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Sample records for adobe acrobat pdf

  1. Adobe acrobat: an alternative electronic teaching file construction methodology independent of HTML restrictions.

    PubMed

    Katzman, G L

    2001-03-01

    The goal of the project was to create a method by which an in-house digital teaching file could be constructed that was simple, inexpensive, independent of hypertext markup language (HTML) restrictions, and appears identical on multiple platforms. To accomplish this, Microsoft PowerPoint and Adobe Acrobat were used in succession to assemble digital teaching files in the Acrobat portable document file format. They were then verified to appear identically on computers running Windows, Macintosh Operating Systems (OS), and the Silicon Graphics Unix-based OS as either a free-standing file using Acrobat Reader software or from within a browser window using the Acrobat browser plug-in. This latter display method yields a file viewed through a browser window, yet remains independent of underlying HTML restrictions, which may confer an advantage over simple HTML teaching file construction. Thus, a hybrid of HTML-distributed Adobe Acrobat generated WWW documents may be a viable alternative for digital teaching file construction and distribution. PMID:11310916

  2. Creating an Interactive PDF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    There are many ways to begin a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat. The easiest and most popular way is to create the document in another application (such as Microsoft Word) and then use the Adobe Acrobat software to convert it to a PDF. In this article, the author describes how he used Acrobat's many tools in his project--an interactive…

  3. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  4. Project Adobe. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Curen, Sallie A.

    This final report describes activities and accomplishments of Project Adobe, the New Mexico Parent Training and Information Center, which provides information, support, education and training to families with school-aged children with disabilities in their local communities. Achievements include: (1) completion and printing of a booklet on the…

  5. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement. PMID:27305680

  6. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  7. 78 FR 48152 - Notice Inviting Publishers To Submit Tests for a Determination of Suitability for Use in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... or by email: Michelle.Meier@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) or a... Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat...

  8. Attentional Focus Effects in Balance Acrobats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Performing and learning motor skills has been shown to be enhanced if the performer adopts an external relative to internal focus (or no focus) of attention (Wulf, 2007). The present study examined the generalizability of this effect to top-level performers (balance acrobats). Participants performed a balance task (standing on an inflated rubber…

  9. General overview of adobe, looking northwest. South wing is at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General overview of adobe, looking northwest. South wing is at left, and central courtyard, with ovens, at center. (recreation of HABS No. CA-38-P152-3 - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  10. Preservation of adobe buildings. Study of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velosa, A.; Rocha, F.; Costa, C.; Varum, H.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe buildings are common in the central region of Portugal due to the lack of natural stone in the surrounding area. This type of construction technique lasted until the 20th Century, at which time cementitious materials, with faster hardening and greater structural capacity substituted traditional materials and techniques. Currently, a significant percentage of these buildings is vacant and many are degraded and in need of conservation actions. Adobes from central Portugal are distinctive as they are lightly coloured and made from air lime and quarry sand. Although some adobes were manufactured locally, most were produced almost 'industrially' and sold to nearby regions. In order to preserve this heritage, conservation actions must be undertaken. So as to ensure the adequacy of these actions and compatibility between original materials and new ones, a thorough study of adobe compostion is mandatory. The current study is an initial step in the characterization of earth based construction materials from central Portugal. Adobe samples were collected from residential buildings in two different locations. The determination of the composition of adobe blocks encompassed the determination of the binder fraction and of their chemical composition and also the particle size analysis of the aggregate. For this purpose FRX analysis, acid dissolution and dry sieving were performed. Methylene blue test was also executed in order to determine the clay fraction. Additionally, the mineral composition of powder samples and oriented samples was performed using XRD analysis in order to determine the clay minerals present in the blocks. As adobe blocks are extremely prone to the action of water the Geelong test was undertaken in order to provide information in terms of durability. It was concluded that air lime was generally used in adobe compositions. However, the clay content varies in adobes from different regions, providing distinct durability characteristics to these materials.

  11. Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos

    PubMed Central

    Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I.; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

  12. Digital Imaging: An Adobe Photoshop Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces digital imaging, an Adobe Photoshop course at Shrewsbury High School in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. Students are able to earn art credits to graduate by successfully completing the course. Digital imaging must cover art criteria as well as technical skills. The course begins with tutorials created by the instructor and other…

  13. Apparatus for forming adobe bricks and drilling wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnamon, H. D.

    1985-02-12

    An improved apparatus for the continuous and relatively labor-free fabrication of adobe bricks and the forcing of well casings into the earth. With regard to forming adobe bricks, a rotating table carries the bricks being processed from one station to the next and a novel means for applying unusually high forming pressures permits immediate forming and ejection of the bricks from the forms while at the same time producing adobe bricks of improved quality and hardness characteristics.

  14. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Blocks Consolidation of an Acrobatic Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Dichgans, Johannes; Schulz, Jorg B.; Luft, Andreas R.; Buitrago, Manuel M.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether motor skill learning depends on de novo protein synthesis, adult rats were trained in an acrobatic locomotor task (accelerating rotarod) for 7 d. Animals were systemically injected with cycloheximide (CHX, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before sessions 1 and 2 or sessions 2 and 3. Control rats received vehicle injections before…

  15. Astronaut Alan Bean doing acrobatics in OWS dome area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, doing acrobatics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. The dome area is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  16. Astronaut Jack Lousma doing acrobatics in OWS dome area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, doing acrobatics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. The dome area is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  17. Centre of pressure correlates with pyramid performance in acrobatic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Floría, Pablo; Gómez-Landero, Luis Arturo; Harrison, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Acrobatic gymnasts need excellent balance control to execute pyramids where one gymnast is supported by another. The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe balance performance by assessing the centre of pressure displacement in a group of acrobatic gymnasts executing pyramids; (2) to determine the relationship between the parameters describing the centre of pressure oscillations and pyramid score; and (3) to examine the role of each foot in providing a solid base of support to maintain the balance of the pyramid. Sixteen acrobatic gymnasts grouped in pairs performed a Half pyramid and a Straddle pyramid held for 7 s on two force platforms. Path length, variance, range trajectory, and surface area of the centre of pressure of each foot were examined to analyse the balance of the pyramid. The path length was correlated with the pyramid score (Straddle: p = 0.692 [large]; Half: p = 0.407 [moderate]). There were differences in the functions of each leg to maintain balance, with the non-preferred leg supporting a higher weight of the pyramid while the preferred leg performed control movements to maintain balance. The results suggested that quantitative analysis of balance can provide important information on pyramid performance. PMID:26715236

  18. Characterization, reproduction and optimization of traditional adobe bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Eftychiou, Marina; Costi de Castrillo, Maria; Illampas, Rogiros

    2013-04-01

    Adobe bricks were first introduced 10-12,000 years ago. Extensive use of the material throughout the centuries has led to strong local traditions of building with earth and has established adobe masonry as an important feature of the international architectural heritage. Today, despite no longer being a prevalent building material, adobes are still in use, since a number of earthen structures survive worldwide. Furthermore, the simplicity, low cost and almost negligible embodied energy associated with the production of adobes, as well as their good thermal and acoustic properties, render them an attractive option for use in contemporary sustainable construction. Therefore, several ongoing research projects internationally investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of traditional adobe bricks and the design/production of optimized adobes, with improved characteristics, for use in contemporary architecture. Here, we present ongoing research on adobe bricks carried out in the framework of the project E& IXEIPH EI / POION/0609/41, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus, through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. Our work focuses on the characterization of traditional adobes, their reproduction and optimization in the laboratory to produce materials with improved physicomechanical properties. Results up-to-date show that traditional adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in relevant X-ray diffraction analyses. The average capillary water absorption coefficient (measured against a saturated sponge surface) of samples collected from market suppliers rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1 -2, while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. The response of traditional adobes to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average compressive strength recorded depends on the form of test specimen (cube, cylinder, prism). Samples with aspect

  19. 20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, stood on the site later occupied by the Stroud Building. The Salt River Herald, Phoenix's first newspaper, was founded in 1878; in 1879, it became the Phoenix Herald. Prior to 1879, the adobe building served as the office for a stagecoach line operating between Maricopa and Prescott via Phoenix. Credit PPL. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. Prosthetic Feet

    MedlinePlus

    « View More Amputee Coalition Publications Click here for optional PDF format. Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader Text size Larger text Smaller text ... no single foot that is perfect for every amputee. You and your doctor or prosthetist should choose ...

  1. Daily Bladder Diary

    MedlinePlus

    ... bladder diary. If you have Adobe's® Acrobat® Reader Software , you might prefer looking at the Print PDF Version (80 KB) of the diary as the print quality will be much enhanced. Please select which page ...

  2. The ABCs of PDFs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the use of Adobe Acrobat's Portable Document Format (PDF) for school Web sites and Intranets. Explains the PDF workflow; components for Web-based PDF delivery, including the Web server, preparing content of the PDF files, and the browser; incorporating PDFs into the Web site; incorporating multimedia; and software. (LRW)

  3. Deep PDF parsing to extract features for detecting embedded malware.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Cross, Jesse S.

    2011-09-01

    The number of PDF files with embedded malicious code has risen significantly in the past few years. This is due to the portability of the file format, the ways Adobe Reader recovers from corrupt PDF files, the addition of many multimedia and scripting extensions to the file format, and many format properties the malware author may use to disguise the presence of malware. Current research focuses on executable, MS Office, and HTML formats. In this paper, several features and properties of PDF Files are identified. Features are extracted using an instrumented open source PDF viewer. The feature descriptions of benign and malicious PDFs can be used to construct a machine learning model for detecting possible malware in future PDF files. The detection rate of PDF malware by current antivirus software is very low. A PDF file is easy to edit and manipulate because it is a text format, providing a low barrier to malware authors. Analyzing PDF files for malware is nonetheless difficult because of (a) the complexity of the formatting language, (b) the parsing idiosyncrasies in Adobe Reader, and (c) undocumented correction techniques employed in Adobe Reader. In May 2011, Esparza demonstrated that PDF malware could be hidden from 42 of 43 antivirus packages by combining multiple obfuscation techniques [4]. One reason current antivirus software fails is the ease of varying byte sequences in PDF malware, thereby rendering conventional signature-based virus detection useless. The compression and encryption functions produce sequences of bytes that are each functions of multiple input bytes. As a result, padding the malware payload with some whitespace before compression/encryption can change many of the bytes in the final payload. In this study we analyzed a corpus of 2591 benign and 87 malicious PDF files. While this corpus is admittedly small, it allowed us to test a system for collecting indicators of embedded PDF malware. We will call these indicators features throughout

  4. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  5. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-10

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

  6. Extra dimensions: 3d and time in pdf documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, N. A.

    2008-07-01

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

  7. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  8. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  9. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... affecting § 21.183, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons..., commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; and special classes of aircraft. (a)...

  10. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 21.183, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons..., commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; and special classes of aircraft. Link...

  11. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... affecting § 21.183, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons..., commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; and special classes of aircraft. (a)...

  12. 75 FR 4442 - Public Meeting on Future Policy and Rulemaking for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting on Future Policy and Rulemaking for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter Category Small Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... discuss a review of the requirements for small airplanes. This discussion focuses on the future of...

  13. Building code challenging the ethics behind adobe architecture in North Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Şahali, Öznem

    2015-04-01

    Adobe masonry is part of the vernacular architecture of Cyprus. Thus, it is possible to use this technology in a meaningful way on the island. On the other hand, although adobe architecture is more sustainable in comparison to other building technologies, the use of it is diminishing in North Cyprus. The application of Turkish building code in the north of the island has created complications in respect of the use of adobe masonry, because this building code demands that reinforced concrete vertical tie-beams are used together with adobe masonry. The use of reinforced concrete elements together with adobe masonry causes problems in relation to the climatic response of the building as well as causing other technical and aesthetic problems. This situation makes the design of adobe masonry complicated and various types of ethical problems also emerge. The objective of this article is to analyse the ethical problems which arise as a consequence of the restrictive character of the building code, by analysing two case studies and conducting an interview with an architect who was involved with the use of adobe masonry in North Cyprus. According to the results of this article there are ethical problems at various levels in the design of both case studies. These problems are connected to the responsibilities of architects in respect of the social benefit, material production, aesthetics and affordability of the architecture as well as presenting distrustful behaviour where the obligations of architects to their clients is concerned. PMID:24696019

  14. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  15. Distinct neuroplasticity processes are induced by different periods of acrobatic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Salame, Samira; Garcia, Priscila C; Real, Caroline C; Borborema, Juliana; Mota-Ortiz, Sandra R; Britto, Luiz R G; Pires, Raquel S

    2016-07-15

    Short and long-term physical exercise induce physiological and structural changes in brain motor areas. The relationship between changes of structural and synaptic proteins in brain motor areas and acrobatic exercise is less understood. Our aim was to evaluate the expression of synapsin I (SYS), synaptophysin (SYP), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), neurofilament (NF), and a marker for recent neuronal activity (Egr-1) in the motor cortex, striatum and cerebellum of adult rats subjected to acrobatic exercise (AE, for 1-4 weeks). We used adult Wistar rats, divided into 4 groups based on duration of acrobatic training, namely 1 week (AE1, n=15), 2 weeks (AE2, n=15), 4 weeks (AE4, n=15), and sedentary (SED, n=15). In AE groups, the rats covered 5 times a circuit that was composed of obstacles, three times a week. The protein levels were analyzed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The results revealed that short-term AE (AE1 and AE2) induced MAP2 decreases and NF, SYP and Egr-1 increases in the motor cortex; an increase of MAP2, SYS and SYP in the dorsolateral striatum, whereas the dorsomedial striatum showed increased NF, SYS, SYP and Egr-1. Granular cerebellar layer showed increased NF and Egr-1, with increased NF and SYP in the molecular layer. Long-term AE (AE4) promoted an increase of MAP2, SYP and Egr-1 in motor cortex; MAP2, SYS and SYP in the dorsomedial striatum; and NF and Egr-1 in the cerebellar granular layer. In conclusion, our data suggest that different durations of AE induce distinct plastic responses among distinct cortical and subcortical circuits. PMID:27126278

  16. A GPU accelerated PDF transparency engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recker, John; Lin, I.-Jong; Tastl, Ingeborg

    2011-01-01

    As commercial printing presses become faster, cheaper and more efficient, so too must the Raster Image Processors (RIP) that prepare data for them to print. Digital press RIPs, however, have been challenged to on the one hand meet the ever increasing print performance of the latest digital presses, and on the other hand process increasingly complex documents with transparent layers and embedded ICC profiles. This paper explores the challenges encountered when implementing a GPU accelerated driver for the open source Ghostscript Adobe PostScript and PDF language interpreter targeted at accelerating PDF transparency for high speed commercial presses. It further describes our solution, including an image memory manager for tiling input and output images and documents, a PDF compatible multiple image layer blending engine, and a GPU accelerated ICC v4 compatible color transformation engine. The result, we believe, is the foundation for a scalable, efficient, distributed RIP system that can meet current and future RIP requirements for a wide range of commercial digital presses.

  17. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

    2012-04-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  18. Extra dimensions: 3D and time in PDF documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  19. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; special classes of aircraft; aircraft engines; propellers. 21.21 Section 21.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  20. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; aircraft engines; propellers. 21.21 Section 21.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.21 Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category...

  1. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; aircraft engines; propellers. 21.21 Section 21.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.21 Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category...

  2. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; aircraft engines; propellers. 21.21 Section 21.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.21 Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category...

  3. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; aircraft engines; propellers. 21.21 Section 21.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.21 Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category...

  4. Using Adobe Flash Animations of Electron Transport Chain to Teach and Learn Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash…

  5. Using Adobe Connect to Deliver Online Library Instruction to the RN to BSN Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a look at how one academic health sciences librarian brought mediated literature searching to the distance RN to BSN nursing students. It takes a look at why Adobe Connect was the webinar software that was selected to deliver online instruction to the students. The article explains how students participated in a pre-class survey…

  6. Staying on Top of Your Game and Scoring Big with Adobe Presenter Multimedia Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koury, Regina; Francis, Marcia J.; Gray, Catherine J.; Jardine, Spencer J.; Guo, Ruiling

    2010-01-01

    In order to reach distance students in times of financial uncertainty, librarians must be creative. While much has been written about Camtasia, Captivate and Jing tutorial software, Adobe Presenter, a Microsoft PowerPoint plug-in, has not been discussed. This article describes how our library team created multimedia tutorial projects at Idaho…

  7. Building on Tradition: The Art of Adobe and the Revival of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Amanda; Swan, Susan

    2001-01-01

    A New Mexico foundation helps primarily Hispanic and American Indian communities restore adobe churches by supplying technical assistance and matching grants. Community leadership of the projects enhances volunteer commitment. The projects build community cohesiveness and pride, maintain local culture, foster intergenerational relations, teach…

  8. Vector Graphics for Web Lectures: Experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterl, Markus; Mertens, Robert; Vornberger, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe vector graphics for web lectures, focusing on the experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents experiences made during the development and everyday use of two versions of the lecture-recording system virtPresenter. The first of these versions is based on…

  9. Enriching Learning for First Year Chemistry Students: Introduction of Adobe Connect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Lye, Peter; Greatrex, Ben; Taylor, Michelle; Stupans, Ieva

    2013-01-01

    The study of chemistry is central within science and other associated degrees. At the University of New England in Armidale academics need to provide chemistry teaching in both a distance and the traditional on-campus mode within science and other degrees. This study explores the contribution that the adoption of Adobe Connect technology can make…

  10. Kinematic and kinetic analysis of two gymnastics acrobatic series to performing the backward stretched somersault.

    PubMed

    Mkaouer, Bessem; Jemni, Monèm; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Helmi; Tabka, Zouhair

    2013-01-01

    Back swing connections during gymnastics acrobatic series considerably influence technical performance and difficulties, particularly in the back somersault. The aim of this study was to compare the take-off's kinetic and kinematic variables between two acrobatic series leading to perform the backward stretched somersault (also called salto): round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto versus round-off, tempo-salto to stretched salto. Five high level male gymnasts (age 23.17 ± 1.61 yrs; body height 1.65 ± 0.05 m; body mass 56.80 ± 7.66 kg) took part in this investigation. A force plate synchronized with a two dimensional movement analysis system was used to collect kinetic and kinematic data. Statistical analysis via the non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank-sum test showed significant differences between the take-offs' variables. The backswing connections were different in the take-off angle, linear momentum, vertical velocity and horizontal and vertical displacements. In conclusion, considering that the higher elevation of the centre of mass in the flight phase would allow best performance and lower the risk of falls, particularly when combined to a great angular momentum, this study demonstrated that the optimal connection series was round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto which enabled the best height in the somersault. Analysis of the results suggests that both connections facilitate the performance of single and double (or triple) backward somersaults with or without rotations around the longitudinal axis. Gymnasts could perform these later while gaining height if they chose the round-off, flic-flac technique or gaining some backward displacement if they choose the round-off, salto tempo. PMID:24146701

  11. Kinematic and Kinetic Analysis of Two Gymnastics Acrobatic Series to Performing the Backward Stretched Somersault

    PubMed Central

    Mkaouer, Bessem; Jemni, Monèm; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Helmi; Tabka, Zouhair

    Back swing connections during gymnastics acrobatic series considerably influence technical performance and difficulties, particularly in the back somersault. The aim of this study was to compare the take-off’s kinetic and kinematic variables between two acrobatic series leading to perform the backward stretched somersault (also called salto): round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto versus round-off, tempo-salto to stretched salto. Five high level male gymnasts (age 23.17 ± 1.61 yrs; body height 1.65 ± 0.05 m; body mass 56.80 ± 7.66 kg) took part in this investigation. A force plate synchronized with a two dimensional movement analysis system was used to collect kinetic and kinematic data. Statistical analysis via the non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank-sum test showed significant differences between the take-offs’ variables. The backswing connections were different in the take-off angle, linear momentum, vertical velocity and horizontal and vertical displacements. In conclusion, considering that the higher elevation of the centre of mass in the flight phase would allow best performance and lower the risk of falls, particularly when combined to a great angular momentum, this study demonstrated that the optimal connection series was round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto which enabled the best height in the somersault. Analysis of the results suggests that both connections facilitate the performance of single and double (or triple) backward somersaults with or without rotations around the longitudinal axis. Gymnasts could perform these later while gaining height if they chose the round-off, flic-flac technique or gaining some backward displacement if they choose the round-off, salto tempo. PMID:24146701

  12. Peripheral androgen receptors sustain the acrobatics and fine motor skill of elaborate male courtship.

    PubMed

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Longpre, Kristy M; Chew, Jennifer G; Fusani, Leonida; Schlinger, Barney A

    2013-09-01

    Androgenic hormones regulate many aspects of animal social behavior, including the elaborate display routines on which many species rely for advertisement and competition. One way that this might occur is through peripheral effects of androgens, particularly on skeletal muscles that control complex movements and postures of the body and its limbs. However, the specific contribution of peripheral androgen-muscle interactions to the performance of elaborate behavioral displays in the natural world has never been examined. We study this issue in one of the only natural physiological models of animal acrobatics: the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus). In this tropical bird, males compete with each other and court females by producing firecracker-like wing- snaps and by rapidly dancing among saplings over the forest floor. To test how activation of peripheral androgen receptors (AR) influences this display, we treat reproductively active adult male birds with the peripherally selective antiandrogen bicalutamide (BICAL) and observe the effects of this manipulation on male display performance. We not only validate the peripheral specificity of BICAL in this species, but we also show that BICAL treatment reduces the frequency with which adult male birds perform their acrobatic display maneuvers and disrupts the overall structure and fine-scale patterning of these birds' main complex wing-snap sonation. In addition, this manipulation has no effect on the behavioral metrics associated with male motivation to display. Together, our findings help differentiate the various effects of peripheral and central AR on the performance of a complex sociosexual behavioral phenotype by indicating that peripheral AR can optimize the motor skills necessary for the production of an elaborate animal display. PMID:23782945

  13. 78 FR 72851 - Proposed Priority-Promise Zones

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Secretary of Education (Secretary) published in the Federal Register (78 FR 63913) a notice of proposed.... Or by email: Jane.Hodgdon@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) or a...). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may...

  14. 75 FR 28594 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... March 22, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 13515) a notice inviting applications for...-mail: readytolearn@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf, call the Federal Relay... PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at this site. Note: The...

  15. 75 FR 25221 - Notice Extending the Deadline Date for Transmittal of Applications and the Deadline Date for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ..., we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 16446) a notice inviting applications for new awards for... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339...: http://www.ed.gov/news/fedregister . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is...

  16. 77 FR 4998 - List of Correspondence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... Topic Addressed: Surrogate Parents Letter dated September 6, 2011, to Board of Childcare, Community... System at: www.gpo.gov/fdsys . At this site you can view this document, as well as all other documents of... use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may also...

  17. Prosthetic Knee Systems

    MedlinePlus

    « View More Amputee Coalition Publications Click here for optional PDF format. Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader Text size Larger text Smaller text ... from. Doctors, prosthetists and rehabilitation specialists consider an amputee’s age, health, activity level, and lifestyle when making ...

  18. 47 CFR 1.1705 - Forms; electronic and manual filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forms; electronic and manual filing. 1.1705... Operations and Licensing System (COALS) § 1.1705 Forms; electronic and manual filing. (a) Application forms... via COALS in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) whenever possible. (c) Manual filing....

  19. 76 FR 39104 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Chartered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... situation is called a ``partial lead service line replacement.'' OW has requested the SAB to review and... electronic formats: Adobe Acrobat PDF, MS Word, MS PowerPoint, or Rich Text files in IBM-PC/Windows 98/2000... SAB Staff Office procedural policies. Background: Exposure to lead through drinking water...

  20. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-04-01

    Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg)-contaminated urban areas in the world. Exposure is amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. The objectives of this study were to compare two Hg-leaching procedures, and their application as risk-assessment screening tools in Hg-contaminated adobe brick homes in Huancavelica. The purpose was to evaluate potential health implications, particularly for children, after ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. Hg was measured in adobe brick and dirt floor samples from 60 households by total Hg extraction, simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction, and sequential selective extraction (SSE), which provides more detailed data but is resource-intensive. Most of the Hg present in samples was relatively insoluble, although in some households soluble Hg species were present at concentrations that may be of concern after ingestion. A strong correlation was identified between results from simulated GF extraction of adobe bricks and dirt floors and the more soluble fractions of Hg from SSE. Simulated GF extraction data were combined with ingestion and body mass characteristics for small children to compare potential risk of ingestion of Hg-contaminated soil with current health standards. Simulated GF extraction can be used as a risk assessment screening tool for effective allocation of time and resources to households that have measurable concentrations of bioaccessible Hg. Combining simulated GF extraction data with health standards enables intervention strategies targeted at households with the greatest potential health threat from ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. PMID:25169738

  1. USEFULNESS AND METABOLIC IMPLICATIONS OF A 60-SECOND REPEATED JUMPS TEST AS A PREDICTOR OF ACROBATIC JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN GYMNASTS

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Gymnastics floor exercises are composed of a set of four to five successive acrobatic jumps usually called a “series”. The aims of the study were: 1) to relate the acrobatic gymnastics performance of these series with a repeated jumps test of similar duration (R60), 2) to study the relation between R60 and physiological parameters (heart rate and blood lactate), and the performance obtained in different kinds of jumps, 3) to confirm whether R60, executed without a damped jumping technique, can be considered an anaerobic lactic power test. Twenty male and twenty-four female gymnasts performed three repeated jumps tests for 5 s (R5), 10 s (R10) and 60 s (R60) and vertical jumps, such as drop jumps (DJ), squat jumps (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ). We assessed heart rate (HR) and blood lactate during R10 and R60. The average values of the maximal blood lactate concentration (Lmax) after R10 (males = 2.5±0.6 mmol · l−1; females = 2.1±0.8 mmol · l−1) confirm that anaerobic glycolysis is not activated to a high level. In R60, the Lmax (males = 7.5±1.7 mmol · l−1 females = 5.9±2.1 mmol · l−1) that was recorded does not validate R60 as an anaerobic lactic power test. We confirmed the relation between the average power obtained in R60 (R60Wm) and the acrobatic performance on the floor. The inclusion in the multiple regression equation of the best power in DJ and the best flight-contact ratio (FC) in R5 confirms the influence of other non-metabolic components on the variability in R60 performance, at least in gymnasts. PMID:24744459

  2. PDF Lecture Materials for Online and ``Flipped'' Format Astronomy Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kary, D. M.; Eisberg, J.

    2013-04-01

    Online astronomy courses typically rely on students reading the textbook and/or a set of text-based lecture notes to replace the “lecture” material. However, many of our students report that this is much less engaging than in-person lectures, especially given the amount of interactive work such as “think-pair-share” problems done in many astronomy classes. Students have similarly criticized direct lecture-capture. To address this, we have developed a set of PowerPoint-style presentations with embedded lecture audio combined with prompts for student interaction including think-pair-share questions. These are formatted PDF packages that can be used on a range of different computers using free software. The presentations are first developed using Microsoft PowerPoint software. Audio recordings of scripted lectures are then synchronized with the presentations and the entire package is converted to PDF using Adobe Presenter. This approach combines the ease of editing that PowerPoint provides along with the platform-independence of PDF. It's easy to add, remove, or edit individual slides as needed, and PowerPoint supports internal links so that think-pair-share questions can be inserted with links to feedback based on the answers selected. Modern PDF files support animated visuals with synchronized audio and they can be read using widely available free software. Using these files students in an online course can get many of the benefits of seeing and hearing the course material presented in an in-person lecture format. Students needing extra help in traditional lecture classes can use these presentations to help review the materials covered in lecture. Finally, the presentations can be used in a “flipped” format in which students work through the presentations outside of class time while spending the “lecture” time on in-class interaction.

  3. Adobe InDesign vs. QuarkXPress and PageMaker: The Best of Both Worlds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the newly released Adobe InDesign software, finding that while it brings new life into desktop publishing, it is not yet a "must buy" for publications advisers. Compares specific features that are relevant for student publications, including: character, paragraph, drop caps, define styles, page setup, text wrap, defining and using…

  4. ACS Quicklook PDF products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchkov, Anatoly

    1999-12-01

    This report details the features of the ACS quicklook PDF products produced by the HST data pipeline. The requirements closely follow the design of paper products recommended by the Data Quality Committee, with appropriate changes required to fully support ACS.

  5. Comments on PDF methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.-Y.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the following topics: the grand challenge of combustion engineering; research of probability density function (PDF) methods at Sandia; experiments of turbulent jet flames (Masri and Dibble, 1988); departures from chemical equilibrium; modeling turbulent reacting flows; superequilibrium OH radical; pdf modeling of turbulent jet flames; scatter plot for CH4 (methane) and O2 (oxygen); methanol turbulent jet flames; comparisons between predictions and experimental data; and turbulent C2H4 jet flames.

  6. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community. PMID:27100004

  7. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems. PMID:27421976

  8. Using Adobe Flash animations of electron transport chain to teach and learn biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the electron transport chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the electron transport chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching. PMID:25846233

  9. Radon and thoron levels, their spatial and seasonal variations in adobe dwellings - a case study at the great Hungarian plain.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba; Horváth, Ákos; Holm, Óskar; Kocsy, Gábor; Csige, István; Szabó, Péter; Homoki, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Radon and thoron isotopes are responsible for approximately half of the average annual effective dose to humans. Although the half-life of thoron is short, it can potentially enter indoor air from adobe walls. Adobe was a traditional construction material in the Great Hungarian Plain. Its major raw materials are the alluvial sediments of the area. Here, seasonal radon and thoron activity concentrations were measured in 53 adobe dwellings in 7 settlements by pairs of etched track detectors. The results show that the annual average radon and thoron activity concentrations are elevated in these dwellings and that the proportions with values higher than 300 Bq m(-3) are 14-17 and 29-32% for radon and thoron, respectively. The calculated radon inhalation dose is significantly higher than the world average value, exceeding 10 mSv y(-1) in 7% of the dwellings of this study. Thoron also can be a significant contributor to the inhalation dose with about 30% in the total inhalation dose. The changes of weather conditions seem to be more relevant in the variation of measurement results than the differences in the local sedimentary geology. Still, the highest values were detected on clay. Through the year, radon follows the average temperature changes and is affected by the ventilation, whereas thoron rather seems to follow the amount of precipitation. PMID:24437932

  10. Surgical Correction of Posttraumatic Scapulothoracic Bursitis, Rhomboid Major Muscle Injury, Ipsilateral Glenohumeral Instability, and Headaches Resulting from Circus Acrobatic Maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Skedros, John G.; Langston, Tanner D.; Phippen, Colton M.

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 28-year-old transgender (male-to-female) patient that had a partial tear of the rhomboid major tendon, scapulothoracic bursitis, and glenohumeral instability on the same side. These conditions resulted from traumatic events during circus acrobatic maneuvers. Additional aspects of this case that make it unique include (1) the main traumatic event occurred during a flagpole exercise, where the patient's trunk was suspended horizontally while a vertical pole was grasped with both hands, (2) headaches were associated with the periscapular injury and they improved after scapulothoracic bursectomy and rhomboid tendon repair, (3) surgical correction was done during the same operation with an open anterior capsular-labral reconstruction, open scapulothoracic bursectomy without bone resection, and rhomboid tendon repair, (4) a postoperative complication of tearing of the serratus anterior and rhomboid muscle attachments with recurrent scapulothoracic pain occurred from patient noncompliance, and (5) the postoperative complication was surgically corrected and ultimately resulted in an excellent outcome at the one-year final follow-up. PMID:26273484

  11. Presentation and response timing accuracy in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Web-based research is becoming ubiquitous in the behavioral sciences, facilitated by convenient, readily available participant pools and relatively straightforward ways of running experiments: most recently, through the development of the HTML5 standard. Although in most studies participants give untimed responses, there is a growing interest in being able to record response times online. Existing data on the accuracy and cross-machine variability of online timing measures are limited, and generally they have compared behavioral data gathered on the Web with similar data gathered in the lab. For this article, we took a more direct approach, examining two ways of running experiments online-Adobe Flash and HTML5 with CSS3 and JavaScript-across 19 different computer systems. We used specialist hardware to measure stimulus display durations and to generate precise response times to visual stimuli in order to assess measurement accuracy, examining effects of duration, browser, and system-to-system variability (such as across different Windows versions), as well as effects of processing power and graphics capability. We found that (a) Flash and JavaScript's presentation and response time measurement accuracy are similar; (b) within-system variability is generally small, even in low-powered machines under high load; (c) the variability of measured response times across systems is somewhat larger; and (d) browser type and system hardware appear to have relatively small effects on measured response times. Modeling of the effects of this technical variability suggests that for most within- and between-subjects experiments, Flash and JavaScript can both be used to accurately detect differences in response times across conditions. Concerns are, however, noted about using some correlational or longitudinal designs online. PMID:24903687

  12. Embedding and Publishing Interactive, 3-Dimensional, Scientific Figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) Files

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David G.; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J.; Quayle, Michelle R.; McHenry, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  13. Influence of geological features (geochemistry and mineralogy) of soil wich constitutes adobes in their durability - Huambo, Angola.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Isabel; Pedro, Elsa; Varum, Humberto; Mirão, José; Pinho, António

    2014-05-01

    After long years of war, great efforts have been made for the socio-economic development of Angola, mainly in the construction industry. Among the construction techniques, the Adobe is the most used in the province of Huambo, especially by low-income families, which constitute the majority. This technique was established as a historical heritage in the culture of that population. The Huambo province is located in the central region of Angola (Central Plateau) and is bounded on the northeast and east by the province of Bié, on the south and southern by province of Huila, and on the west by the province of Benguela and on the northwest by the province of Kwanza Sul. Has an area of 35,771 km2 and approximately 2,301,524 inhabitants, which corresponds to 58 inhabitants per km2 (Government of the Province of Huambo, 2006). The buildings in this province, particularly in rural areas, were deeply marked by war. Given the current scenario of development of the country and considering the possibility of integrate systems and traditional building materials, that respect the environment and fit harmoniously into its natural habitat, one of the alternative options in the actual construction, undergoes resume old solutions and traditional materials such as adobe construction.It is in this context that this project is part of a scientific research in order to permit the improvement and optimization of these traditional solutions, responding to current demands for social, economic and environmental sustainability. The adobe is a building element with potential degradation by water. Due to the climate, subtropical, hot and humid, and geomorphology of the province, about 1000 to 2000 meters of altitude and an extensive river system, these buildings can be vulnerable and present early degradation, exacerbated by lack of knowledge of the properties of geomaterials used and techniques that allow their stabilization and conservation. This paper aims to study the influence of

  14. Conservational PDF Equations of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2010-01-01

    Recently we have revisited the traditional probability density function (PDF) equations for the velocity and species in turbulent incompressible flows. They are all unclosed due to the appearance of various conditional means which are modeled empirically. However, we have observed that it is possible to establish a closed velocity PDF equation and a closed joint velocity and species PDF equation through conditions derived from the integral form of the Navier-Stokes equations. Although, in theory, the resulted PDF equations are neither general nor unique, they nevertheless lead to the exact transport equations for the first moment as well as all higher order moments. We refer these PDF equations as the conservational PDF equations. This observation is worth further exploration for its validity and CFD application

  15. Protocol for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility Disposal Limits Database

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, R

    2006-01-31

    A database has been developed to contain the disposal limits for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility (ELLWF). This database originates in the form of an EXCEL{copyright} workbook. The pertinent sheets are translated to PDF format using Adobe ACROBAT{copyright}. The PDF version of the database is accessible from the Solid Waste Division web page on SHRINE. In addition to containing the various disposal unit limits, the database also contains hyperlinks to the original references for all limits. It is anticipated that database will be revised each time there is an addition, deletion or revision of any of the ELLWF radionuclide disposal limits.

  16. Processed Thematic Mapper Satellite Imagery for Selected Areas within the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohrenwend, John C.; Gray, Floyd; Miller, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The study is summarized in the Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) file OF00-309.PDF. This publication also contain satellite full-scene images of selected areas along the U.S.-Mexico border. These images are presented as high-resolution images in jpeg format (IMAGES). The folder LOCATIONS in contains TIFF images showing exact positions of easily-identified reference locations for each of the Landsat TM scenes located at least partly within the U.S. A reference location table (BDRLOCS.DOC in MS Word format) lists the latitude and longitude of each reference location with a nominal precision of 0.001 minute of arc

  17. Adobe photoshop quantification (PSQ) rather than point-counting: A rapid and precise method for quantifying rock textural data and porosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Bo; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Zhe; Shi, Kaibo; Wu, Shuanglin

    2014-08-01

    Commonly used petrological quantification methods are visual estimation, counting, and image analyses. However, in this article, an Adobe Photoshop-based analyzing method (PSQ) is recommended for quantifying the rock textural data and porosities. Adobe Photoshop system provides versatile abilities in selecting an area of interest and the pixel number of a selection could be read and used to calculate its area percentage. Therefore, Adobe Photoshop could be used to rapidly quantify textural components, such as content of grains, cements, and porosities including total porosities and different genetic type porosities. This method was named as Adobe Photoshop Quantification (PSQ). The workflow of the PSQ method was introduced with the oolitic dolomite samples from the Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China, for example. And the method was tested by comparing with the Folk's and Shvetsov's "standard" diagrams. In both cases, there is a close agreement between the "standard" percentages and those determined by the PSQ method with really small counting errors and operator errors, small standard deviations and high confidence levels. The porosities quantified by PSQ were evaluated against those determined by the whole rock helium gas expansion method to test the specimen errors. Results have shown that the porosities quantified by the PSQ are well correlated to the porosities determined by the conventional helium gas expansion method. Generally small discrepancies (mostly ranging from -3% to 3%) are caused by microporosities which would cause systematic underestimation of 2% and/or by macroporosities causing underestimation or overestimation in different cases. Adobe Photoshop could be used to quantify rock textural components and porosities. This method has been tested to be precise and accurate. It is time saving compared with usual methods.

  18. Review of Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, K. A.; Particle Data Group

    2014-08-01

    The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Astrophysical Constants and Cosmological Parameters. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov. Contents Abstract, Contributors, Highlights and Table of ContentsAcrobat PDF (4.4 MB) IntroductionAcrobat PDF (595 KB) Particle Physics Summary Tables Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (204 KB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (167 KB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (115 KB) MesonsAcrobat PDF (976 KB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (384 KB) Searches (Supersymmetry, Compositeness, etc.)Acrobat PDF (120 KB) Tests of conservation lawsAcrobat PDF (383 KB) Reviews, Tables, and Plots Detailed contents for this sectionAcrobat PDF (73 KB) Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear PropertiesAcrobat PDF (395 KB) Standard Model and Related TopicsAcrobat PDF (8.37 MB) Astrophysics and CosmologyAcrobat PDF (3.79 MB) Experimental Methods and CollidersAcrobat PDF (3.82 MB) Mathematical Tools of Statistics, Monte Carlo, Group Theory Acrobat

  19. Electrical Resistivity Tomographies on the detection of adobe buried archaeological structures in Piramide Sur in Cahuachi (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, L.; Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.; Lasaponara, R.; Orefici, G.

    2012-04-01

    During the last two decades of excavations, adobe pyramids dating back from the 6th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D have been unearthed in the ancient Ceremonial Centre of Cahuachi near Nasca (Peru) by an Italian-Peruvian mission directed by Giuseppe Orefici. One of the archaeological sectors, called sector A, has been almost excavated and restored. To complete sector A only a terraced mound named "Piramide Sur" needs to be excavated. In order to provide useful information on the presence of buried structures and platforms as well on the geological stratigraphy a multi-scale approach based on the integration of satellite remote sensing with geophysical techniques was employed. Such investigations were carried out by the Italian mission ITACA, funded by the Italian Ministry Affairs and composed of researchers of two institutes of CNR (IMAA and IBAM), which provides a scientific support for archaeological research, since 2007. In particular, the subsurface features were investigated by Geoelectrical prospecting, performed by using a georesistivimeter for tomography which observe the resistivity value along sections. Several tomographies were carried out to investigate the shallow and deep structure of the pyramid both along the main flank at Nord and on the top. Finally, the integration of all data acquired by the different remote sensing techniques allowed for spatially characterizing the archaeological features, thus providing important information for the planning of the next archaeological campaign.

  20. PDF approach for compressible turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, A. T.; Tsai, Y.-L. P.; Raju, M. S.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to develop a probability density function (pdf) turbulence model for compressible reacting flows for use with a CFD flow solver. The probability density function of the species mass fraction and enthalpy are obtained by solving a pdf evolution equation using a Monte Carlo scheme. The pdf solution procedure is coupled with a compressible CFD flow solver which provides the velocity and pressure fields. A modeled pdf equation for compressible flows, capable of capturing shock waves and suitable to the present coupling scheme, is proposed and tested. Convergence of the combined finite-volume Monte Carlo solution procedure is discussed, and an averaging procedure is developed to provide smooth Monte-Carlo solutions to ensure convergence. Two supersonic diffusion flames are studied using the proposed pdf model and the results are compared with experimental data; marked improvements over CFD solutions without pdf are observed. Preliminary applications of pdf to 3D flows are also reported.

  1. Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation Using Piezoelectric Actuators: Some Results of the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    A 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at a dynamic pressure of 14 psf. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the actuators, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. Buffeting alleviation results when using the rudder are presented for comparison. Stability margins indicate that a constant gain setting in the control law may be used throughout the range of angle of attack tested.

  2. The Rules of Aggression: How Genetic, Chemical and Spatial Factors Affect Intercolony Fights in a Dominant Species, the Mediterranean Acrobat Ant Crematogaster scutellaris

    PubMed Central

    Frizzi, Filippo; Ciofi, Claudio; Dapporto, Leonardo; Natali, Chiara; Chelazzi, Guido; Turillazzi, Stefano; Santini, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Nest-mate recognition plays a key role in the biology of ants. Although individuals coming from a foreign nest are, in most cases, promptly rejected, the degree of aggressiveness towards non nest-mates may be highly variable among species and relies on genetic, chemical and environmental factors. We analyzed intraspecific relationships among neighboring colonies of the dominant Mediterranean acrobat ant Crematogaster scutellaris integrating genetic, chemical and behavioral analyses. Colony structure, parental relationships between nests, cuticular hydrocarbons profiles (CHCs) and aggressive behavior against non nest-mates were studied in 34 nests located in olive tree trunks. Bayesian clustering analysis of allelic variation at nine species-specific microsatellite DNA markers pooled nests into 14 distinct clusters, each representing a single colony, confirming a polydomous arrangement of nests in this species. A marked genetic separation among colonies was also detected, probably due to long distance dispersion of queens and males during nuptial flights. CHCs profiles varied significantly among colonies and between nests of the same colony. No relationship between CHCs profiles and genetic distances was detected. The level of aggressiveness between colonies was inversely related to chemical and spatial distance, suggesting a ‘nasty neighbor’ effect. Our findings also suggest that CHCs profiles in C. scutellaris may be linked to external environmental factors rather than genetic relationships. PMID:26445245

  3. The Rules of Aggression: How Genetic, Chemical and Spatial Factors Affect Intercolony Fights in a Dominant Species, the Mediterranean Acrobat Ant Crematogaster scutellaris.

