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Sample records for adobe flash player

  1. Collecting Response Times using Amazon Mechanical Turk and Adobe Flash

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Travis; Fiez, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Crowdsourcing systems like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) allow data to be collected from a large sample of people in a short amount of time. This use has garnered considerable interest from behavioral scientists. So far, most experiments conducted on AMT have focused on survey-type instruments because of difficulties inherent in running many experimental paradigms over the Internet. This article investigated the viability of presenting stimuli and collecting response times using Adobe Flash to run ActionScript 3 code in conjunction with AMT. First, the timing properties of Adobe Flash were investigated using a phototransistor and two desktop computers running under several conditions mimicking those that may be present in research using AMT. This experiment revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the timing capabilities of this method. Next, a flanker task and a lexical decision task implemented in Adobe Flash were administered to participants recruited with AMT. The expected effects in these tasks were replicated. Power analyses were conducted to describe the number of participants needed to replicate these effects. A questionnaire was used to investigate previously undescribed computer use habits of 100 participants on AMT. We conclude that a Flash program in conjunction with AMT can be successfully used for running many experimental paradigms that rely on response times, although experimenters must understand the limitations of the method. PMID:23670340

  2. Vector Graphics for Web Lectures: Experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterl, Markus; Mertens, Robert; Vornberger, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe vector graphics for web lectures, focusing on the experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents experiences made during the development and everyday use of two versions of the lecture-recording system virtPresenter. The first of these versions is based on…

  3. Presentation and response timing accuracy in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Web-based research is becoming ubiquitous in the behavioral sciences, facilitated by convenient, readily available participant pools and relatively straightforward ways of running experiments: most recently, through the development of the HTML5 standard. Although in most studies participants give untimed responses, there is a growing interest in being able to record response times online. Existing data on the accuracy and cross-machine variability of online timing measures are limited, and generally they have compared behavioral data gathered on the Web with similar data gathered in the lab. For this article, we took a more direct approach, examining two ways of running experiments online-Adobe Flash and HTML5 with CSS3 and JavaScript-across 19 different computer systems. We used specialist hardware to measure stimulus display durations and to generate precise response times to visual stimuli in order to assess measurement accuracy, examining effects of duration, browser, and system-to-system variability (such as across different Windows versions), as well as effects of processing power and graphics capability. We found that (a) Flash and JavaScript's presentation and response time measurement accuracy are similar; (b) within-system variability is generally small, even in low-powered machines under high load; (c) the variability of measured response times across systems is somewhat larger; and (d) browser type and system hardware appear to have relatively small effects on measured response times. Modeling of the effects of this technical variability suggests that for most within- and between-subjects experiments, Flash and JavaScript can both be used to accurately detect differences in response times across conditions. Concerns are, however, noted about using some correlational or longitudinal designs online.

  4. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems.

  5. Using Adobe Flash animations of electron transport chain to teach and learn biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the electron transport chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the electron transport chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching.

  6. Using Adobe Flash Animations of Electron Transport Chain to Teach and Learn Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash…

  7. Using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones for psychological research: Reaction time measurement reliability and interdevice variability.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2008-11-01

    Mobile telephones have significant potential for use in psychological research, possessing unique characteristics-not least their ubiquity--that may make them useful tools for psychologists. We examined whether it is possible to measure reaction times (RTs) accurately using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones. We ran simple and choice RT experiments on two widely available mobile phones, a Nokia 6110 Navigator and a Sony Ericsson W810i, using a wireless application protocol (WAP) connection to access the Internet from the devices. RTs were compared within subjects with those obtained using a Linux-based millisecond-accurate measurement system. Results show that measured RTs were significantly longer on mobile devices, and that overall RTs and distribution of RTs varied across devices.

  8. Flash!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Govert

    2002-04-01

    About three times a day our sky flashes with a powerful pulse of gamma ray bursts (GRB), invisible to human eyes but not to astronomers' instruments. The sources of this intense radiation are likely to be emitting, within the span of seconds or minutes, more energy than the sun will in its entire 10 billion years of life. Where these bursts originate, and how they come to have such incredible energies, is a mystery scientists have been trying to solve for three decades. The phenomenon has resisted study -- the flashes come from random directions in space and vanish without trace -- until very recently. In what could be called a cinematic conflation of Flash Gordon and The Hunt for Red October, Govert Schilling's Flash!: The Hunt for the Biggest Explosions in the Universe describes the exciting and ever-changing field of GRB research. Based on interviews with leading scientists, Flash! provides an insider's account of the scientific challenges involved in unravelling the enigmatic nature of GRBs. A science writer who has followed the drama from the very start, Schilling describes the ambition and jealousy, collegiality and competition, triumph and tragedy, that exists among those who have embarked on this recherche. Govert Schilling is a Dutch science writer and astronomy publicist. He is a contributing editor of Sky and Telescope magazine, and regularly writes for the news sections of Science and New Scientist. Schilling is the astronomy writer for de Volkskrant, one of the largest national daily newspapers in The Netherlands, and frequently talks about the Universe on Dutch radio broadcasts. He is the author of more than twenty popular astronomy books, and hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles on astronomy.

