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Sample records for adobe acrobat reader

  1. Adobe acrobat: an alternative electronic teaching file construction methodology independent of HTML restrictions.

    PubMed

    Katzman, G L

    2001-03-01

    The goal of the project was to create a method by which an in-house digital teaching file could be constructed that was simple, inexpensive, independent of hypertext markup language (HTML) restrictions, and appears identical on multiple platforms. To accomplish this, Microsoft PowerPoint and Adobe Acrobat were used in succession to assemble digital teaching files in the Acrobat portable document file format. They were then verified to appear identically on computers running Windows, Macintosh Operating Systems (OS), and the Silicon Graphics Unix-based OS as either a free-standing file using Acrobat Reader software or from within a browser window using the Acrobat browser plug-in. This latter display method yields a file viewed through a browser window, yet remains independent of underlying HTML restrictions, which may confer an advantage over simple HTML teaching file construction. Thus, a hybrid of HTML-distributed Adobe Acrobat generated WWW documents may be a viable alternative for digital teaching file construction and distribution. PMID:11310916

  2. Project Adobe. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Curen, Sallie A.

    This final report describes activities and accomplishments of Project Adobe, the New Mexico Parent Training and Information Center, which provides information, support, education and training to families with school-aged children with disabilities in their local communities. Achievements include: (1) completion and printing of a booklet on the…

  3. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement. PMID:27305680

  4. Attentional Focus Effects in Balance Acrobats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Performing and learning motor skills has been shown to be enhanced if the performer adopts an external relative to internal focus (or no focus) of attention (Wulf, 2007). The present study examined the generalizability of this effect to top-level performers (balance acrobats). Participants performed a balance task (standing on an inflated rubber…

  5. General overview of adobe, looking northwest. South wing is at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General overview of adobe, looking northwest. South wing is at left, and central courtyard, with ovens, at center. (recreation of HABS No. CA-38-P152-3 - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  6. Preservation of adobe buildings. Study of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velosa, A.; Rocha, F.; Costa, C.; Varum, H.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe buildings are common in the central region of Portugal due to the lack of natural stone in the surrounding area. This type of construction technique lasted until the 20th Century, at which time cementitious materials, with faster hardening and greater structural capacity substituted traditional materials and techniques. Currently, a significant percentage of these buildings is vacant and many are degraded and in need of conservation actions. Adobes from central Portugal are distinctive as they are lightly coloured and made from air lime and quarry sand. Although some adobes were manufactured locally, most were produced almost 'industrially' and sold to nearby regions. In order to preserve this heritage, conservation actions must be undertaken. So as to ensure the adequacy of these actions and compatibility between original materials and new ones, a thorough study of adobe compostion is mandatory. The current study is an initial step in the characterization of earth based construction materials from central Portugal. Adobe samples were collected from residential buildings in two different locations. The determination of the composition of adobe blocks encompassed the determination of the binder fraction and of their chemical composition and also the particle size analysis of the aggregate. For this purpose FRX analysis, acid dissolution and dry sieving were performed. Methylene blue test was also executed in order to determine the clay fraction. Additionally, the mineral composition of powder samples and oriented samples was performed using XRD analysis in order to determine the clay minerals present in the blocks. As adobe blocks are extremely prone to the action of water the Geelong test was undertaken in order to provide information in terms of durability. It was concluded that air lime was generally used in adobe compositions. However, the clay content varies in adobes from different regions, providing distinct durability characteristics to these materials.

  7. Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos

    PubMed Central

    Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I.; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

  8. Digital Imaging: An Adobe Photoshop Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces digital imaging, an Adobe Photoshop course at Shrewsbury High School in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. Students are able to earn art credits to graduate by successfully completing the course. Digital imaging must cover art criteria as well as technical skills. The course begins with tutorials created by the instructor and other…

  9. Apparatus for forming adobe bricks and drilling wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnamon, H. D.

    1985-02-12

    An improved apparatus for the continuous and relatively labor-free fabrication of adobe bricks and the forcing of well casings into the earth. With regard to forming adobe bricks, a rotating table carries the bricks being processed from one station to the next and a novel means for applying unusually high forming pressures permits immediate forming and ejection of the bricks from the forms while at the same time producing adobe bricks of improved quality and hardness characteristics.

  10. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Blocks Consolidation of an Acrobatic Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Dichgans, Johannes; Schulz, Jorg B.; Luft, Andreas R.; Buitrago, Manuel M.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether motor skill learning depends on de novo protein synthesis, adult rats were trained in an acrobatic locomotor task (accelerating rotarod) for 7 d. Animals were systemically injected with cycloheximide (CHX, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before sessions 1 and 2 or sessions 2 and 3. Control rats received vehicle injections before…

  11. Astronaut Alan Bean doing acrobatics in OWS dome area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, doing acrobatics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. The dome area is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  12. Astronaut Jack Lousma doing acrobatics in OWS dome area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, doing acrobatics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. The dome area is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  13. Centre of pressure correlates with pyramid performance in acrobatic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Floría, Pablo; Gómez-Landero, Luis Arturo; Harrison, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Acrobatic gymnasts need excellent balance control to execute pyramids where one gymnast is supported by another. The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe balance performance by assessing the centre of pressure displacement in a group of acrobatic gymnasts executing pyramids; (2) to determine the relationship between the parameters describing the centre of pressure oscillations and pyramid score; and (3) to examine the role of each foot in providing a solid base of support to maintain the balance of the pyramid. Sixteen acrobatic gymnasts grouped in pairs performed a Half pyramid and a Straddle pyramid held for 7 s on two force platforms. Path length, variance, range trajectory, and surface area of the centre of pressure of each foot were examined to analyse the balance of the pyramid. The path length was correlated with the pyramid score (Straddle: p = 0.692 [large]; Half: p = 0.407 [moderate]). There were differences in the functions of each leg to maintain balance, with the non-preferred leg supporting a higher weight of the pyramid while the preferred leg performed control movements to maintain balance. The results suggested that quantitative analysis of balance can provide important information on pyramid performance. PMID:26715236

  14. Characterization, reproduction and optimization of traditional adobe bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Eftychiou, Marina; Costi de Castrillo, Maria; Illampas, Rogiros

    2013-04-01

    Adobe bricks were first introduced 10-12,000 years ago. Extensive use of the material throughout the centuries has led to strong local traditions of building with earth and has established adobe masonry as an important feature of the international architectural heritage. Today, despite no longer being a prevalent building material, adobes are still in use, since a number of earthen structures survive worldwide. Furthermore, the simplicity, low cost and almost negligible embodied energy associated with the production of adobes, as well as their good thermal and acoustic properties, render them an attractive option for use in contemporary sustainable construction. Therefore, several ongoing research projects internationally investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of traditional adobe bricks and the design/production of optimized adobes, with improved characteristics, for use in contemporary architecture. Here, we present ongoing research on adobe bricks carried out in the framework of the project E& IXEIPH EI / POION/0609/41, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus, through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. Our work focuses on the characterization of traditional adobes, their reproduction and optimization in the laboratory to produce materials with improved physicomechanical properties. Results up-to-date show that traditional adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in relevant X-ray diffraction analyses. The average capillary water absorption coefficient (measured against a saturated sponge surface) of samples collected from market suppliers rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1 -2, while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. The response of traditional adobes to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average compressive strength recorded depends on the form of test specimen (cube, cylinder, prism). Samples with aspect

  15. 20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, stood on the site later occupied by the Stroud Building. The Salt River Herald, Phoenix's first newspaper, was founded in 1878; in 1879, it became the Phoenix Herald. Prior to 1879, the adobe building served as the office for a stagecoach line operating between Maricopa and Prescott via Phoenix. Credit PPL. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. BULGARIAN READER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HODGE, CARLETON T.

    DESIGNED TO FOLLOW THE BASIC COURSE IN BULGARIAN, A READER HAS BEEN PREPARED. IT ASSUMES KNOWLEDGE OF THE VOCABULARY (AS PRESENTED IN THE BASIC COURSE ED 003 873 AND ED 003 874) AS WELL AS THE GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE LANGUAGE. THE READER PRESENTS AREA MATERIALS AND INTRODUCES THE STUDENT TO THE VOCABULARY NEEDED TO READ NEWSPAPERS AND SIMILAR…

  17. Accelerated Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of Accelerated Reader, a system of computerized testing and record-keeping that supplements the regular classroom reading program. Accelerated Reader's primary goal is to increase literature-based reading practice. The program offers a computer-aided reading comprehension and management program intended to motivate…

  18. Prosthetic Feet

    MedlinePlus

    « View More Amputee Coalition Publications Click here for optional PDF format. Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader Text size Larger text Smaller text ... no single foot that is perfect for every amputee. You and your doctor or prosthetist should choose ...

  19. Daily Bladder Diary

    MedlinePlus

    ... bladder diary. If you have Adobe's® Acrobat® Reader Software , you might prefer looking at the Print PDF Version (80 KB) of the diary as the print quality will be much enhanced. Please select which page ...

  20. Reader Pals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Linda; Wainess, Didi

    1989-01-01

    Reader Pals is a cross-age, whole language, independent, daily reading program designed to supplement existing reading curricula and to enrich daily lessons. A younger child is paired with an older child for a year. Program planning and implementation are discussed, and activities based on a dinosaur theme are suggested. (IAH)

  1. COCHABAMBA READER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LASTRA, YOLANDA

    INTENDED AS FOLLOWUP MATERIAL AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE TWO-VOLUME SPOKEN COCHABAMBA COURSE, THIS READER CONSISTS OF A SINGLE LONG STORY, "JUANITO," WRITTEN BY OSCAR TERAN. IT HAS BEEN USED AS A RADIO SCRIPT FOR A SERIES OF BROADCASTS FROM A COCHABAMBA STATION WHICH SERVES THE SURROUNDING INDIGENOUS POPULATION. THE MATERIAL IS PRESENTED ON…

  2. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  3. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... affecting § 21.183, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons..., commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; and special classes of aircraft. (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 21.183, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons..., commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; and special classes of aircraft. Link...

  5. 14 CFR 21.183 - Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... affecting § 21.183, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons..., commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; and special classes of aircraft. (a)...

  6. 75 FR 4442 - Public Meeting on Future Policy and Rulemaking for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting on Future Policy and Rulemaking for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter Category Small Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... discuss a review of the requirements for small airplanes. This discussion focuses on the future of...

  7. What Can Readers Read after Graded Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuillan, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Nation (2014) concluded that most of the vocabulary one needs to read challenging texts in English can be acquired incidentally through voluminous reading. This study examines possible texts that second language (L2) readers can use to move from controlled-vocabulary materials such as graded readers, which go up through approximately the…

  8. Building code challenging the ethics behind adobe architecture in North Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Şahali, Öznem

    2015-04-01

    Adobe masonry is part of the vernacular architecture of Cyprus. Thus, it is possible to use this technology in a meaningful way on the island. On the other hand, although adobe architecture is more sustainable in comparison to other building technologies, the use of it is diminishing in North Cyprus. The application of Turkish building code in the north of the island has created complications in respect of the use of adobe masonry, because this building code demands that reinforced concrete vertical tie-beams are used together with adobe masonry. The use of reinforced concrete elements together with adobe masonry causes problems in relation to the climatic response of the building as well as causing other technical and aesthetic problems. This situation makes the design of adobe masonry complicated and various types of ethical problems also emerge. The objective of this article is to analyse the ethical problems which arise as a consequence of the restrictive character of the building code, by analysing two case studies and conducting an interview with an architect who was involved with the use of adobe masonry in North Cyprus. According to the results of this article there are ethical problems at various levels in the design of both case studies. These problems are connected to the responsibilities of architects in respect of the social benefit, material production, aesthetics and affordability of the architecture as well as presenting distrustful behaviour where the obligations of architects to their clients is concerned. PMID:24696019

  9. Nurturing Lifelong Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judkins, Gerri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author relates how the thing he enjoys most about his job as a school librarian is nurturing lifelong readers, in particular readers of children's literature. In talking about nurturing lifelong readers and, referring to students, staff and school librarians, the author discusses: (1) The Southwell Library Programme; (2) The Lit…

  10. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  11. Distinct neuroplasticity processes are induced by different periods of acrobatic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Salame, Samira; Garcia, Priscila C; Real, Caroline C; Borborema, Juliana; Mota-Ortiz, Sandra R; Britto, Luiz R G; Pires, Raquel S

    2016-07-15

    Short and long-term physical exercise induce physiological and structural changes in brain motor areas. The relationship between changes of structural and synaptic proteins in brain motor areas and acrobatic exercise is less understood. Our aim was to evaluate the expression of synapsin I (SYS), synaptophysin (SYP), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), neurofilament (NF), and a marker for recent neuronal activity (Egr-1) in the motor cortex, striatum and cerebellum of adult rats subjected to acrobatic exercise (AE, for 1-4 weeks). We used adult Wistar rats, divided into 4 groups based on duration of acrobatic training, namely 1 week (AE1, n=15), 2 weeks (AE2, n=15), 4 weeks (AE4, n=15), and sedentary (SED, n=15). In AE groups, the rats covered 5 times a circuit that was composed of obstacles, three times a week. The protein levels were analyzed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The results revealed that short-term AE (AE1 and AE2) induced MAP2 decreases and NF, SYP and Egr-1 increases in the motor cortex; an increase of MAP2, SYS and SYP in the dorsolateral striatum, whereas the dorsomedial striatum showed increased NF, SYS, SYP and Egr-1. Granular cerebellar layer showed increased NF and Egr-1, with increased NF and SYP in the molecular layer. Long-term AE (AE4) promoted an increase of MAP2, SYP and Egr-1 in motor cortex; MAP2, SYS and SYP in the dorsomedial striatum; and NF and Egr-1 in the cerebellar granular layer. In conclusion, our data suggest that different durations of AE induce distinct plastic responses among distinct cortical and subcortical circuits. PMID:27126278

  12. Teachers as Readers: Building Communities of Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremin, Teresa; Mottram, Marilyn; Collins, Fiona; Powell, Sacha; Safford, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Given the narrow scope of primary teachers' knowledge and use of children's literature identified in Phase I of "Teachers as Readers" (2006-2007), the core goal of the Phase II project was to improve teachers' knowledge and experience of such literature in order to help them increase children's motivation and enthusiasm for reading, especially…

  13. The Readers' Advisor's Companion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Kenneth D., Ed.; Burgin, Robert, Ed.

    From scholarly discourse to the latest issues in readers' advisory services, this guide provides up-to-date information on the many challenges of the practice, as well as on interdisciplinary directions, continuing education, and the gap in graduate professional education for readers' advisory. The book's 16 chapters are organized into three main…

  14. Romancing the YA Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Mosley, Shelley; Bouricius, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the romance genre and provides guidelines for librarians with high school aged readers. Highlights include where to find information about the romance genre; the appeal of romance fiction; levels of sex and sensuality; reference tools; subgenres; and authors and titles that may be popular with young adult romance readers. (LRW)

  15. Science Fiction Readers Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Anthony D.

    This book presents science fiction readers theatre scripts for use with grades 4 through 8. The introduction provides information on what readers theatre is and its value, as well as presentation suggestions (e.g., preparing scripts, staging, props, delivery, and post-presentation). Each script includes staging directions and ideas for learning…

  16. Intermediate Cambodian Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Franklin E., Ed.; Proum, Im, Ed.

    This book is a sequel to the "Cambodian System of Writing and Beginning Reader." It is intended to serve as an intermediate reader to develop the student's ability to the point of reading Cambodian texts with the aid of a dictionary. Part One of the book consists of 37 readings, graded in length and difficulty, and selected to provide a wide range…

  17. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  18. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; special classes of aircraft; aircraft engines; propellers. 21.21 Section 21.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  19. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; aircraft engines; propellers. 21.21 Section 21.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.21 Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category...

  20. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; aircraft engines; propellers. 21.21 Section 21.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.21 Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category...

  1. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; aircraft engines; propellers. 21.21 Section 21.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.21 Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category...

  2. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; aircraft engines; propellers. 21.21 Section 21.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.21 Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category...

  3. Using Adobe Flash Animations of Electron Transport Chain to Teach and Learn Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash…

  4. Using Adobe Connect to Deliver Online Library Instruction to the RN to BSN Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a look at how one academic health sciences librarian brought mediated literature searching to the distance RN to BSN nursing students. It takes a look at why Adobe Connect was the webinar software that was selected to deliver online instruction to the students. The article explains how students participated in a pre-class survey…

  5. Staying on Top of Your Game and Scoring Big with Adobe Presenter Multimedia Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koury, Regina; Francis, Marcia J.; Gray, Catherine J.; Jardine, Spencer J.; Guo, Ruiling

    2010-01-01

    In order to reach distance students in times of financial uncertainty, librarians must be creative. While much has been written about Camtasia, Captivate and Jing tutorial software, Adobe Presenter, a Microsoft PowerPoint plug-in, has not been discussed. This article describes how our library team created multimedia tutorial projects at Idaho…

  6. Building on Tradition: The Art of Adobe and the Revival of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Amanda; Swan, Susan

    2001-01-01

    A New Mexico foundation helps primarily Hispanic and American Indian communities restore adobe churches by supplying technical assistance and matching grants. Community leadership of the projects enhances volunteer commitment. The projects build community cohesiveness and pride, maintain local culture, foster intergenerational relations, teach…

  7. Vector Graphics for Web Lectures: Experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterl, Markus; Mertens, Robert; Vornberger, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe vector graphics for web lectures, focusing on the experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents experiences made during the development and everyday use of two versions of the lecture-recording system virtPresenter. The first of these versions is based on…

  8. Enriching Learning for First Year Chemistry Students: Introduction of Adobe Connect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Lye, Peter; Greatrex, Ben; Taylor, Michelle; Stupans, Ieva

    2013-01-01

    The study of chemistry is central within science and other associated degrees. At the University of New England in Armidale academics need to provide chemistry teaching in both a distance and the traditional on-campus mode within science and other degrees. This study explores the contribution that the adoption of Adobe Connect technology can make…

  9. Kinematic and kinetic analysis of two gymnastics acrobatic series to performing the backward stretched somersault.

    PubMed

    Mkaouer, Bessem; Jemni, Monèm; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Helmi; Tabka, Zouhair

    2013-01-01

    Back swing connections during gymnastics acrobatic series considerably influence technical performance and difficulties, particularly in the back somersault. The aim of this study was to compare the take-off's kinetic and kinematic variables between two acrobatic series leading to perform the backward stretched somersault (also called salto): round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto versus round-off, tempo-salto to stretched salto. Five high level male gymnasts (age 23.17 ± 1.61 yrs; body height 1.65 ± 0.05 m; body mass 56.80 ± 7.66 kg) took part in this investigation. A force plate synchronized with a two dimensional movement analysis system was used to collect kinetic and kinematic data. Statistical analysis via the non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank-sum test showed significant differences between the take-offs' variables. The backswing connections were different in the take-off angle, linear momentum, vertical velocity and horizontal and vertical displacements. In conclusion, considering that the higher elevation of the centre of mass in the flight phase would allow best performance and lower the risk of falls, particularly when combined to a great angular momentum, this study demonstrated that the optimal connection series was round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto which enabled the best height in the somersault. Analysis of the results suggests that both connections facilitate the performance of single and double (or triple) backward somersaults with or without rotations around the longitudinal axis. Gymnasts could perform these later while gaining height if they chose the round-off, flic-flac technique or gaining some backward displacement if they choose the round-off, salto tempo. PMID:24146701

  10. Kinematic and Kinetic Analysis of Two Gymnastics Acrobatic Series to Performing the Backward Stretched Somersault

    PubMed Central

    Mkaouer, Bessem; Jemni, Monèm; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Helmi; Tabka, Zouhair

    Back swing connections during gymnastics acrobatic series considerably influence technical performance and difficulties, particularly in the back somersault. The aim of this study was to compare the take-off’s kinetic and kinematic variables between two acrobatic series leading to perform the backward stretched somersault (also called salto): round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto versus round-off, tempo-salto to stretched salto. Five high level male gymnasts (age 23.17 ± 1.61 yrs; body height 1.65 ± 0.05 m; body mass 56.80 ± 7.66 kg) took part in this investigation. A force plate synchronized with a two dimensional movement analysis system was used to collect kinetic and kinematic data. Statistical analysis via the non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank-sum test showed significant differences between the take-offs’ variables. The backswing connections were different in the take-off angle, linear momentum, vertical velocity and horizontal and vertical displacements. In conclusion, considering that the higher elevation of the centre of mass in the flight phase would allow best performance and lower the risk of falls, particularly when combined to a great angular momentum, this study demonstrated that the optimal connection series was round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto which enabled the best height in the somersault. Analysis of the results suggests that both connections facilitate the performance of single and double (or triple) backward somersaults with or without rotations around the longitudinal axis. Gymnasts could perform these later while gaining height if they chose the round-off, flic-flac technique or gaining some backward displacement if they choose the round-off, salto tempo. PMID:24146701

  11. Peripheral androgen receptors sustain the acrobatics and fine motor skill of elaborate male courtship.

    PubMed

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Longpre, Kristy M; Chew, Jennifer G; Fusani, Leonida; Schlinger, Barney A

    2013-09-01

    Androgenic hormones regulate many aspects of animal social behavior, including the elaborate display routines on which many species rely for advertisement and competition. One way that this might occur is through peripheral effects of androgens, particularly on skeletal muscles that control complex movements and postures of the body and its limbs. However, the specific contribution of peripheral androgen-muscle interactions to the performance of elaborate behavioral displays in the natural world has never been examined. We study this issue in one of the only natural physiological models of animal acrobatics: the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus). In this tropical bird, males compete with each other and court females by producing firecracker-like wing- snaps and by rapidly dancing among saplings over the forest floor. To test how activation of peripheral androgen receptors (AR) influences this display, we treat reproductively active adult male birds with the peripherally selective antiandrogen bicalutamide (BICAL) and observe the effects of this manipulation on male display performance. We not only validate the peripheral specificity of BICAL in this species, but we also show that BICAL treatment reduces the frequency with which adult male birds perform their acrobatic display maneuvers and disrupts the overall structure and fine-scale patterning of these birds' main complex wing-snap sonation. In addition, this manipulation has no effect on the behavioral metrics associated with male motivation to display. Together, our findings help differentiate the various effects of peripheral and central AR on the performance of a complex sociosexual behavioral phenotype by indicating that peripheral AR can optimize the motor skills necessary for the production of an elaborate animal display. PMID:23782945

  12. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1983-07-15

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  13. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  14. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1985-11-12

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label. 5 figs.

  15. Hungarian Graded Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalyfy, Ilona; Koski, Augustus A.

    This graded reader is intended to supplement a beginning course in Hungarian after the student has "developed control of about 700 lexical items and can manipulate with fluency much of the basic structure of Hungarian." (It may also be used in an intermediate course.) The 56 reading selections are varied in content and sequenced to develop reading…

  16. Indonesian Newspaper Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Joseph M.; And Others

    This reader consists of 250 selections of varying lengths. No real attempt has been made to grade the selections according to difficulty for the learner except that the initial selections are shorter and represent straight reporting of such uncomplicated events as arrivals and departures and thus are fairly simple in structure. Notes explaining…

  17. Growing Young Gifted Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Patricia F.

    2009-01-01

    There is great pressure on parents to teach children to read as early as possible. In reality, precocious (early advanced) readers seem to almost master the skill on their own, without the assistance of highly touted, commercially available programs. The 18-month-old toddler who names the letters on alphabet blocks; or the 26-month-old who can…

  18. Hindi Basic Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, J. Martin; And Others

    This reader is intended to accompany the Basic Course in Spoken Hindi. Following an outline of the Devanagari script, 20 lessons are presented. Each consists of a reading selection, several illustrative sentences in English and Hindi, and a series of questions. Most of the reading selections were adapted from the magazine "Bal-Bharati." (RM)

  19. Parents and Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Virginia H., Ed.

    This series of 12 articles for parents on how to help pre-schoolers and beginning readers at home was written for the National Reading Center by specialists in reading and early childhood education. The titles and authors are: "Getting Ready to Read" (E. Robert La Crosse), "Creating a Good Reading Climate at Home" (Mary Frances K. Johnson),…

  20. Understanding Readers' Differing Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucer, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the characteristics of reader understandings that vary from those stated in the text. Eighty-seven fourth graders orally read complex academic literary and scientific texts, followed by probed retellings. Retold ideas not directly supported by, or reflective of, the texts were identified. These differing understandings…

  1. For Reluctant Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidell, Jeannette A.; Horn, Valerie

    The eleven lesson plans outlined in this booklet are designed to stimulate and challenge both underachievers and reluctant readers by helping them learn to read "The New York Times." The lesson plans include the following: exercises in vocabulary enrichment; exercises for developing dictionary skills; topics for oral reports; topics for written…

  2. Miami Linguistic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannatyne, Alex

    1973-01-01

    The Miami Linguistic Readers, which are comprised of 21 paperbound books grouped in 15 levels, concentrate on sounds and structure of standard American English for teaching linguistically handicapped or disadvantaged children before and during the teaching of basic reading skills. (MC)

  3. The Strategic Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, James T., Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    To add a foundation to the growing excitement among educators about the central role they play in helping learners become strategic readers, the articles in this thematic journal provide insight into current reading theory and practice. Richard Telfer's article reviews research on strategic reading and clarifies what is meant by the phrase…

  4. 78 FR 72851 - Proposed Priority-Promise Zones

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Secretary of Education (Secretary) published in the Federal Register (78 FR 63913) a notice of proposed.... Or by email: Jane.Hodgdon@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) or a...). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may...

  5. 77 FR 48974 - Applications for New Awards; Comprehensive Centers Program (CFDA 84.283B); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ..., 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 33564) a notice inviting applications for new awards.... Telephone: (202) 205-9198 or by email: fran.walter@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for the... Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may also access documents of...

  6. 75 FR 28594 - Ready-to-Learn Television Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... March 22, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 13515) a notice inviting applications for...-mail: readytolearn@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf, call the Federal Relay... PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at this site. Note: The...

  7. 75 FR 25221 - Notice Extending the Deadline Date for Transmittal of Applications and the Deadline Date for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ..., we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 16446) a notice inviting applications for new awards for... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339...: http://www.ed.gov/news/fedregister . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is...

  8. 77 FR 4998 - List of Correspondence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... Topic Addressed: Surrogate Parents Letter dated September 6, 2011, to Board of Childcare, Community... System at: www.gpo.gov/fdsys . At this site you can view this document, as well as all other documents of... use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may also...

  9. Prosthetic Knee Systems

    MedlinePlus

    « View More Amputee Coalition Publications Click here for optional PDF format. Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader Text size Larger text Smaller text ... from. Doctors, prosthetists and rehabilitation specialists consider an amputee’s age, health, activity level, and lifestyle when making ...