    PubMed

    Frizzi, Filippo; Ciofi, Claudio; Dapporto, Leonardo; Natali, Chiara; Chelazzi, Guido; Turillazzi, Stefano; Santini, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Nest-mate recognition plays a key role in the biology of ants. Although individuals coming from a foreign nest are, in most cases, promptly rejected, the degree of aggressiveness towards non nest-mates may be highly variable among species and relies on genetic, chemical and environmental factors. We analyzed intraspecific relationships among neighboring colonies of the dominant Mediterranean acrobat ant Crematogaster scutellaris integrating genetic, chemical and behavioral analyses. Colony structure, parental relationships between nests, cuticular hydrocarbons profiles (CHCs) and aggressive behavior against non nest-mates were studied in 34 nests located in olive tree trunks. Bayesian clustering analysis of allelic variation at nine species-specific microsatellite DNA markers pooled nests into 14 distinct clusters, each representing a single colony, confirming a polydomous arrangement of nests in this species. A marked genetic separation among colonies was also detected, probably due to long distance dispersion of queens and males during nuptial flights. CHCs profiles varied significantly among colonies and between nests of the same colony. No relationship between CHCs profiles and genetic distances was detected. The level of aggressiveness between colonies was inversely related to chemical and spatial distance, suggesting a 'nasty neighbor' effect. Our findings also suggest that CHCs profiles in C. scutellaris may be linked to external environmental factors rather than genetic relationships. PMID:26445245

  4. Prototype biosphere: adobe habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Merdler, S.

    1981-01-01

    The emerging awareness of residential design values focusing on the local environment, resource recycling, energy efficiency and self sustaining attributes is explored. A site-specific example where many of these values are considered is presented.

  5. Energy map of southwestern Wyoming - Energy data archived, organized, integrated, and accessible

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Jones, Nicholas R.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2013-01-01

    The Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) focuses on conserving world-class wildlife resources while facilitating responsible energy development in southwestern Wyoming. To further advance the objectives of the WLCI long-term, science-based effort, a comprehensive inventory of energy resource and production data is being published in two parts. Energy maps, data, documentation and spatial data processing capabilities are available in geodatabase, published map file (pmf), ArcMap document (mxd), Adobe Acrobat PDF map, and other digital formats that can be downloaded at the USGS website.

  6. Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation Using Piezoelectric Actuators-Some Results of the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    Buffet is an aeroelastic phenomenon associated with high performance aircraft especially those with twin vertical tails. In particular, for the F/A-18 aircraft at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from wing/fuselage leading edge extensions burst, immersing the vertical tails in their wake. The resulting buffet loads on the vertical tails are a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view. Recently, a 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at Mach 0.10. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the actuators, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. The results herein illustrate that buffet alleviation of vertical tails can be accomplished using simple active control of the rudder or piezoelectric actuators. In fact, as demonstrated herein, a fixed gain single input single output control law that commands piezoelectric actuators may be active throughout the high angle-of-attack maneuver without requiring any changes during the maneuver. Future tests are mentioned for accentuating the international interest in this area of research.

  7. High Resolution PDF Measurements on Ag Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Tulio C. R.; Martin, Chris; Kycia, Stefan; Zanchet, Daniela

    2009-01-29

    The quantitative analysis of structural defects in Ag nanoparticles was addressed in this work. We performed atomic scale structural characterization by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Pair Distribution Function analysis (PDF) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD measurements were performed using an innovative instrumentation setup to provide high resolution PDF patterns.

  8. PDF turbulence modeling and DNS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, A. T.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of time discontinuity (or jump condition) in the coalescence/dispersion (C/D) mixing model is addressed in probability density function (pdf). A C/D mixing model continuous in time is introduced. With the continuous mixing model, the process of chemical reaction can be fully coupled with mixing. In the case of homogeneous turbulence decay, the new model predicts a pdf very close to a Gaussian distribution, with finite higher moments also close to that of a Gaussian distribution. Results from the continuous mixing model are compared with both experimental data and numerical results from conventional C/D models. The effect of Coriolis forces on compressible homogeneous turbulence is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The numerical method used in this study is an eight order compact difference scheme. Contrary to the conclusions reached by previous DNS studies on incompressible isotropic turbulence, the present results show that the Coriolis force increases the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, and that anisotropy develops as the Coriolis force increases. The Taylor-Proudman theory does apply since the derivatives in the direction of the rotation axis vanishes rapidly. A closer analysis reveals that the dissipation rate of the incompressible component of the turbulent kinetic energy indeed decreases with a higher rotation rate, consistent with incompressible flow simulations (Bardina), while the dissipation rate of the compressible part increases; the net gain is positive. Inertial waves are observed in the simulation results.

  9. Pdf - Transport equations for chemically reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollmann, W.

    1989-01-01

    The closure problem for the transport equations for pdf and the characteristic functions of turbulent, chemically reacting flows is addressed. The properties of the linear and closed equations for the characteristic functional for Eulerian and Lagrangian variables are established, and the closure problem for the finite-dimensional case is discussed for pdf and characteristic functions. It is shown that the closure for the scalar dissipation term in the pdf equation developed by Dopazo (1979) and Kollmann et al. (1982) results in a single integral, in contrast to the pdf, where double integration is required. Some recent results using pdf methods obtained for turbulent flows with combustion, including effects of chemical nonequilibrium, are discussed.

  10. Recent progress in the joint velocity-scalar PDF method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anand, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses joint velocity-scalar PDF method; turbulent combustion modeling issues for gas turbine combustors; PDF calculations for a recirculating flow; stochastic dissipation model; joint PDF calculations for swirling flows; spray calculations; reduced kinetics/manifold methods; parallel processing; and joint PDF focus areas.

  11. The pdf approach to turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollmann, W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed discussion of the theory and application of probability density function (pdf) methods, which provide a complete statistical description of turbulent flow fields at a single point or a finite number of points. The basic laws governing the flow of Newtonian fluids are set up in the Eulerian and the Lagrangian frame, and the exact and linear equations for the characteristic functionals in those frames are discussed. Pdf equations in both frames are derived as Fourier transforms of the equations of the characteristic functions. Possible formulations for the nonclosed terms in the pdf equation are discussed, their properties are assessed, and closure modes for the molecular-transport and the fluctuating pressure-gradient terms are reviewed. The application of pdf methods to turbulent combustion flows, supersonic flows, and the interaction of turbulence with shock waves is discussed.

  12. PDF methods for turbulent reactive flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1995-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on computation of turbulent combustion, governing equations, closure problem, PDF modeling of turbulent reactive flows, validation cases, current projects, and collaboration with industry and technology transfer.

  13. A Web-based Quantum Mechanics Course for first Year Graduate Students in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breinig, M.

    1996-11-01

    All class materials for the 1996 graduate Quantum Mechanics course at the University of Tennessee are distributed over the Internet (http://electron4.phys.utk.edu). Complete class notes are available in PDF format. Homework problems and solutions are distributed in PDF format or as scanned notes. Students need Web access using a graphical browser with a PDF reader plug-in (Adobe Acrobat) installed. The news and mail clients must be able to display attachments, such as graphics files, inline. A class news group has been set up. Students use this news group to discus class material, homework problems, and anything else of interest among themselves. Numerical solutions are presented in the form of Java programs.

  14. Recent advances in PDF modeling of turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Andrew D.; Dai, F.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation concludes that a Monte Carlo probability density function (PDF) solution successfully couples with an existing finite volume code; PDF solution method applied to turbulent reacting flows shows good agreement with data; and PDF methods must be run on parallel machines for practical use.

  15. The PDF method for turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    Probability Density Function (PDF) methods provide a means of calculating the properties of turbulent reacting flows. They have been successfully applied to many turbulent flames, including some with finite rate kinetic effects. Here the methods are reviewed with an emphasis on computational issues and their application to turbulent combustion.

  16. Virtual Libraries and Valuable .pdf Downloads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2002-01-01

    Describes educational resources available as free downloads on the Internet. Includes, for example, websites for downloads of the "Digest of Education Statistics 2001," ERIC Digests, and other educational resources available in .pdf format from such organizations as the Educational Testing Service, Phi Delta Kappa, and the Association of…

  17. Datamatrix and PDF417 data integrity test

    SciTech Connect

    Fales, J.F.; Vincent, R.S.

    1993-09-01

    We conducted a test to evaluate data integrity of selected two-dimensional, high-density, high-capacity coding symbologies for use in selected automatic identification applications. The test was part ot the US Army`s Project Manager for Annnunition Logistics Automatic Ammunition Identification Technology Project. Specific symbologies tested were Datamatrix, from International Data Matrix, Inc., and PDF417, from Symbol Technologies, Inc. As a reference, Code 39 symbology was also evaluated under the same conditions. The statistical objective of the test was to determine if Datamatrix and/or PDF417 symbologies could be expected to exhibit one error or less in two million characters scanned and decoded. The level of confidence was set to 95%. Symbols for Datamatrix and PDF417 included 50, 100, 250, and 350 encoded characters for each of three levels or error correction. Each Code 39 symbol contained 15 to 25 characters. Based on a population of 1080 symbols per symbology, sample size was calculated to be 31,438,998 characters per symbology. An automated test apparatus was used to assure uniformity of test conditions. The apparatus included robotic loading and unloading of carrier sheets onto scanning stations. Scanning for Datamatrix symbols was performed using fixed mounted RS-170 CCD cameras. PDF417 and Code 39 symbols were scanned using hand-held rastering visible laser scanners mounted in fixed positions and software triggered. Decoding of all symbols occurred in decoders supplied with the scanners using the respective manufacturer`s proprietary decoding algorithms. Over 94 million characters were decoded during the test. Analysis of test results indicate no errors attributable to either Datamatrix or PDF417 symbologies. Eleven errors were recorded for Code 39.

  18. Electrical silencing of PDF neurons advances the phase of non-PDF clock neurons in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Cao, Guan; Nitabach, Michael N

    2008-04-01

    Drosophila clock neurons exhibit self-sustaining cellular oscillations that rely in part on rhythmic transcriptional feedback loops. We have previously determined that electrical silencing of the pigment dispersing factor (PDF)-expressing lateral-ventral (LN(V)) pacemaker subset of fly clock neurons via expression of an inward-rectifier K(+) channel (Kir2.1) severely disrupts free-running rhythms of locomotor activity-most flies are arrhythmic and those that are not exhibit weak short-period rhythms-and abolishes LN(V) molecular oscillation in constant darkness. PDF is known to be an important LN(V) output signal. Here we examine the effects of electrical silencing of the LN(V) pacemakers on molecular rhythms in other, nonsilenced, subsets of clock neurons. In contrast to previously described cell-autonomous abolition of free-running molecular rhythms, we find that electrical silencing of the LN(V) pacemakers via Kir2.1 expression does not impair molecular rhythms in LN(D), DN1, and DN2 subsets of clock neurons. However, free-running molecular rhythms in these non-LN(V) clock neurons occur with advanced phase. Electrical silencing of LN(V)s phenocopies PDF null mutation (pdf (01) ) at both behavioral and molecular levels except for the complete abolition of free-running cellular oscillation in the LN(V)s themselves. LN(V) electrically silenced or pdf 01 flies exhibit weak free-running behavioral rhythms with short period, and the molecular oscillation in non-LN(V) neurons phase advances in constant darkness. That LN( V) electrical silencing leads to the same behavioral and non-LN( V) molecular phenotypes as pdf 01 suggests that persistence of LN(V) molecular oscillation in pdf 01 flies has no functional effect, either on behavioral rhythms or on non-LN(V) molecular rhythms. We thus conclude that functionally relevant signals from LN(V)s to non-LN(V) clock neurons and other downstream targets rely both on PDF signaling and LN(V) electrical activity, and that LN( V

  19. HAZPAC; an interactive map of Pacific Rim natural hazards, population, and infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bemis, B.L.; Goss, H.V.; Yurkovich, E.S.; Perron, T.J.; Howell, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    This is an online version of a CD-ROM publication. The text files that describe using this publication make reference to software provided on the disc. For this online version the software can be downloaded for free from Adobe Systems and Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI). Welcome to HAZPAC! HAZPAC is an interactive map about natural hazard risk in the Pacific Rim region. It is intended to communicate to a broad audience the ideas of 'Crowding the Rim,' which is an international, public-private partnership that fosters collaborative solutions for regional risks. HAZPAC, which stands for 'HAZards of the PACific,' uses Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to help people visualize the socioeconomic connections and shared hazard vulnerabilities among Pacific Rim countries, as well as to explore the general nature of risk. Please refer to the 'INTRODUCTION TO HAZPAC' section of the readme file below to determine which HAZPAC project will be right for you. Once you have decided which HAZPAC project is suitable for you, please refer to the 'GETTING STARTED' sections in the readme file for some basic information that will help you begin using HAZPAC. Also, we highly recommend that you follow the Tutorial exercises in the project-specific HAZPAC User Guides. The User Guides are PDF (Portable Document Format) files that must be read with Adobe Acrobat Reader (a free copy of Acrobat Reader is available using the link near the bottom of this page).

  20. Daily rhythms in locomotor circuits in Drosophila involve PDF.

    PubMed

    Pírez, Nicolás; Christmann, Bethany L; Griffith, Leslie C

    2013-08-01

    The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) has been studied extensively in Drosophila, and its role in circadian time-keeping has been firmly established. The role of PDF outside of the clock circuit, however, is poorly understood. A recent study suggested that PDF may act on the ellipsoid body (EB) to link the clock and sleep/activity circuits. We performed whole brain optical imaging with the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP sensor Epac1-camps expressed under control of the pdfR promoter to address how the clock and sleep deprivation affect the physiology of these cells. Basal cAMP levels in EB were regulated both by PDF and synaptic inputs that are controlled by the circadian clock. Acute application of PDF to the brain caused a significant, and PDF-receptor-dependent, increase in cAMP in EB cells. Application of TTX to block circuit-mediated effects of PDF increased the morning response but not the response at night, implying the existence of a temporally regulated, PDF-stimulated input that blocks cAMP generation. ACh produced both direct (TTX-insensitive) and indirect (TTX-sensitive) increases in cAMP during the day but was totally TTX-insensitive at night, indicating that ACh-stimulated inputs to the EB are suppressed at night. Sleep deprivation did not affect the cAMP responses of these cells to either PDF or ACh. These results suggest a novel role for PDF as a modulator of activity outside of the clock circuit. By elucidating the mechanisms by which the neuropeptide PDF act on its target cells, our work contributes to our understating of how the central clock coordinates activity and sleep. PMID:23678016

  1. A compression algorithm for the combination of PDF sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrazza, Stefano; Latorre, José I.; Rojo, Juan; Watt, Graeme

    2015-10-01

    The current PDF4LHC recommendation to estimate uncertainties due to parton distribution functions (PDFs) in theoretical predictions for LHC processes involves the combination of separate predictions computed using PDF sets from different groups, each of which comprises a relatively large number of either Hessian eigenvectors or Monte Carlo (MC) replicas. While many fixed-order and parton shower programs allow the evaluation of PDF uncertainties for a single PDF set at no additional CPU cost, this feature is not universal, and, moreover, the a posteriori combination of the predictions using at least three different PDF sets is still required. In this work, we present a strategy for the statistical combination of individual PDF sets, based on the MC representation of Hessian sets, followed by a compression algorithm for the reduction of the number of MC replicas. We illustrate our strategy with the combination and compression of the recent NNPDF3.0, CT14 and MMHT14 NNLO PDF sets. The resulting compressed Monte Carlo PDF sets are validated at the level of parton luminosities and LHC inclusive cross sections and differential distributions. We determine that around 100 replicas provide an adequate representation of the probability distribution for the original combined PDF set, suitable for general applications to LHC phenomenology.

  2. PDF for Healthcare and Child Health Data Forms.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Alan E; Schneider, Joseph H; Miller, Ken

    2008-01-01

    PDF-H is a new best practices standard that uses XFA forms and embedded JavaScript to combine PDF forms with XML data. Preliminary experience with AAP child health forms shows that the combination of PDF with XML is a more effective method to visualize familiar data on paper and the web than the traditional use of XML and XSLT. Both PDF-H and HL7 Clinical Document Architecture can co-exist using the same data for different display formats. PMID:18999257

  3. A PDF closure model for compressible turbulent chemically reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollmann, W.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research project was the analysis of single point closures based on probability density function (pdf) and characteristic functions and the development of a prediction method for the joint velocity-scalar pdf in turbulent reacting flows. Turbulent flows of boundary layer type and stagnation point flows with and without chemical reactions were be calculated as principal applications. Pdf methods for compressible reacting flows were developed and tested in comparison with available experimental data. The research work carried in this project was concentrated on the closure of pdf equations for incompressible and compressible turbulent flows with and without chemical reactions.

  4. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Lean Premixed Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, S.L.; •Givi, P.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-10-01

    The joint velocity-scalar-frequency probability density function (PDF) methodology is employed for prediction of a bluff-body stabilized lean premixed methane-air flame. A reduced mechanism with CO and NO chemistry is used to describe fuel oxidation. The predicted mean and rms values of the velocity, temperature and concentrations of major and minor species are compared with laboratory measurements. This technical effort was performed in support of the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s on-going research in “Assessment of Turbo-Chemistry Models for Gas Turbine Combustion Emissions” under the RDS contract DE-AC26-04NT41817.

  5. Pdf prediction of supersonic hydrogen flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eifler, P.; Kollmann, W.

    1993-01-01

    A hybrid method for the prediction of supersonic turbulent flows with combustion is developed consisting of a second order closure for the velocity field and a multi-scalar pdf method for the local thermodynamic state. It is shown that for non-premixed flames and chemical equilibrium mixture fraction, the logarithm of the (dimensionless) density, internal energy per unit mass and the divergence of the velocity have several advantages over other sets of scalars. The closure model is applied to a supersonic non-premixed flame burning hydrogen with air supplied by a supersonic coflow and the results are compared with a limited set of experimental data.

  6. Improvements and new features in the PDF module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Andrew T.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses what models are used in this package and what their advantages and disadvantages are, how the probability density function (PDF) model is implemented and the features of the program, and what can be expected in the future from the NASA Lewis PDF code.

  7. Aerial Population Estimates of Wild Horses (Equus caballus) in the Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas Using an Integrated Simultaneous Double-Count and Sightability Bias Correction Technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lubow, Bruce C.; Ransom, Jason I.

    2007-01-01

    An aerial survey technique combining simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction methodologies was used to estimate the population of wild horses inhabiting Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas, Wyoming. Based on 5 surveys over 4 years, we conclude that the technique produced estimates consistent with the known number of horses removed between surveys and an annual population growth rate of 16.2 percent per year. Therefore, evidence from this series of surveys supports the validity of this survey method. Our results also indicate that the ability of aerial observers to see horse groups is very strongly dependent on skill of the individual observer, size of the horse group, and vegetation cover. It is also more modestly dependent on the ruggedness of the terrain and the position of the sun relative to the observer. We further conclude that censuses, or uncorrected raw counts, are inadequate estimates of population size for this herd. Such uncorrected counts were all undercounts in our trials, and varied in magnitude from year to year and observer to observer. As of April 2007, we estimate that the population of the Adobe Town /Salt Wells Creek complex is 906 horses with a 95 percent confidence interval ranging from 857 to 981 horses.

  8. Graphic composite segmentation for PDF documents with complex layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Canhui; Tang, Zhi; Tao, Xin; Shi, Cao

    2013-01-01

    Converting the PDF books to re-flowable format has recently attracted various interests in the area of e-book reading. Robust graphic segmentation is highly desired for increasing the practicability of PDF converters. To cope with various layouts, a multi-layer concept is introduced to segment graphic composites including photographic images, drawings with text insets or surrounded with text elements. Both image based analysis and inherent digital born document advantages are exploited in this multi-layer based layout analysis method. By combining low-level page elements clustering applied on PDF documents and connected component analysis on synthetically generated PNG image document, graphic composites can be segmented for PDF documents with complex layouts. The experimental results on graphic composite segmentation of PDF document pages have shown satisfactory performance.

  9. PDF4LHC recommendations for LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterworth, Jon; Carrazza, Stefano; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; De Roeck, Albert; Feltesse, Joël; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Glazov, Sasha; Huston, Joey; Kassabov, Zahari; McNulty, Ronan; Morsch, Andreas; Nadolsky, Pavel; Radescu, Voica; Rojo, Juan; Thorne, Robert

    2016-02-01

    We provide an updated recommendation for the usage of sets of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and the assessment of PDF and PDF+{α }s uncertainties suitable for applications at the LHC Run II. We review developments since the previous PDF4LHC recommendation, and discuss and compare the new generation of PDFs, which include substantial information from experimental data from the Run I of the LHC. We then propose a new prescription for the combination of a suitable subset of the available PDF sets, which is presented in terms of a single combined PDF set. We finally discuss tools which allow for the delivery of this combined set in terms of optimized sets of Hessian eigenvectors or Monte Carlo replicas, and their usage, and provide some examples of their application to LHC phenomenology. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Guido Altarelli (1941-2015), whose seminal work made possible the quantitative study of PDFs.

  10. PDF4LHC recommendations for LHC Run II

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Butterworth, Jon; Carrazza, Stefano; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Roeck, Albert De; Feltesse, Joel; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Glazov, Sasha; Huston, Joey; Kassabov, Zahari; et al

    2016-01-06

    We provide an updated recommendation for the usage of sets of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and the assessment of PDF and PDF+αs uncertainties suitable for applications at the LHC Run II. We review developments since the previous PDF4LHC recommendation, and discuss and compare the new generation of PDFs, which include substantial information from experimental data from the Run I of the LHC. We then propose a new prescription for the combination of a suitable subset of the available PDF sets, which is presented in terms of a single combined PDF set. Lastly, we finally discuss tools which allow for themore » delivery of this combined set in terms of optimized sets of Hessian eigenvectors or Monte Carlo replicas, and their usage, and provide some examples of their application to LHC phenomenology.« less

  11. The gamma-ray-flux PDF from galactic halo substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Samuel K.; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2009-07-01

    One of the targets of the recently launched Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a diffuse gamma-ray background from dark-matter annihilation or decay in the Galactic halo. N-body simulations and theoretical arguments suggest that the dark matter in the Galactic halo may be clumped into substructure, rather than smoothly distributed. Here we propose the gamma-ray-flux probability distribution function (PDF) as a probe of substructure in the Galactic halo. We calculate this PDF for a phenomenological model of halo substructure and determine the regions of the substructure parameter space in which the PDF may be distinguished from the PDF for a smooth distribution of dark matter. In principle, the PDF allows a statistical detection of substructure, even if individual halos cannot be detected. It may also allow detection of substructure on the smallest microhalo mass scales, ~ M⊕, for weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Furthermore, it may also provide a method to measure the substructure mass function. However, an analysis that assumes a typical halo substructure model and a conservative estimate of the diffuse background suggests that the substructure PDF may not be detectable in the lifespan of Fermi in the specific case that the WIMP is a neutralino. Nevertheless, for a large range of substructure, WIMP annihilation, and diffuse background models, PDF analysis may provide a clear signature of substructure.

  12. PDF approach for turbulent scalar field: Some recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Feng

    1993-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF) method has been proven a very useful approach in turbulence research. It has been particularly effective in simulating turbulent reacting flows and in studying some detailed statistical properties generated by a turbulent field There are, however, some important questions that have yet to be answered in PDF studies. Our efforts in the past year have been focused on two areas. First, a simple mixing model suitable for Monte Carlo simulations has been developed based on the mapping closure. Secondly, the mechanism of turbulent transport has been analyzed in order to understand the recently observed abnormal PDF's of turbulent temperature fields generated by linear heat sources.

  13. Optimal reconstruction value for DCT dequantization using Laplacian pdf model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, So-Yeon; Lee, Byung-Uk

    2004-01-01

    Many image compression standards such as JPEG, MPEG or H.263 are based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT), quantization, and Huffman coding. Quantization error is the major source of image quality degradation. The current dequantization method assumes the uniform distribution of DCT coefficients. Therefore the reconstruction value is the center of each quantization interval. However DCT coefficients are regarded to follow Laplacian probability density function (pdf). We derive an optimal reconstruction value in closed form assuming Laplacian pdf, and show the effect of the correction on image quality. We estimate the Laplacian pdf parameter for each DCT coefficient, and obtain a correction for reconstruction value from the proposed theoretical predictions. The corrected value depends on the Laplacian pdf parameter and the quantization step size Q. The effect of PSNR improvement due to the change in dequantization value is about 0.2 ~ 0.4 dB. We also analyze the reason for the limited improvements.

  14. Pressure algorithm for elliptic flow calculations with the PDF method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anand, M. S.; Pope, S. B.; Mongia, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm to determine the mean pressure field for elliptic flow calculations with the probability density function (PDF) method is developed and applied. The PDF method is a most promising approach for the computation of turbulent reacting flows. Previous computations of elliptic flows with the method were in conjunction with conventional finite volume based calculations that provided the mean pressure field. The algorithm developed and described here permits the mean pressure field to be determined within the PDF calculations. The PDF method incorporating the pressure algorithm is applied to the flow past a backward-facing step. The results are in good agreement with data for the reattachment length, mean velocities, and turbulence quantities including triple correlations.

  15. Using OpenOffice as a Portable Interface to JAVA-Based Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeau, T.; Garrett, B.; Richon, J.; Romelfanger, F.

    2004-07-01

    STScI previously used Microsoft Word and Microsoft Access, a Sybase ODBC driver, and the Adobe Acrobat PDF writer, along with a substantial amount of Visual Basic, to generate a variety of documents for the internal Space Telescope Grants Administration System (STGMS). While investigating an upgrade to Microsoft Office XP, we began considering alternatives, ultimately selecting an open source product, OpenOffice.org. This reduces the total number of products required to operate the internal STGMS system, simplifies the build system, and opens the possibility of moving to a non-Windows platform. We describe the experience of moving from Microsoft Office to OpenOffice.org, and our other internal uses of OpenOffice.org in our development environment.

  16. Identification of embedded mathematical formulas in PDF documents using SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Gao, Liangcai; Tang, Zhi; Hu, Xuan; Lin, Xiaofan

    2012-01-01

    With the tremendous popularity of PDF format, recognizing mathematical formulas in PDF documents becomes a new and important problem in document analysis field. In this paper, we present a method of embedded mathematical formula identification in PDF documents, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). The method first segments text lines into words, and then classifies each word into two classes, namely formula or ordinary text. Various features of embedded formulas, including geometric layout, character and context content, are utilized to build a robust and adaptable SVM classifier. Embedded formulas are then extracted through merging the words labeled as formulas. Experimental results show good performance of the proposed method. Furthermore, the method has been successfully incorporated into a commercial software package for large-scale e-Book production.

  17. Galaxy clustering with photometric surveys using PDF redshift information

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Asorey, J.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Brunner, R. J.; Thaler, J.

    2016-03-28

    Here, photometric surveys produce large-area maps of the galaxy distribution, but with less accurate redshift information than is obtained from spectroscopic methods. Modern photometric redshift (photo-z) algorithms use galaxy magnitudes, or colors, that are obtained through multi-band imaging to produce a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy in the map. We used simulated data to study the effect of using different photo-z estimators to assign galaxies to redshift bins in order to compare their effects on angular clustering and galaxy bias measurements. We found that if we use the entire PDF, rather than a single-point (mean or mode) estimate, the deviations are less biased, especially when using narrow redshift bins. When the redshift bin widths aremore » $$\\Delta z=0.1$$, the use of the entire PDF reduces the typical measurement bias from 5%, when using single point estimates, to 3%.« less

  18. Galaxy clustering with photometric surveys using PDF redshift information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, J.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Brunner, R. J.; Thaler, J.

    2016-06-01

    Photometric surveys produce large-area maps of the galaxy distribution, but with less accurate redshift information than is obtained from spectroscopic methods. Modern photometric redshift (photo-z) algorithms use galaxy magnitudes, or colours, that are obtained through multiband imaging to produce a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy in the map. We used simulated data to study the effect of using different photo-z estimators to assign galaxies to redshift bins in order to compare their effects on angular clustering and galaxy bias measurements. We found that if we use the entire PDF, rather than a single-point (mean or mode) estimate, the deviations are less biased, especially when using narrow redshift bins. When the redshift bin widths are Δz = 0.1, the use of the entire PDF reduces the typical measurement bias from 5 per cent, when using single point estimates, to 3 per cent.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health (NCEH) Format: Select one PDF [237 KB] File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  20. Reference and PDF-manager software: complexities, support and workflow.

    PubMed

    Mead, Thomas L; Berryman, Donna R

    2010-10-01

    In the past, librarians taught reference management by training library users to use established software programs such as RefWorks or EndNote. In today's environment, there is a proliferation of Web-based programs that are being used by library clientele that offer a new twist on the well-known reference management programs. Basically, these new programs are PDF-manager software (e.g., Mendeley or Papers). Librarians are faced with new questions, issues, and concerns, given the new workflows and pathways that these PDF-manager programs present. This article takes a look at some of those. PMID:21058181

  1. A study of hydrogen diffusion flames using PDF turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    The application of probability density function (pdf) turbulence models is addressed in this work. For the purpose of accurate prediction of turbulent combustion, an algorithm that combines a conventional CFD flow solver with the Monte Carlo simulation of the pdf evolution equation has been developed. The algorithm has been validated using experimental data for a heated turbulent plane jet. The study of H2-F2 diffusion flames has been carried out using this algorithm. Numerical results compared favorably with experimental data. The computuations show that the flame center shifts as the equivalence ratio changes, and that for the same equivalence ratio, similarity solutions for flames exist.

  2. A study of hydrogen diffusion flames using PDF turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    The application of probability density function (pdf) turbulence models is addressed. For the purpose of accurate prediction of turbulent combustion, an algorithm that combines a conventional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow solver with the Monte Carlo simulation of the pdf evolution equation was developed. The algorithm was validated using experimental data for a heated turbulent plane jet. The study of H2-F2 diffusion flames was carried out using this algorithm. Numerical results compared favorably with experimental data. The computations show that the flame center shifts as the equivalence ratio changes, and that for the same equivalence ratio, similarity solutions for flames exist.

  3. PDF methods for combustion in high-speed turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Stephen B.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the research performed during the second year of this three-year project. The ultimate objective of the project is extend the applicability of probability density function (pdf) methods from incompressible to compressible turbulent reactive flows. As described in subsequent sections, progress has been made on: (1) formulation and modelling of pdf equations for compressible turbulence, in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous inert flows; and (2) implementation of the compressible model in various flow configurations, namely decaying isotropic turbulence, homogeneous shear flow and plane mixing layer.

  4. 17 CFR 232.104 - Unofficial PDF copies included in an electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unofficial PDF copies included... Filing Requirements § 232.104 Unofficial PDF copies included in an electronic submission. (a) An... (§ 249.101 of this chapter) or a Form D (§ 239.500 of this chapter), may include one unofficial PDF...

  5. SIMPLE PDF MODELS FOR CONVECTIVELY DRIVEN VERTICAL DIFFUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode of vertical velocity in convective boundary layers is usually negative and the probability distribution function(PDF) of w, pw is rarely symmetrlc. Consequently, vertical diffusion from elevated sources is usually asymmetric and exhibits a descending mode of concentratio...

  6. Progress in the development of PDF turbulence models for combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    A combined Monte Carlo-computational fluid dynamic (CFD) algorithm was developed recently at Lewis Research Center (LeRC) for turbulent reacting flows. In this algorithm, conventional CFD schemes are employed to obtain the velocity field and other velocity related turbulent quantities, and a Monte Carlo scheme is used to solve the evolution equation for the probability density function (pdf) of species mass fraction and temperature. In combustion computations, the predictions of chemical reaction rates (the source terms in the species conservation equation) are poor if conventional turbulence modles are used. The main difficulty lies in the fact that the reaction rate is highly nonlinear, and the use of averaged temperature produces excessively large errors. Moment closure models for the source terms have attained only limited success. The probability density function (pdf) method seems to be the only alternative at the present time that uses local instantaneous values of the temperature, density, etc., in predicting chemical reaction rates, and thus may be the only viable approach for more accurate turbulent combustion calculations. Assumed pdf's are useful in simple problems; however, for more general combustion problems, the solution of an evolution equation for the pdf is necessary.

  7. Parameterization and Monte Carlo solutions to PDF evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suciu, Nicolae; Schüler, Lennart; Attinger, Sabine; Knabner, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The probability density function (PDF) of the chemical species concentrations transported in random environments is governed by unclosed evolution equations. The PDF is transported in the physical space by drift and diffusion processes described by coefficients derived by standard upscaling procedures. Its transport in the concentration space is described by a drift determined by reaction rates, in a closed form, as well as a term accounting for the sub-grid mixing process due to molecular diffusion and local scale hydrodynamic dispersion. Sub-grid mixing processes are usually described by models of the conditionally averaged diffusion flux or models of the conditional dissipation rate. We show that in certain situations mixing terms can also be derived, in the form of an Itô process, from simulated or measured concentration time series. Monte Carlo solutions to PDF evolution equations are usually constructed with systems of computational particles, which are well suited for highly dimensional advection-dominated problems. Such solutions require the fulfillment of specific consistency conditions relating the statistics of the random concentration field, function of both space and time, to that of the time random function describing an Itô process in physical and concentration spaces which governs the evolution of the system of particles. We show that the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for the concentration-position PDF of the Itô process coincides with the solution of the PDF equation only for constant density flows in spatially statistically homogeneous systems. We also find that the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is still equivalent to the solution of the PDF equation weighted by the variable density or by other conserved scalars. We illustrate the parameterization of the sub-grid mixing by time series and the Monte Carlo solution for a problem of contaminant transport in groundwater. The evolution of the system of computational particles whose

  8. Development of a Rapid, Standardized Data Inventory for R2K Field Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Chayes, D. N.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ryan, W. B.; Lehnert, K. A.; Shank, T. M.

    2003-12-01

    Effective data management for Ridge2000 requires the production of a complete data inventory for every field program in a timely and standardized way. We are developing a set of forms to document 1.) basic field program information (dates and locations, platform, science party, etc); 2.) an inventory of sensor systems, data types (marine geophysical, physical and chemical oceanographic, rock and sediment samples, and biological), and file formats; 3.) supplemental attachments (written reports, instrument diagrams, etc); and 4.) a basic navigation track. We regard this as the minimal set of metadata which should be produced immediately at the end of a field program, in order to publicize it in an online database and satisfy agency requirements. We have developed a prototype set of Portable Document Format (PDF) forms which can be completed during a cruise through a combination of manual and automated input. PDF is a stable and widely-used format, with software available as both a commercial product (Adobe Acrobat) and an open-source library (http://www.pdflib.org). Completing a PDF form requires only the Acrobat Reader software, which is freely available for every major computing platform. Acrobat offers extensive functionality to aid in data inventory, including the ability to verify content on-the-fly, import data from other files and forms, show controlled vocabularies as pop-up menus, export to XML format, and print a high-quality readable report. Prototype forms have been tested on a recent transit of the CGC Healy, and we plan to continue testing on other ships and soliciting community feedback over the next several months. We envision a long-term plan in which a master set of forms is deployed with every R2K field program, along with a copy of Acrobat Reader, on lightweight storage media such as USB keys. The completed forms will then be transmitted to the data management center, where they are ingested automatically and the information made available in the

  9. Signaling of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia maderae.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongying; Yasar, Hanzey; Funk, Nico W; Giese, Maria; Baz, El-Sayed; Stengl, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The insect neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a functional ortholog of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the coupling factor of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Despite of PDF's importance for synchronized circadian locomotor activity rhythms its signaling is not well understood. We studied PDF signaling in primary cell cultures of the accessory medulla, the circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach. In Ca²⁺ imaging studies four types of PDF-responses were distinguished. In regularly bursting type 1 pacemakers PDF application resulted in dose-dependent long-lasting increases in Ca²⁺ baseline concentration and frequency of oscillating Ca²⁺ transients. Adenylyl cyclase antagonists prevented PDF-responses in type 1 cells, indicating that PDF signaled via elevation of intracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, in type 2 pacemakers PDF transiently raised intracellular Ca²⁺ levels even after blocking adenylyl cyclase activity. In patch clamp experiments the previously characterized types 1-4 could not be identified. Instead, PDF-responses were categorized according to ion channels affected. Application of PDF inhibited outward potassium or inward sodium currents, sometimes in the same neuron. In a comparison of Ca²⁺ imaging and patch clamp experiments we hypothesized that in type 1 cells PDF-dependent rises in cAMP concentrations block primarily outward K⁺ currents. Possibly, this PDF-dependent depolarization underlies PDF-dependent phase advances of pacemakers. Finally, we propose that PDF-dependent concomitant modulation of K⁺ and Na⁺ channels in coupled pacemakers causes ultradian membrane potential oscillations as prerequisite to efficient synchronization via resonance. PMID:25269074

  10. 39 CFR 3001.10 - Form and number of copies of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... service must be printed from a text-based pdf version of the document, where possible. Otherwise, they may... generated in either Acrobat (pdf), Word, or WordPerfect, or Rich Text Format (rtf)....

  11. Application of PDF417 symbology for 'DNA Barcoding'.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Rajavel, A R; Jambulingam, P

    2008-05-01

    DNA sequences consisting of about 600 base pairs of the 5' region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene has been proposed as DNA Barcodes for taxonomical identification of species in different animals. We evaluated the application of two-dimensional barcodes for 'DNA Barcoding'. 'PDF417' symbology was applied to convert DNA Barcode sequences already proposed [N. Pradeep Kumar, A.R. Rajavel, R. Natarajan, P. Jambulingam, DNA Barcodes can distinguish species of Indian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 77 (2007) 1-7.] for 10 different species of mosquitoes prevalent in India. Decoding of these digital images using 2-D scanner and a suitable software reproduced the input DNA sequences unchanged. This analysis indicated the utility of PDF417 for 'DNA Barcoding', which could be of definite use for taxonomic documentation of animals. PMID:18282635

  12. Reflowing-driven paragraph recognition for electronic books in PDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jing; Tang, Zhi; Gao, Liangcai

    2011-01-01

    When reading electronic books on handheld devices, content sometimes should be reflowed and recomposed to adapt for small-screen mobile devices. According to people's reading practice, it is reasonable to reflow the text content based on paragraphs. Hence, this paper addresses the requirement and proposes a set of novel methods on paragraph recognition for electronic books in PDF. The proposed methods consist of three steps, namely, physical structure analysis, paragraph segmentation, and reading order detection. We make use of locally ordered property of PDF documents and layout style of books to improve traditional page recognition results. In addition, we employ the optimal matching of Bipartite Graph technology to detect paragraphs' reading order. Experiments show that our methods achieve high accuracy. It is noteworthy that, the research has been applied in a commercial software package for Chinese E-book production.

  13. Research on Optimization of Encoding Algorithm of PDF417 Barcodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming; Fu, Longsheng; Han, Shuqing

    The purpose of this research is to develop software to optimize the data compression of a PDF417 barcode using VC++6.0. According to the different compression mode and the particularities of Chinese, the relevant approaches which optimize the encoding algorithm of data compression such as spillage and the Chinese characters encoding are proposed, a simple approach to compute complex polynomial is introduced. After the whole data compression is finished, the number of the codeword is reduced and then the encoding algorithm is optimized. The developed encoding system of PDF 417 barcodes will be applied in the logistics management of fruits, therefore also will promote the fast development of the two-dimensional bar codes.

  14. Generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurilin, Ilya V.; Safonov, Ilia V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sang Ho; Choi, Donchul

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the algorithm for generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned documents. The complex multi-stage technique includes segmentation of the document to text/drawing areas and background, conversion of symbols to lines and Bezier curves, storing compressed background and foreground. In the paper we concentrate on symbol conversion that comprises segmentation of symbol bodies with resolution enhancement, contour tracing and approximation. Presented method outperforms competitive solutions and secures the best compression rate/quality ratio. Scaling of initial document to other sizes as well as several printing/scanning-to-PDF iterations expose advantages of proposed way for handling with document images. Numerical vectorization quality metric was elaborated. The outcomes of OCR software and user opinion survey confirm high quality of proposed method.

  15. PDF orientations in shocked quartz grains around the Chicxulub crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Yoichiro; Goto, Kazuhisa; Matsui, Takafumi; Tada, Ryuji; Tajika, Eiichi

    2008-04-01

    We measured 852 sets of planar deformation features (PDFs) in shocked quartz grains in impactite samples of the Yaxcopoil (YAX-1) core and from 4 Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary deposits: the Monaca, the Cacarajícara, and the Peñalver formations in Cuba, and DSDP site 536, within 800 km of the Chicxulub crater, in order to investigate variations of PDF orientations in the proximity of the crater.

  16. The photon PDF in events with rapidity gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Khoze, V. A.; Ryskin, M. G.

    2016-05-01

    We consider photon-initiated events with large rapidity gaps in proton-proton collisions, where one or both protons may break up. We formulate a modified photon PDF that accounts for the specific experimental rapidity gap veto, and demonstrate how the soft survival probability for these gaps may be implemented consistently. Finally, we present some phenomenological results for the two-photon induced production of lepton and W boson pairs.

  17. TMD PDF's: gauge invariance, RG properties and Wilson lines

    SciTech Connect

    Cherednikov, I. O.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2009-03-23

    The UV divergences associated with transverse-momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions (PDF) are calculated together with the ensuing one-loop anomalous dimensions in the light-cone gauge. Time-reversal-odd effects in the anomalous dimensions are observed and the role of Glauber gluons is discussed. A generalized renormalization procedure of TMD PDFs is proposed, relying upon the renormalization of contour-dependent operators with obstructions.

  18. Chemically reacting supersonic flow calculation using an assumed PDF model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farshchi, M.

    1990-01-01

    This work is motivated by the need to develop accurate models for chemically reacting compressible turbulent flow fields that are present in a typical supersonic combustion ramjet (SCRAMJET) engine. In this paper the development of a new assumed probability density function (PDF) reaction model for supersonic turbulent diffusion flames and its implementation into an efficient Navier-Stokes solver are discussed. The application of this model to a supersonic hydrogen-air flame will be considered.

  19. Graph-based layout analysis for PDF documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Canhui; Tang, Zhi; Tao, Xin; Li, Yun; Shi, Cao

    2013-03-01

    To increase the flexibility and enrich the reading experience of e-book on small portable screens, a graph based method is proposed to perform layout analysis on Portable Document Format (PDF) documents. Digital born document has its inherent advantages like representing texts and fractional images in explicit form, which can be straightforwardly exploited. To integrate traditional image-based document analysis and the inherent meta-data provided by PDF parser, the page primitives including text, image and path elements are processed to produce text and non text layer for respective analysis. Graph-based method is developed in superpixel representation level, and page text elements corresponding to vertices are used to construct an undirected graph. Euclidean distance between adjacent vertices is applied in a top-down manner to cut the graph tree formed by Kruskal's algorithm. And edge orientation is then used in a bottom-up manner to extract text lines from each sub tree. On the other hand, non-textual objects are segmented by connected component analysis. For each segmented text and non-text composite, a 13-dimensional feature vector is extracted for labelling purpose. The experimental results on selected pages from PDF books are presented.

