Homes in Huancavelica, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB.; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m3) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production. PMID:24040399

  15. 75 FR 4442 - Public Meeting on Future Policy and Rulemaking for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ..., Acrobatic, and Commuter Category Small Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... with certification, maintenance, modifications, and pilot training. Also included in the report is...

  16. PDF turbulence modeling and DNS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, A. T.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of time discontinuity (or jump condition) in the coalescence/dispersion (C/D) mixing model is addressed in probability density function (pdf). A C/D mixing model continuous in time is introduced. With the continuous mixing model, the process of chemical reaction can be fully coupled with mixing. In the case of homogeneous turbulence decay, the new model predicts a pdf very close to a Gaussian distribution, with finite higher moments also close to that of a Gaussian distribution. Results from the continuous mixing model are compared with both experimental data and numerical results from conventional C/D models. The effect of Coriolis forces on compressible homogeneous turbulence is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The numerical method used in this study is an eight order compact difference scheme. Contrary to the conclusions reached by previous DNS studies on incompressible isotropic turbulence, the present results show that the Coriolis force increases the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, and that anisotropy develops as the Coriolis force increases. The Taylor-Proudman theory does apply since the derivatives in the direction of the rotation axis vanishes rapidly. A closer analysis reveals that the dissipation rate of the incompressible component of the turbulent kinetic energy indeed decreases with a higher rotation rate, consistent with incompressible flow simulations (Bardina), while the dissipation rate of the compressible part increases; the net gain is positive. Inertial waves are observed in the simulation results.

  17. 47 CFR 1.913 - Application and notification forms; electronic and manual filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the ASCII table of contents, should be in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) whenever... document on the diskette. The files on the diskette, other than the table of contents, should be in Adobe... requires the applicant to pass one or more examination elements must present the administering...

  18. Physico-mechanical characterization of adobe bricks from Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, I.; Illampas, R.; Charmpis, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe bricks have been used in the construction of buildings for thousands of years. In our days, adobe masonry is no longer a prevailing form of construction. However, a great number of earthen buildings still survives in most regions of the world and constitutes an essential part of the international architectural and cultural heritage. Furthermore, efforts are currently being made to reintroduce adobes as an environmentally-friendly building material to contemporary architecture within the context of sustainable development. Despite the long-term use of adobes and their importance for the society, our knowledge of many aspects of this material is still rather limited. As a result, there are many ongoing research initiatives worldwide aiming to investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of adobe bricks and related durability problems. In this paper, we present our work (which is funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation Project EΠIXEIPHΣEIΣ/ΠPOION/0609/41, the Republic of Cyprus and the European Regional Development Fund) on the physico-mechanical characterization of adobes from Cyprus. In the absence of standardized procedures for most of the tests carried out, testing methodologies that either refer to other types of masonry materials and/or are encountered in the literature are adopted. The results show that adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in the X-ray diffraction analyses patterns. The average capillary water absorption coefficient of the test specimens rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1/2 (when measured against a saturated sponge surface), while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. Extensive experimental data on the material's mechanical behaviour show that adobes' response to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average value of compressive strength depends greatly on the form of specimen examined (cube, cylinder, prism) and the failure criterion

  19. Characterization, reproduction and optimization of traditional adobe bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Eftychiou, Marina; Costi de Castrillo, Maria; Illampas, Rogiros

    2013-04-01

    Adobe bricks were first introduced 10-12,000 years ago. Extensive use of the material throughout the centuries has led to strong local traditions of building with earth and has established adobe masonry as an important feature of the international architectural heritage. Today, despite no longer being a prevalent building material, adobes are still in use, since a number of earthen structures survive worldwide. Furthermore, the simplicity, low cost and almost negligible embodied energy associated with the production of adobes, as well as their good thermal and acoustic properties, render them an attractive option for use in contemporary sustainable construction. Therefore, several ongoing research projects internationally investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of traditional adobe bricks and the design/production of optimized adobes, with improved characteristics, for use in contemporary architecture. Here, we present ongoing research on adobe bricks carried out in the framework of the project E& IXEIPH EI / POION/0609/41, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus, through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. Our work focuses on the characterization of traditional adobes, their reproduction and optimization in the laboratory to produce materials with improved physicomechanical properties. Results up-to-date show that traditional adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in relevant X-ray diffraction analyses. The average capillary water absorption coefficient (measured against a saturated sponge surface) of samples collected from market suppliers rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1 -2, while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. The response of traditional adobes to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average compressive strength recorded depends on the form of test specimen (cube, cylinder, prism). Samples with aspect

  20. 25. MCDONALD RANCH: RUINS OF AN UNIDENTIFIED ADOBE OUTBUILDING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. MCDONALD RANCH: RUINS OF AN UNIDENTIFIED ADOBE OUTBUILDING WEST OF RANCH HOUSE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - White Sands Missile Range, Trinity Site, Vicinity of Routes 13 & 20, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  1. [Use of Adobe Photoshop software in medical criminology].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, S A; Demidov, I V

    2000-01-01

    Describes the method of comparative analysis of various objects in practical medical criminology and making of high-quality photographs with the use of Adobe Photoshop software. Options of the software needed for expert evaluations are enumerated.

  2. 20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, stood on the site later occupied by the Stroud Building. The Salt River Herald, Phoenix's first newspaper, was founded in 1878; in 1879, it became the Phoenix Herald. Prior to 1879, the adobe building served as the office for a stagecoach line operating between Maricopa and Prescott via Phoenix. Credit PPL. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. High Resolution PDF Measurements on Ag Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Tulio C. R.; Martin, Chris; Kycia, Stefan; Zanchet, Daniela

    2009-01-29

    The quantitative analysis of structural defects in Ag nanoparticles was addressed in this work. We performed atomic scale structural characterization by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Pair Distribution Function analysis (PDF) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD measurements were performed using an innovative instrumentation setup to provide high resolution PDF patterns.

  4. Pdf - Transport equations for chemically reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollmann, W.

    1989-01-01

    The closure problem for the transport equations for pdf and the characteristic functions of turbulent, chemically reacting flows is addressed. The properties of the linear and closed equations for the characteristic functional for Eulerian and Lagrangian variables are established, and the closure problem for the finite-dimensional case is discussed for pdf and characteristic functions. It is shown that the closure for the scalar dissipation term in the pdf equation developed by Dopazo (1979) and Kollmann et al. (1982) results in a single integral, in contrast to the pdf, where double integration is required. Some recent results using pdf methods obtained for turbulent flows with combustion, including effects of chemical nonequilibrium, are discussed.

  5. Embedding and publishing interactive, 3-dimensional, scientific figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) files.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David G; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J; Quayle, Michelle R; McHenry, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2).

  6. Embedding and Publishing Interactive, 3-Dimensional, Scientific Figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) Files

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David G.; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J.; Quayle, Michelle R.; McHenry, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  7. 78 FR 27211 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Evaluation of Response to Intervention Practices for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339. Individuals with disabilities can... The official version of this document is the document published in the Federal Register. Free Internet... Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free...

  8. The photon PDF of the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. D.; Ryskin, M. G.

    2014-09-01

    We show how the photon input parton distribution function (PDF) may be calculated with good accuracy and used in an extended DGLAP global parton analysis in which the photon is treated as an additional point-like parton. The uncertainty of the input photon PDF is relatively small, since the major part of the distribution (which is produced by the coherent emission of the photon from a proton that remains intact) is well known. We present the expected photon PDFs and compare the predictions with ZEUS data for isolated photon electroproduction at negative rapidities.

  9. The PDF method for turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    Probability Density Function (PDF) methods provide a means of calculating the properties of turbulent reacting flows. They have been successfully applied to many turbulent flames, including some with finite rate kinetic effects. Here the methods are reviewed with an emphasis on computational issues and their application to turbulent combustion.

  10. Combined Effects of Acrobatic Exercise and Magnetic Stimulation on the Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Wieraszko, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the study was to determine whether physical exercise combined with epidural spinal cord magnetic stimulation could improve recovery after injury of the spinal cord. Spinal cord lesioning in mice resulted in reduced locomotor function and negatively affected the muscle strength tested in vitro. Acrobatic exercise attenuated the behavioral effects of spinal cord injury. The exposure to magnetic fields facilitated further this improvement. The progress in behavioral recovery was correlated with reduced muscle degeneration and enhanced muscle contraction. The acrobatic exercise combined with stimulation with magnetic fields significantly facilitates behavioral recovery and muscle physiology in mice following spinal cord injury. PMID:18986227

  11. Datamatrix and PDF417 data integrity test

    SciTech Connect

    Fales, J.F.; Vincent, R.S.

    1993-09-01

    We conducted a test to evaluate data integrity of selected two-dimensional, high-density, high-capacity coding symbologies for use in selected automatic identification applications. The test was part ot the US Army`s Project Manager for Annnunition Logistics Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology Project. Specific symbologies tested were Datamatrix, from International Data Matrix, Inc., and PDF417, from Symbol Technologies, Inc. As a reference, Code 39 symbology was also evaluated under the same conditions. The statistical objective of the test was to determine if Datamatrix and/or PDF417 symbologies could be expected to exhibit one error or less in two million characters scanned and decoded. The level of confidence was set to 95%. Symbols for Datamatrix and PDF417 included 50, 100, 250, and 350 encoded characters for each of three levels or error correction. Each Code 39 symbol contained 15 to 25 characters. Based on a population of 1080 symbols per symbology, sample size was calculated to be 31,438,998 characters per symbology. An automated test apparatus was used to assure uniformity of test conditions. The apparatus included robotic loading and unloading of carrier sheets onto scanning stations. Scanning for Datamatrix symbols was performed using fixed mounted RS-170 CCD cameras. PDF417 and Code 39 symbols were scanned using hand-held rastering visible laser scanners mounted in fixed positions and software triggered. Decoding of all symbols occurred in decoders supplied with the scanners using the respective manufacturer`s proprietary decoding algorithms. Over 94 million characters were decoded during the test. Analysis of test results indicate no errors attributable to either Datamatrix or PDF417 symbologies. Eleven errors were recorded for Code 39.

  12. Technical report on semiautomatic segmentation using the Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk; Hwang, Sung Bae; Lee, Yong Sook; Har, Dong-Hwan

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to enable users to semiautomatically segment the anatomical structures in magnetic resonance images (MRIs), computerized tomographs (CTs), and other medical images on a personal computer. The segmented images are used for making 3D images, which are helpful to medical education and research. To achieve this purpose, the following trials were performed. The entire body of a volunteer was scanned to make 557 MRIs. On Adobe Photoshop, contours of 19 anatomical structures in the MRIs were semiautomatically drawn using MAGNETIC LASSO TOOL and manually corrected using either LASSO TOOL or DIRECT SELECTION TOOL to make 557 segmented images. In a similar manner, 13 anatomical structures in 8,590 anatomical images were segmented. Proper segmentation was verified by making 3D images from the segmented images. Semiautomatic segmentation using Adobe Photoshop is expected to be widely used for segmentation of anatomical structures in various medical images.

  13. Seeding Success on Topsoiled and Nontopsoiled Slopes at Adobe Dam,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    established from seed , [however seed germination inhibitors in the seed coat may result in a long dormancy period. Nord (1977) recommends soaking seed in...a species mix rather than a single species is advised (Plummer, Christenson, and Monsen 1968). Germination and purity of native seed species vary...AI S . I SEEDING SUCCESS ON TOPSO LED AND NONTOPSOILED SLOPES AT 11fADOBE DAM A) ARIZ NA STATE UNIV TEMPE CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES C WMOORE

  14. Collecting Response Times using Amazon Mechanical Turk and Adobe Flash

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Travis; Fiez, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Crowdsourcing systems like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) allow data to be collected from a large sample of people in a short amount of time. This use has garnered considerable interest from behavioral scientists. So far, most experiments conducted on AMT have focused on survey-type instruments because of difficulties inherent in running many experimental paradigms over the Internet. This article investigated the viability of presenting stimuli and collecting response times using Adobe Flash to run ActionScript 3 code in conjunction with AMT. First, the timing properties of Adobe Flash were investigated using a phototransistor and two desktop computers running under several conditions mimicking those that may be present in research using AMT. This experiment revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the timing capabilities of this method. Next, a flanker task and a lexical decision task implemented in Adobe Flash were administered to participants recruited with AMT. The expected effects in these tasks were replicated. Power analyses were conducted to describe the number of participants needed to replicate these effects. A questionnaire was used to investigate previously undescribed computer use habits of 100 participants on AMT. We conclude that a Flash program in conjunction with AMT can be successfully used for running many experimental paradigms that rely on response times, although experimenters must understand the limitations of the method. PMID:23670340

  15. Techniques on semiautomatic segmentation using the Adobe Photoshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to enable anybody to semiautomatically segment the anatomical structures in the MRIs, CTs, and other medical images on the personal computer. The segmented images are used for making three-dimensional images, which are helpful in medical education and research. To achieve this purpose, the following trials were performed. The entire body of a volunteer was MR scanned to make 557 MRIs, which were transferred to a personal computer. On Adobe Photoshop, contours of 19 anatomical structures in the MRIs were semiautomatically drawn using MAGNETIC LASSO TOOL; successively, manually corrected using either LASSO TOOL or DIRECT SELECTION TOOL to make 557 segmented images. In a likewise manner, 11 anatomical structures in the 8,500 anatomcial images were segmented. Also, 12 brain and 10 heart anatomical structures in anatomical images were segmented. Proper segmentation was verified by making and examining the coronal, sagittal, and three-dimensional images from the segmented images. During semiautomatic segmentation on Adobe Photoshop, suitable algorithm could be used, the extent of automatization could be regulated, convenient user interface could be used, and software bugs rarely occurred. The techniques of semiautomatic segmentation using Adobe Photoshop are expected to be widely used for segmentation of the anatomical structures in various medical images.

  16. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  17. A skewed PDF combustion model for jet diffusion flames. [Probability density function (PDF)

    SciTech Connect

    Abou-Ellail, M.M.M.; Salem, H. )

    1990-11-01

    A combustion model based on restricted chemical equilibrium is described. A transport equation for the skewness of the mixture fraction is derived. It contains two adjustable constants. The computed values of the mean mixture fraction (f) and its variance and skewness (g and s) for a jet diffusion methane flame are used to obtain the shape of a shewed pdf. The skewed pdf is split into a turbulent part (beta function) and a nonturbulent part (delta function) at f = 0. The contribution of each part is directly related to the values of f, g, and s. The inclusion of intermittency in the skewed pdf appreciably improves the numerical predictions obtained for a turbulent jet diffusion methane flame for which experimental data are available.

  18. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Lean Premixed Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, S.L.; •Givi, P.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-10-01

    The joint velocity-scalar-frequency probability density function (PDF) methodology is employed for prediction of a bluff-body stabilized lean premixed methane-air flame. A reduced mechanism with CO and NO chemistry is used to describe fuel oxidation. The predicted mean and rms values of the velocity, temperature and concentrations of major and minor species are compared with laboratory measurements. This technical effort was performed in support of the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s on-going research in “Assessment of Turbo-Chemistry Models for Gas Turbine Combustion Emissions” under the RDS contract DE-AC26-04NT41817.

  19. Revegetation Study of Adobe Dam, Phoenix, Arizona. Task 6. Evaluation of Three Watering and Mulching Techniques on Transplanted Trees at Adobe Dam.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-18

    describes the site characteristics of the Adobe Dam Study Area. Task No. 5 & 7 Seeding Success on Topsoiled and Hard Topspoles Slopes at Ddobe Dam". This...report presents statisfied analysis of the relative success of several seeding methods used at the Adobe Dam site. Task No.6 "Evaluation of three...8217,- ,_ _ .. _. ,’ .’ .’.- .. .. . . .’ .’. -" ". INTRODUCTION On denuded lands, harsh site conditions may render revegetation by seeding risky and the probability of seeding failure high

  20. 76 FR 80829 - Special Conditions: XtremeAir GmbH, XA42; Acrobatic Category Aerodynamic Stability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... airplane. The XA42 airplane has a novel or unusual design feature associated with its static stability... acrobatic capability: Neutral longitudinal and lateral static stability characteristics. Discussion The Code of Federal Regulations states static stability criteria for longitudinal, lateral, and...

  1. 77 FR 17323 - Special Conditions: XtremeAir GmbH, XA42; Acrobatic Category Aerodynamic Stability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... unusual design feature associated with its static stability. This airplane can perform at the highest... acrobatic capability: ] Neutral longitudinal and lateral static stability characteristics. Discussion The Code of Federal Regulations states static stability criteria for longitudinal, lateral, and...

  2. 76 FR 19753 - Applications for New Awards; Vocational Rehabilitation Services Projects for American Indians...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ....gov system. You can also find the Education Submission Procedures pertaining to Grants.gov under News... stable; has a history of unsatisfactory performance; has a financial or other management system that does...: http://www.ed.gov/news/fedregister . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is...

  3. 77 FR 62228 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Impact Evaluation of Race to the Top and School...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339. Individuals with disabilities can obtain this... document is the document published in the Federal Register. Free Internet access to the official edition of... use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may also...

  4. Viewing Files | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    In addition to standard HTML webpages, our website contains files in other formats. You may need additional software or browser plug-ins to view some of these files. The following list shows each format along with links to the corresponding freely available plug-ins or viewers. Documents  Adobe Acrobat Reader (.pdf)

  5. Building code challenging the ethics behind adobe architecture in North Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Şahali, Öznem

    2015-04-01

    Adobe masonry is part of the vernacular architecture of Cyprus. Thus, it is possible to use this technology in a meaningful way on the island. On the other hand, although adobe architecture is more sustainable in comparison to other building technologies, the use of it is diminishing in North Cyprus. The application of Turkish building code in the north of the island has created complications in respect of the use of adobe masonry, because this building code demands that reinforced concrete vertical tie-beams are used together with adobe masonry. The use of reinforced concrete elements together with adobe masonry causes problems in relation to the climatic response of the building as well as causing other technical and aesthetic problems. This situation makes the design of adobe masonry complicated and various types of ethical problems also emerge. The objective of this article is to analyse the ethical problems which arise as a consequence of the restrictive character of the building code, by analysing two case studies and conducting an interview with an architect who was involved with the use of adobe masonry in North Cyprus. According to the results of this article there are ethical problems at various levels in the design of both case studies. These problems are connected to the responsibilities of architects in respect of the social benefit, material production, aesthetics and affordability of the architecture as well as presenting distrustful behaviour where the obligations of architects to their clients is concerned.

  6. Asian Rhinoplasty: Preoperative Simulation and Planning Using Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Nguyen, Anh H

    2015-11-01

    A rhinoplasty in Asians differs from a rhinoplasty performed in patients of other ethnicities. Surgeons should understand the concept of Asian beauty, the nasal anatomy of Asians, and common problems encountered while operating on the Asian nose. With this understanding, surgeons can set appropriate goals, choose proper operative procedures, and provide an outcome that satisfies patients. In this article the authors define the concept of an Asian rhinoplasty-a paradigm shift from the traditional on-top augmentation rhinoplasty to a structurally integrated augmentation rhinoplasty-and provide a step-by-step procedure for the use of Adobe Photoshop as a preoperative program to simulate the expected surgical outcome for patients and to develop a preoperative plan for surgeons.

  7. Daily rhythms in locomotor circuits in Drosophila involve PDF

    PubMed Central

    Pírez, Nicolás; Christmann, Bethany L.

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) has been studied extensively in Drosophila, and its role in circadian time-keeping has been firmly established. The role of PDF outside of the clock circuit, however, is poorly understood. A recent study suggested that PDF may act on the ellipsoid body (EB) to link the clock and sleep/activity circuits. We performed whole brain optical imaging with the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP sensor Epac1-camps expressed under control of the pdfR promoter to address how the clock and sleep deprivation affect the physiology of these cells. Basal cAMP levels in EB were regulated both by PDF and synaptic inputs that are controlled by the circadian clock. Acute application of PDF to the brain caused a significant, and PDF-receptor-dependent, increase in cAMP in EB cells. Application of TTX to block circuit-mediated effects of PDF increased the morning response but not the response at night, implying the existence of a temporally regulated, PDF-stimulated input that blocks cAMP generation. ACh produced both direct (TTX-insensitive) and indirect (TTX-sensitive) increases in cAMP during the day but was totally TTX-insensitive at night, indicating that ACh-stimulated inputs to the EB are suppressed at night. Sleep deprivation did not affect the cAMP responses of these cells to either PDF or ACh. These results suggest a novel role for PDF as a modulator of activity outside of the clock circuit. By elucidating the mechanisms by which the neuropeptide PDF act on its target cells, our work contributes to our understating of how the central clock coordinates activity and sleep. PMID:23678016

  8. A PDF closure model for compressible turbulent chemically reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollmann, W.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research project was the analysis of single point closures based on probability density function (pdf) and characteristic functions and the development of a prediction method for the joint velocity-scalar pdf in turbulent reacting flows. Turbulent flows of boundary layer type and stagnation point flows with and without chemical reactions were be calculated as principal applications. Pdf methods for compressible reacting flows were developed and tested in comparison with available experimental data. The research work carried in this project was concentrated on the closure of pdf equations for incompressible and compressible turbulent flows with and without chemical reactions.

  9. PDF modeling of turbulence-radiation interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, S.; Modest, M.F.

    1997-07-01

    The interactions between turbulence and radiation, although acknowledged and qualitatively understood over the last several decades, are extremely difficult to model. Traditional Eulerian turbulence models are incapable of addressing the closure problem for any realistic reactive flow situation, because of the large number of unknown turbulent moments that need to be modeled. A novel approach, based on the velocity-composition joint probability density function (PDF) method, is presented. This approach is Lagrangian in nature and provides an elegant and feasible alternative to turbulence closure. A mixed Monte Carlo/finite-volume technique is used to simulate a bluff-body-stabilized methane-air diffusion flame in a two-dimensional planar recirculating combustor, and enables treatment of turbulence in recirculating flows, finite-rate chemistry, and multiple-band radiation calculations within the CPU limitations of a standard single-processor workstation. Results demonstrate the role of radiation and turbulence-radiation interactions in altering the overall flame structure, the wall heat loads, and the overall heat emission by the flame at various Reynolds numbers and equivalence ratios.

  10. PDF-based heterogeneous multiscale filtration model.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Rutland, Christopher J

    2015-04-21

    Motivated by modeling of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs), a probability density function (PDF) based heterogeneous multiscale filtration (HMF) model is developed to calculate filtration efficiency of clean particulate filters. A new methodology based on statistical theory and classic filtration theory is developed in the HMF model. Based on the analysis of experimental porosimetry data, a pore size probability density function is introduced to represent heterogeneity and multiscale characteristics of the porous wall. The filtration efficiency of a filter can be calculated as the sum of the contributions of individual collectors. The resulting HMF model overcomes the limitations of classic mean filtration models which rely on tuning of the mean collector size. Sensitivity analysis shows that the HMF model recovers the classical mean model when the pore size variance is very small. The HMF model is validated by fundamental filtration experimental data from different scales of filter samples. The model shows a good agreement with experimental data at various operating conditions. The effects of the microstructure of filters on filtration efficiency as well as the most penetrating particle size are correctly predicted by the model.

  11. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  12. Improvements and new features in the PDF module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Andrew T.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses what models are used in this package and what their advantages and disadvantages are, how the probability density function (PDF) model is implemented and the features of the program, and what can be expected in the future from the NASA Lewis PDF code.

  13. Revegetation Study of Adobe Dam, Phoenix, Arizona. Task 3. Revision. Revegetation Methods for Arid Areas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-18

    This report describes the site characteristics of the Adobe Dam Study Area. Task No. 5 & 7 Seeding Success on Topsoiled and Hard Topspoles Slopes at...Ddobe Dam". This report presents statisfied analysis of the relative success of several seeding methods used at the Adobe Dam site. Task No.6...to moisture stress , soil fertility and toxicity problems are also common on areas in need of revegetation. Several agencies deal successfully with

  14. PDF4LHC recommendations for LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterworth, Jon; Carrazza, Stefano; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; De Roeck, Albert; Feltesse, Joël; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Glazov, Sasha; Huston, Joey; Kassabov, Zahari; McNulty, Ronan; Morsch, Andreas; Nadolsky, Pavel; Radescu, Voica; Rojo, Juan; Thorne, Robert

    2016-02-01

    We provide an updated recommendation for the usage of sets of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and the assessment of PDF and PDF+{α }s uncertainties suitable for applications at the LHC Run II. We review developments since the previous PDF4LHC recommendation, and discuss and compare the new generation of PDFs, which include substantial information from experimental data from the Run I of the LHC. We then propose a new prescription for the combination of a suitable subset of the available PDF sets, which is presented in terms of a single combined PDF set. We finally discuss tools which allow for the delivery of this combined set in terms of optimized sets of Hessian eigenvectors or Monte Carlo replicas, and their usage, and provide some examples of their application to LHC phenomenology. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Guido Altarelli (1941-2015), whose seminal work made possible the quantitative study of PDFs.

  15. PDF4LHC recommendations for LHC Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Butterworth, Jon; Carrazza, Stefano; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Roeck, Albert De; Feltesse, Joel; Gao, Jun; Glazov, Sasha; Huston, Joey; Kassabov, Zahari; McNulty, Ronan; Morsch, Andreas; Nadolsky, Pavel; Radescu, Voica; Rojo, Juan; Thorne, Robert

    2016-01-06

    We provide an updated recommendation for the usage of sets of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and the assessment of PDF and PDF+αs uncertainties suitable for applications at the LHC Run II. We review developments since the previous PDF4LHC recommendation, and discuss and compare the new generation of PDFs, which include substantial information from experimental data from the Run I of the LHC. We then propose a new prescription for the combination of a suitable subset of the available PDF sets, which is presented in terms of a single combined PDF set. Lastly, we finally discuss tools which allow for the delivery of this combined set in terms of optimized sets of Hessian eigenvectors or Monte Carlo replicas, and their usage, and provide some examples of their application to LHC phenomenology.

  16. PDF4LHC recommendations for LHC Run II

    DOE PAGES

    Butterworth, Jon; Carrazza, Stefano; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; ...

    2016-01-06

    We provide an updated recommendation for the usage of sets of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and the assessment of PDF and PDF+αs uncertainties suitable for applications at the LHC Run II. We review developments since the previous PDF4LHC recommendation, and discuss and compare the new generation of PDFs, which include substantial information from experimental data from the Run I of the LHC. We then propose a new prescription for the combination of a suitable subset of the available PDF sets, which is presented in terms of a single combined PDF set. Lastly, we finally discuss tools which allow for themore » delivery of this combined set in terms of optimized sets of Hessian eigenvectors or Monte Carlo replicas, and their usage, and provide some examples of their application to LHC phenomenology.« less

  17. Graphic composite segmentation for PDF documents with complex layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Canhui; Tang, Zhi; Tao, Xin; Shi, Cao

    2013-01-01

    Converting the PDF books to re-flowable format has recently attracted various interests in the area of e-book reading. Robust graphic segmentation is highly desired for increasing the practicability of PDF converters. To cope with various layouts, a multi-layer concept is introduced to segment graphic composites including photographic images, drawings with text insets or surrounded with text elements. Both image based analysis and inherent digital born document advantages are exploited in this multi-layer based layout analysis method. By combining low-level page elements clustering applied on PDF documents and connected component analysis on synthetically generated PNG image document, graphic composites can be segmented for PDF documents with complex layouts. The experimental results on graphic composite segmentation of PDF document pages have shown satisfactory performance.

  18. Free Fall Acrobatics to Reduce Neck Loads During Parachute Opening Shock: Evaluation of an Intervention (ACROPOSE)

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Anton; Äng, Björn O

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neck pain is a widespread health problem in the skydiver athlete population, epidemiologically linked to repeated exposure to parachute opening shock (POS). During POS, a parachutist is subjected to considerable deceleration forces. This study aims to evaluate the use of preventive free fall acrobatics to reduce the biomechanical load on the neck of parachutists during parachute opening. Methods and analysis Interventional study with a cross-over, within-subject, repeated measures design. Two consecutive skydives are made on the same day with random ordering of either an ‘intervention jump’ or a ‘control jump’. The intervention jump contains two acrobatic elements prior to main parachute extraction: Reducing parachute deployment airspeed and positioning the human body head high. The primary outcome measure is the magnitude of initial Gx deceleration. All other directions of accelerations will be measured as well, as will magnitudes of multidirectional jerks (rates of changes of accelerations) and lower neck torque. Repeated within group measures analysis of variance will be used to quantify effects, and regression used to test for relationships between the elements of the intervention. Ethics and dissemination Regional Medical Research Ethics Committee of Stockholm approval 2015/1189-31. The intervention protocol has been systematically prevalidated with an emphasis on participant safety. The study will be conducted in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and its results published in peer-reviewed journals, preferably Open Access, to maximise access for the target athlete population. Trial registration number NCT02625896. Pre-results. PMID:27900175

  19. GrinLine identification using digital imaging and Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Susan A; Brumit, Paula C; Schrader, Bruce A; Senn, David R

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to outline a method by which an antemortem photograph of a victim can be critically compared with a postmortem photograph in an effort to facilitate the identification process. Ten subjects, between 27 and 55 years old provided historical pictures of themselves exhibiting a broad smile showing anterior teeth to some extent (a grin). These photos were termed "antemortem" for the purpose of the study. A digital camera was used to take a current photo of each subject's grin. These photos represented the "postmortem" images. A single subject's "postmortem" photo set was randomly selected to be the "unknown victim." These combined data of the unknown and the 10 antemortem subjects were digitally stored and, using Adobe Photoshop software, the images were sized and oriented for comparative analysis. The goal was to devise a technique that could facilitate the accurate determination of which "antemortem" subject was the "unknown." The generation of antemortem digital overlays of the teeth visible in a grin and the comparison of those overlays to the images of the postmortem dentition is the foundation of the technique. The comparisons made using the GrinLine Identification Technique may assist medical examiners and coroners in making identifications or exclusions.

  20. Design and application of PDF model for extracting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Lei

    2013-07-01

    In order to change the steps of contributions in editorial department system from two steps to one, this paper advocates that the technology of extracting the information of PDF files should be transplanted from PDF reader into IEEE Xplore contribution system and that it should be combined with uploading in batch skillfully to enable editors to upload PDF files about 1GB in batch for once. Computers will extract the information of the title, author, address, mailbox, abstract and key words of thesis voluntarily for later retrieval so as to save plenty of labor, material and finance for editorial department.

  1. PDF approach for turbulent scalar field: Some recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Feng

    1993-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF) method has been proven a very useful approach in turbulence research. It has been particularly effective in simulating turbulent reacting flows and in studying some detailed statistical properties generated by a turbulent field There are, however, some important questions that have yet to be answered in PDF studies. Our efforts in the past year have been focused on two areas. First, a simple mixing model suitable for Monte Carlo simulations has been developed based on the mapping closure. Secondly, the mechanism of turbulent transport has been analyzed in order to understand the recently observed abnormal PDF's of turbulent temperature fields generated by linear heat sources.

  2. Pressure algorithm for elliptic flow calculations with the PDF method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anand, M. S.; Pope, S. B.; Mongia, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm to determine the mean pressure field for elliptic flow calculations with the probability density function (PDF) method is developed and applied. The PDF method is a most promising approach for the computation of turbulent reacting flows. Previous computations of elliptic flows with the method were in conjunction with conventional finite volume based calculations that provided the mean pressure field. The algorithm developed and described here permits the mean pressure field to be determined within the PDF calculations. The PDF method incorporating the pressure algorithm is applied to the flow past a backward-facing step. The results are in good agreement with data for the reattachment length, mean velocities, and turbulence quantities including triple correlations.

  3. Preparing Class Materials for the Web Using PDF Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchman, Judy A.; Study, Nancy E.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for using the Portable Document Format (PDF) as an alternative to HTML documents. Discusses the benefits in the context of preparing materials for student access via the world wide web. (DDR)

  4. How to Create a Web-Ready PDF

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Making EPA's PDF documents accessible (by Section 508 standards) and user-friendly includes steps such as adding bookmarks, using electronic conversion rather than scanning pages, and adding metadata.

  5. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; special classes of aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates §...

  6. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; special classes of aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates §...

  7. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; special classes of aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates §...

  8. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; special classes of aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates §...

  9. Kinematic and kinetic analysis of two gymnastics acrobatic series to performing the backward stretched somersault.

    PubMed

    Mkaouer, Bessem; Jemni, Monèm; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Helmi; Tabka, Zouhair

    2013-01-01

    Back swing connections during gymnastics acrobatic series considerably influence technical performance and difficulties, particularly in the back somersault. The aim of this study was to compare the take-off's kinetic and kinematic variables between two acrobatic series leading to perform the backward stretched somersault (also called salto): round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto versus round-off, tempo-salto to stretched salto. Five high level male gymnasts (age 23.17 ± 1.61 yrs; body height 1.65 ± 0.05 m; body mass 56.80 ± 7.66 kg) took part in this investigation. A force plate synchronized with a two dimensional movement analysis system was used to collect kinetic and kinematic data. Statistical analysis via the non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank-sum test showed significant differences between the take-offs' variables. The backswing connections were different in the take-off angle, linear momentum, vertical velocity and horizontal and vertical displacements. In conclusion, considering that the higher elevation of the centre of mass in the flight phase would allow best performance and lower the risk of falls, particularly when combined to a great angular momentum, this study demonstrated that the optimal connection series was round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto which enabled the best height in the somersault. Analysis of the results suggests that both connections facilitate the performance of single and double (or triple) backward somersaults with or without rotations around the longitudinal axis. Gymnasts could perform these later while gaining height if they chose the round-off, flic-flac technique or gaining some backward displacement if they choose the round-off, salto tempo.

  10. Peripheral androgen receptors sustain the acrobatics and fine motor skill of elaborate male courtship.

    PubMed

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Longpre, Kristy M; Chew, Jennifer G; Fusani, Leonida; Schlinger, Barney A

    2013-09-01

    Androgenic hormones regulate many aspects of animal social behavior, including the elaborate display routines on which many species rely for advertisement and competition. One way that this might occur is through peripheral effects of androgens, particularly on skeletal muscles that control complex movements and postures of the body and its limbs. However, the specific contribution of peripheral androgen-muscle interactions to the performance of elaborate behavioral displays in the natural world has never been examined. We study this issue in one of the only natural physiological models of animal acrobatics: the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus). In this tropical bird, males compete with each other and court females by producing firecracker-like wing- snaps and by rapidly dancing among saplings over the forest floor. To test how activation of peripheral androgen receptors (AR) influences this display, we treat reproductively active adult male birds with the peripherally selective antiandrogen bicalutamide (BICAL) and observe the effects of this manipulation on male display performance. We not only validate the peripheral specificity of BICAL in this species, but we also show that BICAL treatment reduces the frequency with which adult male birds perform their acrobatic display maneuvers and disrupts the overall structure and fine-scale patterning of these birds' main complex wing-snap sonation. In addition, this manipulation has no effect on the behavioral metrics associated with male motivation to display. Together, our findings help differentiate the various effects of peripheral and central AR on the performance of a complex sociosexual behavioral phenotype by indicating that peripheral AR can optimize the motor skills necessary for the production of an elaborate animal display.

  11. Galaxy clustering with photometric surveys using PDF redshift information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, J.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Brunner, R. J.; Thaler, J.

    2016-06-01

    Photometric surveys produce large-area maps of the galaxy distribution, but with less accurate redshift information than is obtained from spectroscopic methods. Modern photometric redshift (photo-z) algorithms use galaxy magnitudes, or colours, that are obtained through multiband imaging to produce a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy in the map. We used simulated data to study the effect of using different photo-z estimators to assign galaxies to redshift bins in order to compare their effects on angular clustering and galaxy bias measurements. We found that if we use the entire PDF, rather than a single-point (mean or mode) estimate, the deviations are less biased, especially when using narrow redshift bins. When the redshift bin widths are Δz = 0.1, the use of the entire PDF reduces the typical measurement bias from 5 per cent, when using single point estimates, to 3 per cent.

  12. Galaxy clustering with photometric surveys using PDF redshift information

    DOE PAGES

    Asorey, J.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; ...

    2016-03-28

    Here, photometric surveys produce large-area maps of the galaxy distribution, but with less accurate redshift information than is obtained from spectroscopic methods. Modern photometric redshift (photo-z) algorithms use galaxy magnitudes, or colors, that are obtained through multi-band imaging to produce a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy in the map. We used simulated data to study the effect of using different photo-z estimators to assign galaxies to redshift bins in order to compare their effects on angular clustering and galaxy bias measurements. We found that if we use the entire PDF, rather than a single-point (mean or mode) estimate, the deviations are less biased, especially when using narrow redshift bins. When the redshift bin widths aremore » $$\\Delta z=0.1$$, the use of the entire PDF reduces the typical measurement bias from 5%, when using single point estimates, to 3%.« less

  13. Galaxy clustering with photometric surveys using PDF redshift information

    SciTech Connect

    Asorey, J.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Brunner, R. J.; Thaler, J.

    2016-03-28

    Here, photometric surveys produce large-area maps of the galaxy distribution, but with less accurate redshift information than is obtained from spectroscopic methods. Modern photometric redshift (photo-z) algorithms use galaxy magnitudes, or colors, that are obtained through multi-band imaging to produce a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy in the map. We used simulated data to study the effect of using different photo-z estimators to assign galaxies to redshift bins in order to compare their effects on angular clustering and galaxy bias measurements. We found that if we use the entire PDF, rather than a single-point (mean or mode) estimate, the deviations are less biased, especially when using narrow redshift bins. When the redshift bin widths are $\\Delta z=0.1$, the use of the entire PDF reduces the typical measurement bias from 5%, when using single point estimates, to 3%.

  14. Reference and PDF-manager software: complexities, support and workflow.

    PubMed

    Mead, Thomas L; Berryman, Donna R

    2010-10-01

    In the past, librarians taught reference management by training library users to use established software programs such as RefWorks or EndNote. In today's environment, there is a proliferation of Web-based programs that are being used by library clientele that offer a new twist on the well-known reference management programs. Basically, these new programs are PDF-manager software (e.g., Mendeley or Papers). Librarians are faced with new questions, issues, and concerns, given the new workflows and pathways that these PDF-manager programs present. This article takes a look at some of those.

  15. A study of hydrogen diffusion flames using PDF turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    The application of probability density function (pdf) turbulence models is addressed. For the purpose of accurate prediction of turbulent combustion, an algorithm that combines a conventional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow solver with the Monte Carlo simulation of the pdf evolution equation was developed. The algorithm was validated using experimental data for a heated turbulent plane jet. The study of H2-F2 diffusion flames was carried out using this algorithm. Numerical results compared favorably with experimental data. The computations show that the flame center shifts as the equivalence ratio changes, and that for the same equivalence ratio, similarity solutions for flames exist.

  16. Using Adobe Connect to Deliver Online Library Instruction to the RN to BSN Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a look at how one academic health sciences librarian brought mediated literature searching to the distance RN to BSN nursing students. It takes a look at why Adobe Connect was the webinar software that was selected to deliver online instruction to the students. The article explains how students participated in a pre-class survey…

  17. Building on Tradition: The Art of Adobe and the Revival of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Amanda; Swan, Susan

    2001-01-01

    A New Mexico foundation helps primarily Hispanic and American Indian communities restore adobe churches by supplying technical assistance and matching grants. Community leadership of the projects enhances volunteer commitment. The projects build community cohesiveness and pride, maintain local culture, foster intergenerational relations, teach…

  18. Vector Graphics for Web Lectures: Experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterl, Markus; Mertens, Robert; Vornberger, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe vector graphics for web lectures, focusing on the experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents experiences made during the development and everyday use of two versions of the lecture-recording system virtPresenter. The first of these versions is based on…

  19. Using Adobe Flash Animations of Electron Transport Chain to Teach and Learn Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash…

  20. Enriching Learning for First Year Chemistry Students: Introduction of Adobe Connect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Lye, Peter; Greatrex, Ben; Taylor, Michelle; Stupans, Ieva

    2013-01-01

    The study of chemistry is central within science and other associated degrees. At the University of New England in Armidale academics need to provide chemistry teaching in both a distance and the traditional on-campus mode within science and other degrees. This study explores the contribution that the adoption of Adobe Connect technology can make…

  1. Staying on Top of Your Game and Scoring Big with Adobe Presenter Multimedia Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koury, Regina; Francis, Marcia J.; Gray, Catherine J.; Jardine, Spencer J.; Guo, Ruiling

    2010-01-01

    In order to reach distance students in times of financial uncertainty, librarians must be creative. While much has been written about Camtasia, Captivate and Jing tutorial software, Adobe Presenter, a Microsoft PowerPoint plug-in, has not been discussed. This article describes how our library team created multimedia tutorial projects at Idaho…

  2. Progress in the development of PDF turbulence models for combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    A combined Monte Carlo-computational fluid dynamic (CFD) algorithm was developed recently at Lewis Research Center (LeRC) for turbulent reacting flows. In this algorithm, conventional CFD schemes are employed to obtain the velocity field and other velocity related turbulent quantities, and a Monte Carlo scheme is used to solve the evolution equation for the probability density function (pdf) of species mass fraction and temperature. In combustion computations, the predictions of chemical reaction rates (the source terms in the species conservation equation) are poor if conventional turbulence modles are used. The main difficulty lies in the fact that the reaction rate is highly nonlinear, and the use of averaged temperature produces excessively large errors. Moment closure models for the source terms have attained only limited success. The probability density function (pdf) method seems to be the only alternative at the present time that uses local instantaneous values of the temperature, density, etc., in predicting chemical reaction rates, and thus may be the only viable approach for more accurate turbulent combustion calculations. Assumed pdf's are useful in simple problems; however, for more general combustion problems, the solution of an evolution equation for the pdf is necessary.

  3. Parameterization and Monte Carlo solutions to PDF evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suciu, Nicolae; Schüler, Lennart; Attinger, Sabine; Knabner, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The probability density function (PDF) of the chemical species concentrations transported in random environments is governed by unclosed evolution equations. The PDF is transported in the physical space by drift and diffusion processes described by coefficients derived by standard upscaling procedures. Its transport in the concentration space is described by a drift determined by reaction rates, in a closed form, as well as a term accounting for the sub-grid mixing process due to molecular diffusion and local scale hydrodynamic dispersion. Sub-grid mixing processes are usually described by models of the conditionally averaged diffusion flux or models of the conditional dissipation rate. We show that in certain situations mixing terms can also be derived, in the form of an Itô process, from simulated or measured concentration time series. Monte Carlo solutions to PDF evolution equations are usually constructed with systems of computational particles, which are well suited for highly dimensional advection-dominated problems. Such solutions require the fulfillment of specific consistency conditions relating the statistics of the random concentration field, function of both space and time, to that of the time random function describing an Itô process in physical and concentration spaces which governs the evolution of the system of particles. We show that the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for the concentration-position PDF of the Itô process coincides with the solution of the PDF equation only for constant density flows in spatially statistically homogeneous systems. We also find that the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is still equivalent to the solution of the PDF equation weighted by the variable density or by other conserved scalars. We illustrate the parameterization of the sub-grid mixing by time series and the Monte Carlo solution for a problem of contaminant transport in groundwater. The evolution of the system of computational particles whose

  4. Generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurilin, Ilya V.; Safonov, Ilia V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sang Ho; Choi, Donchul

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the algorithm for generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned documents. The complex multi-stage technique includes segmentation of the document to text/drawing areas and background, conversion of symbols to lines and Bezier curves, storing compressed background and foreground. In the paper we concentrate on symbol conversion that comprises segmentation of symbol bodies with resolution enhancement, contour tracing and approximation. Presented method outperforms competitive solutions and secures the best compression rate/quality ratio. Scaling of initial document to other sizes as well as several printing/scanning-to-PDF iterations expose advantages of proposed way for handling with document images. Numerical vectorization quality metric was elaborated. The outcomes of OCR software and user opinion survey confirm high quality of proposed method.