  10. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-04-01

    Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg)-contaminated urban areas in the world. Exposure is amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. The objectives of this study were to compare two Hg-leaching procedures, and their application as risk-assessment screening tools in Hg-contaminated adobe brick homes in Huancavelica. The purpose was to evaluate potential health implications, particularly for children, after ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. Hg was measured in adobe brick and dirt floor samples from 60 households by total Hg extraction, simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction, and sequential selective extraction (SSE), which provides more detailed data but is resource-intensive. Most of the Hg present in samples was relatively insoluble, although in some households soluble Hg species were present at concentrations that may be of concern after ingestion. A strong correlation was identified between results from simulated GF extraction of adobe bricks and dirt floors and the more soluble fractions of Hg from SSE. Simulated GF extraction data were combined with ingestion and body mass characteristics for small children to compare potential risk of ingestion of Hg-contaminated soil with current health standards. Simulated GF extraction can be used as a risk assessment screening tool for effective allocation of time and resources to households that have measurable concentrations of bioaccessible Hg. Combining simulated GF extraction data with health standards enables intervention strategies targeted at households with the greatest potential health threat from ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. PMID:25169738

  11. NaturalReader: A New Generation Text Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    NaturalReader (http://www.naturalreaders.com/) is a new generation text reader, which means that it reads any machine readable text using synthesized speech without having to copy and paste the selected text into the NaturalReader application window. It installs a toolbar directly into all of the Microsoft Office[TM] programs and uses a mini-board…

  12. My Journey as a Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevellos, Tatiana

    2008-01-01

    In this case history, the author describes how her journey as a reader evolved from a poor reader who did not like to read in elementary school into an avid trilingual reader in graduate school. Once she discovered the joy of reading, each language in which she read had its own purpose and emotional connection. She credits self-selected reading…

  13. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  14. Thermoluminescence dosimeter reader

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, S.; Miura, N.

    1984-10-30

    A thermoluminescence dosimeter reader having a heater for heating a thermoluminescence element, a light measuring circuit for measuring circuit for measuring the intensity of the thermoluminescence emanated from the element when it is heated and a display device for displaying the reading of the dosage of radiation to which the element is exposed according to the intensity of the thermoluminescence is provided with a dosage information inputting means which outputs an electric signal having a value representing a predetermined reference dosage of radiation, a calculating means for calculating a calibration constant which is the ratio between the value of the electric signal and the output value of the light measuring circuit which is the measured value of the dosage of radiation of a reference thermoluminescence element which is exposed to the predetermined reference dosage of radiation, and a memory means for memorizing the calibration constant.

  15. The Malaysian Class Reader Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Devinder; Hunt, Brain

    1990-01-01

    Briefly describes reading standards in Malaysian schools, outlines a class reader program, and provides samples of teaching files designed to help teachers implement the program. (one reference. (GLR)

  16. USEFULNESS AND METABOLIC IMPLICATIONS OF A 60-SECOND REPEATED JUMPS TEST AS A PREDICTOR OF ACROBATIC JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN GYMNASTS

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Gymnastics floor exercises are composed of a set of four to five successive acrobatic jumps usually called a “series”. The aims of the study were: 1) to relate the acrobatic gymnastics performance of these series with a repeated jumps test of similar duration (R60), 2) to study the relation between R60 and physiological parameters (heart rate and blood lactate), and the performance obtained in different kinds of jumps, 3) to confirm whether R60, executed without a damped jumping technique, can be considered an anaerobic lactic power test. Twenty male and twenty-four female gymnasts performed three repeated jumps tests for 5 s (R5), 10 s (R10) and 60 s (R60) and vertical jumps, such as drop jumps (DJ), squat jumps (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ). We assessed heart rate (HR) and blood lactate during R10 and R60. The average values of the maximal blood lactate concentration (Lmax) after R10 (males = 2.5±0.6 mmol · l−1; females = 2.1±0.8 mmol · l−1) confirm that anaerobic glycolysis is not activated to a high level. In R60, the Lmax (males = 7.5±1.7 mmol · l−1 females = 5.9±2.1 mmol · l−1) that was recorded does not validate R60 as an anaerobic lactic power test. We confirmed the relation between the average power obtained in R60 (R60Wm) and the acrobatic performance on the floor. The inclusion in the multiple regression equation of the best power in DJ and the best flight-contact ratio (FC) in R5 confirms the influence of other non-metabolic components on the variability in R60 performance, at least in gymnasts. PMID:24744459

  17. Top One Hundred Kids' Books: Readers Talking to Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Elaine; Kist, Marijo; Sugden, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a committee of children's librarians created a booklist that allowed young readers to talk to other readers through published book annotations. Discusses development, promotion, and judging of a contest that encouraged children to submit new ideas and resulted in a list of entries from children at 55 schools. Includes sample winning…

  18. The Graded Reader Is Dead, Long Live the Electronic Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, John; Neufeld, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Many course books for learners of English as a second or foreign language now claim to contain a strong lexical component. Other practitioners meanwhile continue to advocate the use of graded readers to augment vocabulary development. This article reports the findings of vocabulary profiling and analysis of both course books and graded readers and…

  19. Native American Adult Reader I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    Aspects of Native American history and culture as well as issues and concerns of American Indians are presented in the twelve short articles in this reader for adults. Intended for use in an adult basic education/GED program, the reader features simply written stories (for grades 0-3), illustrations, vocabulary lists and student study questions.…

  20. Fostering Fluent Readers and Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, E.

    In recent characterizations of reading and writing, the distinctions melt into each other so that one definition serves for both: both are the creation of meaning. In the act of creating meaning, readers become writers and writers become readers. While reading is primarily receptive and writing is primarily productive, fluency in reading is very…

  1. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad interpretation of the subject…

  2. Adobe InDesign vs. QuarkXPress and PageMaker: The Best of Both Worlds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the newly released Adobe InDesign software, finding that while it brings new life into desktop publishing, it is not yet a "must buy" for publications advisers. Compares specific features that are relevant for student publications, including: character, paragraph, drop caps, define styles, page setup, text wrap, defining and using…

  3. Events & Opinion: A Report to Our Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Joseph H.

    1995-01-01

    Reprints an article originally published in 1957. Surveys readers of the journal. Notes that readers felt that 89% of the articles were either very good or excellent. Lists readers' views of pressing educational issues. (RS)

  4. The Westcoast Reader. A Newspaper for New Adult Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Joan, Ed.

    This document consists of informative material on and a copy of a newspaper for adults who are learning to read. The newspaper is designed to help new readers develop reading skills, while providing interesting and relevant information with an adult focus. Local, national, and international news stories as well as information about health, safety,…

  5. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community. PMID:27100004

  6. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems. PMID:27421976

  7. Using Adobe Flash animations of electron transport chain to teach and learn biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the electron transport chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the electron transport chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching. PMID:25846233

  8. Radon and thoron levels, their spatial and seasonal variations in adobe dwellings - a case study at the great Hungarian plain.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba; Horváth, Ákos; Holm, Óskar; Kocsy, Gábor; Csige, István; Szabó, Péter; Homoki, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Radon and thoron isotopes are responsible for approximately half of the average annual effective dose to humans. Although the half-life of thoron is short, it can potentially enter indoor air from adobe walls. Adobe was a traditional construction material in the Great Hungarian Plain. Its major raw materials are the alluvial sediments of the area. Here, seasonal radon and thoron activity concentrations were measured in 53 adobe dwellings in 7 settlements by pairs of etched track detectors. The results show that the annual average radon and thoron activity concentrations are elevated in these dwellings and that the proportions with values higher than 300 Bq m(-3) are 14-17 and 29-32% for radon and thoron, respectively. The calculated radon inhalation dose is significantly higher than the world average value, exceeding 10 mSv y(-1) in 7% of the dwellings of this study. Thoron also can be a significant contributor to the inhalation dose with about 30% in the total inhalation dose. The changes of weather conditions seem to be more relevant in the variation of measurement results than the differences in the local sedimentary geology. Still, the highest values were detected on clay. Through the year, radon follows the average temperature changes and is affected by the ventilation, whereas thoron rather seems to follow the amount of precipitation. PMID:24437932

  9. Turkish Basic Course. Graded Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrali, Selman N., Comp.; And Others

    The present Reader is the third and final volume in the Foreign Service Institute's "Turkish Basic Course." (See ED 013 451 and ED 024 050 for Units 1-30 and Units 31-50.) Reading selections are arranged in approximate ascending order of difficulty with some grouping of selections in subject matter categories. The selections, which have not been…

  10. Readers' Knowledge of Popular Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    This research examined readers' knowledge of popular genres. Participants wrote short essays on fantasy, science fiction, or romance. The similarities among the essays were measured using latent semantic analysis (LSA) and were then analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The clusters and scales were interpreted by searching…

  11. Comparative Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempner, Ken, Ed.; Mollis, Marcela, Ed.; Tierney, William G., Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore why particular national higher education systems operate as they do and the effects these systems have on one another, on national and global development, and on the production of knowledge. The works included in this reader address the assessment of inputs and outputs of institutions and the meaning these…

  12. Narratives of the Struggling Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlach, Saba; Burcie, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Struggling readers need to be taught at their instruction level. But often, separating them from their classmates reinforces their feelings of inadequacy. This article will explain the importance of developing a sense of agency in struggling learners and outline some strategies teachers can incorporate to help make this happen within the classroom.

  13. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  14. A Matchmaking Tool for Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcastro, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    Discusses readers' advisory services in public libraries and describes a method to convert information on specific books and genres to a computer database. Topics include utilizing staff knowledge, fields included for each book, the development of descriptors, the editing process, and writing summaries and critiques of the books. (LRW)

  15. Reader Response in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Charles, Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on reader response in the classroom, the works collected in this book represent the results of a five-week summer institute in which 25 middle school, high school, and college teachers studied the principles and applications of literature instruction. The following essays are included: an introduction by G. Garber; "An Overview of the…

  16. Native American Adult Reader III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    This reader, one of three designed to provide adults in basic education/GED programs with meaningful material based on Native American cultures, includes selections appropriate for advanced reading ability (grade 7 and above). The twelve readings focus on culture, history, and contemporary concerns of Native Americans. Each selection includes a…

  17. Native American Adult Reader II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    This reader, one of three designed to provide adults in basic education/GED programs with meaningful materials based on Native American cultures, includes selections appropriate for intermediate reading ability (grades 4-6). The twelve readings focus on culture, history, and contemporary concerns of Native Americans. Each selection includes a…

  18. Raising Rigor for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Rosemarye T.; Watson, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the rigor of learning tasks to align with the expectations in the Common Core State Standards presents challenges for many educators, particularly for middle and high school teachers of nonproficient readers. In this article, the authors describe a number of these challenges and identify four steps that together, create a systematic…

  19. Predictable Books: Captivating Young Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckner, John

    1990-01-01

    Because prediction plays such a vital role in reading comprehension, predictable books are essential in the teaching of beginning readers. Prediction involves a three-step cycle: sampling, predicting, and confirming. Steps in using predictable books with hearing-impaired students are outlined, and a list of predictable and repetitive books is…

  20. Fairy Tales for Two Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criscoe, Betty L., Ed.; Lanasa, Philip J., III, Ed.

    The 15 adapted fairy tales presented in this book were prepared for use in practicing oral reading by a parent and a child, a teacher and a child, or two children, one of whom reads slightly better than the other. The stories in the book are arranged in dialogue format for two readers. The high interest/low readability stories in the book are…

  1. Reading Comprehension for Older Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Edmonds, Meaghan

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an overview of a multicomponent comprehension strategy and graphic organizers designed for older readers to gain meaning from text. Practices designed to capitalize on the best research-based elements associated with improved outcomes in reading comprehension, particularly for expository texts, are described. The graphic…

  2. Writing Reviews for Readers' Advisory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Reviews are an important resource for readers' advisory and collection development. They are also a helpful promotional tool, introducing patrons to what is new on the shelf. This resource includes: (1) Tips for writing strong, relevant reviews; (2) Different ways reviews can be used to promote your library; and (3) A chapter by Joyce Saricks…

  3. Surgical Correction of Posttraumatic Scapulothoracic Bursitis, Rhomboid Major Muscle Injury, Ipsilateral Glenohumeral Instability, and Headaches Resulting from Circus Acrobatic Maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Skedros, John G.; Langston, Tanner D.; Phippen, Colton M.

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 28-year-old transgender (male-to-female) patient that had a partial tear of the rhomboid major tendon, scapulothoracic bursitis, and glenohumeral instability on the same side. These conditions resulted from traumatic events during circus acrobatic maneuvers. Additional aspects of this case that make it unique include (1) the main traumatic event occurred during a flagpole exercise, where the patient's trunk was suspended horizontally while a vertical pole was grasped with both hands, (2) headaches were associated with the periscapular injury and they improved after scapulothoracic bursectomy and rhomboid tendon repair, (3) surgical correction was done during the same operation with an open anterior capsular-labral reconstruction, open scapulothoracic bursectomy without bone resection, and rhomboid tendon repair, (4) a postoperative complication of tearing of the serratus anterior and rhomboid muscle attachments with recurrent scapulothoracic pain occurred from patient noncompliance, and (5) the postoperative complication was surgically corrected and ultimately resulted in an excellent outcome at the one-year final follow-up. PMID:26273484

  4. Presentation and response timing accuracy in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Web-based research is becoming ubiquitous in the behavioral sciences, facilitated by convenient, readily available participant pools and relatively straightforward ways of running experiments: most recently, through the development of the HTML5 standard. Although in most studies participants give untimed responses, there is a growing interest in being able to record response times online. Existing data on the accuracy and cross-machine variability of online timing measures are limited, and generally they have compared behavioral data gathered on the Web with similar data gathered in the lab. For this article, we took a more direct approach, examining two ways of running experiments online-Adobe Flash and HTML5 with CSS3 and JavaScript-across 19 different computer systems. We used specialist hardware to measure stimulus display durations and to generate precise response times to visual stimuli in order to assess measurement accuracy, examining effects of duration, browser, and system-to-system variability (such as across different Windows versions), as well as effects of processing power and graphics capability. We found that (a) Flash and JavaScript's presentation and response time measurement accuracy are similar; (b) within-system variability is generally small, even in low-powered machines under high load; (c) the variability of measured response times across systems is somewhat larger; and (d) browser type and system hardware appear to have relatively small effects on measured response times. Modeling of the effects of this technical variability suggests that for most within- and between-subjects experiments, Flash and JavaScript can both be used to accurately detect differences in response times across conditions. Concerns are, however, noted about using some correlational or longitudinal designs online. PMID:24903687

  5. Into Focus: Understanding and Creating Middle School Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Kylene, Ed.; Samuels, Barbara G., Ed.

    Addressing the needs of English language learners, remedial readers, avid readers, gifted readers, dormant readers, reluctant readers, and readers in content areas, this book's goal is to help middle school teachers connect their students to reading. The book offers multiple lists of trade books that different types of middle school readers enjoy;…

  6. Graded Readers: Validating Reading Levels across Publishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Graded readers can be an optimal resource to help language students improve and personalize their learning experience. An extensive reading library with graded readers and well-defined levels of reading difficulty increases language students' chances of having a successful reading experience and become independent readers. However, when it comes…

  7. Enhancing Readers' Analysis-by-Synthesis Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Margaret E.

    A variety of techniques for improving readers' analysis-by-synthesis abilities (rapid, efficient reading typical of highly skilled readers) are presented in this paper. The techniques discussed in the first part emphasize improving reading comprehension and include the following: (1) modifications of the cloze procedure (encouraging readers to use…

  8. E-Readers: Powering up for Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Twyla; Johnson, Kary A.; Rossi-Williams, Dara

    2012-01-01

    E-readers like the Amazon Kindle and the Barnes and Noble Nook are beginning to make their way into school libraries and classrooms. It's about time. E-readers have tremendous potential to entice reluctant readers to read more. A study that the authors recently conducted among low-reading-ability middle school students demonstrated that potential.…

  9. Precision Reading: New Hope for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeze, Rick

    2006-01-01

    A rationale for a novel approach to remedial reading for struggling readers, including students labeled with intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, attention deficit and behavior disorders, below average language development, and those described as reluctant or resistant readers is presented. It is suggested that struggling readers find…

  10. Cerebral Dominance in Disabled Readers, Good Readers, and Gifted Children: Search for a Valid Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershner, John R.

    1977-01-01

    Disabled readers, good readers, and gifted children were compared on their recognition of words presented tachistoscopically under stimultaneous, bilateral viewing conditions. Poor readers showed inferior right-field performance compared with gifted and good readers, but when IQ was covaried, they showed higher left-field scores and lower visual…

  11. Extending the E-Z Reader Model of Eye Movement Control to Chinese Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Keith; Li, Xingshan; Pollatsek, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Chinese readers' eye movements were simulated in the context of the E-Z Reader model, which was developed to account for the eye movements of readers of English. Despite obvious differences between English and Chinese, the model did a fairly good job of simulating the eye movements of Chinese readers. The successful simulation suggests that the…

  12. Influence of geological features (geochemistry and mineralogy) of soil wich constitutes adobes in their durability - Huambo, Angola.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Isabel; Pedro, Elsa; Varum, Humberto; Mirão, José; Pinho, António

    2014-05-01

    After long years of war, great efforts have been made for the socio-economic development of Angola, mainly in the construction industry. Among the construction techniques, the Adobe is the most used in the province of Huambo, especially by low-income families, which constitute the majority. This technique was established as a historical heritage in the culture of that population. The Huambo province is located in the central region of Angola (Central Plateau) and is bounded on the northeast and east by the province of Bié, on the south and southern by province of Huila, and on the west by the province of Benguela and on the northwest by the province of Kwanza Sul. Has an area of 35,771 km2 and approximately 2,301,524 inhabitants, which corresponds to 58 inhabitants per km2 (Government of the Province of Huambo, 2006). The buildings in this province, particularly in rural areas, were deeply marked by war. Given the current scenario of development of the country and considering the possibility of integrate systems and traditional building materials, that respect the environment and fit harmoniously into its natural habitat, one of the alternative options in the actual construction, undergoes resume old solutions and traditional materials such as adobe construction.It is in this context that this project is part of a scientific research in order to permit the improvement and optimization of these traditional solutions, responding to current demands for social, economic and environmental sustainability. The adobe is a building element with potential degradation by water. Due to the climate, subtropical, hot and humid, and geomorphology of the province, about 1000 to 2000 meters of altitude and an extensive river system, these buildings can be vulnerable and present early degradation, exacerbated by lack of knowledge of the properties of geomaterials used and techniques that allow their stabilization and conservation. This paper aims to study the influence of

  13. Variable Distance Angular Symbology Reader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Corder, Eric L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A variable distance angular symbology, reader utilizes at least one light source to direct light through a beam splitter and onto a target. A target may be angled relative to the impinging light beam up to and maybe even greater than 45deg. A reflected beam from the target passes through the beam splitter and is preferably directed 90deg relative to the light source through a telecentric lens to a scanner which records an image of the target such as a direct part marking code.

  14. Creating an Interactive PDF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    There are many ways to begin a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat. The easiest and most popular way is to create the document in another application (such as Microsoft Word) and then use the Adobe Acrobat software to convert it to a PDF. In this article, the author describes how he used Acrobat's many tools in his project--an interactive…

  15. Variation in CR imaging plate readers.

    PubMed

    Fauber, Terri L; Legg, Jeffrey S; Quinn, Megan

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated computed radiography (CR) image processing to determine whether variation exists within and among CR imaging plate readers. Photostimulable imaging plates were exposed using a phantom test tool and processed in 4 CR readers located in diverse settings in an urban academic medical center. Research results indicate daily variation of S-numbers within individual CR readers did not exceed tolerance limits, although over the 3-week study period, evidence of S-number variation within individual CR readers was mixed. In addition, S-number variability among multiple CR readers was found to be statistically significant. Although the cause of the variability remains unknown, evidence of variability among multiple CR readers indicates a need for systematic quality control. PMID:12362532

  16. A Sign Language Screen Reader for Deaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghoul, Oussama; Jemni, Mohamed

    Screen reader technology has appeared first to allow blind and people with reading difficulties to use computer and to access to the digital information. Until now, this technology is exploited mainly to help blind community. During our work with deaf people, we noticed that a screen reader can facilitate the manipulation of computers and the reading of textual information. In this paper, we propose a novel screen reader dedicated to deaf. The output of the reader is a visual translation of the text to sign language. The screen reader is composed by two essential modules: the first one is designed to capture the activities of users (mouse and keyboard events). For this purpose, we adopted Microsoft MSAA application programming interfaces. The second module, which is in classical screen readers a text to speech engine (TTS), is replaced by a novel text to sign (TTSign) engine. This module converts text into sign language animation based on avatar technology.

  17. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    PubMed

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  18. High School Readers: A Profile of above Average Readers and Readers with Learning Disabilities Reading Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigent, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined above average high school readers and high school readers with learning disabilities in order to better understand the impact of twelve years of formal education on reading skills and strategy use while reading expository text. This study examined reading strategies related to knowledge construction, monitoring, and evaluating…

  19. Reader Profiles for Adults with Low Literacy Skills: A Quest to Find Resilient Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Katherine S.; Lee, Cheryl S.

    2012-01-01

    Resilient readers are those who, despite their poor phonological decoding skills, have good comprehension abilities (Jackson & Doellinger, 2002). Thus far, these readers have been identified in college settings. The purpose of this study was to a) determine if this reader profile was present in a sample taken from an Adult Basic Education (ABE)…

  20. Three Readers, Three Languages, Three Texts: The Strategic Reading of Multilingual and Multiliterate Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsheikh, Negmeldin O.

    2011-01-01

    This case study investigates the metacognitive reading strategies of three advanced proficient trilingual readers whose native language is Hausa. The study examines the reading strategies employed by the three readers in English, French and Hausa. The aim of the study was to compare the reading strategy profiles of trilingual readers through…

  1. Reader-Centered Technical Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Technical writing is an essential part of professional communication and in recent years it has shifted from a genre-based approach. Formerly, technical writing primarily focused on generating templates of documents and sometimes it was creating or reproducing traditional forms with minor modifications and updates. Now, technical writing looks at the situations surrounding the need to write. This involves deep thinking about the goals and objectives of the project on hand. Furthermore, one observes that it is very important for any participatory process to have the full support of management. This support needs to be well understood and believed by employees. Professional writing may be very persuasive in some cases. When presented in the appropriate context, technical writing can persuade a company to improve work conditions ensuring employee safety and timely production. However, one must recognize that lot of professional writing still continues to make use of reports and instruction manuals. Normally, technical and professional writing addresses four aspects. Objective: The need for generating a given professionally written technical document and the goals the document is expected to achieve and accomplish. Clientele: The clientele who will utilize the technical document. This may include the people in the organization. This may also include "unintended readers." Customers: The population that may be affected by the content of the technical document generated. This includes the stakeholders who will be influenced. Environment: The background in which the document is created. Also, the nature of the situation that warranted the generation of the document. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget's view of Learning focuses on three aspects. The author likes to extend Jean Piaget's ideas to students, who are asked to prepare and submit Reader-Centered Technical Writing reports and exercises. Assimilation: Writers may benefit specifically, by assimilating a new object into

  2. Readers Theatre: An Introduction to Classroom Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    One of the primary principles of Readers Theater is to "dramatize" literature in classroom performance and to provide a visual and oral stimulus to students who are unaccustomed to using imagination to appreciate literary texts. Readers Theater may be used to enhance the critical study of language; to explore author meaning or point of view; to…

  3. Attracting New Readers with Hip Hop Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2007-01-01

    With the explosion of technology, librarians are not the only ones who sometimes feel that reading has taken a backseat as a recreational activity. Readers are not reading like they used to. However, while overall readership is down in almost every demographic group, African-Americans, a faction traditionally considered reluctant readers, are…

  4. Planning Behaviour in Good and Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    A group of 50 good readers and a group of 50 poor readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the process of planning at three different levels, namely, perceptual, memory and conceptual in order to study the…

  5. Native American Adult Reader. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    Behavioral objectives and supplemental student activities are featured in this teacher's guide for using the Native American Adult Readers in basic education/GED programs. The guide provides the rationale for developing the readers, which contain a variety of brief articles and essays and are designed to provide meaningful material based on Native…

  6. Professional Roles: Inventing Writers for Imagined Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meese, George P. E.

    Careful audience analysis should be a major focus of the rhetorical side of technical writing courses for university undergraduates. Student writers need to be taught to appreciate their readers' problems, interests, and motives. Most often, audience analysis is accomplished imaginatively--authors create mental images of their readers. Students…

  7. Advanced Hindi Reader in the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatuk, Ved Prakash

    This reader contains 25 selections in standard Hindi by recognized authorities in the major fields of social science; namely sociology, anthropology, folklore, economics, and political science. The writings, evenly divided both in content and style, are intended to give the reader a broad perspective of Indian culture. A 128-page Hindi-English…

  8. Designing Online Courses for Screen Reader Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Lorna R.; Frey, Barbara A.; McMorland, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    A review of multiple online courses at one institution was conducted by a skilled screen reader user for the purpose of assessing the extent to which the courses were navigable and understandable to online students using assistive technologies. This paper identifies features of online courses that may present problems for screen reader users and…

  9. UNDERSTANDING AND HELPING THE RETARDED READER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STRANG, RUTH, ED.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF A 1962 STATEWIDE ARIZONA CONFERENCE ON READING DEVELOPMENT AND READING DIFFICULTIES INCLUDE 15 PAPERS. ARTICLES ON THE ABLE RETARDED READER ARE "UNDERSTANDING THE ABLE RETARDED READER" BY HELEN M. ROBINSON, AND "CLASSROOM PROCEDURES" BY ROSEMARY YOAKUM. PAPERS ON EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN ARE "IDENTIFICATION OF EMOTIONAL…

  10. Accelerated Reader. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Accelerated Reader" is a computer-based reading management system designed to complement an existing classroom literacy program for grades pre-K-12. It is designed to increase the amount of time students spend reading independently. Students choose reading-level appropriate books or short stories for which Accelerated Reader tests are available…

  11. Verbal Reports: How Readers Process Unfamiliar Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, Mary Beth

    With the use of verbal report strategies, a study was conducted to examine (1) the types of comprehension strategies readers use to process familiar and less familiar texts and (2) the differential use of think aloud strategies by average and below average readers. Subjects were 15 tenth grade male students in upstate New York. Two weeks prior to…

  12. Using Readers' Theater with Multicultural Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisenburger, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The author needed a way to engage her students in the reading process and found one extremely successful strategy: using Readers' Theater. Readers' Theater "dramatizes" literature through a classroom performance and provides visual and oral stimulus to students who are not used to using imagination to appreciate literary texts. It involves a…

  13. Practicum Training for Teachers of Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Darrell

    2011-01-01

    Teachers who work with struggling beginning readers need a supervised training experience that leads them to understand both how reading ability develops and how to adapt instruction to meet the needs of individual children. The practicum, in which a teacher works with one struggling reader under the supervision of an experienced and expert…

  14. Notebook Connections: Strategies for the Reader's Notebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Aimee

    2009-01-01

    In "Notebook Know-How", Aimee Buckner demonstrated the power of notebooks to spark and capture students' ideas in the writing workshop. In "Notebook Connections", she turns her focus to the reading workshop, showing how to transform those "couch-potato" readers into deep thinkers. Buckner's fourth-grade students use reader's notebooks as a place…

  15. Reader Response in the Teaching of Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Marian

    As an interesting development in recent literary criticism, reader response can enhance a composition class in many ways. Reader response, by incorporating both intellect and feeling into an aesthetic reaction to literature, restores the subjective aspect that some forms of criticism deny. Three main elements compose the repeated cycle of a…

  16. Using Nooks to Hook Reluctant Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierking, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a two-year qualitative study of electronic reading device use with high school sophomores, most of whom self-identified as reluctant or struggling readers. Electronic readers were used primarily in one weekly fifty-minute class period, during silent sustained reading, wherein students chose freely their texts.…

  17. Secondary School Students' Opinions about Readers' Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabag, S. Gulin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a teaching strategy which not only blends yesterday and today in a meaningful way but also powerfully integrates literacy and history will be examined. Firstly Readers' Theatre as a technique will be introduced. Secondly, the usage guidelines of Readers' Theatre will be presented. Finally the opinions of secondary school students…

  18. Technology: News Readers and Other Handy Utilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how there are advantages and disadvantages to using an Internet News Reader instead of a Web browser. The major advantage is that one can read the headlines and short summaries of news articles from dozens of sources quickly. Another advantage the author points out to news readers is that one gets a short…

  19. KURDISH READERS. PART II, KURDISH ESSAYS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABDULLA, JAMAL JALAL; MCCARUS, ERNEST N.