  20. Cross-reference identification within a PDF document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sida; Gao, Liangcai; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan

    2015-01-01

    Cross-references, such like footnotes, endnotes, figure/table captions, references, are a common and useful type of page elements to further explain their corresponding entities in the target document. In this paper, we focus on cross-reference identification in a PDF document, and present a robust method as a case study of identifying footnotes and figure references. The proposed method first extracts footnotes and figure captions, and then matches them with their corresponding references within a document. A number of novel features within a PDF document, i.e., page layout, font information, lexical and linguistic features of cross-references, are utilized for the task. Clustering is adopted to handle the features that are stable in one document but varied in different kinds of documents so that the process of identification is adaptive with document types. In addition, this method leverages results from the matching process to provide feedback to the identification process and further improve the algorithm accuracy. The primary experiments in real document sets show that the proposed method is promising to identify cross-reference in a PDF document.

  1. APFEL: A PDF evolution library with QED corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Rojo, Juan

    2014-06-01

    Quantum electrodynamics and electroweak corrections are important ingredients for many theoretical predictions at the LHC. This paper documents APFEL, a new PDF evolution package that allows for the first time to perform DGLAP evolution up to NNLO in QCD and to LO in QED, in the variable-flavor-number scheme and with either pole or MS bar heavy quark masses. APFEL consistently accounts for the QED corrections to the evolution of quark and gluon PDFs and for the contribution from the photon PDF in the proton. The coupled QCD ⊗ QED equations are solved in x-space by means of higher order interpolation, followed by Runge-Kutta solution of the resulting discretized evolution equations. APFEL is based on an innovative and flexible methodology for the sequential solution of the QCD and QED evolution equations and their combination. In addition to PDF evolution, APFEL provides a module that computes Deep-Inelastic Scattering structure functions in the FONLL general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme up to O(αs2) . All the functionalities of APFEL can be accessed via a Graphical User Interface, supplemented with a variety of plotting tools for PDFs, parton luminosities and structure functions. Written in FORTRAN 77, APFEL can also be used via the C/C++ and Python interfaces, and is publicly available from the HepForge repository.

  2. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs. PMID:26146475

  3. The study of PDF turbulence models in combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    In combustion computations, it is known that the predictions of chemical reaction rates are poor if conventional turbulence models are used. The probability density function (pdf) method seems to be the only alternative that uses local instantaneous values of the temperature, density, etc., in predicting chemical reaction rates, and thus is the only viable approach for more accurate turbulent combustion calculations. The fact that the pdf equation has a very large dimensionality renders finite difference schemes extremely demanding on computer memories and thus impractical. A logical alternative is the Monte Carlo scheme. Since CFD has a certain maturity as well as acceptance, it seems that the use of a combined CFD and Monte Carlo scheme is more beneficial. Therefore, a scheme is chosen that uses a conventional CFD flow solver in calculating the flow field properties such as velocity, pressure, etc., while the chemical reaction part is solved using a Monte Carlo scheme. The discharge of a heated turbulent plane jet into quiescent air was studied. Experimental data for this problem shows that when the temperature difference between the jet and the surrounding air is small, buoyancy effect can be neglected and the temperature can be treated as a passive scalar. The fact that jet flows have a self-similar solution lends convenience in the modeling study. Futhermore, the existence of experimental data for turbulent shear stress and temperature variance make the case ideal for the testing of pdf models wherein these values can be directly evaluated.

  4. Extraction and labeling high-resolution images from PDF documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachra, Suchet K.; Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2013-12-01

    Accuracy of content-based image retrieval is affected by image resolution among other factors. Higher resolution images enable extraction of image features that more accurately represent the image content. In order to improve the relevance of search results for our biomedical image search engine, Open-I, we have developed techniques to extract and label high-resolution versions of figures from biomedical articles supplied in the PDF format. Open-I uses the open-access subset of biomedical articles from the PubMed Central repository hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Articles are available in XML and in publisher supplied PDF formats. As these PDF documents contain little or no meta-data to identify the embedded images, the task includes labeling images according to their figure number in the article after they have been successfully extracted. For this purpose we use the labeled small size images provided with the XML web version of the article. This paper describes the image extraction process and two alternative approaches to perform image labeling that measure the similarity between two images based upon the image intensity projection on the coordinate axes and similarity based upon the normalized cross-correlation between the intensities of two images. Using image identification based on image intensity projection, we were able to achieve a precision of 92.84% and a recall of 82.18% in labeling of the extracted images.

  5. Possible costs associated with investigating and mitigating geologic hazards in rural areas of western San Mateo County, California with a section on using the USGS website to determine the cost of developing property for residences in rural parts of San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.; Roberts, Sebastian; Cotton, William R.; Kropp, Alan L.; Wright, Robert H.; Zinn, Erik N.; Digital database by Roberts, Sebastian; Mills, Suzanne K.; Barnes, Jason B.; Marsolek, Joanna E.

    2000-01-01

    This publication consists of a digital map database on a geohazards web site, http://kaibab.wr.usgs.gov/geohazweb/intro.htm, this text, and 43 digital map images available for downloading at this site. The report is stored as several digital files, in ARC export (uncompressed) format for the database, and Postscript and PDF formats for the map images. Several of the source data layers for the images have already been released in other publications by the USGS and are available for downloading on the Internet. These source layers are not included in this digital database, but rather a reference is given for the web site where the data can be found in digital format. The exported ARC coverages and grids lie in UTM zone 10 projection. The pamphlet, which only describes the content and character of the digital map database, is included as Postscript, PDF, and ASCII text files and is also available on paper as USGS Open-File Report 00-127. The full versatility of the spatial database is realized by importing the ARC export files into ARC/INFO or an equivalent GIS. Other GIS packages, including MapInfo and ARCVIEW, can also use the ARC export files. The Postscript map image can be used for viewing or plotting in computer systems with sufficient capacity, and the considerably smaller PDF image files can be viewed or plotted in full or in part from Adobe ACROBAT software running on Macintosh, PC, or UNIX platforms.

  6. A Matrix Isolation and Computational Study of Molecular Palladium Fluorides: Does PdF6 Exist?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antony V; Nguyen, Timothy; Brosi, Felix; Wang, Xuefeng; Andrews, Lester; Riedel, Sebastian; Bridgeman, Adam J; Young, Nigel A

    2016-02-01

    Palladium atoms generated by thermal evaporation and laser ablation were reacted with and trapped in F2/Ar, F2/Ne, and neat F2 matrices. The products were characterized by electronic absorption and infrared spectroscopy, together with relativistic density functional theory calculations as well as coupled cluster calculations. Vibrational modes at 540 and 617 cm(-1) in argon matrices were assigned to molecular PdF and PdF2, and a band at 692 cm(-1) was assigned to molecular PdF4. A band at 624 cm(-1) can be assigned to either PdF3 or PdF6, with the former preferred from experimental considerations. Although calculations might support the latter assignment, our conclusion is that in these detailed experiments there is no convincing evidence for PdF6. PMID:26745551

  7. Finite rate chemistry and presumed PDF models for premixed turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, K.N.C.; Swaminathan, N.; Champion, M.; Libby, P.A.

    2006-09-15

    The sensitivity of the prediction of mean reaction rates in turbulent premixed flames to presumed PDF shape is studied. Three different presumed PDF shapes are considered: (i) a beta function PDF, (ii) a twin delta function PDF, and (iii) a PDF based on unstrained laminar flame properties. The unstrained laminar flame has the same thermochemistry as the turbulent flame. Emphasis is placed on capturing the finite rate chemistry effects and obtaining a simple expression for the mean reaction rate. It is shown that, as the PDFs approach their bimodal limit, the mean reaction rate expressions obtained using the above three PDFs reduce to a common form. These expressions differ only in the numerical value of a multiplying factor. Predictions are compared with DNS data. Under the conditions of this comparison, the beta function and twin delta function PDFs lead to significant errors, while the PDF based on properties of an unstrained laminar flame gives good agreement with the DNS. (author)

  8. Modeling of turbulent supersonic H2-air combustion with a multivariate beta PDF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baurle, R. A.; Hassan, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent calculations of turbulent supersonic reacting shear flows using an assumed multivariate beta PDF (probability density function) resulted in reduced production rates and a delay in the onset of combustion. This result is not consistent with available measurements. The present research explores two possible reasons for this behavior: use of PDF's that do not yield Favre averaged quantities, and the gradient diffusion assumption. A new multivariate beta PDF involving species densities is introduced which makes it possible to compute Favre averaged mass fractions. However, using this PDF did not improve comparisons with experiment. A countergradient diffusion model is then introduced. Preliminary calculations suggest this to be the cause of the discrepancy.

  9. Tira Sujanpur: An Adobe of Katoch Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shree, Venu; Sharma, Puneet

    2015-06-01

    Image of any ancient settlement can be interpreted through a continuous study of its Historical and Architectural developments. The best way to map this image is to analyze and explore old monuments, palaces and religious places of that city. This work is an attempt to showcase the glorious era of Art and Architecture which flourished during Katoch dynasty in north Himalayan region of India during 18th century. Being one of the most known examples of Katoch Dynasty Tira Sujanpur has been documented in detail in this paper. This documentation covers the detail study of relationship between townscape and public places. Architecture style of Katoch Dynasty, Splendid along the cluster of the buildings, Temples and palaces has also been giving due consideration in the paper.

  10. Combined PDF/SPH method for compressible turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, Walter Christian

    A particle method which applies the probability density function (PDF) method to compressible turbulent flows is presented. Solution of the PDF equation is achieved using a Lagrangian/Monte Carlo approach which combines techniques borrowed from the field of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). This combination gives the method a unique ability to extract mean quantities, including the mean pressure gradient, directly from the particles using a grid-free approach. Two algorithms which greatly reduce the computational work for SPH in 1D and 2D have been developed to implement the method; for a simulation with N particles the computational work scales purely as {cal O}(N). The particle method has also been combined with a variance-reduction technique which can significantly reduce statistical error in first and second moments of selected mean flow quantities. When used with a second-order accurate predictor/corrector scheme, the resulting particle method provides a feasible way to obtain accurate PDF solutions to compressible turbulent flow problems. Results are presented for a variety of quasi-1D and 2D flows to demonstrate the method's robustness. These include solutions to both statistically stationary and nonstationary problems, and use both periodic and characteristic-based inflow/outflow boundary conditions. A 2D plane wake simulation also includes comparisons with experimental data and shows good agreement in spite of the simple turbulence model used. Comprehensive studies of numerical errors have also been performed, including a convergence study of the method. Detailed results are presented which confirm the expected behavior of each error.

  11. PDF uncertainties at large x and gauge boson production

    SciTech Connect

    Accardi, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    I discuss how global QCD fits of parton distribution functions can make the somewhat separated fields of high-energy particle physics and lower energy hadronic and nuclear physics interact to the benefit of both. In particular, I will argue that large rapidity gauge boson production at the Tevatron and the LHC has the highest short-term potential to constrain the theoretical nuclear corrections to DIS data on deuteron targets necessary for up/down flavor separation. This in turn can considerably reduce the PDF uncertainty on cross section calculations of heavy mass particles such as W' and Z' bosons.

  12. The present state and future directions of PDF methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the workshop are presented in viewgraph format, as is this entire article. The objectives are to discuss the present status and the future direction of various levels of engineering turbulence modeling related to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computations for propulsion; to assure that combustion is an essential part of propulsion; and to discuss Probability Density Function (PDF) methods for turbulent combustion. Essential to the integration of turbulent combustion models is the development of turbulent model, chemical kinetics, and numerical method. Some turbulent combustion models typically used in industry are the k-epsilon turbulent model, the equilibrium/mixing limited combustion, and the finite volume codes.

  13. The study of PDF turbulence models in combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    The accurate prediction of turbulent combustion is still beyond reach for today's computation techniques. It is the consensus of the combustion profession that the predictions of chemically reacting flow were poor if conventional turbulence models were used. The main difficulty lies in the fact that the reaction rate is highly nonlinear, and the use of averaged temperature, pressure, and density produces excessively large errors. The probability density function (PDF) method is the only alternative at the present time that uses local instant values of the temperature, density, etc. in predicting chemical reaction rate, and thus it is the only viable approach for turbulent combustion calculations.

  14. Functional PDF Signaling in the Drosophila Circadian Neural Circuit Is Gated by Ral A-Dependent Modulation.

    PubMed

    Klose, Markus; Duvall, Laura B; Li, Weihua; Liang, Xitong; Ren, Chi; Steinbach, Joe Henry; Taghert, Paul H

    2016-05-18

    The neuropeptide PDF promotes the normal sequencing of circadian behavioral rhythms in Drosophila, but its signaling mechanisms are not well understood. We report daily rhythmicity in responsiveness to PDF in critical pacemakers called small LNvs. There is a daily change in potency, as great as 10-fold higher, around dawn. The rhythm persists in constant darkness and does not require endogenous ligand (PDF) signaling or rhythmic receptor gene transcription. Furthermore, rhythmic responsiveness reflects the properties of the pacemaker cell type, not the receptor. Dopamine responsiveness also cycles, in phase with that of PDF, in the same pacemakers, but does not cycle in large LNv. The activity of RalA GTPase in s-LNv regulates PDF responsiveness and behavioral locomotor rhythms. Additionally, cell-autonomous PDF signaling reversed the circadian behavioral effects of lowered RalA activity. Thus, RalA activity confers high PDF responsiveness, providing a daily gate around the dawn hours to promote functional PDF signaling. PMID:27161526

  15. Modeling of turbulent supersonic H2-air combustion with an improved joint beta PDF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baurle, R. A.; Hassan, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    Attempts at modeling recent experiments of Cheng et al. indicated that discrepancies between theory and experiment can be a result of the form of assumed probability density function (PDF) and/or the turbulence model employed. Improvements in both the form of the assumed PDF and the turbulence model are presented. The results are again used to compare with measurements. Initial comparisons are encouraging.

  16. Cosmological implications of the PSCz PDF and its moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plionis, Manolis; Basilakos, Spyros

    2001-10-01

    We compare the probability density function (PDF) and its low-order moments (variance and skewness) of the smoothed IRAS Point Source Catalogue Redshift Survey (PSCz) galaxy density field and of the corresponding simulated PSCz look-alikes, generated from N-body simulations of six different dark matter models: four structure-normalized with Γ=0.25 and σ8=0.55Ω0-0.6, one COBE-normalized, and the old standard cold dark matter model. The galaxy distributions are smoothed with a Gaussian window at three different smoothing scales, Rsm=5, 10 and 15h-1Mpc. We find that the simulation PSCz look-alike PDFs are sensitive only to the normalization of the power spectrum, probably owing to the shape similarity of the simulated galaxy power spectrum on the relevant scales. We find that the only models that are consistent, at a high significance level, with the observed PSCz PDF are models with a relatively low power spectrum normalization (σ8=0.83). From the phenomenologically derived σ8-moments relation, fitted from the simulation data, we find that the PSCz moments suggest σ8~=0.7.

  17. PDF receptor signaling in Drosophila contributes to both circadian and geotactic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Inge; Vandingenen, Anick; Johnson, Erik C; Shafer, Orie T; Li, W; Trigg, J S; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane; Taghert, Paul H

    2005-10-20

    The neuropeptide Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is a principle transmitter regulating circadian locomotor rhythms in Drosophila. We have identified a Class II (secretin-related) G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is specifically responsive to PDF and also to calcitonin-like peptides and to PACAP. In response to PDF, the PDF receptor (PDFR) elevates cAMP levels when expressed in HEK293 cells. As predicted by in vivo studies, cotransfection of Neurofibromatosis Factor 1 significantly improves coupling of PDFR to adenylate cyclase. pdfr mutant flies display increased circadian arrhythmicity, and also display altered geotaxis that is epistatic to that of pdf mutants. PDFR immunosignals are expressed by diverse neurons, but only by a small subset of circadian pacemakers. These data establish the first synapse within the Drosophila circadian neural circuit and underscore the importance of Class II peptide GPCR signaling in circadian neural systems. PMID:16242402

  18. PDF-modulated visual inputs and cryptochrome define diurnal behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Paola; Klarsfeld, André; Chélot, Elisabeth; Picot, Marie; Richier, Benjamin; Rouyer, François

    2009-11-01

    Morning and evening circadian oscillators control the bimodal activity of Drosophila in light-dark cycles. The lateral neurons evening oscillator (LN-EO) is important for promoting diurnal activity at dusk. We found that the LN-EO autonomously synchronized to light-dark cycles through either the cryptochrome (CRY) that it expressed or the visual system. In conditions in which CRY was not activated, flies depleted for pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) or its receptor lost the evening activity and displayed reversed PER oscillations in the LN-EO. Rescue experiments indicated that normal PER cycling and the presence of evening activity relied on PDF secretion from the large ventral lateral neurons and PDF receptor function in the LN-EO. The LN-EO thus integrates light inputs and PDF signaling to control Drosophila diurnal behavior, revealing a new clock-independent function for PDF. PMID:19820704

  19. An Overview of the NCC Spray/Monte-Carlo-PDF Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Liu, Nan-Suey (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper advances the state-of-the-art in spray computations with some of our recent contributions involving scalar Monte Carlo PDF (Probability Density Function), unstructured grids and parallel computing. It provides a complete overview of the scalar Monte Carlo PDF and Lagrangian spray computer codes developed for application with unstructured grids and parallel computing. Detailed comparisons for the case of a reacting non-swirling spray clearly highlight the important role that chemistry/turbulence interactions play in the modeling of reacting sprays. The results from the PDF and non-PDF methods were found to be markedly different and the PDF solution is closer to the reported experimental data. The PDF computations predict that some of the combustion occurs in a predominantly premixed-flame environment and the rest in a predominantly diffusion-flame environment. However, the non-PDF solution predicts wrongly for the combustion to occur in a vaporization-controlled regime. Near the premixed flame, the Monte Carlo particle temperature distribution shows two distinct peaks: one centered around the flame temperature and the other around the surrounding-gas temperature. Near the diffusion flame, the Monte Carlo particle temperature distribution shows a single peak. In both cases, the computed PDF's shape and strength are found to vary substantially depending upon the proximity to the flame surface. The results bring to the fore some of the deficiencies associated with the use of assumed-shape PDF methods in spray computations. Finally, we end the paper by demonstrating the computational viability of the present solution procedure for its use in 3D combustor calculations by summarizing the results of a 3D test case with periodic boundary conditions. For the 3D case, the parallel performance of all the three solvers (CFD, PDF, and spray) has been found to be good when the computations were performed on a 24-processor SGI Origin work-station.

  20. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption of U.S. Youth, 2009-2010

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  10. Infection Control: The Use and Handling of Toothbrushes

    MedlinePlus

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  11. Campylobacter

    MedlinePlus

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  12. FastStats: Allergies/Hay Fever

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  13. FastStats: Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis

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  14. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

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  16. FastStats: Whooping Cough or Pertussis

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  17. Measles -- Q&A about Disease & Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autism Top of Page Related Page Measles Vaccination File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  18. FastStats: Inpatient Surgery

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  19. FastStats: Illegal Drug Use

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  20. FastStats: Health of Hispanic or Latino Population

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  1. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Congenital CMV Infection: People Who Care for Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... of personal contact in the healthcare setting. To learn more about how CMV is spread, see Transmission . Top of ... Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  2. Dog Bites

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  3. FAQs about Baseline Testing among Young Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS UP Resources File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  4. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

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    ... States Division NIOSH Awards Search the NIOSH Website File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  5. National Center for Health Statistics

    MedlinePlus

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  6. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1999. File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  7. FastStats: Hospice Care

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  8. FastStats: Kidney Disease

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  9. FastStats: Sexually Transmitted Diseases/STD

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  10. CDF and PDF Comparison Between Humacao, Puerto Rico and Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rosana

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of the atmospherics phenomenon is an important part in the communication system. The principal factor that contributes to the attenuation in a Ka band communication system is the rain attenuation. We have four years of tropical region observations. The data in the tropical region was taken in Humacao, Puerto Rico. Previous data had been collected at various climate regions such as desserts, template area and sub-tropical regions. Figure 1 shows the ITU-R rain zone map for North America. Rain rates are important to the rain attenuation prediction models. The models that predict attenuation generally are of two different kinds. The first one is the regression models. By using a data set these models provide an idea of the observed attenuation and rain rates distribution in the present, past and future. The second kinds of models are physical models which use the probability density functions (PDF).

  11. A k-omega-multivariate beta PDF for supersonic combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexopoulos, G. A.; Baurle, R. A.; Hassan, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    In an attempt to study the interaction between combustion and turbulence in supersonic flows, an assumed PDF has been employed. This makes it possible to calculate the time average of the chemical source terms that appear in the species conservation equations. In order to determine the averages indicated in an equation, two transport equations, one for the temperature (enthalpy) variance and one for Q, are required. Model equations are formulated for such quantities. The turbulent time scale controls the evolution. An algebraic model similar to that used by Eklund et al was used in an attempt to predict the recent measurements of Cheng et al. Predictions were satisfactory before ignition but were less satisfactory after ignition. One of the reasons for this behavior is the inadequacy of the algebraic turbulence model employed. Because of this, the objective of this work is to develop a k-omega model to remedy the situation.

  12. The antifungal plant defensin AtPDF2.3 from Arabidopsis thaliana blocks potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Kim; Peigneur, Steve; De Coninck, Barbara; Tytgat, Jan; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; Thevissen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion toxins that block potassium channels and antimicrobial plant defensins share a common structural CSαβ-motif. These toxins contain a toxin signature (K-C4-X-N) in their amino acid sequence, and based on in silico analysis of 18 plant defensin sequences, we noted the presence of a toxin signature (K-C5-R-G) in the amino acid sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana defensin AtPDF2.3. We found that recombinant (r)AtPDF2.3 blocks Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 potassium channels, akin to the interaction between scorpion toxins and potassium channels. Moreover, rAtPDF2.3[G36N], a variant with a KCXN toxin signature (K-C5-R-N), is more potent in blocking Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 channels than rAtPDF2.3, whereas rAtPDF2.3[K33A], devoid of the toxin signature, is characterized by reduced Kv channel blocking activity. These findings highlight the importance of the KCXN scorpion toxin signature in the plant defensin sequence for blocking potassium channels. In addition, we found that rAtPDF2.3 inhibits the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and that pathways regulating potassium transport and/or homeostasis confer tolerance of this yeast to rAtPDF2.3, indicating a role for potassium homeostasis in the fungal defence response towards rAtPDF2.3. Nevertheless, no differences in antifungal potency were observed between the rAtPDF2.3 variants, suggesting that antifungal activity and Kv channel inhibitory function are not linked. PMID:27573545

  13. The antifungal plant defensin AtPDF2.3 from Arabidopsis thaliana blocks potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Vriens, Kim; Peigneur, Steve; De Coninck, Barbara; Tytgat, Jan; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion toxins that block potassium channels and antimicrobial plant defensins share a common structural CSαβ-motif. These toxins contain a toxin signature (K-C4-X-N) in their amino acid sequence, and based on in silico analysis of 18 plant defensin sequences, we noted the presence of a toxin signature (K-C5-R-G) in the amino acid sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana defensin AtPDF2.3. We found that recombinant (r)AtPDF2.3 blocks Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 potassium channels, akin to the interaction between scorpion toxins and potassium channels. Moreover, rAtPDF2.3[G36N], a variant with a KCXN toxin signature (K-C5-R-N), is more potent in blocking Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 channels than rAtPDF2.3, whereas rAtPDF2.3[K33A], devoid of the toxin signature, is characterized by reduced Kv channel blocking activity. These findings highlight the importance of the KCXN scorpion toxin signature in the plant defensin sequence for blocking potassium channels. In addition, we found that rAtPDF2.3 inhibits the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and that pathways regulating potassium transport and/or homeostasis confer tolerance of this yeast to rAtPDF2.3, indicating a role for potassium homeostasis in the fungal defence response towards rAtPDF2.3. Nevertheless, no differences in antifungal potency were observed between the rAtPDF2.3 variants, suggesting that antifungal activity and Kv channel inhibitory function are not linked. PMID:27573545

  14. Non-Gaussian PDF Modeling of Turbulent Boundary Layer Fluctuating Pressure Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinwolf, Alexander; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate properties of the probability density function (PDF) of turbulent boundary layer fluctuating pressures measured on the exterior of a supersonic transport aircraft. It is shown that fluctuating pressure PDFs differ from the Gaussian distribution even for surface conditions having no significant discontinuities. The PDF tails are wider and longer than those of the Gaussian model. For pressure fluctuations upstream of forward-facing step discontinuities and downstream of aft-facing step discontinuities, deviations from the Gaussian model are more significant and the PDFs become asymmetrical. Various analytical PDF distributions are used and further developed to model this behavior.

  15. A hybrid Reynolds averaged/PDF closure model for supersonic turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankel, Steven H.; Hassan, H. A.; Drummond, J. Philip

    1990-01-01

    A hybrid Reynolds averaged/assumed pdf approach has been developed and applied to the study of turbulent combustion in a supersonic mixing layer. This approach is used to address the 'laminar-like' treatment of the thermochemical terms that appear in the conservation equations. Calculations were carried out for two experiments involving H2-air supersonic turbulent mixing. Two different forms of the pdf were implemented. In general, the results show modest improvement from previous calculations. Moreover, the results appear to be somewhat independent of the form of the assumed pdf.

  16. 17 CFR 232.104 - Unofficial PDF copies included in an electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... electronic submission. An unofficial PDF copy may contain graphic and image material (but not animated... tabular representation of any omitted graphic or image material. (c) If a filer omits an unofficial...

  17. 17 CFR 232.104 - Unofficial PDF copies included in an electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... electronic submission. An unofficial PDF copy may contain graphic and image material (but not animated... tabular representation of any omitted graphic or image material. (c) If a filer omits an unofficial...

  18. Abundance, Grain Size and PDF Orientations of Shocked Quartz Grains Around the Chicxulub Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, K.; Nakano, Y.; Matsui, T.; Tada, R.; Tajika, E.

    2011-03-01

    We measured abundance, grain size, and PDF orientations of shocked quartz grains around the Chicxulub crater in order to investigate the distribution and variation of shocked quartz grains produced by the Chicxulub impact.

  19. Combined PDF and Rietveld studies of ADORable zeolites and the disordered intermediate IPC-1P.

    PubMed

    Morris, Samuel A; Wheatley, Paul S; Položij, Miroslav; Nachtigall, Petr; Eliášová, Pavla; Čejka, Jiří; Lucas, Tim C; Hriljac, Joseph A; Pinar, Ana B; Morris, Russell E

    2016-09-28

    The disordered intermediate of the ADORable zeolite UTL has been structurally confirmed using the pair distribution function (PDF) technique. The intermediate, IPC-1P, is a disordered layered compound formed by the hydrolysis of UTL in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid solution. Its structure is unsolvable by traditional X-ray diffraction techniques. The PDF technique was first benchmarked against high-quality synchrotron Rietveld refinements of IPC-2 (OKO) and IPC-4 (PCR) - two end products of IPC-1P condensation that share very similar structural features. An IPC-1P starting model derived from density functional theory was used for the PDF refinement, which yielded a final fit of Rw = 18% and a geometrically reasonable structure. This confirms the layers do stay intact throughout the ADOR process and shows PDF is a viable technique for layered zeolite structure determination. PMID:27527381

  20. Gravity Transect Profile and PDF/PF Comparisons from the Bee Bluff Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurena, D. J.; French, B. M.; Gaffey, M. J.

    2003-03-01

    Support for an impact origin of this structure includes an anomaly profile similar to other impact structures. PDF orientations support this as well and also indicate a distinct separate source for PDFs outside the structure.

  1. Using Interactive 3D PDF for Exploring Complex Biomedical Data: Experiences and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Newe, Axel; Becker, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the most commonly used file format for the exchange of electronic documents. A lesser-known feature of PDF is the possibility to embed three-dimensional models and to display these models interactively with a qualified reader. This technology is well suited to present, to explore and to communicate complex biomedical data. This applies in particular for data which would suffer from a loss of information if it was reduced to a static two-dimensional projection. In this article, we present applications of 3D PDF for selected scholarly and clinical use cases in the biomedical domain. Furthermore, we present a sophisticated tool for the generation of respective PDF documents. PMID:27577484

  2. An assumed joint-Beta PDF approach for supersonic turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baurle, R. A.; Alexopoulos, G. A.; Hassan, H. A.; Drummond, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent experiment, Cheng et al. (1991) used ultraviolet spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering and laser-induced predissociative fluorescence techniques for simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of O2, H2, H2O, OH, and N2 (and their rms) in supersonic turbulent reacting shear layers. Because present computational techniques are not suited for prediction of all of the above measurements, a new approach has been developed and is being used to predict all relevant flow properties and their rms (where appropriate). The approach explores the use of a joint-Beta PDF for concentrations. It was found that the general expression of this PDF was impractical because of decoding problems resulting from determining the various parameters of the PDF. Thus, a special case of this general expression was considered. Calculations using this simplified version of the joint-Beta PDF were not consistent with the available data from the experiment.

  3. Structural reconstruction of the catalytic center of LiPDF through multiple scattering calculation with MXAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoyun; Chu, Wangsheng; Ma, Sixuan; Gong, Weimin; Benfatto, Maurizio; Hu, Tiandou; Xie, Yaning; Wu, ZiYu

    2006-11-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF, EC 3.5.1.27) is essential for the normal growth of eubacterium but not for mammalians. Recently, PDF has been studied as a target for new antibiotics. In this paper, X-ray absorption spectroscopy was employed to determine the local structure around the zinc ion of PDF from Leptospira Interrogans in dry powder, because it is very difficult to obtain the crystallized sample of LiPDF. We performed X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) calculation and reconstructed successfully the local geometry of the active center, and the results from calculations show that a water molecule (Wat1) has moved towards the zinc ion and lies in the distance range to coordinate with the zinc ion weakly. In addition, the sensitivity of theoretical spectra to the different ligand bodies was evaluated in terms of goodness-of-fit.

  4. 77 FR 48974 - Applications for New Awards; Comprehensive Centers Program (CFDA 84.283B); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ..., 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 33564) a notice inviting applications for new awards.... Telephone: (202) 205-9198 or by email: fran.walter@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for the... Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may also access documents of...

  5. 78 FR 27959 - Defense Legal Policy Board; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Federal Officer given in this notice in the following formats: Adobe Acrobat, WordPerfect, or Microsoft... May 30, 2013. The Public Session will begin at 9:00 a.m. and end at 4:30 p.m. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Materials for the Meeting: A copy of the agenda for the May 30, 2013 meeting and the tasking for...

  6. FES Documentation - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    The FES documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a fast Internet link.

  7. Design and Implementation of a Self-Directed Stereochemistry Lesson Using Embedded Virtual Three-Dimensional Images in a Portable Document Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Jeremy A.; Craig, Paul A.; Loudermilk, Adam D.; Yacci, Paul M.; Frisco, Sarah L.; Milillo, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    A novel stereochemistry lesson was prepared that incorporated both handheld molecular models and embedded virtual three-dimensional (3D) images. The images are fully interactive and eye-catching for the students; methods for preparing 3D molecular images in Adobe Acrobat are included. The lesson was designed and implemented to showcase the 3D…

  8. Use of the Webinar Tool (Elluminate) to Support Training: The Effects of Webinar-Learning Implementation from Student-Trainers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shiang-Kwei; Hsu, Hui-Yin

    2008-01-01

    Recently, webinar (web seminar) tools (e.g., Elluminate, Adobe Acrobat Connect, Live Meeting) have been attracting more and more attention with the advancement of online learning technologies because webinar tools facilitate real-time communication and enrich the interactivity in an online learning environment. Corporations have long adopted…

  9. Concepts & Procedures. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauder, Deborah Y., Ed.; Mullick, Rosemary, Ed.; Sarner, Ronald, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on concepts and procedures from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: "Using School District Standards To Develop Thematic Lessons for Electronic Portfolios" (Cindy L. Anderson and others); "Using Adobe Acrobat for Electronic Portfolio Development" (Helen C.…

  10. Modeling Interactions Among Turbulence, Gas-Phase Chemistry, Soot and Radiation Using Transported PDF Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    The importance of explicitly accounting for the effects of unresolved turbulent fluctuations in Reynolds-averaged and large-eddy simulations of chemically reacting turbulent flows is increasingly recognized. Transported probability density function (PDF) methods have emerged as one of the most promising modeling approaches for this purpose. In particular, PDF methods provide an elegant and effective resolution to the closure problems that arise from averaging or filtering terms that correspond to nonlinear point processes, including chemical reaction source terms and radiative emission. PDF methods traditionally have been associated with studies of turbulence-chemistry interactions in laboratory-scale, atmospheric-pressure, nonluminous, statistically stationary nonpremixed turbulent flames; and Lagrangian particle-based Monte Carlo numerical algorithms have been the predominant method for solving modeled PDF transport equations. Recent advances and trends in PDF methods are reviewed and discussed. These include advances in particle-based algorithms, alternatives to particle-based algorithms (e.g., Eulerian field methods), treatment of combustion regimes beyond low-to-moderate-Damköhler-number nonpremixed systems (e.g., premixed flamelets), extensions to include radiation heat transfer and multiphase systems (e.g., soot and fuel sprays), and the use of PDF methods as the basis for subfilter-scale modeling in large-eddy simulation. Examples are provided that illustrate the utility and effectiveness of PDF methods for physics discovery and for applications to practical combustion systems. These include comparisons of results obtained using the PDF method with those from models that neglect unresolved turbulent fluctuations in composition and temperature in the averaged or filtered chemical source terms and/or the radiation heat transfer source terms. In this way, the effects of turbulence-chemistry-radiation interactions can be isolated and quantified.

  11. eMeteorNews: website and PDF journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggemans, P.; Kacerek, R.; Koukal, J.; Miskotte, K.; Piffl, R.

    2016-01-01

    Amateur meteor workers have always been interested to exchange information and experience. In the past this was only possible via personal contacts by letter or by specialized journals. With internet a much faster medium became available and plenty of websites, mailing lists, Facebook groups, etc., have been created in order to communicate about meteors. Today there is a wealth of meteor data circulating on internet, but the information is very scattered and not directly available to everyone. The authors have been considering how to organize an easy access to the many different meteor related publications. The best solution for the current needs of amateur meteor observers proved to be a dedicated website combined with a PDF journal, both being free available without any subscription fee or registration requirement. The authors decided to start with this project and in March 2016 the website meteornews.org has been created. A first issue of eMeteorNews was prepared in April 2016. The year 2016 will be a test period for this project. The mission statement of this project is: "Minimizing overhead and editorial constraints to assure a swift exchange of information dedicated to all fields of active amateur meteor work."

  12. The PDF4LHC report on PDFs and LHC data: results from Run I and preparation for Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Ball, Richard D.; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; de Roeck, Albert; Farry, Stephen; Ferrando, James; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Harland-Lang, Lucian; Huston, Joey; Glazov, Alexander; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Gwenlan, Claire; Lipka, Katerina; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Mangano, Michelangelo; Nadolsky, Pavel; Perrozzi, Luca; Plačakytė, Ringaile; Radescu, Voica; Salam, Gavin P.; Thorne, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The accurate determination of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton is an essential ingredient of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. PDF uncertainties impact a wide range of processes, from Higgs boson characterization and precision Standard Model measurements to new physics searches. A major recent development in modern PDF analyses has been to exploit the wealth of new information contained in precision measurements from the LHC Run I, as well as progress in tools and methods to include these data in PDF fits. In this report we summarize the information that PDF-sensitive measurements at the LHC have provided so far, and review the prospects for further constraining PDFs with data from the recently started Run II. This document aims to provide useful input to the LHC collaborations to prioritize their PDF-sensitive measurements at Run II, as well as a comprehensive reference for the PDF-fitting collaborations.

  13. The PDF4LHC report on PDFs and LHC data: Results from Run I and preparation for Run II

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Ball, Richard D.; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; de Roeck, Albert; Farry, Stephen; Ferrando, James; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Harland-Lang, Lucian; et al

    2015-09-16

    The accurate determination of Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the proton is an essential ingredient of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. PDF uncertainties impact a wide range of processes, from Higgs boson characterization and precision Standard Model measurements to New Physics searches. A major recent development in modern PDF analyses has been to exploit the wealth of new information contained in precision measurements from the LHC Run I, as well as progress in tools and methods to include these data in PDF fits. In this report we summarize the information that PDF-sensitive measurements at the LHC have provided somore » far, and review the prospects for further constraining PDFs with data from the recently started Run II. As a result, this document aims to provide useful input to the LHC collaborations to prioritize their PDF-sensitive measurements at Run II, as well as a comprehensive reference for the PDF-fitting collaborations.« less

  14. The PDF4LHC report on PDFs and LHC data: Results from Run I and preparation for Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Ball, Richard D.; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; de Roeck, Albert; Farry, Stephen; Ferrando, James; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Harland-Lang, Lucian; Huston, Joey; Glazov, Alexander; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Gwenlan, Claire; Lipka, Katerina; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Mangano, Michelangelo; Nadolsky, Pavel; Perrozzi, Luca; Plačakytė, Ringaile; Radescu, Voica; Salam, Gavin P.; Thorne, Robert

    2015-09-16

    The accurate determination of Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the proton is an essential ingredient of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. PDF uncertainties impact a wide range of processes, from Higgs boson characterization and precision Standard Model measurements to New Physics searches. A major recent development in modern PDF analyses has been to exploit the wealth of new information contained in precision measurements from the LHC Run I, as well as progress in tools and methods to include these data in PDF fits. In this report we summarize the information that PDF-sensitive measurements at the LHC have provided so far, and review the prospects for further constraining PDFs with data from the recently started Run II. As a result, this document aims to provide useful input to the LHC collaborations to prioritize their PDF-sensitive measurements at Run II, as well as a comprehensive reference for the PDF-fitting collaborations.

  15. Surficial geologic maps along the riparian zone of the Animas River and its headwater tributaries, Silverton to Durango, Colorado, with upper Animas River watershed gradient profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blair, R.W.; Yager, D.B.; Church, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    This product consists of Adobe Acrobat .PDF format documents for 10 surficial geologic strip maps along the Animas River watershed from its major headwater tributaries, south to Durango, Colorado. The Animas River originates in the San Juan Mountains north of the historic mining town of Silverton, Colorado. The surficial geologic maps identify surficial deposits, such as flood-plain and terrace gravels, alluvial fans, glacial till, talus, colluvium, landslides, and bogs. Sixteen primary units were mapped that included human-related deposits and structures, eight alluvial, four colluvial, one glacial, travertine deposits, and undifferentiated bedrock. Each of the surficial geologic strip maps has .PDF links to surficial geology photographs, which enable the user to take a virtual tour of these deposits. Geochemical data collected from mapped surficial deposits that pre- and postdate mining activity have aided in determining the geochemical baseline in the watershed. Several photographs with their corresponding geochemical baseline profiles are accessible through .PDF links from several of the maps. A single coverage for all surficial deposits mapped is included as an ArcInfo shape file as an Arc Export format .e00 file. A gradient map for major headwater tributary streams to the Animas River is also included. The gradient map has stream segments that are color-coded based on relative variations in slope and .PDF format links to each stream gradient profile. Stream gradients were derived from U.S. Geological Survey 10-m digital elevation model data. This project was accomplished in support of the U.S. Geological Survey's Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado.

  16. A Lagrangian PDF Model for the Scalar Dissipation in Homogeneous Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Rodney O.

    1996-11-01

    The scalar dissipation is a key quantity in the description of turbulent mixing. The spectral relaxation model (SRM) was developed to account for the effect of the evolution of the scalar spectrum on the mean scalar dissipation < ɛ_φ >, and it successfully predicts the observed (DNS, grid turbulence) dependence on Re, Sc (>= 1), and the initial scalar spectrum without recourse to fitting parameters. In this work, we present a Lagrangian PDF version (LSRM) for the PDF of ɛ_φ conditioned on the turbulent vortex stretching history of Kolmogorov-scale fluid particles. In homogeneous turbulence, the LSRM is coupled to a Lagrangian PDF model for the turbulent dissipation (ɛ) which strongly influences the statistics of ɛ_φ. Closure of scalar molecular dissipation term (< Γ nabla^2 φ | φ, ɛ^*_φ, ɛ^* >) is carried out using the Fokker-Planck model that was developed earlier for the joint scalar, scalar gradient PDF following fluid particles with the identical vortex stretching histories. Model predictions for inert scalar mixing in homogeneous turbulence with and without a uniform mean scalar gradient are compared to DNS data. In particular, the effect of the mean scalar gradient on the correlation between ɛ_φ and ɛ (i.e. local anisotropy) is examined, as well as the effect of the initial scalar spectrum and small-scale random vortex stretching on non-Gaussian behavior of the scalar PDF.

  17. Comparison between a spectral and PDF model for turbulent reacting flows.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaithianathan, T.; Collins, L. R.; Ulitsky, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    This study compares the performance of a probability density function (PDF) model and a spectral model (known as the eddy damped quasi-normal Markovian or EDQNM model) for the case of two initially unmixed reactants undergoing a finite-rate bimolecular reaction. The two models were chosen because they involve complimentary treatments of the nonlinearities and mixing terms. That is, nonlinearities are exactly treated in the PDF and mixing is modeled, whereas the opposite is true for EDQNM. The predictions of the two models are compared to direct numerical simulations. The results show that the PDF model is capable of describing the mixing of the major species reasonably well, but fails to describe the correlations between the reactants and the products even qualitatively. This suggests that the mixing model in the PDF is adequate for describing mixing between major species, but is incapable of describing mixing of the more spatially segregated product species. The EDQNM model does a slightly better job of describing the mixing of reactant species and a much better job of describing mixing of the product species. Presumably the improvement is associated with the more accurate description of the interscale dynamics that are especially important for the segregated products. The implication is that a model that combines the strengths of the EDQNM for describing mixing and the PDF for describing the nonlinearities would yield the best of both worlds.

  18. A time-dependent Mixing Model for PDF Methods in Heterogeneous Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, Lennart; Suciu, Nicolae; Knabner, Peter; Attinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the transport of groundwater contaminations remains a demanding task, especially with respect to the heterogeneity of the subsurface and the large measurement uncertainties. A risk analysis also includes the quantification of the uncertainty in order to evaluate how accurate the predictions are. Probability density function (PDF) methods are a promising alternative to predicting the transport of solutes in groundwater under uncertainty. They make it possible to derive the evolution equations of the mean concentration and the concentration variance, which can be used as a first measure of uncertainty. A mixing model, also known as a dissipation model, is essential for both methods. Finding a satisfactory mixing model is still an open question and due to the rather elaborate PDF methods, a difficult undertaking. Both the PDF equation and the concentration variance equation depend on the same mixing model. This connection is used to find and test an improved mixing model for the much easier to handle concentration variance. Subsequently, this mixing model is transferred to the PDF equation and tested. The newly proposed mixing model yields significantly improved results for both variance modelling and PDF modelling. The implications of the new mixing model for different kinds of flow conditions are discussed and some comments are made on efficiently handling spatially resolved higher moments.