  5. Reflowing-driven paragraph recognition for electronic books in PDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jing; Tang, Zhi; Gao, Liangcai

    2011-01-01

    When reading electronic books on handheld devices, content sometimes should be reflowed and recomposed to adapt for small-screen mobile devices. According to people's reading practice, it is reasonable to reflow the text content based on paragraphs. Hence, this paper addresses the requirement and proposes a set of novel methods on paragraph recognition for electronic books in PDF. The proposed methods consist of three steps, namely, physical structure analysis, paragraph segmentation, and reading order detection. We make use of locally ordered property of PDF documents and layout style of books to improve traditional page recognition results. In addition, we employ the optimal matching of Bipartite Graph technology to detect paragraphs' reading order. Experiments show that our methods achieve high accuracy. It is noteworthy that, the research has been applied in a commercial software package for Chinese E-book production.

  6. Energetics of the acrobatic courtship in male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus)

    PubMed Central

    Barske, J.; Fusani, L.; Wikelski, M.; Feng, N. Y.; Santos, M.; Schlinger, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    In lek mating systems, females choose mates through indicators of quality, which males may exhibit by their performance of courtship displays. In temperate regions, displaying seasons are brief (one to two months), whereas in the tropics courtship seasons may be prolonged. Moreover, in temperate-breeding animals lekking behaviour can be energetically demanding, but little is known about the energy costs of lekking in tropical animals. Daily, over the course of a nearly seven-month-long breeding season, male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests perform acrobatic courtship displays that markedly elevate heart rates, suggesting that they require high energy investment. Typically, animals of tropical lowland forests (such as manakins) exhibit a ‘slow pace of life’ metabolic strategy. We investigated whether male manakin courtship is indeed metabolically costly or whether the birds retain a low daily energy expenditure (DEE), as seen in other tropical species. To assess these questions, we calibrated manakin heart rate against metabolic rate, examined daily lek activity and, using telemetry, obtained heart rates of individual wild, lekking male manakins. Although metabolic rates peak during courtship displays, we found that males actually invest minimal time (only approx. 5 min d−1) performing displays. As a consequence, the DEE of approximately 39 kJ d−1 for male manakins is comparable to other lowland tropical species. The short, intense bursts of courtship by these birds make up only approximately 1.2% of their total DEE. Presumably, this cost is negligible, enabling them to perform daily at their arenas for months on end. PMID:24352944

  7. Energetics of the acrobatic courtship in male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus).

    PubMed

    Barske, J; Fusani, L; Wikelski, M; Feng, N Y; Santos, M; Schlinger, B A

    2014-02-07

    In lek mating systems, females choose mates through indicators of quality, which males may exhibit by their performance of courtship displays. In temperate regions, displaying seasons are brief (one to two months), whereas in the tropics courtship seasons may be prolonged. Moreover, in temperate-breeding animals lekking behaviour can be energetically demanding, but little is known about the energy costs of lekking in tropical animals. Daily, over the course of a nearly seven-month-long breeding season, male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests perform acrobatic courtship displays that markedly elevate heart rates, suggesting that they require high energy investment. Typically, animals of tropical lowland forests (such as manakins) exhibit a 'slow pace of life' metabolic strategy. We investigated whether male manakin courtship is indeed metabolically costly or whether the birds retain a low daily energy expenditure (DEE), as seen in other tropical species. To assess these questions, we calibrated manakin heart rate against metabolic rate, examined daily lek activity and, using telemetry, obtained heart rates of individual wild, lekking male manakins. Although metabolic rates peak during courtship displays, we found that males actually invest minimal time (only approx. 5 min d(-1)) performing displays. As a consequence, the DEE of approximately 39 kJ d(-1) for male manakins is comparable to other lowland tropical species. The short, intense bursts of courtship by these birds make up only approximately 1.2% of their total DEE. Presumably, this cost is negligible, enabling them to perform daily at their arenas for months on end.

  8. Validation of a free fall acrobatics intervention protocol to reduce neck loads during parachute opening shock

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Anton; Äng, Björn O

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated neck pain prevalence among skydivers is associated with exposure to repeated parachute opening shock (POS). A study is planned to evaluate a preventive free fall acrobatics intervention, but prior assessment of the protocol is necessary given the complex and safety-critical study environment. Aim To validate an intervention protocol to reduce POS neck loads. Methods A protocol was developed based on observational data and theoretical calculations. Six experts rated each component of the protocol on a four-point Likert scale, regarding relevance, simplicity/feasibility and safety, and responded to open-ended questions. Two iterations were made, each followed by consensus panel protocol revisions. The content validity index (CVI) was used to quantify ratings. A measure of universal agreement (CVI/UA) was computed as the proportion of components that achieved a rating ≥3 by all raters. For safety, a high-sensitivity CVI/UA was computed with a rating of no <4 (highest score) as acceptable. Results CVI/UA for relevance increased from 0.80 in the first assessment to 1.00 in the second; for simplicity from 0.50 to 0.63; and for safety from 0.70 to 1.00. High-sensitivity CVI/UA for safety increased from 0.10 to 0.75. Responses to open-ended questions included safety concerns for free fall stability, altitude awareness and concerns over comprehensibility. Conclusions The proposed protocol has been improved in assessed relevance, simplicity and safety, and is considered validated for the start of the empirical trial. To what degree complex interventions should be preceded by open prevalidation is discussed. PMID:27900113

  9. Heat transfer in internal turbulent flows using the PDF method

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, S.; Modest, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    One of the strengths of the velocity-composition joint probability density function (PDF) method lies in its ability to predict scalar fields for reactive turbulent flows. The application of PDF methods to internal flows necessitates appropriate description of near-wall effects, namely, molecular transport, production of turbulence by inhomogeneities, and dissipation of the scalar fluctuations by viscosity. A Lagrangian transport equation has been derived for transport of energy, whereby convection is treated exactly. The temperature fluctuations are modeled by a modified version of a deterministic model, which was originally developed for homogeneous turbulence. The thermal wall-functions were used to incorporate these modifications. The resultant modeled Lagrangian energy transport equation is solved simultaneously with the hydrodynamic equations, for the test case of a thermally developing two-dimensional channel flow (parallel plate geometry). The model has been tested for both constant temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions. Results obtained have been compared to {kappa}-{epsilon} and algebraic Reynolds stress model (ARSM) finite-volume calculations. Apart from the differences due to turbulence models, it was observed that the finite-volume calculations suffered numerical diffusion, which was completely eliminated in the Lagrangian PDF approach.

  10. The study of PDF turbulence models in combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    In combustion computations, it is known that the predictions of chemical reaction rates are poor if conventional turbulence models are used. The probability density function (pdf) method seems to be the only alternative that uses local instantaneous values of the temperature, density, etc., in predicting chemical reaction rates, and thus is the only viable approach for more accurate turbulent combustion calculations. The fact that the pdf equation has a very large dimensionality renders finite difference schemes extremely demanding on computer memories and thus impractical. A logical alternative is the Monte Carlo scheme. Since CFD has a certain maturity as well as acceptance, it seems that the use of a combined CFD and Monte Carlo scheme is more beneficial. Therefore, a scheme is chosen that uses a conventional CFD flow solver in calculating the flow field properties such as velocity, pressure, etc., while the chemical reaction part is solved using a Monte Carlo scheme. The discharge of a heated turbulent plane jet into quiescent air was studied. Experimental data for this problem shows that when the temperature difference between the jet and the surrounding air is small, buoyancy effect can be neglected and the temperature can be treated as a passive scalar. The fact that jet flows have a self-similar solution lends convenience in the modeling study. Futhermore, the existence of experimental data for turbulent shear stress and temperature variance make the case ideal for the testing of pdf models wherein these values can be directly evaluated.

  11. Extraction and labeling high-resolution images from PDF documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachra, Suchet K.; Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2013-12-01

    Accuracy of content-based image retrieval is affected by image resolution among other factors. Higher resolution images enable extraction of image features that more accurately represent the image content. In order to improve the relevance of search results for our biomedical image search engine, Open-I, we have developed techniques to extract and label high-resolution versions of figures from biomedical articles supplied in the PDF format. Open-I uses the open-access subset of biomedical articles from the PubMed Central repository hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Articles are available in XML and in publisher supplied PDF formats. As these PDF documents contain little or no meta-data to identify the embedded images, the task includes labeling images according to their figure number in the article after they have been successfully extracted. For this purpose we use the labeled small size images provided with the XML web version of the article. This paper describes the image extraction process and two alternative approaches to perform image labeling that measure the similarity between two images based upon the image intensity projection on the coordinate axes and similarity based upon the normalized cross-correlation between the intensities of two images. Using image identification based on image intensity projection, we were able to achieve a precision of 92.84% and a recall of 82.18% in labeling of the extracted images.

  12. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs. PMID:26146475

  13. Graph-based layout analysis for PDF documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Canhui; Tang, Zhi; Tao, Xin; Li, Yun; Shi, Cao

    2013-03-01

    To increase the flexibility and enrich the reading experience of e-book on small portable screens, a graph based method is proposed to perform layout analysis on Portable Document Format (PDF) documents. Digital born document has its inherent advantages like representing texts and fractional images in explicit form, which can be straightforwardly exploited. To integrate traditional image-based document analysis and the inherent meta-data provided by PDF parser, the page primitives including text, image and path elements are processed to produce text and non text layer for respective analysis. Graph-based method is developed in superpixel representation level, and page text elements corresponding to vertices are used to construct an undirected graph. Euclidean distance between adjacent vertices is applied in a top-down manner to cut the graph tree formed by Kruskal's algorithm. And edge orientation is then used in a bottom-up manner to extract text lines from each sub tree. On the other hand, non-textual objects are segmented by connected component analysis. For each segmented text and non-text composite, a 13-dimensional feature vector is extracted for labelling purpose. The experimental results on selected pages from PDF books are presented.

  14. APFEL: A PDF evolution library with QED corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Rojo, Juan

    2014-06-01

    Quantum electrodynamics and electroweak corrections are important ingredients for many theoretical predictions at the LHC. This paper documents APFEL, a new PDF evolution package that allows for the first time to perform DGLAP evolution up to NNLO in QCD and to LO in QED, in the variable-flavor-number scheme and with either pole or MS bar heavy quark masses. APFEL consistently accounts for the QED corrections to the evolution of quark and gluon PDFs and for the contribution from the photon PDF in the proton. The coupled QCD ⊗ QED equations are solved in x-space by means of higher order interpolation, followed by Runge-Kutta solution of the resulting discretized evolution equations. APFEL is based on an innovative and flexible methodology for the sequential solution of the QCD and QED evolution equations and their combination. In addition to PDF evolution, APFEL provides a module that computes Deep-Inelastic Scattering structure functions in the FONLL general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme up to O(αs2) . All the functionalities of APFEL can be accessed via a Graphical User Interface, supplemented with a variety of plotting tools for PDFs, parton luminosities and structure functions. Written in FORTRAN 77, APFEL can also be used via the C/C++ and Python interfaces, and is publicly available from the HepForge repository.

  15. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-04-01

    Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg)-contaminated urban areas in the world. Exposure is amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. The objectives of this study were to compare two Hg-leaching procedures, and their application as risk-assessment screening tools in Hg-contaminated adobe brick homes in Huancavelica. The purpose was to evaluate potential health implications, particularly for children, after ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. Hg was measured in adobe brick and dirt floor samples from 60 households by total Hg extraction, simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction, and sequential selective extraction (SSE), which provides more detailed data but is resource-intensive. Most of the Hg present in samples was relatively insoluble, although in some households soluble Hg species were present at concentrations that may be of concern after ingestion. A strong correlation was identified between results from simulated GF extraction of adobe bricks and dirt floors and the more soluble fractions of Hg from SSE. Simulated GF extraction data were combined with ingestion and body mass characteristics for small children to compare potential risk of ingestion of Hg-contaminated soil with current health standards. Simulated GF extraction can be used as a risk assessment screening tool for effective allocation of time and resources to households that have measurable concentrations of bioaccessible Hg. Combining simulated GF extraction data with health standards enables intervention strategies targeted at households with the greatest potential health threat from ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles.

  16. The Air Land Sea Bulletin. Issue No. 2007-1, January 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    document format (PDF) extension. You must have Adobe Acrobat Reader and a WWW browser such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator to read, copy...The ALSB, please contact the Editor by telephone or e-mail. ALSA PUBLICATIONS–ON THE WORLDWIDE WEB (WWW) Visit our homepage: http://www.alsa.mil or...Classified Web site: http://www.acc.af.smil.mil.alsa The ALSB–From our homepage you can access current and past issues. Other ALSA

  17. The Air Land Sea Bulletin. Issue Number 2007-2, May 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    are in portable document format (PDF) extension. You must have Adobe Acrobat Reader and a WWW browser such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator...subscription of The ALSB, please contact the Editor by telephone or e-mail. ALSA PUBLICATIONS–ON THE WORLDWIDE WEB (WWW) Visit our homepage: http...www.alsa.mil or Classified Web site: http://www.acc.af.smil.mil.alsa The ALSB–From our homepage you can access current and past issues. Other

  18. Selected data from eleven wildcat wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zihlman, F.N.; Oliver, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    Between 1978 and 1981, the U.S. Geological Survey drilled 27 wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. This publication presents the following data from eleven of those 27 wells: general information, well core images, depths to specific stratigraphic units, well core gamma ray logs in LAS format, well log information in LAS format, geological and drilling history reports in Adobe Acrobat PDF format, and permeability and porosity data.

  19. Usefulness and metabolic implications of a 60-second repeated jumps test as a predictor of acrobatic jumping performance in gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Marina, M; Rodríguez, F A

    2013-03-01

    Gymnastics floor exercises are composed of a set of four to five successive acrobatic jumps usually called a "series". The aims of the study were: 1) to relate the acrobatic gymnastics performance of these series with a repeated jumps test of similar duration (R60), 2) to study the relation between R60 and physiological parameters (heart rate and blood lactate), and the performance obtained in different kinds of jumps, 3) to confirm whether R60, executed without a damped jumping technique, can be considered an anaerobic lactic power test. Twenty male and twenty-four female gymnasts performed three repeated jumps tests for 5 s (R5), 10 s (R10) and 60 s (R60) and vertical jumps, such as drop jumps (DJ), squat jumps (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ). We assessed heart rate (HR) and blood lactate during R10 and R60. The average values of the maximal blood lactate concentration (Lmax) after R10 (males = 2.5±0.6 mmol · l(-1); females = 2.1±0.8 mmol · l(-1)) confirm that anaerobic glycolysis is not activated to a high level. In R60, the Lmax (males = 7.5±1.7 mmol · l(-1) females = 5.9±2.1 mmol · l(-1)) that was recorded does not validate R60 as an anaerobic lactic power test. We confirmed the relation between the average power obtained in R60 (R60Wm) and the acrobatic performance on the floor. The inclusion in the multiple regression equation of the best power in DJ and the best flight-contact ratio (FC) in R5 confirms the influence of other non-metabolic components on the variability in R60 performance, at least in gymnasts.

  20. Revised estimates for continuous shoreline fumigation: a PDF approach.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Muddassir; Khan, Faisal I; Husain, Tahir

    2005-02-14

    A probability density function (PDF) fumigation model is presented here to study the dispersion of air pollutants emitted from a tall stack on the shoreline. This work considers dispersion of the pollutants in the stable layer and within the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) proceeds independently. The growth of TIBL is considered parabolic with distance inland. Turbulence is taken as homogeneous and stationary. Dispersion of particles (contaminant) in lateral and vertical directions is assumed independent of each other. This assumption allows us to consider the position of particles in both directions as independent random variables. The lateral dispersion distribution within the TIBL is considered as Gaussian and independent of height. A skewed bi-Gaussian vertical velocity PDF is used to account for the physics of dispersion due to different characteristics of updrafts and downdrafts within the TIBL. We have used Weil (J.C. Weil, A diagnosis of the asymmetry in top-down and bottom-up diffusion using a Lagrangian stochastic model, J. Atmos. Sci., 47 (1990) 501-515) solutions to find out the parameters of this PDF. Incorporating finite Lagrangian integral time scale for the vertical velocity component, it is observed that it reduces the vertical dispersion in the beginning and moves the point of maximum concentration further downwind. Due to little dispersion in the beginning, there is more plume to be dispersed causing higher concentrations at large distances. The model has considered Weil and Brower's (J.C. Weil, P.R. Brower, Estimating convective boundary layer parameters for diffusion applications, Maryland Power Plant Siting Program Rep. PPSP-MP-48, Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, MD, 1985, 37 pp.) convective limit to analyze dispersion characteristics within TIBL. The revised model discussed here is evaluated with the data available from the Nanticoke field experiment on fumigation conducted in summer of 1978 in Ontario, Canada. The results

  1. PDF uncertainties at large x and gauge boson production

    SciTech Connect

    Accardi, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    I discuss how global QCD fits of parton distribution functions can make the somewhat separated fields of high-energy particle physics and lower energy hadronic and nuclear physics interact to the benefit of both. In particular, I will argue that large rapidity gauge boson production at the Tevatron and the LHC has the highest short-term potential to constrain the theoretical nuclear corrections to DIS data on deuteron targets necessary for up/down flavor separation. This in turn can considerably reduce the PDF uncertainty on cross section calculations of heavy mass particles such as W' and Z' bosons.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Pdf-Mediated Circadian Behaviors Between Drosophila melanogaster and D. virilis

    PubMed Central

    Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Gyunghee; Park, Jae H.

    2009-01-01

    A group of small ventrolateral neurons (s-LNv's) are the principal pacemaker for circadian locomotor rhythmicity of Drosophila melanogaster, and the pigment-dispersing factor (Pdf) neuropeptide plays an essential role as a clock messenger within these neurons. In our comparative studies on Pdf-associated circadian rhythms, we found that daily locomotor activity patterns of D. virilis were significantly different from those of D. melanogaster. Activities of D. virilis adults were mainly restricted to the photophase under light:dark cycles and subsequently became arrhythmic or weakly rhythmic in constant conditions. Such activity patterns resemble those of Pdf01 mutant of D. melanogaster. Intriguingly, endogenous D. virilis Pdf (DvPdf) expression was not detected in the s-LNv-like neurons in the adult brains, implying that the Pdf01-like behavioral phenotypes of D. virilis are attributed in part to the lack of DvPdf in the s-LNv-like neurons. Heterologous transgenic analysis showed that cis-regulatory elements of the DvPdf transgene are capable of directing their expression in all endogenous Pdf neurons including s-LNv's, as well as in non-Pdf clock neurons (LNd's and fifth s-LNv) in a D. melanogaster host. Together these findings suggest a significant difference in the regulatory mechanisms of Pdf transcription between the two species and such a difference is causally associated with species-specific establishment of daily locomotor activity patterns. PMID:19153257

  3. CDF and PDF Comparison Between Humacao, Puerto Rico and Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rosana

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of the atmospherics phenomenon is an important part in the communication system. The principal factor that contributes to the attenuation in a Ka band communication system is the rain attenuation. We have four years of tropical region observations. The data in the tropical region was taken in Humacao, Puerto Rico. Previous data had been collected at various climate regions such as desserts, template area and sub-tropical regions. Figure 1 shows the ITU-R rain zone map for North America. Rain rates are important to the rain attenuation prediction models. The models that predict attenuation generally are of two different kinds. The first one is the regression models. By using a data set these models provide an idea of the observed attenuation and rain rates distribution in the present, past and future. The second kinds of models are physical models which use the probability density functions (PDF).

  4. PDF calculation of scalar mixing layer with simple chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzaki, Takao; Pope, Stephen B.

    1999-11-01

    A joint velocity-composition-turbulent frequency PDF(JPDF) model is used to simulate reactive mixing layer in a grid-generated turbulence with the influence of second-order irreversible chemical reactions. To investigate the effects of molecular mixing, a gas flow and a liquid flow are simulated. For a gas flow, the oxidation reaction (NO+ O3 arrow NO2 +O2 ) between nitricoxide (NO) and ozone (O3 ) is used. For a liquid flow, the saponification reaction(NaOH+HCOOCH3 arrow HCOONa+CH_3OH) between sodiumhydroxide(NaOH) and methylformate(HCOOCH_3) is used. The both cases are moderately fast reactions. Therefore, reactive scalar statistics are affected by turbulent mixing. The results of caliculation are compared with experimental data of Komori et al.(1994) and Bilger et al.(1991)

  5. A k-omega-multivariate beta PDF for supersonic combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexopoulos, G. A.; Baurle, R. A.; Hassan, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    In an attempt to study the interaction between combustion and turbulence in supersonic flows, an assumed PDF has been employed. This makes it possible to calculate the time average of the chemical source terms that appear in the species conservation equations. In order to determine the averages indicated in an equation, two transport equations, one for the temperature (enthalpy) variance and one for Q, are required. Model equations are formulated for such quantities. The turbulent time scale controls the evolution. An algebraic model similar to that used by Eklund et al was used in an attempt to predict the recent measurements of Cheng et al. Predictions were satisfactory before ignition but were less satisfactory after ignition. One of the reasons for this behavior is the inadequacy of the algebraic turbulence model employed. Because of this, the objective of this work is to develop a k-omega model to remedy the situation.

  6. How to optimize radiological images captured from digital cameras, using the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 program.

    PubMed

    Chalazonitis, A N; Koumarianos, D; Tzovara, J; Chronopoulos, P

    2003-06-01

    Over the past decade, the technology that permits images to be digitized and the reduction in the cost of digital equipment allows quick digital transfer of any conventional radiological film. Images then can be transferred to a personal computer, and several software programs are available that can manipulate their digital appearance. In this article, the fundamentals of digital imaging are discussed, as well as the wide variety of optional adjustments that the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) program can offer to present radiological images with satisfactory digital imaging quality.

  7. DICOM to print, 35-mm slides, web, and video projector: tutorial using Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Jud W

    2002-10-01

    Preparing images for publication has dealt with film and the photographic process. With picture archiving and communications systems, many departments will no longer produce film. This will change how images are produced for publication. DICOM, the file format for radiographic images, has to be converted and then prepared for traditional publication, 35-mm slides, the newest techniques of video projection, and the World Wide Web. Tagged image file format is the common format for traditional print publication, whereas joint photographic expert group is the current file format for the World Wide Web. Each medium has specific requirements that can be met with a common image-editing program such as Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). High-resolution images are required for print, a process that requires interpolation. However, the Internet requires images with a small file size for rapid transmission. The resolution of each output differs and the image resolution must be optimized to match the output of the publishing medium.

  8. A Matrix Isolation and Computational Study of Molecular Palladium Fluorides: Does PdF6 Exist?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antony V; Nguyen, Timothy; Brosi, Felix; Wang, Xuefeng; Andrews, Lester; Riedel, Sebastian; Bridgeman, Adam J; Young, Nigel A

    2016-02-01

    Palladium atoms generated by thermal evaporation and laser ablation were reacted with and trapped in F2/Ar, F2/Ne, and neat F2 matrices. The products were characterized by electronic absorption and infrared spectroscopy, together with relativistic density functional theory calculations as well as coupled cluster calculations. Vibrational modes at 540 and 617 cm(-1) in argon matrices were assigned to molecular PdF and PdF2, and a band at 692 cm(-1) was assigned to molecular PdF4. A band at 624 cm(-1) can be assigned to either PdF3 or PdF6, with the former preferred from experimental considerations. Although calculations might support the latter assignment, our conclusion is that in these detailed experiments there is no convincing evidence for PdF6.

  9. Modeling of turbulent supersonic H2-air combustion with a multivariate beta PDF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baurle, R. A.; Hassan, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent calculations of turbulent supersonic reacting shear flows using an assumed multivariate beta PDF (probability density function) resulted in reduced production rates and a delay in the onset of combustion. This result is not consistent with available measurements. The present research explores two possible reasons for this behavior: use of PDF's that do not yield Favre averaged quantities, and the gradient diffusion assumption. A new multivariate beta PDF involving species densities is introduced which makes it possible to compute Favre averaged mass fractions. However, using this PDF did not improve comparisons with experiment. A countergradient diffusion model is then introduced. Preliminary calculations suggest this to be the cause of the discrepancy.

  10. Adobe InDesign vs. QuarkXPress and PageMaker: The Best of Both Worlds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the newly released Adobe InDesign software, finding that while it brings new life into desktop publishing, it is not yet a "must buy" for publications advisers. Compares specific features that are relevant for student publications, including: character, paragraph, drop caps, define styles, page setup, text wrap, defining and using…

  11. 75 FR 60820 - United States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the Antitrust Procedures and Penalties Act, 15 U.S.C. 16(b)-(h), that a proposed Final...

  12. eMeteorNews: website and PDF journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggemans, P.; Kacerek, R.; Koukal, J.; Miskotte, K.; Piffl, R.

    2016-01-01

    Amateur meteor workers have always been interested to exchange information and experience. In the past this was only possible via personal contacts by letter or by specialized journals. With internet a much faster medium became available and plenty of websites, mailing lists, Facebook groups, etc., have been created in order to communicate about meteors. Today there is a wealth of meteor data circulating on internet, but the information is very scattered and not directly available to everyone. The authors have been considering how to organize an easy access to the many different meteor related publications. The best solution for the current needs of amateur meteor observers proved to be a dedicated website combined with a PDF journal, both being free available without any subscription fee or registration requirement. The authors decided to start with this project and in March 2016 the website meteornews.org has been created. A first issue of eMeteorNews was prepared in April 2016. The year 2016 will be a test period for this project. The mission statement of this project is: "Minimizing overhead and editorial constraints to assure a swift exchange of information dedicated to all fields of active amateur meteor work."

  13. Protocol for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility Disposal Limits Database

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, R

    2006-01-31

    A database has been developed to contain the disposal limits for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility (ELLWF). This database originates in the form of an EXCEL{copyright} workbook. The pertinent sheets are translated to PDF format using Adobe ACROBAT{copyright}. The PDF version of the database is accessible from the Solid Waste Division web page on SHRINE. In addition to containing the various disposal unit limits, the database also contains hyperlinks to the original references for all limits. It is anticipated that database will be revised each time there is an addition, deletion or revision of any of the ELLWF radionuclide disposal limits.

  14. An Overview of the NCC Spray/Monte-Carlo-PDF Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Liu, Nan-Suey (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper advances the state-of-the-art in spray computations with some of our recent contributions involving scalar Monte Carlo PDF (Probability Density Function), unstructured grids and parallel computing. It provides a complete overview of the scalar Monte Carlo PDF and Lagrangian spray computer codes developed for application with unstructured grids and parallel computing. Detailed comparisons for the case of a reacting non-swirling spray clearly highlight the important role that chemistry/turbulence interactions play in the modeling of reacting sprays. The results from the PDF and non-PDF methods were found to be markedly different and the PDF solution is closer to the reported experimental data. The PDF computations predict that some of the combustion occurs in a predominantly premixed-flame environment and the rest in a predominantly diffusion-flame environment. However, the non-PDF solution predicts wrongly for the combustion to occur in a vaporization-controlled regime. Near the premixed flame, the Monte Carlo particle temperature distribution shows two distinct peaks: one centered around the flame temperature and the other around the surrounding-gas temperature. Near the diffusion flame, the Monte Carlo particle temperature distribution shows a single peak. In both cases, the computed PDF's shape and strength are found to vary substantially depending upon the proximity to the flame surface. The results bring to the fore some of the deficiencies associated with the use of assumed-shape PDF methods in spray computations. Finally, we end the paper by demonstrating the computational viability of the present solution procedure for its use in 3D combustor calculations by summarizing the results of a 3D test case with periodic boundary conditions. For the 3D case, the parallel performance of all the three solvers (CFD, PDF, and spray) has been found to be good when the computations were performed on a 24-processor SGI Origin work-station.

  15. Review of Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, K. A.; Particle Data Group; et al.

    2016-10-01

    The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,062 new measurements from 721 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as supersymmetric particles, heavy bosons, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Higgs Boson Physics, Supersymmetry, Grand Unified Theories, Neutrino Mixing, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Cosmology, Particle Detectors, Colliders, Probability and Statistics. Among the 117 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised, including those on Pentaquarks and Inflation. The complete Review is published online in a journal and on the website of the Particle Data Group (http://pdg.lbl.gov). The printed PDG Book contains the Summary Tables and all review articles but no longer includes the detailed tables from the Particle Listings. A Booklet with the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the review articles is also available. Contents Abstract, Contributors, Highlights and Table of ContentsAcrobat PDF (150 KB) IntroductionAcrobat PDF (456 KB) Particle Physics Summary Tables Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (155 KB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (134 KB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (84 KB) MesonsAcrobat PDF (871 KB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (300 KB) Searches (Supersymmetry, Compositeness, etc.)Acrobat PDF (91 KB) Tests of conservation lawsAcrobat PDF (330 KB) Reviews, Tables, and Plots Detailed contents for this sectionAcrobat PDF (37 KB) Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear PropertiesAcrobat PDF (278 KB) Standard Model and Related TopicsAcrobat PDF (7.3 MB) Astrophysics and CosmologyAcrobat PDF (2.7 MB) Experimental Methods and CollidersAcrobat PDF (3.8 MB) Mathematical Tools or Statistics, Monte Carlo, Group

  16. Preliminary compilation of descriptive geoenvironmental mineral deposit models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, Edward A.

    1995-01-01

    Summary: This book was released in paper form in June, 1996. After its release, it was converted to digital form as Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) files using Acrobat version 2.1. The Acrobat presentation you are accessing is a facsimile of the published book. A few minor editorial changes were made to the book to correct errors and some of the figures have been enhanced. The figures are the same as those in the book, but some have been reprocessed or redrafted and others converted from grayscale to color to make them more useable. In January 2004, the book was enhanced with the creation of a Navigation page, plus the addition of links, web links and bookmarks to improve ease of use.

  17. Vertical overlap of probability density functions of cloud and precipitation hydrometeors: CLOUD AND PRECIPITATION PDF OVERLAP

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Lim, Kyo-Sun Sunny; Larson, Vincent E.; Wong, May; Thayer-Calder, Katherine; Ghan, Steven J.

    2016-11-05

    Coarse-resolution climate models increasingly rely on probability density functions (PDFs) to represent subgrid-scale variability of prognostic variables. While PDFs characterize the horizontal variability, a separate treatment is needed to account for the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. When sub-columns are drawn from these PDFs for microphysics or radiation parameterizations, appropriate vertical correlations must be enforced via PDF overlap specifications. This study evaluates the representation of PDF overlap in the Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler (SILHS) employed in the assumed PDF turbulence and cloud scheme called the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB). PDF overlap in CLUBB-SILHS simulations of continental and tropical oceanic deep convection is compared with overlap of PDF of various microphysics variables in cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of the same cases that explicitly predict the 3D structure of cloud and precipitation fields. CRM results show that PDF overlap varies significantly between different hydrometeor types, as well as between PDFs of mass and number mixing ratios for each species, - a distinction that the current SILHS implementation does not make. In CRM simulations that explicitly resolve cloud and precipitation structures, faster falling species, such as rain and graupel, exhibit significantly higher coherence in their vertical distributions than slow falling cloud liquid and ice. These results suggest that to improve the overlap treatment in the sub-column generator, the PDF correlations need to depend on hydrometeor properties, such as fall speeds, in addition to the currently implemented dependency on the turbulent convective length scale.

  18. Computationally efficient implementation of combustion chemistry in parallel PDF calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Liuyan Lantz, Steven R.; Ren Zhuyin; Pope, Stephen B.

    2009-08-20

    In parallel calculations of combustion processes with realistic chemistry, the serial in situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) algorithm [S.B. Pope, Computationally efficient implementation of combustion chemistry using in situ adaptive tabulation, Combustion Theory and Modelling, 1 (1997) 41-63; L. Lu, S.B. Pope, An improved algorithm for in situ adaptive tabulation, Journal of Computational Physics 228 (2009) 361-386] substantially speeds up the chemistry calculations on each processor. To improve the parallel efficiency of large ensembles of such calculations in parallel computations, in this work, the ISAT algorithm is extended to the multi-processor environment, with the aim of minimizing the wall clock time required for the whole ensemble. Parallel ISAT strategies are developed by combining the existing serial ISAT algorithm with different distribution strategies, namely purely local processing (PLP), uniformly random distribution (URAN), and preferential distribution (PREF). The distribution strategies enable the queued load redistribution of chemistry calculations among processors using message passing. They are implemented in the software x2f{sub m}pi, which is a Fortran 95 library for facilitating many parallel evaluations of a general vector function. The relative performance of the parallel ISAT strategies is investigated in different computational regimes via the PDF calculations of multiple partially stirred reactors burning methane/air mixtures. The results show that the performance of ISAT with a fixed distribution strategy strongly depends on certain computational regimes, based on how much memory is available and how much overlap exists between tabulated information on different processors. No one fixed strategy consistently achieves good performance in all the regimes. Therefore, an adaptive distribution strategy, which blends PLP, URAN and PREF, is devised and implemented. It yields consistently good performance in all regimes. In the adaptive

  19. Computationally efficient implementation of combustion chemistry in parallel PDF calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Liuyan; Lantz, Steven R.; Ren, Zhuyin; Pope, Stephen B.

    2009-08-01

    In parallel calculations of combustion processes with realistic chemistry, the serial in situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) algorithm [S.B. Pope, Computationally efficient implementation of combustion chemistry using in situ adaptive tabulation, Combustion Theory and Modelling, 1 (1997) 41-63; L. Lu, S.B. Pope, An improved algorithm for in situ adaptive tabulation, Journal of Computational Physics 228 (2009) 361-386] substantially speeds up the chemistry calculations on each processor. To improve the parallel efficiency of large ensembles of such calculations in parallel computations, in this work, the ISAT algorithm is extended to the multi-processor environment, with the aim of minimizing the wall clock time required for the whole ensemble. Parallel ISAT strategies are developed by combining the existing serial ISAT algorithm with different distribution strategies, namely purely local processing (PLP), uniformly random distribution (URAN), and preferential distribution (PREF). The distribution strategies enable the queued load redistribution of chemistry calculations among processors using message passing. They are implemented in the software x2f_mpi, which is a Fortran 95 library for facilitating many parallel evaluations of a general vector function. The relative performance of the parallel ISAT strategies is investigated in different computational regimes via the PDF calculations of multiple partially stirred reactors burning methane/air mixtures. The results show that the performance of ISAT with a fixed distribution strategy strongly depends on certain computational regimes, based on how much memory is available and how much overlap exists between tabulated information on different processors. No one fixed strategy consistently achieves good performance in all the regimes. Therefore, an adaptive distribution strategy, which blends PLP, URAN and PREF, is devised and implemented. It yields consistently good performance in all regimes. In the adaptive parallel

  20. Surgical Correction of Posttraumatic Scapulothoracic Bursitis, Rhomboid Major Muscle Injury, Ipsilateral Glenohumeral Instability, and Headaches Resulting from Circus Acrobatic Maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Skedros, John G.; Langston, Tanner D.; Phippen, Colton M.

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 28-year-old transgender (male-to-female) patient that had a partial tear of the rhomboid major tendon, scapulothoracic bursitis, and glenohumeral instability on the same side. These conditions resulted from traumatic events during circus acrobatic maneuvers. Additional aspects of this case that make it unique include (1) the main traumatic event occurred during a flagpole exercise, where the patient's trunk was suspended horizontally while a vertical pole was grasped with both hands, (2) headaches were associated with the periscapular injury and they improved after scapulothoracic bursectomy and rhomboid tendon repair, (3) surgical correction was done during the same operation with an open anterior capsular-labral reconstruction, open scapulothoracic bursectomy without bone resection, and rhomboid tendon repair, (4) a postoperative complication of tearing of the serratus anterior and rhomboid muscle attachments with recurrent scapulothoracic pain occurred from patient noncompliance, and (5) the postoperative complication was surgically corrected and ultimately resulted in an excellent outcome at the one-year final follow-up. PMID:26273484

  1. The antifungal plant defensin AtPDF2.3 from Arabidopsis thaliana blocks potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Kim; Peigneur, Steve; De Coninck, Barbara; Tytgat, Jan; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; Thevissen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion toxins that block potassium channels and antimicrobial plant defensins share a common structural CSαβ-motif. These toxins contain a toxin signature (K-C4-X-N) in their amino acid sequence, and based on in silico analysis of 18 plant defensin sequences, we noted the presence of a toxin signature (K-C5-R-G) in the amino acid sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana defensin AtPDF2.3. We found that recombinant (r)AtPDF2.3 blocks Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 potassium channels, akin to the interaction between scorpion toxins and potassium channels. Moreover, rAtPDF2.3[G36N], a variant with a KCXN toxin signature (K-C5-R-N), is more potent in blocking Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 channels than rAtPDF2.3, whereas rAtPDF2.3[K33A], devoid of the toxin signature, is characterized by reduced Kv channel blocking activity. These findings highlight the importance of the KCXN scorpion toxin signature in the plant defensin sequence for blocking potassium channels. In addition, we found that rAtPDF2.3 inhibits the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and that pathways regulating potassium transport and/or homeostasis confer tolerance of this yeast to rAtPDF2.3, indicating a role for potassium homeostasis in the fungal defence response towards rAtPDF2.3. Nevertheless, no differences in antifungal potency were observed between the rAtPDF2.3 variants, suggesting that antifungal activity and Kv channel inhibitory function are not linked. PMID:27573545

  2. Non-Gaussian PDF Modeling of Turbulent Boundary Layer Fluctuating Pressure Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinwolf, Alexander; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate properties of the probability density function (PDF) of turbulent boundary layer fluctuating pressures measured on the exterior of a supersonic transport aircraft. It is shown that fluctuating pressure PDFs differ from the Gaussian distribution even for surface conditions having no significant discontinuities. The PDF tails are wider and longer than those of the Gaussian model. For pressure fluctuations upstream of forward-facing step discontinuities and downstream of aft-facing step discontinuities, deviations from the Gaussian model are more significant and the PDFs become asymmetrical. Various analytical PDF distributions are used and further developed to model this behavior.

  3. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community.

  4. Metabolic inactivation of the circadian transmitter, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), by neprilysin-like peptidases in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Isaac, R Elwyn; Johnson, Erik C; Audsley, Neil; Shirras, Alan D

    2007-12-01

    Recent studies have firmly established pigment dispersing factor (PDF), a C-terminally amidated octodecapeptide, as a key neurotransmitter regulating rhythmic circadian locomotory behaviours in adult Drosophila melanogaster. The mechanisms by which PDF functions as a circadian peptide transmitter are not fully understood, however; in particular, nothing is known about the role of extracellular peptidases in terminating PDF signalling at synapses. In this study we show that PDF is susceptible to hydrolysis by neprilysin, an endopeptidase that is enriched in synaptic membranes of mammals and insects. Neprilysin cleaves PDF at the internal Ser7-Leu8 peptide bond to generate PDF1-7 and PDF8-18. Neither of these fragments were able to increase intracellular cAMP levels in HEK293 cells cotransfected with the Drosophila PDF receptor cDNA and a firefly luciferase reporter gene, confirming that such cleavage results in PDF inactivation. The Ser7-Leu8 peptide bond was also the principal cleavage site when PDF was incubated with membranes prepared from heads of adult Drosophila. This endopeptidase activity was inhibited by the neprilysin inhibitors phosphoramidon (IC(50,) 0.15 micromol l(-1)) and thiorphan (IC(50,) 1.2 micromol l(-1)). We propose that cleavage by a member of the Drosophila neprilysin family of endopeptidases is the most likely mechanism for inactivating synaptic PDF and that neprilysin might have an important role in regulating PDF signals within circadian neural circuits.

  5. 77 FR 23754 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--3D PDF... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the...

  6. 77 FR 38831 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--3D PDF... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the...

  7. 78 FR 72713 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--3D PDF... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the...

  8. 78 FR 27431 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--3D PDF... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the...

  9. Disk diffusion quality control guidelines for NVP-PDF 713: a novel peptide deformylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, Tamara R; Jones, Ronald N

    2004-01-01

    NVP-PDF713 is a peptide deformylase inhibitor that has emerged as a candidate for treating Gram-positive infections and selected Gram-negative species that commonly cause community-acquired respiratory tract infections. This report summarizes the results of a multi-center (seven participants) disk diffusion quality control (QC) investigation for NVP PDF-713 using guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards and the standardized disk diffusion method. A total of 420 NVP-PDF 713 zone diameter values were generated for each QC organism. The proposed zone diameter ranges contained 97.6-99.8% of the reported participant results and were: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (25-35 mm), Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (30-37 mm), and Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49247 (24-32 mm). These QC criteria for the disk diffusion method should be applied during the NVP-PDF 713 clinical trials to maximize test accuracy.

  10. Drosophila GPCR Han is a receptor for the circadian clock neuropeptide PDF.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Seogang; Lee, Youngseok; Hong, Sung-Tae; Bang, Sunhoe; Paik, Donggi; Kang, Jongkyun; Shin, Jinwhan; Lee, Jaejung; Jeon, Keunhye; Hwang, Seungyoon; Bae, Eunkyung; Kim, Jaeseob

    2005-10-20

    The pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a neuropeptide controlling circadian behavioral rhythms in Drosophila, but its receptor is not yet known. From a large-scale temperature preference behavior screen in Drosophila, we isolated a P insertion mutant that preferred different temperatures during the day and night. This mutation, which we named han, reduced the transcript level of CG13758. We found that Han was expressed specifically in 13 pairs of circadian clock neurons in the adult brain. han null flies showed arrhythmic circadian behavior in constant darkness. The behavioral characteristics of han null mutants were similar to those of pdf null mutants. We also found that PDF binds specifically to S2 cells expressing Han, which results in the elevation of cAMP synthesis. Therefore, we herein propose that Han is a PDF receptor regulating circadian behavioral rhythm through coordination of activities of clock neurons.

  11. 17 CFR 232.104 - Unofficial PDF copies included in an electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... electronic submission. An unofficial PDF copy may contain graphic and image material (but not animated... tabular representation of any omitted graphic or image material. (c) If a filer omits an unofficial...

  12. An assumed joint-Beta PDF approach for supersonic turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Baurle, R.A.; Alexopoulos, G.A.; Hassan, H.A.; Drummond, J.P. NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA )

    1992-07-01

    In a recent experiment, Cheng et al. (1991) used ultraviolet spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering and laser-induced predissociative fluorescence techniques for simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of O2, H2, H2O, OH, and N2 (and their rms) in supersonic turbulent reacting shear layers. Because present computational techniques are not suited for prediction of all of the above measurements, a new approach has been developed and is being used to predict all relevant flow properties and their rms (where appropriate). The approach explores the use of a joint-Beta PDF for concentrations. It was found that the general expression of this PDF was impractical because of decoding problems resulting from determining the various parameters of the PDF. Thus, a special case of this general expression was considered. Calculations using this simplified version of the joint-Beta PDF were not consistent with the available data from the experiment. 9 refs.