  9. Threat Modelling Adobe PDF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    on the MS Windows Server, Sun Solaris , IBM AIX, Red Hat or SUSE platforms. Figure 15. A registry setting for the Adobe Reader lockdown If an...be typed into the Acrobat console and executed. The console is designed for testing. 3. Batch JavaScript: a powerful batch system for the execution

  10. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  11. Preservation of adobe buildings. Study of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velosa, A.; Rocha, F.; Costa, C.; Varum, H.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe buildings are common in the central region of Portugal due to the lack of natural stone in the surrounding area. This type of construction technique lasted until the 20th Century, at which time cementitious materials, with faster hardening and greater structural capacity substituted traditional materials and techniques. Currently, a significant percentage of these buildings is vacant and many are degraded and in need of conservation actions. Adobes from central Portugal are distinctive as they are lightly coloured and made from air lime and quarry sand. Although some adobes were manufactured locally, most were produced almost 'industrially' and sold to nearby regions. In order to preserve this heritage, conservation actions must be undertaken. So as to ensure the adequacy of these actions and compatibility between original materials and new ones, a thorough study of adobe compostion is mandatory. The current study is an initial step in the characterization of earth based construction materials from central Portugal. Adobe samples were collected from residential buildings in two different locations. The determination of the composition of adobe blocks encompassed the determination of the binder fraction and of their chemical composition and also the particle size analysis of the aggregate. For this purpose FRX analysis, acid dissolution and dry sieving were performed. Methylene blue test was also executed in order to determine the clay fraction. Additionally, the mineral composition of powder samples and oriented samples was performed using XRD analysis in order to determine the clay minerals present in the blocks. As adobe blocks are extremely prone to the action of water the Geelong test was undertaken in order to provide information in terms of durability. It was concluded that air lime was generally used in adobe compositions. However, the clay content varies in adobes from different regions, providing distinct durability characteristics to these materials.

  12. Shock compression of simulated adobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, C. H.; Church, P. D.; Gould, P. J.; Stewart, B.; Jardine, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    A series of plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the shock response of a simulant for adobe, a traditional form of building material widely used around the world. Air dried bricks were sourced from the London brick company, dry machined and impacted at a range of velocities in a single stage gas gun. The shock Hugoniot was determined (Us =2.26up+0.37) as well as release information. The material was found to behave in a manner which was similar to that of loose sand and considerably less stiff than a weak porous sandstone. The effect of any cementing of the grains was examined by shocking powdered samples contained within a cell arrangement.

  13. The Application of Flash in Web-Based Multimedia Courseware Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Zu-Yuan; Wu, Yuren

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce some new functions achieved in a web-based multimedia courseware, which is developed by Flash software and used by part-time graduate students. Design/methodology/approach: The courseware uses Adobe Flash CS3 as its development software, which supports Actionscript language, FMS and FLV technology…

  14. Digital Imaging: An Adobe Photoshop Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces digital imaging, an Adobe Photoshop course at Shrewsbury High School in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. Students are able to earn art credits to graduate by successfully completing the course. Digital imaging must cover art criteria as well as technical skills. The course begins with tutorials created by the instructor and other…

  15. NIDA for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs and Violence See All Blog Items ... 2017 NOTE: PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word documents require the free Microsoft Word Viewer . Flash content requires the free Adobe Flash Player . National ...

  16. Physics and 3D in Flash Simulations: Open Source Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harold, J. B.; Dusenbery, P.

    2009-12-01

    Over the last decade our ability to deliver simulations over the web has steadily advanced. The improvements in speed of the Adobe Flash engine, and the development of open source tools to expand it, allow us to deliver increasingly sophisticated simulation based games through the browser, with no additional downloads required. In this paper we will present activities we are developing as part of two asteroids education projects: Finding NEO (funded through NSF and NASA SMD), and Asteroids! (funded through NSF). The first activity is Rubble!, an asteroids deflection game built on the open source Box2D physics engine. This game challenges players to push asteroids in to safe orbits before they crash in to the Earth. The Box2D engine allows us to go well beyond simple 2-body orbital calculations and incorporate “rubble piles”. These objects, which are representative of many asteroids, are composed of 50 or more individual rocks which gravitationally bind and separate in realistic ways. Even bombs can be modeled with sufficient physical accuracy to convince players of the hazards of trying to “blow up” incoming asteroids. The ability to easily build games based on underlying physical models allows us to address physical misconceptions in a natural way: by having the player operate in a world that directly collides with those misconceptions. Rubble! provides a particularly compelling example of this due to the variety of well documented misconceptions regarding gravity. The second activity is a Light Curve challenge, which uses the open source PaperVision3D tools to analyze 3D asteroid models. The goal of this activity is to introduce the player to the concept of “light curves”, measurements of asteroid brightness over time which are used to calculate the asteroid’s period. These measurements can even be inverted to generate three dimensional models of asteroids that are otherwise too small and distant to directly image. Through the use of the Paper

  17. Hot Flashes

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Hot flashes By Mayo Clinic Staff Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the ... skin may redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause profuse sweating and may ...