    THIS READER, TOGETHER WITH THE "NEWSPAPER KURDISH" AND "SHORT STORIES" READERS, FOLLOWS THE "BASIC COURSE IN KURDISH" (BY THE SAME AUTHORS) AND ASSUMES A MASTERY OF THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE STRUCTURE AND WRITING SYSTEM AS PRESENTED IN THE BEGINNING COURSE. WRITTEN IN THE SULAIMANIAN DIALECT, THE OFFICIAL DIALECT OF IRAQI KURDISTAN, THESE 12…

  20. The Portrayal of Reader-Writer Conferencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Piana, Gabriel M.

    Reader-writer conferencing was examined as an alternative or complement to the direct assessment of writing. Criteria guiding development of a framework for analysis of reader-writer conferencing were summarized as: (1) achievability; (2) transfer to other domains of writing; (3) importance of the outcomes; (4) inter-scorer agreement; and (5)…

  1. High Ability Readers and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.; Parke, Cynthia J.; Bramble, Joan G.

    2004-01-01

    To close the achievement gap, the "No Child Left Behind" law calls for all students to make appropriate yearly progress. This presumably means that progress is being made by capable readers at the same time progress is being made by struggling readers. However, there appear to be unintended effects of "No Child Left Behind" that may impede the…

  2. Chemical Inhibitors of Epigenetic Methyllysine Reader Proteins.

    PubMed

    Milosevich, Natalia; Hof, Fraser

    2016-03-22

    Protein methylation is a common post-translational modification with diverse biological functions. Methyllysine reader proteins are increasingly a focus of epigenetics research and play important roles in regulating many cellular processes. These reader proteins are vital players in development, cell cycle regulation, stress responses, oncogenesis, and other disease pathways. The recent emergence of a small number of chemical inhibitors for methyllysine reader proteins supports the viability of these proteins as targets for drug development. This article introduces the biochemistry and biology of methyllysine reader proteins, provides an overview of functions for those families of readers that have been targeted to date (MBT, PHD, tudor, and chromodomains), and reviews the development of synthetic agents that directly block their methyllysine reading functions. PMID:26650180

  3. Adobe photoshop quantification (PSQ) rather than point-counting: A rapid and precise method for quantifying rock textural data and porosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Bo; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Zhe; Shi, Kaibo; Wu, Shuanglin

    2014-08-01

    Commonly used petrological quantification methods are visual estimation, counting, and image analyses. However, in this article, an Adobe Photoshop-based analyzing method (PSQ) is recommended for quantifying the rock textural data and porosities. Adobe Photoshop system provides versatile abilities in selecting an area of interest and the pixel number of a selection could be read and used to calculate its area percentage. Therefore, Adobe Photoshop could be used to rapidly quantify textural components, such as content of grains, cements, and porosities including total porosities and different genetic type porosities. This method was named as Adobe Photoshop Quantification (PSQ). The workflow of the PSQ method was introduced with the oolitic dolomite samples from the Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China, for example. And the method was tested by comparing with the Folk's and Shvetsov's "standard" diagrams. In both cases, there is a close agreement between the "standard" percentages and those determined by the PSQ method with really small counting errors and operator errors, small standard deviations and high confidence levels. The porosities quantified by PSQ were evaluated against those determined by the whole rock helium gas expansion method to test the specimen errors. Results have shown that the porosities quantified by the PSQ are well correlated to the porosities determined by the conventional helium gas expansion method. Generally small discrepancies (mostly ranging from -3% to 3%) are caused by microporosities which would cause systematic underestimation of 2% and/or by macroporosities causing underestimation or overestimation in different cases. Adobe Photoshop could be used to quantify rock textural components and porosities. This method has been tested to be precise and accurate. It is time saving compared with usual methods.

  4. Reader Profiles for Adults with Low Literacy Skills: A Quest to Find Resilient Readers

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Katherine S.; Lee, Cheryl; College, Mount Holyoke

    2014-01-01

    Resilient readers are those who, despite their poor phonological decoding skills, have good comprehension abilities (Jackson & Doellinger, 2002). Thus far, these readers have been identified in college settings. The purpose of this study was to a) determine if this reader profile was present in a sample taken from an Adult Basic Education (ABE) population, and b) identify compensatory mechanisms these readers might use to better their reading comprehension. We administered a battery of tasks consisting of non-word reading, comprehension, fluency, and orthographic processing to a diverse sample of adults in ABE classes. Not only did we identify a group of resilient readers in this sample, we identified three other sub-groups: unskilled readers who had poor decoding and comprehension abilities, skilled readers who possessed good decoding and comprehension abilities, and a group of individuals who had good decoding skills but poor comprehension abilities. We found that the resilient readers and good decoders/poor comprehenders had better orthographic and fluency skills compared to the unskilled readers. However, these last two groups produced different error patterns on the orthographic and fluency tasks. We discuss the implications that these very different reader profiles have for ABE programs. PMID:25431747

  5. 78 FR 48152 - Notice Inviting Publishers To Submit Tests for a Determination of Suitability for Use in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... or by email: Michelle.Meier@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) or a... Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat...

  6. Novel high-sensitivity fluorescence polarization reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, Clifford C.; Levenson, Richard M.; Banks, Peter

    2001-05-01

    We have developed a new fluorescence polarization (FP) reader suitable for high-throughput screening (HST) and ultra-HTS whose assay-performance and sample-throughput are both considerably improved over present state-of-the-art instrumentation. The SymmetryTM reader possesses a number of features that differ from conventional HTS FP readers. These include: laser-based excitation, liquid crystal polarization optics that rapidly and accurately measure polarization states; and CCD detectors to capture emission from multiple wells. We show that the performance in assays relevant to the drug discovery process, such as G- protein coupled receptor-based assays, is significantly enhanced due to a dramatic improvement in precision. Furthermore, the CCD-detection system used can substantially improve sample throughput compared to sequential readers while maintaining high performance.

  7. Electrical Resistivity Tomographies on the detection of adobe buried archaeological structures in Piramide Sur in Cahuachi (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, L.; Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.; Lasaponara, R.; Orefici, G.

    2012-04-01

    During the last two decades of excavations, adobe pyramids dating back from the 6th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D have been unearthed in the ancient Ceremonial Centre of Cahuachi near Nasca (Peru) by an Italian-Peruvian mission directed by Giuseppe Orefici. One of the archaeological sectors, called sector A, has been almost excavated and restored. To complete sector A only a terraced mound named "Piramide Sur" needs to be excavated. In order to provide useful information on the presence of buried structures and platforms as well on the geological stratigraphy a multi-scale approach based on the integration of satellite remote sensing with geophysical techniques was employed. Such investigations were carried out by the Italian mission ITACA, funded by the Italian Ministry Affairs and composed of researchers of two institutes of CNR (IMAA and IBAM), which provides a scientific support for archaeological research, since 2007. In particular, the subsurface features were investigated by Geoelectrical prospecting, performed by using a georesistivimeter for tomography which observe the resistivity value along sections. Several tomographies were carried out to investigate the shallow and deep structure of the pyramid both along the main flank at Nord and on the top. Finally, the integration of all data acquired by the different remote sensing techniques allowed for spatially characterizing the archaeological features, thus providing important information for the planning of the next archaeological campaign.

  8. Damping constant estimation in magnetoresistive readers

    SciTech Connect

    Stankiewicz, Andrzej Hernandez, Stephanie

    2015-05-07

    The damping constant is a key design parameter in magnetic reader design. Its value can be derived from bulk or sheet film ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) line width. However, dynamics of nanodevices is usually defined by presence of non-uniform modes. It triggers new damping mechanisms and produces stronger damping than expected from traditional FMR. This work proposes a device-level technique for damping evaluation, based on time-domain analysis of thermally excited stochastic oscillations. The signal is collected using a high bandwidth oscilloscope, by direct probing of a biased reader. Recorded waveforms may contain different noise signals, but free layer FMR is usually a dominating one. The autocorrelation function is a reflection of the damped oscillation curve, averaging out stochastic contributions. The damped oscillator formula is fitted to autocorrelation data, producing resonance frequency and damping constant values. Restricting lag range allows for mitigation of the impact of other phenomena (e.g., reader instability) on the damping constant. For a micromagnetically modeled reader, the technique proves to be much more accurate than the stochastic FMR line width approach. Application to actual reader waveforms yields a damping constant of ∼0.03.

  9. Damping constant estimation in magnetoresistive readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, Andrzej; Hernandez, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The damping constant is a key design parameter in magnetic reader design. Its value can be derived from bulk or sheet film ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) line width. However, dynamics of nanodevices is usually defined by presence of non-uniform modes. It triggers new damping mechanisms and produces stronger damping than expected from traditional FMR. This work proposes a device-level technique for damping evaluation, based on time-domain analysis of thermally excited stochastic oscillations. The signal is collected using a high bandwidth oscilloscope, by direct probing of a biased reader. Recorded waveforms may contain different noise signals, but free layer FMR is usually a dominating one. The autocorrelation function is a reflection of the damped oscillation curve, averaging out stochastic contributions. The damped oscillator formula is fitted to autocorrelation data, producing resonance frequency and damping constant values. Restricting lag range allows for mitigation of the impact of other phenomena (e.g., reader instability) on the damping constant. For a micromagnetically modeled reader, the technique proves to be much more accurate than the stochastic FMR line width approach. Application to actual reader waveforms yields a damping constant of ˜0.03.

  10. "True Wizardry": Readers Theatre in the Classroom. PEN 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Marion E.

    This article describes Readers Theater (a form of group storytelling in which two or more readers present a piece of literature by reading aloud from hand-held scripts) and advocates its use in the classroom. The paper's seven sections are as follows: (1) What is Readers Theater; (2) Readers Theater and Its Conventions (discussing scripts,…

  11. "It's All Coming Together": An Encounter between Implied Reader and Actual Reader in the Australian Rainforest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sandra J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how taking a particular literary theory--the implied reader--serves to offer a focus for the teacher's initial reading of a text and provides a formative assessment tool. Iser's Implied Reader theory is discussed, after which a picture book, "Where the Forest Meets the Sea" by Jeannie Baker, is analysed from this…

  12. Breaking off Engagement: Readers' Disengagement as a Function of Reader and Text Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goedecke, Patricia J.; Dong, Daqi; Shi, Genghu; Feng, Shi; Risko, Evan; Olney, Andrew M.; D'Mello, Sidney K.; Graesser, Arthur C.

    2015-01-01

    Engagement during reading can be measured by the amount of time readers invest in the reading process. It is hypothesized that disengagement is marked by a decrease in time investment as compared with the demands made on the reader by the text. In this study, self-paced reading times for screens of text were predicted by a text complexity score…

  13. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    DOEpatents

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher; Coleman, Matthew A.

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  14. What Eye Movements Reveal about Deaf Readers

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Levels of illiteracy in the deaf populations around the world have been extremely high for decades and much higher than the illiteracy levels found in the general population. Research has mostly focused on deaf readers’ difficulties rather than on their strengths, which can then inform reading education. Deaf readers are a unique population. They process language and the world surrounding them mostly via the visual channel and this greatly affects how they read or might learn to read. The study of eye movements in reading provides highly sophisticated information about how words and sentences are processed and our research with deaf readers reveals the importance of their uniqueness. PMID:26594098

  15. Getting Ready to Read with Readers Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchers, Suzanne I; Pfeffinger, Charla R.

    2007-01-01

    Readers theatre is a presentation by two or more participants who read from scripts and interpret a literary work in such a way that the audience imaginatively senses characterization, setting, and action. This book offers 50, two-page reproducible scripts to entice the preschool and kindergarten group into beginning to read. These patterned…

  16. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer Product File Readers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Brendan M.

    2010-01-01

    TES Product File Reader software extracts data from publicly available Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) HDF (Hierarchical Data Format) product data files using publicly available format specifications for scientific analysis in IDL (interactive data language). In this innovation, the software returns data fields as simple arrays for a given file. A file name is provided, and the contents are returned as simple IDL variables.

  17. eReaders in School Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of using eReaders in the schools of the Houston Independent School District (HISD), specifically the Barnes and Noble Nook Pilot Project. HSID initially approved only an eReading device that was not wireless since it is very strict on the devices granted access to the wireless network. The biggest roadblock…

  18. 38 CFR 21.150 - Reader service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.150 Reader service. (a) Limitations on vision. A veteran considered... vision is 20/200 in both eyes; (2) Whose central vision is greater than 20/200 but whose field of vision... greater than 20 degrees; or (3) With impaired vision, whose condition or prognosis indicates that...

  19. 38 CFR 21.150 - Reader service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.150 Reader service. (a) Limitations on vision. A veteran considered... vision is 20/200 in both eyes; (2) Whose central vision is greater than 20/200 but whose field of vision... greater than 20 degrees; or (3) With impaired vision, whose condition or prognosis indicates that...

  20. Readers' Tellings: Narrators, Settings, Flashbacks and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucer, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    This research explores the impact of flashbacks and changes in settings and narrators on reader comprehension. Individually, 34 fourth graders (9 and 10 years of age), mostly with above average reading abilities (5.0), orally read the first chapter of a novel. Both publisher and readability formulae estimated the text to be at a fourth- grade…

  1. How and Why Stories for Readers Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfman, Judy

    2004-01-01

    How did the bee get his bumble? How do birds get their feathers? Why is the bluebird blue? Curious first through fifth graders want to know how and why things happen! Judy Wolfman has created 40 Readers Theatre scripts based on imaginative and creative porquoi stories that stem from multicultural folktales as well as Native American Indian legends…

  2. Trade Related Reading Packets for Disabled Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Beverly; Woodruff, Nancy S.

    Six trade-related reading packets for disabled readers are provided for these trades: assemblers, baking, building maintenance, data entry, interior landscaping, and warehousing. Each packet stresses from 9 to 14 skills. Those skills common to most packets include context clues, fact or opinion, details, following directions, main idea,…

  3. The Gifted Reader: Metacognition and Comprehension Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Nancy Gard

    To examine the comprehension process employed by gifted readers and to identify the various metacognitive strategies they employ, 100 gifted student volunteers in grades 4 through 7 were administered the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS), Reading Subtests 11 and 13. The students also completed a questionnaire to determine metacognitive awareness…

  4. Preventing the Proliferation of Problem Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, M. Murlee

    The failure of many beginning reading students to become efficient or enthusiastic readers is due to mistaken views of the reading process that cause teachers to stress isolated reading skills and error-free oral reading, rather than focusing on children's ability to read with understanding. Teachers who want to teach differently must take an…

  5. Revisiting the Reader's Rudder: A Comprehension Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Presents the structured comprehension method, a strategy that facilitates literal, inferential, and critical reading comprehension for passive readers who can decode but not comprehend. Uses the method to illustrate how other areas of students' instruction (e.g., vocabulary enhancement through morphemic analysis, use of a phonogram approach to…

  6. Reader Development Initiatives in International School Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilke, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Argues that school library policy should include support and encouragement of reading as a life-long activity. Describes a number of recent reader-development initiatives, some of which include activities involving World Book Day, sponsored by UNESCO, and the 'shadowing' schemes of the Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Medal awards. (AUTH/NB)

  7. 38 CFR 21.150 - Reader service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.150 Reader service. (a) Limitations on vision. A veteran considered... vision is 20/200 in both eyes; (2) Whose central vision is greater than 20/200 but whose field of vision... greater than 20 degrees; or (3) With impaired vision, whose condition or prognosis indicates that...

  8. 38 CFR 21.150 - Reader service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.150 Reader service. (a) Limitations on vision. A veteran considered... vision is 20/200 in both eyes; (2) Whose central vision is greater than 20/200 but whose field of vision... greater than 20 degrees; or (3) With impaired vision, whose condition or prognosis indicates that...

  9. Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alami, Wali A.; Hodge, Carlton T., Ed.

    The first section of this companion volume to "Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part I" (AL 002 041) presents the Arabic script version of the pre-drills in Lessons IA-IIB in that volume. The second and major section comprises 20 lessons consisting of pre-drills, texts, notes, and questions. All material in this volume appears in Arabic script…

  10. Project Physics Reader 4, Light and Electromagnetism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 4, a collection of articles is presented in this reader for student browsing. The 21 articles are included under the following headings: Letter from Thomas Jefferson; On the Method of Theoretical Physics; Systems, Feedback, Cybernetics; Velocity of Light; Popular Applications of Polarized Light; Eye and…

  11. Character and Moral Education: A Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVitis, Joseph L., Ed.; Yu, Tianlong, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Against a formidable national discourse that emphasizes academic standardization, accountability, and high-stakes testing in educational policy, "Character and Moral Education: A Reader" seeks to re-introduce and revive the moral mission of education in public conversation and practices in America's schools. With contributions from a prominent…

  12. Tape Lessons to Accompany Intermediate Nepali Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Manindra K.

    These tape lessons follow the sequence of the intermediate Nepali Reader. There are 12 lessons each containing various types of exercises designed to increase listening, speaking, and reading skills. Each lesson contains the following types of exercises: (1) listening comprehension; (2) question answering; (3) repetition; and (4) multiple choice…

  13. Ethnographic Research: A Reader [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation & Research in Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This reader was designed to support the Open University Masters in Social Sciences program and as such includes an appendix of useful questions based on the texts used to stimulate seminar discussion. It offers insights into ethnographic research techniques and serves as a tool through which some limitations of conventional quantitative research…

  14. Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

  15. The Emergent Reader's Working Kit of Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…

  16. Understanding Deaf Readers: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelstone, Aaron Weir

    2013-01-01

    The development of reading skills, beyond a functional level, is difficult for most deaf readers. Standardized testing demonstrates a median 4th grade reading level that remains consistent even after national norming of the Stanford Achievement test on the population of deaf school children. Deaf education continues to generate various educational…

  17. Readers Response Approach to English Poetry Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Antonia Hsiu-Chen; Sher, Teresa Hsiang-Jen

    This paper describes an elective course at Taiwan's Wen Tzao Ursuline College of Modern Languages, "Concise English Poetry Appreciation and Recitation." The course is based on the reader response approach and targets third year students, leading them into the world of poetry through various stages (traditional nursery rhymes and simple, humorous,…

  18. Creating a Disabled Reader: A Father's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jerry

    A father describes how the public school system made his daughter, Charlie, into a disabled reader. Charlie had experienced early reading success both at home and in kindergarten, and enjoyed reading. Placed in the low reading group in first grade, Charlie resisted the dull, structured exercises of remedial reading instruction which she received…

  19. Teaching Content Material through Reader's Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forney, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When it comes to content area material, much of what students read and learn is predicated on information they have read before and are supposed to remember. Teachers often use silent reading and round robin reading as preferred reading methods to help students learn content area material. The objective of this study was to test reader's theater…

  20. Precocious Readers: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn A.; Evans, James R.; Keckler, Wade T.

    2006-01-01

    Precocious readers represent a small portion of children who enter school each year. Researchers have investigated the environmental characteristics, acquisition process, psycholinguistic and neuropsychological characteristics, and academic skills of these children. Despite the research findings in the area, researchers and clinicians are still…

  1. Using a Barcode Reader with Interactive Videodiscs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mac; Gustafson, Kent

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of a barcode reader, rather than a computer, to control an interactive videodisc for presentations and self-paced tutorials. Highlights include hardware and software used; remote and direct communication; a HyperCard-based program to make barcodes; and converting an existing program. (LRW)

  2. Readers' Responses to Brief News Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Ernest T.; And Others

    A study extended the investigation of readers' imaginative processes (spontaneous imagery and emotional response) to a new genre of texts: newspaper articles. A sample of 25 articles was randomly selected from a well-defined population of naturally occurring texts (articles with one or more subheadings and three to five paragraphs before the first…

  3. Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

    This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

  4. Oral Interpretation of Literature: Readers' Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The pedagogical principle of experiential learning embodied in the oral interpretation of literature through Readers' Theater provides an avenue to accomplish a seemingly daunting task. Students' participation in reading, interpreting, discussing, writing, assessing, and performing their own creative responses to a literary work promotes a…

  5. Measuring Reader Failure at the Catalogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Carol A.; Schofield, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Library Management Research Unit tested a survey design to measure and evaluate author catalogue use in four varying libraries. Readers were asked to note details of items not found in the catalogue and the source of the reference. Items were checked to discover the cause of failure.'' (9 references) (Author/DH)

  6. International Reports on Literacy Research: Emergent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.; Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports from international research correspondents on the topic of emergent reading. The report includes 14 separate reports on Nigeria, China, Hong Kong, Israel, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, Estonia, Italy, Canada, Mexico, United States, Argentina, and Chile. Overall, reports on the topic of emergent readers have…

  7. Project Physics Reader 1, Concepts of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 1, 21 articles are presented in this reader. Concepts of motion are discussed under headings: motion, motion in words, representation of movement, introducing vectors, Galileo's discussion of projectile motion, Newton's laws of dynamics, the dynamics of a golf club, report on Tait's lecture on force, and bad…

  8. KURDISH READERS. PART I, NEWSPAPER KURDISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABDULLA, JAMAL JALAL; MCCARUS, ERNEST N.

    ASSUMING A MASTERY OF THE CONTENTS OF THE "BASIC COURSE IN KURDISH" (BY THE SAME AUTHORS), THIS READER PRESENTS A VARIETY OF 28 ARTICLES SELECTED FROM THE IRAQI NEWSPAPERS "ZHIN" AND "KHEBAT." EACH LESSON BEGINS WITH A SELECTION WRITTEN IN KURDISH (MODIFIED ARABIC-PERSIAN) SCRIPT, FOLLOWED BY PHONEMIC TRANSCRIPTION (IN THE FIRST 15 LESSONS), A…

  9. The Author as Reader and Writer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This article presents contemporary commentary on the previously published articles "Writing for the Reader: A Problem-Solution Approach" and "Motivating Learners at South Korean Universities." Having been out of the field of English as a foreign language for several years, the author was surprised and pleased when he was asked to write some…

  10. The Expectant Reader in Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Lois Josephs; McCormick, Kathleen

    1986-01-01

    Offers a method of using reader response theory that emphasizes the expectations about a text and how those expectations are fulfilled or deflated. Specifically, students read traditional fables, fairy tales, and parables, and compare them to contemporary works such as Kafka's "Metamorphosis" and Marquez's "The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings."…

  11. Project Physics Reader 6, The Nucleus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 6, a collection of articles is presented in this reader for student browsing. Five excerpts are concerned with the nuclear energy revolution, the 20th birthday and possible consequences of the atomic age, a scientist's view of science, and relations between mathematics and physics. Six book passages are…

  12. Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…

  13. 38 CFR 21.150 - Reader service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.150 Reader service. (a) Limitations on vision. A veteran considered... vision is 20/200 in both eyes; (2) Whose central vision is greater than 20/200 but whose field of vision... greater than 20 degrees; or (3) With impaired vision, whose condition or prognosis indicates that...

  14. Guiding Young Readers to Multicultural Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton-Johnson, KaaVonia; Dickinson, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Stocking the shelves of library media centers with multicultural literature is not enough, it is important that children are helped to choose the ones that would interest them as reading about various cultures is of great benefit to young readers. The importance of accurately representing to children a multicultural society is emphasized and…

  15. Reflections on Teaching Struggling Middle School Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Gay

    1999-01-01

    Shares four working generalizations on what it takes for middle school students with persistent reading difficulties to become successful readers: (1) access to materials that span the gamut of interests and difficulty levels; (2) opportunities to share reading experiences with teachers and classmates; (3) real purposes for reading; and (4)…

  16. Shakespeare and Reader's Theatre: Fellow Traveling Companions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    2010-01-01

    Whether constructed on literary analysis models or inspired by conventional acting theories, Reader's Theatre performance techniques are an invaluable instructional tool available to teachers who want their students to see, hear and feel Shakespeare texts in classroom discussion and performance. These exercises are designed to promote both a…

  17. Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation Using Piezoelectric Actuators: Some Results of the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    A 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at a dynamic pressure of 14 psf. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the actuators, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. Buffeting alleviation results when using the rudder are presented for comparison. Stability margins indicate that a constant gain setting in the control law may be used throughout the range of angle of attack tested.

  18. The Rules of Aggression: How Genetic, Chemical and Spatial Factors Affect Intercolony Fights in a Dominant Species, the Mediterranean Acrobat Ant Crematogaster scutellaris

    PubMed Central

    Frizzi, Filippo; Ciofi, Claudio; Dapporto, Leonardo; Natali, Chiara; Chelazzi, Guido; Turillazzi, Stefano; Santini, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Nest-mate recognition plays a key role in the biology of ants. Although individuals coming from a foreign nest are, in most cases, promptly rejected, the degree of aggressiveness towards non nest-mates may be highly variable among species and relies on genetic, chemical and environmental factors. We analyzed intraspecific relationships among neighboring colonies of the dominant Mediterranean acrobat ant Crematogaster scutellaris integrating genetic, chemical and behavioral analyses. Colony structure, parental relationships between nests, cuticular hydrocarbons profiles (CHCs) and aggressive behavior against non nest-mates were studied in 34 nests located in olive tree trunks. Bayesian clustering analysis of allelic variation at nine species-specific microsatellite DNA markers pooled nests into 14 distinct clusters, each representing a single colony, confirming a polydomous arrangement of nests in this species. A marked genetic separation among colonies was also detected, probably due to long distance dispersion of queens and males during nuptial flights. CHCs profiles varied significantly among colonies and between nests of the same colony. No relationship between CHCs profiles and genetic distances was detected. The level of aggressiveness between colonies was inversely related to chemical and spatial distance, suggesting a ‘nasty neighbor’ effect. Our findings also suggest that CHCs profiles in C. scutellaris may be linked to external environmental factors rather than genetic relationships. PMID:26445245

  19. The Rules of Aggression: How Genetic, Chemical and Spatial Factors Affect Intercolony Fights in a Dominant Species, the Mediterranean Acrobat Ant Crematogaster scutellaris.

    PubMed

    Frizzi, Filippo; Ciofi, Claudio; Dapporto, Leonardo; Natali, Chiara; Chelazzi, Guido; Turillazzi, Stefano; Santini, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Nest-mate recognition plays a key role in the biology of ants. Although individuals coming from a foreign nest are, in most cases, promptly rejected, the degree of aggressiveness towards non nest-mates may be highly variable among species and relies on genetic, chemical and environmental factors. We analyzed intraspecific relationships among neighboring colonies of the dominant Mediterranean acrobat ant Crematogaster scutellaris integrating genetic, chemical and behavioral analyses. Colony structure, parental relationships between nests, cuticular hydrocarbons profiles (CHCs) and aggressive behavior against non nest-mates were studied in 34 nests located in olive tree trunks. Bayesian clustering analysis of allelic variation at nine species-specific microsatellite DNA markers pooled nests into 14 distinct clusters, each representing a single colony, confirming a polydomous arrangement of nests in this species. A marked genetic separation among colonies was also detected, probably due to long distance dispersion of queens and males during nuptial flights. CHCs profiles varied significantly among colonies and between nests of the same colony. No relationship between CHCs profiles and genetic distances was detected. The level of aggressiveness between colonies was inversely related to chemical and spatial distance, suggesting a 'nasty neighbor' effect. Our findings also suggest that CHCs profiles in C. scutellaris may be linked to external environmental factors rather than genetic relationships. PMID:26445245

  20. An Urdu Newspaper Reader. Key to an Urdu Newspaper Reader. (2 vol).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Muhammad Abd-al-Rahman; And Others

    This Reader is the second of a four-volume series in Urdu prepared by the Institute of Islamic Studies at McGill University. (See "A Course in Urdu," ED 013 435-7; "A Reader of Modern Urdu Poetry," ED 022 163; and "An Urdu Newspaper Word Count," AL 002 059.) This volume is intended for use at the second-year level of a comprehensive program of…

  1. Reading between the Lines: Societal Norms in Sierra Leonean Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brams, Patricia

    1980-01-01

    A content analysis of primary school readers of Sierra Leone revealed that the particular modern and traditional normative aspirations expressed in the National Development Plan for 1974/75-1978/79 were also generally reflected in the children's readers. (Editor)

  2. Readers Use Black Newspapers for Health/Cancer Information

    PubMed Central

    Len-Ríos, María E.; Cohen, Elisia; Caburnay, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    A national survey of readers of black newspapers shows that whether readers depend on black newspapers for cancer and health information depends on their black newspaper use, black self-identity and general media dependency. PMID:21833156

  3. Plastic Logic quits e-reader market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perks, Simon

    2012-07-01

    A UK firm spun out from the University of Cambridge that sought to be a world leader in flexible organic electronic circuits and displays has pulled out of the competitive e-reader market as it struggles to find a commercial outlet for its technology. Plastic Logic announced in May that it is to close its development facility in Mountain View, California, with the loss of around 40 jobs.