  13. Combined PDF and Rietveld studies of ADORable zeolites and the disordered intermediate IPC-1P.

    PubMed

    Morris, Samuel A; Wheatley, Paul S; Položij, Miroslav; Nachtigall, Petr; Eliášová, Pavla; Čejka, Jiří; Lucas, Tim C; Hriljac, Joseph A; Pinar, Ana B; Morris, Russell E

    2016-09-28

    The disordered intermediate of the ADORable zeolite UTL has been structurally confirmed using the pair distribution function (PDF) technique. The intermediate, IPC-1P, is a disordered layered compound formed by the hydrolysis of UTL in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid solution. Its structure is unsolvable by traditional X-ray diffraction techniques. The PDF technique was first benchmarked against high-quality synchrotron Rietveld refinements of IPC-2 (OKO) and IPC-4 (PCR) - two end products of IPC-1P condensation that share very similar structural features. An IPC-1P starting model derived from density functional theory was used for the PDF refinement, which yielded a final fit of Rw = 18% and a geometrically reasonable structure. This confirms the layers do stay intact throughout the ADOR process and shows PDF is a viable technique for layered zeolite structure determination.

  14. Radon and thoron levels, their spatial and seasonal variations in adobe dwellings - a case study at the great Hungarian plain.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba; Horváth, Ákos; Holm, Óskar; Kocsy, Gábor; Csige, István; Szabó, Péter; Homoki, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Radon and thoron isotopes are responsible for approximately half of the average annual effective dose to humans. Although the half-life of thoron is short, it can potentially enter indoor air from adobe walls. Adobe was a traditional construction material in the Great Hungarian Plain. Its major raw materials are the alluvial sediments of the area. Here, seasonal radon and thoron activity concentrations were measured in 53 adobe dwellings in 7 settlements by pairs of etched track detectors. The results show that the annual average radon and thoron activity concentrations are elevated in these dwellings and that the proportions with values higher than 300 Bq m(-3) are 14-17 and 29-32% for radon and thoron, respectively. The calculated radon inhalation dose is significantly higher than the world average value, exceeding 10 mSv y(-1) in 7% of the dwellings of this study. Thoron also can be a significant contributor to the inhalation dose with about 30% in the total inhalation dose. The changes of weather conditions seem to be more relevant in the variation of measurement results than the differences in the local sedimentary geology. Still, the highest values were detected on clay. Through the year, radon follows the average temperature changes and is affected by the ventilation, whereas thoron rather seems to follow the amount of precipitation.

  15. Evaluation of chronic periapical lesions by digital subtraction radiography by using Adobe Photoshop CS: a technical report.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabiola B; Gonçalves, Marcelo; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a new technique by using Adobe Photoshop CS (San Jose, CA) image-analysis software to evaluate the radiographic changes of chronic periapical lesions after root canal treatment by digital subtraction radiography. Thirteen upper anterior human teeth with pulp necrosis and radiographic image of chronic periapical lesion were endodontically treated and radiographed 0, 2, 4, and 6 months after root canal treatment by using a film holder. The radiographic films were automatically developed and digitized. The radiographic images taken 0, 2, 4, and 6 months after root canal therapy were submitted to digital subtraction in pairs (0 and 2 months, 2 and 4 months, and 4 and 6 months) choosing "image," "calculation," "subtract," and "new document" tools from Adobe Photoshop CS image-analysis software toolbar. The resulting images showed areas of periapical healing in all cases. According to this methodology, the healing or expansion of periapical lesions can be evaluated by means of digital subtraction radiography by using Adobe Photoshop CS software.

  16. Modeling Interactions Among Turbulence, Gas-Phase Chemistry, Soot and Radiation Using Transported PDF Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    The importance of explicitly accounting for the effects of unresolved turbulent fluctuations in Reynolds-averaged and large-eddy simulations of chemically reacting turbulent flows is increasingly recognized. Transported probability density function (PDF) methods have emerged as one of the most promising modeling approaches for this purpose. In particular, PDF methods provide an elegant and effective resolution to the closure problems that arise from averaging or filtering terms that correspond to nonlinear point processes, including chemical reaction source terms and radiative emission. PDF methods traditionally have been associated with studies of turbulence-chemistry interactions in laboratory-scale, atmospheric-pressure, nonluminous, statistically stationary nonpremixed turbulent flames; and Lagrangian particle-based Monte Carlo numerical algorithms have been the predominant method for solving modeled PDF transport equations. Recent advances and trends in PDF methods are reviewed and discussed. These include advances in particle-based algorithms, alternatives to particle-based algorithms (e.g., Eulerian field methods), treatment of combustion regimes beyond low-to-moderate-Damköhler-number nonpremixed systems (e.g., premixed flamelets), extensions to include radiation heat transfer and multiphase systems (e.g., soot and fuel sprays), and the use of PDF methods as the basis for subfilter-scale modeling in large-eddy simulation. Examples are provided that illustrate the utility and effectiveness of PDF methods for physics discovery and for applications to practical combustion systems. These include comparisons of results obtained using the PDF method with those from models that neglect unresolved turbulent fluctuations in composition and temperature in the averaged or filtered chemical source terms and/or the radiation heat transfer source terms. In this way, the effects of turbulence-chemistry-radiation interactions can be isolated and quantified.

  17. A Comparative Study of PDF Generation Methods: Measuring Loss of Fidelity When Converting Arabic and Persian MS Word Files to PDF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-17

    document objects, on one or more electronic document pages. These commands have their roots in typography , so, to understand the PDF Language, one...must have at least a rudimentary understanding of typography . Only a few of the typographic commands, called text showing operators, can hold strings

  18. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems.

  19. Using Adobe Flash animations of electron transport chain to teach and learn biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the electron transport chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the electron transport chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching.

  20. A time-dependent Mixing Model for PDF Methods in Heterogeneous Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, Lennart; Suciu, Nicolae; Knabner, Peter; Attinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the transport of groundwater contaminations remains a demanding task, especially with respect to the heterogeneity of the subsurface and the large measurement uncertainties. A risk analysis also includes the quantification of the uncertainty in order to evaluate how accurate the predictions are. Probability density function (PDF) methods are a promising alternative to predicting the transport of solutes in groundwater under uncertainty. They make it possible to derive the evolution equations of the mean concentration and the concentration variance, which can be used as a first measure of uncertainty. A mixing model, also known as a dissipation model, is essential for both methods. Finding a satisfactory mixing model is still an open question and due to the rather elaborate PDF methods, a difficult undertaking. Both the PDF equation and the concentration variance equation depend on the same mixing model. This connection is used to find and test an improved mixing model for the much easier to handle concentration variance. Subsequently, this mixing model is transferred to the PDF equation and tested. The newly proposed mixing model yields significantly improved results for both variance modelling and PDF modelling. The implications of the new mixing model for different kinds of flow conditions are discussed and some comments are made on efficiently handling spatially resolved higher moments.

  1. Allatostatin A Signalling in Drosophila Regulates Feeding and Sleep and Is Modulated by PDF.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangtian; Reiher, Wencke; Hermann-Luibl, Christiane; Sellami, Azza; Cognigni, Paola; Kondo, Shu; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Veenstra, Jan A; Wegener, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Feeding and sleep are fundamental behaviours with significant interconnections and cross-modulations. The circadian system and peptidergic signals are important components of this modulation, but still little is known about the mechanisms and networks by which they interact to regulate feeding and sleep. We show that specific thermogenetic activation of peptidergic Allatostatin A (AstA)-expressing PLP neurons and enteroendocrine cells reduces feeding and promotes sleep in the fruit fly Drosophila. The effects of AstA cell activation are mediated by AstA peptides with receptors homolog to galanin receptors subserving similar and apparently conserved functions in vertebrates. We further identify the PLP neurons as a downstream target of the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), an output factor of the circadian clock. PLP neurons are contacted by PDF-expressing clock neurons, and express a functional PDF receptor demonstrated by cAMP imaging. Silencing of AstA signalling and continuous input to AstA cells by tethered PDF changes the sleep/activity ratio in opposite directions but does not affect rhythmicity. Taken together, our results suggest that pleiotropic AstA signalling by a distinct neuronal and enteroendocrine AstA cell subset adapts the fly to a digestive energy-saving state which can be modulated by PDF.

  2. Fluorescence circadian imaging reveals a PDF-dependent transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila molecular clock

    PubMed Central

    Sabado, Virginie; Vienne, Ludovic; Nunes, José Manuel; Rosbash, Michael; Nagoshi, Emi

    2017-01-01

    Circadian locomotor behaviour is controlled by a pacemaker circuit composed of clock-containing neurons. To interrogate the mechanistic relationship between the molecular clockwork and network communication critical to the operation of the Drosophila circadian pacemaker circuit, we established new fluorescent circadian reporters that permit single-cell recording of transcriptional and post-transcriptional rhythms in brain explants and cultured neurons. Live-imaging experiments combined with pharmacological and genetic manipulations demonstrate that the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) amplifies the molecular rhythms via time-of-day- and activity-dependent upregulation of transcription from E-box-containing clock gene promoters within key pacemaker neurons. The effect of PDF on clock gene transcription and the known role of PDF in enhancing PER/TIM stability occur via independent pathways downstream of the PDF receptor, the former through a cAMP-independent mechanism and the latter through a cAMP-PKA dependent mechanism. These results confirm and extend the mechanistic understanding of the role of PDF in controlling the synchrony of the pacemaker neurons. More broadly, our results establish the utility of the new live-imaging tools for the study of molecular-neural interactions important for the operation of the circadian pacemaker circuit. PMID:28134281

  3. Comparison between a spectral and PDF model for turbulent reacting flows.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaithianathan, T.; Collins, L. R.; Ulitsky, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    This study compares the performance of a probability density function (PDF) model and a spectral model (known as the eddy damped quasi-normal Markovian or EDQNM model) for the case of two initially unmixed reactants undergoing a finite-rate bimolecular reaction. The two models were chosen because they involve complimentary treatments of the nonlinearities and mixing terms. That is, nonlinearities are exactly treated in the PDF and mixing is modeled, whereas the opposite is true for EDQNM. The predictions of the two models are compared to direct numerical simulations. The results show that the PDF model is capable of describing the mixing of the major species reasonably well, but fails to describe the correlations between the reactants and the products even qualitatively. This suggests that the mixing model in the PDF is adequate for describing mixing between major species, but is incapable of describing mixing of the more spatially segregated product species. The EDQNM model does a slightly better job of describing the mixing of reactant species and a much better job of describing mixing of the product species. Presumably the improvement is associated with the more accurate description of the interscale dynamics that are especially important for the segregated products. The implication is that a model that combines the strengths of the EDQNM for describing mixing and the PDF for describing the nonlinearities would yield the best of both worlds.

  4. Allatostatin A Signalling in Drosophila Regulates Feeding and Sleep and Is Modulated by PDF

    PubMed Central

    Reiher, Wencke; Hermann-Luibl, Christiane; Sellami, Azza; Cognigni, Paola; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Veenstra, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding and sleep are fundamental behaviours with significant interconnections and cross-modulations. The circadian system and peptidergic signals are important components of this modulation, but still little is known about the mechanisms and networks by which they interact to regulate feeding and sleep. We show that specific thermogenetic activation of peptidergic Allatostatin A (AstA)-expressing PLP neurons and enteroendocrine cells reduces feeding and promotes sleep in the fruit fly Drosophila. The effects of AstA cell activation are mediated by AstA peptides with receptors homolog to galanin receptors subserving similar and apparently conserved functions in vertebrates. We further identify the PLP neurons as a downstream target of the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), an output factor of the circadian clock. PLP neurons are contacted by PDF-expressing clock neurons, and express a functional PDF receptor demonstrated by cAMP imaging. Silencing of AstA signalling and continuous input to AstA cells by tethered PDF changes the sleep/activity ratio in opposite directions but does not affect rhythmicity. Taken together, our results suggest that pleiotropic AstA signalling by a distinct neuronal and enteroendocrine AstA cell subset adapts the fly to a digestive energy-saving state which can be modulated by PDF. PMID:27689358

  5. Presentation and response timing accuracy in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Web-based research is becoming ubiquitous in the behavioral sciences, facilitated by convenient, readily available participant pools and relatively straightforward ways of running experiments: most recently, through the development of the HTML5 standard. Although in most studies participants give untimed responses, there is a growing interest in being able to record response times online. Existing data on the accuracy and cross-machine variability of online timing measures are limited, and generally they have compared behavioral data gathered on the Web with similar data gathered in the lab. For this article, we took a more direct approach, examining two ways of running experiments online-Adobe Flash and HTML5 with CSS3 and JavaScript-across 19 different computer systems. We used specialist hardware to measure stimulus display durations and to generate precise response times to visual stimuli in order to assess measurement accuracy, examining effects of duration, browser, and system-to-system variability (such as across different Windows versions), as well as effects of processing power and graphics capability. We found that (a) Flash and JavaScript's presentation and response time measurement accuracy are similar; (b) within-system variability is generally small, even in low-powered machines under high load; (c) the variability of measured response times across systems is somewhat larger; and (d) browser type and system hardware appear to have relatively small effects on measured response times. Modeling of the effects of this technical variability suggests that for most within- and between-subjects experiments, Flash and JavaScript can both be used to accurately detect differences in response times across conditions. Concerns are, however, noted about using some correlational or longitudinal designs online.

  6. Influence of geological features (geochemistry and mineralogy) of soil wich constitutes adobes in their durability - Huambo, Angola.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Isabel; Pedro, Elsa; Varum, Humberto; Mirão, José; Pinho, António

    2014-05-01

    After long years of war, great efforts have been made for the socio-economic development of Angola, mainly in the construction industry. Among the construction techniques, the Adobe is the most used in the province of Huambo, especially by low-income families, which constitute the majority. This technique was established as a historical heritage in the culture of that population. The Huambo province is located in the central region of Angola (Central Plateau) and is bounded on the northeast and east by the province of Bié, on the south and southern by province of Huila, and on the west by the province of Benguela and on the northwest by the province of Kwanza Sul. Has an area of 35,771 km2 and approximately 2,301,524 inhabitants, which corresponds to 58 inhabitants per km2 (Government of the Province of Huambo, 2006). The buildings in this province, particularly in rural areas, were deeply marked by war. Given the current scenario of development of the country and considering the possibility of integrate systems and traditional building materials, that respect the environment and fit harmoniously into its natural habitat, one of the alternative options in the actual construction, undergoes resume old solutions and traditional materials such as adobe construction.It is in this context that this project is part of a scientific research in order to permit the improvement and optimization of these traditional solutions, responding to current demands for social, economic and environmental sustainability. The adobe is a building element with potential degradation by water. Due to the climate, subtropical, hot and humid, and geomorphology of the province, about 1000 to 2000 meters of altitude and an extensive river system, these buildings can be vulnerable and present early degradation, exacerbated by lack of knowledge of the properties of geomaterials used and techniques that allow their stabilization and conservation. This paper aims to study the influence of

  7. A new subgrid-scale representation of hydrometeor fields using a multivariate PDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Brian M.; Larson, Vincent E.

    2016-06-01

    The subgrid-scale representation of hydrometeor fields is important for calculating microphysical process rates. In order to represent subgrid-scale variability, the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) parameterization uses a multivariate probability density function (PDF). In addition to vertical velocity, temperature, and moisture fields, the PDF includes hydrometeor fields. Previously, hydrometeor fields were assumed to follow a multivariate single lognormal distribution. Now, in order to better represent the distribution of hydrometeors, two new multivariate PDFs are formulated and introduced.The new PDFs represent hydrometeors using either a delta-lognormal or a delta-double-lognormal shape. The two new PDF distributions, plus the previous single lognormal shape, are compared to histograms of data taken from large-eddy simulations (LESs) of a precipitating cumulus case, a drizzling stratocumulus case, and a deep convective case. Finally, the warm microphysical process rates produced by the different hydrometeor PDFs are compared to the same process rates produced by the LES.

  8. EUPDF: An Eulerian-Based Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) Solver. User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    EUPDF is an Eulerian-based Monte Carlo PDF solver developed for application with sprays, combustion, parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and spray solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type. The manual provides the user with the coding required to couple the PDF code to any given flow code and a basic understanding of the EUPDF code structure as well as the models involved in the PDF formulation. The source code of EUPDF will be available with the release of the National Combustion Code (NCC) as a complete package.

  9. A Monte Carlo method for the PDF (Probability Density Functions) equations of turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, S. B.

    1980-02-01

    The transport equations of joint probability density functions (pdfs) in turbulent flows are simulated using a Monte Carlo method because finite difference solutions of the equations are impracticable, mainly due to the large dimensionality of the pdfs. Attention is focused on equation for the joint pdf of chemical and thermodynamic properties in turbulent reactive flows. It is shown that the Monte Carlo method provides a true simulation of this equation and that the amount of computation required increases only linearly with the number of properties considered. Consequently, the method can be used to solve the pdf equation for turbulent flows involving many chemical species and complex reaction kinetics. Monte Carlo calculations of the pdf of temperature in a turbulent mixing layer are reported. These calculations are in good agreement with the measurements of Batt (1977).

  10. New Tools to Convert PDF Math Contents into Accessible e-Books Efficiently.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masakazu; Terada, Yugo; Kanahori, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Katsuhito

    2015-01-01

    New features in our math-OCR software to convert PDF math contents into accessible e-books are shown. A method for recognizing PDF is thoroughly improved. In addition, contents in any selected area including math formulas in a PDF file can be cut and pasted into a document in various accessible formats, which is automatically recognized and converted into texts and accessible math formulas through this process. Combining it with our authoring tool for a technical document, one can easily produce accessible e-books in various formats such as DAISY, accessible EPUB3, DAISY-like HTML5, Microsoft Word with math objects and so on. Those contents are useful for various print-disabled students ranging from the blind to the dyslexic.

  11. Image haze removal algorithm for transmission lines based on weighted Gaussian PDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wanguo; Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Li; Wang, Zhenli; Li, Jianxiang; Zhao, Jinlong

    2015-03-01

    Histogram specification is a useful algorithm of image enhancement field. This paper proposes an image haze removal algorithm of histogram specification based on the weighted Gaussian probability density function (Gaussian PDF). Firstly, we consider the characteristics of image histogram that captured when sunny, fogging and haze weather. Then, we solve the weak intensity of image specification through changing the variance and weighted Gaussian PDF. The performance of the algorithm could removal the effective of fog and experimental results show the superiority of the proposed algorithm compared with histogram specification. It also has much advantage in respect of low computational complexity, high efficiency, no manual intervention.

  12. The PDF4LHC report on PDFs and LHC data: Results from Run I and preparation for Run II

    DOE PAGES

    Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Ball, Richard D.; ...

    2015-09-16

    The accurate determination of Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the proton is an essential ingredient of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. PDF uncertainties impact a wide range of processes, from Higgs boson characterization and precision Standard Model measurements to New Physics searches. A major recent development in modern PDF analyses has been to exploit the wealth of new information contained in precision measurements from the LHC Run I, as well as progress in tools and methods to include these data in PDF fits. In this report we summarize the information that PDF-sensitive measurements at the LHC have provided somore » far, and review the prospects for further constraining PDFs with data from the recently started Run II. As a result, this document aims to provide useful input to the LHC collaborations to prioritize their PDF-sensitive measurements at Run II, as well as a comprehensive reference for the PDF-fitting collaborations.« less

  13. The PDF4LHC report on PDFs and LHC data: Results from Run I and preparation for Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Ball, Richard D.; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; de Roeck, Albert; Farry, Stephen; Ferrando, James; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Harland-Lang, Lucian; Huston, Joey; Glazov, Alexander; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Gwenlan, Claire; Lipka, Katerina; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Mangano, Michelangelo; Nadolsky, Pavel; Perrozzi, Luca; Plačakytė, Ringaile; Radescu, Voica; Salam, Gavin P.; Thorne, Robert

    2015-09-16

    The accurate determination of Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the proton is an essential ingredient of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. PDF uncertainties impact a wide range of processes, from Higgs boson characterization and precision Standard Model measurements to New Physics searches. A major recent development in modern PDF analyses has been to exploit the wealth of new information contained in precision measurements from the LHC Run I, as well as progress in tools and methods to include these data in PDF fits. In this report we summarize the information that PDF-sensitive measurements at the LHC have provided so far, and review the prospects for further constraining PDFs with data from the recently started Run II. As a result, this document aims to provide useful input to the LHC collaborations to prioritize their PDF-sensitive measurements at Run II, as well as a comprehensive reference for the PDF-fitting collaborations.

  14. The PDF4LHC report on PDFs and LHC data: results from Run I and preparation for Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Ball, Richard D.; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; de Roeck, Albert; Farry, Stephen; Ferrando, James; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Harland-Lang, Lucian; Huston, Joey; Glazov, Alexander; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Gwenlan, Claire; Lipka, Katerina; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Mangano, Michelangelo; Nadolsky, Pavel; Perrozzi, Luca; Plačakytė, Ringaile; Radescu, Voica; Salam, Gavin P.; Thorne, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The accurate determination of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton is an essential ingredient of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. PDF uncertainties impact a wide range of processes, from Higgs boson characterization and precision Standard Model measurements to new physics searches. A major recent development in modern PDF analyses has been to exploit the wealth of new information contained in precision measurements from the LHC Run I, as well as progress in tools and methods to include these data in PDF fits. In this report we summarize the information that PDF-sensitive measurements at the LHC have provided so far, and review the prospects for further constraining PDFs with data from the recently started Run II. This document aims to provide useful input to the LHC collaborations to prioritize their PDF-sensitive measurements at Run II, as well as a comprehensive reference for the PDF-fitting collaborations.

  15. A circadian neuropeptide PDF in the honeybee, Apis mellifera: cDNA cloning and expression of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Miho; Sato, Seiji; Takeda, Yukimasa; Sumida, Kazunori; Koga, Keita; Itoh, Tsunao; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Shimohigashi, Miki

    2011-12-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a pacemaker hormone regulating the locomotor rhythm in insects. In the present study, we cloned the cDNAs encoding the Apis PDF precursor protein, and found that there are at least seven different pdf mRNAs yielded by an alternative splicing site and five alternative polyadenylation sites in the 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions. The amino acid sequence of Apis PDF peptide has a characteristic novel amino acid residue, aspargine (Asn), at position 17. Quantitative real-time PCR of total and 5'UTR insertion-type pdf mRNAs revealed, for the first time, that the expression levels change in a circadian manner with a distinct trough at the beginning of night in LD conditions, and at the subjective night under DD conditions. In contrast, the expression level of 5'UTR deletion-type pdf mRNAs was about half of that of the insertion type, and the expression profile failed to show a circadian rhythm. As the expression profile of the total pdf mRNA exhibited a circadian rhythm, transcription regulated at the promoter region was supposed to be controlled by some of the clock components. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that 14 lateral neurons at the frontal margin of the optic lobe express these mRNA isoforms. PDF expressing cells examined with a newly produced antibody raised against Apis PDF were also found to have a dense supply of axon terminals in the optic lobes and the central brain.

  16. Approaching the Cramér–Rao Bound in Weak Lensing with PDF Symmetrization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Pengjie; Luo, Wentao

    2017-01-01

    Weak lensing statistics is typically measured as the weighted sum of shear estimators or their products (shear–shear correlation). The weighting schemes are designed with a view to minimizing the statistical error without introducing systematic errors. It would be ideal to approach the Cramér–Rao bound (the lower bound of the statistical uncertainty) in shear statistics, though it is generally difficult to do so in practice. The reasons may include difficulties in galaxy shape measurement, inaccurate knowledge of the probability distribution function (PDF) of the shear estimator, misidentification of point sources as galaxies, etc. Using the shear estimators defined by Zhang et al., we show that one can overcome these problems, and allow shear measurement accuracy to approach the Cramér–Rao bound. This can be achieved by symmetrizing the PDF of the shear estimator, or the joint PDF of shear estimator pairs (for shear–shear correlation), without any prior knowledge of the PDF. Using simulated galaxy images, we demonstrate that under general observing conditions, this idea works as expected: it minimizes the statistical uncertainty without introducing systematic error.

  17. ChemEngine: harvesting 3D chemical structures of supplementary data from PDF files.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Digital access to chemical journals resulted in a vast array of molecular information that is now available in the supplementary material files in PDF format. However, extracting this molecular information, generally from a PDF document format is a daunting task. Here we present an approach to harvest 3D molecular data from the supporting information of scientific research articles that are normally available from publisher's resources. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of extracting truly computable molecules from PDF file formats in a fast and efficient manner, we have developed a Java based application, namely ChemEngine. This program recognizes textual patterns from the supplementary data and generates standard molecular structure data (bond matrix, atomic coordinates) that can be subjected to a multitude of computational processes automatically. The methodology has been demonstrated via several case studies on different formats of coordinates data stored in supplementary information files, wherein ChemEngine selectively harvested the atomic coordinates and interpreted them as molecules with high accuracy. The reusability of extracted molecular coordinate data was demonstrated by computing Single Point Energies that were in close agreement with the original computed data provided with the articles. It is envisaged that the methodology will enable large scale conversion of molecular information from supplementary files available in the PDF format into a collection of ready- to- compute molecular data to create an automated workflow for advanced computational processes. Software along with source codes and instructions available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/chemengine/files/?source=navbar.Graphical abstract.

  18. Joint PDF Modelling of Turbulent Flow and Dispersion in an Urban Street Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakosi, J.; Franzese, P.; Boybeyi, Z.

    2009-05-01

    The joint probability density function (PDF) of turbulent velocity and concentration of a passive scalar in an urban street canyon is computed using a newly developed particle-in-cell Monte Carlo method. Compared to moment closures, the PDF methodology provides the full one-point one-time PDF of the underlying fields containing all higher moments and correlations. The small-scale mixing of the scalar released from a concentrated source at the street level is modelled by the interaction by exchange with the conditional mean (IECM) model, with a micro-mixing time scale designed for geometrically complex settings. The boundary layer along no-slip walls (building sides and tops) is fully resolved using an elliptic relaxation technique, which captures the high anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the Reynolds stress tensor in these regions. A less computationally intensive technique based on wall functions to represent the boundary layers and its effect on the solution are also explored. The calculated statistics are compared to experimental data and large-eddy simulation. The present work can be considered as the first example of computation of the full joint PDF of velocity and a transported passive scalar in an urban setting. The methodology proves successful in providing high level statistical information on the turbulence and pollutant concentration fields in complex urban scenarios.

  19. Comparison of PDF and Moment Closure Methods in the Modeling of Turbulent Reacting Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Andrew T.; Hsu, Andrew T.

    1994-01-01

    In modeling turbulent reactive flows, Probability Density Function (PDF) methods have an advantage over the more traditional moment closure schemes in that the PDF formulation treats the chemical reaction source terms exactly, while moment closure methods are required to model the mean reaction rate. The common model used is the laminar chemistry approximation, where the effects of turbulence on the reaction are assumed negligible. For flows with low turbulence levels and fast chemistry, the difference between the two methods can be expected to be small. However for flows with finite rate chemistry and high turbulence levels, significant errors can be expected in the moment closure method. In this paper, the ability of the PDF method and the moment closure scheme to accurately model a turbulent reacting flow is tested. To accomplish this, both schemes were used to model a CO/H2/N2- air piloted diffusion flame near extinction. Identical thermochemistry, turbulence models, initial conditions and boundary conditions are employed to ensure a consistent comparison can be made. The results of the two methods are compared to experimental data as well as to each other. The comparison reveals that the PDF method provides good agreement with the experimental data, while the moment closure scheme incorrectly shows a broad, laminar-like flame structure.

  20. 17 CFR 232.104 - Unofficial PDF copies included in an electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... electronic submission. An unofficial PDF copy may contain graphic and image material (but not animated... in an electronic submission. 232.104 Section 232.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION REGULATION S-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS...

  1. PDF neuron firing phase-shifts key circadian activity neurons in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Cerullo, Isadora; Chen, Xiao; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-06-17

    Our experiments address two long-standing models for the function of the Drosophila brain circadian network: a dual oscillator model, which emphasizes the primacy of PDF-containing neurons, and a cell-autonomous model for circadian phase adjustment. We identify five different circadian (E) neurons that are a major source of rhythmicity and locomotor activity. Brief firing of PDF cells at different times of day generates a phase response curve (PRC), which mimics a light-mediated PRC and requires PDF receptor expression in the five E neurons. Firing also resembles light by causing TIM degradation in downstream neurons. Unlike light however, firing-mediated phase-shifting is CRY-independent and exploits the E3 ligase component CUL-3 in the early night to degrade TIM. Our results suggest that PDF neurons integrate light information and then modulate the phase of E cell oscillations and behavioral rhythms. The results also explain how fly brain rhythms persist in constant darkness and without CRY.

  2. The orbital PDF: general inference of the gravitational potential from steady-state tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jiaxin; Wang, Wenting; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2016-02-01

    We develop two general methods to infer the gravitational potential of a system using steady-state tracers, i.e. tracers with a time-independent phase-space distribution. Combined with the phase-space continuity equation, the time independence implies a universal orbital probability density function (oPDF) dP(λ|orbit) ∝ dt, where λ is the coordinate of the particle along the orbit. The oPDF is equivalent to Jeans theorem, and is the key physical ingredient behind most dynamical modelling of steady-state tracers. In the case of a spherical potential, we develop a likelihood estimator that fits analytical potentials to the system and a non-parametric method (`phase-mark') that reconstructs the potential profile, both assuming only the oPDF. The methods involve no extra assumptions about the tracer distribution function and can be applied to tracers with any arbitrary distribution of orbits, with possible extension to non-spherical potentials. The methods are tested on Monte Carlo samples of steady-state tracers in dark matter haloes to show that they are unbiased as well as efficient. A fully documented C/PYTHON code implementing our method is freely available at a GitHub repository linked from http://icc.dur.ac.uk/data/#oPDF.

  3. Development of PDF-immunoreactive cells, possible clock neurons, in the housefly Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Pyza, Elzbieta; Siuta, Tomasz; Tanimura, Teiichi

    2003-10-01

    Even though the housefly Musca domestica shows clear circadian rhythms in its behavioural and physiological processes, a circadian pacemaker system controlling these rhythms has not yet been described morphologically in this species. In M. domestica, neurons immunoreactive to pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator of circadian information arising from a circadian clock and transmitted to target cells, are similar in their number and distribution to the PDF neurons of Drosophila melanogaster. In D. melanogaster these neurons co-localize PER protein and have been identified as clock neurons in that species. Here we report PDF-immunoreactive cells in the housefly's brain during postembryonic development in the larval and pupal stages, as well as in the adult fly soon after eclosion. In the housefly's brain, there are three groups of PDF-immunoreactive neurons: two groups with small (sPDFMe) and large (lPDFMe) cell bodies in the proximal medulla of the optic lobe; and one group in the dorsal protocerebrum (PDFD). Three out of four sPDFMe can be detected during the first hour of larval development, but the fourth sPDFMe is observed in the larva only from 48 hours after hatching, along with five lPDFMe neurons, seen first as two subgroups, and three out of four PDFD neurons. During postembryonic development these neurons show changes in their structure and immunoreactivity. New PDF neurons are observed during pupal development but these neurons mostly do not survive into adulthood. In the adult fly's brain, the PDF neurons have also been examined in double-labelled preparations made with a second antibody directed against the product of one of several clock genes: period (per), timeless (tim), or cryptochrome (cry). Among them, only immunoreactivity to CRY-like protein has been detected in the brain of M. domestica and has shown a daily rhythm in its concentration, as examined immunocytochemically. CRY was co-localized with PDF in the s

  4. Constructing multiscale gravitational energy spectra from molecular cloud surface density PDF - interplay between turbulence and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guang-Xing; Burkert, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Gravity is believed to be important on multiple physical scales in molecular clouds. However, quantitative constraints on gravity are still lacking. We derive an analytical formula which provides estimates on multiscale gravitational energy distribution using the observed surface density probability distribution function (PDF). Our analytical formalism also enables one to convert the observed column density PDF into an estimated volume density PDF, and to obtain average radial density profile ρ(r). For a region with N_col ˜ N^{-γ _N}, the gravitational energy spectra is E_p(k)˜ k^{-4(1 - 1/γ _N)}. We apply the formula to observations of molecular clouds, and find that a scaling index of -2 of the surface density PDF implies that ρ ˜ r-2 and Ep(k) ˜ k-2. The results are valid from the cloud scale (a few parsec) to around ˜ 0.1 pc. Because of the resemblance the scaling index of the gravitational energy spectrum and the that of the kinetic energy power spectrum of the Burgers turbulence (where E ˜ k-2), our result indicates that gravity can act effectively against turbulence over a multitude of physical scales. This is the critical scaling index which divides molecular clouds into two categories: clouds like Orion and Ophiuchus have shallower power laws, and the amount of gravitational energy is too large for turbulence to be effective inside the cloud. Because gravity dominates, we call this type of cloud g-type clouds. On the other hand, clouds like the California molecular cloud and the Pipe nebula have steeper power laws, and turbulence can overcome gravity if it can cascade effectively from the large scale. We call this type of cloud t-type clouds. The analytical formula can be used to determine if gravity is dominating cloud evolution when the column density PDF can be reliably determined.

  5. Hybrid finite-volume/transported PDF method for the simulation of turbulent reactive flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Venkatramanan

    A novel computational scheme is formulated for simulating turbulent reactive flows in complex geometries with detailed chemical kinetics. A Probability Density Function (PDF) based method that handles the scalar transport equation is coupled with an existing Finite Volume (FV) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver. The PDF formulation leads to closed chemical source terms and facilitates the use of detailed chemical mechanisms without approximations. The particle-based PDF scheme is modified to handle complex geometries and grid structures. Grid-independent particle evolution schemes that scale linearly with the problem size are implemented in the Monte-Carlo PDF solver. A novel algorithm, in situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) is employed to ensure tractability of complex chemistry involving a multitude of species. Several non-reacting test cases are performed to ascertain the efficiency and accuracy of the method. Simulation results from a turbulent jet-diffusion flame case are compared against experimental data. The effect of micromixing model, turbulence model and reaction scheme on flame predictions are discussed extensively. Finally, the method is used to analyze the Dow Chlorination Reactor. Detailed kinetics involving 37 species and 158 reactions as well as a reduced form with 16 species and 21 reactions are used. The effect of inlet configuration on reactor behavior and product distribution is analyzed. Plant-scale reactors exhibit quenching phenomena that cannot be reproduced by conventional simulation methods. The FV-PDF method predicts quenching accurately and provides insight into the dynamics of the reactor near extinction. The accuracy of the fractional time-stepping technique in discussed in the context of apparent multiple-steady states observed in a non-premixed feed configuration of the chlorination reactor.

  6. Magnetismo 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardús, J. O.; Curto, J. J.; Sanclement, E.; Torta, J. M.

    This CD-ROM presents the digital version of the Boletin del Observatorio del Ebro Magnetismo. It contains data obtained in the Magnetic Station of the Ebre Observatory during the year 2000. The structure of the CD-ROM consists of one directory numbered with the year of the measurement. There, it could be found the bulletin as printable sheets (Year.pdf) generate with Adobe Acrobat and data files in plain ASCII text (Year.wdc) readable with any text editor. These data files were compiled according to the data exchange format recommended by the IAGA-2002.

  7. Magnetismo 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardús, J. O.; Curto, J. J.; Sanclement, E.; Torta, J. M.

    This CD-ROM presents the digital version of the Boletin del Observatorio del Ebro Magnetismo. It contains data obtained in the Magnetic Station of the Ebre Observatory during the year 2002. The structure of the CD-ROM consists of one directory numbered with the year of the measurement. There, it could be found the bulletin as printable sheets (Year.pdf) generate with Adobe Acrobat and data files in plain ASCII text (Year.wdc) readable with any text editor. These data files were compiled according to the data exchange format recommended by the IAGA-2002.

  8. Magnetismo 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardús, J. O.; Curto, J. J.; Sanclement, E.; Torta, J. M.

    This CD-ROM presents the digital version of the Boletin del Observatorio del Ebro Magnetismo. It contains data obtained in the Magnetic Station of the Ebre Observatory during the year 2001. The structure of the CD-ROM consists of one directory numbered with the year of the measurement. There, it could be found the bulletin as printable sheets (Year.pdf) generate with Adobe Acrobat and data files in plain ASCII text (Year.wdc) readable with any text editor. These data files were compiled according to the data exchange format recommended by the IAGA-2002.

  9. Magnetismo 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardús, J. O.; Curto, J. J.; Sanclement, E.; Torta, J. M.

    This CD-ROM presents the digital version of the Boletin del Observatorio del Ebro Magnetismo. It contains data obtained in the Magnetic Station of the Ebre Observatory during the year 2003. The structure of the CD-ROM consists of one directory numbered with the year of the measurement. There, it could be found the bulletin as printable sheets (Year.pdf) generate with Adobe Acrobat and data files in plain ASCII text (Year.wdc) readable with any text editor. These data files were compiled according to the data exchange format recommended by the IAGA-2002.

  10. Energy map of southwestern Wyoming - Energy data archived, organized, integrated, and accessible

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Jones, Nicholas R.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2013-01-01

    The Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) focuses on conserving world-class wildlife resources while facilitating responsible energy development in southwestern Wyoming. To further advance the objectives of the WLCI long-term, science-based effort, a comprehensive inventory of energy resource and production data is being published in two parts. Energy maps, data, documentation and spatial data processing capabilities are available in geodatabase, published map file (pmf), ArcMap document (mxd), Adobe Acrobat PDF map, and other digital formats that can be downloaded at the USGS website.

  11. 77 FR 71831 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--3D PDF... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. Sec. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), 3D Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the...

  12. 77 FR 56861 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3d PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--3d PDF... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), 3D Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the...

  13. Economic assessment and pathogenic bacteria inhibition of bovine hide presoaking solutions formulated with enzymes that can remove adobe-type manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presoaking formulations that have recently been developed are effective in removing the damaging adobe type bovine manure and eco-friendly because the ingredients used are recycled and required only a quarter of the amount of biocide and surfactant that the industry is commonly using. The goal ...

  14. Adobe photoshop quantification (PSQ) rather than point-counting: A rapid and precise method for quantifying rock textural data and porosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Bo; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Zhe; Shi, Kaibo; Wu, Shuanglin

    2014-08-01

    Commonly used petrological quantification methods are visual estimation, counting, and image analyses. However, in this article, an Adobe Photoshop-based analyzing method (PSQ) is recommended for quantifying the rock textural data and porosities. Adobe Photoshop system provides versatile abilities in selecting an area of interest and the pixel number of a selection could be read and used to calculate its area percentage. Therefore, Adobe Photoshop could be used to rapidly quantify textural components, such as content of grains, cements, and porosities including total porosities and different genetic type porosities. This method was named as Adobe Photoshop Quantification (PSQ). The workflow of the PSQ method was introduced with the oolitic dolomite samples from the Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China, for example. And the method was tested by comparing with the Folk's and Shvetsov's "standard" diagrams. In both cases, there is a close agreement between the "standard" percentages and those determined by the PSQ method with really small counting errors and operator errors, small standard deviations and high confidence levels. The porosities quantified by PSQ were evaluated against those determined by the whole rock helium gas expansion method to test the specimen errors. Results have shown that the porosities quantified by the PSQ are well correlated to the porosities determined by the conventional helium gas expansion method. Generally small discrepancies (mostly ranging from -3% to 3%) are caused by microporosities which would cause systematic underestimation of 2% and/or by macroporosities causing underestimation or overestimation in different cases. Adobe Photoshop could be used to quantify rock textural components and porosities. This method has been tested to be precise and accurate. It is time saving compared with usual methods.

  15. Charm and beauty quark masses in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis.

    PubMed

    Harland-Lang, L A; Martin, A D; Motylinski, P; Thorne, R S

    We investigate the variation in the MMHT2014 PDFs when we allow the heavy-quark masses [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] to vary away from their default values. We make PDF sets available in steps of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and present the variation in the PDFs and in the predictions. We examine the comparison to the HERA data on charm and beauty structure functions and note that in each case the heavy-quark data, and the inclusive data, have a slight preference for lower masses than our default values. We provide PDF sets with three and four active quark flavours, as well as the standard value of five flavours. We use the pole mass definition of the quark masses, as in the default MMHT2014 analysis, but briefly comment on the [Formula: see text] definition.

  16. RANS/PDF and LES/FDF for prediction of turbulent premixed flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Server Levent

    Probability density function (PDF) and filtered density function (FDF) methodologies are developed and implemented, respectively, for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent premixed flames. RANS predictions are made of a lean premixed bluff-body flame via the joint velocity-scalar-frequency PDF model. LES of a premixed Bunsen-burner flame is conducted via the scalar FDF methodology. Both simulations employ finite rate kinetics via a reduced methane chemistry mechanism to account for combustion. Prediction results are compared with experimental data, and are shown to capture some of the intricate physics of turbulent premixed combustion. Keywords. large eddy simulation, filtered density function, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes, probability density function, turbulent reacting flows, lean premixed combustion.

  17. Charm and beauty quark masses in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Martin, A. D.; Motylinski, P.; Thorne, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the variation in the MMHT2014 PDFs when we allow the heavy-quark masses m_c and m_b to vary away from their default values. We make PDF sets available in steps of Δ m_c =0.05 GeV and Δ m_b =0.25 GeV, and present the variation in the PDFs and in the predictions. We examine the comparison to the HERA data on charm and beauty structure functions and note that in each case the heavy-quark data, and the inclusive data, have a slight preference for lower masses than our default values. We provide PDF sets with three and four active quark flavours, as well as the standard value of five flavours. We use the pole mass definition of the quark masses, as in the default MMHT2014 analysis, but briefly comment on the overline{MS} definition.

  18. SUePDF: a program to obtain quantitative pair distribution functions from electron diffraction data

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Dung Trung; Svensson, Gunnar; Tai, Cheuk-Wai

    2017-01-01

    SUePDF is a graphical user interface program written in MATLAB to achieve quantitative pair distribution functions (PDFs) from electron diffraction data. The program facilitates structural studies of amorphous materials and small nanoparticles using electron diffraction data from transmission electron microscopes. It is based on the physics of electron scattering as well as the total scattering methodology. A method of background modeling is introduced to treat the intensity tail of the direct beam, inelastic scattering and incoherent multiple scattering. Kinematical electron scattering intensity is scaled using the electron scattering factors. The PDFs obtained after Fourier transforms are normalized with respect to number density, nanoparticle form factor and the non-negativity of probability density. SUePDF is distributed as free software for academic users. PMID:28190994

  19. EUPDF-II: An Eulerian Joint Scalar Monte Carlo PDF Module : User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Liu, Nan-Suey (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    EUPDF-II provides the solution for the species and temperature fields based on an evolution equation for PDF (Probability Density Function) and it is developed mainly for application with sprays, combustion, parallel computing, and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase CFD and spray solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type. The manual provides the user with an understanding of the various models involved in the PDF formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. The source code of EUPDF-II will be available with National Combustion Code (NCC) as a complete package.

  20. An Investigation of a Hybrid Mixing Model for PDF Simulations of Turbulent Premixed Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Li, Shan; Wang, Hu; Ren, Zhuyin

    2015-11-01

    Predictive simulations of turbulent premixed flames over a wide range of Damköhler numbers in the framework of Probability Density Function (PDF) method still remain challenging due to the deficiency in current micro-mixing models. In this work, a hybrid micro-mixing model, valid in both the flamelet regime and broken reaction zone regime, is proposed. A priori testing of this model is first performed by examining the conditional scalar dissipation rate and conditional scalar diffusion in a 3-D direct numerical simulation dataset of a temporally evolving turbulent slot jet flame of lean premixed H2-air in the thin reaction zone regime. Then, this new model is applied to PDF simulations of the Piloted Premixed Jet Burner (PPJB) flames, which are a set of highly shear turbulent premixed flames and feature strong turbulence-chemistry interaction at high Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers. Supported by NSFC 51476087 and NSFC 91441202.