  19. Comments on the present state and future directions of PDF methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, E. E.

    1992-01-01

    The one point probability density function (PDF) method is examined in light of its use in actual engineering problems. The PDF method, although relatively complicated, appears to be the only format available to handle the nonlinear stochastic difficulties caused by typical reaction kinetics. Turbulence modeling, if it is to play a central role in combustion modeling, has to be integrated with the chemistry in a way which produces accurate numerical solutions to combustion problems. It is questionable whether the development of turbulent models in isolation from the peculiar statistics of reactant concentrations is a fruitful line of development as far as propulsion is concerned. There are three issues for which additional viewgraphs are prepared: the one point pdf method; the amplitude mapping closure; and a hybrid strategy for replacing a full two point pdf treatment of reacting flows by a single point pdf and correlation functions. An appeal is made for the establishment of an adequate data base for compressible flow with reactions for Mach numbers of unity or higher.

  20. Orbital acrobatics in the Sun-Earth-Moon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, Robert W.; Dunham, D. W.; Hsu, S. C.

    1986-01-01

    Unconventional trajectory techniques for space missions in the Sun-Earth-Moon system, including libration-point orbits, gravity-assist maneuvers, and Earth-return trajectories are reviewed. The ISEE-3/ICE flight experience is used to illustrate the utility of libration-point orbits called halo-orbits. Five lunar gravity-assist maneuvers used by the ISEE-3/ICE spacecraft are discussed. The final lunar swingby sent the spacecraft into a heliocentric trajectory that will eventually intercept Comet Giacobini-Zinner. As an example of the Earth-return trajectory concept, a proposed mission that includes flybys of three comets and two asteroids is described.

  1. Worldwide experiences of endoscopic submucosal dissection: Not just Eastern acrobatics

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kwang Bum; Jeon, Won Joong; Kim, Jae J

    2011-01-01

    The high incidence of gastric cancer has led to the initiation of cancer screening programs. As a result, the number of early gastric cancer cases has increased and consequentially, the cancer mortality rate has decreased. Moreover, the development of minimally invasive endoscopic treatment has been introduced for these early lesions. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is now recognized as one of the preferred treatment modalities for premalignant gastrointestinal epithelial lesions and early gastric cancer without lymph node metastasis. We review the results of ESD including experiences in Japan and Korea, as well as western countries. PMID:21677828

  2. New Tools to Convert PDF Math Contents into Accessible e-Books Efficiently.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masakazu; Terada, Yugo; Kanahori, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Katsuhito

    2015-01-01

    New features in our math-OCR software to convert PDF math contents into accessible e-books are shown. A method for recognizing PDF is thoroughly improved. In addition, contents in any selected area including math formulas in a PDF file can be cut and pasted into a document in various accessible formats, which is automatically recognized and converted into texts and accessible math formulas through this process. Combining it with our authoring tool for a technical document, one can easily produce accessible e-books in various formats such as DAISY, accessible EPUB3, DAISY-like HTML5, Microsoft Word with math objects and so on. Those contents are useful for various print-disabled students ranging from the blind to the dyslexic. PMID:26294611

  3. Exact PDF equations and closure approximations for advective-reactive transport

    SciTech Connect

    Venturi, D.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Karniadakis, George E.

    2013-06-01

    Mathematical models of advection–reaction phenomena rely on advective flow velocity and (bio) chemical reaction rates that are notoriously random. By using functional integral methods, we derive exact evolution equations for the probability density function (PDF) of the state variables of the advection–reaction system in the presence of random transport velocity and random reaction rates with rather arbitrary distributions. These PDF equations are solved analytically for transport with deterministic flow velocity and a linear reaction rate represented mathematically by a heterog eneous and strongly-correlated random field. Our analytical solution is then used to investigate the accuracy and robustness of the recently proposed large-eddy diffusivity (LED) closure approximation [1]. We find that the solution to the LED-based PDF equation, which is exact for uncorrelated reaction rates, is accurate even in the presence of strong correlations and it provides an upper bound of predictive uncertainty.

  4. EUPDF: An Eulerian-Based Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) Solver. User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    EUPDF is an Eulerian-based Monte Carlo PDF solver developed for application with sprays, combustion, parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and spray solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type. The manual provides the user with the coding required to couple the PDF code to any given flow code and a basic understanding of the EUPDF code structure as well as the models involved in the PDF formulation. The source code of EUPDF will be available with the release of the National Combustion Code (NCC) as a complete package.

  5. A new subgrid-scale representation of hydrometeor fields using a multivariate PDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Brian M.; Larson, Vincent E.

    2016-06-01

    The subgrid-scale representation of hydrometeor fields is important for calculating microphysical process rates. In order to represent subgrid-scale variability, the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) parameterization uses a multivariate probability density function (PDF). In addition to vertical velocity, temperature, and moisture fields, the PDF includes hydrometeor fields. Previously, hydrometeor fields were assumed to follow a multivariate single lognormal distribution. Now, in order to better represent the distribution of hydrometeors, two new multivariate PDFs are formulated and introduced.The new PDFs represent hydrometeors using either a delta-lognormal or a delta-double-lognormal shape. The two new PDF distributions, plus the previous single lognormal shape, are compared to histograms of data taken from large-eddy simulations (LESs) of a precipitating cumulus case, a drizzling stratocumulus case, and a deep convective case. Finally, the warm microphysical process rates produced by the different hydrometeor PDFs are compared to the same process rates produced by the LES.

  6. Computationally efficient implementation of combustion chemistry in parallel PDF calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Liuyan; Lantz, Steven R.; Ren, Zhuyin; Pope, Stephen B.

    2009-08-01

    In parallel calculations of combustion processes with realistic chemistry, the serial in situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) algorithm [S.B. Pope, Computationally efficient implementation of combustion chemistry using in situ adaptive tabulation, Combustion Theory and Modelling, 1 (1997) 41-63; L. Lu, S.B. Pope, An improved algorithm for in situ adaptive tabulation, Journal of Computational Physics 228 (2009) 361-386] substantially speeds up the chemistry calculations on each processor. To improve the parallel efficiency of large ensembles of such calculations in parallel computations, in this work, the ISAT algorithm is extended to the multi-processor environment, with the aim of minimizing the wall clock time required for the whole ensemble. Parallel ISAT strategies are developed by combining the existing serial ISAT algorithm with different distribution strategies, namely purely local processing (PLP), uniformly random distribution (URAN), and preferential distribution (PREF). The distribution strategies enable the queued load redistribution of chemistry calculations among processors using message passing. They are implemented in the software x2f_mpi, which is a Fortran 95 library for facilitating many parallel evaluations of a general vector function. The relative performance of the parallel ISAT strategies is investigated in different computational regimes via the PDF calculations of multiple partially stirred reactors burning methane/air mixtures. The results show that the performance of ISAT with a fixed distribution strategy strongly depends on certain computational regimes, based on how much memory is available and how much overlap exists between tabulated information on different processors. No one fixed strategy consistently achieves good performance in all the regimes. Therefore, an adaptive distribution strategy, which blends PLP, URAN and PREF, is devised and implemented. It yields consistently good performance in all regimes. In the adaptive parallel

  7. 77 FR 23754 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--3D PDF... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc... Specifications among members and non- members, as well as create basic marketing promotional collateral...

  8. Predictions for high energy neutrino cross-sections from the ZEUS global PDF fits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Sarkar, Subir

    2008-01-01

    We have updated predictions for high energy neutrino and antineutrino charged current cross-sections within the conventional DGLAP formalism of NLO QCD using a modern PDF fit to HERA data, which also accounts in a systematic way for PDF uncertainties deriving from both model uncertainties and from the experimental uncertainties of the input data sets. Furthermore the PDFs are determined using an improved treatment of heavy quark thresholds. A measurement of the neutrino cross-section outside these predictions would signal the need for extension of the conventional formalism as in BFKL resummation, or even gluon recombination effects as in the colour glass condensate model.

  9. Image haze removal algorithm for transmission lines based on weighted Gaussian PDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wanguo; Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Li; Wang, Zhenli; Li, Jianxiang; Zhao, Jinlong

    2015-03-01

    Histogram specification is a useful algorithm of image enhancement field. This paper proposes an image haze removal algorithm of histogram specification based on the weighted Gaussian probability density function (Gaussian PDF). Firstly, we consider the characteristics of image histogram that captured when sunny, fogging and haze weather. Then, we solve the weak intensity of image specification through changing the variance and weighted Gaussian PDF. The performance of the algorithm could removal the effective of fog and experimental results show the superiority of the proposed algorithm compared with histogram specification. It also has much advantage in respect of low computational complexity, high efficiency, no manual intervention.

  10. Comparison of PDF and Moment Closure Methods in the Modeling of Turbulent Reacting Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Andrew T.; Hsu, Andrew T.

    1994-01-01

    In modeling turbulent reactive flows, Probability Density Function (PDF) methods have an advantage over the more traditional moment closure schemes in that the PDF formulation treats the chemical reaction source terms exactly, while moment closure methods are required to model the mean reaction rate. The common model used is the laminar chemistry approximation, where the effects of turbulence on the reaction are assumed negligible. For flows with low turbulence levels and fast chemistry, the difference between the two methods can be expected to be small. However for flows with finite rate chemistry and high turbulence levels, significant errors can be expected in the moment closure method. In this paper, the ability of the PDF method and the moment closure scheme to accurately model a turbulent reacting flow is tested. To accomplish this, both schemes were used to model a CO/H2/N2- air piloted diffusion flame near extinction. Identical thermochemistry, turbulence models, initial conditions and boundary conditions are employed to ensure a consistent comparison can be made. The results of the two methods are compared to experimental data as well as to each other. The comparison reveals that the PDF method provides good agreement with the experimental data, while the moment closure scheme incorrectly shows a broad, laminar-like flame structure.

  11. GW182 controls Drosophila circadian behavior and PDF-receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Emery, Patrick

    2013-04-10

    The neuropeptide PDF is crucial for Drosophila circadian behavior: it keeps circadian neurons synchronized. Here, we identify GW182 as a key regulator of PDF signaling. Indeed, GW182 downregulation results in phenotypes similar to those of Pdf and Pdf-receptor (Pdfr) mutants. gw182 genetically interacts with Pdfr and cAMP signaling, which is essential for PDFR function. GW182 mediates miRNA-dependent gene silencing through its interaction with AGO1. Consistently, GW182's AGO1 interaction domain is required for GW182's circadian function. Moreover, our results indicate that GW182 modulates PDFR signaling by silencing the expression of the cAMP phosphodiesterase DUNCE. Importantly, this repression is under photic control, and GW182 activity level--which is limiting in circadian neurons--influences the responses of the circadian neural network to light. We propose that GW182's gene silencing activity functions as a rheostat for PDFR signaling and thus profoundly impacts the circadian neural network and its response to environmental inputs. PMID:23583112

  12. The orbital PDF: general inference of the gravitational potential from steady-state tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jiaxin; Wang, Wenting; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2016-02-01

    We develop two general methods to infer the gravitational potential of a system using steady-state tracers, i.e. tracers with a time-independent phase-space distribution. Combined with the phase-space continuity equation, the time independence implies a universal orbital probability density function (oPDF) dP(λ|orbit) ∝ dt, where λ is the coordinate of the particle along the orbit. The oPDF is equivalent to Jeans theorem, and is the key physical ingredient behind most dynamical modelling of steady-state tracers. In the case of a spherical potential, we develop a likelihood estimator that fits analytical potentials to the system and a non-parametric method (`phase-mark') that reconstructs the potential profile, both assuming only the oPDF. The methods involve no extra assumptions about the tracer distribution function and can be applied to tracers with any arbitrary distribution of orbits, with possible extension to non-spherical potentials. The methods are tested on Monte Carlo samples of steady-state tracers in dark matter haloes to show that they are unbiased as well as efficient. A fully documented C/PYTHON code implementing our method is freely available at a GitHub repository linked from http://icc.dur.ac.uk/data/#oPDF.

  13. Turbulent lifted flames in a vitiated coflow investigated using joint PDF calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Renfeng Richard; Pope, Stephen B.; Masri, Assaad R.

    2005-09-01

    The joint velocity-turbulence frequency-composition PDF method is applied to a lifted turbulent jet flame with H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} fuel issuing into a wide coflow of lean combustion products, which are at a temperature of 1045 K. Model calculations with detailed chemistry are performed using three existing mixing models (IEM, MC, and EMST) and two chemistry mechanisms (the Mueller and Li mechanisms). Numerically accurate results are obtained and compared with the experimental data. Recent experiments have shown that the stabilization height of this lifted flame is very sensitive to the coflow temperature, much more than to the inlet velocity profile or the initial temperature of the fuel. One percent (i.e., 10 K) change in the coflow temperature (which is well within the experimental uncertainty) can double the lift-off height. The joint PDF calculations capture this sensitivity very well and are in good agreement with the measurements for the velocity, mixture fraction, and species. The three mixing models give relatively similar results, implying that the cases studied here are mainly controlled by chemical kinetics. The Li mechanism results in earlier ignition than the Mueller mechanism and hence gives shorter lift-off heights over the whole test range. The joint PDF calculations generally give better agreement with the measurements than previous composition PDF calculations [A.R. Masri et al., Combust. Theory Modelling 8 (2004) 1-22]. A new parallel algorithm, involving domain partitioning of particles, has been implemented to facilitate these computations.

  14. Database Reports Over the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dean Lance

    2002-01-01

    Most of the summer was spent developing software that would permit existing test report forms to be printed over the web on a printer that is supported by Adobe Acrobat Reader. The data is stored in a DBMS (Data Base Management System). The client asks for the information from the database using an HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) form in a web browser. JavaScript is used with the forms to assist the user and verify the integrity of the entered data. Queries to a database are made in SQL (Sequential Query Language), a widely supported standard for making queries to databases. Java servlets, programs written in the Java programming language running under the control of network server software, interrogate the database and complete a PDF form template kept in a file. The completed report is sent to the browser requesting the report. Some errors are sent to the browser in an HTML web page, others are reported to the server. Access to the databases was restricted since the data are being transported to new DBMS software that will run on new hardware. However, the SQL queries were made to Microsoft Access, a DBMS that is available on most PCs (Personal Computers). Access does support the SQL commands that were used, and a database was created with Access that contained typical data for the report forms. Some of the problems and features are discussed below.

  15. Computer simulation for prediction of performance and thermodynamic parameters of high energy materials.

    PubMed

    Muthurajan, H; Sivabalan, R; Talawar, M B; Asthana, S N

    2004-08-01

    A new code viz., Linear Output Thermodynamic User-friendly Software for Energetic Systems (LOTUSES) developed during this work predicts the theoretical performance parameters such as density, detonation factor, velocity of detonation, detonation pressure and thermodynamic properties such as heat of detonation, heat of explosion, volume of explosion gaseous products. The same code also assists in the prediction of possible explosive decomposition products after explosion and power index. The developed code has been validated by calculating the parameters of standard explosives such as TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX. Theoretically predicated parameters are accurate to the order of +/-5% deviation. To the best of our knowledge, no such code is reported in literature which can predict a wide range of characteristics of known/unknown explosives with minimum input parameters. The code can be used to obtain thermochemical and performance parameters of high energy materials (HEMs) with reasonable accuracy. The code has been developed in Visual Basic having enhanced windows environment, and thereby advantages over the conventional codes, written in Fortran. The theoretically predicted HEMs performance can be directly printed as well as stored in text (.txt) or HTML (.htm) or Microsoft Word (.doc) or Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format in the hard disk. The output can also be copied into the Random Access Memory as clipboard text which can be imported/pasted in other software as in the case of other codes. PMID:15225927

  16. Online multimedia teaching tool for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Misiaszek, Greg; Riconscente, Michelle; Henke, Maria; Walsh, John P

    2008-01-01

    We developed an online multimedia tool designed to enhance the student-learning environment in neurosciences through multi-sensory engagement. The combined use of scrolling text, narrations, and visual imagery engages multiple sensory modalities for effective learning, and it assists students in visualizing complex processes in the nervous system. The initial rollout of the online tool is for instruction in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its structure is flexible and can be used for teaching a variety of subjects. The instructor can access the tool online during lecture, and students can access the same information via the internet outside of class. In addition, each chapter is stand-alone and thus can be accessed online by other faculty or students to supplement other courses. Within each chapter or module, information is presented in outline format with greater detail accessible via sequential drop-down menus. This layering of related topics creates a spatial and motor-accessed path for learning. These multiple forms of engagement offer rich information representations to improve students' knowledge encoding, storing, and retrieval via multiple pathways. For instance, the tool includes student-controlled 2-D and 3-D animations, and video clip demonstrations of both patient case studies and on-campus research projects directly related to the subject material. Supplemental readings consist of current research articles (in Adobe Acrobat PDF file format) accessed within each educational topic. The teaching tool for PD is online at http://geroauen.usc.edu/Gero414_Beta/. PMID:23493487

  17. Disks and Outflows Around Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Steven; Staude, Jakob; Quetz, Axel; Natta, Antonella

    The subject of the book, the ubiquitous circumstellar disks around very young stars and the corresponding jets of outflowing matter, has recently become one of the hottest areas in astrophysics. The disks are thought to be precursors to planetary systems, and the outflows are thought to be a necessary phase in the formation of a young star, helping the star to get rid of angular momentum and energy as it makes its way onto the main sequence. The possible connections to planetary systems and stellar astrophysics makes these topics especially broad, appealing to generalists and specialists alike. The CD not only contains papers that could not be printed in the book but allows the authors to include a fair amount of data, often displayed as color images. The CD-ROM contains all the contributions printed in the corresponding book (Lecture Notes in Physics Vol. 465) and, in addition, those presented exclusively in digital form. Each contribution consists of a file in portable document format (PDF). The electronic version allows full-text searching within each file using Adobe's Acrobat Reader providing instructions for installation on Unix (Sun), PC and Macintosh computers, respectively. All contributions can be printed out; the color diagrams and color frames, which are printed in black and white in the book, can be viewed in color on screen.

  18. Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part A - Coal and wind

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Jones, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    To further advance the objectives of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wyoming State Geological Survey (WSGS) have compiled Part A of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming. Focusing primarily on electrical power sources, Part A of the energy map is a compilation of both published and previously unpublished coal (including coalbed gas) and wind energy resources data, presented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package. Energy maps, data, documentation and spatial data processing capabilities are available in a geodatabase, published map file (pmf), ArcMap document (mxd), Adobe Acrobat PDF map (plate 1) and other digital formats that can be downloaded at the USGS website. Accompanying the map (plate 1) and the geospatial data are four additional plates that describe the geology, energy resources, and related infrastructure. These tabular plates include coal mine (plate 2), coal field (plate 3), coalbed gas assessment unit (plate 4), and wind farm (plate 5) information with hyperlinks to source publications and data on the internet. The plates can be printed and examined in hardcopy, or accessed digitally. The data represent decades of research by the USGS, WSGS, BLM and others, and can facilitate landscape-level science assessments, and resource management decisionmaking.

  19. The development of a new edition of the gamma-ray spectrum catalogues designed for presentation in electronic format

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, R.L.

    1997-11-01

    New editions of the original Gamma-ray Spectrum Catalogues are being prepared for publication in electronic format. The objective of this program is to produce versions of the Catalogues in CD-ROM format and as an Internet resource. Additions to the original content of the Catalogues will include integrated decay scheme drawings, tables of related decay data, and updated text on the techniques of gamma-ray spectrometry. Related decay data from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) are then added, and all data converted to the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format for CD-ROM production and availability on the large-volume Ge detectors, alpha-particle spectra, prompt neutron capture and inelastic scattering gamma-ray spectra, and gross fission product spectra characteristic of fuel cycle waste materials. Characterization of radioactivity in materials is a requirement in many phases of radioactive waste management. Movement, shipping, treatment, all activities which involve handling of mixed waste or TRU categories of waste at all DOE sites will require that measurements and assessment documentation utilize basic nuclear data which are tracable to internationally accepted standard values. This program will involve the identification of data needs unique to the development and application of specialized detector systems for radioactive waste characterization. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Using the World Wide Web for GIDEP Problem Data Processing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, John W.; Haraway, Sandra W.; Whirley, J. Don

    1999-01-01

    Since April 1997, Marshall Space Flight Center has been using electronic transfer and the web to support our processing of the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA ALERT information. Specific aspects include: (1) Extraction of ASCII text information from GIDEP for loading into Word documents for e-mail to ALERT actionees; (2) Downloading of GIDEP form image formats in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) for internal storage display on the MSFC ALERT web page; (3) Linkage of stored GRDEP problem forms with summary information for access from the MSFC ALERT Distribution Summary Chart or from an html table of released MSFC ALERTs (4) Archival of historic ALERTs for reference by GIDEP ID, MSFC ID, or MSFC release date; (5) On-line tracking of ALERT response status using a Microsoft Access database and the web (6) On-line response to ALERTs from MSFC actionees through interactive web forms. The technique, benefits, effort, coordination, and lessons learned for each aspect are covered herein.

  1. Geologic map of the Cucamonga Peak 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, D.M.; Matti, J.C.; Digital preparation by Koukladas, Catherine; Cossette, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in fif_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat pagesize setting influences map scale.) The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially forest roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Cucamonga Peak 7.5’ topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  2. Constructing multiscale gravitational energy spectra from molecular cloud surface density PDF - interplay between turbulence and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guang-Xing; Burkert, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Gravity is believed to be important on multiple physical scales in molecular clouds. However, quantitative constraints on gravity are still lacking. We derive an analytical formula which provides estimates on multiscale gravitational energy distribution using the observed surface density probability distribution function (PDF). Our analytical formalism also enables one to convert the observed column density PDF into an estimated volume density PDF, and to obtain average radial density profile ρ(r). For a region with N_col ˜ N^{-γ _N}, the gravitational energy spectra is E_p(k)˜ k^{-4(1 - 1/γ _N)}. We apply the formula to observations of molecular clouds, and find that a scaling index of -2 of the surface density PDF implies that ρ ˜ r-2 and Ep(k) ˜ k-2. The results are valid from the cloud scale (a few parsec) to around ˜ 0.1 pc. Because of the resemblance the scaling index of the gravitational energy spectrum and the that of the kinetic energy power spectrum of the Burgers turbulence (where E ˜ k-2), our result indicates that gravity can act effectively against turbulence over a multitude of physical scales. This is the critical scaling index which divides molecular clouds into two categories: clouds like Orion and Ophiuchus have shallower power laws, and the amount of gravitational energy is too large for turbulence to be effective inside the cloud. Because gravity dominates, we call this type of cloud g-type clouds. On the other hand, clouds like the California molecular cloud and the Pipe nebula have steeper power laws, and turbulence can overcome gravity if it can cascade effectively from the large scale. We call this type of cloud t-type clouds. The analytical formula can be used to determine if gravity is dominating cloud evolution when the column density PDF can be reliably determined.

  3. Hybrid finite-volume/transported PDF method for the simulation of turbulent reactive flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Venkatramanan

    A novel computational scheme is formulated for simulating turbulent reactive flows in complex geometries with detailed chemical kinetics. A Probability Density Function (PDF) based method that handles the scalar transport equation is coupled with an existing Finite Volume (FV) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver. The PDF formulation leads to closed chemical source terms and facilitates the use of detailed chemical mechanisms without approximations. The particle-based PDF scheme is modified to handle complex geometries and grid structures. Grid-independent particle evolution schemes that scale linearly with the problem size are implemented in the Monte-Carlo PDF solver. A novel algorithm, in situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) is employed to ensure tractability of complex chemistry involving a multitude of species. Several non-reacting test cases are performed to ascertain the efficiency and accuracy of the method. Simulation results from a turbulent jet-diffusion flame case are compared against experimental data. The effect of micromixing model, turbulence model and reaction scheme on flame predictions are discussed extensively. Finally, the method is used to analyze the Dow Chlorination Reactor. Detailed kinetics involving 37 species and 158 reactions as well as a reduced form with 16 species and 21 reactions are used. The effect of inlet configuration on reactor behavior and product distribution is analyzed. Plant-scale reactors exhibit quenching phenomena that cannot be reproduced by conventional simulation methods. The FV-PDF method predicts quenching accurately and provides insight into the dynamics of the reactor near extinction. The accuracy of the fractional time-stepping technique in discussed in the context of apparent multiple-steady states observed in a non-premixed feed configuration of the chlorination reactor.

  4. A circadian neuropeptide PDF in the honeybee, Apis mellifera: cDNA cloning and expression of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Miho; Sato, Seiji; Takeda, Yukimasa; Sumida, Kazunori; Koga, Keita; Itoh, Tsunao; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Shimohigashi, Miki

    2011-12-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a pacemaker hormone regulating the locomotor rhythm in insects. In the present study, we cloned the cDNAs encoding the Apis PDF precursor protein, and found that there are at least seven different pdf mRNAs yielded by an alternative splicing site and five alternative polyadenylation sites in the 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions. The amino acid sequence of Apis PDF peptide has a characteristic novel amino acid residue, aspargine (Asn), at position 17. Quantitative real-time PCR of total and 5'UTR insertion-type pdf mRNAs revealed, for the first time, that the expression levels change in a circadian manner with a distinct trough at the beginning of night in LD conditions, and at the subjective night under DD conditions. In contrast, the expression level of 5'UTR deletion-type pdf mRNAs was about half of that of the insertion type, and the expression profile failed to show a circadian rhythm. As the expression profile of the total pdf mRNA exhibited a circadian rhythm, transcription regulated at the promoter region was supposed to be controlled by some of the clock components. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that 14 lateral neurons at the frontal margin of the optic lobe express these mRNA isoforms. PDF expressing cells examined with a newly produced antibody raised against Apis PDF were also found to have a dense supply of axon terminals in the optic lobes and the central brain. PMID:22132787

  5. Effect of metal ion on the structure and function of LiPDF: The study of the fine structure around the metal site using XANES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Chu, Wangsheng; Yang, Feifei; Yu, Meijuan; Zhao, Haifeng; Gong, Weimin; Dong, Yuhui; Xie, Yaning; Wu, Ziyu

    2010-07-01

    We used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to investigate the metal-dependent enzymatic activity of the peptide deformylase from Leptospira interrogans ( LiPDF). Ab initio full multiple scattering calculations performed by MXAN are applied to obtain the local structure of the cobalt-containing LiPDF (Co- LiPDF) and zinc-containing LiPDF (Zn- LiPDF) around the metal sites in pH9.0 buffer solution. The result shows the cobalt-wat1 (the bond water molecule) distance of Co- LiPDF is 1.89 Å, much shorter than that of Zn- LiPDF, 2.50 Å. That is an essential factor for its low catalytic activity.

  6. A method for reconstructing the PDF of a 3D turbulent density field from 2D observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunt, Christopher M.; Federrath, Christoph; Price, Daniel J.

    2010-06-01

    We introduce a method for calculating the probability density function (PDF) of a turbulent density field in three dimensions using only information contained in the projected two-dimensional column density field. We test the method by applying it to numerical simulations of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds. To a good approximation, the PDF of log(normalized column density) is a compressed, shifted version of the PDF of log(normalized density). The degree of compression can be determined observationally from the column density power spectrum, under the assumption of statistical isotropy of the turbulence.

  7. Application and Evaluation of Interactive 3D PDF for Presenting and Sharing Planning Results for Liver Surgery in Clinical Routine

    PubMed Central

    Newe, Axel; Becker, Linda; Schenk, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the de-facto standard for the exchange of electronic documents. It is platform-independent, suitable for the exchange of medical data, and allows for the embedding of three-dimensional (3D) surface mesh models. In this article, we present the first clinical routine application of interactive 3D surface mesh models which have been integrated into PDF files for the presentation and the exchange of Computer Assisted Surgery Planning (CASP) results in liver surgery. We aimed to prove the feasibility of applying 3D PDF in medical reporting and investigated the user experience with this new technology. Methods We developed an interactive 3D PDF report document format and implemented a software tool to create these reports automatically. After more than 1000 liver CASP cases that have been reported in clinical routine using our 3D PDF report, an international user survey was carried out online to evaluate the user experience. Results Our solution enables the user to interactively explore the anatomical configuration and to have different analyses and various resection proposals displayed within a 3D PDF document covering only a single page that acts more like a software application than like a typical PDF file (“PDF App”). The new 3D PDF report offers many advantages over the previous solutions. According to the results of the online survey, the users have assessed the pragmatic quality (functionality, usability, perspicuity, efficiency) as well as the hedonic quality (attractiveness, novelty) very positively. Conclusion The usage of 3D PDF for reporting and sharing CASP results is feasible and well accepted by the target audience. Using interactive PDF with embedded 3D models is an enabler for presenting and exchanging complex medical information in an easy and platform-independent way. Medical staff as well as patients can benefit from the possibilities provided by 3D PDF. Our results open the door for a

  8. Evolutionary tinkering of the expression of PDF1s suggests their joint effect on zinc tolerance and the response to pathogen attack.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nga N T; Ranwez, Vincent; Vile, Denis; Soulié, Marie-Christine; Dellagi, Alia; Expert, Dominique; Gosti, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Multigenic families of Plant Defensin type 1 (PDF1) have been described in several species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as zinc tolerant and hyperaccumulator A. halleri. In A. thaliana, PDF1 transcripts (AtPDF1) accumulate in response to pathogen attack following synergic activation of ethylene/jasmonate pathways. However, in A. halleri, PDF1 transcripts (AhPDF1) are constitutively highly accumulated. Through an evolutionary approach, we investigated the possibility of A. halleri or A. thaliana species specialization in different PDF1s in conveying zinc tolerance and/or the response to pathogen attack via activation of the jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway. The accumulation of each PDF1 from both A. halleri and A. thaliana was thus compared in response to zinc excess and MeJA application. In both species, PDF1 paralogues were barely or not at all responsive to zinc. However, regarding the PDF1 response to JA signaling activation, A. thaliana had a higher number of PDF1s responding to JA signaling activation. Remarkably, in A. thaliana, a slight but significant increase in zinc tolerance was correlated with activation of the JA signaling pathway. In addition, A. halleri was found to be more tolerant to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea than A. thaliana. Since PDF1s are known to be promiscuous antifungal proteins able to convey zinc tolerance, we propose, on the basis of the findings of this study, that high constitutive PDF1 transcript accumulation in A. halleri is a potential way to skip the JA signaling activation step required to increase the PDF1 transcript level in the A. thaliana model species. This could ultimately represent an adaptive evolutionary process that would promote a PDF1 joint effect on both zinc tolerance and the response to pathogens in the A. halleri extremophile species. PMID:24653728

  9. Calibration and data collection protocols for reliable lattice parameter values in electron pair distribution function (ePDF) studies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abeykoon, A. M. Milinda; Hu, Hefei; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2015-02-01

    We explore and describe different protocols for calibrating electron pair distribution function (ePDF) measurements for quantitative studies on nano-materials. We find the most accurate approach to determine the camera-length is to use a standard calibration sample of Au nanoparticles from National Institute of Standards and Technology. Different protocols for data collection are also explored, as are possible operational errors, to find the best approaches for accurate data collection for quantitative ePDF studies.

  10. Charm and beauty quark masses in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Martin, A. D.; Motylinski, P.; Thorne, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the variation in the MMHT2014 PDFs when we allow the heavy-quark masses m_c and m_b to vary away from their default values. We make PDF sets available in steps of Δ m_c =0.05 GeV and Δ m_b =0.25 GeV, and present the variation in the PDFs and in the predictions. We examine the comparison to the HERA data on charm and beauty structure functions and note that in each case the heavy-quark data, and the inclusive data, have a slight preference for lower masses than our default values. We provide PDF sets with three and four active quark flavours, as well as the standard value of five flavours. We use the pole mass definition of the quark masses, as in the default MMHT2014 analysis, but briefly comment on the overline{MS} definition.

  11. Systematically reduced rate mechanisms and presumed PDF models for premixed turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, Ken; Champion, Michel; Libby, Paul A.

    2010-03-15

    The use of reduced kinetic mechanisms in models for turbulent premixed flames, at large but finite Damkoehler numbers, is described. Taking as examples the two cases of hydrogen-air and methane-air systems for which there exist reduced kinetic schemes characterized by two independent scalar variables only, it is shown that the mean chemical production rate can be in a general way expressed as the product of a mixing factor, depending on the segregation of species due to turbulence, with a reaction rate factor. In this latter factor the probability density function (PDF) of the two scalars appears only as a constant integral quantity. The extension of this analysis to systems involving more than two independent scalars is envisaged. The general result is applied to the two specific cases of interior PDF's modelled by (i) a single Dirac delta function and (ii) a laminar flamelet. (author)

  12. aMC fast: automation of fast NLO computations for PDF fits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertone, Valerio; Frederix, Rikkert; Frixione, Stefano; Rojo, Juan; Sutton, Mark

    2014-08-01

    We present the interface between M adG raph5_ aMC@NLO, a self-contained program that calculates cross sections up to next-to-leading order accuracy in an automated manner, and APPL grid, a code that parametrises such cross sections in the form of look-up tables which can be used for the fast computations needed in the context of PDF fits. The main characteristic of this interface, which we dub aMC fast, is its being fully automated as well, which removes the need to extract manually the process-specific information for additional physics processes, as is the case with other matrix-element calculators, and renders it straightforward to include any new process in the PDF fits. We demonstrate this by studying several cases which are easily measured at the LHC, have a good constraining power on PDFs, and some of which were previously unavailable in the form of a fast interface.

  13. An Investigation of a Hybrid Mixing Model for PDF Simulations of Turbulent Premixed Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Li, Shan; Wang, Hu; Ren, Zhuyin

    2015-11-01

    Predictive simulations of turbulent premixed flames over a wide range of Damköhler numbers in the framework of Probability Density Function (PDF) method still remain challenging due to the deficiency in current micro-mixing models. In this work, a hybrid micro-mixing model, valid in both the flamelet regime and broken reaction zone regime, is proposed. A priori testing of this model is first performed by examining the conditional scalar dissipation rate and conditional scalar diffusion in a 3-D direct numerical simulation dataset of a temporally evolving turbulent slot jet flame of lean premixed H2-air in the thin reaction zone regime. Then, this new model is applied to PDF simulations of the Piloted Premixed Jet Burner (PPJB) flames, which are a set of highly shear turbulent premixed flames and feature strong turbulence-chemistry interaction at high Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers. Supported by NSFC 51476087 and NSFC 91441202.

  14. PDF modeling of chemically reacting flows in a compression-ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj Mohan, Vivek Raja; Haworth, Daniel; Li, Jian

    2013-11-01

    A transported probability density function (PDF) model is used to simulate the in-cylinder combustion processes in a compression-ignition heavy-duty engine. The flow inside the cylinder in a compression-ignition engine is chemically reacting and highly turbulent. Therefore, the turbulent fluctuations in composition and temperature will influence the mean reaction rates. These turbulence-chemistry interactions (TCI) play an important role in predicting the combustion processes accurately. Recent results from in-cylinder combustion simulations for a compression-ignition engine are compared with measured data for several operating conditions. The PDF model, which takes into account for TCI, predicts the combustion processes more accurately compared to a model which neglects TCI. Marked differences are observed in predicting the flame structure and the pressure and heat-release traces as well as in predicting the emission characteristics.

  15. On recontamination and directional-bias problems in Monte Carlo simulation of PDF turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    Turbulent combustion can not be simulated adequately by conventional moment closure turbulence models. The difficulty lies in the fact that the reaction rate is in general an exponential function of the temperature, and the higher order correlations in the conventional moment closure models of the chemical source term can not be neglected, making the applications of such models impractical. The probability density function (pdf) method offers an attractive alternative: in a pdf model, the chemical source terms are closed and do not require additional models. A grid dependent Monte Carlo scheme was studied, since it is a logical alternative, wherein the number of computer operations increases only linearly with the increase of number of independent variables, as compared to the exponential increase in a conventional finite difference scheme. A new algorithm was devised that satisfies a restriction in the case of pure diffusion or uniform flow problems. Although for nonuniform flows absolute conservation seems impossible, the present scheme has reduced the error considerably.

  16. EUPDF-II: An Eulerian Joint Scalar Monte Carlo PDF Module : User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Liu, Nan-Suey (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    EUPDF-II provides the solution for the species and temperature fields based on an evolution equation for PDF (Probability Density Function) and it is developed mainly for application with sprays, combustion, parallel computing, and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase CFD and spray solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type. The manual provides the user with an understanding of the various models involved in the PDF formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. The source code of EUPDF-II will be available with National Combustion Code (NCC) as a complete package.

  17. Simulation of a turbulent spray flame using coupled PDF gas phase and spray flamelet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Hai-Wen; Gutheil, Eva

    2008-04-15

    A joint mixture fraction-enthalpy probability density function (PDF) is proposed for the simulation of turbulent spray flames. The PDF transport equation is deduced and modeled. The interaction-by-exchange-with-the-mean (IEM) model that has been developed for gas-phase flows is extended to describe molecular mixing in nonreactive and reactive spray flows. The joint PDF transport equation is solved by a hybrid finite-volume and Lagrangian Monte Carlo method. Standard spray and turbulence models are used to describe the gas phase and the liquid phase. A turbulent methanol/air spray flame is simulated using the present method. Detailed chemistry is implemented through the spray flamelet model. The precalculated spray flamelet library for methanol/air combustion comprises 23 species and 168 elementary reactions. Thus, the model is capable of predicting the formation of radicals and of pollutants. Different values for the model constant C{sub {phi}} in the IEM model are tested. The numerical results for the gas velocity, the gas temperature, and the mass fraction of methanol vapor are compared with experimental data in the literature. Good agreement with experiment is obtained when C{sub {phi}}=2.0. Marginal PDFs of mixture fraction, enthalpy, and gas temperature are presented. The computed PDFs of mixture fraction are compared with the presumed standard {beta} function and modified {beta} function. The results show that the standard {beta} function fails to reproduce bimodal shapes observed in transported PDF computation, while the modified {beta} function, fits the computed PDFs very well. Moreover, joint PDFs of mixture fraction and enthalpy are presented and analyzed. The enthalpy and mixture fraction are strongly correlated. The samples that deviate from the linear correlation are due to the energy consumption of local spray evaporation. (author)

  18. Construction of the one-point PDF of the local aperture mass in weak lensing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardeau, F.; Valageas, P.

    2000-12-01

    We present a general method for the reconstruction of the one-point Probability Distribution Function of the local aperture mass in weak lensing maps. Exact results, that neglect the lens-lens coupling and departure from the Born approximation, are derived for both the quasilinear regime at leading order and the strongly nonlinear regime assuming the tree hierarchical model is valid. We describe in details the projection effects on the properties of the PDF and the associated generating functions. In particular, we show how the generic features which are common to both the quasilinear and nonlinear regimes lead to two exponential tails for P(M_ap). We briefly investigate the dependence of the PDF with cosmology and with the shape of the angular filter. Our predictions are seen to agree reasonably well with the results of numerical simulations and should be able to serve as foundations for alternative methods to measure the cosmological parameters that take advantage of the full shape of the PDF.

  19. Enriching a document collection by integrating information extraction and PDF annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powley, Brett; Dale, Robert; Anisimoff, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    Modern digital libraries offer all the hyperlinking possibilities of the World Wide Web: when a reader finds a citation of interest, in many cases she can now click on a link to be taken to the cited work. This paper presents work aimed at providing the same ease of navigation for legacy PDF document collections that were created before the possibility of integrating hyperlinks into documents was ever considered. To achieve our goal, we need to carry out two tasks: first, we need to identify and link citations and references in the text with high reliability; and second, we need the ability to determine physical PDF page locations for these elements. We demonstrate the use of a high-accuracy citation extraction algorithm which significantly improves on earlier reported techniques, and a technique for integrating PDF processing with a conventional text-stream based information extraction pipeline. We demonstrate these techniques in the context of a particular document collection, this being the ACL Anthology; but the same approach can be applied to other document sets.

  20. Transported PDF Modeling of Nonpremixed Turbulent CO/H-2/N-2 Jet Flames

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, xinyu; Haworth, D. C.; Huckaby, E. David

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (“syngas”) flames are simulated using a transported composition probability density function (PDF) method. A consistent hybrid Lagrangian particle/Eulerian mesh algorithm is used to solve the modeled PDF transport equation. The model includes standard k–ϵ turbulence, gradient transport for scalars, and Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) mixing. Sensitivities of model results to variations in the turbulence model, the treatment of radiation heat transfer, the choice of chemical mechanism, and the PDF mixing model are explored. A baseline model reproduces the measured mean and rms temperature, major species, and minor species profiles reasonably well, and captures the scaling that is observed in the experiments. Both our results and the literature suggest that further improvements can be realized with adjustments in the turbulence model, the radiation heat transfer model, and the chemical mechanism. Although radiation effects are relatively small in these flames, consideration of radiation is important for accurate NO prediction. Chemical mechanisms that have been developed specifically for fuels with high concentrations of CO and H{sub 2} perform better than a methane mechanism that was not designed for this purpose. It is important to account explicitly for turbulence–chemistry interactions, although the details of the mixing model do not make a large difference in the results, within reasonable limits.

  1. Composition PDF/photon Monte Carlo modeling of moderately sooting turbulent jet flames

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.S.; Haworth, D.C.; Modest, M.F.

    2010-05-15

    A comprehensive model for luminous turbulent flames is presented. The model features detailed chemistry, radiation and soot models and state-of-the-art closures for turbulence-chemistry interactions and turbulence-radiation interactions. A transported probability density function (PDF) method is used to capture the effects of turbulent fluctuations in composition and temperature. The PDF method is extended to include soot formation. Spectral gas and soot radiation is modeled using a (particle-based) photon Monte Carlo method coupled with the PDF method, thereby capturing both emission and absorption turbulence-radiation interactions. An important element of this work is that the gas-phase chemistry and soot models that have been thoroughly validated across a wide range of laminar flames are used in turbulent flame simulations without modification. Six turbulent jet flames are simulated with Reynolds numbers varying from 6700 to 15,000, two fuel types (pure ethylene, 90% methane-10% ethylene blend) and different oxygen concentrations in the oxidizer stream (from 21% O{sub 2} to 55% O{sub 2}). All simulations are carried out with a single set of physical and numerical parameters (model constants). Uniformly good agreement between measured and computed mean temperatures, mean soot volume fractions and (where available) radiative fluxes is found across all flames. This demonstrates that with the combination of a systematic approach and state-of-the-art physical models and numerical algorithms, it is possible to simulate a broad range of luminous turbulent flames with a single model. (author)

  2. A new subgrid-scale representation of hydrometeor fields using a multivariate PDF

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Griffin, Brian M.; Larson, Vincent E.