  4. Child readers' eye movements in reading Thai.

    PubMed

    Kasisopa, Benjawan; Reilly, Ronan G; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn; Burnham, Denis

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been found that adult native readers of Thai, an alphabetic scriptio continua language, engage similar oculomotor patterns as readers of languages written with spaces between words; despite the lack of inter-word spaces, first and last characters of a word appear to guide optimal placement of Thai readers' eye movements, just to the left of word-centre. The issue addressed by the research described here is whether eye movements of Thai children also show these oculomotor patterns. Here the effect of first and last character frequency and word frequency on the eye movements of 18 Thai children when silently reading normal unspaced and spaced text was investigated. Linear mixed-effects model analyses of viewing time measures (first fixation duration, single fixation duration, and gaze duration) and of landing site location revealed that Thai children's eye movement patterns were similar to their adult counterparts. Both first character frequency and word frequency played important roles in Thai children's landing sites; children tended to land their eyes further into words, close to the word centre, if the word began with higher frequency first characters, and this effect was facilitated in higher frequency words. Spacing also facilitated more effective use of first character frequency and it also assisted in decreasing children's viewing time. The use of last-character frequency appeared to be a later development, affecting mainly single fixation duration and gaze duration. In general, Thai children use the same oculomotor control mechanisms in reading spaced and unspaced texts as Thai adults, who in turn have similar oculomotor control as readers of spaced texts. Thus, it appears that eye movements in reading converge on the optimal landing site using whatever cues are available to guide such placement. PMID:27137836

  5. Directional Radio-Frequency Identification Tag Reader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Taylor, John D.; Henderson, John J.

    2004-01-01

    A directional radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag reader has been designed to facilitate finding a specific object among many objects in a crowded room. The device could be an adjunct to an electronic inventory system that tracks RFID-tagged objects as they move through reader-equipped doorways. Whereas commercial RFID-tag readers do not measure directions to tagged objects, the device is equipped with a phased-array antenna and a received signal-strength indicator (RSSI) circuit for measuring direction. At the beginning of operation, it is set to address only the RFID tag of interest. It then continuously transmits a signal to interrogate that tag while varying the radiation pattern of the antenna. It identifies the direction to the tag as the radiation pattern direction of peak strength of the signal returned by the tag. An approximate distance to the tag is calculated from the peak signal strength. The direction and distance can be displayed on a screen. A prototype containing a Yagi antenna was found to be capable of detecting a 915.5-MHz tag at a distance of approximately equal to 15 ft (approximately equal to 4.6 m).

  6. E-Readers and Visual Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Benedetto, Simone; Drai-Zerbib, Véronique; Pedrotti, Marco; Tissier, Geoffrey; Baccino, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    The mass digitization of books is changing the way information is created, disseminated and displayed. Electronic book readers (e-readers) generally refer to two main display technologies: the electronic ink (E-ink) and the liquid crystal display (LCD). Both technologies have advantages and disadvantages, but the question whether one or the other triggers less visual fatigue is still open. The aim of the present research was to study the effects of the display technology on visual fatigue. To this end, participants performed a longitudinal study in which two last generation e-readers (LCD, E-ink) and paper book were tested in three different prolonged reading sessions separated by - on average - ten days. Results from both objective (Blinks per second) and subjective (Visual Fatigue Scale) measures suggested that reading on the LCD (Kindle Fire HD) triggers higher visual fatigue with respect to both the E-ink (Kindle Paperwhite) and the paper book. The absence of differences between E-ink and paper suggests that, concerning visual fatigue, the E-ink is indeed very similar to the paper. PMID:24386252

  7. Prototype biosphere: adobe habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Merdler, S.

    1981-01-01

    The emerging awareness of residential design values focusing on the local environment, resource recycling, energy efficiency and self sustaining attributes is explored. A site-specific example where many of these values are considered is presented.

  8. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  9. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  10. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  11. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  12. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  13. Tester automatically checks paper tape punch and reader after maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazer, L.; Mc Murchy, D. D.

    1967-01-01

    Device automatically bench tests paper tape punches and readers in a simulated operating environment following routine maintenance. The reader and punch operate back-to-back and the paper tape output feeds the reader. The tape leader is prepunched with an arbitrary pattern that is continuously reproduced during the check.

  14. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  15. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  16. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  17. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  18. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  19. What's New in Children's Literature? Engaging Readers through Series Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Barbara A.; Young, Terrell A.

    2007-01-01

    Although experts may debate the literary value of series books and bemoan readers' reluctance to move away from familiar characters and settings, the fact remains that they often draw reluctant readers to the printed word. There is no evidence that reading series books ruins the literary health or moral fiber of readers (Tunnell & Jacobs, 2008).…

  20. Are E-Readers Viable Instructional Delivery Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schcolnik, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study of e-readers, or electronic book readers, that investigated strategies adult users applied to reading in the new medium, kinds of texts users read, and text characteristics for e-reading. Discusses the process of reading, purposes of reading, and whether e-readers are viable instructional delivery systems. (Contains 63…

  1. Science in American School Readers of the Nineteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter; Rudolph, Emanuel D.

    In 19th century America the textbook for reading, or "reader," was predominant as the learning tool for young children. Science selections in these readers introduced students to their first formal science instruction. This paper presents an analysis of the science used in 19th century popular readers. Through a synthesis of expert opinion, the…

  2. Reading and Spelling Error Analysis of Native Arabic Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-rabia, Salim; Taha, Haitham

    2004-01-01

    This study was an investigation of reading and spelling errors of dyslexic Arabic readers ("n"=20) compared with two groups of normal readers: a young readers group, matched with the dyslexics by reading level ("n"=20) and an age-matched group ("n"=20). They were tested on reading and spelling of texts, isolated words and pseudowords. Two…

  3. Graded Readers: How the Publishers Make the Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claridge, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Publishing graded readers is big business, but there is evidence that the texts themselves are not being read in sufficient quantity to improve language proficiency. This article reports on a study of graded readers, focusing on interviews with some major publishers of graded readers, to investigate their production rationales. The findings…

  4. Reader Engagement in English and Persian Applied Linguistics Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansarin, Ali Akbar; Tarlani-Aliabdi, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the way academic writers establish the presence of their readers over the past few years. Establishing the presence of readers or what Kroll (1984, p.181) calls imagining "a second voice" is accomplished when a writer refers "explicitly" to their readers using explicit linguistic resources…

  5. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  6. Reader Use and Understanding of Newspaper Informational Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasternack, Steve; Utt, Sandra H.

    While the use of informational graphics in newspapers is increasing, little is known regarding how well readers can understand them and how readers use them. A study investigated whether readers of newspapers read graphics before or after they read the headline/text, and whether people decide to read a graphic device for appearance-related or…

  7. "Science in Society, Omnibus Pack, Readers M-P."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Science Education, Cambridge (England).

    Four additional readers have been written for use in the Science in Society general studies project. Three of the readers discuss the applications and importance of engineering in the world. They include: Engineering 1 (Reader M), which discusses such topics as the role of engineering in society, structural design and engineering, the engineering…

  8. Retrospective Miscue Analysis with Proficient Adult ESL Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurr, Adrian J.; Theurer, Joan L.; Kim, Koomi J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports recent research investigating the use of retrospective miscue analysis (RMA) as an instructional strategy with proficient second-language (L2) readers. RMA aims to heighten a reader's awareness of the reading process by involving readers in detailed analysis of their oral reading behavior. Using a cross-case analysis of three…

  9. Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation Using Piezoelectric Actuators-Some Results of the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    Buffet is an aeroelastic phenomenon associated with high performance aircraft especially those with twin vertical tails. In particular, for the F/A-18 aircraft at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from wing/fuselage leading edge extensions burst, immersing the vertical tails in their wake. The resulting buffet loads on the vertical tails are a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view. Recently, a 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at Mach 0.10. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the actuators, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. The results herein illustrate that buffet alleviation of vertical tails can be accomplished using simple active control of the rudder or piezoelectric actuators. In fact, as demonstrated herein, a fixed gain single input single output control law that commands piezoelectric actuators may be active throughout the high angle-of-attack maneuver without requiring any changes during the maneuver. Future tests are mentioned for accentuating the international interest in this area of research.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Astrophysics (Advanced Physics Readers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Bob

    2000-07-01

    Here is a handy and attractive reader to support students on post-16 courses. It covers the astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology that are demanded at A-level and offers anyone interested in these fields an interesting and engaging reference book. The author and the production team deserve credit for producing such an attractive book. The content, in ten chapters, covers what one would expect at this level but it is how it is presented that struck me as the book's most powerful asset. Each chapter ends with a summary of key ideas. Line drawings are clear and convey enough information to make them more than illustrations - they are as valuable as the text in conveying information. Full colour is used throughout to enhance illustrations and tables and to lift key sections of the text. A number of colour photographs complement the material and serve to maintain interest and remind readers that astrophysics is about real observable phenomena. Included towards the end is a set of tables offering information on physical and astronomical data, mathematical techniques and constellation names and abbreviations. This last table puzzled me as to its value. There is a helpful bibliography which includes society contacts and a website related to the text. Perhaps my one regret is that there is no section where students are encouraged to actually do some real astronomy. Astrophysics is in danger of becoming an armchair and calculator interest. There are practical projects that students could undertake either for school assessment or for personal interest. Simple astrophotography to capture star trails, observe star colours and estimate apparent magnitudes is an example, as is a simple double-star search. There are dozens more. However, the author's style is friendly and collaborative. He befriends the reader as they journey together through the ideas. There are progress questions at the end of each chapter. Their style tends to be rather closed and they emphasize factual recall

  11. AGU Publications: Improvements for Authors and Readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Brooks

    2013-12-01

    AGU has introduced several new features aimed at simplifying and improving the submission of papers to AGU journals. Enhanced PDF and HTML formats and new journal home pages developed with our publishing partner, Wiley, will also provide improvements for readers. In previous issues of Eos, we provided broader overviews of AGU publications, including the transition to Wiley and open access (Eos, 94(30), 264-266, doi:10.1002/2013EO300009; Eos, 94(39), 345, doi:10.1002/2013EO390006).

  12. PC-based car license plate reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  13. Does reader visual fatigue impact interpretation accuracy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Berbaum, Kevin S.

    2010-02-01

    To measure the impact of reader of reader visual fatigue by assessing symptoms, the ability to keep the eye focused on the display and diagnostic accuracy. Twenty radiology residents and 20 radiologists were given a diagnostic performance test containing 60 skeletal radiographic studies, half with fractures, before and after a day of clinical reading. Diagnostic accuracy was measured using area under the proper binormal curve (AUC). Error in visual accommodation was measured before and after each test session and subjects completed the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI) and the oculomotor strain subscale of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) before each session. Average AUC was 0.89 for before work test and 0.85 for the after work test, (F(1,36) = 4.15, p = 0.049 < 0.05). There was significantly greater error in accommodation after the clinical workday (F(1,14829) = 7.81, p = 0.005 < 0.01), and after the reading test (F(1,14829) = 839.33, p < 0.0001). SOFI measures of lack of energy, physical discomfort and sleepiness were higher after a day of clinical reading (p < 0.05). The SSQ measure of oculomotor symptoms (i.e., difficulty focusing, blurred vision) was significantly higher after a day of clinical reading (F(1,75) = 20.38, p < 0.0001). Radiologists are visually fatigued by their clinical reading workday. This reduces their ability to focus on diagnostic images and to accurately interpret them.

  14. Regulating Readers: The Social Origins of the Readers' Advisor in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyt, Brendan

    2001-01-01

    The readers' advisory service was a product of social forces operating in the context of early twentieth century capitalism. The work of French regulation theorists provides a framework for analyzing these forces using the concepts of regime of accumulation and mode of regulation. Libraries were connected in a society-wide project, as opposed to…

  15. Error Detection Mechanism for Words and Sentences: A Comparison between Readers with Dyslexia and Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-01-01

    The activity level of the error monitoring system for processing isolated versus contextual words in Hebrew was studied in adults with dyslexia and skilled readers while committing reading errors. Behavioural measures and event-related potentials were measured during a lexical decision task using words in a list and sentences. Error-related…

  16. Research Connections: The San Diego Striving Readers' Project: Building Academic Success for Adolescent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Trevor; Thornley, Christina; Staley, Rosemary; Moore, David W.

    2009-01-01

    This Research Connections column describes the background to and the research base for the San Diego Unified School Districts' federally funded Striving Readers Project. The curriculum for the project was developed out of a longitudinal study into the literacy experiences of secondary students in New Zealand and from exploratory work in San Diego…

  17. Proficient Readers' Reading Behavior in Taiwan: The Study of Young Chinese Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Li-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reading behavior of young proficient Chinese readers at preschool age. Especially, the roles of phonetic skill and Chinese Character recognition in reading comprehension were explored. 10 kindergartens were recruited to participate in the study. Subjects were 72-98 kindergarten children. Instruments…

  18. The Reader-Text-Writer Interaction: L2 Japanese Learners' Response toward Graded Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabata-Sandom, Mitsue

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on two projects which investigated graded readers (GRs) as meaningful input for learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). Project One examined the intentions of six writers of Japanese GRs. A focus group interview demonstrated that the writers had a genuine communicative intent in the writing process. Project Two…

  19. Reader Development Bibliography. Books Recommended for Adult New Readers. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Vickie L.

    This edition is an annotated list of 390 literacy materials for adult new readers. All the materials are written on an eighth-grade level or below. These paperback instructional titles, many in workbook format, are for use with adult basic education (ABE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students. The introduction includes guidelines for…

  20. Are Avid Readers Lurking in Your Language Arts Classroom? Myths of the Avid Adolescent Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Nance S.; Kelley, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study conducted with 10 identified avid adolescent readers who completed the Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile (AMRP) (Pitcher, Albright, DeLaney, Walker, Seunarienesingh, & Moggie, 2007) that includes both a survey to determine students' self-concept and value of reading and an interview that sheds light on what…

  1. Characteristics of Poor Readers of Korean "Hangul": Auditory, Visual and Phonological Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The vast majority of work on the processing characteristics of poor readers has been conducted with readers of English. In this article we report on results that outline the processing characteristics of poor readers of the Korean alphabetic-syllabic script, "Hangul." Three groups of readers (10 good readers, 10 poor readers and 9 poor readers…

  2. Parietal function in good and poor readers

    PubMed Central

    Laycock, Robin; Crewther, Sheila G; Kiely, Patricia M; Crewther, David P

    2006-01-01

    Background While there are many psychophysical reports of impaired magnocellular pathway function in developmental dyslexia (DD), few have investigated parietal function, the major projection of this pathway, in good and poor readers closely matched for nonverbal intelligence. In view of new feedforward-feedback theories of visual processing, impaired magnocellular function raises the question of whether all visually-driven functions or only those associated with parietal cortex functions are equally impaired and if so, whether parietal performance is more closely related to general ability levels than reading ability. Methods Reading accuracy and performance on psychophysical tasks purported to selectively activate parietal cortex such as motion sensitivity, attentional tracking, and spatial localization was compared in 17 children with DD, 16 younger reading-age matched (RA) control children, and 46 good readers of similar chronological-age (CA) divided into CA-HighIQ and a CA-LowIQ matched to DD group nonverbal IQ. Results In the age-matched groups no significant differences were found between DD and CA controls on any of the tasks relating to parietal function, although performance of the DD group and their nonverbal IQ scores was always lower. As expected, CA and RA group comparisons indicated purported parietal functioning improves with age. No difference in performance was seen on any of the parietally driven tasks between the DD and age-nonverbal IQ matched groups, whereas performance differentiated the DD group from the age-matched, higher nonverbal IQ group on several such tasks. An unexpected statistical difference in performance between lower reading age (DD and RA children) and all higher reading age (CA) children was seen on a test of chromatic sensitivity, whereas when high and low nonverbal IQ normal readers were compared performance was not different Conclusion The results indicate that performance on purported parietal functions improves with age

  3. Chinese Deaf Readers Have Early Access to Parafoveal Semantics

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ming; Pan, Jinger; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Shu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we manipulated different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined how deaf readers make use of the parafoveal information. Results clearly indicate that, although the reading-level matched hearing readers make greater use of orthographic information in the parafovea, parafoveal semantic information is obtained earlier among the deaf readers. In addition, a phonological PB effect was found for the better deaf readers (relative to less-skilled deaf readers) though we also provide an alternative explanation for this effect. Providing evidence that Chinese deaf readers have higher efficiency when processing parafoveal semantics, the study indicates flexibility across individuals in the mechanisms underlying word recognition adapting to the inputs available in the linguistic environment. PMID:24999711

  4. Neural syntax: cell assemblies, synapsembles and readers

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, György

    2010-01-01

    Summary A widely discussed hypothesis in neuroscience is that transiently active ensembles of neurons, known as ‘cell assemblies’, underlie numerous operations of the brain, from encoding memories to reasoning. However, the mechanisms responsible for the formation and disbanding of cell assemblies and temporal evolution of cell assembly sequences are not well understood. I introduce and review three interconnected topics, which could facilitate progress in defining cell assemblies, identifying their neuronal organization and revealing causal relationships between assembly organization and behavior. First, I hypothesize that cell assemblies are best understood in light of their output product, as detected by ‘reader-actuator’ mechanisms. Second, I suggest that the hierarchical organization of cell assemblies may be regarded as a neural syntax. Third, constituents of the neural syntax are linked together by dynamically changing constellations of synaptic weights (‘synapsembles’). Existing support for this tripartite framework is reviewed and strategies for experimental testing of its predictions are discussed. PMID:21040841

  5. Improved reader for magnetically-encoded ID cards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, T. T.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid demodulator in electronic card reader for magnetically encoded identification cards, accommodates variations in insertion speeds, yet is simpler and less expensive than equivalent all-digital circuits.

  6. What do mind readers know and what do we know about mind readers?

    PubMed

    Woolley, Jacqueline D

    2014-11-01

    In this commentary, I raise various questions about Kim and Harris's fascinating findings. I ask what kind of knowledge children expect telepathic individuals to have, who children might consider to be good mind readers, why children value telepathy, and how puzzled children are by telepathy. I suggest potential ways to address some of these questions and end by reiterating the importance of probing individual differences in scepticism and credulity. PMID:25145941

  7. Are You Ready for E-Readers in Your Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some things to consider when thinking about adding e-readers to one's collection. These include: (1) What is the purpose?; (2) Which device?; (3) How will one keep track of his or her e-readers and their contents?; (4) What are some potential pitfalls?; (5) Is there a positive impact on student learning?; and (6) Are…

  8. Understanding the Motivation of Deaf Adolescent Latino Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzig, Melissa Pia

    2009-01-01

    Our methods for educating Deaf adolescent Latino struggling readers need to change in order to maximize their learning. As with all students, this begins with identifying student strengths and building on these strengths to help students gain new and productive skills. We need to find out what motivates these Latino Deaf readers and what will…

  9. Benefits of Computer-Presented Speed Training for Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irausquin, Rosemarie S.; Drent, Jeanine; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of computer-presented automatization exercises in a group of 14 poor readers were assessed in comparison to a matched control group of 14 poor readers that received computer-presented exercises aimed at the use of context for word identification and comprehension. Training took place three sessions a week for 15 minutes per session and…

  10. Temporal and Causal Reasoning in Deaf and Hearing Novice Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Susan; Oakhill, Jane; Arfé, Barbara; Boureux, Magali

    2014-01-01

    Temporal and causal information in text are crucial in helping the reader form a coherent representation of a narrative. Deaf novice readers are generally poor at processing linguistic markers of causal/temporal information (i.e., connectives), but what is unclear is whether this is indicative of a more general deficit in reasoning about…

  11. In Days Gone By: A Reader. Ukrainian Language Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This reader contains a selection of short texts and is intended for intermediate- to advanced-level students of Ukrainian. The reader is one of four in the Ukrainian Language Development series; the other three are "Conflict,""Deeds and Doers," and "Decisions." The book includes a variety of poems by Ukrainian national poet Taras Shevchenko, and…

  12. Stance, Navigation, and Reader Response in Expository Hypertext

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEneaney, John E.; Li, Ledong; Allen, Kris; Guzniczak, Lizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on two studies investigating reader stance, navigation, and response in expository hypertext. Subjects in the studies included 69 and 147 adult readers prompted to adopt either an efferent or aesthetic stance when reading a 36-node expository hypertext. Reading was followed by recall and essay writing tasks. Results of the…

  13. Author's Intentions and Readers' Interpretations. Technical Report No. 276.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Robert J.; And Others

    Three studies investigated the nature of the author-reader relationship during discourse comprehension and production, as well as the influence of selected factors on the author-reader relationship. The first study produced data indicating that the relationship is susceptible to subtle variations in the identity of the author. In those situations…

  14. Cutlines/Captions Must Give Readers Meaningful Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konkle, Bruce E.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that scholastic journalists should not shortchange the importance of words under, beside, or below photographs. Notes that in-depth cutlines and captions for scholastic publications and photographs can help hook the reader into the feature on the page; extend the visual coverage of a photograph's content; and give readers specific…

  15. Intervention All Day Long: New Hope for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    School districts have come to think of intervention for struggling readers as something accomplished in a session outside the classroom, one period long, taught by someone other than that student's usual teacher. This often leaves struggling readers in a learning environment where no theory or empirical evidence would predict substantial learning.…

  16. Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader's Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Ellin Oliver; Zimmermann, Susan

    This book explores the question of how students become thoughtful, independent readers who deeply understand what they read by examining the thought processes of proficient readers. The book then uses these processes as models for the strategies it offers--strategies intended to help children become more flexible, adaptive, independent, and…

  17. Signaling in Text and Its Interaction with Reader Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bonnie J. F.

    Research has identified three reading strategies that are affected in various ways by signaling--the emphasis of superordinate relationships in text. Using a structure strategy, readers follow the text's superordinate relations to focus on the text's message and how it relates to supportive details. Readers who use the detail/list strategy focus…

  18. Using Collaborative Writing Creatively To Teach Reader-Based Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nathan B.

    This paper describes the basic features of a collaborative writing exercise used to help 40 English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) students write reader-based prose. It presents an actual study that examined the use of collaborative writing to help students draft reader-based prose in intermediate and advanced EFL composition classes at the…

  19. Infographics for Educational Purposes: Their Structure, Properties and Reader Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Infographics are one of the new educational environments used to provide information to their readers in a visual way. Infographics are designed to provide information to their readers using various visuals such as texts, pictures, drawings, diagrams, graphs, etc. The use of infographics becomes increasingly widespread both in advertising…

  20. Semantic Priming Effects in Normal versus Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assink, Egbert M. H.; Van Bergen, Floor; Van Teeseling, Heleen; Knuijt, Paul P. N. A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied sensitivity to semantic priming, as distinct from semantic judgment, in poor readers. Association strength (high vs. low semantic association) was manipulated factorially with semantic association type (categoric vs. thematic association). Participants were 11-year-old poor readers (n = 15) who were matched with a group of…

  1. Reader's Theatre: The "Theatrical" Approach to Teaching Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    This document presents a rationale for using reader's theatre in the classroom. It briefly discusses some of the conventions that distinguish reader's theatre from traditional theatrical productions, including direction of voice and action to the audience, and the use of scripts. The major portion of the paper offers seven exercises on the…

  2. Prevalence and Nature of Late-Emerging Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catts, Hugh W.; Compton, Donald; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Bridges, Mindy Sittner

    2012-01-01

    Some children demonstrate adequate or better reading achievement in early school grades but fall significantly behind their peers in later grades. These children are often referred to as late-emerging poor readers. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and heterogeneity of these poor readers. We also examined the early language and…

  3. Addressing Learning Disabilities with UDL and Technology: Strategic Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Tracey E.; Cohen, Nicole; Vue, Ge; Ganley, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    CAST created "Strategic Reader," a technology-based system blending Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) in a digital learning environment to improve reading comprehension instruction. This experimental study evaluates the effectiveness of Strategic Reader using two treatment conditions for measuring…

  4. Learning to Choose: The Hidden Art of the Enthusiastic Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Often the difference between a successful and unsuccessful reader is that the former is simply better at finding enjoyable books to read. The capacity to select appealing reading is not developed in classrooms where the decision about what book to read is made by someone other than the reader: the teacher, the curriculum planner, the person who…

  5. A Comparative Review of Stratification Texts and Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peoples, Clayton D.

    2012-01-01

    Social stratification is a core substantive area within sociology. There are a number of textbooks and readers available on the market that deal with this central topic. In this article, I conduct a comparative review of (a) four stratification textbooks and (b) four stratification readers. (Contains 2 tables.)

  6. Tadpole Tales and Other Totally Terrific Treats for Readers Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Anthony D.

    Readers theater is a storytelling device that stimulates the imagination and promotes all of the language arts. Readers theater is an oral interpretation of a piece of literature read in a dramatic style. It involves and motivates students, energizes the language arts program, and stimulates learning. Geared for children in grades 1-4, this book…

  7. Sexism Springs Eternal--in the Reader's Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimbardo, Philip G.; Meadow, Wendy

    This document reports on an empirical investigation of anti-women humor appearing in the Reader's Digest over three decades, revealing the operation of an unconscious sexist ideology. A systematic analysis was made of 1,069 jokes appearing in two featured columns of the Reader's Digest for the two-year periods 1947-48, 1957-58, and 1967-68.…

  8. Guiding Readers to New Understandings through Electronic Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Nancy, Ed.; Pipkin, Gloria, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that computer technology can help to engage struggling readers in meaningful transactions with text. Lists and describes seven web sites that will captivate reluctant readers. Notes three web sites that send students on "WebQuests" to transact with text in order to build knowledge. Discusses other ways to engage students in text via…

  9. Investigating the Relationship between Connectives and Readers' Reading Comprehension Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gençer, Yusuf; ÇetiInkaya, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between connectives in Turkish texts and readers' reading comprehension. Research was conducted with a total of 50 teachers. In the study group, readers' reading comprehension was determined through 10 descriptive texts by using open-ended questions. The results of the analysis revealed…

  10. First Encounters: Books to Encourage the Beginning Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberg, Michele

    1992-01-01

    Describes over 20 picture books that motivate beginning readers to become more proficient at reading and to develop a love of reading. Discusses the role of illustrations in engaging the reader and contributing to story development. Recommends parental assistance to help children enjoy the books' humor and subtitles. (JB)

  11. Readers as Writers Composing from Sources. Technical Report No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivey, Nancy Nelson; King, James R.