  1. Using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones for psychological research: Reaction time measurement reliability and interdevice variability.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2008-11-01

    Mobile telephones have significant potential for use in psychological research, possessing unique characteristics-not least their ubiquity--that may make them useful tools for psychologists. We examined whether it is possible to measure reaction times (RTs) accurately using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones. We ran simple and choice RT experiments on two widely available mobile phones, a Nokia 6110 Navigator and a Sony Ericsson W810i, using a wireless application protocol (WAP) connection to access the Internet from the devices. RTs were compared within subjects with those obtained using a Linux-based millisecond-accurate measurement system. Results show that measured RTs were significantly longer on mobile devices, and that overall RTs and distribution of RTs varied across devices.

  2. A new subgrid-scale representation of hydrometeor fields using a multivariate PDF

    DOE PAGES

    Griffin, Brian M.; Larson, Vincent E.

    2016-06-03

    The subgrid-scale representation of hydrometeor fields is important for calculating microphysical process rates. In order to represent subgrid-scale variability, the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) parameterization uses a multivariate probability density function (PDF). In addition to vertical velocity, temperature, and moisture fields, the PDF includes hydrometeor fields. Previously, hydrometeor fields were assumed to follow a multivariate single lognormal distribution. Now, in order to better represent the distribution of hydrometeors, two new multivariate PDFs are formulated and introduced.The new PDFs represent hydrometeors using either a delta-lognormal or a delta-double-lognormal shape. The two new PDF distributions, plus the previous single lognormalmore » shape, are compared to histograms of data taken from large-eddy simulations (LESs) of a precipitating cumulus case, a drizzling stratocumulus case, and a deep convective case. Finally, the warm microphysical process rates produced by the different hydrometeor PDFs are compared to the same process rates produced by the LES.« less

  3. Continuous thermodynamics for droplet vaporization: Comparison between Gamma-PDF model and QMoM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Claire; Lavergne, Gérard; Villedieu, Philippe

    2009-06-01

    The Continuous Thermodynamics Model (CTM) (Cotterman et al., 1985) is a suitable method to reduce computational cost of multi-component vaporization models. The droplet composition is described by a probability density function (PDF) rather than tens of components in the classical Discrete Component Model (DCM). In the first CTM method developed for this application, the PDF was assumed to be a Γ-function (Hallett, 2000), but some problems had appeared in the case of vapor condensation at the droplet surface (Harstadt et al., 2003). The method put forward in this article, the Quadrature Method of Moments (QMoM), enables one to avoid any assumption on the PDF mathematical form. Following Lage who has developed this method for phase equilibria (Lage, 2007), this article widens the scope of QMoM to the modelling of multi-component droplet vaporization. The different CTM approaches are presented in the first part and the results obtained for a vapor condensation test case are then compared and analysed to illustrate improvements made by QMoM. To cite this article: C. Laurent et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  4. New Closed-Form of the Largest Eigenvalue PDF for Max-SNR MIMO System Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letessier, Jonathan; Vrigneau, Baptiste; Rostaing, Philippe; Burel, Gilles

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) maximum-SNR (max-SNR) system employs the maximum ratio combiner (MRC) at the receiver side and the maximum ratio transmitter (MRT) at the transmitter side. Its performances highly depend on MIMO channel characteristics, which vary according to both the number of antennas and their distribution between the transmitter and receiver sides. By using the decomposition of the ordered Wishart distribution in the uncorrelated Rayleigh case, we derived a closed-form expression of the largest eigenvalue probability density function (PDF). The final result yields to an expression form of the PDF where polynomials are multiplied by exponentials; it is worth underlining that, though this form had been previously observed for given couples of antennas, to date no formally-written closed-form was available in the literature for an arbitrary couple. Then, this new expression permits one to quickly and easily get the well known largest eigenvalue PDF and use it to determine the binary error probability (BEP) of the max-SNR.

  5. Transported PDF Modeling of Nonpremixed Turbulent CO/H-2/N-2 Jet Flames

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, xinyu; Haworth, D. C.; Huckaby, E. David

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (“syngas”) flames are simulated using a transported composition probability density function (PDF) method. A consistent hybrid Lagrangian particle/Eulerian mesh algorithm is used to solve the modeled PDF transport equation. The model includes standard k–ϵ turbulence, gradient transport for scalars, and Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) mixing. Sensitivities of model results to variations in the turbulence model, the treatment of radiation heat transfer, the choice of chemical mechanism, and the PDF mixing model are explored. A baseline model reproduces the measured mean and rms temperature, major species, and minor species profiles reasonably well, and captures the scaling that is observed in the experiments. Both our results and the literature suggest that further improvements can be realized with adjustments in the turbulence model, the radiation heat transfer model, and the chemical mechanism. Although radiation effects are relatively small in these flames, consideration of radiation is important for accurate NO prediction. Chemical mechanisms that have been developed specifically for fuels with high concentrations of CO and H{sub 2} perform better than a methane mechanism that was not designed for this purpose. It is important to account explicitly for turbulence–chemistry interactions, although the details of the mixing model do not make a large difference in the results, within reasonable limits.

  6. Composition PDF/photon Monte Carlo modeling of moderately sooting turbulent jet flames

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.S.; Haworth, D.C.; Modest, M.F.

    2010-05-15

    A comprehensive model for luminous turbulent flames is presented. The model features detailed chemistry, radiation and soot models and state-of-the-art closures for turbulence-chemistry interactions and turbulence-radiation interactions. A transported probability density function (PDF) method is used to capture the effects of turbulent fluctuations in composition and temperature. The PDF method is extended to include soot formation. Spectral gas and soot radiation is modeled using a (particle-based) photon Monte Carlo method coupled with the PDF method, thereby capturing both emission and absorption turbulence-radiation interactions. An important element of this work is that the gas-phase chemistry and soot models that have been thoroughly validated across a wide range of laminar flames are used in turbulent flame simulations without modification. Six turbulent jet flames are simulated with Reynolds numbers varying from 6700 to 15,000, two fuel types (pure ethylene, 90% methane-10% ethylene blend) and different oxygen concentrations in the oxidizer stream (from 21% O{sub 2} to 55% O{sub 2}). All simulations are carried out with a single set of physical and numerical parameters (model constants). Uniformly good agreement between measured and computed mean temperatures, mean soot volume fractions and (where available) radiative fluxes is found across all flames. This demonstrates that with the combination of a systematic approach and state-of-the-art physical models and numerical algorithms, it is possible to simulate a broad range of luminous turbulent flames with a single model. (author)

  7. Multiresolution MAP despeckling of SAR images based on locally adaptive generalized Gaussian pdf modeling.

    PubMed

    Argenti, Fabrizio; Bianchi, Tiziano; Alparone, Luciano

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, a new despeckling method based on undecimated wavelet decomposition and maximum a posteriori MIAP) estimation is proposed. Such a method relies on the assumption that the probability density function (pdf) of each wavelet coefficient is generalized Gaussian (GG). The major novelty of the proposed approach is that the parameters of the GG pdf are taken to be space-varying within each wavelet frame. Thus, they may be adjusted to spatial image context, not only to scale and orientation. Since the MAP equation to be solved is a function of the parameters of the assumed pdf model, the variance and shape factor of the GG function are derived from the theoretical moments, which depend on the moments and joint moments of the observed noisy signal and on the statistics of speckle. The solution of the MAP equation yields the MAP estimate of the wavelet coefficients of the noise-free image. The restored SAR image is synthesized from such coefficients. Experimental results, carried out on both synthetic speckled images and true SAR images, demonstrate that MAP filtering can be successfully applied to SAR images represented in the shift-invariant wavelet domain, without resorting to a logarithmic transformation.

  8. An evaluation of Bayesian estimators and PDF models for despeckling in the undecimated wavelet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alparone, Luciano; Argenti, Fabrizio; Bianchi, Tiziano; Lapini, Alessandro

    2010-10-01

    Goal of this paper is an evaluation of Bayesian estimators: Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE), Minimum Mean Absolute Error (MMAE) and Maximum A-posteriori Probability (MAP). Such estimations have been carried out in the undecimated wavelet domain. Bayesian estimation requires probability density function (PDF) models for the wavelet coefficients of the reflectivity and of the signal-dependent noise. In this work several combination of PDFs will be assessed. Closed-form solutions for MMSE, MMAE and MAP have been derived, whenever possible; numerical solutions otherwise. Experimental results carried out on simulated noisy images evidence the cost-performance trade off of the different estimators in conjunction with PDF models. MAP estimation with generalized Gaussian (GG) PDF for wavelet coefficients of both reflectivity and signal-dependent noise (GG - GG) yields best performances. MAP with Laplacian - Gaussian (L - G) is only 0.07 dB less performing than MAP with GG - GG. However, the former admits a closed-form solution and its computational cost is more than ten times lower than that of the latter. Results on true single look high-resolution Cosmo-SkyMed SAR images provided by Italian Space Agency (ASI), are presented and discussed.

  9. Characterization of PDF-immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobe and cerebral lobe of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin; Uemura, Hiroyuki; Umezaki, Yujiro; Saifullah, A S M; Shimohigashi, Miki; Tomioka, Kenji

    2008-07-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a neuropeptide playing important roles in insect circadian systems. In this study, we morphologically and physiologically characterized PDF-immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobe and the brain of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. PDF-immunoreactivity was detected in cells located in the proximal medulla (PDFMe cells) and those in the dorsal and ventral regions of the outer chiasma (PDFLa cells). The PDFMe cells had varicose processes spread over the frontal surface of the medulla and the PDFLa cells had varicose mesh-like innervations in almost whole lamina, suggesting their modulatory role in the optic lobe. Some of PDFMe cells had a hairpin-shaped axonal process running toward the lamina then turning back to project into the brain where they terminated at various protocerebral areas. The PDFMe cells had a low frequency spontaneous spike activity that was higher during the night and was often slightly increased by light pulses. Six pairs of PDF-immunoreactive neurons were also found in the frontal ganglion. Competitive ELISA with anti-PDF antibodies revealed daily cycling of PDF both in the optic lobe and cerebral lobe with an increase during the night that persisted in constant darkness. The physiological role of PDF is discussed based on these results.

  10. Improving the Subgrid-Scale Representation of Hydrometeors and Microphysical Feedback Effects Using a Multivariate PDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Brian M.

    The subgrid-scale representation of hydrometeor fields is important for calculating microphysical process rates. In order to represent subgrid-scale variability, the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) parameterization uses a multivariate Probability Density Function (PDF). In addition to vertical velocity, temperature, and moisture fields, the PDF includes hydrometeor fields. Previously, each hydrometeor field was assumed to follow a multivariate single lognormal distribution. Now, in order to better represent the distribution of hydrometeors, two new multivariate PDFs are formulated and introduced in part one of this two-part project. The new PDFs represent hydrometeors using either a delta-lognormal or a delta-double-lognormal shape. The two new PDF distributions, plus the previous single lognormal shape, are compared to histograms of data taken from Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of a precipitating cumulus case, a drizzling stratocumulus case, and a deep convective case. Finally, the warm microphysical process rates produced by the different hydrometeor PDFs are compared to the same process rates produced by the LES. Microphysics processes have feedback effects on moisture and heat content. Not only do these processes influence mean values, but also variability and fluxes of moisture and heat content. For example, evaporation of rain below cloud base may produce cold pools. This evaporative cooling may increase the variability in temperature in the below-cloud layer. Likewise, rain production in the moistest part of cloud tends to decrease variability in cloud water. These effects are usually not included in most coarse-resolution weather and climate models, or else are crudely parameterized. In part two of this two-part project, the microphysical effects on moisture and heat content are parameterized using the PDF method. This approach is based on predictive, horizontally-averaged equations for the variances, covariances, and fluxes of moisture and heat

  11. Application and Evaluation of Interactive 3D PDF for Presenting and Sharing Planning Results for Liver Surgery in Clinical Routine

    PubMed Central

    Newe, Axel; Becker, Linda; Schenk, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the de-facto standard for the exchange of electronic documents. It is platform-independent, suitable for the exchange of medical data, and allows for the embedding of three-dimensional (3D) surface mesh models. In this article, we present the first clinical routine application of interactive 3D surface mesh models which have been integrated into PDF files for the presentation and the exchange of Computer Assisted Surgery Planning (CASP) results in liver surgery. We aimed to prove the feasibility of applying 3D PDF in medical reporting and investigated the user experience with this new technology. Methods We developed an interactive 3D PDF report document format and implemented a software tool to create these reports automatically. After more than 1000 liver CASP cases that have been reported in clinical routine using our 3D PDF report, an international user survey was carried out online to evaluate the user experience. Results Our solution enables the user to interactively explore the anatomical configuration and to have different analyses and various resection proposals displayed within a 3D PDF document covering only a single page that acts more like a software application than like a typical PDF file (“PDF App”). The new 3D PDF report offers many advantages over the previous solutions. According to the results of the online survey, the users have assessed the pragmatic quality (functionality, usability, perspicuity, efficiency) as well as the hedonic quality (attractiveness, novelty) very positively. Conclusion The usage of 3D PDF for reporting and sharing CASP results is feasible and well accepted by the target audience. Using interactive PDF with embedded 3D models is an enabler for presenting and exchanging complex medical information in an easy and platform-independent way. Medical staff as well as patients can benefit from the possibilities provided by 3D PDF. Our results open the door for a

  12. A circadian neuropeptide, pigment-dispersing factor-PDF, in the last-summer cicada Meimuna opalifera: cDNA cloning and immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Sato, Seiji; Chuman, Yoshiro; Matsushima, Ayami; Tominaga, Yoshiya; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Shimohigashi, Miki

    2002-08-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), an 18-amino acid neuropeptide, is a principal circadian neuromodulator functioning downstream of the insect brain's circadian clock, modulating daily rhythms of locomotor activity. Recently, we found that PDF precursors of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus comprise a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Moreover, the nuclear localization of PDF immunoreactivity and the translocation of GFP-fused PDF precursor into the nucleus have both been demonstrated. These suggest a fundamental role for PDF peptide in the circadian clock system within the nucleus, in addition to its role in downstream neural events. In the present study, we carried out the cDNA cloning of PDF from adult brains of the last-summer cicada Meimuna opalifera, and found that an isolated clone (545 bp) encodes an ordinary PDF precursor protein. PDF peptide itself shows a high sequence identity (78-94%) and similarity (89-100%) to insect PDFs and also to the crustacean beta-PDH peptides. The computer-assisted sequence analysis of PDF precursor revealed a possible translocation into the nucleus, despite the lack of a definite NLS-like sequence. Using immunocytochemistry, the optic lobes of M. opalifera revealed PDF-immunoreactive neurons in both the medulla and lamina neuropiles. All these PDF cells exhibited prominent immunolabeling of both their perikarya and axons, but not their nuclei. Our results provide the first structural and immunocytochemical identification of PDF neurons in Hemiptera.

  13. PDF added value of a high resolution climate simulation for precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.

    2015-04-01

    General Circulation Models (GCMs) are models suitable to study the global atmospheric system, its evolution and response to changes in external forcing, namely to increasing emissions of CO2. However, the resolution of GCMs, of the order of 1o, is not sufficient to reproduce finer scale features of the atmospheric flow related to complex topography, coastal processes and boundary layer processes, and higher resolution models are needed to describe observed weather and climate. The latter are known as Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and are widely used to downscale GCMs results for many regions of the globe and are able to capture physically consistent regional and local circulations. Most of the RCMs evaluations rely on the comparison of its results with observations, either from weather stations networks or regular gridded datasets, revealing the ability of RCMs to describe local climatic properties, and assuming most of the times its higher performance in comparison with the forcing GCMs. The additional climatic details given by RCMs when compared with the results of the driving models is usually named as added value, and it's evaluation is still scarce and controversial in the literuature. Recently, some studies have proposed different methodologies to different applications and processes to characterize the added value of specific RCMs. A number of examples reveal that some RCMs do add value to GCMs in some properties or regions, and also the opposite, elighnening that RCMs may add value to GCM resuls, but improvements depend basically on the type of application, model setup, atmospheric property and location. The precipitation can be characterized by histograms of daily precipitation, or also known as probability density functions (PDFs). There are different strategies to evaluate the quality of both GCMs and RCMs in describing the precipitation PDFs when compared to observations. Here, we present a new method to measure the PDF added value obtained from

  14. Calibration and data collection protocols for reliable lattice parameter values in electron pair distribution function (ePDF) studies

    DOE PAGES

    Abeykoon, A. M. Milinda; Hu, Hefei; Wu, Lijun; ...

    2015-02-01

    We explore and describe different protocols for calibrating electron pair distribution function (ePDF) measurements for quantitative studies on nano-materials. We find the most accurate approach to determine the camera-length is to use a standard calibration sample of Au nanoparticles from National Institute of Standards and Technology. Different protocols for data collection are also explored, as are possible operational errors, to find the best approaches for accurate data collection for quantitative ePDF studies.

  15. Dependences of posterior pdf on observational constraint and model errors in nonlinear data assimilation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beechler, B. E.; Vukicevic, T.; Weiss, J. B.

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the relationship between data assimilation solutions and nonlinear model properties together with observational constraint is analyzed using a numerical technique based on the inverse problem theory formulated by Mosegaard and Tarantola. By this theory, the inverse problem and solution are defined via convolution and conjunction of probability density functions (pdfs) that represent stochastic information obtained from the model, observations and prior knowledge in a joint multidimensional space. This theory provides an explicit analysis of the nonlinear model function, together with information about uncertainties in the model, observations, and prior knowledge through construction of the joint probability density, from which marginal posterior solution functions can then be evaluated. The numerical analysis technique derived from the theory computes the component probability density functions in discretized form via a combination of function mapping on a discrete grid in the model and observation phase space, and sampling from known parametric distributions. This numerical diagnostic analysis technique was first demonstrated in Vukicevic and Posselt (2008) on examples of two well known simplified models of Atmospheric physics: Damped oscillations and Lorenz' 3-component model of dry cellular convection. In the current study the diagnostic analysis of the controls of posterior pdf in data assimilation is performed using a beta plane quasi- geostrophic numerical model. The control parameter space in the model consists of coefficients of two- dimensional Fourier decomposition of stream function fields within regions of unstable dynamical modes. The impact of assumed modeling errors and spatial and temporal distribution of observations on the posterior multi dimensional pdf is studied to evaluate conditions which render this pdf uni-modal. The validity of the Gaussian approximation is then evaluated.

  16. The influence of chemical mechanisms on PDF calculations of nonpremixed piloted jet flames

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Renfeng Richard; Pope, Stephen B.

    2005-12-01

    Seven different chemical mechanisms for methane are used in PDF model calculations of the Barlow and Frank flames D, E, and F in order to investigate the ability of these mechanisms to represent the local extinction, reignition, and other chemical phenomena observed in these nonpremixed piloted jet flames. The mechanisms studied range from a 5-step reduced mechanism to the GRI3.0 mechanism which involves 53 species. As in several other recent studies, we use the PDF method based on the joint probability density function of velocity, turbulence frequency, and composition. Extensive tests are performed to ensure the numerical accuracy of the calculations, to relate them to previous calculations based on the same model, and to reexamine the sensitivity of the calculations (especially of flame F) to uncertainties in the pilot temperature and the treatment of radiation. As has been observed in other studies of laminar and turbulent nonpremixed flames, we find that the GRI3.0 mechanism overpredicts the levels of NO, typically by a factor of 2. Apart from this, the GRI3.0 and GRI2.11 mechanisms yield comparably good agreement with the experimental data for all three flames, including the level of local extinction and the conditional means of major and other minor species. Two augmented reduce mechanism (ARM1 and ARM2) based on GRI2.11 and containing 16 and 19 species are slightly less accurate; while the 5-step reduced mechanism and two C{sub 1} skeletal mechanisms containing 16 species display significant inaccuracies. An examination of the autoignition and laminar-flame behavior of the different mechanisms confirms (with some exceptions) expected trends: there is an association between long ignition delay times, small extinction strain rates, and high levels of local extinction. This study again demonstrates the ability of the joint PDF method to represent accurately the strong turbulence-chemistry interactions in these flames, and it clarifies the necessary level of

  17. Docking studies of nickel-peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitors: exploring the new binding pockets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Datong; Wang, Jianwu; Cai, Zhengting; Xu, Weiren

    2006-06-20

    The binding modes of a series of known activity inhibitors docking to Peptide deformylase (PDF) have been studied using molecular docking software AutoDock3.0.5. In this study, good correlation (R(2)=0.894) between calculated binding energies and experimental inhibitory activities is obtained. We find that some shallow pockets near the known active pocket are very important which can accommodate the side-chains of the inhibitor. Moreover, a new binding pocket is also explored. All these may provide something useful for designing the potent inhibitors.

  18. Pdf modeling for premixed turbulent combustion based on the properties of iso-concentration surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vervisch, L.; Kollmann, W.; Bray, K. N. C.; Mantel, T.

    1994-01-01

    In premixed turbulent flames the presence of intense mixing zones located in front of and behind the flame surface leads to a requirement to study the behavior of iso-concentration surfaces defined for all values of the progress variable (equal to unity in burnt gases and to zero in fresh mixtures). To support this study, some theoretical and mathematical tools devoted to level surfaces are first developed. Then a database of direct numerical simulations of turbulent premixed flames is generated and used to investigate the internal structure of the flame brush, and a new pdf model based on the properties of iso-surfaces is proposed.

  19. A k-omega multivariate beta PDF for supersonic turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexopoulos, G. A.; Baurle, R. A.; Hassan, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    In a recent attempt by the authors at predicting measurements in coaxial supersonic turbulent reacting mixing layers involving H2 and air, a number of discrepancies involving the concentrations and their variances were noted. The turbulence model employed was a one-equation model based on the turbulent kinetic energy. This required the specification of a length scale. In an attempt at detecting the cause of the discrepancy, a coupled k-omega joint probability density function (PDF) is employed in conjunction with a Navier-Stokes solver. The results show that improvements resulting from a k-omega model are quite modest.

  20. On the detection of adobe buried archaeological structures using multiscale remote sensing techniques : Piramide Naranja in Cahuachi (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.; Lasaponara, R.; Orefici, G.

    2009-04-01

    The detection of buried adobe structures is a crucial issue for the remote sensing (ground, aerial and satellite) applied to archaeology for the widespread of sun-dried earth as building material in several ancient civilizations in Central and Southern America, Middle East and North Africa. Moreover it is complex, due to the subtle contrast existing between the archaeological features and the surrounding, especially in arid setting, as in the case of the well know Nazca Ceremonial Centre of Cahuachi, located in the desert of Nazca (Southern Peru) . During the last two decades of excavations adobe monuments dating back from the 6th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D have been highlighted by the Centro de Estudios Arqueológicos Precolombinos (CEAP), an italian-peruvian mission directed by Giuseppe Orefici. Actually, the archaeologists are excavating and restoring the core of the Ceremonial centre where is located a great pyramid (kown as Gran Piramide). Beginning from 2007 the two institutes of CNR, IMAA and IBAM, have been involved by CEAP, in order to provide a scientific and technological support for the archaeological research. Therefore, a multi-scale approach based on the integration of aerial and satellite remote sensing with geophysical techniques was employed in order to provide data useful for archaeological excavations. The abstract refers to the last investigations performed on a mound, known as "Piramide Naranja", during the 2008. The processing of an aerial imagery time series and two QuickBird satellite images acquired in 2002 and 2005, allowed for identifying some features related to shallow and buried structures. Such features were verified by means of geophysical prospections, performed by using the magnetometric method which observed changes in the magnetic field within the first few metres beneath the subsurface detecting buried walls and anomalies linked to ceramic deposits referable to possible tombs. Finally, the integration of all data

  1. The Rules of Aggression: How Genetic, Chemical and Spatial Factors Affect Intercolony Fights in a Dominant Species, the Mediterranean Acrobat Ant Crematogaster scutellaris.

    PubMed

    Frizzi, Filippo; Ciofi, Claudio; Dapporto, Leonardo; Natali, Chiara; Chelazzi, Guido; Turillazzi, Stefano; Santini, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Nest-mate recognition plays a key role in the biology of ants. Although individuals coming from a foreign nest are, in most cases, promptly rejected, the degree of aggressiveness towards non nest-mates may be highly variable among species and relies on genetic, chemical and environmental factors. We analyzed intraspecific relationships among neighboring colonies of the dominant Mediterranean acrobat ant Crematogaster scutellaris integrating genetic, chemical and behavioral analyses. Colony structure, parental relationships between nests, cuticular hydrocarbons profiles (CHCs) and aggressive behavior against non nest-mates were studied in 34 nests located in olive tree trunks. Bayesian clustering analysis of allelic variation at nine species-specific microsatellite DNA markers pooled nests into 14 distinct clusters, each representing a single colony, confirming a polydomous arrangement of nests in this species. A marked genetic separation among colonies was also detected, probably due to long distance dispersion of queens and males during nuptial flights. CHCs profiles varied significantly among colonies and between nests of the same colony. No relationship between CHCs profiles and genetic distances was detected. The level of aggressiveness between colonies was inversely related to chemical and spatial distance, suggesting a 'nasty neighbor' effect. Our findings also suggest that CHCs profiles in C. scutellaris may be linked to external environmental factors rather than genetic relationships.

  2. Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation Using Piezoelectric Actuators: Some Results of the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    A 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at a dynamic pressure of 14 psf. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the actuators, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. Buffeting alleviation results when using the rudder are presented for comparison. Stability margins indicate that a constant gain setting in the control law may be used throughout the range of angle of attack tested.

  3. The Rules of Aggression: How Genetic, Chemical and Spatial Factors Affect Intercolony Fights in a Dominant Species, the Mediterranean Acrobat Ant Crematogaster scutellaris

    PubMed Central

    Frizzi, Filippo; Ciofi, Claudio; Dapporto, Leonardo; Natali, Chiara; Chelazzi, Guido; Turillazzi, Stefano; Santini, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Nest-mate recognition plays a key role in the biology of ants. Although individuals coming from a foreign nest are, in most cases, promptly rejected, the degree of aggressiveness towards non nest-mates may be highly variable among species and relies on genetic, chemical and environmental factors. We analyzed intraspecific relationships among neighboring colonies of the dominant Mediterranean acrobat ant Crematogaster scutellaris integrating genetic, chemical and behavioral analyses. Colony structure, parental relationships between nests, cuticular hydrocarbons profiles (CHCs) and aggressive behavior against non nest-mates were studied in 34 nests located in olive tree trunks. Bayesian clustering analysis of allelic variation at nine species-specific microsatellite DNA markers pooled nests into 14 distinct clusters, each representing a single colony, confirming a polydomous arrangement of nests in this species. A marked genetic separation among colonies was also detected, probably due to long distance dispersion of queens and males during nuptial flights. CHCs profiles varied significantly among colonies and between nests of the same colony. No relationship between CHCs profiles and genetic distances was detected. The level of aggressiveness between colonies was inversely related to chemical and spatial distance, suggesting a ‘nasty neighbor’ effect. Our findings also suggest that CHCs profiles in C. scutellaris may be linked to external environmental factors rather than genetic relationships. PMID:26445245

  4. A simulation of a bluff-body stabilized turbulent premixed flame using LES-PDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeonglae; Pope, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    A turbulent premixed flame stabilized by a triangular cylinder as a flame-holder is simulated. The computational condition matches the Volvo experiments (Sjunnesson et al. 1992). Propane is premixed at a fuel lean condition of ϕ = 0 . 65 . For this reactive simulation, LES-PDF formulation is used, similar to Yang et al. (2012). The evolution of Lagrangian particles is simulated by solving stochastic differential equations modeling transport of the composition PDF. Mixing is modeled by the modified IEM model (Viswanathan et al. 2011). Chemical reactions are calculated by ISAT and for the good load balancing, PURAN distribution of ISAT tables is applied (Hiremath et al. 2012). To calculate resolved density, the two-way coupling (Popov & Pope 2013) is applied, solving a transport equation of resolved specific volume to reduce statistical noise. A baseline calculation shows a good agreement with the experimental measurements in turbulence statistics, temperature, and minor species mass fractions. Chemical reaction does not significantly contribute to the overall computational cost, in contrast to non-premixed flame simulations (Hiremath et al. 2013), presumably due to the restricted manifold of the purely premixed flame in the composition space.

  5. Asymptotic stability of spectral-based PDF modeling for homogeneous turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Alejandro; Duraisamy, Karthik; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2015-11-01

    Engineering models of turbulence, based on one-point statistics, neglect spectral information inherent in a turbulence field. It is well known, however, that the evolution of turbulence is dictated by a complex interplay between the spectral modes of velocity. For example, for homogeneous turbulence, the pressure-rate-of-strain depends on the integrated energy spectrum weighted by components of the wave vectors. The Interacting Particle Representation Model (IPRM) (Kassinos & Reynolds, 1996) and the Velocity/Wave-Vector PDF model (Van Slooten & Pope, 1997) emulate spectral information in an attempt to improve the modeling of turbulence. We investigate the evolution and asymptotic stability of the IPRM using three different approaches. The first approach considers the Lagrangian evolution of individual realizations (idealized as particles) of the stochastic process defined by the IPRM. The second solves Lagrangian evolution equations for clusters of realizations conditional on a given wave vector. The third evolves the solution of the Eulerian conditional PDF corresponding to the aforementioned clusters. This last method avoids issues related to discrete particle noise and slow convergence associated with Lagrangian particle-based simulations.

  6. cDNA cloning of the housefly pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) precursor protein and its peptide comparison among the insect circadian neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Ayami; Sato, Seiji; Chuman, Yoshiro; Takeda, Yukimasa; Yokotani, Satoru; Nose, Takeru; Tominaga, Yoshiya; Shimohigashi, Miki; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki

    2004-02-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), an 18-amino acid neuropeptide, is a principal circadian neurotransmitter for the circadian rhythms of the locomotor activity in flies. Recently, two completely different types of PDF precursor were clarified; that of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and that of the last-summer cicada Meimuna opalifera. The G. bimaculatus PDF precursor is extraordinarily short and comprises a nuclear localization signal (NLS), while the M. opalifera PDF precursor is of ordinary length, comparable to that seen for the precursors of crustacean beta-PDH homologues. Although their PDF peptide regions were exactly the same, the regions containing a signal peptide combined with a PDF-associated peptide (PAP) were remarkably different from each other. Such a grouping suggested a fundamental role for the PAP peptide in the circadian clock, perhaps associated with PDF function. In the present study, the cDNA cloning of PDF from the adult brains of the housefly Musca domestica was carried out and it was found that an isolated clone (527 bp) encodes a PDF precursor protein of ordinary length. The PDF peptide shows a high sequence identity (78%-94%) and similarity (89%-100%) to insect PDFs and also to the crustacean beta-PDH peptides. In particular, there is only a single amino acid difference between the PDFs of Musca and Drosophila; at position 14 Ser for Musca PDF and Asn for Drosophila PDF. A characteristic Ser10 in Drosophila was retained in Musca, indicating the presence of a structural profile unique to these PDFs. The results of sequence analyses suggest that Musca and Drosophila PDFs are to be considered members of a single group that has evolved structurally. When the primary structure of the PAP regions was compared, the Musca PDF precursor also belonged to the same group as that to which the Drosophila PDF precursor belongs.

  7. Coupled Lagrangian Monte Carlo PDF-CFD computation of gas turbine combustor flowfields with finite-rate chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Tolpadi, A.K.; Hu, I.Z.; Correa, S.M.; Burrus, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    A coupled Lagrangian Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF)-Eulerian Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique is presented for calculating steady three-dimensional turbulent reacting flow in a gas turbine combustor. PDF transport methods model turbulence-combustion interactions more accurately than conventional turbulence models with an assumed shape PDF. The PDF transport equation was solved using a Lagrangian particle tracking Monte Carlo (MC) method. The PDF modeled was over composition only. This MC module has been coupled with CONCERT, which is a fully elliptic three-dimensional body-fitted CFD code based on pressure correction techniques. In an earlier paper, this computational approach was described, but only fast chemistry calculations were presented in a typical aircraft engine combustor. In the present paper, reduced chemistry schemes were incorporated into the MC module that enabled the modeling of finite rate effects in gas turbine flames and therefore the prediction of CO and NO{sub x} emissions. With the inclusion of these finite rate effects, the gas temperatures obtained were also more realistic. Initially, a two scalar scheme was implemented that allowed validation against Raman data taken in a recirculation bluff body stabilized CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}-air flame. Good agreement of the temperature and major species were obtained. Next, finite rate computations were performed in a single annular aircraft engine combustor by incorporating a simple three scalar reduced chemistry scheme for Jet A fuel. This three scalar scheme was an extension of the two scalar scheme for CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} fuel. The solutions obtained using the present approach were compared with those obtained using the fast chemistry PDF transport approach as well as the presumed shape PDF method. The calculated exhaust gas temperature using the finite rate model showed the best agreement with measurements made by a thermocouple rake.

  8. Applying an economical scale-aware PDF-based turbulence closure model in NOAA NCEP GCMs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, S. K.; Belochitski, A.; Moorthi, S.; Bogenschutz, P.; Pincus, R.

    2015-12-01

    A novel unified representation of sub-grid scale (SGS) turbulence, cloudiness, and shallow convection is being implemented into the NOAA NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS) general circulation model. The approach, known as Simplified High Order Closure (SHOC), is based on predicting a joint PDF of SGS thermodynamic variables and vertical velocity and using it to diagnose turbulent diffusion coefficients, SGS fluxes, condensation and cloudiness. Unlike other similar methods, only one new prognostic variable, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), needs to be intoduced, making the technique computationally efficient.SHOC code was adopted for a global model environment from its origins in a cloud resolving model, and incorporated into NCEP GFS. SHOC was first tested in a non-interactive mode, a configuration where SHOC receives inputs from the host model, but its outputs are not returned to the GFS. In this configuration: a) SGS TKE values produced by GFS SHOC are consistent with those produced by SHOC in a CRM, b) SGS TKE in GFS SHOC exhibits a well defined diurnal cycle, c) there's enhanced boundary layer turbulence in the subtropical stratocumulus and tropical transition-to-cumulus areas d) buoyancy flux diagnosed from the assumed PDF is consistent with independently calculated Brunt-Vaisala frequency in identifying stable and unstable regions.Next, SHOC was coupled to GFS, namely turbulent diffusion coefficients computed by SHOC are now used in place of those currently produced by the GFS boundary layer and shallow convection schemes (Han and Pan, 2011), as well as condensation and cloud fraction diagnosed from the SGS PDF replace those calculated in the current large-scale cloudines scheme (Zhao and Carr, 1997). Ongoing activities consist of debugging the fully coupled GFS/SHOC.Future work will consist of evaluating model performance and tuning the physics if necessary, by performing medium-range NWP forecasts with prescribed initial conditions, and AMIP-type climate

  9. Offline modeling for product quality prediction of mineral processing using modeling error PDF shaping and entropy minimization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jinliang; Chai, Tianyou; Wang, Hong

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel offline modeling for product quality prediction of mineral processing which consists of a number of unit processes in series. The prediction of the product quality of the whole mineral process (i.e., the mixed concentrate grade) plays an important role and the establishment of its predictive model is a key issue for the plantwide optimization. For this purpose, a hybrid modeling approach of the mixed concentrate grade prediction is proposed, which consists of a linear model and a nonlinear model. The least-squares support vector machine is adopted to establish the nonlinear model. The inputs of the predictive model are the performance indices of each unit process, while the output is the mixed concentrate grade. In this paper, the model parameter selection is transformed into the shape control of the probability density function (PDF) of the modeling error. In this context, both the PDF-control-based and minimum-entropy-based model parameter selection approaches are proposed. Indeed, this is the first time that the PDF shape control idea is used to deal with system modeling, where the key idea is to turn model parameters so that either the modeling error PDF is controlled to follow a target PDF or the modeling error entropy is minimized. The experimental results using the real plant data and the comparison of the two approaches are discussed. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  10. cDNA cloning and nuclear localization of the circadian neuropeptide designated as pigment-dispersing factor PDF in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Chuman, Yoshiro; Matsushima, Ayami; Sato, Seiji; Tomioka, Kenji; Tominaga, Yoshiya; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Shimohigashi, Miki

    2002-06-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) was recently reported to be a principal circadian neuromodulator involved in transmitting circadian rhythms of daily locomotion in insects. In Drosophila, PDF functions in some of the neurons expressing the clock genes period, timeless, Clock, and cycle, and those clock genes in turn regulate pdf gene expression. In the present study, we cloned a cDNA encoding PDF in the brain of a nocturnal insect, the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, and found that an isolated clone (310 bp) codes for an extraordinarily short precursor protein with no definite signal sequence, but a nuclear localization signal (NLS)-like sequence instead. The cricket PDF exhibits high sequence identity (78-94%) and similarity (89-100%) to insect PDFs and also to crustacean beta-PDH peptides. In the optic lobes of G. bimaculatus there are PDF-immunoreactive neurons in both the medulla and lamina neuropiles. Among the strongly immunoreactive lamina PDF neurons, on electron microscopy we identified cells exhibiting distinct staining that is not only cytoplasmic but also nuclear. When GFP-fused PDF precursor proteins were expressed in COS-7 cells, distinct translocation of the fusion protein into the nucleus was observed. This is the first finding of PDF peptide in the nucleus, which suggests a fundamental role of PDF peptide per se in the circadian clock system.

  11. Faradaurate-940: Synthesis, Mass Spectrometry, STEM, PDF, and SAXS Study of Au~940(SR)~160 Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kumara, Chanaka; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cullen, David A; Dass, Amala

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining monodisperse nanocrystals, and determining its composition to the atomic level and its atomic structure is highly desirable, but is generally lacking. Here, we report the discovery and comprehensive characterization of a 3-nm plasmonic nanocrystal with a composition of Au940 20(SCH2CH2Ph)160 4, which is, the largest mass spectrometrically characterized gold thiolate nanoparticle produced to date. The compositional assignment has been made using electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). The MS results show an unprecedented size monodispersity, where the number of Au atoms vary by only 40 atoms (940 20). The mass spectrometrically-determined size and composition are supported by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and synchrotron-based methods such as atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Lower resolution STEM images show an ensemble of particles 1000 s per frame visually demonstrating monodispersity. Modelling of SAXS on statistically significant nanoparticle population approximately 1012 individual nanoparticles - shows that the diameter is 3.0 0.2nm, supporting mass spectrometry and electron microscopy results on monodispersity. Atomic PDF based on high energy X-ray diffraction experiments show decent match with either a Marks decahedral or truncated octrahedral structure. Atomic resolution STEM images of single particles and its FFT suggest face-centered cubic (fcc) arrangement. UV-visible spectroscopy data shows that the 940-atom size supports a surface plasmon resonance peak at 505 nm. These monodisperse plasmonic nanoparticles minimize averaging effects and has potential application in solar cells, nano-optical devices, catalysis and drug delivery.

  12. Joint PDF Modelling of Local Extinction and Pollutant Formation in Non-premixed Turbulent Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qing; Xu, Jun; Pope, Stephen B.

    2000-11-01

    A velocity-composition-turbulence frequency joint PDF approach is applied to model piloted methane/air turbulent diffusion flames investigated experimentally by Barlow and Frank. These flames exhibit an increasing amount of local extinction with increasing jet velocity, and are good cases to test the capabilities of turbulence-chemistry and combustion-chemistry models to account for local extinction and pollutant formation. In this study, the chemistry is an augmented reduced mechanism (19 species and 15 reaction steps) derived from the GRI2.11 detailed mechanism for methane oxidation by Sung and co-workers. The mechanism takes account of C2 chemistry, and the formation of oxides of nitrogen is treated by the inclusion of NO, NH3 and HCN. The turbulence models include the simplified Langevin model (SLM) for velocity, a stochastic model of Jayesh and Pope for turbulence frequency, the EMST model of Subramaniam and Pope for molecular mixing. The computational method for the solution of the modeled joint PDF equation features moving particles in a Lagrangian framework. The reaction calculations are performed via the in situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) algorithm of Pope. The calculation results show good agreement with the experimental data, including the minor species NO and CO. The increase of local extinction (quantitatively characterized by a single variable - burning index) with increasing jet velocity is also accurately predicted by the calculations. It is founded that a small change of the inlet pilot temperature has a significant influence on the calculations and a systematic study has been made to investigate this sensitivity. For the flame with lowest velocity, the large influence is mainly observed close to the nozzle, while for the flame close to extinction, the calculated behavior is exquisitely sensitive to the pilot temperature, i.e., a 10K lower pilot temperature may cause global extinction.

  13. Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation Using Piezoelectric Actuators-Some Results of the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    Buffet is an aeroelastic phenomenon associated with high performance aircraft especially those with twin vertical tails. In particular, for the F/A-18 aircraft at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from wing/fuselage leading edge extensions burst, immersing the vertical tails in their wake. The resulting buffet loads on the vertical tails are a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view. Recently, a 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at Mach 0.10. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the actuators, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. The results herein illustrate that buffet alleviation of vertical tails can be accomplished using simple active control of the rudder or piezoelectric actuators. In fact, as demonstrated herein, a fixed gain single input single output control law that commands piezoelectric actuators may be active throughout the high angle-of-attack maneuver without requiring any changes during the maneuver. Future tests are mentioned for accentuating the international interest in this area of research.

  14. Constraints on the Profiles of Total Water PDF in AGCMs from AIRS and a High-Resolution Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molod, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) cloud parameterizations generally include an assumption about the subgrid-scale probability distribution function (PDF) of total water and its vertical profile. In the present study, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) monthly-mean cloud amount and relative humidity fields are used to compute a proxy for the second moment of an AGCM total water PDF called the RH01 diagnostic, which is the AIRS mean relative humidity for cloud fractions of 0.1 or less. The dependence of the second moment on horizontal grid resolution is analyzed using results from a high-resolution global model simulation.The AIRS-derived RH01 diagnostic is generally larger near the surface than aloft, indicating a narrower PDF near the surface, and varies with the type of underlying surface. High-resolution model results show that the vertical structure of profiles of the AGCM PDF second moment is unchanged as the grid resolution changes from 200 to 100 to 50 km, and that the second-moment profiles shift toward higher values with decreasing grid spacing.Several Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5), AGCM simulations were performed with several choices for the profile of the PDF second moment. The resulting cloud and relative humidity fields were shown to be quite sensitive to the prescribed profile, and the use of a profile based on the AIRS-derived proxy results in improvements relative to observational estimates. The AIRS-guided total water PDF profiles, including their dependence on underlying surface type and on horizontal resolution, have been implemented in the version of the GEOS-5 AGCM used for publicly released simulations.

  15. EBooks as PDF Files, in EPub Format or as Interactive IBooks? Digital Books in Physics Lessons of Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the different capabilities of ebooks in the pdf, epub and ibook format in science teaching evaluated at the BG/BRG Schwechat. Over the recent years the school equipped with 100 personal computers and 28 iPads has become one of the leading e-learning schools in Austria. iPads show their advantages in the context of blended…

  16. Unified Cloud and Mixing Parameterizations of the Marine Boundary Layer: EDMF and PDF-based Cloud Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    600 m, topped by a non-precipitating shallow cumulus cloud layer. The boundary layer turbulence is forced mainly by buoyancy flux, the wind shear...STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Unified Cloud and...Mixing Parameterizations of the Marine Boundary Layer: EDMF and PDF-based cloud approaches Joao Teixeira Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California

  17. Bridge reliability assessment based on the PDF of long-term monitored extreme strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Meiju; Sun, Limin

    2011-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can provide valuable information for the evaluation of bridge performance. As the development and implementation of SHM technology in recent years, the data mining and use has received increasingly attention and interests in civil engineering. Based on the principle of probabilistic and statistics, a reliability approach provides a rational basis for analysis of the randomness in loads and their effects on structures. A novel approach combined SHM systems with reliability method to evaluate the reliability of a cable-stayed bridge instrumented with SHM systems was presented in this paper. In this study, the reliability of the steel girder of the cable-stayed bridge was denoted by failure probability directly instead of reliability index as commonly used. Under the assumption that the probability distributions of the resistance are independent to the responses of structures, a formulation of failure probability was deduced. Then, as a main factor in the formulation, the probability density function (PDF) of the strain at sensor locations based on the monitoring data was evaluated and verified. That Donghai Bridge was taken as an example for the application of the proposed approach followed. In the case study, 4 years' monitoring data since the operation of the SHM systems was processed, and the reliability assessment results were discussed. Finally, the sensitivity and accuracy of the novel approach compared with FORM was discussed.