    2016-06-03

    The subgrid-scale representation of hydrometeor fields is important for calculating microphysical process rates. In order to represent subgrid-scale variability, the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) parameterization uses a multivariate probability density function (PDF). In addition to vertical velocity, temperature, and moisture fields, the PDF includes hydrometeor fields. Previously, hydrometeor fields were assumed to follow a multivariate single lognormal distribution. Now, in order to better represent the distribution of hydrometeors, two new multivariate PDFs are formulated and introduced.The new PDFs represent hydrometeors using either a delta-lognormal or a delta-double-lognormal shape. The two new PDF distributions, plus the previous single lognormalmore » shape, are compared to histograms of data taken from large-eddy simulations (LESs) of a precipitating cumulus case, a drizzling stratocumulus case, and a deep convective case. Finally, the warm microphysical process rates produced by the different hydrometeor PDFs are compared to the same process rates produced by the LES.« less

  3. 76 FR 98 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 5 to the Golden Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ...: Karla Gore, Southeast Regional Office, NMFS, 263 13th Avenue South, St. Petersburg, FL 33701... Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karla...

  4. 78 FR 1778 - Boundary Expansion of Cordell Bank and Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuaries; Intent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...: NOAA will accept public comments on the notice of intent published at 77 FR 75601 (December 21, 2012... anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF...

  5. 77 FR 67327 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... approve Amendment 17 to the FMP. In 2011, the Council transmitted Salmon FMP Amendment 16 to NMFS (76 FR... Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Electronic copies of the amendment may...

  6. 76 FR 5555 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Monkfish; Amendment 5

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... bring the Monkfish FMP into compliance with recently revised National Standard 1 (NS1) Guidelines (74 FR... electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR...

  7. 77 FR 16950 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... FR 14698, March 13, 2012). As of March 15, 2012, NMFS has determined that approximately 1,389 metric... accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER...

  8. 76 FR 11393 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... (76 FR 4082, January 24, 2011). As of February 24, 2011, NMFS has determined that approximately 4,141... electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR...

  9. 75 FR 57702 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ...)(iii) on August 27, 2010 (75 FR 52891, August 30, 2010). NMFS has determined that approximately 4,580... accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe portable document file (pdf) formats only....

  10. 78 FR 21347 - Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... content of the Supplemental DEIS can be found in the Notice of Availability (78 FR 19212, March 29, 2013...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel or Adobe PDF file formats...

  11. 76 FR 13097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... (76 FR 11393, March 2, 2011). As of March 2, 2011, NMFS has determined that approximately 4,100 metric... electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR...

  12. Changing Patterns of Nonmarital Childbearing in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... to monitor current trends in the behaviors and attitudes that affect fertility patterns for unmarried women and ... PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file ...

  13. Multimedia proceedings of the 10th Office Information Technology Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, B.

    1993-09-10

    The CD contains the handouts for all the speakers, demo software from Apple, Adobe, Microsoft, and Zylabs, and video movies of the keynote speakers. Adobe Acrobat is used to provide full-fidelity retrieval of the speakers` slides and Apple`s Quicktime for Macintosh and Windows is used for video playback. ZyIndex is included for Windows users to provide a full-text search engine for selected documents. There are separately labelled installation and operating instructions for Macintosh and Windows users and some general materials common to both sets of users.

  14. Digital geologic map of Fawnskin 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, F.K.; Matti, J.C.; Brown, H.J.; Powell, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in fskn_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots from this .pdf do not produce 1:24,000-scale maps. Adobe Acrobat page-size settings control map scale.) This release includes features not found in most other digital geologic maps, in that all polygons, lines, and points in the coverage are encoded with detailed, comprehensive geologic data contained in six INFO data tables (.rel). (See Matti and others, 1998a, 1998b, and 1998c, for information on how the encoding may be accessed and utilized.) No paper map is included in the Open-File Report, but a PostScript plot file containing an image of the geologic map sheet, topographic base, Correlation of Map Units (CMU), and detailed Description of Map Units (DMU) is. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units are in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series maps (I-maps) but have not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by such standard geologic-map criteria as formation name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the PostScript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Fawnskin 7.5' topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  15. Offline modeling for product quality prediction of mineral processing using modeling error PDF shaping and entropy minimization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jinliang; Chai, Tianyou; Wang, Hong

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel offline modeling for product quality prediction of mineral processing which consists of a number of unit processes in series. The prediction of the product quality of the whole mineral process (i.e., the mixed concentrate grade) plays an important role and the establishment of its predictive model is a key issue for the plantwide optimization. For this purpose, a hybrid modeling approach of the mixed concentrate grade prediction is proposed, which consists of a linear model and a nonlinear model. The least-squares support vector machine is adopted to establish the nonlinear model. The inputs of the predictive model are the performance indices of each unit process, while the output is the mixed concentrate grade. In this paper, the model parameter selection is transformed into the shape control of the probability density function (PDF) of the modeling error. In this context, both the PDF-control-based and minimum-entropy-based model parameter selection approaches are proposed. Indeed, this is the first time that the PDF shape control idea is used to deal with system modeling, where the key idea is to turn model parameters so that either the modeling error PDF is controlled to follow a target PDF or the modeling error entropy is minimized. The experimental results using the real plant data and the comparison of the two approaches are discussed. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. PMID:21233046

  16. Magnetic structure determination from the magnetic pair distribution function (mPDF): ground state of MnO.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Benjamin A; Billinge, Simon J L

    2015-05-01

    An experimental determination of the magnetic pair distribution function (mPDF) defined in an earlier paper [Frandsen et al. (2014). Acta Cryst. A70, 3-11] is presented for the first time. The mPDF was determined from neutron powder diffraction data from a reactor and a neutron time-of-flight total scattering source on a powder sample of the antiferromagnetic oxide MnO. A description of the data treatment that allowed the measured mPDF to be extracted and then modelled is provided and utilized to investigate the low-temperature structure of MnO. Atomic and magnetic co-refinements support the scenario of a locally monoclinic ground-state atomic structure, despite the average structure being rhombohedral, with the mPDF analysis successfully recovering the known antiferromagnetic spin configuration. The total scattering data suggest a preference for the spin axis to lie along the pseudocubic [10{\\overline 1}] direction. Finally, r-dependent PDF refinements indicate that the local monoclinic structure tends toward the average rhombohedral R{\\overline 3}m symmetry over a length scale of approximately 100 Å. PMID:25921501

  17. PDF added value of a high resolution climate simulation for precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.

    2015-04-01

    General Circulation Models (GCMs) are models suitable to study the global atmospheric system, its evolution and response to changes in external forcing, namely to increasing emissions of CO2. However, the resolution of GCMs, of the order of 1o, is not sufficient to reproduce finer scale features of the atmospheric flow related to complex topography, coastal processes and boundary layer processes, and higher resolution models are needed to describe observed weather and climate. The latter are known as Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and are widely used to downscale GCMs results for many regions of the globe and are able to capture physically consistent regional and local circulations. Most of the RCMs evaluations rely on the comparison of its results with observations, either from weather stations networks or regular gridded datasets, revealing the ability of RCMs to describe local climatic properties, and assuming most of the times its higher performance in comparison with the forcing GCMs. The additional climatic details given by RCMs when compared with the results of the driving models is usually named as added value, and it's evaluation is still scarce and controversial in the literuature. Recently, some studies have proposed different methodologies to different applications and processes to characterize the added value of specific RCMs. A number of examples reveal that some RCMs do add value to GCMs in some properties or regions, and also the opposite, elighnening that RCMs may add value to GCM resuls, but improvements depend basically on the type of application, model setup, atmospheric property and location. The precipitation can be characterized by histograms of daily precipitation, or also known as probability density functions (PDFs). There are different strategies to evaluate the quality of both GCMs and RCMs in describing the precipitation PDFs when compared to observations. Here, we present a new method to measure the PDF added value obtained from

  18. The influence of chemical mechanisms on PDF calculations of nonpremixed piloted jet flames

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Renfeng Richard; Pope, Stephen B.

    2005-12-01

    Seven different chemical mechanisms for methane are used in PDF model calculations of the Barlow and Frank flames D, E, and F in order to investigate the ability of these mechanisms to represent the local extinction, reignition, and other chemical phenomena observed in these nonpremixed piloted jet flames. The mechanisms studied range from a 5-step reduced mechanism to the GRI3.0 mechanism which involves 53 species. As in several other recent studies, we use the PDF method based on the joint probability density function of velocity, turbulence frequency, and composition. Extensive tests are performed to ensure the numerical accuracy of the calculations, to relate them to previous calculations based on the same model, and to reexamine the sensitivity of the calculations (especially of flame F) to uncertainties in the pilot temperature and the treatment of radiation. As has been observed in other studies of laminar and turbulent nonpremixed flames, we find that the GRI3.0 mechanism overpredicts the levels of NO, typically by a factor of 2. Apart from this, the GRI3.0 and GRI2.11 mechanisms yield comparably good agreement with the experimental data for all three flames, including the level of local extinction and the conditional means of major and other minor species. Two augmented reduce mechanism (ARM1 and ARM2) based on GRI2.11 and containing 16 and 19 species are slightly less accurate; while the 5-step reduced mechanism and two C{sub 1} skeletal mechanisms containing 16 species display significant inaccuracies. An examination of the autoignition and laminar-flame behavior of the different mechanisms confirms (with some exceptions) expected trends: there is an association between long ignition delay times, small extinction strain rates, and high levels of local extinction. This study again demonstrates the ability of the joint PDF method to represent accurately the strong turbulence-chemistry interactions in these flames, and it clarifies the necessary level of

  19. Pdf modeling of finite-rate chemistry effects in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.P.; Kakhi, M.

    1998-10-01

    The Eulerian, joint-scalar probability density function (pdf) approach, at the single point and time level, was applied to predict the evolution of a piloted methane-air turbulent jet diffusion flame. At a certain fuel inlet velocity, the measurements indicate that the flame exhibits local extinction at 20 diameters from the fuel nozzle and subsequent downstream relighting. The objective was to investigate whether the current pdf approach can treat extinction/reignition phenomena and accurately predict the concentrations of species such as CO and H{sub 2}. Two different mixing models--coalescence-dispersion and linear mean square estimation (LMSE)--were tested, together with two turbulence models ({kappa}-{epsilon} and full Reynolds stress). The solution method involved a coupled finite-volume solution of the velocity field and a Monte Carlo simulation of the pdf transport equation. A global hydrocarbon scheme (no radical species present) was employed to represent the chemistry. The predictions demonstrated that in general the mixing and fuel consumption rates were well represented. Other scalars such as H{sub 2}O and temperature were also satisfactorily predicted for the flame not subjected to local extinction; furthermore, in this particular case, the results obtained were very similar regardless of the mixing models and turbulence closures applied. However, with regard to the intermediate species, H{sub 2} and CO, some overprediction was observed. For the flame where extinction was observed experimentally, the predictions showed that with LMSE, extinction with no subsequent relighting was predicted whereas with the coalescence-dispersion model stable burning was reproduced though the low temperatures observed at x/D -= 20 were not predicted. In addition the results were sensitive to the predicted spreading rate and hence to the turbulence model.

  20. Impact of PDF uncertainties at large x on heavy boson production

    SciTech Connect

    L. T. Brady, A. Accardi, W. Melnitchouk, J. F. Owens

    2012-06-01

    We explore the sensitivity of W and Z boson production in hadronic collisions to uncertainties in parton distribution functions (PDFs) at large x arising from uncertainties in nuclear corrections when using deuterium data in global QCD fits. The W and Z differential cross sections show increasing influence of nuclear corrections at high boson rapidities, particularly for the d quark, which is diluted somewhat in the decay lepton rapidity distributions. The effects of PDF uncertainties on heavy W' and Z' bosons beyond the Standard Model become progressively more important for larger boson masses or rapidities, both in p-p collisions at the LHC and in p-pbar scattering at the Tevatron.

  1. Combined NMR and PDF studies of positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, Julien

    Layered lithium nickel manganese oxides are promising, inexpensive and nontoxic alternative positive electrodes materials to the commercial LiCoO 2 electrode used in Li-ion batteries. Among these materials, Li(NiMn) 0.5O2 is particularly attractive due to its high theoretical capacity (280 mAh/g). The motivation for the research presented here was to understand the detailed long-range and short-range structure of these materials, particularly Li(NiMn)0.5O2, both as-synthesised and upon cycling. It is indeed important to know what the cation environments are, especially for the Li ions, since they strongly affect the electrochemical performance. The local environments and short-range ordering of Li(NiMn)0.5O 2, a potential Li-ion battery positive electrode material, were investigated by using a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction and isotopic substitution (NDIS) techniques, 6Li Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy and, for the first time, X-ray and neutron Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis, associated with Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) calculations. Two Li(NiMn) 0.5O2 samples were studied in detail: one obtained from regular solid-state synthesis (SS), and another one obtained from ion-exchange routes (IE). 6Li MAS NMR experiments showed less Li/Ni site exchange (between the Li and the Ni/Mn layers) for the IE compound than for the SS compound, explaining its improved Li diffusivity and rate capability. For the SS compound, the Ni/Ni and Mn/Mn repulsion seen by PDF/RMC and the Li/Mn proximity seen by NMR were consistent with an ordering scheme intermediate between the ideal structures proposed so far (the "honey-comb" and "flower" structures). Ordering of Ni and Mn atoms in the transition metal layers was also detected in IE-Li(NiMn)0.5O2: Ni atoms tend to be surrounded by more Mn atoms in the first coordination shell, while the second coordination shell shows that zigzag ordering scheme is preferred over the chain. Ex-situ neutron diffraction

  2. Efficient computation of PDF-based characteristics from diffusion MR signal.

    PubMed

    Assemlal, Haz-Edine; Tschumperlé, David; Brun, Luc

    2008-01-01

    We present a general method for the computation of PDF-based characteristics of the tissue micro-architecture in MR imaging. The approach relies on the approximation of the MR signal by a series expansion based on Spherical Harmonics and Laguerre-Gaussian functions, followed by a simple projection step that is efficiently done in a finite dimensional space. The resulting algorithm is generic, flexible and is able to compute a large set of useful characteristics of the local tissues structure. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing results on synthetic and real MR datasets acquired in a clinical time-frame. PMID:18982591

  3. A k-omega multivariate beta PDF for supersonic turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexopoulos, G. A.; Baurle, R. A.; Hassan, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    In a recent attempt by the authors at predicting measurements in coaxial supersonic turbulent reacting mixing layers involving H2 and air, a number of discrepancies involving the concentrations and their variances were noted. The turbulence model employed was a one-equation model based on the turbulent kinetic energy. This required the specification of a length scale. In an attempt at detecting the cause of the discrepancy, a coupled k-omega joint probability density function (PDF) is employed in conjunction with a Navier-Stokes solver. The results show that improvements resulting from a k-omega model are quite modest.

  4. Pdf modeling for premixed turbulent combustion based on the properties of iso-concentration surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vervisch, L.; Kollmann, W.; Bray, K. N. C.; Mantel, T.

    1994-01-01

    In premixed turbulent flames the presence of intense mixing zones located in front of and behind the flame surface leads to a requirement to study the behavior of iso-concentration surfaces defined for all values of the progress variable (equal to unity in burnt gases and to zero in fresh mixtures). To support this study, some theoretical and mathematical tools devoted to level surfaces are first developed. Then a database of direct numerical simulations of turbulent premixed flames is generated and used to investigate the internal structure of the flame brush, and a new pdf model based on the properties of iso-surfaces is proposed.

  5. A continuous mixing model for pdf simulations and its applications to combusting shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, A. T.; Chen, J.-Y.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of time discontinuity (or jump condition) in the coalescence/dispersion (C/D) mixing model is addressed in this work. A C/D mixing model continuous in time is introduced. With the continuous mixing model, the process of chemical reaction can be fully coupled with mixing. In the case of homogeneous turbulence decay, the new model predicts a pdf very close to a Gaussian distribution, with finite higher moments also close to that of a Gaussian distribution. Results from the continuous mixing model are compared with both experimental data and numerical results from conventional C/D models.

  6. 39 CFR 3001.10 - Form and number of copies of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waiver is obtained. (1) The text of documents filed with the Commission shall be formatted in not less... service must be printed from a text-based pdf version of the document, where possible. Otherwise, they may... generated in either Acrobat (pdf), Word, or WordPerfect, or Rich Text Format (rtf)....

  7. The one-point PDF of the initial conditions of our local Universe from the IRAS PSC redshift catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, P.; Efstathiou, G.; Maddox, S. J.; Branchini, E.; Frenk, C. S.; McMahon, R. G.; Oliver, S. J.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Saunders, W.; Sutherland, W. J.; Tadros, H.; White, S. D. M.

    2000-11-01

    The algorithm ztrace of Monaco & Efstathiou is applied to the IRAS PSCz catalogue to reconstruct the initial conditions of our local Universe with a resolution down to ~5h-1Mpc. The one-point probability distribution function (PDF) of the reconstructed initial conditions is consistent with the assumptions that: (i) IRAS galaxies trace mass on scales of ~5h-1Mpc and (ii) the statistics of the primordial density fluctuations are Gaussian. We use simulated PSCz catalogues, constructed from N-body simulations with Gaussian initial conditions, to show that local non-linear bias can cause the recovered initial PDF (assuming no bias) to be non-Gaussian. However, for plausible bias models, the distortions of the recovered PDF would be difficult to detect using the volume finely sampled by the PSCz catalogue. So, for Gaussian initial conditions, a range of bias models remain compatible with our PSCz reconstruction results.

  8. Constraints on the Profiles of Total Water PDF in AGCMs from AIRS and a High-Resolution Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molod, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) cloud parameterizations generally include an assumption about the subgrid-scale probability distribution function (PDF) of total water and its vertical profile. In the present study, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) monthly-mean cloud amount and relative humidity fields are used to compute a proxy for the second moment of an AGCM total water PDF called the RH01 diagnostic, which is the AIRS mean relative humidity for cloud fractions of 0.1 or less. The dependence of the second moment on horizontal grid resolution is analyzed using results from a high-resolution global model simulation.The AIRS-derived RH01 diagnostic is generally larger near the surface than aloft, indicating a narrower PDF near the surface, and varies with the type of underlying surface. High-resolution model results show that the vertical structure of profiles of the AGCM PDF second moment is unchanged as the grid resolution changes from 200 to 100 to 50 km, and that the second-moment profiles shift toward higher values with decreasing grid spacing.Several Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5), AGCM simulations were performed with several choices for the profile of the PDF second moment. The resulting cloud and relative humidity fields were shown to be quite sensitive to the prescribed profile, and the use of a profile based on the AIRS-derived proxy results in improvements relative to observational estimates. The AIRS-guided total water PDF profiles, including their dependence on underlying surface type and on horizontal resolution, have been implemented in the version of the GEOS-5 AGCM used for publicly released simulations.

  9. Widespread receptivity to neuropeptide PDF throughout the neuronal circadian clock network of Drosophila revealed by real-time cyclic AMP imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Orie T.; Kim, Dong Jo; Dunbar-Yaffe, Richard; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Lohse, Martin J.; Taghert, Paul H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The neuropeptide PDF is released by sixteen clock neurons in Drosophila and helps maintain circadian activity rhythms by coordinating a network of ~150 neuronal clocks. Whether PDF acts directly on elements of this neural network remains unknown. We address this question by adapting Epac1-camps, a genetically encoded cAMP FRET sensor, for use in the living brain. We find that a subset of the PDF-expressing neurons respond to PDF with long-lasting cAMP increases, and confirm that such responses require the PDF receptor. In contrast, an unrelated Drosophila neuropeptide, DH 31, stimulates large cAMP increases in all PDF-expressing clock neurons. Thus the network of ~150 clock neurons displays widespread, though not uniform, PDF receptivity. This work introduces a sensitive means of measuring cAMP changes in a living brain with sub-cellular resolution. Specifically, it experimentally confirms the longstanding hypothesis that PDF is a direct modulator of most neurons in the Drosophila clock network. PMID:18439407

  10. The difference PDF of 21-cm fluctuations: a powerful statistical tool for probing cosmic reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkana, Rennan; Loeb, Abraham

    2008-03-01

    A new generation of radio telescopes are currently being built with the goal of tracing the cosmic distribution of atomic hydrogen at redshifts 6-15 through its 21-cm line. The observations will probe the large-scale brightness fluctuations sourced by ionization fluctuations during cosmic reionization. Since detailed maps will be difficult to extract due to noise and foreground emission, efforts have focused on a statistical detection of the 21-cm fluctuations. During cosmic reionization, these fluctuations are highly non-Gaussian and thus more information can be extracted than just the one-dimensional function that is usually considered, i.e. the correlation function. We calculate a two-dimensional function that if measured observationally would allow a more thorough investigation of the properties of the underlying ionizing sources. This function is the probability distribution function (PDF) of the difference in the 21-cm brightness temperature between two points, as a function of the separation between the points. While the standard correlation function is determined by a complicated mixture of contributions from density and ionization fluctuations, we show that the difference PDF holds the key to separately measuring the statistical properties of the ionized regions.

  11. Multi-variate joint PDF for non-Gaussianities: exact formulation and generic approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul; Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Heavens, Alan F.; Matarrese, Sabino

    2013-06-01

    We provide an exact expression for the multi-variate joint probability distribution function of non-Gaussian fields primordially arising from local transformations of a Gaussian field. This kind of non-Gaussianity is generated in many models of inflation. We apply our expression to the non-Gaussianity estimation from Cosmic Microwave Background maps and the halo mass function where we obtain analytical expressions. We also provide analytic approximations and their range of validity. For the Cosmic Microwave Background we give a fast way to compute the PDF which is valid up to more than 7σ for fNL values (both true and sampled) not ruled out by current observations, which consists of expressing the PDF as a combination of bispectrum and trispectrum of the temperature maps. The resulting expression is valid for any kind of non-Gaussianity and is not limited to the local type. The above results may serve as the basis for a fully Bayesian analysis of the non-Gaussianity parameter.

  12. New Insights Gained From the Study of the PDF of Small Scale IMF Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, R.; Carbone, V.; Bavassano, B.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.

    2003-12-01

    Interplanetary MHD fluctuations are strongly affected by the solar wind radial expansion. In a previous investigation we studied the radial evolution of the probability distribution function (PDF) of magnetic field and velocity fluctuations within the inner heliosphere and found that the behaviour of these fluctuations tended to resemble a Levy-flight statistics, especially with increasing heliocentric distance from the sun. We concluded that the observed behaviour is mainly due to a competing action between stochastic, propagating fluctuations and convected structures, both contributing to solar wind turbulent fluctuations. These two ingredients, which experience a different radial evolution, are represented by propagating Alfvénic fluctuations and convected flux tubes, respectively. In the present analysis we looked in more detail at the PDF of high resolution magnetic field fluctuations within the inner heliosphere gaining new interesting insights about the nature of these fluctuations and the topology of interplanetary magnetic field at small scale. We finally discuss initial results from a simple model which tries to resemble observations within fast and slow wind with some success.

  13. A simulation of a bluff-body stabilized turbulent premixed flame using LES-PDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeonglae; Pope, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    A turbulent premixed flame stabilized by a triangular cylinder as a flame-holder is simulated. The computational condition matches the Volvo experiments (Sjunnesson et al. 1992). Propane is premixed at a fuel lean condition of ϕ = 0 . 65 . For this reactive simulation, LES-PDF formulation is used, similar to Yang et al. (2012). The evolution of Lagrangian particles is simulated by solving stochastic differential equations modeling transport of the composition PDF. Mixing is modeled by the modified IEM model (Viswanathan et al. 2011). Chemical reactions are calculated by ISAT and for the good load balancing, PURAN distribution of ISAT tables is applied (Hiremath et al. 2012). To calculate resolved density, the two-way coupling (Popov & Pope 2013) is applied, solving a transport equation of resolved specific volume to reduce statistical noise. A baseline calculation shows a good agreement with the experimental measurements in turbulence statistics, temperature, and minor species mass fractions. Chemical reaction does not significantly contribute to the overall computational cost, in contrast to non-premixed flame simulations (Hiremath et al. 2013), presumably due to the restricted manifold of the purely premixed flame in the composition space.

  14. Three-Dimensional Reconstructions Come to Life – Interactive 3D PDF Animations in Functional Morphology

    PubMed Central

    van de Kamp, Thomas; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering. PMID:25029366

  15. On recontamination and directional-bias problems in Monte Carlo simulation of PDF turbulence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1992-02-01

    Turbulent combustion can not be simulated adequately by conventional moment closure turbulent models. The probability density function (PDF) method offers an attractive alternative: in a PDF model, the chemical source terms are closed and do not require additional models. Because the number of computational operations grows only linearly in the Monte Carlo scheme, it is chosen over finite differencing schemes. A grid dependent Monte Carlo scheme following J.Y. Chen and W. Kollmann has been studied in the present work. It was found that in order to conserve the mass fractions absolutely, one needs to add further restrictions to the scheme, namely alpha(sub j) + gamma(sub j) = alpha(sub j - 1) + gamma(sub j + 1). A new algorithm was devised that satisfied this restriction in the case of pure diffusion or uniform flow problems. Using examples, it is shown that absolute conservation can be achieved. Although for non-uniform flows absolute conservation seems impossible, the present scheme has reduced the error considerably.

  16. Three-dimensional reconstructions come to life--interactive 3D PDF animations in functional morphology.

    PubMed

    van de Kamp, Thomas; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering. PMID:25029366

  17. Multi-variate joint PDF for non-Gaussianities: exact formulation and generic approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul; Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Heavens, Alan F.; Matarrese, Sabino E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu E-mail: a.heavens@imperial.ac.uk

    2013-06-01

    We provide an exact expression for the multi-variate joint probability distribution function of non-Gaussian fields primordially arising from local transformations of a Gaussian field. This kind of non-Gaussianity is generated in many models of inflation. We apply our expression to the non-Gaussianity estimation from Cosmic Microwave Background maps and the halo mass function where we obtain analytical expressions. We also provide analytic approximations and their range of validity. For the Cosmic Microwave Background we give a fast way to compute the PDF which is valid up to more than 7σ for f{sub NL} values (both true and sampled) not ruled out by current observations, which consists of expressing the PDF as a combination of bispectrum and trispectrum of the temperature maps. The resulting expression is valid for any kind of non-Gaussianity and is not limited to the local type. The above results may serve as the basis for a fully Bayesian analysis of the non-Gaussianity parameter.

  18. Modeling non-Fickian dispersion by use of the velocity PDF on the pore scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooshapur, Sheema; Manhart, Michael

    2015-04-01

    For obtaining a description of reactive flows in porous media, apart from the geometrical complications of resolving the velocities and scalar values, one has to deal with the additional reactive term in the transport equation. An accurate description of the interface of the reacting fluids - which is strongly influenced by dispersion- is essential for resolving this term. In REV-based simulations the reactive term needs to be modeled taking sub-REV fluctuations and possibly non-Fickian dispersion into account. Non-Fickian dispersion has been observed in strongly heterogeneous domains and in early phases of transport. A fully resolved solution of the Navier-Stokes and transport equations which yields a detailed description of the flow properties, dispersion, interfaces of fluids, etc. however, is not practical for domains containing more than a few thousand grains, due to the huge computational effort required. Through Probability Density Function (PDF) based methods, the velocity distribution in the pore space can facilitate the understanding and modelling of non-Fickian dispersion [1,2]. Our aim is to model the transition between non-Fickian and Fickian dispersion in a random sphere pack within the framework of a PDF based transport model proposed by Meyer and Tchelepi [1,3]. They proposed a stochastic transport model where velocity components of tracer particles are represented by a continuous Markovian stochastic process. In addition to [3], we consider the effects of pore scale diffusion and formulate a different stochastic equation for the increments in velocity space from first principles. To assess the terms in this equation, we performed Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) for solving the Navier-Stokes equation on a random sphere pack. We extracted the PDFs and statistical moments (up to the 4th moment) of the stream-wise velocity, u, and first and second order velocity derivatives both independent and conditioned on velocity. By using this data and

  19. Applying an economical scale-aware PDF-based turbulence closure model in NOAA NCEP GCMs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, S. K.; Belochitski, A.; Moorthi, S.; Bogenschutz, P.; Pincus, R.

    2015-12-01

    A novel unified representation of sub-grid scale (SGS) turbulence, cloudiness, and shallow convection is being implemented into the NOAA NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS) general circulation model. The approach, known as Simplified High Order Closure (SHOC), is based on predicting a joint PDF of SGS thermodynamic variables and vertical velocity and using it to diagnose turbulent diffusion coefficients, SGS fluxes, condensation and cloudiness. Unlike other similar methods, only one new prognostic variable, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), needs to be intoduced, making the technique computationally efficient.SHOC code was adopted for a global model environment from its origins in a cloud resolving model, and incorporated into NCEP GFS. SHOC was first tested in a non-interactive mode, a configuration where SHOC receives inputs from the host model, but its outputs are not returned to the GFS. In this configuration: a) SGS TKE values produced by GFS SHOC are consistent with those produced by SHOC in a CRM, b) SGS TKE in GFS SHOC exhibits a well defined diurnal cycle, c) there's enhanced boundary layer turbulence in the subtropical stratocumulus and tropical transition-to-cumulus areas d) buoyancy flux diagnosed from the assumed PDF is consistent with independently calculated Brunt-Vaisala frequency in identifying stable and unstable regions.Next, SHOC was coupled to GFS, namely turbulent diffusion coefficients computed by SHOC are now used in place of those currently produced by the GFS boundary layer and shallow convection schemes (Han and Pan, 2011), as well as condensation and cloud fraction diagnosed from the SGS PDF replace those calculated in the current large-scale cloudines scheme (Zhao and Carr, 1997). Ongoing activities consist of debugging the fully coupled GFS/SHOC.Future work will consist of evaluating model performance and tuning the physics if necessary, by performing medium-range NWP forecasts with prescribed initial conditions, and AMIP-type climate

  20. EBooks as PDF Files, in EPub Format or as Interactive IBooks? Digital Books in Physics Lessons of Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the different capabilities of ebooks in the pdf, epub and ibook format in science teaching evaluated at the BG/BRG Schwechat. Over the recent years the school equipped with 100 personal computers and 28 iPads has become one of the leading e-learning schools in Austria. iPads show their advantages in the context of blended…

  1. Large-eddy simulation/PDF modeling of a non-premixed CO/H2 temporally evolving jet flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Haifeng; Pope, Stephen B.; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2011-11-01

    We report a large-eddy simulation (LES)/probability density function (PDF) study of a non-premixed CO/H2 temporally evolving planar jet flame at Re = 9079 and Da = 0.011 with skeletal chemistry. The flame exhibits strong turbulence- chemistry interactions resulting in local extinction followed by re-ignition. In this study, the filtered velocity field in LES is computed using the NGA code (Desjardins et al., 2008) and the PDF transported equations with the modified Curl's mixing model are solved by the new highly-scalable HPDF code (Wang and Pope, 2011) with second order accuracy in space and time. The performance of the hybrid LES/PDF methodology is assessed through detailed a posteriori comparisons with DNS of the same flame (Hawkes et al., 2007). The comparison shows good agreement of the temporal evolution of the temperature and mass fractions of major chemical species, as well as the prediction of local extinction and re-ignition. In addition, the effects of the subgrid scale model, the mixing model, and grid resolution on turbulence-chemistry interactions are investigated to improve the capabilities of LES/PDF. Supported in part by the CEFRC funded by the DOE.

  2. Modeling studies of a turbulent pulsed jet flame using LES/PDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pei; Wang, Haifeng

    2015-11-01

    The combustion field in a pulsed turbulent piloted jet flame is studied using an advanced large eddy simulation (LES) / probability density function (PDF) method. Measurement data with a joint OH-PLIF/OH* chemiluminescence/LDV system are available including the temporal series of the axial velocity and planar OH images. A time-dependent inflow condition is specified based on the measurement data. A direct comparison of the mean and rms velocities from the calculations and from the measurement shows a satisfactory prediction of the flow fields by using the employed modeling methods. The predicted OH mass fractions are compared qualitatively with the measured OH images at selected temporal and spatial locations. The comparison shows a good agreement. Conditional quantities and flame index are extracted from the simulations to examine the bimodal and multi-regime combustion dynamics in the flame. This paper is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1336075.

  3. Finite rate kinetics and pdf effects in turbulent combustion modeling for high speed propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagioli, F.; Bruno, C.

    1993-06-01

    A thermochemical model was used to carry out a numerical simulation of the flowfield in a turbulent combustor with nonpremixed injection of hydrogen and air. The turbulent transport of quantities is modeled via the Prandtl-Boussinesq hypothesis plus the k-epsilon model for the eddy viscosity, while chemical kinetics-turbulence interaction is modeled by introducing a joint pdf for the two independent scalars, whose shape is a priori established. The models employed are validated by a comparison of calculations with the experimental results of Drake et al. (1984) for H2/CO/N2/air flame at 1 atm pressure. The comparisons show the importance of accounting for free-radicals recombinations finite rate kinetics.

  4. Efficient and robust computation of PDF features from diffusion MR signal.

    PubMed

    Assemlal, Haz-Edine; Tschumperlé, David; Brun, Luc

    2009-10-01

    We present a method for the estimation of various features of the tissue micro-architecture using the diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The considered features are designed from the displacement probability density function (PDF). The estimation is based on two steps: first the approximation of the signal by a series expansion made of Gaussian-Laguerre and Spherical Harmonics functions; followed by a projection on a finite dimensional space. Besides, we propose to tackle the problem of the robustness to Rician noise corrupting in-vivo acquisitions. Our feature estimation is expressed as a variational minimization process leading to a variational framework which is robust to noise. This approach is very flexible regarding the number of samples and enables the computation of a large set of various features of the local tissues structure. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method with results on both synthetic phantom and real MR datasets acquired in a clinical time-frame. PMID:19665917

  5. An assumed pdf approach for the calculation of supersonic mixing layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baurle, R. A.; Drummond, J. P.; Hassan, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to predict the effect that turbulent mixing has on the extent of combustion, a one-equation turbulence model is added to an existing Navier-Stokes solver with finite-rate chemistry. To average the chemical-source terms appearing in the species-continuity equations, an assumed pdf approach is also used. This code was used to analyze the mixing and combustion caused by the mixing layer formed by supersonic coaxial H2-air streams. The chemistry model employed allows for the formation of H2O2 and HO2. Comparisons are made with recent measurements using laser Raman diagnostics. Comparisons include temperature and its rms, and concentrations of H2, O2, N2, H2O, and OH. In general, good agreement with experiment was noted.

  6. A composition joint PDF method for the modeling of spray flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses an extension of the probability density function (PDF) method to the modeling of spray flames to evaluate the limitations and capabilities of this method in the modeling of gas-turbine combustor flows. The comparisons show that the general features of the flowfield are correctly predicted by the present solution procedure. The present solution appears to provide a better representation of the temperature field, particularly, in the reverse-velocity zone. The overpredictions in the centerline velocity could be attributed to the following reasons: (1) the use of k-epsilon turbulence model is known to be less precise in highly swirling flows and (2) the swirl number used here is reported to be estimated rather than measured.

  7. Application of Goldthorpe PDF model to dynamic fracture. Applications using the GRIM Eulerian hydrocode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullis, I. G.; Church, P. D.; Townsley, R.; Greenwood, P.; Proud, W. G.

    2006-08-01

    The Goldthorpe Path Dependent Failure (PDF) model has been incorporated into the GRIM Eulerian hydrocode and has been applied to a number of dynamic fracture scenarios. The model has allowed a step change improvement in the simulation of fracture processes in an Euler scheme. The applications include shear plugging of a plate due to ballistic impact, prediction of the so-called V{50} for a small mass projectile and the impact of a generic EFP against an aluminium plate target. It has been noted that the prediction of temperature in hydrocodes, still requires more effort, particularly when materials approach the melt point. In addition there is also significant batch to batch variation in the fracture properties in materials, which needs to be taken into account when simulating a given application scenario. The paper discusses these points and recognises that GRIM is now an integral part of the design process for new ballistic designs.

  8. Springtime trans-pacific atmospheric transport from east Asia: a transit-time-pdf approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, M.; McKendry, I.; Jaffe, D.

    2003-04-01

    The atmosphere is known to episodically transport aerosols, dust, and gaseous pollutants from industrialized south-east Asia, the Gobi desert, and Siberian wild fires to western North America. We give a novel characterization of the ever-present background transport from these regions and of the probability of transport ``events", that is, long-range transport of high concentrations with minimal dispersion. Our primary transport diagnostic is the transit-time probability density function (pdf), {\\cal G}, which is a tracer-independent measure of the flow that allows us to isolate the role of transport from other factors such as source variability and chemistry. The pdf approach, unlike typical back-trajectory analyses, captures transport due to all possible paths and accounts for both resolved advection and subgrid processes. We use a numerical model of the global atmosphere (MATCH), driven by NCEP reananlysis data, to establish the springtime statistics of daily averages of {\\cal G}. A suitably defined average of {\\cal G} quantifies the mass fraction of background air of a given transit time, or age, from the source regions. An analysis of the variability of {\\cal G} at fixed transit time allows us to identify transport events and to estimate their probability of occurrence. This is illustrated for transport events to the ``Pacific-North-West" (PNW) region of North America, defined as (43.8o-53.3o{N}) × (115.3o-124.7o{W}). Correlations between {\\cal G} averaged over the PNW and the winds at any point in the atmosphere identify large-scale anomaly structures of the flow that correspond to favorable transport to the PNW.

  9. Faradaurate-940: Synthesis, Mass Spectrometry, STEM, PDF, and SAXS Study of Au~940(SR)~160 Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kumara, Chanaka; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cullen, David A; Dass, Amala

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining monodisperse nanocrystals, and determining its composition to the atomic level and its atomic structure is highly desirable, but is generally lacking. Here, we report the discovery and comprehensive characterization of a 3-nm plasmonic nanocrystal with a composition of Au940 20(SCH2CH2Ph)160 4, which is, the largest mass spectrometrically characterized gold thiolate nanoparticle produced to date. The compositional assignment has been made using electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). The MS results show an unprecedented size monodispersity, where the number of Au atoms vary by only 40 atoms (940 20). The mass spectrometrically-determined size and composition are supported by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and synchrotron-based methods such as atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Lower resolution STEM images show an ensemble of particles 1000 s per frame visually demonstrating monodispersity. Modelling of SAXS on statistically significant nanoparticle population approximately 1012 individual nanoparticles - shows that the diameter is 3.0 0.2nm, supporting mass spectrometry and electron microscopy results on monodispersity. Atomic PDF based on high energy X-ray diffraction experiments show decent match with either a Marks decahedral or truncated octrahedral structure. Atomic resolution STEM images of single particles and its FFT suggest face-centered cubic (fcc) arrangement. UV-visible spectroscopy data shows that the 940-atom size supports a surface plasmon resonance peak at 505 nm. These monodisperse plasmonic nanoparticles minimize averaging effects and has potential application in solar cells, nano-optical devices, catalysis and drug delivery.

  10. Providing Reliability of Physical Systems: Fully Delay Testable Logical Circuit Design with Compact Representation of all PDF Test Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrosova, A. Yu.; Mitrofanov, E. V.; Akhynova, D. I.

    2016-01-01

    Functional reliability is one of the important properties of physical systems provided by reliability of system components, in particular, control logical components. The new approach to fully delay testable circuit design oriented to cut overheads and lengths of circuit paths has been developed. Compact representation of all PDF test pairs is reduced to keeping the corresponding generative vector pairs. The number of generative vector pairs does not exceed the doubled number of internal ROBDD nodes originating from the circuit, while the number of the circuit paths can exponentially depend on the number of these internal nodes. The algorithm of involving the PDF test pair from the proper generative vector pair is suggested. This procedure does not require essential calculations. The algorithm of deriving the generative vector pair has a polynomial complexity.

  11. Caring for Someone Sick (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Language: English Español File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    MedlinePlus

    ... the MMWR Science Clips Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  13. National Botulism Surveillance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Illness A-Z Foodsafety.gov FDA USDA/FSIS File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  14. Hearing Loss in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... EHDI in Latin America Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  15. Giardia Infection Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4(5):e682. File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  16. Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection

    MedlinePlus

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  17. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ecology Graphic Language: English Español Français File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  18. Flu and People with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

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  19. ADHD in Young Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the MMWR Science Clips Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  20. Flu and Heart Disease and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

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  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... to learn about CDC’s past, present, & future work. File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  2. What Is Addiction?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hard to Quit Drugs? Next Español English Español PDF Version Download Treatment & Recovery Information Treatment and Recovery ... the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word ...

  3. Do You or a Loved One Have a Drug Abuse Problem?

    MedlinePlus

    ... rights reserved. Previous Index Next Español English Español PDF Version Download Treatment & Recovery Information Treatment and Recovery ... the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word ...

  4. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink alcohol. Previous Index Next Español English Español PDF Version Download "I'm amazed I didn't ... the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word ...

  5. Effects of Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse and HIV/AIDS Next Español English Español PDF Version Download Treatment & Recovery Information Treatment and Recovery ... the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word ...

  6. Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Bodies Previous Index Next Español English Español PDF Version Download "I need different people around me." ... the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word ...

  7. Signs of Painkiller Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... the drug. Previous Index Next Español English Español PDF Version Download "I didn't want to do ... the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word ...

  8. AsteriX: a Web server to automatically extract ligand coordinates from figures in PDF articles.

    PubMed

    Lounnas, V; Vriend, G

    2012-02-27

    Coordinates describing the chemical structures of small molecules that are potential ligands for pharmaceutical targets are used at many stages of the drug design process. The coordinates of the vast majority of ligands can be obtained from either publicly accessible or commercial databases. However, interesting ligands sometimes are only available from the scientific literature, in which case their coordinates need to be reconstructed manually--a process that consists of a series of time-consuming steps. We present a Web server that helps reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of ligands for which a two-dimensional (2D) picture is available in a PDF file. The software, called AsteriX, analyses every picture contained in the PDF file and attempts to determine automatically whether or not it contains ligands. Areas in pictures that may contain molecular structures are processed to extract connectivity and atom type information that allow coordinates to be subsequently reconstructed. The AsteriX Web server was tested on a series of articles containing a large diversity in graphical representations. In total, 88% of 3249 ligand structures present in the test set were identified as chemical diagrams. Of these, about half were interpreted correctly as 3D structures, and a further one-third required only minor manual corrections. It is principally impossible to always correctly reconstruct 3D coordinates from pictures because there are many different protocols for drawing a 2D image of a ligand, but more importantly a wide variety of semantic annotations are possible. The AsteriX Web server therefore includes facilities that allow the users to augment partial or partially correct 3D reconstructions. All 3D reconstructions are submitted, checked, and corrected by the users domain at the server and are freely available for everybody. The coordinates of the reconstructed ligands are made available in a series of formats commonly used in drug design research. The

  9. Interactive 3D-PDF Presentations for the Simulation and Quantification of Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Surgical Approaches.