    A study of discourse synthesis (readers/writers composing new texts by selecting, organizing, and connecting content from source texts) examined the performance of accomplished and less accomplished readers in the 6th, 8th, and 10th grades on a report-writing task. Over a 3-day period 60 English/language arts students wrote informational reports…

  12. Homophone Effects in Deaf Readers: Evidence from Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the nature of deaf readers' phonological processing during online word recognition, and how this compares to similar effects in hearing individuals. Unlike many previous studies on phonological activation, we examined whether deaf readers activated phonological representations for words as opposed to pseudohomophones.…

  13. Chinese Deaf Readers Have Early Access to Parafoveal Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ming; Pan, Jinger; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we manipulated different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined how deaf readers make use of the parafoveal information. Results clearly indicate that although the reading-level matched hearing readers make greater use of orthographic information in the parafovea,…

  14. William S. Gray and the Dick and Jane Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrogenes, Nancy A.

    William S. Gray, Professor of Education and Dean of the College of Education at the University of Chicago, began work in 1929 on a major revision of the "Elson Readers," a popular basal series published by Scott, Foresman and Company. Organized around the daily life of two ordinary children, the "Dick and Jane" readers ultimately became the most…

  15. Reading Strategies Employed by Greek Braille Readers: Miscue Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakali, Anthi; Evans, Roy

    2007-01-01

    Reading development is said to progress in a series of developmental skills and stages that need to be acquired by emerging young readers. The literature on Greek braille reading and its development found that print readers opt for the same text decoding strategy even at the initial stages of development. This article explores the development of…

  16. Accelerated Reader/Reading Renaissance. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Accelerated Reader/Reading Renaissance program (now called Accelerated Reader Best Classroom Practices) is a guided reading intervention in which teachers direct student reading of text. It involves two components. Reading Renaissance, the first component, is a set of recommended principles on guided reading (or teachers' direction of…

  17. Implementing Readers Theatre as an Approach to Classroom Fluency Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Rasinski, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how Readers Theatre was implemented as an engaging means for reading fluency instruction in a second-grade classroom. A weekly Readers Theatre format was utilized over the course of a school year. The format was added to the existing literacy program. Data collected during the school year revealed significant gains in…

  18. Breaking the Silence: Toward Improving LGBTQ Representation in Composition Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, John

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian-Gay-Bisexual-Transgender-Queer (LGBTQ) representation in composition readers remains limited and is frequently nonexistent. In addition, the LGBTQ-related materials that do find their way into composition readers are often problematic. In this essay I explain why WPAs and composition teachers should be concerned about LGBTQ representation…

  19. Motivating Struggling Adolescent Readers: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Eileen M.

    2016-01-01

    In a high-school reading class, the author used Reader's Theater as an instructional and motivational strategy for underachieving students. This action research focused on the extent to which implementing Reader's Theater motivated students to read and improve their reading skills. Consistent increases in scores for all students occurred over the…

  20. Skilled or Skillful: What's the Difference for Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Carol; Dickinson, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Outlines the difference between "drilling for skills" and "becoming skillful readers" and shows how teachers can help students become skillful readers, writers, discussants, and thinkers through literature discussions. Discusses establishing a context for literature study, and initiating and maintaining literature study groups. (SR)

  1. Be That Teacher! Breaking the Cycle for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risko, Victoria J.; Walker-Dalhouse, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Tens of thousands of students begin each new school year with the hope that they will finally find "the" teacher who will help them succeed as readers, writers, and learners. This book shows how teachers can provide the type of differentiated instruction that struggling readers need by drawing on students' individual and cultural backgrounds, as…

  2. Envisioning Story: The Eye Movements of Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckett, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Miscue analysis and eye movement analysis are used to explore the reading process of first-grade beginning readers as they use pictures and print in a picture book designed for instructional purposes. Eye movement miscue analysis (EMMA) is also used as a tool to gain insights into the reading strategies of the beginning readers in this study.…

  3. "Science in Society, Omnibus Pack, Readers A-L."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Science Education, Cambridge (England).

    Twelve readers have been written for use in a course developed by the Science in Society Project. Each reader (corresponding to a specific unit in the course) contains a number of short articles contributed by prominent figures in industry, the professions, the academic world, and in politics. Detailed suggestions on how to take advantage of the…

  4. Perceptions about "Good Readers": Analyzing Curricular, Linguistic, and Socioeconomic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Students' perceptions about "what good readers do" are representative of their definition of reading and what they believe they should be striving toward as a reader. These beliefs about reading influence their motivation and ways they engage with texts. In this study, interviews were conducted with students in three first-grade…

  5. A Longitudinal Literacy Profile of Greek Precocious Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafa, Eufimia; Manolitsis, George

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this five-year longitudinal study was to examine whether 13 Greek precocious readers' performance on a variety of reading, spelling, and phonological-awareness tasks from kindergarten through the fourth grade was different from that of 12 Greek nonprecocious readers and, if there were differences between the two groups' performances,…

  6. Let's Not Leave Advanced and Gifted Readers "behind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Weber issues a challenge to teachers grappling with the demands (and failures) of NCLB, and asks them to make certain that advanced and gifted readers are not left behind. To that end, she shares characteristics of gifted readers, ways to support them, and tips for teaching that will result in doing "a much better job of providing appropriate…

  7. Library Services to Distance Learners in the Commonwealth: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Elizabeth F., Ed.; Jagannathan, Neela, Ed.

    The provision of good library services is a crucial factor in determining the quality of distance education. This collection of articles acquaints readers with distance librarianship as it is practiced in developed and developing countries throughout the British Commonwealth. The reader includes: "Introduction" (Michael Wooliscroft); "Distance…

  8. Accelerated Reader[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Accelerated Reader"[TM] is a guided reading intervention used to supplement regular reading instruction in K-12 classrooms. Its aim is to improve students' reading skills through reading practice and quizzes on the books students read. The "Accelerated Reader"[TM] program calls for students to select and read a book and then take a computerized…

  9. Towards More Secure Biometric Readers for Effective Digital Forensic Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabelsi, Zouheir; Al-Hemairy, Mohamed; Baggili, Ibrahim; Amin, Saad

    This paper investigates the effect of common network attacks on the performance, and security of several biometric readers. Experiments are conducted using Denial of Service attacks (DoSs) and the ARP cache poisoning attack. The experiments show that the tested biometric readers are vulnerable to DoS attacks, and their recognition performance is significantly affected after launching the attacks. However, the experiments show that the tested biometric readers are secure from the ARP cache poisoning attack. This work demonstrates that biometric readers are easy targets for malicious network users, lack basic security mechanisms, and are vulnerable to common attacks. The confidentiality, and integrity of the log files in the biometric readers, could be compromised with such attacks. It then becomes important to study these attacks in order to find flags that could aid in a network forensic investigation of a biometric device.

  10. Materials management with a bar code reader.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, R S

    1990-01-01

    A materials management system capable of inventory control, accounting and the automatic recording of supplies for a clinical department has been developed for the George Washington University Hospital Department of Anesthesia. This system combines a microprocessor-based computer for data storage and a hand-held bar code reader to record the bar code scan of each item in the inventory. A relational software program with easy-to-use menus and help keys was written. Bar code information stored for each item includes item number, quantity, date and time of issue. Accumulated bar code scans are loaded into the computer by use of a serial port and then used to update current inventory in the computer. Comparison between current inventory and reorder levels by the computer will initiate automatic printing of appropriate purchase orders. Reorder levels are adjusted regularly, by comparing previous year or month usage to current needs; items already on order, items on back order and delivery lag time are also taken into account. PMID:10104851

  11. ANNOUNCEMENT: To the readers of Kvantovaya Elektronika

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-06-01

    The Radio i Svyaz' Press is preparing to publish several books on a number of topics in quantum electronics. These books are described below. They are included in the Federal Target Programme for the publication of books in Russia in 1994. In accordance with the Programme, the books are supported financially by the State to pay for the cost of paper and printing. Since at present the question of finance is very problematic and the actual cost of each of these books can be between 12 and 20 thousand roubles per copy, if the number of copies printed is 800-1500 the retail price of each copy would be between 15 and 25 thousand roubles. Consequently, if for any reason we do not receive financial support from the Federal Programme or if we do not receive guaranteed orders from readers, bearing in mind the real retail price, the Press will be unable to publish these books. Guaranteed orders are accepted from organisations and from individuals. The price includes postage on a cash-on-delivery basis if there is a guaranteed print order of 800-1500 copies of each book.

  12. Handheld E-Book Readers and Scholarship Report and Reader Survey: ACLS Humanities E-Book. White Paper No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gielen, Nina

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a conversion experiment and subsequent reader survey conducted by the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) Humanities E-Book (HEB) in late 2009 and early 2010 to assess the viability of using scholarly monographs with handheld e-readers. As sample content, HEB selected six titles from its own online collection, three…

  13. Usability and Accessibility of eBay by Screen Reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Akhter, Fahim

    The evolution of Information and Communication Technology and the rapid growth of the Internet have fuelled a great diffusion of eCommerce websites. Usually these sites have complex layouts crowded with active elements, and thus are difficult to navigate via screen reader. Interactive environments should be properly designed and delivered to everyone, including the blind, who usually use screen readers to interact with their computers. In this paper we investigate the interaction of blind users with eBay, a popular eCommerce website, and discuss how using the W3C Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) suite could improve the user experience when navigating via screen reader.

  14. HAZPAC; an interactive map of Pacific Rim natural hazards, population, and infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bemis, B.L.; Goss, H.V.; Yurkovich, E.S.; Perron, T.J.; Howell, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    This is an online version of a CD-ROM publication. The text files that describe using this publication make reference to software provided on the disc. For this online version the software can be downloaded for free from Adobe Systems and Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI). Welcome to HAZPAC! HAZPAC is an interactive map about natural hazard risk in the Pacific Rim region. It is intended to communicate to a broad audience the ideas of 'Crowding the Rim,' which is an international, public-private partnership that fosters collaborative solutions for regional risks. HAZPAC, which stands for 'HAZards of the PACific,' uses Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to help people visualize the socioeconomic connections and shared hazard vulnerabilities among Pacific Rim countries, as well as to explore the general nature of risk. Please refer to the 'INTRODUCTION TO HAZPAC' section of the readme file below to determine which HAZPAC project will be right for you. Once you have decided which HAZPAC project is suitable for you, please refer to the 'GETTING STARTED' sections in the readme file for some basic information that will help you begin using HAZPAC. Also, we highly recommend that you follow the Tutorial exercises in the project-specific HAZPAC User Guides. The User Guides are PDF (Portable Document Format) files that must be read with Adobe Acrobat Reader (a free copy of Acrobat Reader is available using the link near the bottom of this page).

  15. History Textbooks for Poor Readers--At What Cost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allen

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes seven junior high school American history textbooks for slow readers. Results indicate weaknesses in historical explanations, causal-effect relationships, background, and synthesizing historical information, specifically when depicting the Civil War and the Great Depression. (Author/KC)

  16. Editorial Comment: Practice and Inquiry: "EJ" Readers and "EJ" Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Journal, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Points out that the "English Journal" considers all readers prospective contributors. Lists and discusses the criteria that "English Journal" uses to judge manuscripts that purport to describe effective classroom practices. (ARH)

  17. Flexible electronics enters the e-reader market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-02-01

    A company that was spun off from the physics department at the University of Cambridge in the UK 10 years ago released its first product last month. Plastic Logic, founded by Henning Sirringhaus and Richard Friend, launched an electronic reader that can display books, magazines and newspapers on a flexible, lightweight plastic display. The reader commercializes pioneering work first started over 20 years ago at the lab by the two physicists, who are based in the department's optoelectronics group.

  18. When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects.

    PubMed

    Nicenboim, Bruno; Logačev, Pavel; Gattei, Carolina; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German), while taking into account readers' working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008) and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slowdown produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis and Vasishth, 2005). Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions. PMID:27014113

  19. When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects

    PubMed Central

    Nicenboim, Bruno; Logačev, Pavel; Gattei, Carolina; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German), while taking into account readers' working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008) and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slowdown produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis and Vasishth, 2005). Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions. PMID:27014113

  20. Location dependent biases in automatic 96-well microplate readers.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R O; Hammock, B D

    1988-01-01

    Procedures performed in 96-well microplates and quantitated by automatic readers assume instruments to be precise, accurate, and free of well location dependent bias. Instrument specifications generally focus on precision and accuracy without specifically addressing biases which are dependent on well location. These biases appear to be meniscus dependent and can be demonstrated in varying degrees in automatic readers of many designs by using a reverse plate wet test, which compares repeated readings of a dye loaded plate in normal and reversed positions. This test analyzes differences between readings and is, therefore, independent of pipetting error or other experimental variables such as protein binding or immunoassay variability. Different plates increased or decreased the magnitude of observed errors but did not themselves cause the errors measured by the reverse plate wet test. Error patterns were consistent for each reader and varied widely among the 16 instruments tested. Only 4 of 16 instruments passed an existing manufacturer's specification for precision, and only one of the 16 readers tested passed a similar specification for accuracy. The severest location dependent bias was found in an instrument which exhibited excellent repeatability and consistently passed its built-in diagnostic tests. One reader with significant bias was returned to the manufacturer for routine service and calibration, but it was not demonstrably improved. The reverse plate wet test is an extremely useful diagnostic tool for quality control at all stages of instrument manufacture and use. PMID:3069835

  1. Reading between the lines: Societal norms in Sierra Leonean readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brams, Patricia

    1980-12-01

    A content analysis of primary school readers of Sierra Leone revealed that the particular modern and traditional normative aspirations expressed in the National Development Plan for 1974/75-1978/79 were also generally reflected in the children's readers. Compared to the 1964 readers, the first indigenous readers developed circa 1977 contained markedly greater emphasis on traditional norms, though modernity norms continued to dominate, and substantially less emphasis on Efficacy (a central aspect of modernity) and on Non-parochial Affiliation. This closely corresponded with the intent of the National Plan to continue on a modernizing course employing the traditional norms of Manual Labor and Social Cohesion in a grassroots effort to develop the agricultural sector, with nationalism in a less important role. Apart from lesser emphasis on Efficacy and underemphasis on the Value of Education which were discordant with national goals, the 1977 readers seem to provide children and teachers with a fairly accurate image of the national ethos. This may help to account for the generally positive relationship that has been found between schooling and economic development.

  2. A Novel Automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test Reader Platform

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Haydar; Kayhan, Osman Semih

    2016-01-01

    A novel automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) reader platform is designed to analyze and diagnose target disease by using existing consumer cameras of a laptop-computer or a tablet. The RDT reader is useable with numerous lateral immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical tests. The system has two different components, which are 3D-printed, low-cost, tiny, and compact stand and a decision program named RDT-AutoReader 2.0. The program takes the image of RDT, crops the region of interest (ROI), and extracts the features from the control end test lines to classify the results as invalid, positive, or negative. All related patient's personal information, image of ROI, and the e-report are digitally saved and transferred to the related clinician. Condition of the patient and the progress of the disease can be monitored by using the saved data. The reader platform has been tested by taking image from used cassette RDTs of rotavirus (RtV)/adenovirus (AdV) and lateral flow strip RDTs of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) before discarding them. The created RDT reader can also supply real-time statistics of various illnesses by using databases and Internet. This can help to inhibit propagation of contagious diseases and to increase readiness against epidemic diseases worldwide. PMID:27190549

  3. Reading skill components and impairments in middle school struggling readers

    PubMed Central

    Cirino, Paul T.; Romain, Melissa A.; Barth, Amy E.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how measures of decoding, fluency, and comprehension in middle school students overlap with one another, whether the pattern of overlap differs between struggling and typical readers, and the relative frequency of different types of reading difficulties. The 1,748 sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students were oversampled for struggling readers (n = 1,025) on the basis of the state reading comprehension proficiency measure. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses showed partial invariance among struggling and typical readers (with differential loadings for fluency and for comprehension), and strict invariance for decoding and a combined fluency/comprehension factor. Among these struggling readers, most (85 %) also had weaknesses on nationally standardized measures, particularly in comprehension; however, most of these also had difficulties in decoding or fluency. These results show that the number of students with a specific comprehension problem is lower than recent consensus reports estimate and that the relation of different reading components varies according to struggling versus proficient readers. PMID:24000271

  4. Engaging Literacy: A Case Study in the Use of e-Reader Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lettenmaier, Kris

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine to what extent e-readers affected struggling readers as a part of reading instruction at the middle school level to improve students' literacy skills of comprehension, fluency, and vocabulary, and to show how e-readers affected engagement and self-efficacy of struggling readers to read and use…

  5. Understanding Reading through the Eyes of Third-Grade Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggs, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Within the vast research base on struggling readers, very few studies address the nature of struggling readers from their own perspectives; that is, how struggling readers experience reading instruction. The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to gain a deeper understanding of how three third-grade struggling readers viewed…

  6. Using Twitter to Teach Reader-Oriented Biblical Interpretation: "Tweading" the Gospel of Mark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Robert, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Twitter offers an engaging way to introduce students to reader-oriented interpretation of the Bible. The exercise described here introduces students to the idea that the reader has a role in the production of a text's meaning, which thus varies from reader to reader. Twitter enables us to capture the real-time thoughts of a variety of…

  7. Alternate reading strategies and variable asymmetry of the planum temporale in adult resilient readers

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Leonard, Christiana M.; Chiarello, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Resilient readers are characterized by impaired phonological processing despite skilled text comprehension. We investigated orthographic and semantic processing in resilient readers to examine mechanisms of compensation for poor phonological decoding. Performance on phonological (phoneme deletion, pseudoword reading), orthographic (orthographic choice, orthographic analogy), and semantic (semantic priming, homograph resolution) tasks was compared between resilient, poor and proficient readers. Asymmetry of the planum temporale was investigated in order to determine whether atypical readers showed unusual morphology in this language-relevant region. Resilient readers showed deficits on phonological tasks similar to those shown by poor readers. We obtained no evidence that resilient readers compensate via superior orthographic processing, as they showed neither exceptional orthographic skill nor increased reliance on orthography to guide pronunciation. Resilient readers benefited more than poor or proficient readers from semantic relationships between words and experienced greater difficulty when such relationships were not present. We suggest, therefore, that resilient readers compensate for poor phonological decoding via greater reliance on word meaning relationships. The reading groups did not differ in mean asymmetry of the planum temporale. However, resilient readers showed greater variability in planar asymmetry than proficient readers. Poor readers also showed a trend towards greater variability in planar asymmetry, with more poor readers than proficient readers showing extreme asymmetry. Such increased variability suggests that university students with less reading skill display less well regulated brain anatomy than proficient readers. PMID:20223512

  8. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  9. A data logger for personnel monitoring TLD readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, M. S.; Ratna, P.; Kannan, S.; Venkateswaran, T. V.

    1993-10-01

    A data logger for the manual type BARC TLD reader has been developed for connecting the TLD reader to an IBM PC/XT for a direct transfer of data, evaluation and preparation of radiation dose reports. The microprocessor controlled data logger has features like low or high resolution glow curve storage, storage of dosimetric data along with the identification numbers of about 300 dosimeters, RS-232 serial interface for connection to a PC and a built-in hand shake software to facilitate connection of two or more data loggers to a PC. The data loggers are in use with TLD readers for personnel monitoring in a number of centres in India. The hardware and software details of the data logger are discussed.

  10. A synthesis of fluency interventions for secondary struggling readers

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Sharon; Edmonds, Meaghan; Reutebuch, Colleen Klein

    2012-01-01

    Previous research studies examining the effects of fluency interventions on the fluency and comprehension outcomes for secondary struggling readers are synthesized. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1980 and 2005 yielded a total of 19 intervention studies that provided fluency interventions to secondary struggling readers and measured comprehension and/or fluency outcomes. Findings revealed fluency outcomes were consistently improved following interventions that included listening passage previewing such as listening to an audiotape or adult model of good reading before attempting to read a passage. In addition, there is preliminary evidence that there may be no differential effects between repeated reading interventions and the same amount of non-repetitive reading with older struggling readers for increasing reading speed, word recognition, and comprehension. PMID:22485066

  11. Insights into newly discovered marks and readers of epigenetic information.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Forest H; Strahl, Brian D; Kutateladze, Tatiana G

    2016-08-18

    The field of chromatin biology has been advancing at an accelerated pace. Recent discoveries of previously uncharacterized sites and types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) and the identification of new sets of proteins responsible for the deposition, removal, and reading of these marks continue raising the complexity of an already exceedingly complicated biological phenomenon. In this Perspective article we examine the biological importance of new types and sites of histone PTMs and summarize the molecular mechanisms of chromatin engagement by newly discovered epigenetic readers. We also highlight the imperative role of structural insights in understanding PTM-reader interactions and discuss future directions to enhance the knowledge of PTM readout. PMID:27538025

  12. Hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Deanna Lynn; Coleman, Matthew A; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Albala, Joanna; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2013-04-23

    A hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection includes a microarray reader engineered to be small enough for portable applications. The invention includes a high-powered light-emitting diode that emits excitation light, an excitation filter positioned to receive the excitation light, a slide, a slide holder assembly for positioning the slide to receive the excitation light from the excitation filter, an emission filter positioned to receive the excitation light from the slide, a lens positioned to receive the excitation light from the emission filter, and a CCD camera positioned to receive the excitation light from the lens.

  13. Damping in free layers of tunnel magneto-resistance readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lei; Wang, Zihui; Mead, Griffin; Kaiser, Christian; Leng, Qunwen; Wu, Mingzhong

    2014-07-01

    Damping properties in the free layers of tunnel magneto-resistance (TMR) readers were reported. The study used a free layer sample consisting of the same stacking structure as in TMR readers, involved comprehensive ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements, and included numerical analysis of the FMR data. The results indicate that the free layer shows a Gilbert damping constant of 8.1 × 10-3. When the free layer is magnetized with a field which is not normal to the film plane, two-magnon scattering also occurs, although its contribution to the relaxation is at least 2.5 times smaller than the Gilbert contribution.

  14. Using Randomized Clinical Trials to Determine the Impact of Reading Intervention on Struggling Adolescent Readers: Reports of Research from Five Nationally Funded Striving Readers Grants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loadman, William; Sprague, Kim; Hamilton, Jennifer; Coffey, Deb; Faddis, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Department of Education awarded eight Striving Readers grants to projects around the country. The goal of Striving Readers is to improve literacy skills and achievement for struggling readers in middle and high school and to increase the research base using randomized clinical research to address improvement in adolescent…

  15. Every Reader a Reviewer: The Online Book Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, the book review landscape has changed seismically. Reviewing is no longer centralized, with a few big voices leading the way, but fractured among numerous multifarious voices found mostly on the web. In turn, readers aren't playing the captive audience any more. Undone by economics, many traditional print sources have been…

  16. Using Optical Mark Readers for Student Assessment and Course Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalkley, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the benefits and limitations of automated assessment and offers practical advice for individuals and departments considering a move in that direction. Maintains that using optical mark readers (OMRs) in conjunction with objective tests can result in significant time savings. Briefly discusses using OMRs for student evaluations. (MJP)

  17. Writing for the Reader: A Problem-Solution Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tom; Parker, Dee

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about strategies for writing effective academic articles. For an excellent overview of issues to consider when publishing an academic article, the authors recommend Malcolm Benson's article in the April 1994 "Forum". Much less has been written about how a focus on the overall structure of the paper can help the reader and…

  18. Gender, Race and Class in Media. A Text-Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dines, Gail, Ed.; Humez, Jean M., Ed.

    This reader is intended to introduce undergraduates to the richness, sophistication, and diversity that characterize contemporary media scholarship. Another goal is to take the mystery out of the idea of media culture by examining its production, construction, and the meaning-making processes through which media imagery and messages help shape our…

  19. Kindling: The Amazon e-Reader as an Educational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezicki, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The revolutionary electronic reading device, Amazon's Kindle, is already obsolete. Such is the breakneck speed of technology that the machine touted to spell the death of printed books is already heading for the scrap heap, replaced by e-readers like the iPad that access the Internet, make phone calls, download movies, and connect users with all…

  20. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  1. Mi Familia (My Family). Chula Vista Readers, Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Olst, Ofelia; And Others

    This is book one in a series of beginning readers in Spanish for preschool and grade one. The program is designed to prepare children to read in Spanish by teaching the sound-symbol relationship in sequential order with simple reading selections. This book introduces the consonants "m,""p,""s,""l," and the consonant blend "pl." (Author/AM)

  2. Effective Programs for Struggling Readers: A Best-Evidence Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Davis, Susan; Madden, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of alternative approaches for struggling readers ages 5-10 (US grades K-5): One-to-one tutoring, small-group tutorials, classroom instructional process approaches, and computer-assisted instruction. Study inclusion criteria included use of randomized or well-matched control groups, study…

  3. Reader Response in Secondary and College Classrooms. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on the application of transactional reader response theory in the classroom, offering a spectrum of strategies. There are 20 chapters in 4 parts. Part 1, "The Transactional Theory of Literature," includes (1) "The Transactional Theory of Literature" (Nicholas J. Karolides); (2) "Connecting Students and Literature:…

  4. A Policy Reader in Universal Design for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David T., Ed.; Gravel, Jenna W., Ed.; Schifter, Laura A., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Universal Design for Learning (UDL) stands at the forefront of contemporary efforts to create access to education curricula for all students, including those with disabilities. This policy reader comprises a notably wide range of articles that address the challenges and opportunities facing policy makers as they consider UDL's implications for…

  5. Extending Readers Theatre: A Powerful and Purposeful Match with Podcasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasinda, Sheri; McLeod, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The struggling second and third graders in this mixed methods study increased their reading comprehension after a 10-week Readers Theatre podcasting project. Podcasting made the students aware of a wider audience, which enhanced the authenticity and social nature of the strategy, and made their performances permanent so they could be stored and…

  6. Reader's Theater and Storyboarding: Strategies That Include and Improve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, James; Coggeshall, Kara

    2005-01-01

    Doherty and Coggeshall combined their two classes--one regular education and one special education--and, agreeing on the value of reader's theater and storyboarding for all students, embarked on a team teaching effort that resulted in improvements for all students, and unprecedented success for "special" students. A template for storyboarding is…

  7. Incorporating Movement with Fluency Instruction: A Motivation for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peebles, Jodi L.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses two activities--Readers Theatre and Rhythm Walks--that encourage students to "get moving" with fluency instruction. Movement can be a motivating factor for struggling students, as well as a kinesthetic tool for conceptualizing the rhythm and flow of fluent reading while triggering brain function for optimal learning. Also…

  8. An Investigation of the Spelling Skills of Braille Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christine; Stoner, Julia B.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the spelling skills of students who are braille readers to a normative sample. The Test of Written Spelling was administered to 23 students who are blind at various grade levels to ascertain their spelling ability. A one-sample t-test indicated no significant difference in spelling ability. Implications are discussed. (Contains…

  9. Literacy in the 21st Century: Supporting Struggling Adolescent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Julie Annette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative bounded case study research was to describe the different perspectives of five struggling readers regarding contributing factors to their literacy experiences and success. The theoretical framework used to make meaning included: (a) high schools and literacy, (b) school culture, (c) motivation, (d) technology, and (e)…

  10. From Darkness to Light: Tales of Hope for YA Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesesne, Teri, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of 14 recently published books for young adult readers that deal with difficult topics but that also shed light and offer hope. Organizes them into: collections of stories and poems; stories that deal with memoirs, memories and dreams; and stories of friends and family. (SR)

  11. Syntax Patterns in Elementary School Readers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachuck, Beatrice Levy

    Syntax in four published series of elementary school readers was analyzed to discover patterns of complexity increasing from first to sixth grade, to identify structures accounting for differences across the grades, and to compare the frequency of specific structures among the series. Analyses of 16 surface structures representing complexities…

  12. Exploring the Difficulty of Mathematics Examination Questions for Weaker Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the difficulty of examination questions for students with weaker reading skills. Item level performance data were obtained for all candidates who took a maths examination (for 16 year olds). A sub-group of students who had access to a reader was identified (students with proven reading difficulties are permitted to have…

  13. Chinese (Cantonese) as a Second Language Reader. Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Helene

    This illustrated reader contains ten one-page stories written in Chinese (Cantonese). The titles in English are: (1) "The Dictionary"; (2) "Come, Have Some Rice Noodles"; (3) "Where Shall We Go"; (4) "Beautiful Day"; (5) "The Little Dog's Wish"; (6) Let's Go to the Movies"; (7) "Going to Los Angeles"; (8) "Spot's Birthday"; (9) "Visit to Siu…

  14. Auditory and Visual Word Recognition in Beginning Adult Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Raymond L.; Cortwright, Richard W.