  18. CFD modeling using PDF approach for investigating the flame length in rotary kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elattar, H. F.; Specht, E.; Fouda, A.; Bin-Mahfouz, Abdullah S.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are performed to investigate the flame length characteristics in rotary kilns using probability density function (PDF) approach. A commercial CFD package (ANSYS-Fluent) is employed for this objective. A 2-D axisymmetric model is applied to study the effect of both operating and geometric parameters of rotary kiln on the characteristics of the flame length. Three types of gaseous fuel are used in the present work; methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and biogas (50 % CH4 + 50 % CO2). Preliminary comparison study of 2-D modeling outputs of free jet flames with available experimental data is carried out to choose and validate the proper turbulence model for the present numerical simulations. The results showed that the excess air number, diameter of kiln air entrance, radiation modeling consideration and fuel type have remarkable effects on the flame length characteristics. Numerical correlations for the rotary kiln flame length are presented in terms of the studied kiln operating and geometric parameters within acceptable error.

  19. Presumed PDF Modeling of Early Flame Propagation in Moderate to Intense Turbulence Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmen, Christina; Feikema, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper describes the results obtained from a one-dimensional time dependent numerical technique that simulates early flame propagation in a moderate to intense turbulent environment. Attention is focused on the development of a spark-ignited, premixed, lean methane/air mixture with the unsteady spherical flame propagating in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. A Monte-Carlo particle tracking method, based upon the method of fractional steps, is utilized to simulate the phenomena represented by a probability density function (PDF) transport equation. Gaussian distributions of fluctuating velocity and fuel concentration are prescribed. Attention is focused on three primary parameters that influence the initial flame kernel growth: the detailed ignition system characteristics, the mixture composition, and the nature of the flow field. The computational results of moderate and intense isotropic turbulence suggests that flames within the distributed reaction zone are not as vulnerable, as traditionally believed, to the adverse effects of increased turbulence intensity. It is also shown that the magnitude of the flame front thickness significantly impacts the turbulent consumption flame speed. Flame conditions studied have fuel equivalence ratio s in the range phi = 0.6 to 0.9 at standard temperature and pressure.

  20. LES of turbulent lifted CH4 /H2 flames using a novel FGM-PDF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abtahizadeh, S. Ebrahim; van Oijen, Jeroen; Bastiaans, Rob; de Goey, Philip

    2014-11-01

    This study reports on numerical investigations of preferential diffusion effects on flame stabilization of turbulent lifted flames using LES with a FGM-PDF approach. The experimental test case is the Delft JHC burner to study Mild combustion; a clean combustion concept. In this burner, CH4 based fuel has been enriched from 0 to 25% of H2. Since the main stabilization mechanism of these turbulent flames is autoignition, the developed numerical model should be able to predict this complex event. Furthermore, addition of hydrogen makes modeling even more challenging due to its preferential diffusion effects. These effects are increasingly important since autoignition is typically initiated at very small mixture fractions where molecular diffusion is comparable to turbulence transport (eddy viscosity). In this study, first, a novel numerical model is developed based on the Flamelet Generated Manifolds (FGM) to account for preferential diffusion effects in autoignition. Afterwards, the developed FGM approach is implemented in LES of the H2 enriched turbulent lifted jet flames. Main features of these turbulent lifted flames such as the formation of ignition kernels and stabilization mechanisms are thoroughly analyzed and compared with the measurements of OH chemiluminescence. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Dutch Technology Foundation (STW) under Project No. 10414.

  1. Scalar mixing in LES/PDF of a high-Ka premixed turbulent jet flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jiaping; Yang, Yue

    2016-11-01

    We report a large-eddy simulation (LES)/probability density function (PDF) study of a high-Ka premixed turbulent flame in the Lund University Piloted Jet (LUPJ) flame series, which has been investigated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experiments. The target flame, featuring broadened preheat and reaction zones, is categorized into the broken reaction zone regime. In the present study, three widely used mixing modes, namely the Interaction by Exchange with the Mean (IEM), Modified Curl (MC), and Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree (EMST) models are applied to assess their performance through detailed a posteriori comparisons with DNS. A dynamic model for the time scale of scalar mixing is formulated to describe the turbulent mixing of scalars at small scales. Better quantitative agreement for the mean temperature and mean mass fractions of major and minor species are obtained with the MC and EMST models than with the IEM model. The multi-scalar mixing in composition space with the three models are analyzed to assess the modeling of the conditional molecular diffusion term. In addition, we demonstrate that the product of OH and CH2O concentrations can be a good surrogate of the local heat release rate in this flame. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11521091 and 91541204).

  2. Widespread receptivity to neuropeptide PDF throughout the neuronal circadian clock network of Drosophila revealed by real-time cyclic AMP imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Orie T.; Kim, Dong Jo; Dunbar-Yaffe, Richard; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Lohse, Martin J.; Taghert, Paul H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The neuropeptide PDF is released by sixteen clock neurons in Drosophila and helps maintain circadian activity rhythms by coordinating a network of ~150 neuronal clocks. Whether PDF acts directly on elements of this neural network remains unknown. We address this question by adapting Epac1-camps, a genetically encoded cAMP FRET sensor, for use in the living brain. We find that a subset of the PDF-expressing neurons respond to PDF with long-lasting cAMP increases, and confirm that such responses require the PDF receptor. In contrast, an unrelated Drosophila neuropeptide, DH 31, stimulates large cAMP increases in all PDF-expressing clock neurons. Thus the network of ~150 clock neurons displays widespread, though not uniform, PDF receptivity. This work introduces a sensitive means of measuring cAMP changes in a living brain with sub-cellular resolution. Specifically, it experimentally confirms the longstanding hypothesis that PDF is a direct modulator of most neurons in the Drosophila clock network. PMID:18439407

  3. Structural isoforms of the circadian neuropeptide PDF expressed in the optic lobes of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus: immunocytochemical evidence from specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Honda, Takeshi; Matsushima, Ayami; Sumida, Kazunori; Chuman, Yoshiro; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu; Onoue, Hitoshi; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Shimohigashi, Miki

    2006-11-20

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is an 18-mer peptide that acts as a principal neurotransmitter of the insect circadian clock. Our previous study, utilizing anti-Uca beta-PDH polyclonal antibody (pAb) to immunolabel the optic lobe of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, suggested the existence of an alternative PDF-like peptide in the outer cells of the first neuropile, or lamina (La), which were much less immunoreactive than the inner cells of the second neuropile, the medulla (Me). To obtain structural information about such a PDF-like peptide, we prepared 10 anti-Gryllus PDF monoclonal (mAb) and pAb antibodies and analyzed their detailed epitope specificities. The PDFMe and PDFLa inner cells and their axonal projections were clearly immunoreactive to all these antibodies, revealing the widespread immunocytochemical organization of the PDF system in the optic lobe, as seen previously with anti-Uca beta-PDH pAb and anti-Gryllus PDF mAb, the epitope structures of which were also clarified in this study. The lamina outer cells, which we found lacked a target pdf mRNA, displayed specific immunoreactivities, indicating that the cells contain a distinct PDF-like peptide possessing both N- and C-terminal structures. These cells were not immunolabeled by some other monoclonal antibodies, however, implying that the PDFLa outer cells have a PDF isoform peptide devoid of Asn at positions 6 and 16. This isoform was also identified in a varicose arborization in the lamina. These results suggest not only the structure of the peptide, but also the possibility of additional functions of this novel PDF isoform.

  4. The Drosophila neuropeptides PDF and sNPF have opposing electrophysiological and molecular effects on central neurons

    PubMed Central

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Pírez, Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptides have widespread effects on behavior, but how these molecules alter the activity of their target cells is poorly understood. We employed a new model system in Drosophila melanogaster to assess the electrophysiological and molecular effects of neuropeptides, recording in situ from larval motor neurons, which transgenically express a receptor of choice. We focused on two neuropeptides, pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) and small neuropeptide F (sNPF), which play important roles in sleep/rhythms and feeding/metabolism. PDF treatment depolarized motor neurons expressing the PDF receptor (PDFR), increasing excitability. sNPF treatment had the opposite effect, hyperpolarizing neurons expressing the sNPF receptor (sNPFR). Live optical imaging using a genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based sensor for cyclic AMP (cAMP) showed that PDF induced a large increase in cAMP, whereas sNPF caused a small but significant decrease in cAMP. Coexpression of pertussis toxin or RNAi interference to disrupt the G-protein Gαo blocked the electrophysiological responses to sNPF, showing that sNPFR acts via Gαo signaling. Using a fluorescent sensor for intracellular calcium, we observed that sNPF-induced hyperpolarization blocked spontaneous waves of activity propagating along the ventral nerve cord, demonstrating that the electrical effects of sNPF can cause profound changes in natural network activity in the brain. This new model system provides a platform for mechanistic analysis of how neuropeptides can affect target cells at the electrical and molecular level, allowing for predictions of how they regulate brain circuits that control behaviors such as sleep and feeding. PMID:24353297

  5. Simulations of Spray Reacting Flows in a Single Element LDI Injector With and Without Invoking an Eulerian Scalar PDF Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the numerical simulations of the Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single element lean direct injection (LDI) injector by using the National Combustion Code (NCC) with and without invoking the Eulerian scalar probability density function (PDF) method. The flow field is calculated by using the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS and URANS) with nonlinear turbulence models, and when the scalar PDF method is invoked, the energy and compositions or species mass fractions are calculated by solving the equation of an ensemble averaged density-weighted fine-grained probability density function that is referred to here as the averaged probability density function (APDF). A nonlinear model for closing the convection term of the scalar APDF equation is used in the presented simulations and will be briefly described. Detailed comparisons between the results and available experimental data are carried out. Some positive findings of invoking the Eulerian scalar PDF method in both improving the simulation quality and reducing the computing cost are observed.

  6. The dependence of the intensity PDF of a random beam propagating in the maritime atmosphere on source coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramov-Zamurovic, S.; Nelson, C.; Malek-Madani, R.; Korotkova, O.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of intensity statistics of a spatially pre-randomized laser beam propagating in a turbulent atmosphere along two horizontal links in close proximity to grassy ground and above a creek have been carried out in the fall of 2012. The pre-randomization of the laser beam was made by using a nematic Spatial Light Modulator placed at the laser source exit. The beam's phase is randomized with Gaussian statistics with zero mean and fully controllable degree of coherence. The receiver consisted of an amplified photodetector and data acquisition device which were used to capture the beam intensity fluctuations after propagation through turbulent media. The results for the intensity Probability Density Function (PDF), the Cumulative Distribution Function and, in particular, for the scintillation index are presented for a variety of the source's states of coherence and environmental conditions. The analytical PDF is reconstructed from the statistical moments of intensity with the help of the Gamma-Laguerre model. The results clearly illustrate the dependence of the shapes of the density functions on the level of the source's degree of coherence and on environmental parameters. It is shown that the optimal source coherence level may be experimentally found to obtain the narrowest profile for the intensity PDF.

  7. HAZPAC; an interactive map of Pacific Rim natural hazards, population, and infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bemis, B.L.; Goss, H.V.; Yurkovich, E.S.; Perron, T.J.; Howell, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    This is an online version of a CD-ROM publication. The text files that describe using this publication make reference to software provided on the disc. For this online version the software can be downloaded for free from Adobe Systems and Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI). Welcome to HAZPAC! HAZPAC is an interactive map about natural hazard risk in the Pacific Rim region. It is intended to communicate to a broad audience the ideas of 'Crowding the Rim,' which is an international, public-private partnership that fosters collaborative solutions for regional risks. HAZPAC, which stands for 'HAZards of the PACific,' uses Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to help people visualize the socioeconomic connections and shared hazard vulnerabilities among Pacific Rim countries, as well as to explore the general nature of risk. Please refer to the 'INTRODUCTION TO HAZPAC' section of the readme file below to determine which HAZPAC project will be right for you. Once you have decided which HAZPAC project is suitable for you, please refer to the 'GETTING STARTED' sections in the readme file for some basic information that will help you begin using HAZPAC. Also, we highly recommend that you follow the Tutorial exercises in the project-specific HAZPAC User Guides. The User Guides are PDF (Portable Document Format) files that must be read with Adobe Acrobat Reader (a free copy of Acrobat Reader is available using the link near the bottom of this page).

  8. Web-based X-ray quality control documentation.

    PubMed

    David, George; Burnett, Lou Ann; Schenkel, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The department of radiology at the Medical College of Georgia Hospital and Clinics has developed an equipment quality control web site. Our goal is to provide immediate access to virtually all medical physics survey data. The web site is designed to assist equipment engineers, department management and technologists. By improving communications and access to equipment documentation, we believe productivity is enhanced. The creation of the quality control web site was accomplished in three distinct steps. First, survey data had to be placed in a computer format. The second step was to convert these various computer files to a format supported by commercial web browsers. Third, a comprehensive home page had to be designed to provide convenient access to the multitude of surveys done in the various x-ray rooms. Because we had spent years previously fine-tuning the computerization of the medical physics quality control program, most survey documentation was already in spreadsheet or database format. A major technical decision was the method of conversion of survey spreadsheet and database files into documentation appropriate for the web. After an unsatisfactory experience with a HyperText Markup Language (HTML) converter (packaged with spreadsheet and database software), we tried creating Portable Document Format (PDF) files using Adobe Acrobat software. This process preserves the original formatting of the document and takes no longer than conventional printing; therefore, it has been very successful. Although the PDF file generated by Adobe Acrobat is a proprietary format, it can be displayed through a conventional web browser using the freely distributed Adobe Acrobat Reader program that is available for virtually all platforms. Once a user installs the software, it is automatically invoked by the web browser whenever the user follows a link to a file with a PDF extension. Although no confidential patient information is available on the web site, our legal

  9. Mosaic of Digital Raster Soviet Topographic Maps of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The data contained in this publication include scanned, geographically referenced digital raster graphics (DRGs) of Soviet 1:200,000 - scale topographic map quadrangles. The original Afghanistan topographic map series at 1:200,000 scale, for the entire country, was published by the Soviet military between 1985 and 1991(MTDGS, 85-91). Hard copies of these original paper maps were scanned using a large format scanner, reprojected into Geographic Coordinate System (GCS) coordinates, and then clipped to remove the map collars to create a seamless, topographic map base for the entire country. An index of all available topographic map sheets is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. This publication also includes the originial topographic map quadrangles projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection. The country of Afghanistan spans three UTM Zones: Zone 41, Zone 42, and Zone 43. Maps are stored as GeoTIFFs in their respective UTM zone projection. Indexes of all available topographic map sheets in their respective UTM zone are displayed here: Index_UTM_Z41.pdf, Index_UTM_Z42.pdf, Index_UTM_Z43.pdf. An Adobe Acrobat PDF file of the U.S. Department of the Army's Technical Manual 30-548, is available (U.S. Army, 1958). This document has been translated into English for assistance in reading Soviet topographic map symbols.

  10. PDF Weaving - Linking Inventory Data and Monte Carlo Uncertainty Analysis in the Study of how Disturbance Affects Forest Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, S. P.; Patterson, P.; Garrard, C.

    2014-12-01

    Altered disturbance regimes are likely a primary mechanism by which a changing climate will affect storage of carbon in forested ecosystems. Accordingly, the National Forest System (NFS) has been mandated to assess the role of disturbance (harvests, fires, insects, etc.) on carbon storage in each of its planning units. We have developed a process which combines 1990-era maps of forest structure and composition with high-quality maps of subsequent disturbance type and magnitude to track the impact of disturbance on carbon storage. This process, called the Forest Carbon Management Framework (ForCaMF), uses the maps to apply empirically calibrated carbon dynamics built into a widely used management tool, the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). While ForCaMF offers locally specific insights into the effect of historical or hypothetical disturbance trends on carbon storage, its dependence upon the interaction of several maps and a carbon model poses a complex challenge in terms of tracking uncertainty. Monte Carlo analysis is an attractive option for tracking the combined effects of error in several constituent inputs as they impact overall uncertainty. Monte Carlo methods iteratively simulate alternative values for each input and quantify how much outputs vary as a result. Variation of each input is controlled by a Probability Density Function (PDF). We introduce a technique called "PDF Weaving," which constructs PDFs that ensure that simulated uncertainty precisely aligns with uncertainty estimates that can be derived from inventory data. This hard link with inventory data (derived in this case from FIA - the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program) both provides empirical calibration and establishes consistency with other types of assessments (e.g., habitat and water) for which NFS depends upon FIA data. Results from the NFS Northern Region will be used to illustrate PDF weaving and insights gained from ForCaMF about the role of disturbance in carbon

  11. Joint constraints on galaxy bias and σ{sub 8} through the N-pdf of the galaxy number density

    SciTech Connect

    Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; Martínez, Vicent J.; Paredes, Silvestre E-mail: vielva@ifca.unican.es E-mail: sanz@ifca.unican.es E-mail: silvestre.paredes@upct.es

    2016-03-01

    We present a full description of the N-probability density function of the galaxy number density fluctuations. This N-pdf is given in terms, on the one hand, of the cold dark matter correlations and, on the other hand, of the galaxy bias parameter. The method relies on the assumption commonly adopted that the dark matter density fluctuations follow a local non-linear transformation of the initial energy density perturbations. The N-pdf of the galaxy number density fluctuations allows for an optimal estimation of the bias parameter (e.g., via maximum-likelihood estimation, or Bayesian inference if there exists any a priori information on the bias parameter), and of those parameters defining the dark matter correlations, in particular its amplitude (σ{sub 8}). It also provides the proper framework to perform model selection between two competitive hypotheses. The parameters estimation capabilities of the N-pdf are proved by SDSS-like simulations (both, ideal log-normal simulations and mocks obtained from Las Damas simulations), showing that our estimator is unbiased. We apply our formalism to the 7th release of the SDSS main sample (for a volume-limited subset with absolute magnitudes M{sub r} ≤ −20). We obtain b-circumflex  = 1.193 ± 0.074 and σ-bar{sub 8} = 0.862 ± 0.080, for galaxy number density fluctuations in cells of the size of 30h{sup −1}Mpc. Different model selection criteria show that galaxy biasing is clearly favoured.

  12. Turbulent piloted partially-premixed flames with varying levels of O2/N2: stability limits and PDF calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juddoo, Mrinal; Masri, Assaad R.; Pope, Stephen B.

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports measured stability limits and PDF calculations of piloted, turbulent flames of compressed natural gas (CNG) partially-premixed with either pure oxygen, or with varying levels of O2/N2. Stability limits are presented for flames of CNG fuel premixed with up to 20% oxygen as well as CNG-O2-N2 fuel where the O2 content is varied from 8 to 22% by volume. Calculations are presented for (i) Sydney flame B [Masri et al. 1988] which uses pure CNG as well as flames B15 to B25 where the CNG is partially-premixed with 15-25% oxygen by volume, respectively and (ii) Sandia methane-air (1:3 by volume) flame E [Barlow et al. 2005] as well as new flames E15 and E25 that are partially-premixed with 'reconstituted air' where the O2 content in nitrogen is 15 and 25% by volume, respectively. The calculations solve a transported PDF of composition using a particle-based Monte Carlo method and employ the EMST mixing model as well as detailed chemical kinetics. The addition of oxygen to the fuel increases stability, shortens the flames, broadens the reaction zone, and shifts the stoichiometric mixture fraction towards the inner side of the jet. It is found that for pure CNG flames where the reaction zone is narrow (∼0.1 in mixture fraction space), the PDF calculations fail to reproduce the correct level of local extinction on approach to blow-off. A broadening in the reaction zone up to about 0.25 in mixture fraction space is needed for the PDF/EMST approach to be able to capture these finite-rate chemistry effects. It is also found that for the same level of partial premixing, increasing the O2/N2 ratio increases the maximum levels of CO and NO but shifts the peak to richer mixture fractions. Over the range of oxygenation investigated here, stability limits have shown to improve almost linearly with increasing oxygen levels in the fuel and with increasing the contribution of release rate from the pilot.

  13. A statistical investigation of the single-point pdf of velocity and vorticity based on direct numerical simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortazavi, M.; Kollmann, W.; Squires, K.

    1987-01-01

    Vorticity plays a fundamental role in turbulent flows. The dynamics of vorticity in turbulent flows and the effect on single-point closure models were investigated. The approach was to use direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows to investigate the pdf of velocity and vorticity. The preliminary study of homogeneous shear flow has shown that the expectation of the fluctuating pressure gradient, conditioned with a velocity component, is linear in the velocity component, and that the coefficient is independent of velocity and vorticity. In addition, the work shows that the expectation of the pressure gradient, conditioned with a vorticity component, is essentially zero.

  14. 78 FR 70023 - Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ....mil . Phone: (703) 693-3829. Web site: http://responsesystemspanel.whs.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... Staff Director given in this notice in the following formats: Adobe Acrobat or Microsoft Word....

  15. Region 8 NPDES Lagoon General Permit Notice of Intent Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Adobe Acrobat fillable form of the Notice of Intent for Coverage under the EPA Region 8 Lagoon General Permit for Wastewater Systems located in Indian Country in Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming.

  16. Towards an easier creation of three-dimensional data for embedding into scholarly 3D PDF (Portable Document Format) files

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) allows for embedding three-dimensional (3D) models and is therefore particularly suitable to communicate respective data, especially as regards scholarly articles. The generation of the necessary model data, however, is still challenging, especially for inexperienced users. This prevents an unrestrained proliferation of 3D PDF usage in scholarly communication. This article introduces a new solution for the creation of three of types of 3D geometry (point clouds, polylines and triangle meshes), that is based on MeVisLab, a framework for biomedical image processing. This solution enables even novice users to generate the model data files without requiring programming skills and without the need for an intensive training by simply using it as a conversion tool. Advanced users can benefit from the full capability of MeVisLab to generate and export the model data as part of an overall processing chain. Although MeVisLab is primarily designed for handling biomedical image data, the new module is not restricted to this domain. It can be used for all scientific disciplines. PMID:25780759

  17. The time-variant nature of catchment travel time pdf's: implications for the intepretation of hydro-chemical signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettin, P.; Botter, G.; Bertuzzo, E.; Rinaldo, A.

    2012-12-01

    Catchments are highly dynamical systems forced by stochastic precipitation, and characterized by time-variable transpiration rates and discharges. Despite this, streamflow hydrochemical signals have been frequently interpreted through stationary convolutions between rainfall concentrations and time-invariant transfer functions, on the basis of which the properties of the travel time pdf were inferred. In this contribution we define the intrinsic dynamical nature of travel and residence time distributions, which explains the variability of the mechanisms through which catchments retain and release old and event water, transporting solutes and pollutants to receiving water bodies. General expressions for travel and residence time pdf's are derived as a function of the underlying rainfall-soil-vegetation dynamics and the mixing processes occurring along streamflow production and plant uptake. The work highlights the dependence of water/solute travel times on key eco-hydrological processes (especially transpiration and uptake), and investigates the impact of the time variance in terms of the identification of travel time pdfs and catchment functioning. This is done by means of numerical experiments, and through real-world applications based on the analysis of stream concentrations of chlorides/pesticides in agricultural catchments.

  18. ORA59 and EIN3 interaction couples jasmonate-ethylene synergistic action to antagonistic salicylic acid regulation of PDF expression.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang; Jiang, Jishan; Wang, Changquan; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2017-02-07

    Hormonal crosstalk is central for tailoring plant responses to the nature of challenges encountered. The role of antagonism between the two major defense hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), and modulation of this interplay by ethylene (ET) in favor of JA signaling pathway in plant stress responses is well recognized, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show the opposing function of two transcription factors, ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) and EIN3-Like1 (EIL1), in SA-mediated suppression and JA-mediated activation of PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2). This functional duality is mediated via their effect on protein, not transcript levels of the PDF1.2 transcriptional activator octadecanoid-responsive arabidopsis59 (ORA59). Specifically, JA induces ORA59 protein levels independently of EIN3/EIL1, whereas SA reduces the protein levels dependently of EIN3/EIL1. Co-infiltration assays revealed nuclear co-localization of ORA59 and EIN3, and split-luciferase together with yeast-two-hybrid assays established their physical interaction. The functional ramification of the physical interaction is EIN3-dependent degradation of ORA59 by the 26S proteasome. These findings allude to SA-responsive reduction of ORA59 levels mediated by EIN3 binding to and targeting of ORA59 for degradation, thus nominating ORA59 pool as a coordination node for the antagonistic function of ET/JA and SA.

  19. NIDA for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs and Violence See All Blog Items ... 2017 NOTE: PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word documents require the free Microsoft Word Viewer . Flash content requires the free Adobe Flash Player . National ...

  20. Magnetismo 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardús, J. O.; Curto, J. J.; Sanclement, E.; Torta, J. M.

    This CD-ROM presents the new digital version of the Boletin del Observatorio del Ebro Magnetismo (formerly ISSN 1139-5745). It contains data obtained in the Magnetic Station of the Ebre Observatory during the 1999 year. This corresponds to the 87 volume, in agreement with the former numbering. The structure of the CD-ROM consists of one directory numbered with the year of the measurement. There, it could be found the bulletin as printable sheets (Year.pdf) generate with Adobe Acrobat and data files in plain ASCII text (Year.wdc) readable with any text editor. These data files were compiled according to the data exchange format recommended by the IAGA-2002.

  1. Modulation of light-driven arousal by LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Apterous in large PDF-positive lateral neurons of the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Naoto; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro; Sakai, Takaomi

    2016-01-01

    Apterous (Ap), the best studied LIM-homeodomain transcription factor in Drosophila, cooperates with the cofactor Chip (Chi) to regulate transcription of specific target genes. Although Ap regulates various developmental processes, its function in the adult brain remains unclear. Here, we report that Ap and Chi in the neurons expressing PDF, a neuropeptide, play important roles in proper sleep/wake regulation in adult flies. PDF-expressing neurons consist of two neuronal clusters: small ventral-lateral neurons (s-LNvs) acting as the circadian pacemaker and large ventral-lateral neurons (l-LNvs) regulating light-driven arousal. We identified that Ap localizes to the nuclei of s-LNvs and l-LNvs. In light-dark (LD) cycles, RNAi knockdown or the targeted expression of dominant-negative forms of Ap or Chi in PDF-expressing neurons or l-LNvs promoted arousal. In contrast, in constant darkness, knockdown of Ap in PDF-expressing neurons did not promote arousal, indicating that a reduced Ap function in PDF-expressing neurons promotes light-driven arousal. Furthermore, Ap expression in l-LNvs showed daily rhythms (peaking at midnight), which are generated by a direct light-dependent mechanism rather than by the endogenous clock. These results raise the possibility that the daily oscillation of Ap expression in l-LNvs may contribute to the buffering of light-driven arousal in wild-type flies. PMID:27853240

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of peptide deformylase (PDF) from Bacillus cereus in ligand-free and actinonin-bound forms

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joon Kyu; Moon, Jin Ho; Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Eunice EunKyeong

    2005-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) from B. cereus has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized in ligand-free and actinonin-bound forms. Diffraction data have been collected from these crystals to 1.7 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. In bacteria, protein expression initiates with an N-formyl group and this needs to be removed in order to ensure proper bacterial growth. These formylation and deformylation processes are unique to eubacteria; therefore, inhibition of these would provide a novel antibacterial therapy. Deformylation is carried out by peptide deformylase (PDF). PDF from Bacillus cereus, one of the major pathogenic bacteria, was cloned into expression plasmid pET-28a (Novagen), overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified to high quality. Crystals have been obtained of both ligand-free PDF and PDF to which actinonin, a highly potent naturally occurring inhibitor, is bound. Both crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.72, b = 44.04, c = 85.19 Å and a = 41.31, b = 44.56, c = 84.47 Å, respectively. Diffraction data were collected to 1.7 Å resolution for the inhibitor-free crystals and to 2.0 Å resolution for the actinonin-bound crystals.

  3. THOR: A New Higher-Order Closure Assumed PDF Subgrid-Scale Parameterization; Evaluation and Application to Low Cloud Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firl, G. J.; Randall, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    The so-called "assumed probability density function (PDF)" approach to subgrid-scale (SGS) parameterization has shown to be a promising method for more accurately representing boundary layer cloudiness under a wide range of conditions. A new parameterization has been developed, named the Two-and-a-Half ORder closure (THOR), that combines this approach with a higher-order turbulence closure. THOR predicts the time evolution of the turbulence kinetic energy components, the variance of ice-liquid water potential temperature (θil) and total non-precipitating water mixing ratio (qt) and the covariance between the two, and the vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum, θil, and qt. Ten corresponding third-order moments in addition to the skewnesses of θil and qt are calculated using diagnostic functions assuming negligible time tendencies. The statistical moments are used to define a trivariate double Gaussian PDF among vertical velocity, θil, and qt. The first three statistical moments of each variable are used to estimate the two Gaussian plume means, variances, and weights. Unlike previous similar models, plume variances are not assumed to be equal or zero. Instead, they are parameterized using the idea that the less dominant Gaussian plume (typically representing the updraft-containing portion of a grid cell) has greater variance than the dominant plume (typically representing the "environmental" or slowly subsiding portion of a grid cell). Correlations among the three variables are calculated using the appropriate covariance moments, and both plume correlations are assumed to be equal. The diagnosed PDF in each grid cell is used to calculate SGS condensation, SGS fluxes of cloud water species, SGS buoyancy terms, and to inform other physical parameterizations about SGS variability. SGS condensation is extended from previous similar models to include condensation over both liquid and ice substrates, dependent on the grid cell temperature. Implementations have been

  4. Incorporating the subgrid-scale variability of clouds in the autoconversion parameterization using a PDF-scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, T.; Quaas, J.

    2012-04-01

    An investigation of the impact of the subgrid-scale variability of cloud liquid water on the autoconversion process as parameterized in a general circulation model is presented in this paper. For this purpose, a prognostic statistical probability density distribution (PDF) of the subgrid scale variability of cloud water is incorporated in a continuous autoconversion parameterization. Thus, the revised autoconversion rate is calculated by an integral of the autoconversion equation over the PDF of total water mixing ratio from the saturation vapor mixing ratio to the maximum of total water mixing ratio. An evaluation of the new autoconversion parameterization is carried out by means of one year simulations with the ECHAM5 climate model. The results indicate that the new autoconversion scheme causes an increase of the frequency of occurrence of high autoconversion rates and a decrease of low ones compared to the original scheme. This expected result is due to the emphasis on areas of high cloud liquid water in the new approach, and the non-linearity of the autoconversion with respect to liquid water mixing ratio. A similar trend as in the autoconversion is observed in the accretion process resulting from the coupling of both processes. As a consequence of the altered autoconversion, large-scale surface precipitation also shows a shift of occurrence from lower to higher rates. The vertically integrated cloud liquid water estimated by the model shows slight improvements compared to satellite data. Most importantly, the artificial tuning factor for autoconversion in the continuous parameterization could be reduced by almost an order of magnitude using the revised parameterization.

  5. Building hazard maps of extreme daily rainy events from PDF ensemble, via REA method, on Senegal River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo Osorio, J. D.; García Galiano, S. G.

    2011-11-01

    The Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa, one of the poorest of the Earth, is characterized by high rainfall variability and rapid population growth. In this region, heavy storm events frequently cause extensive damage. Nonetheless, the projections for change in extreme rainfall values have shown a great divergence between Regional Climate Models (RCM), increasing the forecast uncertainty. Novel methodologies should be applied, taking into account both the variability provided by different RCMs, as well as the non-stationary nature of time series for the building of hazard maps of extreme rainfall events. The present work focuses on the probability density functions (PDFs)-based evaluation and a simple quantitative measure of how well each RCM considered can capture the observed annual maximum daily rainfall (AMDR) series on the Senegal River basin. Since meaningful trends have been detected in historical rainfall time series for the region, non-stationary probabilistic models were used to fit the PDF parameters to the AMDR time series. In the development of PDF ensemble by bootstrapping techniques, Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) maps were applied to score the RCMs. The REA factors were computed using a metric to evaluate the agreement between observed -or best estimated- PDFs, and that simulated with each RCM. The assessment of plausible regional trends associated to the return period, from the hazard maps of AMDR, showed a general rise, owing to an increase in the mean and the variability of extreme precipitation. These spatial-temporal distributions could be considered by Organization for the Development of the Senegal River (Organisation pour la mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal, OMVS), in such a way as to reach a better balance between mitigation and adaptation.

  6. Building hazard maps of extreme daily rainy events from PDF ensemble, via REA method, on Senegal River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, J. D.; García Galiano, S. G.

    2011-04-01

    The Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa, one of the poorest of the Earth, is characterized by high rainfall variability and rapid population growth. In this region, heavy storm events frequently cause extensive damage. Nonetheless, the projections for change in extreme rainfall values have shown a great divergence between Regional Climate Models (RCM), increasing the forecast uncertainty. Novel methodologies should be applied, taking into account both the variability provided by different RCMs, as well as the non-stationary nature of time series for the building of hazard maps of extreme rainfall events. The present work focuses in the probability density functions (PDFs)-based evaluation and a simple quantitative measure of how well each RCM considered can capture the observed annual maximum daily rainfall (AMDR) series on the Senegal River basin. Since meaningful trends have been detected in historical rainfall time series for the region, non-stationary probabilistic models were used to fit the PDF parameters to the AMDR time series. In the development of PDF ensemble by bootstrapping techniques, Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) maps were applied to score the RCMs. The REA factors were computed using a metric to evaluate the agreement between observed -or best estimated- PDFs, and that simulated with each RCM. The assessment of plausible regional trends associated to the return period, from the hazard maps of AMDR, showed a general rise, owing to an increase in the mean and the variability of extreme precipitation. These spatial-temporal distributions could be considered by local stakeholders in such a way as to reach a better balance between mitigation and adaptation.

  7. STP 4-06 Model-Based Technical Data in Procurement, 3D PDF Technology Data Demonstration Project. Phase 1 Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    procure items, as well as items that can be procured using 3D printer tech- nology. However, until we have some hard facts, it’s hard to say ‘what’s in...O R G STP 4-06 MODEL-BASED TECHNICAL DATA IN PROCUREMENT 3D PDF TECHNOLOGY DATA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT PHASE 1 SUMMARY REPORT DL309T2...LMI’s ISO- certified quality management procedures. J U L Y 2 0 1 5 STP 4-06 MODEL-BASED TECHNICAL DATA IN PROCUREMENT 3D PDF TECHNICAL DATA

  8. Plausibility Functions of Iowa Vocabulary Test Items Estimated by the Simple Sum Procedure of the Conditional P.D.F. Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    Simple sum procedure of the conditional PDF approach (plausiblity of distractor function) combined with the normal approach method was applied for estimating the plausibility functions of the distractors of the Level II vocabulary subtest items of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills. In so doing, the normal ogive model was adopted for the correct…

  9. A Role for the GCC-Box in Jasmonate-Mediated Activation of the PDF1.2 Gene of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca L.; Kazan, Kemal; McGrath, Ken C.; Maclean, Don J.; Manners, John M.

    2003-01-01

    The PDF1.2 gene of Arabidopsis encoding a plant defensin is commonly used as a marker for characterization of the jasmonate-dependent defense responses. Here, using PDF1.2 promoter-deletion lines linked to the β-glucoronidase-reporter gene, we examined putative promoter elements associated with jasmonate-responsive expression of this gene. Using stably transformed plants, we first characterized the extended promoter region that positively regulates basal expression from the PDF1.2 promoter. Second, using promoter deletion constructs including one from which the GCC-box region was deleted, we observed a substantially lower response to jasmonate than lines carrying this motif. In addition, point mutations introduced into the core GCC-box sequence substantially reduced jasmonate responsiveness, whereas addition of a 20-nucleotide-long promoter element carrying the core GCC-box and flanking nucleotides provided jasmonate responsiveness to a 35S minimal promoter. Taken together, these results indicated that the GCC-box plays a key role in conferring jasmonate responsiveness to the PDF1.2 promoter. However, deletion or specific mutations introduced into the core GCC-box did not completely abolish the jasmonate responsiveness of the promoter, suggesting that the other promoter elements lying downstream from the GCC-box region may also contribute to jasmonate responsiveness. In other experiments, we identified a jasmonate- and pathogen-responsive ethylene response factor transcription factor, AtERF2, which when overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants activated transcription from the PDF1.2, Thi2.1, and PR4 (basic chitinase) genes, all of which contain a GCC-box sequence in their promoters. Our results suggest that in addition to their roles in regulating ethylene-mediated gene expression, ethylene response factors also appear to play important roles in regulating jasmonate-responsive gene expression, possibly via interaction with the GCC-box. PMID:12805630

  10. PDF computations for power-in-the-bucket measurements of an IR laser beam propagating in the maritime environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, C.; Avramov-Zamurovic, S.; Malek-Madani, R.; Korotkova, O.; Sova, R.; Davidson, F.

    2011-06-01

    During two separate field tests (July and September 2009) the performance of a free-space optical (FSO) communications link was evaluated in the maritime environment off of the mid-Atlantic coast near Wallops Island, VA. During these two field tests, a bi-directional shore-to-ship data link was established using commercially available adaptive optics terminals. The link, which ranged from 2 - 22 km (optical horizon), was established between a lookout tower located on Cedar Island, VA and a Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory research vessel. This paper presents statistical analysis of the power-in-the-bucket captured from two detectors placed alongside the adaptive optics terminal during the September 2009 field trial. The detectors ranged in size from 0.25" to 1.0" in diameter. We will present the histogram reconstruction and compare the data for the 0.25" and 1.0" power-in-bucket (PIB), and 1.0" power-in-fiber (PIF) Adaptive Optics (AO) detectors with analytical probability density function (PDF) models based on the Lognormal, Gamma-Laguerre, and Gamma-Gamma distributions. Additionally, dependence of the results on propagation distance, detector aperture size, and varying levels of optical turbulence are investigated.

  11. Southern California Edison PDF

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Southern California Edison report describes an evaluation of SCE’s Retail Appliance Recycling Program (Retail ARP) trial that was initiated in late October 2010 and completed in September of 2011.

  12. Examination of the Atomic Pair Distribution Function (PDF) of SiC Nanocrystals by In-situ High Pressure Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grzanka, E.; Stelmakh, S.; Gierlotka, S.; Zhao, Y.; Palosz, B.; Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Key properties of nanocrystals are determined by their real atomic structure, therefore a reasonable understanding and meaningful interpretation of their properties requires a realistic model of the structure. In this paper we present an evidence of a complex response of the lattice distances to external pressure indicating a presence of a complex structure of Sic nanopowders. The experiments were performed on nanocrystalline Sic subjected to hydrostatic or isostatic pressure using synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction. Elastic properties of the samples were examined based on X-ray diffraction data using a Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) in HASYLAB at DESY. The dependence'of the lattice parameters and of the Bragg reflections width with pressure exhibits a ha1 nature of the properties (compressibilities) of the powders and indicates a complex structure of the grains. We interpreted tws behaviour as originating from different elastic properties of the grain interior and surface. Analysis of the dependence of individual interatomic distances on pressure was based on in-situ neutron diffraction measurements done with HbD diffractometer at LANSCE in Los Alamos National Laboratory with the Paris-Edinburgh cell under pressures up to 8 GPa (Qmax = 26/A). Interatomic distances were obtained by PDF analysis using the PDFgetN program. We have found that the interatomic distances undergo a complex, non-monotonic changes. Even under substantial pressures a considerable relaxation of the lattice may take place: some interatomic distances increase with an increase in pressure. We relate this phenomenon to: (1), changes of the microstructure of the densified material, in particular breaking of its fractal chain structure and, (2), its complex structure resembling that of a material composed of two phases, each with its distinct elastic properties.

  13. Development of a Rapid, Standardized Data Inventory for R2K Field Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Chayes, D. N.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ryan, W. B.; Lehnert, K. A.; Shank, T. M.

    2003-12-01

    Effective data management for Ridge2000 requires the production of a complete data inventory for every field program in a timely and standardized way. We are developing a set of forms to document 1.) basic field program information (dates and locations, platform, science party, etc); 2.) an inventory of sensor systems, data types (marine geophysical, physical and chemical oceanographic, rock and sediment samples, and biological), and file formats; 3.) supplemental attachments (written reports, instrument diagrams, etc); and 4.) a basic navigation track. We regard this as the minimal set of metadata which should be produced immediately at the end of a field program, in order to publicize it in an online database and satisfy agency requirements. We have developed a prototype set of Portable Document Format (PDF) forms which can be completed during a cruise through a combination of manual and automated input. PDF is a stable and widely-used format, with software available as both a commercial product (Adobe Acrobat) and an open-source library (http://www.pdflib.org). Completing a PDF form requires only the Acrobat Reader software, which is freely available for every major computing platform. Acrobat offers extensive functionality to aid in data inventory, including the ability to verify content on-the-fly, import data from other files and forms, show controlled vocabularies as pop-up menus, export to XML format, and print a high-quality readable report. Prototype forms have been tested on a recent transit of the CGC Healy, and we plan to continue testing on other ships and soliciting community feedback over the next several months. We envision a long-term plan in which a master set of forms is deployed with every R2K field program, along with a copy of Acrobat Reader, on lightweight storage media such as USB keys. The completed forms will then be transmitted to the data management center, where they are ingested automatically and the information made available in the

  14. Aerial Population Estimates of Wild Horses (Equus caballus) in the Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas Using an Integrated Simultaneous Double-Count and Sightability Bias Correction Technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lubow, Bruce C.; Ransom, Jason I.

    2007-01-01

    An aerial survey technique combining simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction methodologies was used to estimate the population of wild horses inhabiting Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas, Wyoming. Based on 5 surveys over 4 years, we conclude that the technique produced estimates consistent with the known number of horses removed between surveys and an annual population growth rate of 16.2 percent per year. Therefore, evidence from this series of surveys supports the validity of this survey method. Our results also indicate that the ability of aerial observers to see horse groups is very strongly dependent on skill of the individual observer, size of the horse group, and vegetation cover. It is also more modestly dependent on the ruggedness of the terrain and the position of the sun relative to the observer. We further conclude that censuses, or uncorrected raw counts, are inadequate estimates of population size for this herd. Such uncorrected counts were all undercounts in our trials, and varied in magnitude from year to year and observer to observer. As of April 2007, we estimate that the population of the Adobe Town /Salt Wells Creek complex is 906 horses with a 95 percent confidence interval ranging from 857 to 981 horses.

  15. Possible costs associated with investigating and mitigating geologic hazards in rural areas of western San Mateo County, California with a section on using the USGS website to determine the cost of developing property for residences in rural parts of San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.; Roberts, Sebastian; Cotton, William R.; Kropp, Alan L.; Wright, Robert H.; Zinn, Erik N.; Digital database by Roberts, Sebastian; Mills, Suzanne K.; Barnes, Jason B.; Marsolek, Joanna E.