    PubMed

    Mavar-Haramija, Marija; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Méndez, Juan A Juanes; Puigdelívoll-Sánchez, Anna; de Notaris, Matteo

    2015-10-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) model of the skull base was reconstructed from the pre- and post-dissection head CT images and embedded in a Portable Document Format (PDF) file, which can be opened by freely available software and used offline. The CT images were segmented using a specific 3D software platform for biomedical data, and the resulting 3D geometrical models of anatomical structures were used for dual purpose: to simulate the extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches and to perform the quantitative analysis of the procedures. The analysis consisted of bone removal quantification and the calculation of quantitative parameters (surgical freedom and exposure area) of each procedure. The results are presented in three PDF documents containing JavaScript-based functions. The 3D-PDF files include reconstructions of the nasal structures (nasal septum, vomer, middle turbinates), the bony structures of the anterior skull base and maxillofacial region and partial reconstructions of the optic nerve, the hypoglossal and vidian canals and the internal carotid arteries. Alongside the anatomical model, axial, sagittal and coronal CT images are shown. Interactive 3D presentations were created to explain the surgery and the associated quantification methods step-by-step. The resulting 3D-PDF files allow the user to interact with the model through easily available software, free of charge and in an intuitive manner. The files are available for offline use on a personal computer and no previous specialized knowledge in informatics is required. The documents can be downloaded at http://hdl.handle.net/2445/55224 . PMID:26306875

  10. The Drosophila neuropeptides PDF and sNPF have opposing electrophysiological and molecular effects on central neurons.

    PubMed

    Vecsey, Christopher G; Pírez, Nicolás; Griffith, Leslie C

    2014-03-01

    Neuropeptides have widespread effects on behavior, but how these molecules alter the activity of their target cells is poorly understood. We employed a new model system in Drosophila melanogaster to assess the electrophysiological and molecular effects of neuropeptides, recording in situ from larval motor neurons, which transgenically express a receptor of choice. We focused on two neuropeptides, pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) and small neuropeptide F (sNPF), which play important roles in sleep/rhythms and feeding/metabolism. PDF treatment depolarized motor neurons expressing the PDF receptor (PDFR), increasing excitability. sNPF treatment had the opposite effect, hyperpolarizing neurons expressing the sNPF receptor (sNPFR). Live optical imaging using a genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based sensor for cyclic AMP (cAMP) showed that PDF induced a large increase in cAMP, whereas sNPF caused a small but significant decrease in cAMP. Coexpression of pertussis toxin or RNAi interference to disrupt the G-protein Gαo blocked the electrophysiological responses to sNPF, showing that sNPFR acts via Gαo signaling. Using a fluorescent sensor for intracellular calcium, we observed that sNPF-induced hyperpolarization blocked spontaneous waves of activity propagating along the ventral nerve cord, demonstrating that the electrical effects of sNPF can cause profound changes in natural network activity in the brain. This new model system provides a platform for mechanistic analysis of how neuropeptides can affect target cells at the electrical and molecular level, allowing for predictions of how they regulate brain circuits that control behaviors such as sleep and feeding. PMID:24353297

  11. DNS of a premixed turbulent V flame and LES of a ducted flame using a FSD-PDF subgrid scale closure with FPI-tabulated chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, Pascale; Vervisch, Luc; Payet, Sandra; Hauguel, Raphaeel

    2005-12-01

    Two complementary simulations of premixed turbulent flames are discussed. Low Reynolds number two-dimensional direct numerical simulation of a premixed turbulent V flame is first performed, to further analyze the behavior of various flame quantities and to study key ingredients of premixed turbulent combustion modeling. Flame surface density, subgrid-scale variance of progress variables, and unresolved turbulent fluxes are analyzed. These simulations include fully detailed chemistry from a flame-generated tabulation (FPI) and the analysis focuses on the dynamics of the thin flame front. Then, a novel subgrid scale closure for large eddy simulation of premixed turbulent combustion (FSD-PDF) is proposed. It combines the flame surface density (FSD) approach with a presumed probability density function (PDF) of the progress variable that is used in FPI chemistry tabulation. The FSD is useful for introducing in the presumed PDF the influence of the spatially filtered thin reaction zone evolving within the subgrid. This is achieved via the exact relation between the PDF and the FSD. This relation involves the conditional filtered average of the magnitude of the gradient of the progress variable. In the modeling, this conditional filtered mean is approximated from the filtered gradient of the progress variable of the FPI laminar flame. Balance equations providing mean and variance of the progress variable together with the measure of the filtered gradient are used to presume the PDF. A three-dimensional larger Reynolds number flow configuration (ORACLES experiment) is then computed with FSD-PDF and the results are compared with measurements.

  12. The nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of the synthetic AhPDF1.1b plant defensin evidences the structural feature within the γ-motif.

    PubMed

    Meindre, Fanny; Lelièvre, Dominique; Loth, Karine; Mith, Oriane; Aucagne, Vincent; Berthomieu, Pierre; Marquès, Laurence; Delmas, Agnès F; Landon, Céline; Paquet, Françoise

    2014-12-16

    Plant defensins (PDF) are cysteine-rich peptides that are major actors in the innate immunity in plants. Besides their antifungal activity, some PDF such as Arabidopsis halleri PDF1.1b confer zinc tolerance in plants. Here we present (i) an efficient protocol for the production of AhPDF1.1b by solid-phase peptide synthesis followed by controlled oxidative folding to obtain the highly pure native form of the defensin and (ii) the three-dimensional (3D) nuclear magnetic resonance structure of AhPDF1.1b, the first 3D structure of plant defensin obtained with a synthetic peptide. Its fold is organized around the typical cysteine-stabilized α-helix β-sheet motif and contains the γ-core motif involved in the antifungal activity of all plant defensins. On the basis of our structural analysis of AhPDF1 defensins combined with previous biological data for antifungal and zinc tolerance activities, we established the essential role of cis-Pro41 within the γ-core. In fact, the four consecutive residues (Val39-Phe40-Pro41-Ala42) are strictly conserved for plant defensins able to tolerate zinc. We hypothesized that structural and/or dynamic features of this sequence are related to the ability of the defensin to chelate zinc. PMID:25419866

  13. Joint constraints on galaxy bias and σ8 through the N-pdf of the galaxy number density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; Vielva, Patricio; Martínez, Vicent J.; Sanz, José L.; Saar, Enn; Paredes, Silvestre

    2016-03-01

    We present a full description of the N-probability density function of the galaxy number density fluctuations. This N-pdf is given in terms, on the one hand, of the cold dark matter correlations and, on the other hand, of the galaxy bias parameter. The method relies on the assumption commonly adopted that the dark matter density fluctuations follow a local non-linear transformation of the initial energy density perturbations. The N-pdf of the galaxy number density fluctuations allows for an optimal estimation of the bias parameter (e.g., via maximum-likelihood estimation, or Bayesian inference if there exists any a priori information on the bias parameter), and of those parameters defining the dark matter correlations, in particular its amplitude (σ8). It also provides the proper framework to perform model selection between two competitive hypotheses. The parameters estimation capabilities of the N-pdf are proved by SDSS-like simulations (both, ideal log-normal simulations and mocks obtained from Las Damas simulations), showing that our estimator is unbiased. We apply our formalism to the 7th release of the SDSS main sample (for a volume-limited subset with absolute magnitudes Mr <= -20). We obtain hat b = 1.193 ± 0.074 and σ̂8 = 0.862 ± 0.080, for galaxy number density fluctuations in cells of the size of 30h-1Mpc. Different model selection criteria show that galaxy biasing is clearly favoured.

  14. Simulations of Spray Reacting Flows in a Single Element LDI Injector With and Without Invoking an Eulerian Scalar PDF Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the numerical simulations of the Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single element lean direct injection (LDI) injector by using the National Combustion Code (NCC) with and without invoking the Eulerian scalar probability density function (PDF) method. The flow field is calculated by using the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS and URANS) with nonlinear turbulence models, and when the scalar PDF method is invoked, the energy and compositions or species mass fractions are calculated by solving the equation of an ensemble averaged density-weighted fine-grained probability density function that is referred to here as the averaged probability density function (APDF). A nonlinear model for closing the convection term of the scalar APDF equation is used in the presented simulations and will be briefly described. Detailed comparisons between the results and available experimental data are carried out. Some positive findings of invoking the Eulerian scalar PDF method in both improving the simulation quality and reducing the computing cost are observed.

  15. Geologic map of the Lake Mathews 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Weber, F. Harold

    2001-01-01

    a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in lkm_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous.Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand.In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f. Even though this is an Open-File report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  16. Geologic map of the Corona South 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside and Orange counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, C.H., Jr.; Morton, Douglas M.; Weber, F. Harold, Jr.; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.; O'Brien, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    a. A Readme file; includes in Appendix I, data contained in crs_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat page size setting influences map scale. The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units is in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigations Series (I-series) maps but has not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Where known, grain size is indicated on the map by a subscripted letter or letters following the unit symbols as follows: lg, large boulders; b, boulder; g, gravel; a, arenaceous; s, silt; c, clay; e.g. Qyfa is a predominantly young alluvial fan deposit that is arenaceous. Multiple letters are used for more specific identification or for mixed units, e.g., Qfysa is a silty sand. In some cases, mixed units are indicated by a compound symbol; e.g., Qyf2sc. Marine deposits are in part overlain by local, mostly alluvial fan, deposits and are labeled Qomf. Grain size follows f. Even though this is an Open-File Report and includes the standard USGS Open-File disclaimer, the report closely adheres to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above).

  17. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Hughes, James S.; Bouchard, Kyle E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Schilt, Carl R.; Hanks, Michael E.; Kim, Jina; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J.; Nagy, William T.

    2006-12-04

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2005. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of two studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 16 and July 15, 2005, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, and (2) smolt approach and fate at B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C from the B1 forebay. Some of the large appendices are only presented on the compact disk (CD) that accompanies the final report. Examples include six large comma-separated-variable (.CSV) files of hourly fish passage, hourly variances, and Project operations for spring and summer from Appendix E, and large Audio Video Interleave (AVI) files with DIDSON-movie clips of the area upstream of B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C (Appendix H). Those video clips show smolts approaching the outlet, predators feeding on smolts, and vortices that sometimes entrained approaching smolts into turbines. The CD also includes Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Files (PDF) of the entire report and appendices.

  18. Publishing large DNA sequence data in reduced spaces and lasting formats, in paper or PDF.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Alexandre Pires

    2013-01-01

    Scientific publications carry a practical moral duty: they must last. Along that line of thinking, some methods are proposed to allow economically and structurally viable publication of DNA sequence data of any size in printed matter and PDFs. The proposal is primarily aimed at contributing for preserving information for the future, while allowing authors to avoid information splitting and complement storage ex situ, that is, in server machines, outside the publication proper. The technique may also help to solve the impasse between the ICZN Code requirement that a new nomen be associated to diagnostic characters for the taxon vs. the phylogenetic definition of taxa, based on cladograms only: sequence data are characters, and can now be easily and comfortably included in taxonomic publications, with direct textual mention to their diagnostic sections. The compression level achieved allows the inclusion of all wanted DNA or RNA sequences in the same printed matter or PDF publications where the sequences are cited and discussed. Reduced font sizes, invisible fonts, and original 2D black & white and color barcodes are illustrated and briefly discussed. The level of data compression achieved can allow each full page of sequence data, or about 5000 characters, to be precisely coded into a color barcode as small as a square of 1.5 mm. A practical example is provided with Taeniogonalos woodorum Smith (Hymenoptera, Trigonalidae). Free software to generate publishable barcodes from txt or FASTA files is provided at www.systaxon.ufes.br/dna. PMID:24699621

  19. On the use of PDF schemes to parameterize sub-grid clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Zuidema, Paquita

    2009-03-01

    Using high resolution simulations of eight well-documented cloud cases in different climate regimes, this study investigated the statistical distributions of dynamic and thermodynamic variables in the cloud layer and examined various assumptions used by the current statistical cloud schemes. It is found that dynamic and thermodynamic variables skew differently in the cloud layer of shallow cumulus, stratocumulus, and deep convective clouds. Vertical velocity is positively skewed, but the skewed dynamic structure cannot account for the large skewness of positively skewed total mixing ratio q t and negatively skewed liquid water potential temperature $\\theta$ l . It is, thus, not physically sound to assume that the sub-grid variation of different variables follows the same skewed PDF. The simulations further show that the weighted standard deviations of q t and $\\theta$ l have the same order of magnitude in all types of clouds, indicating that the variations of temperature and moisture are the equally important factors for sub-grid clouds. Thus, neglecting either one of them in a statistical cloud scheme may introduce significant bias in the parameterized clouds.

  20. CFD modeling using PDF approach for investigating the flame length in rotary kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elattar, H. F.; Specht, E.; Fouda, A.; Bin-Mahfouz, Abdullah S.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are performed to investigate the flame length characteristics in rotary kilns using probability density function (PDF) approach. A commercial CFD package (ANSYS-Fluent) is employed for this objective. A 2-D axisymmetric model is applied to study the effect of both operating and geometric parameters of rotary kiln on the characteristics of the flame length. Three types of gaseous fuel are used in the present work; methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and biogas (50 % CH4 + 50 % CO2). Preliminary comparison study of 2-D modeling outputs of free jet flames with available experimental data is carried out to choose and validate the proper turbulence model for the present numerical simulations. The results showed that the excess air number, diameter of kiln air entrance, radiation modeling consideration and fuel type have remarkable effects on the flame length characteristics. Numerical correlations for the rotary kiln flame length are presented in terms of the studied kiln operating and geometric parameters within acceptable error.

  1. Usability of PDF based Digital Textbooks to the Physically Disabled University Student.

    PubMed

    Oku, Hidehisa; Matsubara, Kayoko; Booka, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Digital textbooks have been expected for providing multimedia information that the print textbooks could not handle. The original digital textbook can be fabricated relatively easily by using Epub or DAISY. Print textbooks are, however, employed as textbooks in the most of lectures in universities. Therefore, it is considered necessary to convert the content of the print textbook to the digital textbook simply and in a short time. In this paper, the digital textbook using PDF files of the print textbook was suggested as one of simple and practical solution to provide an alternative textbook for the physically disabled university student who has difficulty handling the print textbook. Then usability of the suggested method was evaluated experimentally from the point of workload. Result of the experiment indicates that the digital textbook fabricated as the alternative one for the print textbook by the suggested method has a potential to reduce workload for the physically disabled university students. In addition, the digital textbook with larger LCD display needs less workload than the print textbook. Then, there are not so much difference in the workload between the print book which is smaller than the print textbook and the digital book made from the print book. PMID:26294446

  2. Presumed PDF Modeling of Early Flame Propagation in Moderate to Intense Turbulence Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmen, Christina; Feikema, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper describes the results obtained from a one-dimensional time dependent numerical technique that simulates early flame propagation in a moderate to intense turbulent environment. Attention is focused on the development of a spark-ignited, premixed, lean methane/air mixture with the unsteady spherical flame propagating in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. A Monte-Carlo particle tracking method, based upon the method of fractional steps, is utilized to simulate the phenomena represented by a probability density function (PDF) transport equation. Gaussian distributions of fluctuating velocity and fuel concentration are prescribed. Attention is focused on three primary parameters that influence the initial flame kernel growth: the detailed ignition system characteristics, the mixture composition, and the nature of the flow field. The computational results of moderate and intense isotropic turbulence suggests that flames within the distributed reaction zone are not as vulnerable, as traditionally believed, to the adverse effects of increased turbulence intensity. It is also shown that the magnitude of the flame front thickness significantly impacts the turbulent consumption flame speed. Flame conditions studied have fuel equivalence ratio s in the range phi = 0.6 to 0.9 at standard temperature and pressure.

  3. Comparative study of micromixing models in transported scalar PDF simulations of turbulent nonpremixed bluff body flames

    SciTech Connect

    Merci, Bart; Roekaerts, Dirk; Naud, Bertrand; Pope, Stephen B.

    2006-07-15

    Numerical simulation results are presented for turbulent jet diffusion flames with various levels of turbulence-chemistry interaction, stabilized behind a bluff body (Sydney Flames HM1-3). Interaction between turbulence and combustion is modeled with the transported joint-scalar PDF approach. The mass density function transport equation is solved in a Lagrangian manner. A second-moment-closure turbulence model is applied to obtain accurate mean flow and turbulent mixing fields. The behavior of two micromixing models is discussed: the Euclidean minimum spanning tree model and the modified Curl coalescence dispersion model. The impact of the micromixing model choice on the results in physical space is small, although some influence becomes visible as the amount of local extinction increases. Scatter plots and profiles of conditional means and variances of thermochemical quantities, conditioned on the mixture fraction, are discussed both within and downstream of the recirculation region. A distinction is made between local extinction and incomplete combustion, based on the CO species mass fraction. The differences in qualitative behavior between the micromixing models are explained and quantitative comparison to experimental data is made. (author)

  4. LES of turbulent lifted CH4 /H2 flames using a novel FGM-PDF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abtahizadeh, S. Ebrahim; van Oijen, Jeroen; Bastiaans, Rob; de Goey, Philip

    2014-11-01

    This study reports on numerical investigations of preferential diffusion effects on flame stabilization of turbulent lifted flames using LES with a FGM-PDF approach. The experimental test case is the Delft JHC burner to study Mild combustion; a clean combustion concept. In this burner, CH4 based fuel has been enriched from 0 to 25% of H2. Since the main stabilization mechanism of these turbulent flames is autoignition, the developed numerical model should be able to predict this complex event. Furthermore, addition of hydrogen makes modeling even more challenging due to its preferential diffusion effects. These effects are increasingly important since autoignition is typically initiated at very small mixture fractions where molecular diffusion is comparable to turbulence transport (eddy viscosity). In this study, first, a novel numerical model is developed based on the Flamelet Generated Manifolds (FGM) to account for preferential diffusion effects in autoignition. Afterwards, the developed FGM approach is implemented in LES of the H2 enriched turbulent lifted jet flames. Main features of these turbulent lifted flames such as the formation of ignition kernels and stabilization mechanisms are thoroughly analyzed and compared with the measurements of OH chemiluminescence. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Dutch Technology Foundation (STW) under Project No. 10414.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of peptide deformylase (PDF) from Bacillus cereus in ligand-free and actinonin-bound forms

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joon Kyu; Moon, Jin Ho; Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Eunice EunKyeong

    2005-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) from B. cereus has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized in ligand-free and actinonin-bound forms. Diffraction data have been collected from these crystals to 1.7 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. In bacteria, protein expression initiates with an N-formyl group and this needs to be removed in order to ensure proper bacterial growth. These formylation and deformylation processes are unique to eubacteria; therefore, inhibition of these would provide a novel antibacterial therapy. Deformylation is carried out by peptide deformylase (PDF). PDF from Bacillus cereus, one of the major pathogenic bacteria, was cloned into expression plasmid pET-28a (Novagen), overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified to high quality. Crystals have been obtained of both ligand-free PDF and PDF to which actinonin, a highly potent naturally occurring inhibitor, is bound. Both crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.72, b = 44.04, c = 85.19 Å and a = 41.31, b = 44.56, c = 84.47 Å, respectively. Diffraction data were collected to 1.7 Å resolution for the inhibitor-free crystals and to 2.0 Å resolution for the actinonin-bound crystals.

  6. PDF Weaving - Linking Inventory Data and Monte Carlo Uncertainty Analysis in the Study of how Disturbance Affects Forest Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, S. P.; Patterson, P.; Garrard, C.

    2014-12-01

    Altered disturbance regimes are likely a primary mechanism by which a changing climate will affect storage of carbon in forested ecosystems. Accordingly, the National Forest System (NFS) has been mandated to assess the role of disturbance (harvests, fires, insects, etc.) on carbon storage in each of its planning units. We have developed a process which combines 1990-era maps of forest structure and composition with high-quality maps of subsequent disturbance type and magnitude to track the impact of disturbance on carbon storage. This process, called the Forest Carbon Management Framework (ForCaMF), uses the maps to apply empirically calibrated carbon dynamics built into a widely used management tool, the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). While ForCaMF offers locally specific insights into the effect of historical or hypothetical disturbance trends on carbon storage, its dependence upon the interaction of several maps and a carbon model poses a complex challenge in terms of tracking uncertainty. Monte Carlo analysis is an attractive option for tracking the combined effects of error in several constituent inputs as they impact overall uncertainty. Monte Carlo methods iteratively simulate alternative values for each input and quantify how much outputs vary as a result. Variation of each input is controlled by a Probability Density Function (PDF). We introduce a technique called "PDF Weaving," which constructs PDFs that ensure that simulated uncertainty precisely aligns with uncertainty estimates that can be derived from inventory data. This hard link with inventory data (derived in this case from FIA - the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program) both provides empirical calibration and establishes consistency with other types of assessments (e.g., habitat and water) for which NFS depends upon FIA data. Results from the NFS Northern Region will be used to illustrate PDF weaving and insights gained from ForCaMF about the role of disturbance in carbon

  7. Using Drell-Yan forward-backward asymmetry to reduce PDF uncertainties in the measurement of electroweak parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodek, A.; Han, J.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Sakumoto, W.

    2016-03-01

    The uncertainties in parton distribution functions (PDFs) are the dominant source of the systematic uncertainty in precision measurements of electroweak parameters at hadron colliders (e.g. sin ^2θ _{eff}(M_Z), sin ^2θ W=1-M_W^2/M_Z^2 and the mass of the W boson). We show that measurements of the forward-backward charge asymmetry (A_{FB}(M,y)) of Drell-Yan dilepton events produced at hadron colliders provide a new powerful tool to reduce the PDF uncertainties in these measurements.

  8. Local structure of La1-xSrxCoO3 determined from EXAFS and neutron PDF studies

    SciTech Connect

    Proffen, Thomas; Sundaram, Nalini; Jiang, Y; Anderson, Ingrid; Belanger, D P; Booth, C H; Bridges, F; Mitchell, J F; Zheng, H

    2008-01-01

    The combined local structure techniques, extended X-ray absorption fine struture (EXAFS) and neutron pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, have been used for temperatures 4 {<=} T {<=} 330 K to rule out a large Jahn-Teller (J-T) distortion of the Co-O bond in La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} for a significant fraction of Co sites (x {<=} 0.35), indicating few, if any, J-T active, single-occupied e{sub g} Co sites exist.

  9. A statistical investigation of the single-point pdf of velocity and vorticity based on direct numerical simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortazavi, M.; Kollmann, W.; Squires, K.

    1987-01-01

    Vorticity plays a fundamental role in turbulent flows. The dynamics of vorticity in turbulent flows and the effect on single-point closure models were investigated. The approach was to use direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows to investigate the pdf of velocity and vorticity. The preliminary study of homogeneous shear flow has shown that the expectation of the fluctuating pressure gradient, conditioned with a velocity component, is linear in the velocity component, and that the coefficient is independent of velocity and vorticity. In addition, the work shows that the expectation of the pressure gradient, conditioned with a vorticity component, is essentially zero.

  10. Turbulent piloted partially-premixed flames with varying levels of O2/N2: stability limits and PDF calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juddoo, Mrinal; Masri, Assaad R.; Pope, Stephen B.

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports measured stability limits and PDF calculations of piloted, turbulent flames of compressed natural gas (CNG) partially-premixed with either pure oxygen, or with varying levels of O2/N2. Stability limits are presented for flames of CNG fuel premixed with up to 20% oxygen as well as CNG-O2-N2 fuel where the O2 content is varied from 8 to 22% by volume. Calculations are presented for (i) Sydney flame B [Masri et al. 1988] which uses pure CNG as well as flames B15 to B25 where the CNG is partially-premixed with 15-25% oxygen by volume, respectively and (ii) Sandia methane-air (1:3 by volume) flame E [Barlow et al. 2005] as well as new flames E15 and E25 that are partially-premixed with 'reconstituted air' where the O2 content in nitrogen is 15 and 25% by volume, respectively. The calculations solve a transported PDF of composition using a particle-based Monte Carlo method and employ the EMST mixing model as well as detailed chemical kinetics. The addition of oxygen to the fuel increases stability, shortens the flames, broadens the reaction zone, and shifts the stoichiometric mixture fraction towards the inner side of the jet. It is found that for pure CNG flames where the reaction zone is narrow (∼0.1 in mixture fraction space), the PDF calculations fail to reproduce the correct level of local extinction on approach to blow-off. A broadening in the reaction zone up to about 0.25 in mixture fraction space is needed for the PDF/EMST approach to be able to capture these finite-rate chemistry effects. It is also found that for the same level of partial premixing, increasing the O2/N2 ratio increases the maximum levels of CO and NO but shifts the peak to richer mixture fractions. Over the range of oxygenation investigated here, stability limits have shown to improve almost linearly with increasing oxygen levels in the fuel and with increasing the contribution of release rate from the pilot.

  11. Simplified generation of biomedical 3D surface model data for embedding into 3D portable document format (PDF) files for publication and education.

    PubMed

    Newe, Axel; Ganslandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of the 3D Portable Document Format (PDF) for clinical, educational, and research purposes has recently been shown. However, the lack of a simple tool for converting biomedical data into the model data in the necessary Universal 3D (U3D) file format is a drawback for the broad acceptance of this new technology. A new module for the image processing and rapid prototyping framework MeVisLab does not only provide a platform-independent possibility to create surface meshes out of biomedical/DICOM and other data and to export them into U3D--it also lets the user add meta data to these meshes to predefine colors and names that can be processed by a PDF authoring software while generating 3D PDF files. Furthermore, the source code of the respective module is available and well documented so that it can easily be modified for own purposes. PMID:24260144

  12. Simplified Generation of Biomedical 3D Surface Model Data for Embedding into 3D Portable Document Format (PDF) Files for Publication and Education

    PubMed Central

    Newe, Axel; Ganslandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of the 3D Portable Document Format (PDF) for clinical, educational, and research purposes has recently been shown. However, the lack of a simple tool for converting biomedical data into the model data in the necessary Universal 3D (U3D) file format is a drawback for the broad acceptance of this new technology. A new module for the image processing and rapid prototyping framework MeVisLab does not only provide a platform-independent possibility to create surface meshes out of biomedical/DICOM and other data and to export them into U3D – it also lets the user add meta data to these meshes to predefine colors and names that can be processed by a PDF authoring software while generating 3D PDF files. Furthermore, the source code of the respective module is available and well documented so that it can easily be modified for own purposes. PMID:24260144

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: PDF Atlas and spectra of FeH molecule in LHS 2 (Wende+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wende, S.; Reiners, A.; Seifahrt, A.; Bernath, P. F.

    2010-08-01

    In the pdf atlas (fehatlas.pdf), the identified FeH lines, were assigned with their molecular quantum numbers, which are in detail: lower and upper vibrational state, branch, lower rotational state, lower and upper omega, and the fraction to a possible blend. The latter one is unity if the line is not blended. In the atlas, we plotted the CRIRES spectrum of GJ1002 together with two computed spectra for an M dwarf model with logg=5.0, Teff=3100K and solar composition. One of the synthetic spectra is computed using the original Einstein A values provided by Dulick et al. (2003ApJ...594..651D) (red), the other one is computed with scaled Einstein A values (green). For both computed spectra, the line positions were adjusted. We also provide the spectra of GJ1002 (table2.dat), unscaled computations (table3.dat), and scaled computations (table4.dat). All spectra are normalized to unity. (5 data files).

  14. Climate Simulations Using the Community Atmosphere Model Coupled with a Multi-Variate PDF-Based Cloud Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogenschutz, P.; Gettelman, A.; Larson, V. E.; Morrison, H.; Chen, C. C.; Thayer-Calder, K.; Craig, C.

    2014-12-01

    Supported by funding through a Climate Process Team (CPT), we have implemented a multi-variate probability density function (PDF) cloud and turbulence scheme into NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). The parameterization is known as Cloud Layers Unified by Bi-normals (CLUBB) and is an incomplete third-order turbulence closure centered around a double-Gaussian assumed PDF. CLUBB replaces the existing planetary boundary layer, shallow convection, and cloud macrophysics schemes in CAM with a unified parameterization that drives one double moment microphysics scheme. This presentation documents the performance of CAM-CLUBB for both prescribed sea surface temeprature (SST) and coupled simulations. We will discuss the improved mean state climate, such as improved stratocumulus to cumulus transitions, that can result when compared to CAM5. In addition, CAM-CLUBB is able to improve many long-standing issues that many general circulation models (GCMs) struggle to realistically simulate; such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), diurnal cycle of precipitation, and the frequency and intensity of precipitation. We will also discuss preliminary work being done to use CLUBB as a deep convection scheme in CAM.

  15. The time-variant nature of catchment travel time pdf's: implications for the intepretation of hydro-chemical signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettin, P.; Botter, G.; Bertuzzo, E.; Rinaldo, A.

    2012-12-01

    Catchments are highly dynamical systems forced by stochastic precipitation, and characterized by time-variable transpiration rates and discharges. Despite this, streamflow hydrochemical signals have been frequently interpreted through stationary convolutions between rainfall concentrations and time-invariant transfer functions, on the basis of which the properties of the travel time pdf were inferred. In this contribution we define the intrinsic dynamical nature of travel and residence time distributions, which explains the variability of the mechanisms through which catchments retain and release old and event water, transporting solutes and pollutants to receiving water bodies. General expressions for travel and residence time pdf's are derived as a function of the underlying rainfall-soil-vegetation dynamics and the mixing processes occurring along streamflow production and plant uptake. The work highlights the dependence of water/solute travel times on key eco-hydrological processes (especially transpiration and uptake), and investigates the impact of the time variance in terms of the identification of travel time pdfs and catchment functioning. This is done by means of numerical experiments, and through real-world applications based on the analysis of stream concentrations of chlorides/pesticides in agricultural catchments.

  16. Towards an easier creation of three-dimensional data for embedding into scholarly 3D PDF (Portable Document Format) files

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) allows for embedding three-dimensional (3D) models and is therefore particularly suitable to communicate respective data, especially as regards scholarly articles. The generation of the necessary model data, however, is still challenging, especially for inexperienced users. This prevents an unrestrained proliferation of 3D PDF usage in scholarly communication. This article introduces a new solution for the creation of three of types of 3D geometry (point clouds, polylines and triangle meshes), that is based on MeVisLab, a framework for biomedical image processing. This solution enables even novice users to generate the model data files without requiring programming skills and without the need for an intensive training by simply using it as a conversion tool. Advanced users can benefit from the full capability of MeVisLab to generate and export the model data as part of an overall processing chain. Although MeVisLab is primarily designed for handling biomedical image data, the new module is not restricted to this domain. It can be used for all scientific disciplines. PMID:25780759

  17. On recontamination and directional-bias problems in Monte Carlo simulation of PDF turbulence models. [probability density function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1992-01-01

    Turbulent combustion can not be simulated adequately by conventional moment closure turbulent models. The probability density function (PDF) method offers an attractive alternative: in a PDF model, the chemical source terms are closed and do not require additional models. Because the number of computational operations grows only linearly in the Monte Carlo scheme, it is chosen over finite differencing schemes. A grid dependent Monte Carlo scheme following J.Y. Chen and W. Kollmann has been studied in the present work. It was found that in order to conserve the mass fractions absolutely, one needs to add further restrictions to the scheme, namely alpha(sub j) + gamma(sub j) = alpha(sub j - 1) + gamma(sub j + 1). A new algorithm was devised that satisfied this restriction in the case of pure diffusion or uniform flow problems. Using examples, it is shown that absolute conservation can be achieved. Although for non-uniform flows absolute conservation seems impossible, the present scheme has reduced the error considerably.

  18. Select forelimb muscles have evolved superfast contractile speed to support acrobatic social displays.

    PubMed

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Goller, Franz; Dirkse, Annika; Sanin, Gloria D; Garcia, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Many species perform rapid limb movements as part of their elaborate courtship displays. However, because muscle performance is constrained by trade-offs between contraction speed and force, it is unclear how animals evolve the ability to produce both unusually fast appendage movement and limb force needed for locomotion. To address this issue, we compare the twitch speeds of forelimb muscles in a group of volant passerine birds, which produce different courtship displays. Our results show that the two taxa that perform exceptionally fast wing displays have evolved 'superfast' contractile kinetics in their main humeral retractor muscle. By contrast, the two muscles that generate the majority of aerodynamic force for flight show unmodified contractile kinetics. Altogether, these results suggest that muscle-specific adaptations in contractile speed allow certain birds to circumvent the intrinsic trade-off between muscular speed and force, and thereby use their forelimbs for both rapid gestural displays and powered locomotion. PMID:27067379

  19. 75 FR 26321 - Public Meeting on Future Policy and Rulemaking for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...The FAA Small Airplane Directorate is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting to discuss ideas for future policy and rulemaking for small airplanes. We are attempting to determine the adequacy of the current airworthiness standards thoughout a small airplane's service life while anticipating future requirements. The outcome could affect the next 20 years of small airplane design,......

  20. Acrobat ants go global--origin, evolution and systematics of the genus Crematogaster (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Blaimer, Bonnie B

    2012-11-01

    This study unravels the evolution and biogeographic history of the globally distributed ant genus Crematogaster on the basis of a molecular phylogeny, reconstructed from five nuclear protein-coding genes and a total of 3384 bp of sequence data. A particular emphasis is placed on the evolutionary history of these ants in the Malagasy region. Bayesian and likelihood analyses performed on a dataset of 124 Crematogaster ingroup taxa lend strong support for three deeply diverging phylogenetic lineages within the genus: the Orthocrema clade, the Global Crematogaster clade and the Australo-Asian Crematogaster clade. The 15 previous subgenera within Crematogaster are mostly not monophyletic. Divergence dating analyses and ancestral range reconstructions suggest that Crematogaster evolved in South-East Asia in the mid-Eocene (40-45 ma). The three major lineages also originated in this region in the late Oligocene/early Miocene (~24-30 ma). A first dispersal out of S-E Asia by an Orthocrema lineage is supported for 22-30 ma to the Afrotropical region. Successive dispersal events out of S-E Asia began in the early, and continued throughout the late Miocene. The global distribution of Crematogaster was achieved by subsequent colonizations of all major biogeographic regions by the Orthocrema and the Global Crematogaster clade. Molecular dating estimates and ancestral range evolution are discussed in the light of palaeogeographic changes in the S-E Asian region and an evolving ocean circulation system throughout the Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene. Eight dispersal events to/from Madagascar by Crematogaster are supported, with most events occurring in the late Miocene to Pliocene (5.0-9.5 ma). These results suggest that Crematogaster ants possess exceptional dispersal and colonization abilities, and emphasize the need for detailed investigations of traits that have contributed to the global evolutionary success of these ants. PMID:22796480

  1. Adaptive evolution of a derived radius morphology in manakins (Aves, Pipridae) to support acrobatic display behavior.

    PubMed

    Friscia, Anthony; Sanin, Gloria D; Lindsay, Willow R; Day, Lainy B; Schlinger, Barney A; Tan, Josh; Fuxjager, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The morphology of the avian skeleton is often studied in the context of adaptations for powered flight. The effects of other evolutionary forces, such as sexual selection, on avian skeletal design are unclear, even though birds produce diverse behaviors that undoubtedly require a variety of osteological modifications. Here, we investigate this issue in a family of passerine birds called manakins (Pipridae), which have evolved physically unusual and elaborate courtship displays. We report that, in species within the genus Manacus, the shaft of the radius is heavily flattened and shows substantial solidification. Past work anecdotally notes this morphology and attributes it to the species' ability to hit their wings together above their heads to produce loud mechanical sonations. Our results show that this feature is unique to Manacus compared to the other species in our study, including a variety of taxa that produce other sonations through alternate wing mechanisms. At the same time, our data reveal striking similarities across species in total radius volume and solidification. Together, this suggests that supposedly adaptive alterations in radial morphology occur within a conserved framework of a set radius volume and solidness, which in turn is likely determined by natural selection. Further allometric analyses imply that the radius is less constrained by body size and the structural demands that underlie powered flight, compared to other forelimb bones that are mostly unmodified across taxa. These results are consistent with the idea that the radius is more susceptible to selective modification by sexual selection. Overall, this study provides some of the first insight into the osteological evolution of passerine birds, as well as the way in which opposing selective forces can shape skeletal design in these species. J. Morphol. 277:766-775, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27027525

  2. Select forelimb muscles have evolved superfast contractile speed to support acrobatic social displays

    PubMed Central

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Goller, Franz; Dirkse, Annika; Sanin, Gloria D; Garcia, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Many species perform rapid limb movements as part of their elaborate courtship displays. However, because muscle performance is constrained by trade-offs between contraction speed and force, it is unclear how animals evolve the ability to produce both unusually fast appendage movement and limb force needed for locomotion. To address this issue, we compare the twitch speeds of forelimb muscles in a group of volant passerine birds, which produce different courtship displays. Our results show that the two taxa that perform exceptionally fast wing displays have evolved 'superfast' contractile kinetics in their main humeral retractor muscle. By contrast, the two muscles that generate the majority of aerodynamic force for flight show unmodified contractile kinetics. Altogether, these results suggest that muscle-specific adaptations in contractile speed allow certain birds to circumvent the intrinsic trade-off between muscular speed and force, and thereby use their forelimbs for both rapid gestural displays and powered locomotion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13544.001 PMID:27067379

  3. Acrobats, Contortionists, and Cute Children: The Promise and Perversity of U.S. Women's Gymnastics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how the media represents U.S. women's gymnastics, examining the degree to which the manifest promises of gymnastics (veneration of mass-mediated femininity and celebration of flexibility, strength, and agility) function in relation to economies of perversity. Suggests that the promises and perversities embodied by gymnasts are…

  4. 39 CFR 3001.10 - Form and number of copies of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Form and number of copies of documents. 3001.10... Rules of General Applicability § 3001.10 Form and number of copies of documents. (a) Documents. Each... generated in either Acrobat (pdf), Word, WordPerfect, or Rich Text Format (rtf). (d) Exception for...

  5. 39 CFR 3001.10 - Form and number of copies of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Form and number of copies of documents. 3001.10... Rules of General Applicability § 3001.10 Form and number of copies of documents. (a) Documents. Each... generated in either Acrobat (pdf), Word, WordPerfect, or Rich Text Format (rtf). (d) Exception for...

  6. Interactive PDF files with embedded 3D designs as support material to study the 32 crystallographic point groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, Victor; Casas, Lluís; Estop, Eugènia; Labrador, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Crystallography and X-ray diffraction techniques are essential topics in geosciences and other solid-state sciences. Their fundamentals, which include point symmetry groups, are taught in the corresponding university courses. In-depth meaningful learning of symmetry concepts is difficult and requires capacity for abstraction and spatial vision. Traditionally, wooden crystallographic models are used as support material. In this paper, we describe a new interactive tool, freely available, inspired in such models. Thirty-two PDF files containing embedded 3D models have been created. Each file illustrates a point symmetry group and can be used to teach/learn essential symmetry concepts and the International Hermann-Mauguin notation of point symmetry groups. Most interactive computer-aided tools devoted to symmetry deal with molecular symmetry and disregard crystal symmetry so we have developed a tool that fills the existing gap.

  7. THOR: A New Higher-Order Closure Assumed PDF Subgrid-Scale Parameterization; Evaluation and Application to Low Cloud Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firl, G. J.; Randall, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    The so-called "assumed probability density function (PDF)" approach to subgrid-scale (SGS) parameterization has shown to be a promising method for more accurately representing boundary layer cloudiness under a wide range of conditions. A new parameterization has been developed, named the Two-and-a-Half ORder closure (THOR), that combines this approach with a higher-order turbulence closure. THOR predicts the time evolution of the turbulence kinetic energy components, the variance of ice-liquid water potential temperature (θil) and total non-precipitating water mixing ratio (qt) and the covariance between the two, and the vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum, θil, and qt. Ten corresponding third-order moments in addition to the skewnesses of θil and qt are calculated using diagnostic functions assuming negligible time tendencies. The statistical moments are used to define a trivariate double Gaussian PDF among vertical velocity, θil, and qt. The first three statistical moments of each variable are used to estimate the two Gaussian plume means, variances, and weights. Unlike previous similar models, plume variances are not assumed to be equal or zero. Instead, they are parameterized using the idea that the less dominant Gaussian plume (typically representing the updraft-containing portion of a grid cell) has greater variance than the dominant plume (typically representing the "environmental" or slowly subsiding portion of a grid cell). Correlations among the three variables are calculated using the appropriate covariance moments, and both plume correlations are assumed to be equal. The diagnosed PDF in each grid cell is used to calculate SGS condensation, SGS fluxes of cloud water species, SGS buoyancy terms, and to inform other physical parameterizations about SGS variability. SGS condensation is extended from previous similar models to include condensation over both liquid and ice substrates, dependent on the grid cell temperature. Implementations have been

  8. Building hazard maps of extreme daily rainy events from PDF ensemble, via REA method, on Senegal River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo Osorio, J. D.; García Galiano, S. G.

    2011-11-01

    The Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa, one of the poorest of the Earth, is characterized by high rainfall variability and rapid population growth. In this region, heavy storm events frequently cause extensive damage. Nonetheless, the projections for change in extreme rainfall values have shown a great divergence between Regional Climate Models (RCM), increasing the forecast uncertainty. Novel methodologies should be applied, taking into account both the variability provided by different RCMs, as well as the non-stationary nature of time series for the building of hazard maps of extreme rainfall events. The present work focuses on the probability density functions (PDFs)-based evaluation and a simple quantitative measure of how well each RCM considered can capture the observed annual maximum daily rainfall (AMDR) series on the Senegal River basin. Since meaningful trends have been detected in historical rainfall time series for the region, non-stationary probabilistic models were used to fit the PDF parameters to the AMDR time series. In the development of PDF ensemble by bootstrapping techniques, Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) maps were applied to score the RCMs. The REA factors were computed using a metric to evaluate the agreement between observed -or best estimated- PDFs, and that simulated with each RCM. The assessment of plausible regional trends associated to the return period, from the hazard maps of AMDR, showed a general rise, owing to an increase in the mean and the variability of extreme precipitation. These spatial-temporal distributions could be considered by Organization for the Development of the Senegal River (Organisation pour la mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal, OMVS), in such a way as to reach a better balance between mitigation and adaptation.