    An exploratory investigation was made of cross-modality matching within the context of word recognition skills among beginning adult readers. The specific aim of the study was to assess the possibility that a deficit in cross-modality matching might be potentially useful as a diagnostic and predictive indicator of the rate at which adults learn to…

  15. Digital Books and Your Rights: A Checklist for Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSherry, Corynne; Cohn, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    After several years of false starts, the universe of digital books seems at last poised to expand dramatically. Readers should view this expansion with both excitement and wariness. Excitement because digital books could revolutionize reading, making more books more findable and more accessible to more people in more ways than ever before.…

  16. Phonological Activation of Word Meanings in Grade 5 Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Ashby, Jane; Agauas, Stephen J.; Levy, Betty Ann

    2016-01-01

    Three experiments examined the role of phonology in the activation of word meanings in Grade 5 students. In Experiment 1, homophone and spelling control errors were embedded in a story context and participants performed a proofreading task as they read for meaning. For both good and poor readers, more homophone errors went undetected than spelling…

  17. Use of Readers Theater to Enhance Interdisciplinary Geriatric Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae, Nancy; Pardue, Karen T.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the design and implementation of an interdisciplinary geriatric educational project at a small New England University. A novel, affective teaching approach of Readers Theater is highlighted as a beginning classroom instructional strategy for interdisciplinary students. The physical and psychosocial considerations for health…

  18. Taxation: Myths and Realities. A Courses by Newspaper Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Break, George F., Ed.; Wallin, Bruce, Ed.

    This reader is one of two supplementary materials for a newspaper course about taxation and tax reform. Five units contain 75 primary-source readings about topics such as tax loopholes, social security financing, income tax reform, the impact of taxes on the economy, and alternatives to the property tax. Sources include government publications,…

  19. Automatic license plate reader: a solution to avoiding vehicle pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Stanley K.

    1997-01-01

    The Massachusetts Governor's Auto Theft Strike Force has tested an automatic license plate reader (LPR) to recover stolen cars and catch car thieves, without vehicle pursuit. Experiments were conducted at the Sumner Tunnel in Boston, and proved the feasibility of a LPR for identifying stolen cars instantly. The same technology can be applied to other law-enforcement objectives.

  20. Mnemonic Strategy Instruction for Beginning Readers with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Rivka

    2013-01-01

    Many students with cognitive impairments are not afforded the opportunity to develop their potential as readers. A review of the literature reveals that few researchers have evaluated the effects of phonics instruction on the reading skills of students with cognitive impairments. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a…

  1. Instructions That Enhance Multiple-Text Comprehension for College Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linderholm, Tracy; Kwon, Heekyung; Therriault, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that prereading instructions, including how to self-explain during reading, would enhance multiple-text comprehension for college readers. Three prereading instruction conditions included a control condition that provided only the instruction for participants to try to comprehend well; a definition-only…

  2. Sloth, Silence, and Concentration: The Reader between Letter and Spirit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Wilna A. J.

    2009-01-01

    In current-day criticisms of consumer culture as well as of the performativity culture of the work place, the originally religious concept of the vice of acedia or sloth is reinterpreted as a virtue. Art, especially poetry, is put to the fore in that connection. The image of the reader is addressed when the question of the relationship between…

  3. The Role of Reader Perspective in Language Comprehension and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, George L., III

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of reader perspective on encoding, storage, and retrieval processes and how this effect differs as a function of cognitive style. In both experiments, subjects read a passage from one of two assigned perspectives (a burglar or a prospective home buyer) or from no assigned perspective. In the…

  4. THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING LIFETIME READERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IVERSON, WILLIAM J.

    ELEMENTARY TEACHERS ARE COMMENDED FOR DEVELOPING LIFETIME READERS. ELEMENTARY TEACHERS TELL STORIES AND READ ALOUD WITH ZEST AND NATURAL AFFECTION. THEY STRUCTURE THE CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT TO MAKE IT ACCESSIBLE AND CONDUCIVE TO FREE AND ENJOYABLE READING, AND THEY GIVE ATTENTION TO THE BASIC SKILLS OF LANGUAGE AS WELL AS TO THE CONTENT THAT…

  5. Children's Response to Literature: Author, Text, Reader, Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipe, Lawrence R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines how researchers can study children's interaction with literature, discussing various perspectives that can be taken on children's literary responses and suggesting lines of inquiry and concepts that might be useful for the continued examination of children's responses. Focuses on the author, the literary text itself, the reader, and the…

  6. Demographics and the Dailies: Stalking the Upscale Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, John

    More and more, advertising revenue, not circulation or concern for the underdog, seems to be determining the content of American newspapers. As Americans moved to the suburbs, suburban newspapers sprang up, taking readers and advertising revenue away from metropolitan dailies. "Counterattacks" by metropolitan papers such as zoned sections and…

  7. Perceptions of Newspapers by Student and Non-Student Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Wanda

    A study examined the readership habits and gratifications of southern Illinois student and non-student newspaper readers. The study involved the "Southern Illinoisan," a privately owned regional newspaper, and the "Daily Egyptian," a student-operated newspaper. Other papers included the "Chicago Tribune," the "St. Louis Post-Dispatch," and the…

  8. Supporting Struggling Readers in Secondary School Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kelly D.; Takahashi, Kiriko; Park, Hye-Jin; Stodden, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Many secondary school students struggle to read complex expository text such as science textbooks. This article provides step-by-step guidance on how to foster expository reading for struggling readers in secondary school science classes. Two strategies are introduced: Text-to-Speech (TTS) Software as a reading compensatory strategy and the…

  9. Project Physics Reader 2, Motion in the Heavens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 2, specially selected articles are presented in this reader for student browsing. Eight excerpts are given under headings: the starry messenger, Newton and the principia, an appreciation of the earth, space the unconquerable, "Is there intelligent life beyond the earth?," the life story of a galaxy,…

  10. Metacognitive Awareness and Monitoring in Adult and College Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, Steve D.; Platt, Jennifer M.

    1984-01-01

    A literature review was undertaken to demonstrate how knowledge of one's cognitive processes, the orchestration of strategic effort, and the monitoring of one's cognitive activities can enhance reading performance. The findings indicate that while older readers exercise more awareness of their own learning processes and greater self-control or…

  11. Trends in Teacher Certification: Equipping Teachers to Prepare Proficient Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring that students are reading proficiently by third grade is a key component of keeping students on track to graduate high school and pursue college and careers. Because of the magnitude of this academic milestone, states typically pursue policies that promote early identification and intervention for struggling readers. However, teachers are…

  12. Books for Young Readers: Kindergarten to Grade Three, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdener, Jo Ann

    1997-01-01

    Every two years, members of the Children's Libraries Section of the Greater St. Louis (Missouri) chapter of the Catholic Library Association publish a list of recommended books for young readers (K-8). Because it is a regional activity, special attention is given to St. Louis authors and Regina Medalists. Lists 36 titles and provides a brief…

  13. Differentiation Through Flexible Grouping: Successfully Reaching All Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    There always has been a problem with grouping practices in reading programs. The complexity of the interaction between readers, texts, and the contexts in which reading takes place often is ignored by educational decisions that suggest that one program, set of materials, instructional technique, or grouping arrangement can address the needs of all…

  14. The Use of Readers Theater in the EFL Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengeling, M. Martha; And Others

    Readers Theater, a combination of storytelling and dramatic elements, is recommended as a technique for use in the English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classroom. Among its advantages are that it incorporates four language skill areas (Listening, speaking, reading, writing), uses cultural materials, and motivates students by using language in a…

  15. The Reader, the Text, the Poem--And the Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Ellen M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the experiences of a junior high English class as they read Larry McMurty's novel "Lonesome Dove" and watched the television miniseries based on the novel. Discovers that the relationship between the reader and the written word is similar to that between the viewer and the film. (RS)

  16. More Rip-Roaring Reads for Reluctant Teen Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammon, Bette D.; Sherman, Gale W.

    This publication describes 40 fiction and nonfiction titles for grades 5 through 12 that will get the attention of even the most reluctant readers. Books range from humor and romance to adventure, mystery, and the supernatural. The titles were chosen based on the following criteria: recent publication date; relatively short length; appealing…

  17. AMHARIC BASIC COURSE. UNITS 51-60, READER, GLOSSARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OBOLENSKY, SERGE; AND OTHERS

    THE FIRST 10 UNITS OF THIS SECOND VOLUME OF THE AMHARIC BASIC COURSE FOLLOW THE SAME GENERAL FORMAT OF THE PREVIOUS VOLUME IN PRESENTING FURTHER BASIC SENTENCES, DRILLS, AND NARRATIVES. AT THE END OF UNIT 60, AMHARIC ORTHOGRAPHY IS INTRODUCED. SUCCEEDING UNITS, COMPRISING THE READER, ARE WRITTEN IN AMHARIC SCRIPT ONLY. THE GLOSSARY, WHICH IS…

  18. MODERN JAPANESE, A BASIC READER. VOLUME I, VOCABULARIES AND NOTES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIBBETT, HOWARD; ITASAKA, GEN

    THIS TWO-VOLUME TEXTBOOK WAS WRITTEN TO OFFER A RAPID BUT THOROUGH INTRODUCTION TO WRITTEN JAPANESE. STUDENTS WHO HAVE ALREADY COMPLETED A BASIC COURSE IN SPOKEN JAPANESE WILL, UPON COMPLETION OF THIS READER, BE ABLE TO READ ORIGINAL JAPANESE BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND NEWSPAPERS. VOLUME I INCLUDES AN INTRODUCTION OUTLINING THE ORGANIZATION OF THE…

  19. Shared Reading for Older Emergent Readers in Bilingual Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enguidanos, Tomas; Ruiz, Nadeen T.

    2008-01-01

    Historically, and continuing to the present, children in the primary grades receive the lion's share of attention and resources in learning to read. This makes sense: Young, early readers have a head start in achieving well not only in literacy skills, but in school in general. However, as inner-city, middle-grade teachers will readily attest,…

  20. Fostering Inference Generation with Emergent and Novice Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Inference generation makes a strong, unique contribution to reading comprehension. Young children engage in many of the same inference generation processes as sophisticated readers. This article discusses instructional practices that can be used in prekindergarten through grade two to help children think beyond the words of the text. Suggestions…

  1. Anaphoric Resolution and Text Comprehension for Readers of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkemeyer, Victoria C.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines whether readers of German can identify correctly the coreferents of anaphoric expressions in a German text and whether this ability is related to their overall comprehension of the text and their baseline German language ability. Findings reveal a positive relationship between the ability to resolve anaphoric references and…

  2. After-School Literacy Engagements with Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Susan V.; Duncan, Lonnie E.

    2012-01-01

    Parental incarceration, poverty, urban violence, and drug use can be underlying factors of academic achievement gaps between Black urban males and their counterparts. These risk factors have the potential to position low-income urban students as struggling readers. Two qualitative case studies obtained from a larger mixed methods study illustrate…

  3. 10 Ways to Teach and Support Struggling Adolescent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Cathy Newman; Wexler, Jade

    2007-01-01

    Teaching literacy to struggling readers can present many challenges. This article suggests 10 strategies that can help middle and high school language arts and content area teachers meet them: (1) Ask for help; (2) Support word recognition needs; (3) Select appropriate materials; (4) Develop reading fluency; (5) Foster vocabulary acquisition; (6)…

  4. A Synthesis of Fluency Interventions for Secondary Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Edmonds, Meaghan; Reutebuch, Colleen Klein

    2008-01-01

    Previous research studies examining the effects of fluency interventions on the fluency and comprehension outcomes for secondary struggling readers are synthesized. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1980 and 2005 yielded a total of 19 intervention studies that provided fluency interventions to secondary struggling readers…

  5. Learning about Mason: A Collaborative Lesson with a Struggling Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    In this "Struggling Readers" department, the author describes a collaborative lesson--a professional development strategy adapted from Reading Recovery. Collaborative lessons involve a small group of educators who collaborate to help a student who is struggling with reading. While collaborative lessons were initially designed by Reading Recovery…

  6. English Language Learners Utilizing the Accelerated Reader Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Frank, II

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact (positive, negative, or neutral) of Accelerated Readers (AR), a standard based intervention, on the academic achievement of English Language Learners at Carolina Herrera Elementary School. Carolina Herrera Elementary School, was analyzed using these specific lenses: (1) curriculum and…

  7. Project Physics Reader 5, Models of the Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 5, a collection of articles is presented in this reader for student browsing. Nine excerpts are given under the following headings: failure and success, Einstein, Mr. Tompkins and simultaneity, parable of the surveyors, outside and inside the elevator, the teacher and the Bohr theory of atom, Dirac and Born,…

  8. Cortical Locus of Coherent Motion Deficits in Deaf Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samar, Vincent J.; Parasnis, Ila

    2007-01-01

    Samar and Parasnis [Samar, V. J., & Parasnis, I. (2005). Dorsal stream deficits suggest hidden dyslexia among deaf poor readers: correlated evidence from reduced perceptual speed and elevated coherent motion detection thresholds. "Brain and Cognition, 58," 300-311.] reported that correlated measures of coherent motion detection and perceptual…

  9. Beyond Decoding: Phonological Processing during Silent Reading in Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Hazel I.; Pagán, Ascensión; Dodd, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In this experiment, the extent to which beginning readers process phonology during lexical identification in silent sentence reading was investigated. The eye movements of children aged seven to nine years and adults were recorded as they read sentences containing either a correctly spelled target word (e.g., girl), a pseudohomophone (e.g., gerl),…

  10. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  11. Empowering Adolescent Readers: Intertextuality in Three Novels by David Almond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Don

    2008-01-01

    In "Skellig," "Kit's Wilderness," and "Clay", David Almond employs various types of intertextuality to enrich his narratives. Through the use of allusion, adaptation, collage, and mise-en-abyme, he encourages his adolescent readers to seek out precursor texts and to consider the interrelationships between these texts and his own. By so doing, he…

  12. Crime and Justice in America. A Courses by Newspaper Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolnick, Jerome H., Ed.; And Others

    This reader is one of several supplementary materials for a 15-week newspaper course about crime and justice, mainly in the United States. Six units contain 67 readings from primary sources such as journal articles, monographs, personal interviews, published letters, and government reports. The readings present personal experiences, research…

  13. French Readers for Primary Schools: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, J. W., Comp.

    Teachers of elementary school children will find this annotated bibliography of 39 readers considers 10 relevant factors for each entry. They cover: (1) components and bibliographical details (including pagination, cost, publisher, and book size), (2) general description, (3) content, (4) notes for the teacher, (5) presentation, (6) illustrations,…

  14. Oceans: Our Continuing Frontier. A Courses by Newspaper Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, H. William, Ed.; Scheiber, Jane L., Ed.

    This reader is one of several supplementary materials for a 16-week newspaper course about oceans. Six units contain 77 readings from primary sources such as personal diaries, historical documents, novels and poems. The readings present a mosaic of viewpoints, concerns, and controversial issues about the sea. "Our Continuing Frontier" provides a…

  15. Building a Community of Readers: BookSpace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Glenn; McGlinn, Sharon Hilts

    2008-01-01

    In the spring of 2006, Hennepin County Library (HCL) in Minneapolis set out to create a compelling new reader's advisory website. Inspired by Web 2.0 principles, the library wanted to engage users as active participants, to integrate resources in ways that made sense to them, and to blend staff- and patron-contributed content to create an…

  16. The Jossey-Bass Reader on Educational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This comprehensive reader features 24 chapters in 5 primary areas of educational research. Part One, "Leadership, Management, and Organizational Behavior," demonstrates that leadership has a strong conceptual basis that is basic in all human situations. It contains 6 articles: "The Nature of Leadership" (J. Gardner); "Give Me a Lever Long…

  17. Text Decodability and the First-Grade Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer, Heidi Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of highly decodable text and coordinated phonics instruction on first graders' word recognition strategies. The quantitative study sought to examine the validity of a major claim about highly decodable text--that it enables readers to apply phonics instruction to a greater extent than less decodable text. All…

  18. Sexism in Basal Readers: An Analysis of Male Main Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn-Roberson, Courtney; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated whether positive female traits were attributed to male main characters in six basal readers. Although positive female traits appeared in the male characters, the overall composite and depiction of individual characters indicate that male personalities are dominated by male-linked virtues such as independence and a willingness to take…

  19. Growing Readers and Writers with Help from Mother Goose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamner, Devon

    Primary-grade children can learn rhythm and rhyme from nursery rhymes. But those same poems can be used to help young students make connections to letters, sounds, and word chunks. This lesson lets Mother Goose help children grow as readers and writers. During the 5-10 minutes per day for these lessons, students will: develop a feel for the rhythm…

  20. McCulloch Middle School: A Community of Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Artis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a variety of programs (Parents Sharing Books, Teachers Under Cover, Project SOAR, Family Connections through Reading, Technology Connections, Middle Grades Reading Network, Multicultural Awareness through Reading, Reading Excitement and Paperbacks, and Literacy Lunches) that helped create a community of readers at a middle school. (RS)

  1. Dewitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund National Library Power Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Annual (SLMA), 1993

    1993-01-01

    Describes the National Library Power Program, a collaborative effort sponsored by the Dewitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund in cooperation with local education funds and public school districts that was designed to create public elementary and middle school library programs that are central to the education program of the school. (LRW)

  2. The Role of Hand Dominance in Beginning Braille Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tessa

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the role of "hand dominance" in beginning braille readers. "Hand dominance" refers to whether an individual is "right handed" or "left handed." The data for these analyses were taken from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study (ABC Braille Study). The ABC Braille Study was a five-year nonrandomized…

  3. Reader Response Journals: Novice Teachers Reflect on Their Implementation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    Do novice teachers effectively use teaching strategies they learn in a preservice course? This study examines how five novice intermediate (Grades 7-10) English language arts teachers implemented reader response journals, an instructional activity they learned about in their preservice English methods course. During interviews, they shared the…

  4. Using Explicit Instruction to Promote Vocabulary Learning for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, D. Bruce; Mraz, Maryann; Nichols, William D.; Rickelman, Robert J.; Wood, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Research supports the need for active vocabulary learning across grade levels and subject areas to help increase readers' comprehension of diverse texts that they encounter. Given the increasing emphasis on decoding and reading comprehension, the relative importance of vocabulary instruction has been diminished in recent years. The authors argue…

  5. Becoming a Nation of Readers: What Parents Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkley, Marilyn R.; And Others

    Intended for parents and based on the premise that parents are their children's first and most important teachers, this booklet is a distillation of findings from the 1984 report of the Commission on Reading, "Becoming a Nation of Readers." The introduction reiterates the commission's conclusions (1) that a parent is a child's first tutor in…

  6. Fluency Interventions for Developmental Readers: Repeated Readings and Wide Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ari, Omer

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent findings that show fluency deficits in developmental readers, the field of developmental reading remains remiss in fluency instruction. This article provides a summary intended to increase college reading teachers' understanding of reading fluency and fluency instruction. In addition, included are the step-by-step procedures of…

  7. Modern Archives Administration and Records Management: A RAMP Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walne, Peter, Comp.

    This reader is intended to supplement existing textbooks and instructional materials in both introductory and advanced courses for archivists, records managers, and other information specialists. Although the articles and reports selected for inclusion necessarily reflect various international concepts emerging from administrative traditions and…

  8. Constructing Proximity: Relating to Readers in Popular and Professional Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The view of academic discourse as a rhetorical activity involving interactions between writers and readers is now central to most perspectives on EAP, but these interactions are conducted differently in different disciplinary and generic contexts. In this paper I use the term "proximity" to refer to a writer's control of those rhetorical features…

  9. The History of Higher Education. Second Edition. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodchild, Lester F., Ed.; Wechsler, Harold S., Ed.

    This reader introduces students to the history of U.S. higher education. It is designed for courses in educational history or in United States history dealing with intellectual history. The selections are: (1) "History of Universities" (Harold Perkin); (2) "College" (Lawrence A. Cremin); (3) "From Religion to Politics; Debates and Confrontations…

  10. Good and Poor Readers' Use of Explicitly Cued Graphic Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinking, David; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigates the effects of explicitly cuing graphic aids in accompanying text. Finds (1) explicit cuing increases attention to graphic aids and recall of information displayed in graphic aids, and (2) poor readers' comprehension of illustrated text is improved by explicit cuing of graphic aids. (RS)

  11. The Young Disabled Reader: Acquisition Strategies and Associated Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Gayle; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Among findings were that as reading proficiency increased, ability to use graphic information increased considerably, although not significantly; and low readers were least efficient in their use of grammatical form class cues, with their errors more often than not being of a different form class. (SBH)

  12. Moral Choices in Contemporary Society: A Courses by Newspaper Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieff, Philip, Ed.; Finkle, Isaac, Ed.

    This reader, which contains 135 primary source readings about morality, is one of several college-level instructional materials developed to supplement a nationwide newspaper course on moral issues in contemporary society. The authors represent a diverse group including theologians, psychologists, politicians, professional athletes, lawyers, and…

  13. The Embedded and Embodied Literacies of a Young Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that if we paid attention to the local situation of a reader the way we attend to the life story of an author, we might gain a very different understanding of children's literacy. It explores the literate approaches of a single child exploring a single theme--the settler culture as represented in a variety of materials…

  14. Silly Salamanders and Other Slightly Stupid Stuff for Readers Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Anthony D.

    This book contains more than two dozen reader's theater scripts to entertain and amuse those in the classroom or library. The scripts in the book--all are reproducible--can help nurture student language arts skills and the power of the imagination with their fractured "takes" on fairy tales and their twisted legends. Designed to re-energize the…

  15. Identifying with "Emma": Some Problems for the Feminist Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Wendy

    1991-01-01

    Explores questions about the use of history in teaching literature and about the relation between academic reading (with its emphasis on form and the objectification of the reading process) and naive reading (which depends on a psychological identification with a character). Illustrates these issues through a discussion of a feminist reader's…

  16. Learning Strategies in Proficient and Less Proficient Readers in Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemati, Majid; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Ashrafzadeh, Anis

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to diagnose the probable significant differences in the use of language learning strategies among medical-text readers of opposite sex from different levels of proficiency. 120 (N=120) participants were randomly selected from Azad Medical University of Mashhad: 60 medical students (age range 23-25; 30=male and 30=female)…

  17. Learning Strategies in Proficient and Less Proficient Readers in Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemati, Majid; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Ashrafzadeh, Anis

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to diagnose the probable significant differences in the use of language learning strategies among medical-text readers of opposite sex from different levels of proficiency. 120 (N = 120) participants were randomly selected from Azad Medical University of Mashhad: 60 medical students (age range 23-25; 30 = male and 30 =…

  18. The Organic Literature Class: A Reader-Response Journal Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Marian W.

    The reader-response journal has proven useful in the literature-based composition class; it is also useful in the literature survey at the sophomore or junior level of college. Survey courses have a standard protocol that students have come to expect. In these classes, the teacher is an expert who lectures on historical background, trends, and…

  19. Struggling Adolescent Readers: A Collection of Teaching Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David W., Ed.; Alvermann, Donna E., Ed.; Hinchman, Kathleen A., Ed.

    Recognizing that productively engaging low-achieving adolescents in print-rich classrooms is complicated, this book presents 40 articles that focus specifically on teaching struggling readers in middle school and high school classrooms. The articles in the book are drawn primarily from the "Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy." The book is…

  20. Caring for Stories: Increasing Reader Engagement in School Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Librarians, teachers, authors, video game designers, corporate executives, in fact all providers of information struggle with the dilemma of how to get consumers of information engaged with their message. School librarians know that engaged students learn more and retain the information longer; authors and game designers want their readers and…

  1. Scaffolding or Distracting: CD-ROM Storybooks and Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearman, Cathy J.; Chang, Ching-Wen

    2010-01-01

    CD-ROM storybooks, often referred to as electronic texts, e-books, and interactive stories, are learning tools with supplemental features such as automatic reading of text, sound effects, word pronunciations, and graphic animations which support the development of reading skills and comprehension in beginning readers. Some CD-ROM storybooks also…

  2. Student Attitudes toward Accelerated Reader: "Thanks for Asking!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Amy; Westberg, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerated Reader program was designed by Renaissance Learning to increase students' motivation to read and students' achievement in reading; however, a review of the literature reveals inconsistent findings about its outcomes. The Renaissance Learning company reports several research studies on their website that suggest the program is…

  3. How are Senior Citizens Portrayed in Basal Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Doris F.

    Five commonly used basal readers from grades one through three were studied to determine how they portrayed and represented older adults. It was hypothesized that older adults would be portrayed as active, contributing, and productive members of society and that they would be represented in the basals in proportion to their numbers in the…

  4. ESTONIAN GENERAL READER. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OINAS, FELIX J.

    DESIGNED FOR STUDENTS WHO HAVE COMPLETED "BASIC ESTONIAN" (BY THE SAME AUTHOR), THIS READER CONTAINS SELECTIONS ON A VARIETY OF TOPICS--ESTONIAN FOLKLORE, GEOGRAPHY, ECONOMICS, HISTORY, LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE, ART, MUSIC, SPORTS, PUBLIC HEALTH, AND SCIENCE. THE LANGUAGE AND STYLE OF THE ORIGINAL WORKS HAVE BEEN SOMEWHAT SIMPLIFIED, AND THE…

  5. Ethnographic Research on Reading Instructional Strategies for Adult Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boraks, Nancy; And Others

    A project was undertaken to develop, field test, and revise strategies for adult beginning readers (ABRs). During the first phase of the study, the researchers identified roadblocks to use of word recognition clues by ABRs. Based on data and feedback from local and state piloting and general principles of learning, the project staff developed the…

  6. Novel Ideas for Young Readers! Projects and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuta, Katherine Wiesolek; Zernial, Susan

    This book offers 60 stimulating, classroom-tested activities to instill a love of literature and help young learners develop as readers, writers, and speakers. By using picture books, novels, or even nonfiction readings as starting points, the reproducible worksheets in the book can be implemented to strengthen students' entire spectrum of…

  7. Investigating Readers' Mental Maps of References in an Online System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu-Fen; Wong, Wing-Kwong; Yeh, Hui-Chin

    2009-01-01

    Referential identification and resolution are considered the keys to help readers grasp the main idea of a text and solve lexical ambiguities. The goal of this study is to design a computer system for helping college students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) develop mental maps of referential identification and resolution in reading.…

  8. Can a Graded Reader Corpus Provide "Authentic" Input?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    In addition to their intended purpose, graded reader texts can be made into a corpus appropriate for use with lower-level learners. Here I consider using such a corpus for data-driven learning (DDL), to make this approach more accessible to intermediate level students. However, how far does grading the corpus in this way compromise the…

  9. Child Readers and the Worlds of the Picture Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Adela; Laugharne, Janet; Maagerø, Eva; Tønnessen, Elise Seip

    2016-01-01

    Children as readers of picture books and the ways they respond to, and make meaning from, such texts are the focus of this article, which reports on a small-scale study undertaken in Norway and Wales, UK. The theoretical framing of the research draws on concepts of the multimodal ensemble in picture books and of the reading event as part of a…

  10. Attentional Blink Differences between Adolescent Dyslexic and Normal Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, G.L.; Constantinescu, I.; Cousineau, D.; de Almeida, R.G.; Segalowitz, N.; Grunau, M.v.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the possibility that dyslexic individuals require more working memory resources than normal readers to shift attention from stimulus to stimulus. To test this hypothesis, normal and dyslexic adolescents participated in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation experiment (Raymond, Shapiro, & Arnell, 1992).…

  11. 3,000 Paper Cranes: Children's Literature for Remedial Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumaker, Marjorie P.; Shumaker, Ronald C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes how the educational experience of sixth grade remedial readers was revitalized and enriched through a project that grew out of reading "Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes." Suggests using "real" books (literature) to liberate remedial students from skill drills and reading games. (NH)

  12. Project Physics Reader 3, The Triumph of Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 3, a collection of articles is presented in this reader for student browsing. Four excerpts are given under the following headings: On the kinetic theory of gases, Maxwell's Demon, Introduction to Waves, and Scientific Cranks. Five articles are included in terms of energy, barometers, randomness, fiddle…

  13. Super Summer Reader. 1991 Iowa Summer Library Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Jan

    This manual presents information about Iowa's 1991 summer reading program, whose theme, "Super Summer Reader," celebrates both children and reading, as well as the "super people" found throughout history, in local communities, and in families. The manual contains a planning guide that is arranged by the following topics: scheduling, personnel,…

  14. Social Process Variables Affecting Reading Performance in Delayed Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorton, Mary; Kukuk, Cristopher

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship between fourteen social process variables (relating to perinatal events, early language patterns, parental/home environment, and child behavior patterns) and the reading performance of retarded readers. The subjects were 180 children, aged seven through fifteen, randomly selected from among…

  15. Word Superiority and Word Shape Effects in Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feitelson, Dina; Razel, Micha

    1984-01-01

    Examines the notion that words are sometimes perceived with greater ease than letters and that word shape sometimes plays a role in the perception of words. The data collected from 40 Israeli kindergarteners revealed that beginning readers found it easier to identify single letters than whole words, thus refuting the above notion. (Author/AS)

  16. The Reading Strategies of Proficient and Less Proficient Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majid, Faizah Abdul; Azman, Norzaini; Jelas, Zalizan Mohd

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined the choice and use of academic reading strategies of adult learners who were identified as proficient and less proficient readers. The major objective was to explore the potential influence of their adult characteristics on their use of their academic reading strategies. Data were gathered using…

  17. Using Audiobooks to Meet the Needs of Adolescent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Gene

    2008-01-01

    Audiobooks may be used with adolescent readers to improve fluency, expand vocabulary, activate prior knowledge, develop comprehension, and increase motivation to interact with books. Removing the restraints of word recognition and decoding allows a very positive focus on the meaning behind an author's words. This provides an opportunity for many…

  18. 21 CFR 866.2850 - Automated zone reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated zone reader. 866.2850 Section 866.2850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2850 Automated zone...