    2000-01-01

    This publication consists of a digital map database on a geohazards web site, http://kaibab.wr.usgs.gov/geohazweb/intro.htm, this text, and 43 digital map images available for downloading at this site. The report is stored as several digital files, in ARC export (uncompressed) format for the database, and Postscript and PDF formats for the map images. Several of the source data layers for the images have already been released in other publications by the USGS and are available for downloading on the Internet. These source layers are not included in this digital database, but rather a reference is given for the web site where the data can be found in digital format. The exported ARC coverages and grids lie in UTM zone 10 projection. The pamphlet, which only describes the content and character of the digital map database, is included as Postscript, PDF, and ASCII text files and is also available on paper as USGS Open-File Report 00-127. The full versatility of the spatial database is realized by importing the ARC export files into ARC/INFO or an equivalent GIS. Other GIS packages, including MapInfo and ARCVIEW, can also use the ARC export files. The Postscript map image can be used for viewing or plotting in computer systems with sufficient capacity, and the considerably smaller PDF image files can be viewed or plotted in full or in part from Adobe ACROBAT software running on Macintosh, PC, or UNIX platforms.

  16. Geologic map of the San Bernardino North 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, F.K.; Matti, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. This Readme; includes an Appendix, containing data found in sbnorth_met.txt . b. The Description of Map Units identical to that found on the plot of the PostScript file. c. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots from this .pdf do not produce 1:24,000-scale maps. Use Adobe Acrobat pagesize setting to control map scale.) The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series (I-series) maps. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially forest roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS San Bernardino North 7.5’ topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  17. Demonstration of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF) for the study of local structure in amorphous and crystalline thin films.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kirsten M Ø; Blichfeld, Anders B; Bauers, Sage R; Wood, Suzannah R; Dooryhée, Eric; Johnson, David C; Iversen, Bo B; Billinge, Simon J L

    2015-09-01

    By means of normal-incidence, high-flux and high-energy X-rays, total scattering data for pair distribution function (PDF) analysis have been obtained from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. The 'tfPDF' method is illustrated through studies of as-deposited (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows the prediction of whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films.

  18. Laboratory Characterization of Adobe (Scottsdale)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Testing and Materials. 2009a. Standard test method for pulse velocity through concrete. Designation C 597-97. Philadelphia, PA: American Society for ... Testing and Materials. _____. 2009b. Standard test method for laboratory determination of water (moisture) content of soil and rock by mass...Designation D 2216-98. Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials. _____. 2009c. Standard test method for preparing

  19. FastStats: Illegal Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

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  20. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... States Division NIOSH Awards Search the NIOSH Website File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  1. Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabled and/or not supported in this browser File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  2. Chickenpox (Varicella) Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Recipe for Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... MMWR RSS VitalSigns RSS Error processing SSI file File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  4. FastStats: Births -- Method of Delivery

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  5. Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

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  6. Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP)

    MedlinePlus

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  8. FastStats: Prostate Disease

    MedlinePlus

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  9. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

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  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... captured CDC's achievements over the past 30 years. File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  11. Polio Pictures

    MedlinePlus

    ... the U.S. Polio Vaccination Polio Overview for Travelers File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

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    MedlinePlus

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  13. Tuberculosis: The Connection between TB and HIV (the AIDS Virus)

    MedlinePlus

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  14. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sepsis Sharps Safety - CDC Transplant Safety Vaccine Safety File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  15. Facts about Coarctation of the Aorta

    MedlinePlus

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  16. Photos of MRSA Infections

    MedlinePlus

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  17. Photos of Measles and People with Measles

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    ... Lab Tools Serology Specimens for Detection by RT-PCR or Virus Isolation Measles Lab Manual Vero/hSLAM ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  18. Measles (Rubeola): Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

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  19. Demonstration of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF) for the study of local structure in amorphous and crystalline thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, K. M.Ø.; Blichfeld, A. B.; Bauers, S. R.; Wood, S. R.; Dooryhee, E.; Johnson, D. C.; Iversen, B. B.; Billinge, S.

    2015-07-05

    By means of normal incidence, high flux and high energy x-rays, we have obtained total scattering data for Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. We illustrate the ‘tfPDF’ method through studies of as deposited (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows predicting whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films.

  20. Demonstration of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF) for the study of local structure in amorphous and crystalline thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Jensen, K. M.Ø.; Blichfeld, A. B.; Bauers, S. R.; ...

    2015-07-05

    By means of normal incidence, high flux and high energy x-rays, we have obtained total scattering data for Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. We illustrate the ‘tfPDF’ method through studies of as depositedmore » (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows predicting whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films.« less

  1. Demonstration of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF) for the study of local structure in amorphous and crystalline thin films

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kirsten M. Ø.; Blichfeld, Anders B.; Bauers, Sage R.; Wood, Suzannah R.; Dooryhée, Eric; Johnson, David C.; Iversen, Bo B.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2015-01-01

    By means of normal-incidence, high-flux and high-energy X-rays, total scattering data for pair distribution function (PDF) analysis have been obtained from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. The ‘tfPDF’ method is illustrated through studies of as-deposited (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows the prediction of whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films. PMID:26306190

  2. Current Status on the use of Parallel Computing in Turbulent Reacting Flow Computations Involving Sprays, Monte Carlo PDF and Unstructured Grids. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    The state of the art in multidimensional combustor modeling as evidenced by the level of sophistication employed in terms of modeling and numerical accuracy considerations, is also dictated by the available computer memory and turnaround times afforded by present-day computers. With the aim of advancing the current multi-dimensional computational tools used in the design of advanced technology combustors, a solution procedure is developed that combines the novelty of the coupled CFD/spray/scalar Monte Carlo PDF (Probability Density Function) computations on unstructured grids with the ability to run on parallel architectures. In this approach, the mean gas-phase velocity and turbulence fields are determined from a standard turbulence model, the joint composition of species and enthalpy from the solution of a modeled PDF transport equation, and a Lagrangian-based dilute spray model is used for the liquid-phase representation. The gas-turbine combustor flows are often characterized by a complex interaction between various physical processes associated with the interaction between the liquid and gas phases, droplet vaporization, turbulent mixing, heat release associated with chemical kinetics, radiative heat transfer associated with highly absorbing and radiating species, among others. The rate controlling processes often interact with each other at various disparate time 1 and length scales. In particular, turbulence plays an important role in determining the rates of mass and heat transfer, chemical reactions, and liquid phase evaporation in many practical combustion devices.

  3. Comprehensive insights into the structural and chemical changes in mixed-anion FeOF electrodes by using operando PDF and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wiaderek, Kamila M; Borkiewicz, Olaf J; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Robert, Rosa; Pereira, Nathalie; Amatucci, Glenn G; Grey, Clare P; Chupas, Peter J; Chapman, Karena W

    2013-03-13

    In-depth analysis of operando X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) data is combined with Li NMR spectroscopy to gain comprehensive insights into the electrochemical reaction mechanism of high-performance iron oxyfluoride electrodes. While the full discharge capacity could be recovered upon charge, implying reversibility of the electrochemical reaction, the atomic structure of the electrode formed after cycling (discharge-charge) differs from the pristine uncycled electrode material. Instead, the "active" electrode that forms upon cycling is a nanocomposite of an amorphous rutile phase and a nanoscale rock salt phase. Bond valence sum analysis, based on the precise structural parameters (bond lengths and coordination number) extracted from the in situ PDF data, suggests that anion partitioning occurs during the electrochemical reaction, with the rutile phase being F-rich and the rock salt phase being O-rich. The F- and O-rich phases react sequentially; Fe in a F-rich environment reacts preferentially during both discharge and charge.

  4. Continuous particle separation using pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Hyungkook; Kim, Youngkyu; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE), a novel continuous separation method. In our separation system, the external flow and electric field are applied to particles, such that particle movement is affected by pressure-driven flow, electroosmosis, and electrophoresis. We then analyzed the hydrodynamic drag force and electrophoretic force applied to the particles in opposite directions. Based on this analysis, micro- and nano-sized particles were separated according to their electrophoretic mobilities with high separation efficiency. Because the separation can be achieved in a simple T-shaped microchannel, without the use of internal electrodes, it offers the advantages of low-cost, simple device fabrication and bubble-free operation, compared with conventional μ-FFE methods. Therefore, we expect the proposed separation method to have a wide range of filtering/separation applications in biochemical analysis.

  5. Continuous particle separation using pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE)

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyungkook; Kim, Youngkyu; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE), a novel continuous separation method. In our separation system, the external flow and electric field are applied to particles, such that particle movement is affected by pressure-driven flow, electroosmosis, and electrophoresis. We then analyzed the hydrodynamic drag force and electrophoretic force applied to the particles in opposite directions. Based on this analysis, micro- and nano-sized particles were separated according to their electrophoretic mobilities with high separation efficiency. Because the separation can be achieved in a simple T-shaped microchannel, without the use of internal electrodes, it offers the advantages of low-cost, simple device fabrication and bubble-free operation, compared with conventional μ-FFE methods. Therefore, we expect the proposed separation method to have a wide range of filtering/separation applications in biochemical analysis. PMID:26819221

  6. Surficial geologic maps along the riparian zone of the Animas River and its headwater tributaries, Silverton to Durango, Colorado, with upper Animas River watershed gradient profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blair, R.W.; Yager, D.B.; Church, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    This product consists of Adobe Acrobat .PDF format documents for 10 surficial geologic strip maps along the Animas River watershed from its major headwater tributaries, south to Durango, Colorado. The Animas River originates in the San Juan Mountains north of the historic mining town of Silverton, Colorado. The surficial geologic maps identify surficial deposits, such as flood-plain and terrace gravels, alluvial fans, glacial till, talus, colluvium, landslides, and bogs. Sixteen primary units were mapped that included human-related deposits and structures, eight alluvial, four colluvial, one glacial, travertine deposits, and undifferentiated bedrock. Each of the surficial geologic strip maps has .PDF links to surficial geology photographs, which enable the user to take a virtual tour of these deposits. Geochemical data collected from mapped surficial deposits that pre- and postdate mining activity have aided in determining the geochemical baseline in the watershed. Several photographs with their corresponding geochemical baseline profiles are accessible through .PDF links from several of the maps. A single coverage for all surficial deposits mapped is included as an ArcInfo shape file as an Arc Export format .e00 file. A gradient map for major headwater tributary streams to the Animas River is also included. The gradient map has stream segments that are color-coded based on relative variations in slope and .PDF format links to each stream gradient profile. Stream gradients were derived from U.S. Geological Survey 10-m digital elevation model data. This project was accomplished in support of the U.S. Geological Survey's Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure, and electronic properties of high-pressure PdF2-type oxides MO2 (M = Ru, Rh, Os, Ir, Pt).

    PubMed

    Shirako, Yuichi; Wang, Xia; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Kie; Guo, Yanfeng; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Nemoto, Yoshihiro; Katsuya, Yoshio; Shi, Youguo; Mori, Daisuke; Kojitani, Hiroshi; Yamaura, Kazunari; Inaguma, Yoshiyuki; Akaogi, Masaki

    2014-11-03

    The polycrystalline MO2's (HP-PdF2-type MO2, M = Rh, Os, Pt) with high-pressure PdF2 compounds were successfully synthesized under high-pressure conditions for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The crystal structures and electromagnetic properties were studied. Previously unreported electronic properties of the polycrystalline HP-PdF2-type RuO2 and IrO2 were also studied. The refined structures clearly indicated that all compounds crystallized into the HP-PdF2-type structure, M(4+)O(2-)2, rather than the pyrite-type structure, M(n+)(O2)(n-) (n < 4). The MO2 compounds (M = Ru, Rh, Os, Ir) exhibited metallic conduction, while PtO2 was highly insulating, probably because of the fully occupied t2g band. Neither superconductivity nor a magnetic transition was detected down to a temperature of 2 K, unlike the case of 3d transition metal chalcogenide pyrites.

  8. The AME2016 atomic mass evaluation (II). Tables, graphs and references

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Audi, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Huang, W. J.; Naimi, S.; Xu, Xing

    2017-03-01

    This paper is the second part of the new evaluation of atomic masses, AME2016. Using least-squares adjustments to all evaluated and accepted experimental data, described in Part I, we derive tables with numerical values and graphs to replace those given in AME2012. The first table lists the recommended atomic mass values and their uncertainties. It is followed by a table of the influences of data on primary nuclides, a table of various reaction and decay energies, and finally, a series of graphs of separation and decay energies. The last section of this paper lists all references of the input data used in the AME2016 and the NUBASE2016 evaluations (first paper in this issue). AMDC: http://amdc.impcas.ac.cn/ Contents The AME2016 atomic mass evaluation (II). Tables, graphs and referencesAcrobat PDF (293 KB) Table I. The 2016 Atomic mass tableAcrobat PDF (273 KB) Table II. Influences on primary nuclidesAcrobat PDF (160 KB) Table III. Nuclear-reaction and separation energiesAcrobat PDF (517 KB) Graphs of separation and decay energiesAcrobat PDF (589 KB) References used in the AME2016 and the NUBASE2016 evaluationsAcrobat PDF (722 KB)

  9. Geologic map of the Lakeview 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Matti, Jonathan C.

    2001-01-01

    This Open-File Report contains a digital geologic map and map database of the Lakeview 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California, that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute) version 7.2.1 double-precision coverages of the various elements of the geologic map 2. A Postscript file to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram and a Description of Map Units 3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. This Readme; includes, in Appendix I, data contained in lkvw_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots from this .pdf do not produce 1:24,000-scale maps. Adobe Acrobat page size settings control map scale.) This release includes features not found in most other digital geologic maps, in that all polygons, lines, and points in the coverage are encoded with detailed, comprehensive, contained in five INFO data tables (.rel) (see Matti and others, 1998a, 1998b, and 1998c for information on how the encoding may be accessed and utilized). No paper map is included in this report, but a PostScript plot file containing an image of the geologic map sheet, topographic base, Correlation of Map Units (CMU), and detailed Description of Map Units (DMU) is. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Lakeview 7.5' topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  10. Geologic map of the Devore 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Matti, Jonathan C.

    2001-01-01

    This Open-File Report contains a digital geologic map database of the Devore 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California, that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute) version 7.2.1 coverages of the various components of the geologic map 2. A PostScript (.ps) file to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram, a Description of Map Units, an index map, and a regional structure map 3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. This Readme; includes an Appendix, containing metadata details found in devre_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots from this .pdf do not produce 1:24,000-scale maps. Adobe Acrobat page-size settings control map scale.) The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units are in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series maps (I-maps) but have not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic-map data package, map units are identified by such standard geologic-map criteria as formation name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially forest roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Devore 7.5’ topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  11. 78 FR 34995 - Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel); Notice of Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ..., Room 3B747, Washington, DC 2030122203. Email: ResponseSystemPanelDFO@osd.mil . Phone: (703) 571-2664... notice in the following formats: Adobe Acrobat, WordPerfect, or Microsoft Word. Please note that since...SystemPanelDFO@osd.mil . Phone: (703) 571- 2664. For meeting information please contact Ms. Fried....

  12. 78 FR 27959 - Defense Legal Policy Board; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    .... Email: StaffDirectorDefenseLegalPolicyBoard@osd.mil . Phone: (703) 696-5449. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... Federal Officer given in this notice in the following formats: Adobe Acrobat, WordPerfect, or Microsoft...: defenselegalpolicyboarddfo@osd.mil . Phone: (703) 697-9343. For meeting information please contact Mr. David Gruber,...

  13. 78 FR 6813 - Defense Legal Policy Board; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... 3656, Arlington, VA 22203. Email: StaffDirectorDefenseLegalPolicyBoard@osd.mil . Phone: (703) 696-5449... INFORMATION CONTACT in the following formats: Adobe Acrobat, WordPerfect, or Microsoft Word. Please note that... Board, PO Box 3656, Arlington, VA 22203. Email: defenselegalpolicyboarddfo@osd.mil . Phone: (703)...

  14. 77 FR 19479 - Closed Captioning of Internet Protocol-Delivered Video Programming: Implementation of the Twenty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... pursuant to the Small Business Paperwork Relief Act of 2002, Public Law 107-198, see 44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(4... the Internet at PRA@fcc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This is a summary of the Commission's Report... Adobe Acrobat.) The complete text may be purchased from the Commission's copy contractor, 445...

  15. Design and Implementation of a Self-Directed Stereochemistry Lesson Using Embedded Virtual Three-Dimensional Images in a Portable Document Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Jeremy A.; Craig, Paul A.; Loudermilk, Adam D.; Yacci, Paul M.; Frisco, Sarah L.; Milillo, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    A novel stereochemistry lesson was prepared that incorporated both handheld molecular models and embedded virtual three-dimensional (3D) images. The images are fully interactive and eye-catching for the students; methods for preparing 3D molecular images in Adobe Acrobat are included. The lesson was designed and implemented to showcase the 3D…

  16. Concepts & Procedures. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauder, Deborah Y., Ed.; Mullick, Rosemary, Ed.; Sarner, Ronald, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on concepts and procedures from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: "Using School District Standards To Develop Thematic Lessons for Electronic Portfolios" (Cindy L. Anderson and others); "Using Adobe Acrobat for Electronic Portfolio…

  17. 47 CFR 1.10007 - What applications can I file electronically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What applications can I file electronically? 1... Grants by Random Selection International Bureau Filing System § 1.10007 What applications can I file... filing. We accept attachments in the following formats: Word, Adobe Acrobat, Excel and Text. (c)...

  18. Electric Writing--HTML for the Lazy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurdo, George

    1996-01-01

    Describes HTML (HyperText Markup Language) and its use on the Internet's World Wide Web, including main HTML tags and their syntaxes. Alternatives to HTML, such as Adobe's Acrobat software and Sun's new Java application language, are briefly described. (Author/LRW)

  19. 75 FR 78929 - Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Peggy Busby, by phone at...

  20. 76 FR 7182 - National Assessment Governing Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... and specifications, developing appropriate student achievement levels for each grade and subject... and contracting options, adversely impacting the confidentiality of the contracting process. Public... Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following site:...

  1. 78 FR 64186 - Boundary Expansion of Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... accessible. NOAA will accept anonymous comments (enter ``N/A'' in the required fields if you wish to remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF...

  2. 78 FR 66327 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS); 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    .... NMFS will accept anonymous comments (enter ``N/A'' in the required fields if you wish to remain anonymous). You may submit attachments to electronic comments in Microsoft Word or Excel, or Adobe PDF...

  3. Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part A - Coal and wind

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Jones, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    To further advance the objectives of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wyoming State Geological Survey (WSGS) have compiled Part A of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming. Focusing primarily on electrical power sources, Part A of the energy map is a compilation of both published and previously unpublished coal (including coalbed gas) and wind energy resources data, presented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package. Energy maps, data, documentation and spatial data processing capabilities are available in a geodatabase, published map file (pmf), ArcMap document (mxd), Adobe Acrobat PDF map (plate 1) and other digital formats that can be downloaded at the USGS website. Accompanying the map (plate 1) and the geospatial data are four additional plates that describe the geology, energy resources, and related infrastructure. These tabular plates include coal mine (plate 2), coal field (plate 3), coalbed gas assessment unit (plate 4), and wind farm (plate 5) information with hyperlinks to source publications and data on the internet. The plates can be printed and examined in hardcopy, or accessed digitally. The data represent decades of research by the USGS, WSGS, BLM and others, and can facilitate landscape-level science assessments, and resource management decisionmaking.

  4. Computer simulation for prediction of performance and thermodynamic parameters of high energy materials.

    PubMed

    Muthurajan, H; Sivabalan, R; Talawar, M B; Asthana, S N

    2004-08-09

    A new code viz., Linear Output Thermodynamic User-friendly Software for Energetic Systems (LOTUSES) developed during this work predicts the theoretical performance parameters such as density, detonation factor, velocity of detonation, detonation pressure and thermodynamic properties such as heat of detonation, heat of explosion, volume of explosion gaseous products. The same code also assists in the prediction of possible explosive decomposition products after explosion and power index. The developed code has been validated by calculating the parameters of standard explosives such as TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX. Theoretically predicated parameters are accurate to the order of +/-5% deviation. To the best of our knowledge, no such code is reported in literature which can predict a wide range of characteristics of known/unknown explosives with minimum input parameters. The code can be used to obtain thermochemical and performance parameters of high energy materials (HEMs) with reasonable accuracy. The code has been developed in Visual Basic having enhanced windows environment, and thereby advantages over the conventional codes, written in Fortran. The theoretically predicted HEMs performance can be directly printed as well as stored in text (.txt) or HTML (.htm) or Microsoft Word (.doc) or Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format in the hard disk. The output can also be copied into the Random Access Memory as clipboard text which can be imported/pasted in other software as in the case of other codes.

  5. Using the World Wide Web for GIDEP Problem Data Processing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, John W.; Haraway, Sandra W.; Whirley, J. Don

    1999-01-01

    Since April 1997, Marshall Space Flight Center has been using electronic transfer and the web to support our processing of the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA ALERT information. Specific aspects include: (1) Extraction of ASCII text information from GIDEP for loading into Word documents for e-mail to ALERT actionees; (2) Downloading of GIDEP form image formats in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) for internal storage display on the MSFC ALERT web page; (3) Linkage of stored GRDEP problem forms with summary information for access from the MSFC ALERT Distribution Summary Chart or from an html table of released MSFC ALERTs (4) Archival of historic ALERTs for reference by GIDEP ID, MSFC ID, or MSFC release date; (5) On-line tracking of ALERT response status using a Microsoft Access database and the web (6) On-line response to ALERTs from MSFC actionees through interactive web forms. The technique, benefits, effort, coordination, and lessons learned for each aspect are covered herein.

  6. Database Reports Over the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dean Lance

    2002-01-01

    Most of the summer was spent developing software that would permit existing test report forms to be printed over the web on a printer that is supported by Adobe Acrobat Reader. The data is stored in a DBMS (Data Base Management System). The client asks for the information from the database using an HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) form in a web browser. JavaScript is used with the forms to assist the user and verify the integrity of the entered data. Queries to a database are made in SQL (Sequential Query Language), a widely supported standard for making queries to databases. Java servlets, programs written in the Java programming language running under the control of network server software, interrogate the database and complete a PDF form template kept in a file. The completed report is sent to the browser requesting the report. Some errors are sent to the browser in an HTML web page, others are reported to the server. Access to the databases was restricted since the data are being transported to new DBMS software that will run on new hardware. However, the SQL queries were made to Microsoft Access, a DBMS that is available on most PCs (Personal Computers). Access does support the SQL commands that were used, and a database was created with Access that contained typical data for the report forms. Some of the problems and features are discussed below.

  7. Geologic map of the Telegraph Peak 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, D.M.; Woodburne, M.O.; Foster, J.H.; Morton, Gregory; Cossette, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in fif_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat pagesize setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially forest roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Telegraph Peak 7.5’ topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  8. Geologic map of the Cucamonga Peak 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, D.M.; Matti, J.C.; Digital preparation by Koukladas, Catherine; Cossette, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in fif_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat pagesize setting influences map scale.) The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially forest roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Cucamonga Peak 7.5’ topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  9. Reprocessing of multi-channel seismic-reflection data collected in the Beaufort Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agena, W.F.; Lee, Myung W.; Hart, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Contained on this set of two CD-ROMs are stacked and migrated multi-channel seismic-reflection data for 65 lines recorded in the Beaufort Sea by the United States Geological Survey in 1977. All data were reprocessed by the USGS using updated processing methods resulting in improved interpretability. Each of the two CD-ROMs contains the following files: 1) 65 files containing the digital seismic data in standard, SEG-Y format; 2) 1 file containing navigation data for the 65 lines in standard SEG-P1 format; 3) an ASCII text file with cross-reference information for relating the sequential trace numbers on each line to cdp numbers and shotpoint numbers; 4) 2 small scale graphic images (stacked and migrated) of a segment of line 722 in Adobe Acrobat (R) PDF format; 5) a graphic image of the location map, generated from the navigation file; 6) PlotSeis, an MS-DOS Application that allows PC users to interactively view the SEG-Y files; 7) a PlotSeis documentation file; and 8) an explanation of the processing used to create the final seismic sections (this document).

  10. The development of a new edition of the gamma-ray spectrum catalogues designed for presentation in electronic format

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, R.L.

    1997-11-01

    New editions of the original Gamma-ray Spectrum Catalogues are being prepared for publication in electronic format. The objective of this program is to produce versions of the Catalogues in CD-ROM format and as an Internet resource. Additions to the original content of the Catalogues will include integrated decay scheme drawings, tables of related decay data, and updated text on the techniques of gamma-ray spectrometry. Related decay data from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) are then added, and all data converted to the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format for CD-ROM production and availability on the large-volume Ge detectors, alpha-particle spectra, prompt neutron capture and inelastic scattering gamma-ray spectra, and gross fission product spectra characteristic of fuel cycle waste materials. Characterization of radioactivity in materials is a requirement in many phases of radioactive waste management. Movement, shipping, treatment, all activities which involve handling of mixed waste or TRU categories of waste at all DOE sites will require that measurements and assessment documentation utilize basic nuclear data which are tracable to internationally accepted standard values. This program will involve the identification of data needs unique to the development and application of specialized detector systems for radioactive waste characterization. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Tira Sujanpur: An Adobe of Katoch Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shree, Venu; Sharma, Puneet

    2015-06-01

    Image of any ancient settlement can be interpreted through a continuous study of its Historical and Architectural developments. The best way to map this image is to analyze and explore old monuments, palaces and religious places of that city. This work is an attempt to showcase the glorious era of Art and Architecture which flourished during Katoch dynasty in north Himalayan region of India during 18th century. Being one of the most known examples of Katoch Dynasty Tira Sujanpur has been documented in detail in this paper. This documentation covers the detail study of relationship between townscape and public places. Architecture style of Katoch Dynasty, Splendid along the cluster of the buildings, Temples and palaces has also been giving due consideration in the paper.

  12. Numerical Simulation Of Cratering Effects In Adobe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    test data of shock velocity and particle velocity for those materials. The data labeled “ Sesame ”, found within CTH sesame tables, was processed...a function of solid density, the “ Sesame ” and “Marsh” data were plotted as pressure versus density shown in Figure 5. 10 Equation 22

  13. 39 CFR 3001.10 - Form and number of copies of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... If the document is bound, it shall be bound on the left side. Copies of documents for filing and service must be printed from a text-based pdf version of the document, where possible. Otherwise, they may... generated in either Acrobat (pdf), Word, or WordPerfect, or Rich Text Format (rtf)....

  14. 39 CFR 3001.10 - Form and number of copies of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... which they are attached. If the document is bound, it shall be bound on the left side. Copies of documents for filing and service must be printed from a text-based pdf version of the document, where... generated in either Acrobat (pdf), Word, WordPerfect, or Rich Text Format (rtf). (d) Exception for...

  15. 39 CFR 3001.10 - Form and number of copies of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... which they are attached. If the document is bound, it shall be bound on the left side. Copies of documents for filing and service must be printed from a text-based pdf version of the document, where... generated in either Acrobat (pdf), Word, WordPerfect, or Rich Text Format (rtf). (d) Exception for...

  16. 39 CFR 3001.10 - Form and number of copies of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... If the document is bound, it shall be bound on the left side. Copies of documents for filing and service must be printed from a text-based pdf version of the document, where possible. Otherwise, they may... generated in either Acrobat (pdf), Word, or WordPerfect, or Rich Text Format (rtf)....

  17. The Use of the Analytical Hierarchy Process as a Source Selection Methodology and Its Potential Application within the Hellenic Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Society vol. 41, no. 11 (November, 1991): 1073-1076. <http://www.jstor.org/cgibin/ jstor /printpage/01605682/di011251/01p0011x/0.pdf ?backcontext=page...dowhat=Acrobat&config= jstor &userID=cd9b41e2@nps.nav y.mil/01cce4405b14b40115dd9054da&0.pdf> (accessed October 20, 2007). ———. “Response to Holder’s...cgibin/ jstor /printpage/01605682/di011262/01p0074k/0.pdf ?backcontext=page&dowhat=Acrobat&config= jstor &userID=cd9b41e2@nps.nav y.mil

  18. Geologic map of the Fifteenmile Valley 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, F.K.; Matti, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Open-File Report OF 01-132 contains a digital geologic map database of the Fifteenmile Valley 7.5’ quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute, http://www.esri.com) version 7.2.1 coverages of the various elements of the geologic map. 2. A PostScript file to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram, a Description of Map Units, an index map, and a regional structure map. 3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in fif_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat pagesize setting influences map scale.) The Correlation of Map Units (CMU) and Description of Map Units (DMU) is in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series (I-series) maps. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially forest roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Fifteenmile Valley 7.5’ topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  19. Digital geologic map of Fawnskin 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, F.K.; Matti, J.C.; Brown, H.J.; Powell, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in fskn_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots from this .pdf do not produce 1:24,000-scale maps. Adobe Acrobat page-size settings control map scale.) This release includes features not found in most other digital geologic maps, in that all polygons, lines, and points in the coverage are encoded with detailed, comprehensive geologic data contained in six INFO data tables (.rel). (See Matti and others, 1998a, 1998b, and 1998c, for information on how the encoding may be accessed and utilized.) No paper map is included in the Open-File Report, but a PostScript plot file containing an image of the geologic map sheet, topographic base, Correlation of Map Units (CMU), and detailed Description of Map Units (DMU) is. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units are in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series maps (I-maps) but have not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by such standard geologic-map criteria as formation name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the PostScript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Fawnskin 7.5' topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  20. Geologic map and digital database of the Romoland 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.; Morton, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in rom_met.txt The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced precise 1:24,000- scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formationname, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). This Readme file describes the digital data, such as types and general contents of files making up the database, and includes information on how to extract and plot the map and accompanying graphic file. Metadata information can be accessed at http://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/metadata/open-file/03-102 and is included in Appendix I of this Readme.

  1. Geologic map and digital database of the Bachelor Mountain 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Kennedy, Michael P.; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.; Burns, Diane

    2003-01-01

    Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in bch_met.txt The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced precise 1:24,000- scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formationname, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). This Readme file describes the digital data, such as types and general contents of files making up the database, and includes information on how to extract and plot the map and accompanying graphic file. Metadata information can be accessed at http://geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/metadata/open-file/03-102 and is included in Appendix I of this Readme.

  2. Limb muscles are androgen targets in an acrobatic tropical bird.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ni Y; Katz, Amnon; Day, Lainy B; Barske, Julia; Schlinger, Barney A

    2010-03-01

    Spectacular athleticism is a conspicuous feature of many animal courtship displays yet surprisingly little is known about androgen dependence of skeletal muscles underlying these displays. Testosterone (T) acts through androgen receptors (ARs) to stimulate muscular male Golden-collared manakins of Panama to perform a remarkably athletic courtship display that includes loud wingsnaps generated by the rapid and forceful lifting of the wings. We tested the hypothesis that androgen sensitivity, reflected in the expression levels of AR mRNA, is a muscular adaptation supporting these courtship displays. Quantitative PCR showed substantially greater AR mRNA expression in all limb muscles of wild male and female manakins compared with two other avian species that do not perform athletic displays, zebra finches and ochre-bellied flycatchers. AR expression levels in the massive skeletal muscles were comparable with the minute oscine syringeal muscle but greater than levels in nonmuscular androgen targets that did not differ across species. Compared with zebra finches, male manakins also had greater activity of the T-activating enzyme 5 alpha-reductase in a wing-lifting muscle. In addition, low levels of estrogen receptor alpha (ER) mRNA were detected in all muscles of control, T-treated, and estradiol-treated manakins. Treatment of manakins with T, but not estradiol, significantly increased skeletal muscle ER expression, suggesting that ER expression is AR-dependent. These results confirm manakin limb muscles as important androgen targets where T may act to promote the speed, force, and/or endurance required for the manakin display. Androgen-sensitive muscular phenotypes may adapt males of many species to perform impressive athletic displays.

  3. Vocal acrobatics in a Chinese frog, Amolops tormotus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Albert; Narins, Peter; Xu, Chun-He

    2002-06-01

    Although amphibians are highly vocal, they generally emit only a limited number of acoustic communication signals. We report here the extraordinarily rich vocal repertoire of Amolops tormotus, a ranid species in China. These frogs produce countless vocalizations, some of which share features of birdsong or primate calls, e.g., ultrasonic frequency components, multiple upward and downward FM sweeps, and sudden onset and offset of selective harmonic components within a call note. Frame-by-frame video analysis of the frog's calling behavior suggests the presence of two pairs of vocal sacs that may contribute to the remarkable call-note complexity in this species. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0335-x.

  4. Theoretical studies of chemisorption and dimer model systems: Moller-Plesset and configuration interaction calculations on PdH, PdC, PdO, PdF, Pd sub 2 , and PdCO

    SciTech Connect

    Schwerdtfeger, P.; McFeaters, J.S.; Moore, J.J.; McPherson, D.M.; Cooney, R.P.; Bowmaker, G.A. ); Dolg, M.; Andrae, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Ab initio SCF studies have been performed to study the molecular properties of several single-bonded palladium compounds, PdH, PdC, PdO, PdF, Pd{sub 2}, and PdCO, which are important in surface and materials science. Electron correlation effects were evaluated by a second- and third-order Moller-Plesset (MP) perturbation theory and a size-consistency-corrected configuration interaction with single and double substitutions (CISC). Relativistic effects were investigated for PdH and PdF. The ground state of PdC has been calculated at the CISC level to be a {sup 3}{Pi} state which is only 0.26 eV below the {sup 3}{Sigma}{sup {minus}} state (previously assigned ground state) and 0.51 eV below the {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} state. PdC is predicted to be stable in the gas phase, and the possibility of preparing this compound is investigated. The bonding in CO chemisorbed on palladium is studied by using the model Pd-CO system. The effect of d{sub {pi}}-{pi}{sup *} back-bonding, discussed at the Hartree-Fock and CI level, is compared with results from multiple-scattering {Chi}{alpha} calculations. The C-O stretching frequency shift for CO on palladium was analyzed at various levels of theory, and the results indicated that the decrease in the CO force constant associated with chemisorption is not solely the result of d{sub {pi}}-{pi}{sup *} back-bonding.

  5. Photos of Slapped-Cheek Rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... as Fifth disease. PHIL Photo ID# 4509 Right side of this boy's face displaying signs of erythema infectiosum, or Fifth disease. Top of Page File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  6. 75 FR 21610 - Overview Information: State Vocational Rehabilitation Unit In-Service Training; Notice Inviting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... 11 , on one side only, with 1 margins at the top, bottom, and both sides. Double space (no more than... application as files in a .DOC (document), .RTF (rich text), or .PDF (Portable Document) format. If you upload... published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at...

  7. 75 FR 21617 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview Information; Rehabilitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... ``page'' is 8.5 x 11 , on one side only, with 1 margins at the top, bottom, and both sides. Double space... text), or .PDF (Portable Document) format. If you upload a file type other than the three file types... Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following...

  8. Too Loud! For Too Long!

    MedlinePlus

    ... the MMWR Science Clips Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  9. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    MedlinePlus

    ... the MMWR Science Clips Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  10. CDC Vital Signs: Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... the MMWR Science Clips Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  11. Flu Widget

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Language: English Español File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  12. Cancer and Tobacco Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... the MMWR Science Clips Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  13. Multimedia proceedings of the 10th Office Information Technology Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, B.

    1993-09-10

    The CD contains the handouts for all the speakers, demo software from Apple, Adobe, Microsoft, and Zylabs, and video movies of the keynote speakers. Adobe Acrobat is used to provide full-fidelity retrieval of the speakers` slides and Apple`s Quicktime for Macintosh and Windows is used for video playback. ZyIndex is included for Windows users to provide a full-text search engine for selected documents. There are separately labelled installation and operating instructions for Macintosh and Windows users and some general materials common to both sets of users.

  14. A recessive mutation in the RUB1-conjugating enzyme, RCE1, reveals a requirement for RUB modification for control of ethylene biosynthesis and proper induction of basic chitinase and PDF1.2 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Paul B; Cancel, Jesse D

    2004-05-01

    By screening etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings for mutants with aberrant ethylene-related phenotypes, we identified a mutant that displays features of the ethylene-mediated triple response even in the absence of ethylene. Further characterization showed that the phenotype observed for the dark-grown seedlings of this mutant is reversible by prevention of ethylene perception and is dependent on a modest increase in ethylene production correlated with an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (ACO) activity in the hypocotyl. Molecular characterization of leaves of the mutant revealed severely impaired induction of basic chitinase (chiB) and plant defensin (PDF)1.2 following treatment with jasmonic acid and/or ethylene. Positional cloning of the mutation resulted in identification of a 49-bp deletion in RCE1 (related to ubiquitin 1 (RUB1)-conjugating enzyme), which has been demonstrated to be responsible for covalent attachment of RUB1 to the SCF (Skpl Cdc 53 F-box) ubiquitin ligase complex to modify its activity. Our analyses with rce1-2 demonstrate a previously unknown requirement for RUB1 modification for regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and proper induction of defense-related genes in Arabidopsis.

  15. The Crimean Tatars and Their Influence on the `Triangle of Conflict’ - Russia-Crimea-Ukraine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Opinion and Expert Assessments in Europe’s New Democracies, by Richard Smoke, JSTOR : The Scholarly Journal Archive, Autumn, 1998, http://www.jstor.org...cgi- bin/ jstor /printpage/00376779/di000576/00p00732/0.pdf?backcontext=page&dowhat=Acrobat&config=jsto r&userID=cd9b41e2@nps.navy.mil...History 35, no. 3, (2000): 372, http://www.jstor.org/cgi- bin/ jstor /printpage/00220094/ap010134/01a00030/0.pdf?backcontext=page&dowhat=Acrobat&config

  16. EPCRA Trade Secret Form Instructions (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Detail on what information is required for each section of the form. Only the specific chemical identity required to be disclosed in EPCRA sections 303, 311,312, and 313 submissions may be claimed trade secret on the EPCRA report.

  17. Final_report_pub1.pdf

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Nicholas

    2014-08-15

    The paper describes Soitecs project to plan,install,qualify and ramp a high volume CPV module manufactruing facility in Southern California. Soitec’s CPV module factory in San Diego was planned with an annual production capacity of 280MWDC. It was scheduled to be operational by the first quarter of 2013, and was expected to create several hundred direct and indirect jobs in the San Diego region. From ground breaking to facility readiness was completed in six months. This enabled the docking of equipment in the Q3’12 time frame. The first 140 MW of capacity was ready for operation in Q4’12. Production of the CX-M500 modules started in Q4 2012. The line yield and factory capacity were ramped in 2013. The annual production capacity demonstration was successfully completed in Q2 2014. The modules manufactured at the plant were used to supply utility scale demand in the US and also world markets.

  18. Remediation System Evaluation, Raymark Superfund Site (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Raymark site occupies 7 acres off Jacksonville Road in an industrial part of Hatboro, Pennsylvania.The pump-and-treat system addresses groundwater contamination, primarily trichloroethylene (TCE),associated with the operations of various ...

  19. Presentations on Soil Fumigation Requirements - PDF Format

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These provide training, outreach, and other resource materials for applicators and handlers, communities, state and local agencies, and others interested in understanding and implementing the current requirements for safe use of soil fumigant pesticides.

  20. Constraints on pdf uncertainties from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Issever, C.; /Oxford U.

    2006-04-01

    Recent electroweak measurements and jet physics results from CDF which constrain the parton density functions (PDFs) are presented. Measurements of the W charge asymmetry, W and Z as well as jet cross sections based on k{sub T} and midpoint algorithm with up to 1 fb{sup -1} RunII data are discussed.

  1. An Internet compendium of analytical methods and spectroscopic information for monomers and additives used in food packaging plastics.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J; Simoneau, C; Cote, D; Boenke, A

    2000-10-01

    An internet website (http:¿cpf.jrc.it/smt/) has been produced as a means of dissemination of methods of analysis and supporting spectroscopic information on monomers and additives used for food contact materials (principally packaging). The site which is aimed primarily at assisting food control laboratories in the European Union contains analytical information on monomers, starting substances and additives used in the manufacture of plastics materials. A searchable index is provided giving PM and CAS numbers for each of 255 substances. For each substance a data sheet gives regulatory information, chemical structures, physico-chemical information and background information on the use of the substance in particular plastics, and the food packaging applications. For monomers and starting substances (155 compounds) the infra-red and mass spectra are provided, and for additives (100 compounds); additionally proton NMR are available for about 50% of the entries. Where analytical methods have been developed for determining these substances as residual amounts in plastics or as trace amounts in food simulants these methods are also on the website. All information is provided in portable document file (PDF) format which means that high quality copies can be readily printed, using freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader software. The website will in future be maintained and up-dated by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) as new substances are authorized for use by the European Commission (DG-ENTR formerly DGIII). Where analytical laboratories (food control or other) require reference substances these can be obtained free-of-charge from a reference collection housed at the JRC and maintained in conjunction with this website compendium.

  2. Preliminary geologic map of the Perris 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.; Alvarez, Rachel M.

    2003-01-01

    Open-File Report 03-270 contains a digital geologic map database of the Perris 7.5’ quadrangle, Riverside County, California that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute, http://www.esri.com) version 7.2.1 coverages of the various elements of the geologic map. 2. A Postscript file to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram (CMU), a Description of Map Units (DMU), and an index map. 3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. A Readme file b. The same graphic as described in 2 above. Test plots have not produced precise 1:24,000- scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formationname, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc.

  3. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Hughes, James S.; Bouchard, Kyle E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Schilt, Carl R.; Hanks, Michael E.; Kim, Jina; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J.; Nagy, William T.

    2006-12-04

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2005. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of two studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 16 and July 15, 2005, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, and (2) smolt approach and fate at B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C from the B1 forebay. Some of the large appendices are only presented on the compact disk (CD) that accompanies the final report. Examples include six large comma-separated-variable (.CSV) files of hourly fish passage, hourly variances, and Project operations for spring and summer from Appendix E, and large Audio Video Interleave (AVI) files with DIDSON-movie clips of the area upstream of B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C (Appendix H). Those video clips show smolts approaching the outlet, predators feeding on smolts, and vortices that sometimes entrained approaching smolts into turbines. The CD also includes Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Files (PDF) of the entire report and appendices.

  4. Geologic map of the Riverside East 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Cox, Brett F.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in rse_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  5. Regional seismic lines reprocessed using post-stack processing techniques; National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, John J.; Agena, W.F.; Lee, M.W.; Zihlman, F.N.; Grow, J.A.; Taylor, D.J.; Killgore, Michele; Oliver, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains stacked, migrated, 2-Dimensional seismic reflection data and associated support information for 22 regional seismic lines (3,470 line-miles) recorded in the National Petroleum Reserve ? Alaska (NPRA) from 1974 through 1981. Together, these lines constitute about one-quarter of the seismic data collected as part of the Federal Government?s program to evaluate the petroleum potential of the Reserve. The regional lines, which form a grid covering the entire NPRA, were created by combining various individual lines recorded in different years using different recording parameters. These data were reprocessed by the USGS using modern, post-stack processing techniques, to create a data set suitable for interpretation on interactive seismic interpretation computer workstations. Reprocessing was done in support of ongoing petroleum resource studies by the USGS Energy Program. The CD-ROM contains the following files: 1) 22 files containing the digital seismic data in standard, SEG-Y format; 2) 1 file containing navigation data for the 22 lines in standard SEG-P1 format; 3) 22 small scale graphic images of each seismic line in Adobe Acrobat? PDF format; 4) a graphic image of the location map, generated from the navigation file, with hyperlinks to the graphic images of the seismic lines; 5) an ASCII text file with cross-reference information for relating the sequential trace numbers on each regional line to the line number and shotpoint number of the original component lines; and 6) an explanation of the processing used to create the final seismic sections (this document). The SEG-Y format seismic files and SEG-P1 format navigation file contain all the information necessary for loading the data onto a seismic interpretation workstation.