  9. Breaking The Quasar L-z Degeneracy Using PDF-weighted Quasar-galaxy Cross-correlations In Deep, Wide NASA Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Myers, A. D.; White, M.; Hickox, R. C.; Brunner, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method for measuring the two-point correlation function, as described by Myers, White, and Ball (2009). The method is an augmentation of previous techniques that use a heterogeneous set of spectroscopic objects to anchor the distance scale, and a well-controlled set of photometric detections to reduce noise. Our new approach weights by the information present in the full photometric redshift probability density function (PDF) to dramatically improve the clustering signal. For instance, an initial test yielded a factor of 5 improvement for quasar clustering in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The extra signal arises because we neither express the photometric redshift as a single value nor assign a simplified PDF functional form such as a single Gaussian. Our technique is generally applicable and should be particularly useful where complex spectroscopic data sets (e.g., BOSS) are overlapped by deep photometry (e.g., Pan-STARRS, DES, or LSST). Our method depends only on photometric detections in a single survey, but additional multi-wavelength data can be used to refine the information in the PDF weighting. This makes our approach also highly suited to regions of the sky where deep, multiwavelength space surveys overlap ground-based spectroscopy (e.g., COSMOS or the Bootes Survey). We assign photometric redshift PDFs to photometrically classified galaxies detected in the optical component of COSMOS, and use PDF weights to cross-correlate them against a spectroscopically confirmed AGN sample. We also report on similar results in the Bootes Survey. The deep spectroscopy and photometry in fields such as COSMOS and Bootes will allow new investigations of how AGN cluster as a function of luminosity and type, potentially breaking the so-called L-z degeneracy. Finally, we address the often computationally intensive requirements of utilizing full PDFs. This research was funded in part by NASA ADP grant NNX08AJ28G.

  10. Demonstration of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF) for the study of local structure in amorphous and crystalline thin films.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kirsten M Ø; Blichfeld, Anders B; Bauers, Sage R; Wood, Suzannah R; Dooryhée, Eric; Johnson, David C; Iversen, Bo B; Billinge, Simon J L

    2015-09-01

    By means of normal-incidence, high-flux and high-energy X-rays, total scattering data for pair distribution function (PDF) analysis have been obtained from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. The 'tfPDF' method is illustrated through studies of as-deposited (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows the prediction of whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films. PMID:26306190

  11. Dark matter or point sources? Utilizing the 1-pt PDF to understand the origin of the GeV excess seen by the Fermi LAT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Natalie; Gaskins, Jennifer; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    An excess of gamma rays from the Inner Galaxy in the Fermi LAT data has been identified. This emission has been interpreted as a possible signature of the annihilation of dark matter particles, or as originating from a collection of unresolved point sources, such as gamma-ray millisecond pulsars. We explore the clustering properties of the diffuse emission arising from a population of gamma-ray point sources and from the annihilation of dark matter particles in the halo of the Galaxy using the 1-pt probability distribution function of counts in pixels (1pt-PDF, the number of pixels with a specified number of counts as a function of counts); this approach is also known as fluctuation analysis or P(D) analysis. We analyze the 1-pt PDF of the GeV excess within a +/- 5 degree box around the Galactic Center. For both dark matter and point sources we adopt the spatial distribution and spectrum to fit the GeV excess. We determine the contributions to the 1-pt PDF from the Galactic diffuse and isotropic diffuse emissions, dark matter, and point sources, and discuss the implications of this analysis for the origin of the GeV excess.

  12. Dark matter or point sources? Utilizing the 1-pt PDF to understand the origin of the GeV excess seen by the Fermi LAT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Natalie; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    An excess of gamma rays from the Inner Galaxy in the Fermi LAT data has been identified. This emission has been interpreted as a possible signature of the annihilation of dark matter particles, or as originating from a collection of unresolved point sources, such as gamma-ray millisecond pulsars. We explore the clustering properties of the diffuse emission arising from a population of gamma-ray point sources and from the annihilation of dark matter particles in the halo of the Galaxy using the 1-pt probability distribution function of counts in pixels (1pt-PDF, the number of pixels with a specified number of counts as a function of counts); this approach is also known as fluctuation analysis or P(D) analysis. We analyze the 1-pt PDF of the GeV excess within a +/- 5 degree box around the Galactic Center. For both dark matter and point sources we adopt the spatial distribution and spectrum to fit the GeV excess. We determine the contributions to the 1-pt PDF from the Galactic diffuse and isotropic diffuse emission, dark matter, and point sources, and discuss the implications of this analysis for the origin of the GeV excess.

  13. Synchrotron x-ray high energy PDF and tomography studies for gallium melts under high-pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Liu, L. L.; Li, R.; Li, L.

    2015-12-01

    Liquid gallium exhibits unusual and unique physical properties. A rich polymorphism and metastable modifications of solid Ga have been discovered and a number of studies of liquid gallium under high pressure conditions were reported. However, some fundamental properties, such as the equation of state (EoS) of Ga melt under extreme conditions remain unclear. To compare to the previous reports, we performed the pair distribution function (PDF) study using diamond anvil cell, in which synchrotron high-energy x-ray total scattering data, combined with reverse Monte Carlo simulation, was used to study the microstructure and EoS of liquid gallium under high pressure at room temperature conditions. The EoS of Ga melt, which was measured from synchrotron x-ray tomography method at room temperature, was used to avoid the potential relatively big errors for the density estimation from the reverse Monte Carlo simulation with the mathematical fit to the measured structure factor data. The volume change of liquid gallium have been studied as a function of pressure and temperature up to 5 GPa at 370 K using synchrotron x-ray microtomography combined with energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) techniques using Drickamer press. The directly measured P-V-T curves were obtained from 3D tomography reconstruction data. The existence of possible liquid-liquid phase transition regions is proposed based on the abnormal compressibility and local structure change in Ga melts.

  14. PDF calculations of turbulent lifted flames of H2/N2 fuel issuing into a vitiated co-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masri, A. R.; Cao, R.; Pope, S. B.; Goldin, G. M.

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents detailed calculations of the flow, mixing and composition fields of a simple jet of hydrogen nitrogen mixture issuing into a vitiated co-flowing stream. The co-flow contains oxygen as well as combustion products and is sufficiently hot to provide an ignition source for a flame that stabilizes at some ten diameters downstream of the jet exit plane. This configuration forms a good model problem for studying lifted flames as well as issues of auto-ignition. The calculations employ a composition probability density function (PDF) approach coupled to the commercial CFD package FLUENT. The in situ adaptive tabulation method is adopted to account for detailed chemical kinetics. A simple k egr model is used for turbulence along with a low Reynolds number model for the walls. Calculations are optimized to obtain a numerically accurate solution and are repeated for two different H2 mechanisms, each consisting of ten species. The flame is found to be largely controlled by chemical rather than mixing processes. The mechanisms used yield different lift-off heights and compositions that straddle the data. Ignition delays are found to be extremely sensitive to the chemical kinetic rates of some reactions in the mechanisms. EHPRG Award Lecture.

  15. Determination of early diastolic LV vortex formation time (T*) via the PDF formalism: a kinematic model of filling.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Erina; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Kovacs, Sandor J

    2009-01-01

    The filling (diastolic) function of the human left ventricle is most commonly assessed by echocardiography, a non-invasive imaging modality. To quantify diastolic function (DF) empiric indices are obtained from the features (height, duration, area) of transmitral flow velocity contour, obtained by echocardiography. The parameterized diastolic filling (PDF) formalism is a kinematic model developed by Kovács et. al. which incorporates the suction pump attribute of the left ventricle and facilitates DF quantitation by analysis of echocardiographic transmitral flow velocity contours in terms of stiffness (k), relaxation (c) and load (x(0)). A complementary approach developed by Gharib et. al., uses fluid mechanics and characterizes DF in terms of vortex formation time (T*) derived from streamline features formed by the jet of blood aspirated into the ventricle. Both of these methods characterize DF using a causality-based approach. In this paper, we derive T*'s kinematic analogue T*(kinematic) in terms of k, c and x(0). A comparison between T*(kinematic) and T*(fluid) (mechanic) obtained from averaged transmitral velocity and mitral annulus diameter, is presented. We found that T* calculated by the two methods were comparable and T*(kinematic) correlated with the peak LV recoil driving force kx(0). PMID:19964049

  16. 76 FR 100 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 21 to the Snapper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... State-by-State quotas. An NOI was previously published on January 22, 2008 (73 FR 3701) to develop an... Gore, Southeast Regional Office, NMFS, 263 13th Avenue South, St. Petersburg, FL 33701. Instructions... Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karla Gore; phone: (727)...

  17. 78 FR 42508 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment on the Effects of Issuing an Incidental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... and comment for 30 days (76 FR 61670, October 5, 2011). Upon reviewing the public comments, NMFS... for 30 days (77 FR 65864, October 31, 2012). Public comments received during both comment periods have..., or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sara McNulty (ph....

  18. 75 FR 5745 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ..., NMFS implemented the Pacific Council-recommended long-term Plan (60 FR 14651, March 20, 1995). In each..., 2009, (74 FR 11681) and the following section numbers refer to sections within that final rule. The..., Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sarah...

  19. 78 FR 41034 - Endangered Species; File No. 18102

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC711 Endangered Species; File No. 18102 AGENCY...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats...

  20. 77 FR 52694 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17324

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC137 Marine Mammals; File No. 17324 AGENCY...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF...

  1. 78 FR 76246 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Several Groundfish Species in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance with... groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). The harvest specification for the 2013 ITACs included in...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats...

  2. 78 FR 2249 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... FR 66947), is reopened. Written comments must be received on or before January 22, 2013. ADDRESSES... proposed rule published on November 8, 2012 (77 FR 66947) that would implement addenda to fishing year (FY... accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  3. 78 FR 17625 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... February 22, 2013 (78 FR 12273), written comments on this action may be submitted, identified by NOAA-NMFS... rule published on February 22, 2013 (78 FR 12273). The proposed rule provides additional details. The... accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  4. 76 FR 2027 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... INFORMATION: An interim final rule was published in the Federal Register on December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77535... regulatory tables was published in the Federal Register on December 29, 2010 (75 FR 53272). The public... electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Written...

  5. 76 FR 13122 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ...: The comment period for the proposed rule that published on January 24, 2011 (76 FR 4084), and closed... (Magnuson-Stevens Act). On January 24, 2011 (76 FR 4084), NMFS published a proposed rule to establish a 2... may submit attachments to electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF...

  6. 75 FR 82370 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing Determinations for Five Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... 6, 2010 (75 FR 61872; 75 FR 61904) must be received by February 3, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may submit... rules (75 FR 61872; 75 FR 61904) to list the Gulf of Maine DPS of Atlantic sturgeon as threatened and... accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. The proposed rule,...

  7. 77 FR 20337 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Advance Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Share (QS) for some incidentally caught, nonwhiting species. Additionally, this ANPR announces that the..., Jr., Regional Administrator, Northwest Region, NMFS, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle, WA 98115- 0070... be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR...

  8. 78 FR 12713 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings and Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Mike Burner... fisheries (77 FR 73987, December 12, 2012). The Pacific Council will adopt alternatives for 2013 ocean... to be included in the briefing book for the April Council meeting where they will be considered...

  9. 77 FR 28311 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Closure of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Emily... Framework Adjustment 22 to the Scallop FMP (Framework 22) (76 FR 43774, July 21, 2011). Framework 22 set the... guidelines for the use of emergency rules (62 FR 44421; August 21, 1997) specify the following three...

  10. 78 FR 25749 - Submission of New Drug Application/Abbreviated New Drug Application Field Alert Reports: Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a pilot program to test an XML (extensible markup language)-enabled Adobe PDF form, Form FDA 3331--Automated to submit new drug application (NDA) and abbreviated new drug application (ANDA) Field Alert Reports (FARs) as required by FDA regulations. This pilot program is intended to provide FDA with information to allow the Agency to......

  11. Examination of the Atomic Pair Distribution Function (PDF) of SiC Nanocrystals by In-situ High Pressure Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grzanka, E.; Stelmakh, S.; Gierlotka, S.; Zhao, Y.; Palosz, B.; Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Key properties of nanocrystals are determined by their real atomic structure, therefore a reasonable understanding and meaningful interpretation of their properties requires a realistic model of the structure. In this paper we present an evidence of a complex response of the lattice distances to external pressure indicating a presence of a complex structure of Sic nanopowders. The experiments were performed on nanocrystalline Sic subjected to hydrostatic or isostatic pressure using synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction. Elastic properties of the samples were examined based on X-ray diffraction data using a Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) in HASYLAB at DESY. The dependence'of the lattice parameters and of the Bragg reflections width with pressure exhibits a ha1 nature of the properties (compressibilities) of the powders and indicates a complex structure of the grains. We interpreted tws behaviour as originating from different elastic properties of the grain interior and surface. Analysis of the dependence of individual interatomic distances on pressure was based on in-situ neutron diffraction measurements done with HbD diffractometer at LANSCE in Los Alamos National Laboratory with the Paris-Edinburgh cell under pressures up to 8 GPa (Qmax = 26/A). Interatomic distances were obtained by PDF analysis using the PDFgetN program. We have found that the interatomic distances undergo a complex, non-monotonic changes. Even under substantial pressures a considerable relaxation of the lattice may take place: some interatomic distances increase with an increase in pressure. We relate this phenomenon to: (1), changes of the microstructure of the densified material, in particular breaking of its fractal chain structure and, (2), its complex structure resembling that of a material composed of two phases, each with its distinct elastic properties.

  12. Probability density function (Pdf) of daily rainfall depths by means of superstatistics of hydro-climatic fluctuations for African test cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topa, M. E.; De Paola, F.; Giugni, M.; Kombe, W.; Touré, H.

    2012-04-01

    The dynamic of hydro-climatic processes can fluctuate in a wide range of temporal scales. Such fluctuations are often unpredictable for ecosystems and the adaptation to these represent the great challenge for the survival and the stability of the species. An unsolved issue is how much these fluctuations of climatic variables to different temporal scales can influence the frequency and the intensity of the extreme events, and how much these events can modify the ecosystems life. It is by now widespread that an increment of the frequency and the intensity of the extreme events will represent one of the strongest characteristic of the global climatic change, with the greatest social and biotics implications (Porporato et al 2006). Recent field experiments (Gutshick and BassiriRad, 2003) and numerical analysis (Porporato et al 2004) have shown that the extreme events can generate not negligible consequences on organisms of water-limited ecosystems. Adaptation measures and species and ecosystems answers to the hydro-climatic variations, is therefore srongly interconnected to the probabilistic structure of these fluctuations. Generally the not-linear intermittent dynamic of a state variable z (a rainfall depth or the interarrival time between two storms), at short time scales (for example daily) is described by a probability density function (pdf), p (z|υ), where υ is the parameter of the distribution. If the same parameter υ varies so that the external forcing fluctuates at longer temporal scale, z reaches a new "local" equilibrium. When the temporal scale of the variation of υ is larger than the one of z, the probability distribution of z can be obtained as a overlapping of the temporary equlibria ("Superstatistic" approach), i.e.: p(z) = ∫ p(z|υ)·φ(υ)dυ (1) where p(z|υ) is the conditioned probability of z to υ, while φ(υ) is the pdf of υ (Beck, 2001; Benjamin and Cornell, 1970). The present work, carried out within FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA (CLimate Change

  13. Analysis of non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps based on the N-pdf. Application to Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vielva, P.; Sanz, J. L.

    2009-08-01

    We present a new method based on the N-point probability distribution function (N-pdf) to study non-Gaussianity in cosmic microwave background maps. Likelihood and Bayesian estimation are applied to a local non-linear perturbed model up to third order, characterized by a linear term which is described by a Gaussian N-pdf, and a second- and third-order terms which are proportional to the square and the cube of the linear one. We also explore a set of model selection techniques (the Akaike and the Bayesian information criteria, the minimum description length, the Bayesian evidence and the generalized likelihood ratio test) and their application to decide whether a given data set is better described by the proposed local non-Gaussian model, rather than by the standard Gaussian temperature distribution. As an application, we consider the analysis of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 5-year data at a resolution of ~2°. At this angular scale (the Sachs-Wolfe regime), the non-Gaussian description proposed in this work defaults (under certain conditions) to an approximative local form of the weak non-linear coupling inflationary model previously addressed in the literature. For this particular case, we obtain an estimation for the non-linear coupling parameter of -94 < fNL < 154 at 95 per cent confidence level. Equally, model selection criteria also indicate that the Gaussian hypothesis is favoured against the particular local non-Gaussian model proposed in this work. This result is in agreement with previous findings obtained for equivalent non-Gaussian models and with different non-Gaussian estimators. However, our estimator based on the N-pdf is more efficient than previous estimators and, therefore, provides tighter constraints on the coupling parameter at degree scale.

  14. Demonstration of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF) for the study of local structure in amorphous and crystalline thin films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jensen, K. M.Ø.; Blichfeld, A. B.; Bauers, S. R.; Wood, S. R.; Dooryhee, E.; Johnson, D. C.; Iversen, B. B.; Billinge, S.

    2015-07-05

    By means of normal incidence, high flux and high energy x-rays, we have obtained total scattering data for Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. We illustrate the ‘tfPDF’ method through studies of as depositedmore » (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows predicting whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films.« less

  15. Demonstration of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF) for the study of local structure in amorphous and crystalline thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, K. M.Ø.; Blichfeld, A. B.; Bauers, S. R.; Wood, S. R.; Dooryhee, E.; Johnson, D. C.; Iversen, B. B.; Billinge, S.

    2015-07-05

    By means of normal incidence, high flux and high energy x-rays, we have obtained total scattering data for Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. We illustrate the ‘tfPDF’ method through studies of as deposited (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows predicting whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films.

  16. Demonstration of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF) for the study of local structure in amorphous and crystalline thin films

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kirsten M. Ø.; Blichfeld, Anders B.; Bauers, Sage R.; Wood, Suzannah R.; Dooryhée, Eric; Johnson, David C.; Iversen, Bo B.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2015-01-01

    By means of normal-incidence, high-flux and high-energy X-rays, total scattering data for pair distribution function (PDF) analysis have been obtained from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. The ‘tfPDF’ method is illustrated through studies of as-deposited (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows the prediction of whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films. PMID:26306190

  17. Prediction of extinction and reignition in nonpremixed turbulent flames using a flamelet/progress variable model. 1. A priori study and presumed PDF closure

    SciTech Connect

    Ihme, Matthias; Pitsch, Heinz

    2008-10-15

    Previously conducted studies of the flamelet/progress variable model for the prediction of nonpremixed turbulent combustion processes identified two areas for model improvements: the modeling of the presumed probability density function (PDF) for the reaction progress parameter and the consideration of unsteady effects [Ihme et al., Proc. Combust. Inst. 30 (2005) 793]. These effects are of particular importance during local flame extinction and subsequent reignition. Here, the models for the presumed PDFs for conserved and reactive scalars are re-examined and a statistically most likely distribution (SMLD) is employed and tested in a priori studies using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data and experimental results from the Sandia flame series. In the first part of the paper, the SMLD model is employed for a reactive scalar distribution. Modeling aspects of the a priori PDF, accounting for the bias in composition space, are discussed. The convergence of the SMLD with increasing number of enforced moments is demonstrated. It is concluded that information about more than two moments is beneficial to accurately represent the reactive scalar distribution in turbulent flames with strong extinction and reignition. In addition to the reactive scalar analysis, the potential of the SMLD for the representation of conserved scalar distributions is also analyzed. In the a priori study using DNS data it is found that the conventionally employed beta distribution provides a better representation for the scalar distribution. This is attributed to the fact that the beta-PDF implicitly enforces higher moment information that is in excellent agreement with the DNS data. However, the SMLD outperforms the beta distribution in free shear flow applications, which are typically characterized by strongly skewed scalar distributions, in the case where higher moment information can be enforced. (author)

  18. Let's Connect: Using Adobe Connect to Foster Group Collaboration in the Online Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Renee; Frisby, Brandi N.

    2013-01-01

    The need for students to become connected in the classroom parallels the need for students to become socially integrated into the college community. Because technological tools are always changing, the opportunity for all students on- and off-campus to ''meet'' face-to-face and build relationships within the classroom are…

  19. Preliminary surficial geologic map of a Calico Mountains piedmont and part of Coyote Lake, Mojave desert, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudash, Stephanie L.

    2006-01-01

    graphics of the database. Spatial data are distributed as an ArcInfo personal geodatabase, or as tabular data in the form of Microsoft Access Database (MDB) or dBase Format (DBF) file formats. Documentation includes this file, which provides a discussion of the surficial geology and describes the format and content of the map data, and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata for the spatial map information. Map graphics files are distributed as Postscript and Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) files, and are appropriate for representing a view of the spatial database at the mapped scale.

  20. Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos during 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    also enclosed a compact disc with a copy of the full report in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) form and detailed supplemental tables of data from 2007 in Microsoft Excel format. These files are also available for download from the web (http://www.lanl.gov/community-environment/environmental- stewardship/environmental-report.php).

  1. Map and Data for Quaternary Faults and Fault Systems on the Island of Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Eric C.; Burgmann, Roland; Crone, Anthony J.; Machette, Michael N.; Dart, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    and catalog of data, both in Adobe Acrobat PDF format. The senior authors (Eric C. Cannon and Roland Burgmann) compiled the fault data as part of ongoing studies of active faulting on the Island of Hawai`i. The USGS is responsible for organizing and integrating the State or regional products under their National Seismic Hazard Mapping project, including the coordination and oversight of contributions from individuals and groups (Michael N. Machette and Anthony J. Crone), database design and management (Kathleen M. Haller), and digitization and analysis of map data (Richard L. Dart). After being released an Open-File Report, the data in this report will be available online at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/qfaults/, the USGS Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States.

  2. Topography and Landforms of Ecuador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    . The data contained in this publication includes a gap filled, countrywide SRTM DEM of Ecuador projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Zone 17 North projection, Provisional South American, 1956, Ecuador datum and a non gap filled SRTM DEM of the Galapagos Islands projected in UTM Zone 15 North projection. Both the Ecuador and Galapagos Islands DEMs are available as an ESRI Grid, stored as ArcInfo Export files (.e00), and in Erdas Imagine (IMG) file formats with a 90 meter pixel resolution. Also included in this publication are high and low resolution Adobe Acrobat (PDF) files of topography and landforms maps in Ecuador. The high resolution map should be used for printing and display, while the lower resolution map can be used for quick viewing and reference purposes.

  3. Comprehensive insights into the structural and chemical changes in mixed-anion FeOF electrodes by using operando PDF and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wiaderek, Kamila M; Borkiewicz, Olaf J; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Robert, Rosa; Pereira, Nathalie; Amatucci, Glenn G; Grey, Clare P; Chupas, Peter J; Chapman, Karena W

    2013-03-13

    In-depth analysis of operando X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) data is combined with Li NMR spectroscopy to gain comprehensive insights into the electrochemical reaction mechanism of high-performance iron oxyfluoride electrodes. While the full discharge capacity could be recovered upon charge, implying reversibility of the electrochemical reaction, the atomic structure of the electrode formed after cycling (discharge-charge) differs from the pristine uncycled electrode material. Instead, the "active" electrode that forms upon cycling is a nanocomposite of an amorphous rutile phase and a nanoscale rock salt phase. Bond valence sum analysis, based on the precise structural parameters (bond lengths and coordination number) extracted from the in situ PDF data, suggests that anion partitioning occurs during the electrochemical reaction, with the rutile phase being F-rich and the rock salt phase being O-rich. The F- and O-rich phases react sequentially; Fe in a F-rich environment reacts preferentially during both discharge and charge. PMID:23432753

  4. Current Status on the use of Parallel Computing in Turbulent Reacting Flow Computations Involving Sprays, Monte Carlo PDF and Unstructured Grids. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    The state of the art in multidimensional combustor modeling as evidenced by the level of sophistication employed in terms of modeling and numerical accuracy considerations, is also dictated by the available computer memory and turnaround times afforded by present-day computers. With the aim of advancing the current multi-dimensional computational tools used in the design of advanced technology combustors, a solution procedure is developed that combines the novelty of the coupled CFD/spray/scalar Monte Carlo PDF (Probability Density Function) computations on unstructured grids with the ability to run on parallel architectures. In this approach, the mean gas-phase velocity and turbulence fields are determined from a standard turbulence model, the joint composition of species and enthalpy from the solution of a modeled PDF transport equation, and a Lagrangian-based dilute spray model is used for the liquid-phase representation. The gas-turbine combustor flows are often characterized by a complex interaction between various physical processes associated with the interaction between the liquid and gas phases, droplet vaporization, turbulent mixing, heat release associated with chemical kinetics, radiative heat transfer associated with highly absorbing and radiating species, among others. The rate controlling processes often interact with each other at various disparate time 1 and length scales. In particular, turbulence plays an important role in determining the rates of mass and heat transfer, chemical reactions, and liquid phase evaporation in many practical combustion devices.

  5. Docking modes of BB-3497 into the PDF active site--a comparison of the pure MM and QM/MM based docking strategies.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Tripti; Issar, Upasana; Kakkar, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) has emerged as an important antibacterial drug target. Considerable effort is being directed toward developing peptidic and non-peptidic inhibitors for this metalloprotein. In this work, the known peptidic inhibitor BB-3497 and its various ionization and tautomeric states are evaluated for their inhibition efficiency against PDF using a molecular mechanics (MM) approach as well as a mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach, with an aim to understand the interactions in the binding site. The evaluated Gibbs energies of binding with the mixed QM/MM approach are shown to have the best predictive power. The experimental pose is found to have the most negative Gibbs energy of binding, and also the smallest strain energy. A quantum mechanical evaluation of the active site reveals the requirement of strong chelation by the ligand with the metal ion. The investigated ligand chelates the metal ion through the two oxygens of its reverse hydroxamate moiety, particularly the N-O(-) oxygen, forming strong covalent bonds with the metal ion, which is penta-coordinated. In the uninhibited state, the metal ion is tetrahedrally coordinated, and hence chelation with the inhibitor is associated with an increase of the metal ion coordination. Thus, the strong binding of the ligand at the binding site is accounted for. PMID:25994638

  6. Congruence of Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Acrobat Ants (Crematogaster Subgenus Decacrema, Formicidae: Myrmicinae) Inhabiting Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) Myrmecophytes

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Shouhei; Nagano, Yusuke; Kataoka, Yowsuke; Komatsu, Takashi; Itioka, Takao; Shimizu-kaya, Usun; Inui, Yoko; Itino, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A previously reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny of Crematogaster (subgenus Decacrema) ants inhabiting Macaranga myrmecophytes indicated that the partners diversified synchronously and their specific association has been maintained for 20 million years. However, the mtDNA clades did not exactly match morphological species, probably owing to introgressive hybridization among younger species. In this study, we determined the congruence between nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR, also called microsatellite) genotyping and mtDNA phylogeny to confirm the suitability of the mtDNA phylogeny for inferring the evolutionary history of Decacrema ants. Analyses of ant samples from Lambir Hills National park, northeastern Borneo, showed overall congruence between the SSR and mtDNA groupings, indicating that mtDNA markers are useful for delimiting species, at least at the local level. We also found overall high host-plant specificity of the SSR genotypes of Decacrema ants, consistent with the specificity based on the mtDNA phylogeny. Further, we detected cryptic genetic assemblages exhibiting high specificity toward particular plant species within a single mtDNA clade. This finding, which may be evidence for rapid ecological and genetic differentiation following a host shift, is a new insight into the previously suggested long-term codiversification of Decacrema ants and Macaranga plants. PMID:25692953

  7. Congruence of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation in acrobat ants (Crematogaster subgenus Decacrema, Formicidae: Myrmicinae) inhabiting Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) myrmecophytes.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shouhei; Nagano, Yusuke; Kataoka, Yowsuke; Komatsu, Takashi; Itioka, Takao; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Inui, Yoko; Itino, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A previously reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny of Crematogaster (subgenus Decacrema) ants inhabiting Macaranga myrmecophytes indicated that the partners diversified synchronously and their specific association has been maintained for 20 million years. However, the mtDNA clades did not exactly match morphological species, probably owing to introgressive hybridization among younger species. In this study, we determined the congruence between nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR, also called microsatellite) genotyping and mtDNA phylogeny to confirm the suitability of the mtDNA phylogeny for inferring the evolutionary history of Decacrema ants. Analyses of ant samples from Lambir Hills National park, northeastern Borneo, showed overall congruence between the SSR and mtDNA groupings, indicating that mtDNA markers are useful for delimiting species, at least at the local level. We also found overall high host-plant specificity of the SSR genotypes of Decacrema ants, consistent with the specificity based on the mtDNA phylogeny. Further, we detected cryptic genetic assemblages exhibiting high specificity toward particular plant species within a single mtDNA clade. This finding, which may be evidence for rapid ecological and genetic differentiation following a host shift, is a new insight into the previously suggested long-term codiversification of Decacrema ants and Macaranga plants. PMID:25692953

  8. Underwater acrobatics by the world's largest predator: 360° rolling manoeuvres by lunge-feeding blue whales.

    PubMed

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Calambokidis, John; Friedlaender, Ari S; Francis, John; DeRuiter, Stacy L; Stimpert, Alison K; Falcone, Erin; Southall, Brandon L

    2013-02-23

    The extreme body size of blue whales requires a high energy intake and therefore demands efficient foraging strategies. As an obligate lunge feeder on aggregations of small zooplankton, blue whales engulf a large volume of prey-laden water in a single, rapid gulp. The efficiency of this feeding mechanism is strongly dependent on the amount of prey that can be captured during each lunge, yet food resources tend to be patchily distributed in both space and time. Here, we measured the three-dimensional kinematics and foraging behaviour of blue whales feeding on krill, using suction-cup attached multi-sensor tags. Our analyses revealed 360° rolling lunge-feeding manoeuvres that reorient the body and position the lower jaws so that a krill patch can be engulfed with the whale's body inverted. We also recorded these rolling behaviours when whales were in a searching mode in between lunges, suggesting that this behaviour also enables the whale to visually process the prey field and maximize foraging efficiency by surveying for the densest prey aggregations. These results reveal the complex manoeuvrability that is required for large rorqual whales to exploit prey patches and highlight the need to fully understand the three-dimensional interactions between predator and prey in the natural environment. PMID:23193050

  9. 77 FR 17323 - Special Conditions: XtremeAir GmbH, XA42; Acrobatic Category Aerodynamic Stability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ...These special conditions are issued for the XtremeAir GmbH XA42 airplane. The XA42 airplane has a novel or unusual design feature associated with its static stability. This airplane can perform at the highest level of aerobatic competition. To be competitive, the aircraft was designed with positive and, at some points, neutral stability within its flight envelope. Its lateral and directional......

  10. 76 FR 80829 - Special Conditions: XtremeAir GmbH, XA42; Acrobatic Category Aerodynamic Stability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...This action proposes special conditions for the XtremeAir GmbH XA42 airplane. The XA42 airplane has a novel or unusual design feature associated with its static stability. This airplane can perform at the highest level of aerobatic competition. To be competitive, the aircraft was designed with positive and, at some points, neutral stability within its flight envelope. Its lateral and......

  11. Alegria! Flow in Leisure and Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Event Satisfaction Using Data from an Acrobatics Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lung Hung; Ye, Yun-Ci; Chen, Mei-Yen; Tung, I-Wu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the role of satisfaction-with-event as a mediator in the relations between flow and life satisfaction based on the bottom-up theory (Andrews and Withey in "Social indicators of well-being: Americans' perceptions of life quality." Plenum, New York, 1976; Lee et al. in "J Macromarketing" 22(2): 158-169,…

  12. Continuous particle separation using pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE)

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyungkook; Kim, Youngkyu; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE), a novel continuous separation method. In our separation system, the external flow and electric field are applied to particles, such that particle movement is affected by pressure-driven flow, electroosmosis, and electrophoresis. We then analyzed the hydrodynamic drag force and electrophoretic force applied to the particles in opposite directions. Based on this analysis, micro- and nano-sized particles were separated according to their electrophoretic mobilities with high separation efficiency. Because the separation can be achieved in a simple T-shaped microchannel, without the use of internal electrodes, it offers the advantages of low-cost, simple device fabrication and bubble-free operation, compared with conventional μ-FFE methods. Therefore, we expect the proposed separation method to have a wide range of filtering/separation applications in biochemical analysis. PMID:26819221

  13. Continuous particle separation using pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyungkook; Kim, Youngkyu; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE), a novel continuous separation method. In our separation system, the external flow and electric field are applied to particles, such that particle movement is affected by pressure-driven flow, electroosmosis, and electrophoresis. We then analyzed the hydrodynamic drag force and electrophoretic force applied to the particles in opposite directions. Based on this analysis, micro- and nano-sized particles were separated according to their electrophoretic mobilities with high separation efficiency. Because the separation can be achieved in a simple T-shaped microchannel, without the use of internal electrodes, it offers the advantages of low-cost, simple device fabrication and bubble-free operation, compared with conventional μ-FFE methods. Therefore, we expect the proposed separation method to have a wide range of filtering/separation applications in biochemical analysis. PMID:26819221

  14. A New Diagnostic Turbulence Parameterization Scheme for Representing Diurnal Variations of the Boundary Layer Wind Speed PDF and Clouds in CANAM4 SCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; McFarlane, N.; Monahan, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    A new diagnostic turbulence parameterization scheme is developed to improve atmospheric boundary layer wind, temperature, humidity simulations used in climate models. The scheme is compared with observations and the default scheme in the CCCma fourth generation atmospheric general circulation model (CANAM4) using single-column modeling cases studies and using both operational and high vertical resolution in the boundary layer. Diurnal variations of near surface wind speed PDF was much better simulated using the new scheme and higher vertical resolution in both nocturnal stable PBLs and convective PBLs over Cabauw, Netherlands. The TKE budget and boudary layer clouds are reasonably simulated for both the DYCOMS marine stratus and stratocumulus cases and for the Cabauw boundary layer over land. The impacts of intermittent turbulence and precipitations on near surface wind speed probability distribution and boundary layer clouds are also addressed in this study.

  15. Continuous particle separation using pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Hyungkook; Kim, Youngkyu; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce pressure-driven flow-induced miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis (PDF-induced μ-FFE), a novel continuous separation method. In our separation system, the external flow and electric field are applied to particles, such that particle movement is affected by pressure-driven flow, electroosmosis, and electrophoresis. We then analyzed the hydrodynamic drag force and electrophoretic force applied to the particles in opposite directions. Based on this analysis, micro- and nano-sized particles were separated according to their electrophoretic mobilities with high separation efficiency. Because the separation can be achieved in a simple T-shaped microchannel, without the use of internal electrodes, it offers the advantages of low-cost, simple device fabrication and bubble-free operation, compared with conventional μ-FFE methods. Therefore, we expect the proposed separation method to have a wide range of filtering/separation applications in biochemical analysis.

  16. The G3 Experience with Electronic Publishing: An Editor's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, W. M.

    2003-12-01

    G3 (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems) is an all-electronic journal published jointly by the AGU, the Geochemical Society, and the European Association of Geochemistry. G3 publishes original scientific contributions pertaining to understanding the Earth as a system, including relevant observational, experimental, and theoretical investigations of the solid Earth, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. The journal was initiated as a result of a grass roots effort with the following goals in mind: a copyright policy designed to enhance, rather than inhibit, the dissemination of scientific information (for example, allowing authors to post electronic reprints on their web sites), provide a means of publishing, in immediately useable formats, large data sets, provide a means for ready dissemination of computer modeling and analysis tools, and provide a forum where authors could use novel ways of illustrating both data and models (e.g., formats such as movies, virtual reality images, sound, mathematical models, etc.), and finally to reduce costs and speed publication. In most respects, G3 has been enormously successful and has met most of its goals. G3 began publishing in December of 1999; in the subsequent 3 1/2 years 625 papers have been submitted to it and 325 have been published. It currently has over 600 institutional and personal subscribers. Papers are submitted through the web (a variety of formats are accepted, however, Microsoft Word is most common) and are converted to Adobe pdf format for peer review. Except that it is fully electronic using the web and e-mail, the peer review process is traditional, which insures the quality of the papers published. Accepted papers are copyedited and converted to SGML for archival purposes. HTML and Acrobat pdf versions are then generated from the SGML and published as they are ready on the G3 web site (www.g-cubed.org). Large data sets are routinely published in digital formats that can be readily downloaded by readers

  17. The antifungal plant defensin AhPDF1.1b is a beneficial factor involved in adaptive response to zinc overload when it is expressed in yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Mith, Oriane; Benhamdi, Asma; Castillo, Teddy; Bergé, Muriel; MacDiarmid, Colin W; Steffen, Janet; Eide, David J; Perrier, Véronique; Subileau, Maeva; Gosti, Françoise; Berthomieu, Pierre; Marquès, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides represent an expanding family of peptides involved in innate immunity of many living organisms. They show an amazing diversity in their sequence, structure, and mechanism of action. Among them, plant defensins are renowned for their antifungal activity but various side activities have also been described. Usually, a new biological role is reported along with the discovery of a new defensin and it is thus not clear if this multifunctionality exists at the family level or at the peptide level. We previously showed that the plant defensin AhPDF1.1b exhibits an unexpected role by conferring zinc tolerance to yeast and plant cells. In this paper, we further explored this activity using different yeast genetic backgrounds: especially the zrc1 mutant and an UPRE-GFP reporter yeast strain. We showed that AhPDF1.1b interferes with adaptive cell response in the endoplasmic reticulum to confer cellular zinc tolerance. We thus highlighted that, depending on its cellular localization, AhPDF1.1b exerts quite separate activities: when it is applied exogenously, it is a toxin against fungal and also root cells, but when it is expressed in yeast cells, it is a peptide that modulates the cellular adaptive response to zinc overload. PMID:25755096

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure, and electronic properties of high-pressure PdF2-type oxides MO2 (M = Ru, Rh, Os, Ir, Pt).

    PubMed

    Shirako, Yuichi; Wang, Xia; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Kie; Guo, Yanfeng; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Nemoto, Yoshihiro; Katsuya, Yoshio; Shi, Youguo; Mori, Daisuke; Kojitani, Hiroshi; Yamaura, Kazunari; Inaguma, Yoshiyuki; Akaogi, Masaki

    2014-11-01

    The polycrystalline MO2's (HP-PdF2-type MO2, M = Rh, Os, Pt) with high-pressure PdF2 compounds were successfully synthesized under high-pressure conditions for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The crystal structures and electromagnetic properties were studied. Previously unreported electronic properties of the polycrystalline HP-PdF2-type RuO2 and IrO2 were also studied. The refined structures clearly indicated that all compounds crystallized into the HP-PdF2-type structure, M(4+)O(2-)2, rather than the pyrite-type structure, M(n+)(O2)(n-) (n < 4). The MO2 compounds (M = Ru, Rh, Os, Ir) exhibited metallic conduction, while PtO2 was highly insulating, probably because of the fully occupied t2g band. Neither superconductivity nor a magnetic transition was detected down to a temperature of 2 K, unlike the case of 3d transition metal chalcogenide pyrites. PMID:25337807

  19. Sorption selectivity of birnessite particle edges: a d-PDF analysis of Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) sorption by δ-MnO2 and ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    van Genuchten, Case M; Peña, Jasquelin

    2016-08-10

    Birnessite minerals (layer-type MnO2), which bear both internal (cation vacancies) and external (particle edges) metal sorption sites, are important sinks of contaminants in soils and sediments. Although the particle edges of birnessite minerals often dominate the total reactive surface area, especially in the case of nanoscale crystallites, the metal sorption reactivity of birnessite particle edges remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the sorption selectivity of birnessite particle edges by combining Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) adsorption isotherms at pH 5.5 with surface structural characterization by differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) analysis. We compared the sorption reactivity of δ-MnO2 to that of the nanomineral, 2-line ferrihydrite, which exhibits only external surface sites. Our results show that, whereas Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) both bind to birnessite layer vacancies, only Pb(ii) binds extensively to birnessite particle edges. For ferrihydrite, significant Pb(ii) adsorption to external sites was observed (roughly 20 mol%), whereas Cd(ii) sorption was negligible. These results are supported by bond valence calculations that show comparable degrees of saturation of oxygen atoms on birnessite and ferrihydrite particle edges. Therefore, we propose that the sorption selectivity of birnessite edges follows the same order of that reported previously for ferrihydrite: Ca(ii) < Cd(ii) < Ni(ii) < Zn(ii) < Cu(ii) < Pb(ii). PMID:27183472

  20. PDF model based on Langevin equation for polydispersed two-phase flows applied to a bluff-body gas-solid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, Jean-Pierre; Peirano, Eric; Chibbaro, Sergio

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to discuss the main characteristics of a complete theoretical and numerical model for turbulent polydispersed two-phase flows, pointing out some specific issues. The theoretical details of the model have already been presented [Minier and Peirano, Phys. Rep. 352, 1 (2001)]. Consequently, the present work is mainly focused on complementary aspects that are often overlooked and that require particular attention. In particular, the following points are analyzed: the necessity to add an extra term in the equation for the velocity of the fluid seen in the case of two-way coupling, the theoretical and numerical evaluations of particle averages and the fulfillment of the particle mass-continuity constraint. The theoretical model is developed within the probability density function (PDF) formalism. The important physical choice of the state vector variables is first discussed and the model is then expressed as a stochastic differential equation written in continuous time (Langevin equations) for the velocity of the fluid seen. The interests and limitations of Langevin equations, compared to the single-phase case, are reviewed. From the numerical point of view, the model corresponds to a hybrid Eulerian/Lagrangian approach where the fluid and particle phases are simulated by different methods. Important aspects of the Monte Carlo particle/mesh numerical method are emphasized. Finally, the complete model is validated and its performance is assessed by simulating a bluff-body case with an important recirculation zone and in which two-way coupling is noticeable.

  1. 78 FR 42024 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish and Dusky Rockfish in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Regulatory Area of the GOA under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on July 3, 2013 (78 FR 40638 July 8, 2013). As of...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file..., Alaska local time (A.l.t.), July 10, 2013, through 1200 hrs, A.l.t., July 12, 2013. Comments must...

  2. Digital version of "Open-File Report 92-183: Geologic map of the Granite Spring Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, Howard G.; Bedford, David R.; Coleman, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    3. Plottable map representations of the database at 1:24,000 scale in PostScript and Adobe PDF formats. The plottable files consist of a color geologic map derived from the spatial database, composited with a topographic base map in the form of the USGS Digital Raster Graphic for the map area. Color symbology from each of these datasets is maintained, which can cause plot file sizes to be large.

  3. Digital version of "Open-File Report 92-179: Geologic map of the Cow Cove Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, Howard G.; Bedford, David R.; Coleman, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    3. Plottable map representations of the database at 1:24,000 scale in PostScript and Adobe PDF formats. The plottable files consist of a color geologic map derived from the spatial database, composited with a topographic base map in the form of the USGS Digital Raster Graphic for the map area. Color symbology from each of these datasets is maintained, which can cause plot file sizes to be large.

  4. 75 FR 60820 - United States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Statement, 61 FR 28891, 28894 (W.D.Mo. May 28, 1996). The Court entered an agreed-upon Final Judgment...) (``Collaboration Guidelines''). See also Major League Baseball v. Salvino, 542 F.3d 290, 339 (2d Cir. 2008... their own); Salvino, 542 F.3d at 337 (Sotomayor, J., concurring) (Major League Baseball teams created...

  5. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico Mountain, known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations, both of which have left a legacy of pollution. In this study...