  19. 21 CFR 866.2850 - Automated zone reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated zone reader. 866.2850 Section 866.2850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2850 Automated zone...

  20. 21 CFR 866.2850 - Automated zone reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated zone reader. 866.2850 Section 866.2850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2850 Automated zone...

  1. 21 CFR 866.2850 - Automated zone reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated zone reader. 866.2850 Section 866.2850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2850 Automated zone...

  2. 21 CFR 866.2850 - Automated zone reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated zone reader. 866.2850 Section 866.2850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2850 Automated zone...

  3. Portuguese Basic Course: Military Reader, Lessons 1-20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This military reader, prepared to be used in conjunction with the Portuguese Basic Course developed by the Defense Language Institute, contains 20 Portuguese reading selections with questions and vocabulary lists. The first five readings contain vocabulary used generally by military personnel of all the services while subsequent readings are of…

  4. Motivating Readers. Make Guided Reading Groups Flexible and Independent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taberski, Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This article presents strategies for creating elementary-level guided reading groups that are both flexible (based on individual students' needs) and purposeful (offering strategies for making them more effective readers). The article also explains how to set up a guided reading group, choose appropriate books, and run the group. (SM)

  5. An Experimental Examination of Readers' Perceptions of Media Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alessio, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Explores perceptions of media bias by manipulating expectations of bias and news topic. Explains that university students read dummy newspaper articles and then responded to a survey. Concludes that readers were more likely to designate material opposing their own views as biased. (PM)

  6. ASHE Reader on Academic Programs in Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Clifton F., Ed.

    Historical and philosophical perspectives on college academic programs, current curriculum practices and agendas, and academic program development and implementation are considered in 20 articles in a reader designed for graduate classes in higher education administration. Titles and authors are as follows: "Frames of Reference" (Frederick…

  7. Mind the Gap: Bridging the Divide between Non-Readers and Lifelong Readers with Hi-Lo Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been increasing demand from school librarians for books for "reluctant readers"--despite the impressive offering of children's literature published each year and the success of blockbuster series like "Harry Potter, Diary of a Wimpy Kid, Twilight," and "Hunger Games," among others. This is also in addition to all…

  8. "Am I a Good Reader?" a Friendly Way to Evaluate Students' Perceptions of Themselves as a Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangsgard, Nichole

    2014-01-01

    Current reading assessments put emphasis in the five components of reading competency, neglecting the self-efficacy needs of students. When students struggle with one of or all five components of reading competency, they could have negative feelings about themselves as a reader. This article offers teachers an effective user friendly assessment…

  9. Children and Adults Both See "Pirates" in "Parties": Letter-Position Effects for Developing Readers and Skilled Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Kevin B.; Read, Josephine; McGowan, Victoria A.; Jordan, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Developing readers often make anagrammatical errors (e.g. misreading pirates as parties), suggesting they use letter position flexibly during word recognition. However, while it is widely assumed that the occurrence of these errors decreases with increases in reading skill, empirical evidence to support this distinction is lacking. Accordingly, we…

  10. Summary of Research Generated by Striving Readers on the Effectiveness of Interventions for Struggling Adolescent Readers. NCEE 2016-4001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulay, Beth; Goodson, Barbara; Frye, Michael; Blocklin, Michelle; Price, Cristofer

    2015-01-01

    The Striving Readers program aimed to raise the literacy levels of middle and high school students reading below grade level and to build a strong research base on effective adolescent literacy interventions. This report summarizes the results of a systematic review of evaluations of the ten different interventions funded by the Striving Readers…

  11. Aerial Population Estimates of Wild Horses (Equus caballus) in the Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas Using an Integrated Simultaneous Double-Count and Sightability Bias Correction Technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lubow, Bruce C.; Ransom, Jason I.

    2007-01-01

    An aerial survey technique combining simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction methodologies was used to estimate the population of wild horses inhabiting Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas, Wyoming. Based on 5 surveys over 4 years, we conclude that the technique produced estimates consistent with the known number of horses removed between surveys and an annual population growth rate of 16.2 percent per year. Therefore, evidence from this series of surveys supports the validity of this survey method. Our results also indicate that the ability of aerial observers to see horse groups is very strongly dependent on skill of the individual observer, size of the horse group, and vegetation cover. It is also more modestly dependent on the ruggedness of the terrain and the position of the sun relative to the observer. We further conclude that censuses, or uncorrected raw counts, are inadequate estimates of population size for this herd. Such uncorrected counts were all undercounts in our trials, and varied in magnitude from year to year and observer to observer. As of April 2007, we estimate that the population of the Adobe Town /Salt Wells Creek complex is 906 horses with a 95 percent confidence interval ranging from 857 to 981 horses.

  12. Vox populi bioethici: a readers' poll on four hard cases.

    PubMed

    Levine, Carol

    1986-12-01

    Lewis summarizes the findings of a St. Petersburg Times poll asking readers to comment on four hypothetical ethical dilemmas in medicine. Opinions also were solicited from a panel of three physicians and a philosopher. The cases involved a choice among three patients for a liver transplant; a request by the wife of a comatose patient that her husband's life support systems be removed; a decision about whether to perform life-saving surgery over a patient's objections; and a decision about whether an older pregnant woman should undergo amniocentesis and abort her fetus if it were diagnosed as having Down's syndrome. Over 900 readers responded to the poll, the results of which were published in the 6 Oct 1986 issue of the St. Petersburg Times together with the responses of the panel members. PMID:11643946

  13. Optimised to Fail: Card Readers for Online Banking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drimer, Saar; Murdoch, Steven J.; Anderson, Ross

    The Chip Authentication Programme (CAP) has been introduced by banks in Europe to deal with the soaring losses due to online banking fraud. A handheld reader is used together with the customer’s debit card to generate one-time codes for both login and transaction authentication. The CAP protocol is not public, and was rolled out without any public scrutiny. We reverse engineered the UK variant of card readers and smart cards and here provide the first public description of the protocol. We found numerous weaknesses that are due to design errors such as reusing authentication tokens, overloading data semantics, and failing to ensure freshness of responses. The overall strategic error was excessive optimisation. There are also policy implications. The move from signature to PIN for authorising point-of-sale transactions shifted liability from banks to customers; CAP introduces the same problem for online banking. It may also expose customers to physical harm.

  14. Fluorescence plate reader for quantum dot-protein bioconjugation analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Kilmara H G; Brasil, Aluizio G; Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Tenório, Denise P L A; de Siqueira, Ana C A; Leite, Elisa S; Fontes, Adriana; Santos, Beate S

    2014-05-01

    We present here a new and alternative method that uses a Fluorescence Plate Reader in a different approach, not to study protein-protein interactions, but to evaluate the efficiency of the protein bioconjugation to quantum dots (QDs). The method is based on the QDs' native fluorescence and was successfully tested by employing two different QDs-proteins conjugation methodologies, one by promoting covalent binding and other by inducing adsorption processes. For testing, we used bioconjugates between carboxyl coated CdTe QDs and bovine serum albumin, concanavalin A lectin and anti-A antibody. Flow cytometry and fluorescence spectroscopy studies corroborated the results found by the Fluorescence Plate Reader assay. This kind of analysis is important because poor bioconjugation efficiency leads to unsuccessful applications of the fluorescent bioconjugates. We believe that our method presents the possibility of performing semi-quantitative and simultaneous analysis of different samples with accuracy taking the advantage of the high sensitivity of optical based measurements. PMID:24734547

  15. 75 FR 75186 - License Plate Reader Standard Special Technical Committee Request for Proposals for Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs License Plate Reader Standard Special Technical Committee Request for Proposals... the process of developing a new License Plate Reader Standard and corresponding certification...

  16. Alternate Reading Strategies and Variable Asymmetry of the Planum Temporale in Adult Resilient Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Leonard, Christiana M.; Chiarello, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Resilient readers are characterized by impaired phonological processing despite skilled text comprehension. We investigated orthographic and semantic processing in resilient readers to examine mechanisms of compensation for poor phonological decoding. Performance on phonological (phoneme deletion, pseudoword reading), orthographic (orthographic…

  17. "Your Part in This Adventure Is Over. You Have Lost": Gillian Rubinstein's Novels for Older Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John

    1991-01-01

    Examines the works of Gillian Rubinstein, a popular author of children's literature who is now writing for older readers. Explores what she says and how she says it in her three novels for older readers. (PRA)

  18. The Rights and Responsibilities of Readers and Writers: A Contractual Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Robert J.; LaZansky, Jill

    1980-01-01

    Frames the author-reader-text relationships in terms of contractual agreements. Explores the nature of these contracts and what they entail for authors, readers, and those involved in teaching reading and writing. (RL)

  19. Miniaturization of three carbohydrate analyses using a microsample plate reader.

    PubMed

    Fox, J D; Robyt, J F

    1991-05-15

    Three carbohydrate analyses (reducing value by copper-bicinchoninate, total carbohydrate by phenol-sulfuric acid, and D-glucose by glucose oxidase) have been miniaturized using a microsample plate reader. The use of the reducing-value procedure to measure the hydrolysis of starch by alpha-amylase and the use of the glucose oxidase method to measure the hydrolysis of lactose by lactase are illustrated. PMID:1888021

  20. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Hamid Reza; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Mostafavi, Nayyer Sadat; Mahmoudi, Golshan; Berenjkoub, Nafiseh; Akmali, Zahra; Hossein-Beigi, Fahimeh; Arsang, Vajiheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The increasing number of mobile phones can physically cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in medical environments; can also cause errors in immunoassays in laboratories. The ELISA readers are widely used as a useful diagnostic tool for Enzymun colorimetric assay in medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ELISA reader could be interfered by the exposure to the 900 MHz cell phones in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: Human serum samples were collected from 14 healthy donors (9 women and 5 men) and each sample was divided into four aliquots and was placed into four batches for the in-vitro quantitative determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). During colorimetric reading of the first, second, and third batches, the ELISA reader (Stat Fax 2100, Awareness Technology, Inc., USA) was exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 W exposure of 900 MHz radiation, respectively. For the forth batch (control group), no radiation was applied. All experiments were performed comparing ELISA read out results of the I, II, and III batches with the control batch, using the Wilcoxon test with criterion level of P = 0.050. Results: The final scores in the exposed batches I, II, and III were not statistically significant relative to the control batch (P > 0.05). The results showed that 900 MHz radiation exposure did not alter the ELISA measured levels of hCG hormone in I (P = 0.219), II (P = 0.909), and III (P = 0.056) batches compared to the control batch. Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance). However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:27376040

  1. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  2. Featured Article: Genotation: Actionable knowledge for the scientific reader.

    PubMed

    Nagahawatte, Panduka; Willis, Ethan; Sakauye, Mark; Jose, Rony; Chen, Hao; Davis, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    We present an article viewer application that allows a scientific reader to easily discover and share knowledge by linking genomics-related concepts to knowledge of disparate biomedical databases. High-throughput data streams generated by technical advancements have contributed to scientific knowledge discovery at an unprecedented rate. Biomedical Informaticists have created a diverse set of databases to store and retrieve the discovered knowledge. The diversity and abundance of such resources present biomedical researchers a challenge with knowledge discovery. These challenges highlight a need for a better informatics solution. We use a text mining algorithm, Genomine, to identify gene symbols from the text of a journal article. The identified symbols are supplemented with information from the GenoDB knowledgebase. Self-updating GenoDB contains information from NCBI Gene, Clinvar, Medgen, dbSNP, KEGG, PharmGKB, Uniprot, and Hugo Gene databases. The journal viewer is a web application accessible via a web browser. The features described herein are accessible on www.genotation.org The Genomine algorithm identifies gene symbols with an accuracy shown by .65 F-Score. GenoDB currently contains information regarding 59,905 gene symbols, 5633 drug-gene relationships, 5981 gene-disease relationships, and 713 pathways. This application provides scientific readers with actionable knowledge related to concepts of a manuscript. The reader will be able to save and share supplements to be visualized in a graphical manner. This provides convenient access to details of complex biological phenomena, enabling biomedical researchers to generate novel hypothesis to further our knowledge in human health. This manuscript presents a novel application that integrates genomic, proteomic, and pharmacogenomic information to supplement content of a biomedical manuscript and enable readers to automatically discover actionable knowledge. PMID:26900164

  3. STARtorialist: Astronomy Fashion & Culture Blog and Reader Survey Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ash, Summer; Rice, Emily L.; Jarreau, Paige B.

    2016-01-01

    STARtorialist (startorialist.com) is a Tumblr-based blog that curates the proliferation of "Astro Fashion" - clothing accessories, decor, and more - with the goal of celebrating the beauty of the universe and highlighting the science behind the astronomical imagery. Since launching in January 2013, we have written over 1000 unique posts about everything from handmade and boutique products to mass-produced commercial items to haute couture seen on fashion runways. Each blog post features images and descriptions of the products with links to the original astronomical images or other relevant science content. We also feature profiles of astronomers, scientists, students, and communicators wearing, making, or decorating with "startorial" items. Our most popular posts accumulate hundreds or thousands of notes (faves or reblogs, in Tumblr parlance), and one post has nearly 150,000 notes. In our second year, we have grown from 1,000 to just shy of 20,000 followers on Tumblr, with an increased audience on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook as well. We present preliminary results from a reader survey conducted September-October 2015 in collaboration with science communication researcher Dr. Paige Jarreau. The survey provides data on reader habits, motivations, attitudes, and demographics in order to assess how STARtorialist has influenced our readers' views on science, scientists, and the scientific community as a whole.

  4. Comparison of aesthetic preferences among Roman and Arabic script readers.

    PubMed

    Heath, Robin L; Mahmasanni, Oula; Rouhana, Aida; Nassif, Nader

    2005-09-01

    The systemic bias for aesthetic preferences demonstrated by prior research is thought to reflect neural organisation. Research on aesthetic preference and laterality has usually been conducted with participants who read a left-to-right Roman script, e.g., English. In order to determine if the aesthetic judgments were influenced by habitual scanning direction, we administered a geometric aesthetic preference test to 578 right-handed adults who represented a range of script experience, i.e., left-to-right Roman script readers (English); right-to-left Arabic script readers; bi-directional readers of Roman and Arabic scripts; and illiterates. We also administered an asymmetric chimeric faces test. Our findings showed that biases in aesthetic preference were influenced by script direction and pictorial dimensions. In a laterally balanced composition, participants preferred to begin their scan with the object representing Interest and terminate with the object representing Weight, the direction being determined by the script. In an unbalanced composition, participants tended to fixate on content, whether Interest or Weight, and move in a direction consistent with the script. PMID:16191811

  5. Astrobites: The Astro-ph Reader's Digest For Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Kohler, S.; Gifford, D.; Plunkett, A. L.; Astrobites Team

    2012-01-01

    Astrobites (http://astrobites.com) is a daily blog aimed primarily at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students from around the country. Every day we present a journal article recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences. In addition to summarizing new work, Astrobites provides valuable context for readers not yet familiar with the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). We will discuss the Astrobites format, readership statistics and the results of our October reader survey (117 responses). The Astrobites blog is currently receiving 17000 on-site hits per month with an average of 600 all-time views per post. 17% of our readers are undergraduate students and 34% are graduates, while researchers and astronomy enthusiasts make up the remainder in equal parts. Out of the 60 students surveyed, 75% plan on a career in research in astrophysics. EN and DG acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation through Graduate Research Fellowships.

  6. Phonological activation of word meanings in grade 5 readers.

    PubMed

    Jared, Debra; Ashby, Jane; Agauas, Stephen J; Levy, Betty Ann

    2016-04-01

    Three experiments examined the role of phonology in the activation of word meanings in Grade 5 students. In Experiment 1, homophone and spelling control errors were embedded in a story context and participants performed a proofreading task as they read for meaning. For both good and poor readers, more homophone errors went undetected than spelling control errors. In Experiments 2 and 3, homophone and spelling control errors were in sentence contexts. Experiment 2 used an online sentence verification task, and found that both good and poor readers were less accurate when sentences contained a homophone error than a spelling control error. Furthermore, a difference between the 2 types of sentences was observed even when participants were concurrently performing an articulation task. In Experiment 3, initial reading times were shorter on homophone errors than on spelling controls, and participants were less likely to make a regression from homophone errors than spelling controls. These experiments provide clear evidence that phonology makes an important contribution to the activation of word meanings in Grade 5 readers. PMID:26436634

  7. Readers' use of source information in text comprehension.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Jason L G; Rouet, Jean-François; Vibert, Nicolas; Britt, M Anne

    2012-04-01

    In two experiments, we examined the role of discrepancy on readers' text processing of and memory for the sources of brief news reports. Each story included two assertions that were attributed to different sources. We manipulated whether the second assertion was either discrepant or consistent with the first assertion. On the basis of the discrepancy-induced source comprehension (D-ISC) assumption, we predicted that discrepant stories would promote deeper processing and better memory for the sources conveying the messages, as compared to consistent stories. As predicted, readers mentioned more sources in summaries of discrepant stories, recalled more sources, made more fixations, and displayed longer gaze times in source areas when reading discrepant than when reading consistent stories. In Experiment 2, we found enhanced memory for source-content links for discrepant stories even when intersentential connectors were absent, and regardless of the reading goals. Discussion was focused on discrepancies as one mechanism by which readers are prompted to encode source-content links more deeply, as a method of integrating disparate pieces of information into a coherent mental representation of a text. PMID:22086649

  8. Flying to Neverland: How readers tacitly judge norms during comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foy, Jeffrey E; Gerrig, Richard J

    2014-11-01

    As readers gain experience with specific narrative worlds, they accumulate information that allows them to experience events as normal or unusual within those worlds. In this article, we contrast two accounts for how readers access information about specific narrative worlds to make tacit judgments of normalcy. We conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants read stories about an ordinary character (e.g., a police officer in Boston) or a familiar fantastic character (e.g., Superman). Each story described a realistic event (e.g., the character being killed by bullets) or a fantastic event (e.g., bullets bouncing off the character's chest). Participants were faster to read events that were consistent with their prior knowledge about the story world. In Experiments 2a and 2b, participants read stories about familiar fantastic characters, unfamiliar fantastic characters (e.g., a Kryptonian named Dev-em), and unfamiliar ordinary characters. In Experiment 2a, participants were equally fast to read about the familiar and unfamiliar fantastic characters experiencing fantastic events, both of which were read faster than the unfamiliar ordinary characters sentences. In Experiment 2b, participants were fastest to read about unfamiliar ordinary characters experiencing realistic events and were equally slow for familiar and unfamiliar fantastic characters. Our experiments provide evidence that readers routinely use inductive reasoning to go beyond their prior knowledge when reading fictional narratives, affecting whether they experience events as normal or unusual. PMID:24972560

  9. The Impact of E-Readers on Adolescent Students' Reading Motivation: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Roberta Greer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was (a) to describe adolescents' use of the e-readers, (b) to discover if e-readers increase adolescents' intrinsic motivation to read and, if so, why, and (c) to examine the possibility of creating a learner-centered environment for students using e-readers. Five seventh and eighth grade…

  10. 76 FR 60531 - National Institute of Justice Interview Room Recording Systems and License Plate Readers Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... webpage to register for the License Plate Reader workshop: http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/ALPR_workshop_reg... Interview Room Recording Systems will take place from 8 to 9:30 a.m. The License Plate Reader session will... Plate Readers Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of Justice. ACTION: Notice of the Interview...

  11. Fifth-Grade Readers' Use of Metacognitive Strategies to Comprehend Social Studies Nonnarrative Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesa, Caron Ann

    2012-01-01

    Metacognitive strategies are needed for readers to be successful in comprehending nonnarrative social studies texts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the metacognitive strategies used by proficient readers (students reading above-grade-level) and struggling (students reading below-grade-level) readers comprehending social studies…

  12. Computer Games versus Maps before Reading Stories: Priming Readers' Spatial Situation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Majchrzak, Dan; Hayes, Shelley; Drobisz, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how computer games and maps compare as preparation for readers to comprehend and retain spatial relations in text narratives. Readers create situation models of five dimensions: spatial, temporal, causal, goal, and protagonist (Zwaan, Langston, & Graesser 1995). Of these five, readers mentally model the spatial…

  13. Informational Graphics: Are Non-Lead Visual Displays Beneficial to the Reader?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Pam

    A study investigated whether informational graphics help attract the reader to a newspaper story, prolong reader interaction, and increase reader knowledge. Five versions of a small informational graphic and a related 10-inch non-lead story published on the bottom of a newspaper page were tested on 300 participants (a non-probability sample of…

  14. Training and Transfer-of-Learning Effects in Disabled and Normal Readers: Evidence of Specific Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Nancy J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studied transfer of rule knowledge in 7- to 9-year-old normal and disabled readers. Compared performance on trained exemplars and untrained transfer items by means of posttests following rule training. Found that normal readers transferred rule knowledge in reading and music tasks; disabled readers were proficient only on music tasks and showed…

  15. Expert Judgments versus Reader Feedback: A Comparison of Text Evaluation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Menno D. T.; Lentz, Leo R.

    1996-01-01

    Asks if technical writers can predict results of a reader-focused text evaluation. Asks 15 technical writers to point out reader problems in a public information brochure, which was also evaluated by 30 readers from the target audience. Finds little overlap and little agreement among writers as to their problem detections. (PA)

  16. Curriculum-Based Readers Theatre: Setting the Stage for Reading and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Rosalind M.

    2004-01-01

    This article explains how and why to involve teachers and students as playwrights "commissioned" to write, revise, read, rehearse, and perform Readers Theatre scripts that fulfill a dual purpose: inform (about curriculum topics) and entertain. Curriculum-Based Readers Theatre (CBRT) differs from traditional Readers Theatre in that its script…

  17. French Immersion Experience and Reading Skill Development in At-Risk Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruk, Richard S.; Reynolds, Kristin A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We tracked the developmental influences of exposure to French on developing English phonological awareness, decoding and reading comprehension of English-speaking at-risk readers from Grade 1 to Grade 3. Teacher-nominated at-risk readers were matched with not-at-risk readers in French immersion and English language programs. Exposure to spoken…

  18. Reader's Theater: An Alternative Tool to Develop Reading Fluency among Thai EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekwilai, Panya

    2014-01-01

    Fluency in reading is critical for becoming a successful reader and strongly correlates with reading comprehension. Fluency in reading refers to appropriate reading speed, accurate word recognition, appropriate phrasing, and appropriate expression when reading orally. Reader's Theater (RT) is a reading instructional method that requires readers to…

  19. Examining Readers' Evaluations of Objectivity and Bias in News Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Peter; Eisenhart, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Readers' objectivity and bias evaluations of news texts were investigated in order to better understand the process by which readers make these kinds of judgments and the evidence on which they base them. Readers were primed to evaluate news texts for objectivity and bias, and their selections and metacommentary were analyzed. Readers…

  20. Syllabic Processing in Deaf Readers of French: A Second-Language Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigle, Daniel; Ammar, Ahlem; Berthiaume, Rachel; Besse, Anne-Sophie.; Bastien, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at investigating syllabic processes in deaf readers (n = 35) who were compared to readers of French as a second language (n = 23) and to expert readers (n = 40). Two experimental tasks varying in their degree of phonological awareness were created: one awareness- task and one awareness+ task. Results show that all participants have…

  1. The Self-Correction Behaviors of Normal and Learning Disabled Readers, Grades 5, 8, and 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Arlene

    The study investigated the oral reading self-correction behaviors of three grade levels of readers (fifth, eighth, and eleventh) and three ability levels (normal readers reading in the instructional range, and learning-disabled readers reading in the instructional and frustration range.) Three locations of self corrections were measured: immediate…

  2. Different Orthographies Different Context Effects: The Effects of Arabic Sentence Context in Skilled and Poor Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabia, Salim Abu; Siegel, Linda S.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates whether Arabic orthography differs from an alphabetic orthography regarding context effects among poor and skilled readers. Finds that skilled as well as poor readers significantly improved their reading accuracy when they read voweled and unvoweled words in context and that skilled readers significantly improved their reading voweled…

  3. Bimodal Reading: Benefits of a Talking Computer for Average and Less Skilled Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montali, Julie; Lewandowski, Lawrence

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen average readers and 18 less-skilled readers (grades 8 and 9) were presented with social studies and science passages via a computer either visually (on screen), auditorily (read by digitized voice), or bimodally (on screen, highlighted while being voiced). Less-skilled readers demonstrated comprehension in the bimodal condition equivalent…

  4. What Strategies Do Resistive Readers Use to Fake Their Way through School Assigned Texts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Courtney M.