  6. Geologic map of the Riverside West 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Cox, Brett F.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in rsw_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f.Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  7. Geologic map of the Sunnymead 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Matti, Jonathan C.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in sun_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  8. Geologic map of the Steele Peak 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; digital preparation by Alvarez, Rachel M.; Diep, Van M.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in stp_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  9. Geologic map of the Lake Mathews 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Weber, F. Harold

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in lkm_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous.Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand.In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f. Even though this is an Open-File report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  10. Geologic map of the Corona South 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside and Orange counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, C.H.; Morton, Douglas M.; Weber, F. Harold; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.; O'Brien, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    a. A Readme file; includes in Appendix I, data contained in crs_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  11. Geologic map of the Corona North 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside and San Bernardino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Gray, C.H.; Bovard, Kelly R.; Dawson, Michael

    2002-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in crn_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced precise 1:24,000- scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  12. 77 FR 48583 - 2012 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of Notorious Markets: Request for Public Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...'' under ``Document Type'' on the left side of the search results page, and click on the link entitled... consult the resources provided on the Web site by clicking on ``How to Use This Site'' on the left side of... Acrobat (.pdf). If the submission is in an application other than those two, please indicate the name...

  13. 39 CFR 3001.10 - Form and number of copies of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... If the document is bound, it shall be bound on the left side. Copies of documents for filing and service must be printed from a text-based pdf version of the document, where possible. Otherwise, they may... original and two hard copies, provided that the stored document is a file generated in either Acrobat...

  14. 77 FR 24938 - National Assessment Governing Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... demonstration of the software used for the achievement level setting process will be provided to the Board along... Acrobat Reader, which is available free at this site. If you have questions about using PDF, call the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), toll free at 1-866-512- 1800; or in the Washington, DC, area at (202)...

  15. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the Uinta-Piceance Province, Utah and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Many more details about the project and about individual chapters of this report are readily available in the very readable Chapter 2 of this volume, 'The Uinta-Piceance Province-Introduction to a geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources.' Use Acrobat Reader to access the PDF for this chapter.

  16. The Bandini-Cota Adobe, Prado Dam, Riverside County, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    the period. The ware first appears about 1779 and by 1783, it had become quite common ( Hume 1978:44-45, 1974:126). It remained in pro- duction until...individual brush strokes on 13 and 841; on 433, the color is applied by rotating the vessel under the brush, a development which Hume considers as late...plate (Schiffer et al. 1975: 17, Figure 36; 34, Figure 91; 169, Figure 45/.). c. Median sherd, plate, 1001. Inner border of a Canton plate ( Hume 1974

  17. Image editing with Adobe Photoshop 6.0.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Ronald D; Postel, Gregory C

    2002-01-01

    The authors introduce Photoshop 6.0 for radiologists and demonstrate basic techniques of editing gray-scale cross-sectional images intended for publication and for incorporation into computerized presentations. For basic editing of gray-scale cross-sectional images, the Tools palette and the History/Actions palette pair should be displayed. The History palette may be used to undo a step or series of steps. The Actions palette is a menu of user-defined macros that save time by automating an action or series of actions. Converting an image to 8-bit gray scale is the first editing function. Cropping is the next action. Both decrease file size. Use of the smallest file size necessary for the purpose at hand is recommended. Final file size for gray-scale cross-sectional neuroradiologic images (8-bit, single-layer TIFF [tagged image file format] at 300 pixels per inch) intended for publication varies from about 700 Kbytes to 3 Mbytes. Final file size for incorporation into computerized presentations is about 10-100 Kbytes (8-bit, single-layer, gray-scale, high-quality JPEG [Joint Photographic Experts Group]), depending on source and intended use. Editing and annotating images before they are inserted into presentation software is highly recommended, both for convenience and flexibility. Radiologists should find that image editing can be carried out very rapidly once the basic steps are learned and automated.

  18. Quantitative measurement of holographic image quality using Adobe Photoshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesly, E.

    2013-02-01

    Measurement of the characteristics of image holograms in regards to diffraction efficiency and signal to noise ratio are demonstrated, using readily available digital cameras and image editing software. Illustrations and case studies, using currently available holographic recording materials, are presented.

  19. Preliminary geologic map of the Elsinore 7.5' Quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Weber, F. Harold; Digital preparation: Alvarez, Rachel M.; Burns, Diane

    2003-01-01

    Open-File Report 03-281 contains a digital geologic map database of the Elsinore 7.5’ quadrangle, Riverside County, California that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute, http://www.esri.com) version 7.2.1 coverages of the various elements of the geologic map. 2. A Postscript file to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram (CMU), a Description of Map Units (DMU), and an index map. 3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in els_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced precise 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  20. BIOSCREEN: Natural Attenuation Decision Support System. User’s Manual Version 1.3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    file, in Microsoft Excel 5.0 format ( BIOSCRN HLP The online help file, in Windows Help format. BIOSCRN PDF The full documentation, in Adobe PDF format...Compatible computer system capable of running Microsoft Excel version 5 0 for Windows will be able to run BIOSCREEN. Because of the intensive floating...for BIOSCREEN only - Excel will require substantially more) 1.3 Softwdre Requirements BIOSCREEN is designed to be run under Microsoft Excel for

  1. 75 FR 4794 - National Assessment Governing Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... official version of this document is the document published in the Federal Register. Free Internet access....gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Munira Mwalimu at (202) 357-6906. Electronic Access to This... Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following...

  2. 75 FR 38510 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Personnel Development to Improve...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... published in the Federal Register. Free Internet access to the official edition of the Federal Register and.... Electronic Access to This Document: You can view this document, as well as all other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the...

  3. 75 FR 13735 - Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)-Special Focus Competition: Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Register. Free Internet access to the official edition of the Federal Register and the Code of Federal... to the program contact person listed under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. Electronic Access to This... Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF), on the Internet at the following...

  4. 75 FR 18170 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Federal Register. Free Internet access to the official edition of the Federal Register and the Code of... Access to This Document: You can view this document, as well as all other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) on the Internet at...

  5. 77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Information relevant to... references to ``Regional Director'' are updated to the current term ``Regional Administrator,'' and the word...; closure from North Head at the Columbia River mouth north to Leadbetter Point; change in species that...

  6. 76 FR 100 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 21 to the Snapper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... anonymous). You may submit attachments to electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karla Gore; phone: (727) 824-5305..., 2011--Hilton New Bern/Riverfront, 100 Middle Street, New Bern, NC 28560; phone 252-638-3585....

  7. 76 FR 18706 - Fisheries in the Eastern Pacific Ocean; Pelagic Fisheries; Vessel Identification Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ..., Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Written comments regarding the burden-hour estimates... Endorsement would be required to display its IRCS on the port and starboard sides of the hull or... and starboard sides of the deckhouse or hull, and on an appropriate weather deck so as to be...

  8. 76 FR 37761 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Amendment 13 to the Coastal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... this proposed rule to implement Amendment 13 to the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This proposed rule will implement parts of proposed Amendment 13 to the CPS FMP, which is..., WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Copies of the CPS FMP as Amended through Amendment 13...

  9. 77 FR 21751 - Endangered Species; File No. 16645

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB152 Endangered Species; File No. 16645 AGENCY... comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only....

  10. 78 FR 41034 - Endangered Species; File No. 18102

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC711 Endangered Species; File No. 18102 AGENCY...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats...

  11. 77 FR 52694 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17324

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC137 Marine Mammals; File No. 17324 AGENCY...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF...

  12. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... version (278 KB)​ Spanish version ​​​ ​ Order this free poster ​​​​​ NOTE: PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader .​​​​​​​​ ... actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are leaving the NIH website. ...

  13. 76 FR 66758 - Remedies for Small Copyright Claims

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Adobe Portable Document File (PDF) format that contains searchable, accessible text (not an image... that are fixed in a tangible medium of expression and come within the subject matter of copyright as... court or other body. Fair Use: The affirmative defense of fair use defense is extremely...

  14. 76 FR 2871 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ..., 7600 Sand Point Way, NE., Seattle, WA 98115-0070. Electronic copies of the Plan, including proposed...: Sarah Williams. Mail: 7600 Sand Point Way, NE., Seattle, WA 98115. Instructions: No comments will be...Perfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sarah Williams, 7600 Sand...

  15. Preliminary geologic map of the Fontana 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.

    2003-01-01

    Open-File Report 03-418 is a digital geologic data set that maps and describes the geology of the Fontana 7.5’ quadrangle, Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, California. The Fontana quadrangle database is one of several 7.5’ quadrangle databases that are being produced by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP). These maps and databases are, in turn, part of the nation-wide digital geologic map coverage being developed by the National Cooperative Geologic Map Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). General Open-File Report 03-418 contains a digital geologic map database of the Fontana 7.5’ quadrangle, Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, California that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute, http://www.esri.com) version 7.2.1 coverages of the various elements of the geologic map. 2. A Postscript file (fon_map.ps) to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram (CMU), a Description of Map Units (DMU), and an index map. 3. An Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) file (fon_grey.eps) created in Adobe Illustrator 10.0 to plot the geologic map on a grey topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units (CMU), a Description of Map Units (DMU), and an index map. 4. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. the Readme file; includes in Appendix I, data contained in fon_met.txt b. The same graphics as plotted in 2 and 3 above.Test plots have not produced precise 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following

  16. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transport category large airplanes and jet (turbojet powered) airplanes that have not had any flight time...) in addition to the applicable airworthiness requirements in this section. For import airplanes, compliance with this paragraph is shown if the country in which the airplane was manufactured certifies,...

  17. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... issuance of a standard airworthiness certificate: (1) For transport category large airplanes and jet (turbojet powered) airplanes that have not had any flight time before the dates specified in § 36.1(d), no... airworthiness requirements in this section. For import airplanes, compliance with this paragraph is shown if...

  18. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... issuance of a standard airworthiness certificate: (1) For transport category large airplanes and jet (turbojet powered) airplanes that have not had any flight time before the dates specified in § 36.1(d), no... airworthiness requirements in this section. For import airplanes, compliance with this paragraph is shown if...

  19. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... transport category large airplanes and jet (turbojet powered) airplanes that have not had any flight time...) in addition to the applicable airworthiness requirements in this section. For import airplanes, compliance with this paragraph is shown if the country in which the airplane was manufactured certifies,...

  20. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... transport category large airplanes and jet (turbojet powered) airplanes that have not had any flight time...) in addition to the applicable airworthiness requirements in this section. For import airplanes, compliance with this paragraph is shown if the country in which the airplane was manufactured certifies,...

  1. Acrobat ants go global--origin, evolution and systematics of the genus Crematogaster (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Blaimer, Bonnie B

    2012-11-01

    This study unravels the evolution and biogeographic history of the globally distributed ant genus Crematogaster on the basis of a molecular phylogeny, reconstructed from five nuclear protein-coding genes and a total of 3384 bp of sequence data. A particular emphasis is placed on the evolutionary history of these ants in the Malagasy region. Bayesian and likelihood analyses performed on a dataset of 124 Crematogaster ingroup taxa lend strong support for three deeply diverging phylogenetic lineages within the genus: the Orthocrema clade, the Global Crematogaster clade and the Australo-Asian Crematogaster clade. The 15 previous subgenera within Crematogaster are mostly not monophyletic. Divergence dating analyses and ancestral range reconstructions suggest that Crematogaster evolved in South-East Asia in the mid-Eocene (40-45 ma). The three major lineages also originated in this region in the late Oligocene/early Miocene (~24-30 ma). A first dispersal out of S-E Asia by an Orthocrema lineage is supported for 22-30 ma to the Afrotropical region. Successive dispersal events out of S-E Asia began in the early, and continued throughout the late Miocene. The global distribution of Crematogaster was achieved by subsequent colonizations of all major biogeographic regions by the Orthocrema and the Global Crematogaster clade. Molecular dating estimates and ancestral range evolution are discussed in the light of palaeogeographic changes in the S-E Asian region and an evolving ocean circulation system throughout the Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene. Eight dispersal events to/from Madagascar by Crematogaster are supported, with most events occurring in the late Miocene to Pliocene (5.0-9.5 ma). These results suggest that Crematogaster ants possess exceptional dispersal and colonization abilities, and emphasize the need for detailed investigations of traits that have contributed to the global evolutionary success of these ants.

  2. Adaptive evolution of a derived radius morphology in manakins (Aves, Pipridae) to support acrobatic display behavior.

    PubMed

    Friscia, Anthony; Sanin, Gloria D; Lindsay, Willow R; Day, Lainy B; Schlinger, Barney A; Tan, Josh; Fuxjager, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The morphology of the avian skeleton is often studied in the context of adaptations for powered flight. The effects of other evolutionary forces, such as sexual selection, on avian skeletal design are unclear, even though birds produce diverse behaviors that undoubtedly require a variety of osteological modifications. Here, we investigate this issue in a family of passerine birds called manakins (Pipridae), which have evolved physically unusual and elaborate courtship displays. We report that, in species within the genus Manacus, the shaft of the radius is heavily flattened and shows substantial solidification. Past work anecdotally notes this morphology and attributes it to the species' ability to hit their wings together above their heads to produce loud mechanical sonations. Our results show that this feature is unique to Manacus compared to the other species in our study, including a variety of taxa that produce other sonations through alternate wing mechanisms. At the same time, our data reveal striking similarities across species in total radius volume and solidification. Together, this suggests that supposedly adaptive alterations in radial morphology occur within a conserved framework of a set radius volume and solidness, which in turn is likely determined by natural selection. Further allometric analyses imply that the radius is less constrained by body size and the structural demands that underlie powered flight, compared to other forelimb bones that are mostly unmodified across taxa. These results are consistent with the idea that the radius is more susceptible to selective modification by sexual selection. Overall, this study provides some of the first insight into the osteological evolution of passerine birds, as well as the way in which opposing selective forces can shape skeletal design in these species. J. Morphol. 277:766-775, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Spinal motor and sensory neurons are androgen targets in an acrobatic bird.

    PubMed

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Schultz, J Douglas; Barske, Julia; Feng, Ni Y; Fusani, Leonida; Mirzatoni, Anahid; Day, Lainy B; Hau, Michaela; Schlinger, Barney A

    2012-08-01

    Sex steroids affect the motivation to court mates, but less is known about how they influence motor movements associated with courtship behavior. Steroidal control of motor function may be especially important for species in which courtship requires superior strength, stamina, and neuromuscular coordination. Here we use the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus) to examine whether the neuromuscular circuitry that controls motoric aspects of courtship activity is sensitive to androgens. Males of this tropical species attract mates by rapidly jumping among branches in a courtship arena and using their wings to produce loud wing snaps. Testosterone activates this display via the androgen receptor (AR), and past work reveals that manakins injected with radio-labeled T ((3)H-T) accumulate radioactivity in the spinal cord. Thus, we used quantitative PCR to measure AR, estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) subtype, and aromatase (AROM) mRNA in spinal cords of male and female manakins and zebra finches. Expression of AR, but not ER-α or aromatase, was higher throughout the manakin spinal cord compared with the zebra finch. Next, we tested whether AR-expressing skeletal muscles are innervated by motor and sensory neurons that also express AR. To do this, we backfilled spinal neurons by injecting fluorescent tracers into select AR-sensitive wing and leg muscles of wild caught male and female manakins. We then removed these spinal cords and measured AR expression with in situ hybridization. Both sexes showed abundant AR mRNA in the cervical and lumbosacral spinal enlargements as well as in dorsal root ganglia attached to these enlargements. Together our findings suggest that androgens act widely on peripheral motor and sensory circuits in golden-collared manakins to influence wing snapping displays.

  4. 75 FR 26321 - Public Meeting on Future Policy and Rulemaking for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting on Future Policy and Rulemaking for Normal, Utility...: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA Small Airplane Directorate is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting to discuss ideas for future policy and rulemaking for small airplanes. We...

  5. Select forelimb muscles have evolved superfast contractile speed to support acrobatic social displays

    PubMed Central

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Goller, Franz; Dirkse, Annika; Sanin, Gloria D; Garcia, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Many species perform rapid limb movements as part of their elaborate courtship displays. However, because muscle performance is constrained by trade-offs between contraction speed and force, it is unclear how animals evolve the ability to produce both unusually fast appendage movement and limb force needed for locomotion. To address this issue, we compare the twitch speeds of forelimb muscles in a group of volant passerine birds, which produce different courtship displays. Our results show that the two taxa that perform exceptionally fast wing displays have evolved 'superfast' contractile kinetics in their main humeral retractor muscle. By contrast, the two muscles that generate the majority of aerodynamic force for flight show unmodified contractile kinetics. Altogether, these results suggest that muscle-specific adaptations in contractile speed allow certain birds to circumvent the intrinsic trade-off between muscular speed and force, and thereby use their forelimbs for both rapid gestural displays and powered locomotion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13544.001 PMID:27067379

  6. Acrobats, Contortionists, and Cute Children: The Promise and Perversity of U.S. Women's Gymnastics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how the media represents U.S. women's gymnastics, examining the degree to which the manifest promises of gymnastics (veneration of mass-mediated femininity and celebration of flexibility, strength, and agility) function in relation to economies of perversity. Suggests that the promises and perversities embodied by gymnasts are…

  7. Hiring Practices Used to Staff the Iraqi Provisional Authorities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-16

    the requirements ofDoD Directive 7650.3. If possible. send cJient comments in electronic format ( Adobe Acrobat file only) to Aul.IRO!:>Cadodig.mil...appli~d and wer.: hired for positions listoo in SOl :’JA !><:tween Apri l 2003 and Jun., 200~; 111e dat~s in tb~ bullets are in ~rror . In the case...Director. Nli.:higan D.:panm.:nt ofM.:nwlllcalth (J~muary 1991-April 1996) ll l~nnged a bud gel of Sl.5 billion an d 6,500 ~mployoles. and conlractecl

  8. Preliminary surficial geologic map of a Calico Mountains piedmont and part of Coyote Lake, Mojave desert, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudash, Stephanie L.

    2006-01-01

    graphics of the database. Spatial data are distributed as an ArcInfo personal geodatabase, or as tabular data in the form of Microsoft Access Database (MDB) or dBase Format (DBF) file formats. Documentation includes this file, which provides a discussion of the surficial geology and describes the format and content of the map data, and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata for the spatial map information. Map graphics files are distributed as Postscript and Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) files, and are appropriate for representing a view of the spatial database at the mapped scale.

  9. Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos during 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    also enclosed a compact disc with a copy of the full report in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) form and detailed supplemental tables of data from 2007 in Microsoft Excel format. These files are also available for download from the web (http://www.lanl.gov/community-environment/environmental- stewardship/environmental-report.php).

  10. Map and Data for Quaternary Faults and Fault Systems on the Island of Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Eric C.; Burgmann, Roland; Crone, Anthony J.; Machette, Michael N.; Dart, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    and catalog of data, both in Adobe Acrobat PDF format. The senior authors (Eric C. Cannon and Roland Burgmann) compiled the fault data as part of ongoing studies of active faulting on the Island of Hawai`i. The USGS is responsible for organizing and integrating the State or regional products under their National Seismic Hazard Mapping project, including the coordination and oversight of contributions from individuals and groups (Michael N. Machette and Anthony J. Crone), database design and management (Kathleen M. Haller), and digitization and analysis of map data (Richard L. Dart). After being released an Open-File Report, the data in this report will be available online at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/qfaults/, the USGS Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States.

  11. Topography and Landforms of Ecuador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    . The data contained in this publication includes a gap filled, countrywide SRTM DEM of Ecuador projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Zone 17 North projection, Provisional South American, 1956, Ecuador datum and a non gap filled SRTM DEM of the Galapagos Islands projected in UTM Zone 15 North projection. Both the Ecuador and Galapagos Islands DEMs are available as an ESRI Grid, stored as ArcInfo Export files (.e00), and in Erdas Imagine (IMG) file formats with a 90 meter pixel resolution. Also included in this publication are high and low resolution Adobe Acrobat (PDF) files of topography and landforms maps in Ecuador. The high resolution map should be used for printing and display, while the lower resolution map can be used for quick viewing and reference purposes.

  12. Sensor Drift Compensation Algorithm based on PDF Distance Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Namyong; Byun, Hyung-Gi; Persaud, Krishna C.; Huh, Jeung-Soo

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, a new unsupervised classification algorithm is introduced for the compensation of sensor drift effects of the odor sensing system using a conducting polymer sensor array. The proposed method continues updating adaptive Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) weights in the testing phase based on minimizing Euclidian Distance between two Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of a set of training phase output data and another set of testing phase output data. The output in the testing phase using the fixed weights of the RBFN are significantly dispersed and shifted from each target value due mostly to sensor drift effect. In the experimental results, the output data by the proposed methods are observed to be concentrated closer again to their own target values significantly. This indicates that the proposed method can be effectively applied to improved odor sensing system equipped with the capability of sensor drift effect compensation

  13. PDF Version of EPA Communication Product Standards Stylebook

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This stylebook provides style and format guidance for most media, including print documents, audiovisual, broadcast, presentation and exhibit work. Also find templates and samples, copyright requirements, publishing information, and logo use standards.

  14. Remediation System Evaluation, Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site, located on the western edge of Milford, New Hampshire, consists of a source area and an extended plume that is approximately 6,000 feet long and 2,500 feet wide.

  15. Diffractive PDF fits and factorisation tests at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Solano, Ada

    2011-07-15

    A DGLAP next-to-leading-order QCD analysis to extract the diffractive parton distribution functions, using DIS inclusive and dijet diffractive HERA data, is presented. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive dijet photoproduction data to discuss factorisation.

  16. The G3 Experience with Electronic Publishing: An Editor's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, W. M.

    2003-12-01

    G3 (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems) is an all-electronic journal published jointly by the AGU, the Geochemical Society, and the European Association of Geochemistry. G3 publishes original scientific contributions pertaining to understanding the Earth as a system, including relevant observational, experimental, and theoretical investigations of the solid Earth, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. The journal was initiated as a result of a grass roots effort with the following goals in mind: a copyright policy designed to enhance, rather than inhibit, the dissemination of scientific information (for example, allowing authors to post electronic reprints on their web sites), provide a means of publishing, in immediately useable formats, large data sets, provide a means for ready dissemination of computer modeling and analysis tools, and provide a forum where authors could use novel ways of illustrating both data and models (e.g., formats such as movies, virtual reality images, sound, mathematical models, etc.), and finally to reduce costs and speed publication. In most respects, G3 has been enormously successful and has met most of its goals. G3 began publishing in December of 1999; in the subsequent 3 1/2 years 625 papers have been submitted to it and 325 have been published. It currently has over 600 institutional and personal subscribers. Papers are submitted through the web (a variety of formats are accepted, however, Microsoft Word is most common) and are converted to Adobe pdf format for peer review. Except that it is fully electronic using the web and e-mail, the peer review process is traditional, which insures the quality of the papers published. Accepted papers are copyedited and converted to SGML for archival purposes. HTML and Acrobat pdf versions are then generated from the SGML and published as they are ready on the G3 web site (www.g-cubed.org). Large data sets are routinely published in digital formats that can be readily downloaded by readers

  17. Revegetation Study of Adobe Dam, Phoenix, Arizona. Task 5 and 7. Seeding Success on Topsoiled and Nontopsoiled Slopes at Adobe Dam.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-18

    this region as Lower Colorado River Valley subdivision of the Sonoran Desert biome. Two major vegetation series , IJ occur in this subdivision: the...include; Acacia greggi (Catclaw Acacia), Lycium andersonii (Anderson Thornbush) and Baccharis sarothroides (Brown 1982). fOther common Sonoran Desertscrub...Saguaro), Opuntia bigelovil (Teddybear Cholla), Mammilairia tetrancistra (Pincushion Cactus) Echinocereus engelmannii (Englemann Hedgehog) and

  18. Digital version of "Open-File Report 92-183: Geologic map of the Granite Spring Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, Howard G.; Bedford, David R.; Coleman, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    3. Plottable map representations of the database at 1:24,000 scale in PostScript and Adobe PDF formats. The plottable files consist of a color geologic map derived from the spatial database, composited with a topographic base map in the form of the USGS Digital Raster Graphic for the map area. Color symbology from each of these datasets is maintained, which can cause plot file sizes to be large.

  19. Digital version of "Open-File Report 92-181: Geologic map of the Indian Spring Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, Howard G.; Bedford, David R.; Coleman, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    Plottable map representations of the database at 1:24,000 scale in PostScript and Adobe PDF formats. The plottable files consist of a color geologic map derived from the spatial database, composited with a topographic base map in the form of the USGS Digital Raster Graphic for the map area. Color symbology from each of these datasets is maintained, which can cause plot file sizes to be large.

  20. Digital version of "Open-File Report 92-179: Geologic map of the Cow Cove Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, Howard G.; Bedford, David R.; Coleman, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    3. Plottable map representations of the database at 1:24,000 scale in PostScript and Adobe PDF formats. The plottable files consist of a color geologic map derived from the spatial database, composited with a topographic base map in the form of the USGS Digital Raster Graphic for the map area. Color symbology from each of these datasets is maintained, which can cause plot file sizes to be large.

  1. Fact Sheets

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF | Espanol PDF Paternal Exposures PDF | Espanol PDF Pesticides PDF | Espanol PDF Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace ... Mold PDF | Espanol PDF Paint PDF | Espanol PDF Pesticides PDF | Espanol PDF Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace ...

  2. Congruence of Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Acrobat Ants (Crematogaster Subgenus Decacrema, Formicidae: Myrmicinae) Inhabiting Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) Myrmecophytes

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Shouhei; Nagano, Yusuke; Kataoka, Yowsuke; Komatsu, Takashi; Itioka, Takao; Shimizu-kaya, Usun; Inui, Yoko; Itino, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A previously reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny of Crematogaster (subgenus Decacrema) ants inhabiting Macaranga myrmecophytes indicated that the partners diversified synchronously and their specific association has been maintained for 20 million years. However, the mtDNA clades did not exactly match morphological species, probably owing to introgressive hybridization among younger species. In this study, we determined the congruence between nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR, also called microsatellite) genotyping and mtDNA phylogeny to confirm the suitability of the mtDNA phylogeny for inferring the evolutionary history of Decacrema ants. Analyses of ant samples from Lambir Hills National park, northeastern Borneo, showed overall congruence between the SSR and mtDNA groupings, indicating that mtDNA markers are useful for delimiting species, at least at the local level. We also found overall high host-plant specificity of the SSR genotypes of Decacrema ants, consistent with the specificity based on the mtDNA phylogeny. Further, we detected cryptic genetic assemblages exhibiting high specificity toward particular plant species within a single mtDNA clade. This finding, which may be evidence for rapid ecological and genetic differentiation following a host shift, is a new insight into the previously suggested long-term codiversification of Decacrema ants and Macaranga plants. PMID:25692953

  3. Underwater acrobatics by the world's largest predator: 360° rolling manoeuvres by lunge-feeding blue whales.

    PubMed

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Calambokidis, John; Friedlaender, Ari S; Francis, John; DeRuiter, Stacy L; Stimpert, Alison K; Falcone, Erin; Southall, Brandon L

    2013-02-23

    The extreme body size of blue whales requires a high energy intake and therefore demands efficient foraging strategies. As an obligate lunge feeder on aggregations of small zooplankton, blue whales engulf a large volume of prey-laden water in a single, rapid gulp. The efficiency of this feeding mechanism is strongly dependent on the amount of prey that can be captured during each lunge, yet food resources tend to be patchily distributed in both space and time. Here, we measured the three-dimensional kinematics and foraging behaviour of blue whales feeding on krill, using suction-cup attached multi-sensor tags. Our analyses revealed 360° rolling lunge-feeding manoeuvres that reorient the body and position the lower jaws so that a krill patch can be engulfed with the whale's body inverted. We also recorded these rolling behaviours when whales were in a searching mode in between lunges, suggesting that this behaviour also enables the whale to visually process the prey field and maximize foraging efficiency by surveying for the densest prey aggregations. These results reveal the complex manoeuvrability that is required for large rorqual whales to exploit prey patches and highlight the need to fully understand the three-dimensional interactions between predator and prey in the natural environment.

  4. Underwater acrobatics by the world's largest predator: 360° rolling manoeuvres by lunge-feeding blue whales

    PubMed Central

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A.; Calambokidis, John; Friedlaender, Ari S.; Francis, John; DeRuiter, Stacy L.; Stimpert, Alison K.; Falcone, Erin; Southall, Brandon L.

    2013-01-01

    The extreme body size of blue whales requires a high energy intake and therefore demands efficient foraging strategies. As an obligate lunge feeder on aggregations of small zooplankton, blue whales engulf a large volume of prey-laden water in a single, rapid gulp. The efficiency of this feeding mechanism is strongly dependent on the amount of prey that can be captured during each lunge, yet food resources tend to be patchily distributed in both space and time. Here, we measured the three-dimensional kinematics and foraging behaviour of blue whales feeding on krill, using suction-cup attached multi-sensor tags. Our analyses revealed 360° rolling lunge-feeding manoeuvres that reorient the body and position the lower jaws so that a krill patch can be engulfed with the whale's body inverted. We also recorded these rolling behaviours when whales were in a searching mode in between lunges, suggesting that this behaviour also enables the whale to visually process the prey field and maximize foraging efficiency by surveying for the densest prey aggregations. These results reveal the complex manoeuvrability that is required for large rorqual whales to exploit prey patches and highlight the need to fully understand the three-dimensional interactions between predator and prey in the natural environment. PMID:23193050

  5. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issue of type certificate: normal, utility...; aircraft engines; propellers. 21.21 Section 21.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates §...

  6. Alegria! Flow in Leisure and Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Event Satisfaction Using Data from an Acrobatics Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lung Hung; Ye, Yun-Ci; Chen, Mei-Yen; Tung, I-Wu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the role of satisfaction-with-event as a mediator in the relations between flow and life satisfaction based on the bottom-up theory (Andrews and Withey in "Social indicators of well-being: Americans' perceptions of life quality." Plenum, New York, 1976; Lee et al. in "J…

  7. Congruence of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation in acrobat ants (Crematogaster subgenus Decacrema, Formicidae: Myrmicinae) inhabiting Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) myrmecophytes.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shouhei; Nagano, Yusuke; Kataoka, Yowsuke; Komatsu, Takashi; Itioka, Takao; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Inui, Yoko; Itino, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A previously reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny of Crematogaster (subgenus Decacrema) ants inhabiting Macaranga myrmecophytes indicated that the partners diversified synchronously and their specific association has been maintained for 20 million years. However, the mtDNA clades did not exactly match morphological species, probably owing to introgressive hybridization among younger species. In this study, we determined the congruence between nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR, also called microsatellite) genotyping and mtDNA phylogeny to confirm the suitability of the mtDNA phylogeny for inferring the evolutionary history of Decacrema ants. Analyses of ant samples from Lambir Hills National park, northeastern Borneo, showed overall congruence between the SSR and mtDNA groupings, indicating that mtDNA markers are useful for delimiting species, at least at the local level. We also found overall high host-plant specificity of the SSR genotypes of Decacrema ants, consistent with the specificity based on the mtDNA phylogeny. Further, we detected cryptic genetic assemblages exhibiting high specificity toward particular plant species within a single mtDNA clade. This finding, which may be evidence for rapid ecological and genetic differentiation following a host shift, is a new insight into the previously suggested long-term codiversification of Decacrema ants and Macaranga plants.

  8. Let's Connect: Using Adobe Connect to Foster Group Collaboration in the Online Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Renee; Frisby, Brandi N.

    2013-01-01

    The need for students to become connected in the classroom parallels the need for students to become socially integrated into the college community. Because technological tools are always changing, the opportunity for all students on- and off-campus to ''meet'' face-to-face and build relationships within the classroom are…

  9. Evaluation of Three Watering and Mulching Techniques on Transplanted Trees at Adobe Dam,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    ST V ( INTRODUCTION On denuded lands, harsh site conditions may render revegetation by seeding risky and the probability of seeding failure high...transplant plugs of Agropyron smith!i showed survival rates 50 to 75 percent greater than seeded plants on coal spoils (Packer and Aldon 1978...good transplant growth. Seeding of tolerant species may be preferable. Where heavy equipment has traveled or an impermeable soil layer exists

  10. Evaluation of a sheathed permissible explosive charge for open shooting in flammable atmospheres: Adobe charge program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainiero, R. J.; Hay, J. E.

    1982-04-01

    A prototype nonincendive explosive rock-breaker charge that can be fired unconfined in underground bituminous coal mines without the danger of igniting a flammable atmosphere that might be present is described. At present, unconfined shooting in underground coal mines is prohibited, but there are situations where the use of such shots would yield an overall improvement in safety. The charge consists of 1-1/2 lb of permissible water gel explosive in the form of a short cylinder 7 inches in diameter and 7/8 inches high, surrounded by a 1/2-inch-thick layer of damp salt, and encased in latex rubber reinforced with cheese cloth. The latex rubber housing provides a charge package that is strong enough to resist rough handling yet is pliable enough to conform to an irregular stone surface. A charge of this shape was found to be more effective at breaking rock than charges with lined or unlined cavities.

  11. Portable document format file showing the surface models of cadaver whole body.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyung Seon; Lee, Sangho; Moon, Young Lae; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2012-08-01

    In the Visible Korean project, 642 three-dimensional (3D) surface models have been built from the sectioned images of a male cadaver. It was recently discovered that popular PDF file enables users to approach the numerous surface models conveniently on Adobe Reader. Purpose of this study was to present a PDF file including systematized surface models of human body as the beneficial contents. To achieve the purpose, fitting software packages were employed in accordance with the procedures. Two-dimensional (2D) surface models including the original sectioned images were embedded into the 3D surface models. The surface models were categorized into systems and then groups. The adjusted surface models were inserted to a PDF file, where relevant multimedia data were added. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive data of a whole body could be explored in varying manners. The PDF file, downloadable freely from the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr), is expected to be used as a satisfactory self-learning tool of anatomy. Raw data of the surface models can be extracted from the PDF file and employed for various simulations for clinical practice. The technique to organize the surface models will be applied to manufacture of other PDF files containing various multimedia contents.

  12. Energy Week presentations

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    Topics covered include: energy security; clean energy and low carbon; energy for growth and poverty reduction in Africa; financing of energy efficiency; SMEs for decentralised energy service provision; potential for biofuels in developing countries; clean energy and sustainable development; clean energy finance and private equity funds; power generation and low carbon technologies; beyond traditional finance; rehabilitation and emission control in thermal power plants; and carbon finance. The presentations are mainly in ppt (Power Point) or pdf (Acrobat) format. Some videos of the conference are also available on the website.

  13. The table of isotopes-8th edition and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    A new edition of the Table of Isotopes has been published this year by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. This edition is the eighth in a series started by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1940. The two-volume, 3168-page, cloth-bound edition is twice the size of the previous edition published in 1978. It contains nuclear structure and decay data, based mainly on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), for >3100 isotopes and isomers. Approximately 24000 references are cited, and the appendices have been updated and extended. The book is packaged with an interactive CD-ROM that contains the Table of Isotopes in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format for convenient viewing on personal computer (PC) and UNIX workstations. The CD-ROM version contains a chart of the nuclides graphical index and separate indices organized for radioisotope users and nuclear structure physicists. More than 100000 hypertext links are provided to move the user quickly through related information free from the limitations of page size. Complete references with keyword abstracts are provided. The CD-ROM also contains the Table of Super-deformed Nuclear Bands and Fission Isomers; Tables of Atoms, Atomic Nuclei, and Subatomic Particles by Ivan P. Selinov; the ENSDF and nuclear structure reference (NSR) databases; the ENSDF manual by Jagdish K. Tuli; and Abode Acrobat Reader software.

  14. Natural-Color Image Mosaics of Afghanistan: Digital Databases and Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Hare, Trent M.

    2007-01-01

    Explanation: The 50 tiled images in this dataset are natural-color renditions of the calibrated six-band Landsat mosaics created from Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. Natural-color images depict the surface as seen by the human eye. The calibration of the Landsat ETM+ maps produced by Davis (2006) are relative reflectance and need to be grounded with ground-reflectance data, but the difficulties in performing fieldwork in Afghanistan precluded ground-reflectance surveys. For natural color calibration, which involves only the blue, green, and red color bands of Landsat, we could use ground photographs, Munsell color readings of ground surfaces, or another image base that accurately depicts the surface color. Each map quadrangle is 1? of latitude by? of longitude. The numbers assigned to each map quadrangle refer to the latitude and longitude coordinates of the lower left corner of the quadrangle. For example, quadrangle Q2960 has its lower left corner at lat 29? N., long 60? E. Each quadrangle overlaps adjacent quadrangles by 100 pixels (2.85 km). Only the 14.25-m-spacial-resolution UTM and 28.5-m-spacial-resolution WGS84 geographic geotiff datasets are available in this report to decrease the amount of space needed. The images are (three-band, eight-bit) geotiffs with embedded georeferencing. As such, most software will not require the associated world files. An index of all available images in geographic is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. The country of Afghanistan spans three UTM zones: (41-43). Maps are stored as geoTIFFs in their respective UTM zone projection. Indexes of all available topographic map sheets in their respective UTM zone are displayed here: Index_UTM_Z41.pdf, Index_UTM_Z42.pdf, Index_UTM_Z43.pdf. You will need Adobe Reader to view the PDF files. Download a copy of the latest version of Adobe Reader for free.

  15. Stratigraphic framework of Lower and Upper Cretaceous rocks in central and eastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condon, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    This study shows the lithology, thickness, distribution, and correlation of Lower and Upper Cretaceous rocks in central and eastern Montana. The described stratigraphic units range from the Aptian Kootenai Formation (oldest) to the Maastrichtian Hell Creek Formation (youngest). An included text report describes the units, and most formations or members are also represented by isopach maps. Structure contour maps of three horizons are also included. Correlations across the study area are shown on a series of cross sections. All text and illustrations are included as Adobe PDF files.

  16. DNS Rebinding Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    action [From 2] The same origin policy is also called Single Origin or Same Site Policy. It was originally released with Netscape Navigator 2.0 and...success Netscape 8.2.1 Windows XP / SP2 success Opera 9.0.2 Windows 2000 / SP4 success Table 6. Satoh’s attack results using Adobe Flash Player...dns/dns-rebinding.pdf. Retrieved May 2009. [4] D. Dean, E. W. Felten, and D. S. Wallach “Java Security: From HotJava to Netscape and Beyond

  17. Second Line of Defense: Electronic Maintenance Reports, Local Maintenance Provider User Guide, Rev. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, Richard J.

    2012-09-01

    The Electronic Maintenance Report forms allow Local Maintenance Providers (LMP) and other program staff to enter maintenance information into a simple and secure system. This document describes the features and information required to complete the Maintenance Report forms. It is expected that all Corrective Maintenance Reports from LMPs will be submitted electronically into the SLD Portal. As an exception (e.g., when access to the SLD Portal is unavailable), Maintenance Reports can be submitted via a secure Adobe PDF form available through the Sustainability Manager assigned to each country.

  18. The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audi, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Wang, Meng; Huang, W. J.; Naimi, S.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the NUBASE2016 evaluation that contains the recommended values for nuclear and decay properties of 3437 nuclides in their ground and excited isomeric (T1/2 >= 100 ns) states. All nuclides for which any experimental information is known were considered. NUBASE2016 covers all data published by October 2016 in primary (journal articles) and secondary (mainly laboratory reports and conference proceedings) references, together with the corresponding bibliographical information. During the development of NUBASE2016, the data available in the 'Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File' (ENSDF) database were consulted and critically assessed for their validity and completeness. Furthermore, a large amount of new data and some older experimental results that were missing from ENSDF were compiled, evaluated and included in NUBASE2016. The atomic mass values were taken from the 'Atomic Mass Evaluation' (AME2016, second and third parts of the present issue). In cases where no experimental data were available for a particular nuclide, trends in the behavior of specific properties in neighboring nuclides (TNN) were examined. This approach allowed to estimate values for a range of properties that are labeled in NUBASE2016 as 'non-experimental' (flagged '#'). Evaluation procedures and policies used during the development of this database are presented, together with a detailed table of recommended values and their uncertainties. AMDC: http://amdc.impcas.ac.cn/ Contents The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear propertiesAcrobat PDF (1.1 MB) Table I. The NUBASE2016 table of nuclear and decay propertiesAcrobat PDF (706 KB)

  19. Materials Data on Ba2PdF6 (SG:64) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on CsK2PdF5 (SG:127) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Materials Data on Li2PdF6 (SG:136) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Materials Data on K2PdF6 (SG:164) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. Analysis of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Data from the FracFocus Chemical Disclosure Registry 1 (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA analyzed data from the FracFocus Chemical Disclosure Registry 1.0 to better understand the chemicals and water used to hydraulically fracture oil and gas production wells across the United States.

  4. Alaska Geochemical Database - Mineral Exploration Tool for the 21st Century - PDF of presentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granitto, Matthew; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has created a geochemical database of geologic material samples collected in Alaska. This database is readily accessible to anyone with access to the Internet. Designed as a tool for mineral or environmental assessment, land management, or mineral exploration, the initial version of the Alaska Geochemical Database - U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 637 - contains geochemical, geologic, and geospatial data for 264,158 samples collected from 1962-2009: 108,909 rock samples; 92,701 sediment samples; 48,209 heavy-mineral-concentrate samples; 6,869 soil samples; and 7,470 mineral samples. In addition, the Alaska Geochemical Database contains mineralogic data for 18,138 nonmagnetic-fraction heavy mineral concentrates, making it the first U.S. Geological Survey database of this scope that contains both geochemical and mineralogic data. Examples from the Alaska Range will illustrate potential uses of the Alaska Geochemical Database in mineral exploration. Data from the Alaska Geochemical Database have been extensively checked for accuracy of sample media description, sample site location, and analytical method using U.S. Geological Survey sample-submittal archives and U.S. Geological Survey publications (plus field notebooks and sample site compilation base maps from the Alaska Technical Data Unit in Anchorage, Alaska). The database is also the repository for nearly all previously released U.S. Geological Survey Alaska geochemical datasets. Although the Alaska Geochemical Database is a fully relational database in Microsoft® Access 2003 and 2010 formats, these same data are also provided as a series of spreadsheet files in Microsoft® Excel 2003 and 2010 formats, and as ASCII text files. A DVD version of the Alaska Geochemical Database was released in October 2011, as U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 637, and data downloads are available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/637/. Also, all Alaska Geochemical Database data have been incorporated into the interactive U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resource Data web portal, available at http://mrdata.usgs.gov/.

  5. The ALHAMBRA survey: accurate merger fractions derived by PDF analysis of photometrically close pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sanjuan, C.; Cenarro, A. J.; Varela, J.; Viironen, K.; Molino, A.; Benítez, N.; Arnalte-Mur, P.; Ascaso, B.; Díaz-García, L. A.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Jiménez-Teja, Y.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Pović, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cepa, J.; Cerviño, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Del Olmo, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Martínez, V. J.; Perea, J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: Our goal is to develop and test a novel methodology to compute accurate close-pair fractions with photometric redshifts. Methods: We improved the currently used methodologies to estimate the merger fraction fm from photometric redshifts by (i) using the full probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the sources in redshift space; (ii) including the variation in the luminosity of the sources with z in both the sample selection and the luminosity ratio constrain; and (iii) splitting individual PDFs into red and blue spectral templates to reliably work with colour selections. We tested the performance of our new methodology with the PDFs provided by the ALHAMBRA photometric survey. Results: The merger fractions and rates from the ALHAMBRA survey agree excellently well with those from spectroscopic work for both the general population and red and blue galaxies. With the merger rate of bright (MB ≤ -20-1.1z) galaxies evolving as (1 + z)n, the power-law index n is higher for blue galaxies (n = 2.7 ± 0.5) than for red galaxies (n = 1.3 ± 0.4), confirming previous results. Integrating the merger rate over cosmic time, we find that the average number of mergers per galaxy since z = 1 is Nmred = 0.57 ± 0.05 for red galaxies and Nmblue = 0.26 ± 0.02 for blue galaxies. Conclusions: Our new methodology statistically exploits all the available information provided by photometric redshift codes and yields accurate measurements of the merger fraction by close pairs from using photometric redshifts alone. Current and future photometric surveys will benefit from this new methodology. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) at Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).The catalogues, probabilities, and figures of the ALHAMBRA close pairs detected in Sect. 5.1 are available at http://https://cloud.iaa.csic.es/alhambra/catalogues/ClosePairs

  6. An Investigation of a Hybrid Mixing Timescale Model for PDF Simulations of Turbulent Premixed Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Kuron, Mike; Ren, Zhuyin; Lu, Tianfeng; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2016-11-01

    Transported probability density function (TPDF) method features the generality for all combustion regimes, which is attractive for turbulent combustion simulations. However, the modeling of micromixing due to molecular diffusion is still considered to be a primary challenge for TPDF method, especially in turbulent premixed flames. Recently, a hybrid mixing rate model for TPDF simulations of turbulent premixed flames has been proposed, which recovers the correct mixing rates in the limits of flamelet regime and broken reaction zone regime while at the same time aims to properly account for the transition in between. In this work, this model is employed in TPDF simulations of turbulent premixed methane-air slot burner flames. The model performance is assessed by comparing the results from both direct numerical simulation (DNS) and conventional constant mechanical-to-scalar mixing rate model. This work is Granted by NSFC 51476087 and 91441202.