  6. Using Mobile Devices and the Adobe Connect Web Conferencing Tool in the Assessment of EFL Student Teacher Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolona Lopez, Maria del Carmen; Ortiz, Margarita Elizabeth; Allen, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a project to use mobile devices and video conferencing technology in the assessment of student English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher performance on teaching practice in Ecuador. With the increasing availability of mobile devices with video recording facilities, it has become easier for trainers to capture teacher…

  7. Constraints on fNL and gNL from the analysis of the N-pdf of the CMB large-scale anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vielva, P.; Sanz, J. L.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we extend a previous work where we presented a method based on the N-point probability density function (pdf) to study the Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We explore a local non-linear perturbative model up to third order as a general characterization of the CMB anisotropies. We focus our analysis in large-scale anisotropies (θ > 1°). At these angular scales (the Sachs-Wolfe regime), the non-Gaussian description proposed in this work defaults (under certain conditions) to an approximated local form of the weak non-linear coupling inflationary model. In particular, the quadratic and cubic terms are governed by the non-linear coupling parameters fNL and gNL, respectively. The extension proposed in this paper allows us to directly constrain these non-linear parameters. Applying the proposed methodology to Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 5-year data, we obtain -5.6 × 105 < gNL < 6.4 × 105, at 95 per cent confidence level. This result is in agreement with previous findings obtained for equivalent non-Gaussian models and with different non-Gaussian estimators, although this is the first direct constraint on gNL from CMB data. A model selection test is performed, indicating that a Gaussian model (i.e. fNL ≡ 0 and gNL ≡ 0) is preferred to the non-Gaussian scenario. When comparing different non-Gaussian models, we observe that a pure fNL model (i.e. gNL ≡ 0) is the most favoured case and that a pure gNL model (i.e. fNL ≡ 0) is more likely than a general non-Gaussian scenario (i.e. fNL ≠ 0 and gNL ≠ 0). Finally, we have analysed the WMAP data in two independent hemispheres, in particular the ones defined by the dipolar pattern found by Hoftuft et al. We show that, whereas the gNL value is compatible between both hemispheres, it is not the case for fNL (with a p-value of ~0.04). However, if, as suggested by Hoftuft et al., anisotropy of the data is assumed, the distance between the likelihood distributions for

  8. The table of isotopes-8th edition and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    A new edition of the Table of Isotopes has been published this year by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. This edition is the eighth in a series started by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1940. The two-volume, 3168-page, cloth-bound edition is twice the size of the previous edition published in 1978. It contains nuclear structure and decay data, based mainly on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), for >3100 isotopes and isomers. Approximately 24000 references are cited, and the appendices have been updated and extended. The book is packaged with an interactive CD-ROM that contains the Table of Isotopes in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format for convenient viewing on personal computer (PC) and UNIX workstations. The CD-ROM version contains a chart of the nuclides graphical index and separate indices organized for radioisotope users and nuclear structure physicists. More than 100000 hypertext links are provided to move the user quickly through related information free from the limitations of page size. Complete references with keyword abstracts are provided. The CD-ROM also contains the Table of Super-deformed Nuclear Bands and Fission Isomers; Tables of Atoms, Atomic Nuclei, and Subatomic Particles by Ivan P. Selinov; the ENSDF and nuclear structure reference (NSR) databases; the ENSDF manual by Jagdish K. Tuli; and Abode Acrobat Reader software.

  9. Vertical-tail-buffeting alleviation using piezoelectric actuators: some results of the actively controlled response of buffet-affected tails (ACROBAT) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-05-01

    A 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet Affected Tails program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at a dynamic pressure of 14 psf. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the actuators, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. Buffeting alleviation results when using the rudder are presented for comparison. Stability margins indicate that a constant gain setting in the control law may be used throughout the range of angle of attack tested.

  10. Researching Embodied Learning by Using Videographic Participation for Data Collection and Audiovisual Narratives for Dissemination--Illustrated by the Encounter between Two Acrobats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degerbøl, Stine; Nielsen, Charlotte Svendler

    2015-01-01

    The article concerns doing ethnography in education and it reflects upon using "videographic participation" for data collection and the concept of "audiovisual narratives" for dissemination, which is inspired by the idea of developing academic video. The article takes a narrative approach to qualitative research and presents a…

  11. Energy Week presentations

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    Topics covered include: energy security; clean energy and low carbon; energy for growth and poverty reduction in Africa; financing of energy efficiency; SMEs for decentralised energy service provision; potential for biofuels in developing countries; clean energy and sustainable development; clean energy finance and private equity funds; power generation and low carbon technologies; beyond traditional finance; rehabilitation and emission control in thermal power plants; and carbon finance. The presentations are mainly in ppt (Power Point) or pdf (Acrobat) format. Some videos of the conference are also available on the website.

  12. Three-dimensional portable document format: a simple way to present 3-dimensional data in an electronic publication.

    PubMed

    Danz, Jan C; Katsaros, Christos

    2011-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) models of teeth and soft and hard tissues are tessellated surfaces used for diagnosis, treatment planning, appliance fabrication, outcome evaluation, and research. In scientific publications or communications with colleagues, these 3D data are often reduced to 2-dimensional pictures or need special software for visualization. The portable document format (PDF) offers a simple way to interactively display 3D surface data without additional software other than a recent version of Adobe Reader (Adobe, San Jose, Calif). The purposes of this article were to give an example of how 3D data and their analyses can be interactively displayed in 3 dimensions in electronic publications, and to show how they can be exported from any software for diagnostic reports and communications among colleagues. PMID:21803267

  13. Portable document format file showing the surface models of cadaver whole body.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyung Seon; Lee, Sangho; Moon, Young Lae; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2012-08-01

    In the Visible Korean project, 642 three-dimensional (3D) surface models have been built from the sectioned images of a male cadaver. It was recently discovered that popular PDF file enables users to approach the numerous surface models conveniently on Adobe Reader. Purpose of this study was to present a PDF file including systematized surface models of human body as the beneficial contents. To achieve the purpose, fitting software packages were employed in accordance with the procedures. Two-dimensional (2D) surface models including the original sectioned images were embedded into the 3D surface models. The surface models were categorized into systems and then groups. The adjusted surface models were inserted to a PDF file, where relevant multimedia data were added. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive data of a whole body could be explored in varying manners. The PDF file, downloadable freely from the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr), is expected to be used as a satisfactory self-learning tool of anatomy. Raw data of the surface models can be extracted from the PDF file and employed for various simulations for clinical practice. The technique to organize the surface models will be applied to manufacture of other PDF files containing various multimedia contents. PMID:22876049

  14. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2005-03-01

    As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

  15. Correlation of Excess Enthalpy and ^4He Production: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, M. H.

    2004-03-01

    Three different sets of experiments conducted in the Navy Laboratory (NAWCWD) at China Lake, California (1990-1994) clearly established that helium-4 is the main fusion product in the Pd/D_2O+LiOD electrolysis system(acrobat/MosierBossthermaland.pdf>P.A. Mosier-Boss, S.R. Chubb, M. Fleischmann, M. Imam, M. H. Miles, S. Szpak, TR 1862, SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego; see http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MosierBossthermaland.pdf). A correlation between excess enthalpy and excess helium-4 was measured in 18 out of 21 experiments. The observation of no excess enthalpy was correlated with no excess helium in 12 out of 12 experiments. Thus 30 out of 33 experiments agree with the hypothesis that the excess enthalpy produced in cold fusion studies is correlated with helium-4 production: d+darrow ^4He + 23.8 MeV. Furthermore, the measured rate of helium-4 production was always in the appropriate range of 10^1^0 to 10^1^2 atoms per second per watt of excess power.

  16. Second Line of Defense: Electronic Maintenance Reports, Local Maintenance Provider User Guide, Rev. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, Richard J.

    2012-09-01

    The Electronic Maintenance Report forms allow Local Maintenance Providers (LMP) and other program staff to enter maintenance information into a simple and secure system. This document describes the features and information required to complete the Maintenance Report forms. It is expected that all Corrective Maintenance Reports from LMPs will be submitted electronically into the SLD Portal. As an exception (e.g., when access to the SLD Portal is unavailable), Maintenance Reports can be submitted via a secure Adobe PDF form available through the Sustainability Manager assigned to each country.

  17. Natural-Color Image Mosaics of Afghanistan: Digital Databases and Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Hare, Trent M.

    2007-01-01

    Explanation: The 50 tiled images in this dataset are natural-color renditions of the calibrated six-band Landsat mosaics created from Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. Natural-color images depict the surface as seen by the human eye. The calibration of the Landsat ETM+ maps produced by Davis (2006) are relative reflectance and need to be grounded with ground-reflectance data, but the difficulties in performing fieldwork in Afghanistan precluded ground-reflectance surveys. For natural color calibration, which involves only the blue, green, and red color bands of Landsat, we could use ground photographs, Munsell color readings of ground surfaces, or another image base that accurately depicts the surface color. Each map quadrangle is 1? of latitude by? of longitude. The numbers assigned to each map quadrangle refer to the latitude and longitude coordinates of the lower left corner of the quadrangle. For example, quadrangle Q2960 has its lower left corner at lat 29? N., long 60? E. Each quadrangle overlaps adjacent quadrangles by 100 pixels (2.85 km). Only the 14.25-m-spacial-resolution UTM and 28.5-m-spacial-resolution WGS84 geographic geotiff datasets are available in this report to decrease the amount of space needed. The images are (three-band, eight-bit) geotiffs with embedded georeferencing. As such, most software will not require the associated world files. An index of all available images in geographic is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. The country of Afghanistan spans three UTM zones: (41-43). Maps are stored as geoTIFFs in their respective UTM zone projection. Indexes of all available topographic map sheets in their respective UTM zone are displayed here: Index_UTM_Z41.pdf, Index_UTM_Z42.pdf, Index_UTM_Z43.pdf. You will need Adobe Reader to view the PDF files. Download a copy of the latest version of Adobe Reader for free.

  18. Offering an American Graduate Medical HIV Course to Health Care Workers in Resource-Limited Settings via the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Michael H.; Severynen, Anneleen O.; Hals, Matthew P.; Harrington, Robert D.; Spach, David H.; Kim, H. Nina

    2012-01-01

    Background Western accredited medical universities can offer graduate-level academic courses to health care workers (HCWs) in resource-limited settings through the internet. It is not known whether HCWs are interested in these online courses, whether they can perform as well as matriculated students, or whether such courses are educationally or practically relevant. Methods and Findings In 2011, the University of Washington (UW) Schools of Medicine and Nursing offered the graduate course, “Clinical Management of HIV”, to HCWs that included a demographic survey, knowledge assessment, and course evaluation. UW faculty delivered HIV clinical topics through ten 2-hour weekly sessions from the perspectives of practicing HIV medicine in developed and developing settings. HCWs viewed lectures through Adobe Acrobat Connect Pro (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA), and completed online homework on HIV Web Study (http://depts.washington.edu/hivaids/) and online quizzes. HCWs, who met the same passing requirements as UW students by attending 80% lectures, completing ≥90% homework, and achieving a cumulative ≥70% grade on quizzes, were awarded a certificate. 369 HCWs at 33 sites in 21 countries joined the course in 2011, a >15-fold increase since the course was first offered in 2007. The majority of HCWs came from Africa (72%), and most were physicians (41%), nurses (22%), or midlevel practitioners (20%). 298 HCWs (81%) passed all requirements and earned a certificate. In a paired analysis of pre- and post-course HIV knowledge assessments, 56% of HCWs improved their post-course score (p<0.0001) with 27% improving by at least 30%. In the course evaluation, most HCWs rated the course as excellent (53%) or very good (39%). Conclusions This online HIV course demonstrated that opening a Western graduate medical and nursing curriculum to HCWs in resource-limited settings is feasible, popular, and valuable, and may address logistic and economic barriers to the provision of high

  19. Final_report_pub1.pdf

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Nicholas

    2014-08-15

    The paper describes Soitecs project to plan,install,qualify and ramp a high volume CPV module manufactruing facility in Southern California. Soitec’s CPV module factory in San Diego was planned with an annual production capacity of 280MWDC. It was scheduled to be operational by the first quarter of 2013, and was expected to create several hundred direct and indirect jobs in the San Diego region. From ground breaking to facility readiness was completed in six months. This enabled the docking of equipment in the Q3’12 time frame. The first 140 MW of capacity was ready for operation in Q4’12. Production of the CX-M500 modules started in Q4 2012. The line yield and factory capacity were ramped in 2013. The annual production capacity demonstration was successfully completed in Q2 2014. The modules manufactured at the plant were used to supply utility scale demand in the US and also world markets.

  20. Constraints on pdf uncertainties from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Issever, C.; /Oxford U.

    2006-04-01

    Recent electroweak measurements and jet physics results from CDF which constrain the parton density functions (PDFs) are presented. Measurements of the W charge asymmetry, W and Z as well as jet cross sections based on k{sub T} and midpoint algorithm with up to 1 fb{sup -1} RunII data are discussed.

  1. Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: A meta-analysis exemplar

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sharon A.; Martin, Ellen E.; Garcia, Theresa J.; Winter, Mary A.; García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Adama; Cuevas, Heather E.; Sumlin, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analyses of broad scope and complexity require investigators to organize many study documents and manage communication among several research staff. Commercially available electronic tools, e.g., EndNote, Adobe Acrobat Pro, Blackboard, Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS), are useful for organizing and tracking the meta-analytic process, as well as enhancing communication among research team members. The purpose of this paper is to describe the electronic processes we designed, using commercially available software, for an extensive quantitative model-testing meta-analysis we are conducting. Specific electronic tools improved the efficiency of (a) locating and screening studies, (b) screening and organizing studies and other project documents, (c) extracting data from primary studies, (d) checking data accuracy and analyses, and (e) communication among team members. The major limitation in designing and implementing a fully electronic system for meta-analysis was the requisite upfront time to: decide on which electronic tools to use, determine how these tools would be employed, develop clear guidelines for their use, and train members of the research team. The electronic process described here has been useful in streamlining the process of conducting this complex meta-analysis and enhancing communication and sharing documents among research team members. PMID:23681256

  2. Surface contamination and changes of mechanical damping in Berea sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Will Marlin

    Small changes in the pore fluid chemistry of Berea sandstone cause significant changes in mechanical damping. A method of detecting contaminants in porous rocks is under ongoing development. Here I report several laboratory measurements done in support of this development, including that of a large difference in mechanical damping between clean and chemically treated Berea sandstone. I develop a model of a surface-chemistry related damping mechanism, and qualitatively compare results from calculations to experimental results. I rule out other damping mechanisms, and conclude that the observed damping is due to surface chemistry effects (contact angle hysteresis). To help verify experimental results, an anelastic structure with calculable damping properties was built. Damping of this structure was measured by the same method used for damping measurements on Berea sandstone. Results from these measurements show good agreement to the calculated response of the structure in the frequency range 0.03--1 Hz.* *This dissertation includes a CD that is compound (contains both a paper copy and a D as part of the dissertation. The CD requires the following applications: Adobe Acrobat.

  3. High-speed network for delivery of education-on-demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Carlos; Harris, Dale; Hsieh, Jeff

    1996-03-01

    A project to investigate the feasibility of delivering on-demand distance education to the desktop, known as the Asynchronous Distance Education ProjecT (ADEPT), is presently being carried out. A set of Stanford engineering classes is digitized on PC, Macintosh, and UNIX platforms, and is made available on servers. Students on campus and in industry may then access class material on these servers via local and metropolitan area networks. Students can download class video and audio, encoded in QuickTimeTM and Show-Me TVTM formats, via file-transfer protocol or the World Wide Web. Alternatively, they may stream a vector-quantized version of the class directly from a server for real-time playback. Students may also download PostscriptTM and Adobe AcrobatTM versions of class notes. Off-campus students may connect to ADEPT servers via the internet, the Silicon Valley Test Track (SVTT), or the Bay-Area Gigabit Network (BAGNet). The SVTT and BAGNet are high-speed metropolitan-area networks, spanning the Bay Area, which provide IP access over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). Student interaction is encouraged through news groups, electronic mailing lists, and an ADEPT home page. Issues related to having multiple platforms and interoperability are examined in this paper. The ramifications of providing a reliable service are discussed. System performance and the parameters that affect it are then described. Finally, future work on expanding ATM access, real-time delivery of classes, and enhanced student interaction is described.

  4. Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: a meta-analysis exemplar.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sharon A; Martin, Ellen E; Garcia, Theresa J; Winter, Mary A; García, Alexandra A; Brown, Adama; Cuevas, Heather E; Sumlin, Lisa L

    2013-06-01

    Meta-analyses of broad scope and complexity require investigators to organize many study documents and manage communication among several research staff. Commercially available electronic tools, for example, EndNote, Adobe Acrobat Pro, Blackboard, Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS), are useful for organizing and tracking the meta-analytic process as well as enhancing communication among research team members. The purpose of this article is to describe the electronic processes designed, using commercially available software, for an extensive, quantitative model-testing meta-analysis. Specific electronic tools improved the efficiency of (a) locating and screening studies, (b) screening and organizing studies and other project documents, (c) extracting data from primary studies, (d) checking data accuracy and analyses, and (e) communication among team members. The major limitation in designing and implementing a fully electronic system for meta-analysis was the requisite upfront time to decide on which electronic tools to use, determine how these tools would be used, develop clear guidelines for their use, and train members of the research team. The electronic process described here has been useful in streamlining the process of conducting this complex meta-analysis and enhancing communication and sharing documents among research team members. PMID:23681256

  5. Lab Manual & Resources for Materials Science, Engineering and Technology on CD-Rom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, James A.; McKenney, Alfred E.

    2001-01-01

    The National Educators' Workshop (NEW:Update) series of workshops has been in existence since 1986. These annual workshops focus on technical updates and laboratory experiments for materials science, engineering and technology, involving new and traditional content in the field. Scores of educators and industrial and national laboratory personnel have contributed many useful experiments and demonstrations which were then published as NASA Conference Proceedings. This "out poring of riches" creates an ever-expanding shelf of valuable teaching tools for college, university, community college and advanced high school instruction. Now, more than 400 experiments and demonstrations, representing the first thirteen years of NEW:Updates have been selected and published on a CD-ROM, through the collaboration of this national network of materials educators, engineers, and scientists. The CD-ROM examined in this document utilizes the popular Adobe Acrobat Reader format and operates on most popular computer platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the second edition of Experiments in Materials Science, Engineering and Technology (EMSET2) CD-ROM, ISBN 0-13-030534-0.

  6. The land of Ashur: A study of landscape and settlement in the Assyrian heartland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altaweel, Mark

    The Assyrian capitals of Nineveh, Nimrud, Khorsabad, and Ashur were the most important cities of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Assyrians regarded the territory surrounding these cities as a land that belonged to their chief god Ashur. Historical sources indicate that they devoted much of their economic and political energy to their homeland, highlighting its importance. Despite this significance, much of the archaeological landscape around the Assyrian capitals has never been significantly studied and published. Using remote sensing, the archaeological landscape of the Assyrian heartland can be investigated. Satellite data such as CORONA, ASTER, and elevation data can be used to locate and analyze archaeological sites, hollow ways, and canals. By investigating the relationships of these features to each other, as well as using archaeological and textual records, the archaeological landscape during the Neo-Assyrian period can be reconstructed. The results obtained by this dissertation will show that the Neo-Assyrian heartland was unique in contrast to other areas and contemporary landscapes within the Assyrian empire. This landscape can also serve as a model for other empires that had similar social, economic, political, and other characteristics.* *This dissertation is a compound document (contains both a paper copy and a CD as part of the dissertation). The CD requires the following system requirements: Adobe Acrobat; Microsoft Office.

  7. 8th edition of the Table of Isotopes: 1998 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, Richard B.; Chu, S. Y. Frank; Baglin, Coral M.

    1997-10-01

    The 8th edition of the Table of Isotopes (John Wiley, New York) was published in 1996 as both a two-volume book and a CD-ROM. A 1998 update to the 8th edition CD-ROM is nearly completed. The 1998 update will include data added to the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) since about 1995. Special effort was taken, for this update, to revise ENSDF for nuclides far-from-stability, superdeformed bands, and spontaneous fission. The update will contain data for over 3600 isotopes and isomers, nearly 500 more than the previous edition. The Table of Isotopes is being prepared in Acrobat PDF format and provided with Acrobat Reader software for most computers. This new version will be Internet enabled including local HTML links to additional data for nuclear astrophysics, atomic masses, radioactive decay, fission yields, and other information. The CD-ROM will also contain the ENSDF and Nuclear Science Reference (NSR) files. Isotope Explorer software (PC) will be provided to search the ENSDF database to display level scheme drawings, data tables, plots, nuclear charts, and to perform literature searches. An Internet publication of the Table of Isotopes is under developement.

  8. Archaeoastronomy in Transylvania PDF: http://astro.elte.hu/phd2000/csillik.pdf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csillik, Iharka; Oproiu, Tiberiu; Chis, Dorin; Maxim, Zoie; Lazarovici, Gheorge

    2001-02-01

    The paper presents some astronomical considerations on the orientation of graves and other ancient vestiges on the Transylvanian territory, which - we prove - are mainly aligned with respect to the solar phenomena.

  9. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This drawing shows a cross-section view of the test cell at the heart of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. The middle and lower drawings depict the volume of the silicone oil layer that served as the atmosphere as the steel ball rotated and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An Acrobat PDF copy of this drawing is available at http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  10. Transient Dentritic Solidification Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Transient Dentritic Solidification Experiment (TDSE) is being developed as a candidate for flight aboard the International Space Station. TDSE will study the growth of dentrites (treelike crystalline structures) in a transparent material (succinonitrile or SCN) that mimics the behavior of widely used iron-based metals. Basic work by three Space Shuttle flights (STS-62, STS-75, and STS-87) of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. The TDSE is similar to IDGE, but will maintain a constant temperature while varying pressure on the dentrites. Shown here is a cutaway of the isothermal bath containing its growth cell at the heart of the TDSE. The principal investigator is Matthew Koss of College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA. Note: an Acrobat PDF version is available from http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery

  11. A Snapshot of Photo Editing Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, J.V.

    2004-01-01

    Plenty of digital imaging professionals claim that Adobe's Photoshop CS is the best photo editing application money can buy. This document reviews Adobe's Photoshop CS and its worthy competitors. In addition to Adobe, the following programs are reviewed in this document: (1) Adobe Photoshop Elements 2.0; (2) Arcsoft PhotoImpression; (3) Jasc Paint…

  12. Map Database for Surficial Materials in the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soller, David R.; Reheis, Marith C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Van Sistine, D. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Earth's bedrock is overlain in many places by a loosely compacted and mostly unconsolidated blanket of sediments in which soils commonly are developed. These sediments generally were eroded from underlying rock, and then were transported and deposited. In places, they exceed 1000 ft (330 m) in thickness. Where the sediment blanket is absent, bedrock is either exposed or has been weathered to produce a residual soil. For the conterminous United States, a map by Soller and Reheis (2004, scale 1:5,000,000; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-275/) shows these sediments and the weathered, residual material; for ease of discussion, these are referred to as 'surficial materials'. That map was produced as a PDF file, from an Adobe Illustrator-formatted version of the provisional GIS database. The provisional GIS files were further processed without modifying the content of the published map, and are here published.

  13. Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    These pages provide an example of the layout and style required for the preparation of four-page papers for the TechConnect World 2015 technical proceedings.Documents must be submitted in electronic (Adobe PDFfile) format. Please study the enclosed materials beforebeginning the final preparation of your paper. Proofread your paper carefully before submitting (it will appear in the published volume in exactly the same form). Your PDF manuscript must be uploaded online by April 11th, 2015.You will receive no proofs. Begin your paper with an abstract of no more than 18 lines. Thoroughly summarize your article in this section since this text will be used for on-line listing and classification of the publication.

  14. Pre-RIP color management for soft proofing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tastl, Ingeborg; Koh, Kok-Wei

    2012-01-01

    In an ideal situation, a color managed soft proof is generated by the same Raster Image Processor (RIP) that produces the final raster data for printing. In real-world scenarios, this soft proofing capability is often absent. To overcome this limitation, we developed a workflow using the Adobe PDF library for producing color managed soft proofs before incoming jobs from the web are sent to the RIP. This paper discusses color management challenges that presented themselves and how they were addressed. It also highlights a few specific cases where the separation into subsequent color management and transparency blending processes caused unexpected results and how they were dealt with. Such a system can be implemented as a cloud-based solution to provide end-customers with a quick, inexpensive and reasonably accurate preview of print products before the job is submitted.

  15. Solutions in radiology services management: a literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Aline Garcia; Vergara, Lizandra Garcia Lupi; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz; Wagner, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at reviewing the literature to identify solutions for problems observed in radiology services. Materials and Methods Basic, qualitative, exploratory literature review at Scopus and SciELO databases, utilizing the Mendeley and Illustrator CC Adobe softwares. Results In the databases, 565 papers – 120 out of them, pdf free – were identified. Problems observed in the radiology sector are related to procedures scheduling, humanization, lack of training, poor knowledge and use of management techniques, and interaction with users. The design management provides the services with interesting solutions such as Benchmarking, CRM, Lean Approach, ServiceBlueprinting, continued education, among others. Conclusion Literature review is an important tool to identify problems and respective solutions. However, considering the small number of studies approaching management of radiology services, this is a great field of research for the development of deeper studies. PMID:26543281

  16. Space-Time Dynamics of Soil Moisture and Temperature: Scale issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohanty, Binayak P.; Miller, Douglas A.; Th.vanGenuchten, M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to gain further understanding of soil moisture/temperature dynamics at different spatio-temporal scales and physical controls/parameters.We created a comprehensive GIS database, which has been accessed extensively by NASA Land Surface Hydrology investigators (and others), is located at the following URL: http://www.essc.psu.edu/nasalsh. For soil moisture field experiments such as SGP97, SGP99, SMEX02, and SMEX03, cartographic products were designed for multiple applications, both pre- and post-mission. Premission applications included flight line planning and field operations logistics, as well as general insight into the extent and distribution of soil, vegetation, and topographic properties for the study areas. The cartographic products were created from original spatial information resources that were imported into Adobe Illustrator, where the maps were created and PDF versions were made for distribution and download.

  17. NASA Space Mechanisms Handbook and Reference Guide Expanded Into CD-ROM Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Several NASA missions suffered failures and anomalies due to problems in applying space mechanisms technology to specific projects. Research shows that engineers often lack either adequate knowledge of mechanism design or sufficient understanding of how mechanisms affect sensitive systems. The Space Mechanisms Project conducted a Lessons Learned study and published a Space Mechanisms Handbook to help space industry engineers avoid recurring design, qualification, and application problems. The Space Mechanisms Handbook written at the NASA Glenn Research Center details the state-of-the-art in space mechanisms design as of 1998. NASA's objective in developing this Space Mechanisms Handbook was to provide readily accessible information on such areas as space mechanisms design, mechanical component availability and use, testing and qualification of mechanical systems, and a listing of worldwide space mechanisms experts and testing facilities in the United States. This handbook has been expanded into a two-volume CD-ROM set in an Adobe Acrobat format. In addition to the handbook, the CD's include (1) the two volume Space Mechanisms Lessons Learned Study, (2) proceedings from all the NASA hosted Aerospace Mechanisms Symposia held through the year 2000, (3) the Space Materials Handbook, (4) the Lubrication Handbook for the Space Industry, (5) the Structural & Mechanical Systems Long-Life Assurance Design Guidelines, (6) the Space Environments and Effects Source-Book, (7) the Spacecraft Deployable Appendages manual, (8) the Fastener Design Manual, (9) A Manual for Pyrotechnic Design, Development and Qualification, (10) the Report on Alternative Devices to Pyrotechnics on Spacecraft, and (11) Gearing (a manual). In addition, numerous other papers on tribology and lubrication are included.This technical summary of the project provides information on how to obtain the handbook and related information.

  18. Trace element abundances in single presolar silicon carbide grains by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiv, Yoav

    2004-12-01

    Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) was applied to the study of presolar grains for the first time in this study. 41 single SiC grains of the KJF size fraction (mass-weighted median size of 1.86 μm) from the Murchison (CM2) Meteorite were analyzed. The absolute abundances of the following elements were determined (not every element in every grain): S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Os, Ir and Pt (underlined elements were detected here for the first time in single grains). There is good agreement between the heavier trace element abundances in the grains and s-process nucleosynthesis calculations. It suggests that smaller 13C pocket sizes are needed in the parent stars, a free parameter in the stellar models, than is deduced from isotopic analyses of s-, and s-mainly, elements, such as Zr and Mo. In addition, the data confirms the radiogenic nature of the Nb in the grains, due to the in situ decay of 93Zr (t 1/2 = 1.5 × 106 year). The data suggest that the trace elements condensed into the host SiC grains by a combination of condensation in solid solution and incorporation of subgrains. It seems that many of the trace elements reside mainly in subgrains of two solid solution: (1)a TiC based solid solution, and (2)a Mo-Ru carbide based solid solution. The presence of subgrains of an Fe-Ni alloy solid solution is suggested as well. Subgrains of all 3 solid solutions were observed previously in presolar graphite grains.* *This dissertation is a compound document (contains both a paper copy and a CD as part of the dissertation). The CD requires the following system requirements: Adobe Acrobat.

  19. Can online conference systems improve veterinary education? A study about the capability of online conferencing and its acceptance.

    PubMed

    Koch, Michael; Fischer, Martin R; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P

    2012-01-01

    In veterinary medicine, there is an ongoing need for students, educators, and veterinarians to exchange the latest knowledge in their respective fields and to learn about unusual cases, emerging diseases, and treatment. Networking among veterinary faculties is developing rapidly, but conferences and meetings can be difficult to attend because of time limitations and travel costs. The current study examines acceptance of synchronous online conferences, seminars, meetings, and lectures by veterinarians and students. First, an online survey on the use of communication technology in veterinary medicine was made available for 15 weeks to every German-speaking veterinary university and via professional journals and an online veterinary forum. A total of 1,776 persons (620 veterinarians and 1,156 students) participated. Most reported using the Internet at least once per day; more than half reported using instant messengers. Most participants used the Internet for communication, but less than half used Skype. Second, to test the spectrum of tools for online conferences, a variety of "virtual classroom" systems (netucate systems iLinc, Adobe Acrobat Connect Pro, Cisco WebEx, Skype) were used to deliver student lectures, veterinary continuing-education courses, and academic conferences at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover (TiHo). Of 591 participants in 63 online events, 99.4% rated the virtual events as enjoyable, 96.1% found them useful, and 92.4% said that they learned a lot. Participants noted that the courses were not tied to a certain place, and thus saved time and travel costs. Online conference systems thus offer new opportunities to provide information in veterinary medicine. PMID:22951464

  20. The new rules for bringing innovations to market.

    PubMed

    Chakravorti, Bhaskar

    2004-03-01

    It's tough to get consumers to adopt innovations--and it's getting tougher all the time. That's because more and more markets are taking on the characteristics of networks. The interconnections among today's companies are so plentiful that often a new product's adoption by one player depends on its systematic adoption by other players. Consider the disparate companies involved with the popularization of digital photography: software vendors, camera manufacturers, broadband communications companies, printer manufacturers, and so on. By contrast, Kodak was pretty much the sole player involved with popularizing film photography. The traditional levers executives use to launch products--such as targeting unique customer segments or developing compelling value propositions--don't work as well in this new environment. Instead, innovators must orchestrate a change of behaviors across the market, unraveling the status quo so that a large number of players adopt their offerings and believe they are better off for having done so. In this article, Monitor Group's Bhaskar Chakravorti outlines a four-part framework for doing just that. The innovator must reason back from a target endgame, implementing only those strategies that maximize its chances of getting to its goal. It must complement power players, positioning its innovation as an enhancement to their products or services. The innovator must offer coordinated switching incentives to three core groups: the players that add to the innovation's benefits, the players that act as channels to adopters, and the adopters themselves. And it must preserve flexibility in case its initial strategy fails. Chakravorti uses Adobe's introduction of its Acrobat software as an example of an innovator that took into account other players in the network--and succeeded because of it. PMID:15029790

  1. Notes on Bell-Sejnowski PDF-matching neuron.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Simone

    2002-12-01

    This article investigated the behavior of a single-input, single-unit neuron model of the Bell-Sejnowski class, which learn through the maximum-entropy principle, in order to understand its probability density function and matching ability. PMID:12503562

  2. es11_Rappe_final_report_DOE.pdf

    SciTech Connect

    Rappe, Andrew M

    2011-08-31

    ES11: the 23rd Annual Workshop on Electronic Structure Methods was held from June 6-9, 2011 at the University of Pennsylvania. The local organizing committee (see Section II) led by PI Andrew M. Rappe supervised the organization of the conference, before, during, and after the meeting itself. The national organizing committee set the technical program of talks, and provided support and advice in various ways. The conference was well-attended (see Section III). An important feature of this conference was a series of panel discussions (see Section IV) to discuss the field of electronic structure and to set new directions. The technical program was of extraordinarily high quality (see Section V). The host institution, the University of Pennsylvania, provided a supportive environment for this meeting (see Section VI).

  3. Nucleon strangeness form factors and moments of PDF

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, Takumi; Deka, Mridupawan; Dong, Shao-Jing; Draper, Terrence; Liu, Keh-Fei; Mankame, Devdatta; Mathur, Nilmani; Streuer, Thomas

    2011-10-24

    The calculation of the nucleon strangeness form factors from N{sub f} = 2+1 clover fermion lattice QCD is presented. Disconnected insertions are evaluated using the Z(4) stochastic method, along with unbiased subtractions from the hopping parameter expansion. We find that increasing the number of nucleon sources for each configuration improves the signal significantly. We obtain G{sub M}{sup s}(0) = -0.017(25)(07), which is consistent with experimental values, and has an order of magnitude smaller error. Preliminary results for the strangeness contribution to the second moment of the parton distribution function are also presented.

  4. Modeling turbulent/chemistry interactions using assumed pdf methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, R. L, Jr.; White, J. A.; Girimaji, S. S.; Drummond, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Two assumed probability density functions (pdfs) are employed for computing the effect of temperature fluctuations on chemical reaction. The pdfs assumed for this purpose are the Gaussian and the beta densities of the first kind. The pdfs are first used in a parametric study to determine the influence of temperature fluctuations on the mean reaction-rate coefficients. Results indicate that temperature fluctuations significantly affect the magnitude of the mean reaction-rate coefficients of some reactions depending on the mean temperature and the intensity of the fluctuations. The pdfs are then tested on a high-speed turbulent reacting mixing layer. Results clearly show a decrease in the ignition delay time due to increases in the magnitude of most of the mean reaction rate coefficients.

  5. #2# TEST PDF WITH NO TEXT - CACHE REPLACEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E P; Burlington, H; Chanana, A D; Joel, D D; Stevens, J; Reincke, U

    2013-03-28

    The following topics are discussed: current concept of the structure of hemopoiesis; a deterministic model of granulocytopoiesis in man; influence of sterile inflammation upon kinetics of granulocytopoiesis; studies on granulopoiesis after inoculation of a granulocytosis-producing tumor in the mouse; in vivo effects of inoculation of granulocytosis-producing tumor; and working hypothesis on regulation of granulopoiesis. (HLW)

  6. The ALHAMBRA survey: Accurate photometric merger fractions from PDF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sanjuan, C.; Cenarro, A. J..; Varela, J.; Viironen, K.; ALHAMBRA Team

    2015-05-01

    The estimation of the merger fraction in photometric surveys is limited by the large uncertainty in the photometric redshift compared with the velocity difference in kinematical close pairs (less than 500 km s^{-1}). Several efforts have conducted to deal with this limitation and we present the latest improvements. Our new method (i) provides a robust estimation of the merger fraction by using full probability distribution functions (PDFs) instead of Gaussian distributions, as in previous work; (ii) takes into account the dependence of the luminosity on redshift in both the selection of the samples and the definition of major/minor mergers; and (iii) deals with partial PDFs to define ``red" (E/S0 templates) and ``blue" (spiral/starburst templates) samples without apply any colour selection. We highlight our new method with the estimation of the merger fraction at z < 1 in the ALHAMBRA photometric survey. We find that our merger fractions and rates nicely agree with those from previous spectroscopic work. This new method will be capital for current and future large photometric surveys such as DES, SHARDS, J-PAS, or LSST.

  7. Make Your Calories Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... module requires Adobe Flash Player ; PDFs require Adobe Reader . The character displayed above is a trademark of ... Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ...

  8. West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at the west edge of state park property. (recreation of HABS No. CA-38-P152-1). - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  9. Detail of porch roof underside at the southeast corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of porch roof underside at the southeast corner of the west wing, looking northeast. (recreation of HABS. No CA-38-P152-8) - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  10. Servant's quarters, west wing, upper floor interior, looking to south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Servant's quarters, west wing, upper floor interior, looking to south. Doorway at center connects with the Majordomo's sleeping space. - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  11. Vallejo family sleeping space, west wing, upper floor, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vallejo family sleeping space, west wing, upper floor, looking north from the south end. The doorway at far right connects with the dining area. - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  12. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey (Sold by Anita Pacheco last ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey (Sold by Anita Pacheco last owner of Pacheco Estate 8 years ago. Now owned by Pentecost Church Society. YEAR BUILT: 1830 - Salvio Pancheco Adobe, 2030 Adobe Street, Concord, Contra Costa County, CA

  13. Improved sectioned images and surface models of the whole dog body.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo Seok; Shin, Dong Sun; Cho, Dai Hai; Jung, Yong Wook; Park, Jin Seo

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this research was to produce high-quality sectioned images of a whole dog which can be used to create sectional anatomy atlases and three-dimensional (3D) models. A year old female beagle was sacrificed by potassium chloride injection and frozen. The frozen dog was then serially ground using a cryomacrotome. Sectioned surfaces were photographed using a digital camera to create 3555 sectioned images of whole dog body (intervals, 0.2 mm; pixel size, 0.1 mm; 48 bit color). In a sectioned image, structures of dimension greater than 0.1mm could be identified in detail. Photoshop was used to make segmented images of 16 structures. Sectioned and segmented images were stored in browsing software to allow easy access. Segmented images were reconstructed to make surface models of 16 structures using Mimics software and stored in portable document format (PDF) using Adobe 3D Reviewer software. In this research, state-of-art sectioned images and surface models were produced for the dog. The authors hope that the sectioned images produced will become a useful source of software for basic and clinical veterinary medicine, and therefore, are distributing the sectioned images and surface models through browsing software and PDF file available free of charge. PMID:24986152

  14. Segmentation and surface reconstruction of a cadaver heart on Mimics software.

    PubMed

    Shin, D S; Lee, S; Park, H S; Lee, S-B; Chung, M S

    2015-01-01

    The Visible Korean research team used Mimics software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium) for the segmentation and subsequent surface reconstruction of heart structures using information obtained from sectioned images of a cadaver. Twenty-six heart components were outlined in advance on Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA, USA). By use of the Mimics, the outlined images were then browsed along with the vertical planes as well as the 3-dimensional surface models, which were immediately built by piling the images. Erroneous delineation was readily detected and revised until satisfactory heart models were acquired. The surface models and the selected sectioned images in horizontal, coronal, and sagittal planes were inputted into a PDF file, where any combinations of reconstructed constituents could be displayed and rotated by the user. Mimics software accelerated the segmentation and surface reconstruction of heart anatomical structures. Similar benefits hopefully result from various serial images of other organs. The PDF file, and plane and stereoscopic image data are being distributed to others, and should prove valuable for medical students and clinicians. PMID:26339820

  15. 78 FR 15023 - Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the Assessment of Data Quality in Animal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... the web-based meeting using Adobe Connect TM and the public can register to attend. DATES... meeting (via Adobe Connect TM ) on or before March 19, 2013. The preliminary agenda is available at http... period. Instructions for participating in the meeting using Adobe Connect TM will be included in...

  16. Captivate Your Audience by Turning Powerpoint Presentations into Interactive E-Learning Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Montessa; Hirnyck, Ronda; Agenbroad, Ariel; Bechinski, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Adobe® Captivate software provides educators with a tool to create interactive distance learning modules. This article describes how Adobe® Captivate was used to increase engagement of volunteer learners. An Adobe® Captivate module was created for the University of Idaho Master Gardener program to educate and test new Master Gardener volunteers on…

  17. Helping Students Express Their Passion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Adobe Youth Voices (AYV) is a global educational program sponsored by the Adobe Foundation, the philanthropic arm of software maker Adobe. The education-based initiative teaches underserved kids aged 13-18 how to use digital media to comment on their world, share ideas, and take action on the social issues that are important to them. The AYV…

  18. Accessible and informative sectioned images and surface models of a cadaver head.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyung Seon; Lee, Sangho; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-07-01

    The sectioned images and surface models of a cadaver head in the Visible Korean Project would be more beneficial if they were accessible and informative. To this aim, 3 policies were established: (1) the data are promptly obtainable and observable; (2) the graphic data are accompanied by explaining the anatomic terms; and (3) two-dimensional images and three-dimensional models are shown together. According to the policies, the following were attempted. Two hundred thirty-five couples of sectioned images and outlined images (intervals, 1 mm) of the head were prepared. Browsing software was developed where the 2 corresponding images were displayed simultaneously. In addition, the structures in the images were recognized with the aid of automatic labeling. From the outlined images, surface models of 178 head structures were constructed. The two-dimensional surface models including the sectioned images were embedded into the three-dimensional surface models. All the models were categorized into systems and arranged to be inputted to a PDF (portable document format) file. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive head data could be explored on Adobe Reader. If the user clicked on the surface models, their anatomic names were highlighted. The sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models in the browsing software and PDF file can be downloaded from the homepage (anatomy.co.kr) free of charge. The state-of-the-art graphic information will hopefully assist medical students in learning head anatomy. In addition, the raw data are expected to contribute to the various clinical practice simulations. PMID:22801119

  19. E-Field Asymmetry and Energy Transfer in Cold Fusion Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot

    2004-03-01

    A many-body Bloch-deuteron field in a metal is a quantized matter field which forms when deuterons occupy shallow potential wells exceeding of the order of 10^4 potential wells.(acrobat/ChubbTAtheddcoldf.pdf>T. A. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10, in press; see http://www.lenr-canr.org) The deuterons are merged by coordinate exchange, which takes place when wave function overlap occurs. The matter field minimizes total energy. Singlet pairings are subject to the short range nuclear potential and can collapse to nuclear dimension. The transition becomes irreversible if energy is transferred from the many-body system. The change into Bloch ^4He^+^+ is accompanied by a change in quantum of mass and charge, steepening the gradient of ion charge beyond the classical tuning point of the bound system. If the E-field is higher on one boundary of the ion system than on the opposing boundary, there is a net momentum impulse applied to the metal's electron system, which scatters electrons. Conversion of nuclear fluctuations into reactions is facilitated if the many-body deuteron system occupies a surface region.

  20. Fact Sheets

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF West Nile Virus Infection PDF | Espanol PDF Zika Virus PDF | Espanol PDF Maternal Medical Conditions Asthma PDF | ... 27 28 29 News Pregnancy Health Experts Unveil Zika Virus Educational Tools Ahead of World Birth Defects Day ...