    2012-01-01

    A trend among adolescent readers is the practice of fake-reading. Fake-reading occurs when students who can read choose not to, and develop strategies to fake their way through school-assigned texts to earn good grades. This study examines four resistive readers, or fake-readers, assigned to read Neal Shusterman's "Unwind" (2007)…

  5. The Effect of Script on Poor Readers' Sensitivity to Dynamic Visual Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris; Burnham, Denis; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn

    2004-01-01

    The current research examined performance of good and poor readers of Thai on two tasks that assess sensitivity to dynamic visual displays. Readers of Thai, a complex alphabetic script that nonetheless has a regular orthography, were chosen in order to contrast patterns of performance with readers of Korean Hangul (a similarly regular language but…

  6. Reading Logs: An Application of Reader-Response Theory in ELT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the activity of student-written reading logs as a practical application of reader-response theory in English-as-Foreign-Language literature teaching. Because reader-response theory stresses the synthesis between reader and text, it is proposed that practical applications should be based on the interaction. (Author/VWL)

  7. Could We Make Diverse Learning Materials Compatible with E-Readers Used in Classroom Learning Settings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching; Lin, Wei-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how to make diverse learning/instructional materials compatible with e-readers when the instructor pioneered to adopt e-readers into a course of the graduate level. What problems did the instructor encounter when she used the e-readers as a major tool to deliver learning contents, such as the process of converting the…

  8. Finding a (W)hole in the Text: A Case Study of Four Readers Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nance, Mary Moore

    The purpose of the study was to examine: (1) which perspectives of Reader Response Theory were most applicable in this study; (2) which factors influenced reader responses; and (3) how readers' responses changed over time. The four participants for this case study were chosen from a subject pool of 10 initiate adult full-time divinity students in…

  9. Does Accuracy Make a Difference? Examining the Miscues of Proficient and Less than Proficient Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theurer, Joan Leikam

    2011-01-01

    One theory of reading posits that "mistakes" made by readers are something that need to be corrected. An alternate theory of reading views "mistakes" as miscues and part of the natural reading process. This research study examined the miscues of proficient and less than proficient adult readers. Less than proficient adult readers produced more…

  10. Comparisons of Learning Ease and Transfer Propensity in Poor and Average Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Jeanne D.; Zajakowski, Amy

    1991-01-01

    Assisted and unassisted performance of 14 average readers and 14 readers with learning disabilities (ages 10-13) were compared on a reading comprehension task. The groups differed in how easily they learned to find the main idea under different topic sentence placement conditions, with the learning-disabled readers requiring significantly more…

  11. Chemical basis for the recognition of trimethyllysine by epigenetic reader proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kamps, Jos J.A.G.; Huang, Jiaxin; Poater, Jordi; Xu, Chao; Pieters, Bas J.G.E.; Dong, Aiping; Min, Jinrong; Sherman, Woody; Beuming, Thijs; Matthias Bickelhaupt, F.; Li, Haitao; Mecinović, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    A large number of structurally diverse epigenetic reader proteins specifically recognize methylated lysine residues on histone proteins. Here we describe comparative thermodynamic, structural and computational studies on recognition of the positively charged natural trimethyllysine and its neutral analogues by reader proteins. This work provides experimental and theoretical evidence that reader proteins predominantly recognize trimethyllysine via a combination of favourable cation–π interactions and the release of the high-energy water molecules that occupy the aromatic cage of reader proteins on the association with the trimethyllysine side chain. These results have implications in rational drug design by specifically targeting the aromatic cage of readers of trimethyllysine. PMID:26578293

  12. Chemical basis for the recognition of trimethyllysine by epigenetic reader proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Jos J. A. G.; Huang, Jiaxin; Poater, Jordi; Xu, Chao; Pieters, Bas J. G. E.; Dong, Aiping; Min, Jinrong; Sherman, Woody; Beuming, Thijs; Matthias Bickelhaupt, F.; Li, Haitao; Mecinović, Jasmin

    2015-11-01

    A large number of structurally diverse epigenetic reader proteins specifically recognize methylated lysine residues on histone proteins. Here we describe comparative thermodynamic, structural and computational studies on recognition of the positively charged natural trimethyllysine and its neutral analogues by reader proteins. This work provides experimental and theoretical evidence that reader proteins predominantly recognize trimethyllysine via a combination of favourable cation-π interactions and the release of the high-energy water molecules that occupy the aromatic cage of reader proteins on the association with the trimethyllysine side chain. These results have implications in rational drug design by specifically targeting the aromatic cage of readers of trimethyllysine.

  13. Demonstration of multi- and single-reader sample size program for diagnostic studies software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillis, Stephen L.; Schartz, Kevin M.

    2015-03-01

    The recently released software Multi- and Single-Reader Sample Size Sample Size Program for Diagnostic Studies, written by Kevin Schartz and Stephen Hillis, performs sample size computations for diagnostic reader-performance studies. The program computes the sample size needed to detect a specified difference in a reader performance measure between two modalities, when using the analysis methods initially proposed by Dorfman, Berbaum, and Metz (DBM) and Obuchowski and Rockette (OR), and later unified and improved by Hillis and colleagues. A commonly used reader performance measure is the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve. The program can be used with typical common reader-performance measures which can be estimated parametrically or nonparametrically. The program has an easy-to-use step-by-step intuitive interface that walks the user through the entry of the needed information. Features of the software include the following: (1) choice of several study designs; (2) choice of inputs obtained from either OR or DBM analyses; (3) choice of three different inference situations: both readers and cases random, readers fixed and cases random, and readers random and cases fixed; (4) choice of two types of hypotheses: equivalence or noninferiority; (6) choice of two output formats: power for specified case and reader sample sizes, or a listing of case-reader combinations that provide a specified power; (7) choice of single or multi-reader analyses; and (8) functionality in Windows, Mac OS, and Linux.

  14. Integrated Rapid-Diagnostic-Test Reader Platform on a Cellphone

    PubMed Central

    Mudanyali, Onur; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Sikora, Uzair; Padmanabhan, Swati; Navruz, Isa; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a cellphone based Rapid-Diagnostic-Test (RDT) reader platform that can work with various lateral flow immuno-chromatographic assays and similar tests to sense the presence of a target analyte in a sample. This compact and cost-effective digital RDT reader, weighing only ~65 grams, mechanically attaches to the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where various types of RDTs can be inserted to be imaged in reflection or transmission modes under light-emitting-diode (LED) based illumination. Captured raw images of these tests are then digitally processed (within less than 0.2 sec/image) through a smart application running on the cellphone for validation of the RDT as well as for automated reading of its diagnostic result. The same smart application running on the cellphone then transmits the resulting data, together with the RDT images and other related information (e.g., demographic data) to a central server, which presents the diagnostic results on a world-map through geo-tagging. This dynamic spatio-temporal map of various RDT results can then be viewed and shared using internet browsers or through the same cellphone application. We tested this platform using malaria, tuberculosis (TB) as well as HIV RDTs by installing it on both Android based smart-phones as well as an iPhone. Providing real-time spatio-temporal statistics for the prevalence of various infectious diseases, this smart RDT reader platform running on cellphones might assist health-care professionals and policy makers to track emerging epidemics worldwide and help epidemic preparedness. PMID:22596243

  15. Real-time multi-barcode reader for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Iffat; Zakir, Usman; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2010-05-01

    The advances in automated production processes have resulted in the need for detecting, reading and decoding 2D datamatrix barcodes at very high speeds. This requires the correct combination of high speed optical devices that are capable of capturing high quality images and computer vision algorithms that can read and decode the barcodes accurately. Such barcode readers should also be capable of resolving fundamental imaging challenges arising from blurred barcode edges, reflections from possible polyethylene wrapping, poor and/or non-uniform illumination, fluctuations of focus, rotation and scale changes. Addressing the above challenges in this paper we propose the design and implementation of a high speed multi-barcode reader and provide test results from an industrial trial. To authors knowledge such a comprehensive system has not been proposed and fully investigated in existing literature. To reduce the reflections on the images caused due to polyethylene wrapping used in typical packaging, polarising filters have been used. The images captured using the optical system above will still include imperfections and variations due to scale, rotation, illumination etc. We use a number of novel image enhancement algorithms optimised for use with 2D datamatrix barcodes for image de-blurring, contrast point and self-shadow removal using an affine transform based approach and non-uniform illumination correction. The enhanced images are subsequently used for barcode detection and recognition. We provide experimental results from a factory trial of using the multi-barcode reader and evaluate the performance of each optical unit and computer vision algorithm used. The results indicate an overall accuracy of 99.6 % in barcode recognition at typical speeds of industrial conveyor systems.

  16. Integrated rapid-diagnostic-test reader platform on a cellphone.

    PubMed

    Mudanyali, Onur; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Sikora, Uzair; Padmanabhan, Swati; Navruz, Isa; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-08-01

    We demonstrate a cellphone-based rapid-diagnostic-test (RDT) reader platform that can work with various lateral flow immuno-chromatographic assays and similar tests to sense the presence of a target analyte in a sample. This compact and cost-effective digital RDT reader, weighing only ~65 g, mechanically attaches to the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where various types of RDTs can be inserted to be imaged in reflection or transmission modes under light-emitting diode (LED)-based illumination. Captured raw images of these tests are then digitally processed (within less than 0.2 s per image) through a smart application running on the cellphone for validation of the RDT, as well as for automated reading of its diagnostic result. The same smart application then transmits the resulting data, together with the RDT images and other related information (e.g., demographic data), to a central server, which presents the diagnostic results on a world map through geo-tagging. This dynamic spatio-temporal map of various RDT results can then be viewed and shared using internet browsers or through the same cellphone application. We tested this platform using malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV RDTs by installing it on both Android-based smartphones and an iPhone. Providing real-time spatio-temporal statistics for the prevalence of various infectious diseases, this smart RDT reader platform running on cellphones might assist healthcare professionals and policymakers to track emerging epidemics worldwide and help epidemic preparedness. PMID:22596243

  17. Are medical school students ready for e-readers?

    PubMed

    Atlas, Michel C

    2013-01-01

    College textbook publishers are planning to make college and professional education textbooks available online to be downloaded to personal communication devices (e.g., smartphones), digital audio players (e.g., iPods), and digital readers (e.g., Kindles). The current literature on the attitudes of current students to this technological change, especially as it relates to medical school students is reviewed. A short survey attempted to determine how ready the first-year medical students at the University of Louisville are to accept this change in their study habits. PMID:23394419

  18. Readers' Responses When Characters Act on Completed Goals: Impact of Characters' Mental States and Readers' Task Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Jeffrey E.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that readers track the objective status of characters' goals (i.e., whether the goals have been completed). We suggest that readers also use characters' subjective representations--characters' mental states with respect to goals--to comprehend actions. We explored circumstances in which local information…

  19. Accelerated Reader[R]: What Are the Lasting Effects on the Reading Habits of Middle School Students Exposed to Accelerated Reader[R] in Elementary Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavonetti, Linda M.; Brimmer, Kathryn M.; Cipielewski, James F.

    Promoted by effective advertising and disseminated by word of mouth, many schools have adopted Accelerated Reader[R] as a supplementary reading program or as their primary reading program. Accelerated Reader[R]'s philosophy is that by using the system, students are motivated to read more and better books. A study investigated whether seventh grade…

  20. Re-Imaging Reader-Response in Middle and Secondary Schools: Early Adolescent Girls' Critical and Communal Reader Responses to the Young Adult Novel "Speak"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jie Y.

    2012-01-01

    Reader-response has become one of the most influential literary theories to inform the pedagogies of middle and secondary English classrooms. However, many English and literacy educators have begun to advocate for more critical and culturally responsive versions of reader-response pedagogies, arguing that teachers move beyond valuing students'…

  1. Signal and array processing techniques for RFID readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Amin, Moeness; Zhang, Yimin

    2006-05-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has recently attracted much attention in both the technical and business communities. It has found wide applications in, for example, toll collection, supply-chain management, access control, localization tracking, real-time monitoring, and object identification. Situations may arise where the movement directions of the tagged RFID items through a portal is of interest and must be determined. Doppler estimation may prove complicated or impractical to perform by RFID readers. Several alternative approaches, including the use of an array of sensors with arbitrary geometry, can be applied. In this paper, we consider direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation techniques for application to near-field narrowband RFID problems. Particularly, we examine the use of a pair of RFID antennas to track moving RFID tagged items through a portal. With two antennas, the near-field DOA estimation problem can be simplified to a far-field problem, yielding a simple way for identifying the direction of the tag movement, where only one parameter, the angle, needs to be considered. In this case, tracking of the moving direction of the tag simply amounts to computing the spatial cross-correlation between the data samples received at the two antennas. It is pointed out that the radiation patterns of the reader and tag antennas, particularly their phase characteristics, have a significant effect on the performance of DOA estimation. Indoor experiments are conducted in the Radar Imaging and RFID Labs at Villanova University for validating the proposed technique for target movement direction estimations.

  2. From Reader to Writer: Citizen Journalism as News Produsage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, Axel

    Today, participatory or citizen journalism - journalism which enables readers to become writers - exists online and offline in a variety of forms and formats, operates under a number of editorial schemes, and focuses on a wide range of topics from the specialist to the generic and the micro-local to the global. Key models in this phenomenon include veteran sites Slashdot and Indymedia, as well as news-related weblogs; more recent additions into the mix have been the South Korean OhmyNews, which in 2003 was “the most influential online news site in that country, attracting an estimated 2 million readers a day” (Gillmor, 2003a, p. 7), with its new Japanese and international offshoots, as well as the Wikipedia with its highly up-to-date news and current events section and its more recent offshoot Wikinews, and even citizen-produced video news as it is found in sites such as YouTube and Current.tv.

  3. Astrobites: The Astro-ph Reader's Digest For Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nathan; Newton, E. R.; Czekala, I.; Rosenfeld, K.; Dressing, C. D.; Gifford, D.; Suresh, J.; Schneider, E.; Morley, C.; Kohler, S.

    2011-05-01

    Do you know an undergraduate embarking on a career in research in astronomy or a related field? Point them to Astrobites, a daily astrophysical literature blog for undergraduates written by graduate students (http://astroph.wordpress.com). Our goal is to present one interesting paper per day in a brief format that is accessible to undergraduate students in the physical sciences who are interested in active research. We not only try to summarize new work, but also to provide valuable context for readers not yet familiar with the astrophysical literature. For example, our posts discuss the long term goals motivating the field, astronomical jargon, and how the technical methods work. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. how to select a graduate school) and detail personal experiences (e.g. observing at a Chilean telescope or attending a AAS meeting). We present sample Astrobites posts, readership statistics, and the results of our periodic reader surveys from our first semester of blogging (Spring 2011).

  4. Waiting for Brandon: How Readers Respond to Small Mysteries.

    PubMed

    Gerrig, Richard J; Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2009-01-01

    When readers experience narratives they often encounter small mysteries-questions that a text raises that are not immediately settled. In our experiments, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper names (e.g., "It's just that Brandon hasn't called in so long"). Resolved versions of the stories specified the functions those characters' assumed in their narrative worlds with respect to the other characters (e.g., Brandon was identified as the speaker's grandson); unresolved versions of the stories did not immediately provide that information. We predicted that characters whose functions were still unresolved would remain relatively accessible in the discourse representations. We tested that prediction in Experiments 1 and 2 by asking participants to indicate whether a name (e.g., Brandon) had appeared in the story. Participants responded most swiftly when the characters remained unresolved. In the latter experiments, we demonstrated that the presence of an unresolved character disrupted processing of information that followed that character's introduction (Experiment 3) but not information that preceded that introduction (Experiment 4). These results support the general importance of providing a theoretical account of readers' responses to narrative mysteries. PMID:20046984

  5. Skew angle effects in shingled magnetic recording system with double/triple reader head array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elidrissi, Moulay Rachid; Sann Chan, Kheong; Greaves, Simon; Kanai, Yasushi; Muraoka, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    Shingled Magnetic Recording (SMR) is a scheme used to extend the life of the current perpendicular magnetic recording technology. SMR enables writing narrow tracks with a wide writer. Currently, SMR employs a single reader and will suffer inter-track interference (ITI) as the tracks become comparable in width to the reader. ITI can be mitigated by using narrower readers; however, narrower readers suffer from increased reader noise. Another approach to combat ITI is to process 2D readback and use ITI cancellation schemes to retrieve the data track. Multiple readbacks can be obtained either with a single reader and multiple revolutions or with a reader array. The former suffers from increased readback latency. In this work, we focus on the latter. When using a reader array, the skew angle poses major challenges. During writing, there is increased adjacent track erasure, and during readback the effective reader pitch varies and there is an increase in the 2D intersymbol interference caused by the rotated reader profile. In this work, we run micromagnetic simulations at different skew angles to train the grain flipping probability model, and then evaluate raw bit channel error rate performance at skew. In particular, we investigate the performance degradation caused by skewing of the 2 or 3 read head array for various read-head geometries.

  6. Digital image processing: a primer for JVIR authors and readers: Part 3: Digital image editing.

    PubMed

    LaBerge, Jeanne M; Andriole, Katherine P

    2003-12-01

    This is the final installment of a three-part series on digital image processing intended to prepare authors for online submission of manuscripts. In the first two articles of the series, the fundamentals of digital image architecture were reviewed and methods of importing images to the computer desktop were described. In this article, techniques are presented for editing images in preparation for online submission. A step-by-step guide to basic editing with use of Adobe Photoshop is provided and the ethical implications of this activity are explored. PMID:14654480

  7. Variability in grading diabetic retinopathy from stereo fundus photographs: comparison of physician and lay readers.

    PubMed Central

    Milton, R. C.; Ganley, J. P.; Lynk, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Two physicians and two lay readers were trained according to a detailed protocol in the grading of 17 lesions found in diabetic retinopathy by evaluation of stereo fundus photographs according to a modified Airlie House classification. Intraobserver and interobserver variability of these readers was assessed by two methods: weighted kappa, and frequency of agreement within one grade. In general, physician readers were found to be less variable on replicate readings than were lay leaders, and had slightly better agreement with each other than with the lay readers. The physiological significance of the direction and magnitude of the difference between physician and lay reader variability for individual lesions was often uncertain. Assessment of contribution to disagreement by individual readers was possible and permits future training directed at reducing disagreement to acceptable values. PMID:851521

  8. The effect of script on poor readers' sensitivity to dynamic visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris; Burnham, Denis; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn

    2004-12-01

    The current research examined performance of good and poor readers of Thai on two tasks that assess sensitivity to dynamic visual displays. Readers of Thai, a complex alphabetic script that nonetheless has a regular orthography, were chosen in order to contrast patterns of performance with readers of Korean Hangul (a similarly regular language but one that has a simple visual format, see ). Thai poor readers were less sensitive than good readers on the two measures of dynamic visual processing; they had higher thresholds for detecting coherent movement and required longer ISIs to report group movement in the Ternus task. These results differ from those for poor readers of Korean Hangul that found no relationship between visual processing thresholds and reading skill. This contrast suggests that the expression of visual processing problems in dyslexia is mediated by the format properties of the writing system and points to the need to consider such factors in formulating brain-behavior relationships. PMID:15533558

  9. An affordable optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter reader utilizing multiple excitation wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J; West, W Geoffrey

    2015-10-01

    A lower-cost optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) reader with increased flexibility for pursuing laboratory research into OSL theory and application was designed and constructed. This was achieved by using off-the-shelf optical components and higher-power light emitting diodes. The resulting reader includes more wavelengths of excitation light than current commercial readers, as well as the ability to swap out filters and other components during an experiment. PMID:26142807

  10. Auditory word identification in dyslexic and normally achieving readers

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Jennifer L.; Manis, Franklin R.; Keating, Patricia; Sperling, Anne J.; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    The integrity of phonological representation/processing in dyslexic children was explored with a gating task in which children listened to successively longer segments (gates) of a word. At each gate, the task was to decide what the entire word was. Responses were scored for overall accuracy as well as the children’s sensitivity to coarticulation from the final consonant. As a group, dyslexic children were less able than normally achieving readers to detect coarticulation present in the vowel portion of the word, particularly on the most difficult items, namely those ending in a nasal sound. Hierarchical regression and path analyses indicated that phonological awareness mediated the relation of gating and general language ability to word and pseudoword reading ability. PMID:17359994

  11. NIDR (New Input Deck Reader) V2.0 2

    2010-03-31

    NIDR (New Input Deck Reader) is a facility for processing block-structured input to large programs. NIDR was written to simplify maintenance of DAKOTA (a program for uncertainty quantification and optimization), to provide better error checking of input and to allow use of aliases in the input. While written to support DAKOTA input conventions, NIDR itself is independent of DAKOTA and can be used in many kinds of programs. The initial version of NIDR was copyrightedmore » in 2008. We have since extended NIDR to support a graphical user interface called Jaguar for DAKOTA. In the Review and Approval process for an updated paper on NIDR, the Classification Approver states that a new copyright assertion should be performed.processing input to programs. NIDR is not primarily for military applications.« less

  12. Laboratory spectroscopy and space astrophysics: A tribute to Joe Reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckrone, David S.

    2013-07-01

    Beginning with the launch of the Copernicus Satellite in 1973, and continuing with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), and the state-of-the-art spectrographs on the Hubble Space Telescope (GHRS, FOS, STIS and COS), astrophysics experienced dramatic advancements in capabilities to study the composition and physical properties of planets, comets, stars, nebulae, the interstellar medium, galaxies, quasars and the intergalactic medium at visible and ultraviolet wavelengths. It became clear almost immediately that the available atomic data needed to calibrate and quantitatively analyze these superb spectroscopic observations, obtained at great cost from space observatories, was not up to that task. Over the past 3+ decades, Joe Reader and his collaborators at NIST have provided, essentially "on demand", laboratory observations and analyses of extraordinary quality to help astrophysicists extract the maximum possible physical understanding of objects in the cosmos from their space observations. This talk is one scientist's grateful retrospective about these invaluable collaborations.

  13. Updates from Astrobites: The Astro-ph Reader's Digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montet, Benjamin; Chisari, N.; Donaldson, J.; Dressing, C. D.; Drout, M.; Faesi, C.; Fuchs, J. T.; Kohler, S.; Lovegrove, E.; Mills, E. A.; Nesvold, E.; Newton, E. R.; Olmstead, A.; Vasel, J. A.; Weiss, L. M.; Astrobites Team

    2014-01-01

    Astrobites (http://astrobites.com) is a daily blog aimed at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students located at diverse institutions across the United States. Primarily, we present journal articles recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences, including readers who are not yet familiar with the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). We present recent readership statistics and potential methods for incorporating Astrobites into the classroom. We also discuss the Astrobites format across multiple social media platforms, including the newly launched Astroplots, and highlight our recent work organizing the annual "Communicating Science" workshop for graduate students.

  14. Astrobites: The Astro-ph Reader's Digest For Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drout, Maria; Vasel, J. A.; Dressing, C. D.; Gifford, D.; Morley, C.; Hall, S.; Newton, E. R.; Astrobites Team

    2013-01-01

    Astrobites (http://astrobites.com) is a daily blog aimed primarily at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students located at institutions around the world. Nearly every day we present a journal article recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences. In addition to summarizing new work, Astrobites provides valuable context for readers not yet familiar with the some of the background concepts and jargon present in the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). The readership of astrobites has grown dramatically since our founding in fall of 2010, with individuals now accessing the site from 104 countries worldwide. We will discuss the Astrobites format, recent readership statistics, and future planned initiatives.

  15. Astrobites: The Astro-ph Reader's Digest For Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna; Astrobites Team

    2013-04-01

    Astrobites (http://astrobites.com) is a daily blog aimed primarily at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students located at diverse institutions around the world. Nearly every day we present a journal article recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences. In addition to summarizing new work, Astrobites provides valuable context for readers not yet familiar with the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). We will discuss the Astrobites format and recent readership statistics, as well as potential methods for incorporating Astrobites into the classroom.

  16. Astrobites: The Astro-ph Reader's Digest For Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasel, Justin; Faesi, Chris; Drout, Maria; Newton, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    Astrobites (http://astrobites.com) is a daily blog aimed primarily at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students located at institutions around the world. Nearly every day we present a journal article recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences. In addition to summarizing new work, Astrobites provides valuable context for readers not yet familiar with the some of the background concepts and jargon present in the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). The readership of astrobites has grown dramatically since our founding in fall of 2010, with individuals now accessing the site from 104 countries worldwide. We will discuss the Astrobites format, recent readership statistics, and future planned initiatives.

  17. Astrobites: The Astro-ph Reader's Digest For Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna; Weiss, L. M.; Faesi, C. M.; Astrobites Team

    2012-05-01

    Astrobites (http://astrobites.com) is a daily blog aimed primarily at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students located at diverse institutes around the country and Europe. Every day we present a journal article recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences. In addition to summarizing new work, Astrobites provides valuable context for readers not yet familiar with the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). We will discuss the Astrobites format and recent readership statistics.

  18. Graphosyllabic analysis helps adolescent struggling readers read and spell words.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Alpana; Ehri, Linnea C

    2004-01-01

    Adolescents with word-reading skills below grade level were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Those receiving interventions practiced reading 100 multisyllabic words, either by analyzing graphosyllabic units in the words or by reading the words as unanalyzed wholes. The third group received no special instruction. Posttests revealed that graphosyllabic instruction helped students to decode novel words, remember how to read words with practice, and remember the spellings of words when compared to controls. In contrast, whole-word instruction yielded no benefit on transfer tasks compared to controls. Effects were observed primarily among adolescents reading at a third-grade-equivalent level and less so at a fourth- and fifth-grade-equivalent level. Results are consistent with a connectionist view of word learning and indicate the importance of providing struggling readers with instruction and practice in how to fully analyze the graphosyllabic constituents of words. PMID:15493405

  19. NIDR (New Input Deck Reader) V2.0 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David

    2010-03-31

    NIDR (New Input Deck Reader) is a facility for processing block-structured input to large programs. NIDR was written to simplify maintenance of DAKOTA (a program for uncertainty quantification and optimization), to provide better error checking of input and to allow use of aliases in the input. While written to support DAKOTA input conventions, NIDR itself is independent of DAKOTA and can be used in many kinds of programs. The initial version of NIDR was copyrighted in 2008. We have since extended NIDR to support a graphical user interface called Jaguar for DAKOTA. In the Review and Approval process for an updated paper on NIDR, the Classification Approver states that a new copyright assertion should be performed.processing input to programs. NIDR is not primarily for military applications.

  20. Vulnerabilities of fingerprint reader to fake fingerprints attacks.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Marcela; Champod, Christophe; Margot, Pierre

    2011-01-30

    The purpose of this research is to assess the vulnerabilities of a high resolution fingerprint sensor when confronted with fake fingerprints. The study has not been focused on the decision outcome of the biometric device, but essentially on the scores obtained following the comparison between a query (genuine or fake) and a template using an AFIS system. To do this, fake fingerprints of 12 subjects have been produced with and without their cooperation. These fake fingerprints have been used alongside with real fingers. The study led to three major observations: First, genuine fingerprints produced scores higher than fake fingers (translating a closer proximity) and this tendency is observed considering each subject separately. Second, scores are however not sufficient as a single measure to differentiate these samples (fake from genuine) given the variation due to the donors themselves. That explains why fingerprint readers without vitality detection can be fooled. Third, production methods and subjects greatly influence the scores obtained for fake fingerprints. PMID:21216360