  7. Materials Data on PdF2 (SG:136) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. Potential Applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Technologies to RCRA Waste Streams and Contaminated Media (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report provides an evaluation of the potential applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) technologies to RCRA waste streams and contaminated media found at RCRA and Superfund sites.

  9. Materials Data on PdF3 (SG:150) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. TRI Analysis of Community-Scale Pollution Prevention Activities: North Birmingham, Alabama (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This analysis compared TRI data about pollution prevention and waste management activities from facilities located in North Birmingham with facilities in the same industry sectors that are located elsewhere in the country.

  11. Final Progress Report for Award DE-FG07-05ID14637.pdf

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Dixon

    2012-03-09

    2004-2011 Final Report for AFCI University Fellowship Program. The goal of this effort was to be supportive of university students and university programs - particularly those students and programs that will help to strengthen the development of nuclear-related fields. The program also supported the stability of the nuclear infrastructure and developed research partnerships that are helping to enlarge the national nuclear science technology base. In this fellowship program, the U.S. Department of Energy sought master's degree students in nuclear, mechanical, or chemical engineering, engineering/applied physics, physics, chemistry, radiochemistry, or fields of science and engineering applicable to the AFCI/Gen IV/GNEP missions in order to meet future U.S. nuclear program needs. The fellowship program identified candidates and selected full time students of high-caliber who were taking nuclear courses as part of their degree programs. The DOE Academic Program Managers encouraged fellows to pursue summer internships at national laboratories and supported the students with appropriate information so that both the fellows and the nation's nuclear energy objectives were successful.

  12. Lithium Insertion Mechanism in Iron-Based Oxyfluorides with Anionic Vacancies Probed by PDF Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dambournet, Damien; Chapman, Karena W; Duttine, Mathieu; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Chupas, Peter J; Groult, Henri

    2015-08-01

    The mechanism of lithium insertion that occurs in an iron oxyfluoride sample with a hexagonal-tungsten-bronze (HTB)-type structure was investigated by the pair distribution function. This study reveals that upon lithiation, the HTB framework collapses to yield disordered rutile and rock salt phases followed by a conversion reaction of the fluoride phase toward lithium fluoride and nanometer-sized metallic iron. The occurrence of anionic vacancies in the pristine framework was shown to strongly impact the electrochemical activity, that is, the reversible capacity scales with the content of anionic vacancies. Similar to FeOF-type electrodes, upon de-lithiation, a disordered rutile phase forms, showing that the anionic chemistry dictates the atomic arrangement of the re-oxidized phase. Finally, it was shown that the nanoscaling and structural rearrangement induced by the conversion reaction allow the in situ formation of new electrode materials with enhanced electrochemical properties.

  13. Lithium Insertion Mechanism in Iron-Based Oxyfluorides with Anionic Vacancies Probed by PDF Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dambournet, Damien; Chapman, Karena W; Duttine, Mathieu; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Chupas, Peter J; Groult, Henri

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of lithium insertion that occurs in an iron oxyfluoride sample with a hexagonal–tungsten–bronze (HTB)-type structure was investigated by the pair distribution function. This study reveals that upon lithiation, the HTB framework collapses to yield disordered rutile and rock salt phases followed by a conversion reaction of the fluoride phase toward lithium fluoride and nanometer-sized metallic iron. The occurrence of anionic vacancies in the pristine framework was shown to strongly impact the electrochemical activity, that is, the reversible capacity scales with the content of anionic vacancies. Similar to FeOF-type electrodes, upon de-lithiation, a disordered rutile phase forms, showing that the anionic chemistry dictates the atomic arrangement of the re-oxidized phase. Finally, it was shown that the nanoscaling and structural rearrangement induced by the conversion reaction allow the in situ formation of new electrode materials with enhanced electrochemical properties. PMID:26478837

  14. Materials Data on PdF2 (SG:205) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. PDF and QCD effects in the precision measurement of the W boson mass at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Beecher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    A sample of W → ev (W → μν) and Z0 → e+e- (Z0 → μ+μ-) events recorded by the CDF detector for p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV are used to evaluate the systematic uncertainty in the determination of the W boson mass arising from uncertainties in the parton distribution functions and higher-order QCD effects. The systematic contribution of PDFs is determined to be 10 MeV/c2 for MSTW2008 NLO and 12 MeV/c2 for CTEQ6.6. The total systematic contribution arising from higher-order QCD effects in 9 MeV/c2. The Z0 events are used to extract improved estimates of the phenomenological parameters in the BLNY model that describes low transverse momentum.

  16. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized encoal PDF fired boiler. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications. This report describes the plant design.

  17. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico Mountain, known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations, both of which have left a legacy of pollution. In this study...

  18. Using Mobile Devices and the Adobe Connect Web Conferencing Tool in the Assessment of EFL Student Teacher Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolona Lopez, Maria del Carmen; Ortiz, Margarita Elizabeth; Allen, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a project to use mobile devices and video conferencing technology in the assessment of student English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher performance on teaching practice in Ecuador. With the increasing availability of mobile devices with video recording facilities, it has become easier for trainers to capture teacher…

  19. Embankment Criteria and Performance Report: Adobe Dam Gila River Basin, New River and Phoenix City Streams, Arizona.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    direction, and generally is steeply dipping. Igneous rocks in the area consist of granite, rhyolite, andesite , dacite, vesicular basalt flows, tuff...from the mid-Tertiary (late Oligeocene and early Miocene) orogency, which produced great quantities of rhyolite to andesitic tuffs, breccias, and flows...which vary in thickness from a thin veneer to many feet. The flows are composed of dark-gray vesicular olivine basalt, andesite , flow breccia

  20. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place and Contractor. Part 5. (Adobe, Colorado-Washington, DC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    00 I Ho 0 I 00M Hot 1.00 voco L.00oo u o o U H I 04 H1-00 L-000 L.000 LO00 I.-0 L.0 0 100 1 00~~~~~~~~~ H- P-0 PIt O0t- t-F-I’ o-- r- Of-, of- o- o--i...402 10 PW PN II P2-2 I 2 IwN I It I 44 nO oo fl Coc 0 -4 (00 NC40000 4 0)0 7o Coco N ItN I W4- 11Ŕ a*J( -4- (0.4 clip , co* -4.4A -4.-0 NO

  1. Pesticide Product Label System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on November 21, 2014. Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely handle and use registered pesticide products. An approved pesticide product label represents the full content of EPAs registration decision regarding that product. Pesticide labels contain detailed information on the use, storage, and handling of a product. This information will be found on EPA stamped-approved labels and, in some cases, in subsequent related correspondence, which is also included in PPLS. You may need to review several PDF files for a single product to determine the complete current terms of registration.

  2. Vertical-tail-buffeting alleviation using piezoelectric actuators: some results of the actively controlled response of buffet-affected tails (ACROBAT) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-05-01

    A 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet Affected Tails program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at a dynamic pressure of 14 psf. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the actuators, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. Buffeting alleviation results when using the rudder are presented for comparison. Stability margins indicate that a constant gain setting in the control law may be used throughout the range of angle of attack tested.

  3. Researching Embodied Learning by Using Videographic Participation for Data Collection and Audiovisual Narratives for Dissemination--Illustrated by the Encounter between Two Acrobats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degerbøl, Stine; Nielsen, Charlotte Svendler

    2015-01-01

    The article concerns doing ethnography in education and it reflects upon using "videographic participation" for data collection and the concept of "audiovisual narratives" for dissemination, which is inspired by the idea of developing academic video. The article takes a narrative approach to qualitative research and presents a…

  4. The AME2016 atomic mass evaluation (I). Evaluation of input data; and adjustment procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W. J.; Audi, G.; Wang, Meng; Kondev, F. G.; Naimi, S.; Xu, Xing

    2017-03-01

    This paper is the first of two articles (Part I and Part II) that presents the results of the new atomic mass evaluation, AME2016. It includes complete information on the experimental input data (also including unused and rejected ones), as well as details on the evaluation procedures used to derive the tables of recommended values given in the second part. This article describes the evaluation philosophy and procedures that were implemented in the selection of specific nuclear reaction, decay and mass-spectrometric results. These input values were entered in the least-squares adjustment for determining the best values for the atomic masses and their uncertainties. Details of the calculation and particularities of the AME are then described. All accepted and rejected data, including outweighted ones, are presented in a tabular format and compared with the adjusted values obtained using the least-squares fit analysis. Differences with the previous AME2012 evaluation are discussed and specific information is presented for several cases that may be of interest to AME users. The second AME2016 article gives a table with the recommended values of atomic masses, as well as tables and graphs of derived quantities, along with the list of references used in both the AME2016 and the NUBASE2016 evaluations (the first paper in this issue). AMDC: http://amdc.impcas.ac.cn/ Contents The AME2016 atomic mass evaluation (I). Evaluation of input data; and adjustment proceduresAcrobat PDF (1.2 MB) Table I. Input data compared with adjusted valuesAcrobat PDF (1.3 MB)

  5. Differential Weight Procedure of the Conditional P.D.F. Approach for Estimating the Operating Characteristics of Discrete Item Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    A method is proposed that increases the accuracies of estimation of the operating characteristics of discrete item responses, especially when the true operating characteristic is represented by a steep curve, and also at the lower and upper ends of the ability distribution where the estimation tends to be inaccurate because of the smaller number…

  6. USGS exploration geochemistry studies at the Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Alaska-pdf of presentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.; Fey, David L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Minsley, Burke J.; Smith, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    From 2007 through 2010, scientists in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been conducting exploration-oriented geochemical and geophysical studies in the region surrounding the giant Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska. The Cretaceous Pebble deposit is concealed under tundra, glacial till, and Tertiary cover rocks, and is undisturbed except for numerous exploration drill holes. These USGS studies are part of a nation-wide research project on evaluating and detecting concealed mineral resources. This report focuses on exploration geochemistry and comprises illustrations and associated notes that were presented as a case study in a workshop on this topic. The workshop, organized by L.G. Closs and R. Glanzman, is called 'Geochemistry in Mineral Exploration and Development,' presented by the Society of Economic Geologists at a technical conference entitled 'The Challenge of Finding New Mineral Resources: Global Metallogeny, Integrative Exploration and New Discoveries,' held at Keystone, Colorado, October 2-5, 2010.

  7. Evaluation of Subgrid-Scale Transport of Hydrometeors in a PDF-based Scheme using High-Resolution CRM Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M.; Ovchinnikov, M.; Wang, M.; Larson, V. E.

    2014-12-01

    In current climate models, the model resolution is too coarse to explicitly resolve deep convective systems. Parameterization schemes are therefore needed to represent the physical processes at the sub-grid scale. Recently, an approach based on assumed probability density functions (PDFs) has been developed to help unify the various parameterization schemes used in current global models. In particular, a unified parameterization scheme called the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) scheme has been developed and tested successfully for shallow boundary-layer clouds. CLUBB's implementation in the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5) is also being extended to treat deep convection cases, but parameterizing subgrid-scale vertical transport of hydrometeors remains a challenge. To investigate the roots of the problem and possible solutions, we generate a high-resolution benchmark simulation of a deep convection case using a cloud-resolving model (CRM) called System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM). We use the high-resolution 3D CRM results to assess the prognostic and diagnostic higher-order moments in CLUBB that are in relation to the subgrid-scale transport of hydrometeors. We also analyze the heat and moisture budgets in terms of CLUBB variables from the SAM benchmark simulation. The results from this study will be used to devise a better representation of vertical subgrid-scale transport of hydrometeors by utilizing the sub-grid variability information from CLUBB.

  8. Unified Cloud and Mixing Parameterizations of the Marine Boundary Layer: EDMF and PDF-Based Cloud Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    against observations and LES results for GCSS cloud transition cases – i.e. from stratocumulus to cumulus . Implementation and evaluation of new EDMF...flow, and in the cumulus -dominated boundary layer they represent convective clouds . Therefore, the solutions have to account for a realistic...LES results. In the SCM, the well mixed boundary layer is more moist than in the LES results and consequently the cumulus dominated cloud layer is

  9. Basic Hemorheology Advan Physiology Ed v37 n2 p129-134 Usingclassic.pdfC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toksvang, Linea Natalie; Berg, Ronan M.G.

    2013-01-01

    "The viscosity of the blood in narrow capillary tubes" by Robin Fahraeus and Torsten Lindqvist ("Am J Physiol" 96: 562--568, 1931) can be a valuable opportunity for teaching basic hemorheological principles in undergraduate cardiovascular physiology. This classic paper demonstrates that a progressive decline in apparent…

  10. Local Structure of La1-xSrxCoO3 determined from EXAFS and neutron PDF studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, N.; Jiang, Y.; Anderson, I. E.; Belanger, D. P.; Booth, C. H.; Bridges, F.; Mitchell, J. F.; Proffen, Th.; Zheng, H.

    2009-01-26

    The combined local structure techniques, extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and neutron pair distribution function analysis, have been used for temperatures 4<= T<= 330 K to rule out a large Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion of the Co-O bond in La1?xSrxCoO3 for a significant fraction of Co sites (x<= 0.35), indicating few, if any, JT-active, singly occupied eg Co sites exist.

  11. Uncertainties on [Formula: see text] in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis and implications for SM predictions.

    PubMed

    Harland-Lang, L A; Martin, A D; Motylinski, P; Thorne, R S

    We investigate the uncertainty in the strong coupling [Formula: see text] when allowing it to be a free parameter in the recent MMHT global analyses of deep-inelastic and related hard scattering data that was undertaken to determine the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton. The analysis uses the standard framework of leading twist fixed-order collinear factorisation in the [Formula: see text] scheme. We study the constraints on [Formula: see text] coming from individual data sets by repeating the NNLO and NLO fits spanning the range 0.108 to 0.128 in units of 0.001, making all PDFs sets available. The inclusion of the cross section for inclusive [Formula: see text] production allows us to explore the correlation between the mass [Formula: see text] of the top quark and [Formula: see text]. We find that the best-fit values are [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] at NLO and NNLO, respectively, with the central values changing to [Formula: see text] and 0.1178 when the world average of [Formula: see text] is used as a data point. We investigate the interplay between the uncertainties on [Formula: see text] and on the PDFs. In particular we calculate the cross sections for key processes at the LHC and show how the uncertainties from the PDFs and from [Formula: see text] can be provided independently and be combined.

  12. Results of coal bed methane drilling, Mylan Park, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Fedorko, Nick; Warwick, Peter D.; Grady, William C.; Crangle, Robert D.; Britton, James Q.

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory funded drilling of a borehole (39.64378 deg E , -80.04376 deg N) to evaluate the potential for coal bed methane and carbon dioxide sequestration at Mylan Park, Monongalia County, West Virginia. The drilling commenced on September 23, 2002 and was completed on November 14, 2002. The 2,525 ft deep hole contained 1,483.41 ft of Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata, 739.67 feet of Mississippian strata, and 301.93 ft. of Devonian strata. The drill site was located directly over abandoned Pittsburgh and Sewickley coal mines. Coal cores from remaining mine pillars were cut and retrieved for desorption from both mines. In addition, coals were cored and desorbed from the Pittsburgh Roof, Little Pittsburgh, Elk Lick, Brush Creek, Upper Kittanning, Middle Kittanning, Clarion, Upper Mercer, Lower Mercer, and Quakertown coal beds. All coals are Pennsylvanian in age and are high-volatile-A bituminous in rank. A total of 34.75 ft of coal was desorbed over a maximum period of 662 days, although most of the coal was desorbed for about 275 days. This report is provided in Adobe Acrobat format. Appendix 3 is provided in Excel format.

  13. Lab Manual & Resources for Materials Science, Engineering and Technology on CD-Rom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, James A.; McKenney, Alfred E.

    2001-01-01

    The National Educators' Workshop (NEW:Update) series of workshops has been in existence since 1986. These annual workshops focus on technical updates and laboratory experiments for materials science, engineering and technology, involving new and traditional content in the field. Scores of educators and industrial and national laboratory personnel have contributed many useful experiments and demonstrations which were then published as NASA Conference Proceedings. This "out poring of riches" creates an ever-expanding shelf of valuable teaching tools for college, university, community college and advanced high school instruction. Now, more than 400 experiments and demonstrations, representing the first thirteen years of NEW:Updates have been selected and published on a CD-ROM, through the collaboration of this national network of materials educators, engineers, and scientists. The CD-ROM examined in this document utilizes the popular Adobe Acrobat Reader format and operates on most popular computer platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the second edition of Experiments in Materials Science, Engineering and Technology (EMSET2) CD-ROM, ISBN 0-13-030534-0.

  14. Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: a meta-analysis exemplar.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sharon A; Martin, Ellen E; Garcia, Theresa J; Winter, Mary A; García, Alexandra A; Brown, Adama; Cuevas, Heather E; Sumlin, Lisa L

    2013-06-01

    Meta-analyses of broad scope and complexity require investigators to organize many study documents and manage communication among several research staff. Commercially available electronic tools, for example, EndNote, Adobe Acrobat Pro, Blackboard, Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS), are useful for organizing and tracking the meta-analytic process as well as enhancing communication among research team members. The purpose of this article is to describe the electronic processes designed, using commercially available software, for an extensive, quantitative model-testing meta-analysis. Specific electronic tools improved the efficiency of (a) locating and screening studies, (b) screening and organizing studies and other project documents, (c) extracting data from primary studies, (d) checking data accuracy and analyses, and (e) communication among team members. The major limitation in designing and implementing a fully electronic system for meta-analysis was the requisite upfront time to decide on which electronic tools to use, determine how these tools would be used, develop clear guidelines for their use, and train members of the research team. The electronic process described here has been useful in streamlining the process of conducting this complex meta-analysis and enhancing communication and sharing documents among research team members.

  15. Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    These pages provide an example of the layout and style required for the preparation of four-page papers for the TechConnect World 2015 technical proceedings.Documents must be submitted in electronic (Adobe PDFfile) format. Please study the enclosed materials beforebeginning the final preparation of your paper. Proofread your paper carefully before submitting (it will appear in the published volume in exactly the same form). Your PDF manuscript must be uploaded online by April 11th, 2015.You will receive no proofs. Begin your paper with an abstract of no more than 18 lines. Thoroughly summarize your article in this section since this text will be used for on-line listing and classification of the publication.

  16. Map Database for Surficial Materials in the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soller, David R.; Reheis, Marith C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Van Sistine, D. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Earth's bedrock is overlain in many places by a loosely compacted and mostly unconsolidated blanket of sediments in which soils commonly are developed. These sediments generally were eroded from underlying rock, and then were transported and deposited. In places, they exceed 1000 ft (330 m) in thickness. Where the sediment blanket is absent, bedrock is either exposed or has been weathered to produce a residual soil. For the conterminous United States, a map by Soller and Reheis (2004, scale 1:5,000,000; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-275/) shows these sediments and the weathered, residual material; for ease of discussion, these are referred to as 'surficial materials'. That map was produced as a PDF file, from an Adobe Illustrator-formatted version of the provisional GIS database. The provisional GIS files were further processed without modifying the content of the published map, and are here published.

  17. Solutions in radiology services management: a literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Aline Garcia; Vergara, Lizandra Garcia Lupi; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz; Wagner, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at reviewing the literature to identify solutions for problems observed in radiology services. Materials and Methods Basic, qualitative, exploratory literature review at Scopus and SciELO databases, utilizing the Mendeley and Illustrator CC Adobe softwares. Results In the databases, 565 papers – 120 out of them, pdf free – were identified. Problems observed in the radiology sector are related to procedures scheduling, humanization, lack of training, poor knowledge and use of management techniques, and interaction with users. The design management provides the services with interesting solutions such as Benchmarking, CRM, Lean Approach, ServiceBlueprinting, continued education, among others. Conclusion Literature review is an important tool to identify problems and respective solutions. However, considering the small number of studies approaching management of radiology services, this is a great field of research for the development of deeper studies. PMID:26543281

  18. Space-Time Dynamics of Soil Moisture and Temperature: Scale issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohanty, Binayak P.; Miller, Douglas A.; Th.vanGenuchten, M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to gain further understanding of soil moisture/temperature dynamics at different spatio-temporal scales and physical controls/parameters.We created a comprehensive GIS database, which has been accessed extensively by NASA Land Surface Hydrology investigators (and others), is located at the following URL: http://www.essc.psu.edu/nasalsh. For soil moisture field experiments such as SGP97, SGP99, SMEX02, and SMEX03, cartographic products were designed for multiple applications, both pre- and post-mission. Premission applications included flight line planning and field operations logistics, as well as general insight into the extent and distribution of soil, vegetation, and topographic properties for the study areas. The cartographic products were created from original spatial information resources that were imported into Adobe Illustrator, where the maps were created and PDF versions were made for distribution and download.

  19. Mac OS X for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierfederici, F.; Pirzkal, N.; Hook, R. N.

    Mac OS X is the new Unix based version of the Macintosh operating system. It combines a high performance DisplayPDF user interface with a standard BSD UNIX subsystem and provides users with simultaneous access to a broad range of applications which were not previously available on a single system such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop, as well as legacy X11-based scientific tools and packages like IRAF, SuperMongo, MIDAS, etc. The combination of a modern GUI layered on top of a familiar UNIX environment paves the way for new, more flexible and powerful astronomical tools to be developed while assuring compatibility with already existing, older programs. In this paper, we outline the strengths of the Mac OS X platform in a scientific environment, astronomy in particular, and point to the numerous astronomical software packages available for this platform; most notably the Scisoft collection which we have compiled.

  20. R6 FIFRA e-Notice of Arrival

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This database processes approximately 3,000 Notice of Arrival (NOA) reporting forms from importers and exporters of pesticide products. This is an electronic version of the EPA Form 3540-1. The external user fills out the NOA and submits it electronically. The form is then processed by the Pesticides section and either approved or disapproved. The system then generates an Adobe PDF version of the EPA Form 3540-1 with signature or disapproval and emailed to the external user. The e-filing system eliminates the need for the Region to invest in paper, copying, storage and mailing expenses, while at the same time allowing the regulated community to conduct its business with us in a more expeditious manner.

  1. A Snapshot of Photo Editing Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, J.V.

    2004-01-01

    Plenty of digital imaging professionals claim that Adobe's Photoshop CS is the best photo editing application money can buy. This document reviews Adobe's Photoshop CS and its worthy competitors. In addition to Adobe, the following programs are reviewed in this document: (1) Adobe Photoshop Elements 2.0; (2) Arcsoft PhotoImpression; (3) Jasc Paint…

  2. Indicators for chronic disease surveillance - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Holt, James B; Huston, Sara L; Heidari, Khosrow; Schwartz, Randy; Gollmar, Charles W; Tran, Annie; Bryan, Leah; Liu, Yong; Croft, Janet B

    2015-01-09

    Chronic diseases are an important public health problem, which can result in morbidity, mortality, disability, and decreased quality of life. Chronic diseases represented seven of the top 10 causes of death in the United States in 2010 (Murphy SL, Xu J, Kochanek KD. Deaths: final data for 2010. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2013;6. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61_04.pdf Adobe PDF file). Chronic diseases and risk factors vary by geographic area such as state and county, where essential public health interventions are implemented. The chronic disease indicators (CDIs) were established in the late 1990s through collaboration among CDC, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and the Association of State and Territorial Chronic Disease Program Directors (now the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors) to enable public health professionals and policymakers to retrieve data for chronic diseases and risk factors that have a substantial impact on public health. This report describes the latest revisions to the CDIs, which were developed on the basis of a comprehensive review during 2011-2013. The number of indicators is increasing from 97 to 124, with major additions in systems and environmental indicators and additional emphasis on high-impact diseases and conditions as well as emerging topics.

  3. Gluon PDF constraints from the ratio of forward heavy-quark production at the LHC at [Formula: see text] and 13 TeV.

    PubMed

    Cacciari, Matteo; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Nason, Paolo

    We discuss production of charm and bottom quarks at forward rapidity in pp collisions at the LHC, updating the QCD predictions for the run at [Formula: see text] TeV. We show that, while the absolute rates suffer from large theoretical systematics, dominated by scale uncertainties, the increase relative to the rates precisely measured at 7 TeV can be predicted with an accuracy of a few percent, sufficient to highlight the sensitivity to the gluon distribution function.

  4. Olefin Insertion into a Pd-F Bond: Catalyst Reactivation Following β-F Elimination in Ethylene/Vinyl Fluoride Copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Wada, Shinji; Jordan, Richard F

    2017-02-06

    The discrete (phosphinoarenesulfonate)Pd fluoride complex (PO(Bp,OMe) )PdF(lutidine), where PO(Bp,OMe) =(2-MeOC6 H4 )(2-{2,6-(MeO)2 C6 H3 }C6 H4 )(2-SO3 -5-MeC6 H3 )P, inserts vinyl fluoride (VF) to form (PO(Bp,OMe) )PdCH2 CHF2 (lutidine) and inserts multiple ethylene (E) units to generate polyethylene that contains -CH2 F chain ends. These results provide strong evidence that the -CHF2 and -CH2 F chain ends in E/VF copolymer generated by (phosphinoarenesulfonate)PdR catalysts form by β-F elimination of Pd(β-F-alkyl) species, VF or E insertion of the resulting (PO)PdF species, and subsequent chain growth. These results also imply that β-F elimination is not an important catalyst deactivation reaction in this system.

  5. The ALHAMBRA survey: B-band luminosity function of quiescent and star-forming galaxies at 0.2 ≤ z < 1 by PDF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sanjuan, C.; Tempel, E.; Benítez, N.; Molino, A.; Viironen, K.; Díaz-García, L. A.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Santos, W. A.; Varela, J.; Cenarro, A. J.; Moles, M.; Arnalte-Mur, P.; Ascaso, B.; Montero-Dorta, A. D.; Pović, M.; Martínez, V. J.; Nieves-Seoane, L.; Stefanon, M.; Hurtado-Gil, Ll.; Márquez, I.; Perea, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cepa, J.; Cerviño, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Masegosa, J.; del Olmo, A.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: Our goal is to study the evolution of the B-band luminosity function (LF) since z 1 using ALHAMBRA data. Methods: We used the photometric redshift and the I-band selection magnitude probability distribution functions (PDFs) of those ALHAMBRA galaxies with I ≤ 24 mag to compute the posterior LF. We statistically studied quiescent and star-forming galaxies using the template information encoded in the PDFs. The LF covariance matrix in redshift - magnitude - galaxy type space was computed, including the cosmic variance. That was estimated from the intrinsic dispersion of the LF measurements in the 48 ALHAMBRA sub-fields. The uncertainty due to the photometric redshift prior is also included in our analysis. Results: We modelled the LF with a redshift-dependent Schechter function affected by the same selection effects than the data. The measured ALHAMBRA LF at 0.2 ≤ z< 1 and the evolving Schechter parameters both for quiescent and star-forming galaxies agree with previous results in the literature. The estimated redshift evolution of MB* ∝ Qz is QSF = -1.03 ± 0.08 and QQ = -0.80 ± 0.08, and of log 10φ∗ ∝ Pz is PSF = -0.01 ± 0.03 and PQ = -0.41 ± 0.05. The measured faint-end slopes are αSF = -1.29 ± 0.02 and αQ = -0.53 ± 0.04. We find a significant population of faint quiescent galaxies with MB ≳ -18, modelled by a second Schechter function with slope β = -1.31 ± 0.11. Conclusions: We present a robust methodology to compute LFs using multi-filter photometric data. The application to ALHAMBRA shows a factor 2.55 ± 0.14 decrease in the luminosity density jB of star-forming galaxies, and a factor 1.25 ± 0.16 increase in the jB of quiescent ones since z = 1, confirming the continuous build-up of the quiescent population with cosmic time. The contribution of the faint quiescent population to jB increases from 3% at z = 1 to 6% at z = 0. The developed methodology will be applied to future multi-filter surveys such as J-PAS. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto (CAHA), jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) at Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC)

  6. NASA Space Mechanisms Handbook and Reference Guide Expanded Into CD-ROM Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Several NASA missions suffered failures and anomalies due to problems in applying space mechanisms technology to specific projects. Research shows that engineers often lack either adequate knowledge of mechanism design or sufficient understanding of how mechanisms affect sensitive systems. The Space Mechanisms Project conducted a Lessons Learned study and published a Space Mechanisms Handbook to help space industry engineers avoid recurring design, qualification, and application problems. The Space Mechanisms Handbook written at the NASA Glenn Research Center details the state-of-the-art in space mechanisms design as of 1998. NASA's objective in developing this Space Mechanisms Handbook was to provide readily accessible information on such areas as space mechanisms design, mechanical component availability and use, testing and qualification of mechanical systems, and a listing of worldwide space mechanisms experts and testing facilities in the United States. This handbook has been expanded into a two-volume CD-ROM set in an Adobe Acrobat format. In addition to the handbook, the CD's include (1) the two volume Space Mechanisms Lessons Learned Study, (2) proceedings from all the NASA hosted Aerospace Mechanisms Symposia held through the year 2000, (3) the Space Materials Handbook, (4) the Lubrication Handbook for the Space Industry, (5) the Structural & Mechanical Systems Long-Life Assurance Design Guidelines, (6) the Space Environments and Effects Source-Book, (7) the Spacecraft Deployable Appendages manual, (8) the Fastener Design Manual, (9) A Manual for Pyrotechnic Design, Development and Qualification, (10) the Report on Alternative Devices to Pyrotechnics on Spacecraft, and (11) Gearing (a manual). In addition, numerous other papers on tribology and lubrication are included.This technical summary of the project provides information on how to obtain the handbook and related information.

  7. Volcanoes of the Wrangell Mountains and Cook Inlet region, Alaska: selected photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2001-01-01

    Alaska is home to more than 40 active volcanoes, many of which have erupted violently and repeatedly in the last 200 years. This CD-ROM contains 97 digitized color 35-mm images which represent a small fraction of thousands of photographs taken by Alaska Volcano Observatory scientists, other researchers, and private citizens. The photographs were selected to portray Alaska's volcanoes, to document recent eruptive activity, and to illustrate the range of volcanic phenomena observed in Alaska. These images are for use by the interested public, multimedia producers, desktop publishers, and the high-end printing industry. The digital images are stored in the 'images' folder and can be read across Macintosh, Windows, DOS, OS/2, SGI, and UNIX platforms with applications that can read JPG (JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group format) or PCD (Kodak's PhotoCD (YCC) format) files. Throughout this publication, the image numbers match among the file names, figure captions, thumbnail labels, and other references. Also included on this CD-ROM are Windows and Macintosh viewers and engines for keyword searches (Adobe Acrobat Reader with Search). At the time of this publication, Kodak's policy on the distribution of color-management files is still unresolved, and so none is included on this CD-ROM. However, using the Universal Ektachrome or Universal Kodachrome transforms found in your software will provide excellent color. In addition to PhotoCD (PCD) files, this CD-ROM contains large (14.2'x19.5') and small (4'x6') screen-resolution (72 dots per inch; dpi) images in JPEG format. These undergo downsizing and compression relative to the PhotoCD images.

  8. The new rules for bringing innovations to market.

    PubMed

    Chakravorti, Bhaskar

    2004-03-01

    It's tough to get consumers to adopt innovations--and it's getting tougher all the time. That's because more and more markets are taking on the characteristics of networks. The interconnections among today's companies are so plentiful that often a new product's adoption by one player depends on its systematic adoption by other players. Consider the disparate companies involved with the popularization of digital photography: software vendors, camera manufacturers, broadband communications companies, printer manufacturers, and so on. By contrast, Kodak was pretty much the sole player involved with popularizing film photography. The traditional levers executives use to launch products--such as targeting unique customer segments or developing compelling value propositions--don't work as well in this new environment. Instead, innovators must orchestrate a change of behaviors across the market, unraveling the status quo so that a large number of players adopt their offerings and believe they are better off for having done so. In this article, Monitor Group's Bhaskar Chakravorti outlines a four-part framework for doing just that. The innovator must reason back from a target endgame, implementing only those strategies that maximize its chances of getting to its goal. It must complement power players, positioning its innovation as an enhancement to their products or services. The innovator must offer coordinated switching incentives to three core groups: the players that add to the innovation's benefits, the players that act as channels to adopters, and the adopters themselves. And it must preserve flexibility in case its initial strategy fails. Chakravorti uses Adobe's introduction of its Acrobat software as an example of an innovator that took into account other players in the network--and succeeded because of it.

  9. Map showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of the Gulf of Mexico region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, Christopher D.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    This map was created as part of a worldwide series of geologic maps for the U.S. Geological Survey's World Energy Project. These products are available on CD-ROM and the Internet. The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world. Two previously published digital geologic data sets (U.S. and Caribbean) were clipped to the map extent, while the dataset for Mexico was digitized for this project. Original attributes for all data layers were maintained, and in some cases, graphically merged with common symbology for presentation purposes. The world has been divided into geologic provinces that are used for allocation and prioritization of oil and gas assessments. For the World Energy Project, a subset of those provinces is shown on this map. Each province has a set of geologic characteristics that distinguish it from surrounding provinces. These characteristics may include dominant lithologies, the age of the strata, and/or structural type. The World Geographic Coordinate System of 1984 is used for data storage, and the data are presented in a Lambert Conformal Conic Projection on the OFR 97-470-L map product. Other details about the map compilation and data sources are provided in metadata documents in the data section on this CD-ROM. Several software packages were used to create this map including: Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) ArcGIS 8.3, ArcInfo software, Adobe Photoshop CS, Illustrator CS, and Acrobat 6.0.

  10. Can online conference systems improve veterinary education? A study about the capability of online conferencing and its acceptance.

    PubMed

    Koch, Michael; Fischer, Martin R; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P

    2012-01-01

    In veterinary medicine, there is an ongoing need for students, educators, and veterinarians to exchange the latest knowledge in their respective fields and to learn about unusual cases, emerging diseases, and treatment. Networking among veterinary faculties is developing rapidly, but conferences and meetings can be difficult to attend because of time limitations and travel costs. The current study examines acceptance of synchronous online conferences, seminars, meetings, and lectures by veterinarians and students. First, an online survey on the use of communication technology in veterinary medicine was made available for 15 weeks to every German-speaking veterinary university and via professional journals and an online veterinary forum. A total of 1,776 persons (620 veterinarians and 1,156 students) participated. Most reported using the Internet at least once per day; more than half reported using instant messengers. Most participants used the Internet for communication, but less than half used Skype. Second, to test the spectrum of tools for online conferences, a variety of "virtual classroom" systems (netucate systems iLinc, Adobe Acrobat Connect Pro, Cisco WebEx, Skype) were used to deliver student lectures, veterinary continuing-education courses, and academic conferences at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover (TiHo). Of 591 participants in 63 online events, 99.4% rated the virtual events as enjoyable, 96.1% found them useful, and 92.4% said that they learned a lot. Participants noted that the courses were not tied to a certain place, and thus saved time and travel costs. Online conference systems thus offer new opportunities to provide information in veterinary medicine.

  11. Servant's quarters, west wing, upper floor interior, looking to south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Servant's quarters, west wing, upper floor interior, looking to south. Doorway at center connects with the Majordomo's sleeping space. - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  12. Vallejo family sleeping space, west wing, upper floor, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vallejo family sleeping space, west wing, upper floor, looking north from the south end. The doorway at far right connects with the dining area. - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  13. 78 FR 16856 - FDIC Advisory Committee on Community Banking; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... presentations. The latest version of Adobe Flash Player can be downloaded at http://www.adobe.com/shockwave... be found at the same link. For optimal viewing, a high speed Internet connection is recommended....

  14. Captivate Your Audience by Turning Powerpoint Presentations into Interactive E-Learning Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Montessa; Hirnyck, Ronda; Agenbroad, Ariel; Bechinski, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Adobe® Captivate software provides educators with a tool to create interactive distance learning modules. This article describes how Adobe® Captivate was used to increase engagement of volunteer learners. An Adobe® Captivate module was created for the University of Idaho Master Gardener program to educate and test new Master Gardener volunteers on…

  15. Helping Students Express Their Passion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Adobe Youth Voices (AYV) is a global educational program sponsored by the Adobe Foundation, the philanthropic arm of software maker Adobe. The education-based initiative teaches underserved kids aged 13-18 how to use digital media to comment on their world, share ideas, and take action on the social issues that are important to them. The AYV…

  16. Mathcad in the Chemistry Curriculum Symbolic Software in the Chemistry Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Theresa Julia

    2000-05-01

    molecule worksheet builds on the rich literature for this topic (3). Before analyzing their own spectral data, students practice and learn the concepts and methods of the HCl spectral analysis by using the fundamental and first harmonic vibrational frequencies provided by the authors. This approach has a fundamental pedagogical advantage. Most explanations in laboratory texts are very concise and lack mathematical details required by average students. This Mathcad worksheet acts as a tutor; it guides students through the essential concepts for data reduction and lets them focus on learning important spectroscopic concepts. The Mathcad worksheet is amply annotated. Students who have moderate skill with the software and have learned about regression analysis from the curve-fitting worksheets described in this column will be able to complete and understand their analysis of the IR spectrum of HCl. The three Mathcad worksheets described here stretch the physical chemistry curriculum by presenting important topics in forms that students can use with only moderate Mathcad skills. The documents facilitate learning by giving students opportunities to interact with the material in meaningful ways in addition to using the documents as sources of techniques for building their own data-reduction worksheets. However, working through these Mathcad worksheets is not a trivial task for the average student. Support needs to be provided by the instructor to ease students through more advanced mathematical and Mathcad processes. These worksheets raise the question of how much we can ask diligent students to do in one course and how much time they need to spend to master the essential concepts of that course. The Mathcad documents and associated PDF versions are available at the JCE Internet WWW site. The Mathcad documents require Mathcad version 6.0 or higher and the PDF files require Adobe Acrobat. Every effort has been made to make the documents fully compatible across the various Mathcad

  17. Historical rock falls in Yosemite National Park, California (1857-2011)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, Greg M.; Collins, Brian D.; Santaniello, David J.; Zimmer, Valerie L.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Snyder, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Inventories of rock falls and other types of landslides are valuable tools for improving understanding of these events. For example, detailed information on rock falls is critical for identifying mechanisms that trigger rock falls, for quantifying the susceptibility of different cliffs to rock falls, and for developing magnitude-frequency relations. Further, inventories can assist in quantifying the relative hazard and risk posed by these events over both short and long time scales. This report describes and presents the accompanying rock fall inventory database for Yosemite National Park, California. The inventory database documents 925 events spanning the period 1857–2011. Rock falls, rock slides, and other forms of slope movement represent a serious natural hazard in Yosemite National Park. Rock-fall hazard and risk are particularly relevant in Yosemite Valley, where glacially steepened granitic cliffs approach 1 km in height and where the majority of the approximately 4 million yearly visitors to the park congregate. In addition to damaging roads, trails, and other facilities, rock falls and other slope movement events have killed 15 people and injured at least 85 people in the park since the first documented rock fall in 1857. The accompanying report describes each of the organizational categories in the database, including event location, type of slope movement, date, volume, relative size, probable trigger, impact to humans, narrative description, references, and environmental conditions. The inventory database itself is contained in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (Yosemite_rock_fall_database_1857-2011.xlsx). Narrative descriptions of events are contained in the database, but are also provided in a more readable Adobe portable document format (pdf) file (Yosemite_rock_fall_database_narratives_1857-2011.pdf) available for download separate from the database.

  18. Augmented Articles: The Future of Peer-Reviewed Publications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, Thomas Ignatius; Clementel, Nicola; Gull, Theodore R.

    2015-08-01

    The predominance of 2D figures and animations in the literature is clearly driven by the need to display data in a classic paper-journal format. However, there is no real reason that researchers should be limited to 2D graphics when presenting their results in peer-reviewed publications. This is especially true since all major astrophysical journals are now published online. So-called ‘augmented articles’ are possible, in which 3D interactive models, images, sound, and video can be included directly within an Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) article. The inclusion of 3D interactive models in the astrophysics literature is slowly becoming popular, and several journals now fully support the inclusion of 3D interactive figures and movies. I present examples of recently published augmented articles in astronomy (e.g. Madura et al. 2015, arXiv:1503.00716) and discuss their perceived benefits and limitations. Such articles may become the norm in astronomy as data and numerical simulations increasingly become multidimensional (see http://www.technologyreview.com/view/535796/astronomers-create-3-d-printed-model-of-colliding-stellar-winds/).

  19. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques Applied to the Quantitative Characterization of Textile Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1997-01-01

    In this Progress Report, we describe our further development of advanced ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods applied to the characterization of anisotropic materials. We present images obtained from experimental measurements of ultrasonic diffraction patterns transmitted through water only and transmitted through water and a thin woven composite. All images of diffraction patterns have been included on the accompanying CD-ROM in the JPEG format and Adobe TM Portable Document Format (PDF), in addition to the inclusion of hardcopies of the images contained in this report. In our previous semi-annual Progress Report (NAG 1-1848, December, 1996), we proposed a simple model to simulate the effect of a thin woven composite on an insonifying ultrasonic pressure field. This initial approach provided an avenue to begin development of a robust measurement method for nondestructive evaluation of anisotropic materials. In this Progress Report, we extend that work by performing experimental measurements on a single layer of a five-harness biaxial woven composite to investigate how a thin, yet architecturally complex, material interacts with the insonifying ultrasonic field. In Section 2 of this Progress Report we describe the experimental arrangement and methods for data acquisition of the ultrasonic diffraction patterns upon transmission through a thin woven composite. We also briefly describe the thin composite specimen investigated. Section 3 details the analysis of the experimental data followed by the experimental results in Section 4. Finally, a discussion of the observations and conclusions is found in Section 5.

  20. Historical files from Federal government mineral exploration-assistance programs, 1950 to 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Congress enacted the Defense Production Act in 1950 to provide funding and support for the exploration and development of critical mineral resources. From 1950 to 1974, three Department of the Interior agencies carried out this mission. Contracts with mine owners provided financial assistance for mineral exploration on a joint-participation basis. These contracts are documented in more than 5,000 'dockets' now archived online by the U.S. Geological Survey. This archive provides access to unique and difficult to recreate information, such as drill logs, assay results, and underground geologic maps, that is invaluable to land and resource management organizations and the minerals industry. An effort to preserve the data began in 2009, and the entire collection of dockets was electronically scanned. The scanning process used optical character recognition (OCR) when possible, and files were converted into Portable Document Format (.pdf) files, which require Adobe Reader or similar software for viewing. In 2010, the scans were placed online (http://minerals.usgs.gov/dockets/) and are available to download free of charge.