  18. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3)) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3) were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  19. Residential Mercury Contamination in Adobe Brick Homes in Huancavelica, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB.; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m3) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production. PMID:24040399

  20. Physico-mechanical characterization of adobe bricks from Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, I.; Illampas, R.; Charmpis, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe bricks have been used in the construction of buildings for thousands of years. In our days, adobe masonry is no longer a prevailing form of construction. However, a great number of earthen buildings still survives in most regions of the world and constitutes an essential part of the international architectural and cultural heritage. Furthermore, efforts are currently being made to reintroduce adobes as an environmentally-friendly building material to contemporary architecture within the context of sustainable development. Despite the long-term use of adobes and their importance for the society, our knowledge of many aspects of this material is still rather limited. As a result, there are many ongoing research initiatives worldwide aiming to investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of adobe bricks and related durability problems. In this paper, we present our work (which is funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation Project EΠIXEIPHΣEIΣ/ΠPOION/0609/41, the Republic of Cyprus and the European Regional Development Fund) on the physico-mechanical characterization of adobes from Cyprus. In the absence of standardized procedures for most of the tests carried out, testing methodologies that either refer to other types of masonry materials and/or are encountered in the literature are adopted. The results show that adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in the X-ray diffraction analyses patterns. The average capillary water absorption coefficient of the test specimens rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1/2 (when measured against a saturated sponge surface), while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. Extensive experimental data on the material's mechanical behaviour show that adobes' response to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average value of compressive strength depends greatly on the form of specimen examined (cube, cylinder, prism) and the failure criterion

  1. Characterization, reproduction and optimization of traditional adobe bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Eftychiou, Marina; Costi de Castrillo, Maria; Illampas, Rogiros

    2013-04-01

    Adobe bricks were first introduced 10-12,000 years ago. Extensive use of the material throughout the centuries has led to strong local traditions of building with earth and has established adobe masonry as an important feature of the international architectural heritage. Today, despite no longer being a prevalent building material, adobes are still in use, since a number of earthen structures survive worldwide. Furthermore, the simplicity, low cost and almost negligible embodied energy associated with the production of adobes, as well as their good thermal and acoustic properties, render them an attractive option for use in contemporary sustainable construction. Therefore, several ongoing research projects internationally investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of traditional adobe bricks and the design/production of optimized adobes, with improved characteristics, for use in contemporary architecture. Here, we present ongoing research on adobe bricks carried out in the framework of the project E& IXEIPH EI / POION/0609/41, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus, through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. Our work focuses on the characterization of traditional adobes, their reproduction and optimization in the laboratory to produce materials with improved physicomechanical properties. Results up-to-date show that traditional adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in relevant X-ray diffraction analyses. The average capillary water absorption coefficient (measured against a saturated sponge surface) of samples collected from market suppliers rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1 -2, while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. The response of traditional adobes to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average compressive strength recorded depends on the form of test specimen (cube, cylinder, prism). Samples with aspect

  2. Non Volatile Flash Memory Radiation Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.; Allen, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Commercial flash memory industry has experienced a fast growth in the recent years, because of their wide spread usage in cell phones, mp3 players and digital cameras. On the other hand, there has been increased interest in the use of high density commercial nonvolatile flash memories in space because of ever increasing data requirements and strict power requirements. Because of flash memories complex structure; they cannot be treated as just simple memories in regards to testing and analysis. It becomes quite challenging to determine how they will respond in radiation environments.

  3. 25. MCDONALD RANCH: RUINS OF AN UNIDENTIFIED ADOBE OUTBUILDING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. MCDONALD RANCH: RUINS OF AN UNIDENTIFIED ADOBE OUTBUILDING WEST OF RANCH HOUSE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - White Sands Missile Range, Trinity Site, Vicinity of Routes 13 & 20, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  4. [Use of Adobe Photoshop software in medical criminology].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, S A; Demidov, I V

    2000-01-01

    Describes the method of comparative analysis of various objects in practical medical criminology and making of high-quality photographs with the use of Adobe Photoshop software. Options of the software needed for expert evaluations are enumerated.

  5. 78 FR 16856 - FDIC Advisory Committee on Community Banking; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... presentations. The latest version of Adobe Flash Player can be downloaded at http://www.adobe.com/shockwave... be found at the same link. For optimal viewing, a high speed Internet connection is recommended....

  6. 20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, stood on the site later occupied by the Stroud Building. The Salt River Herald, Phoenix's first newspaper, was founded in 1878; in 1879, it became the Phoenix Herald. Prior to 1879, the adobe building served as the office for a stagecoach line operating between Maricopa and Prescott via Phoenix. Credit PPL. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. Flash Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2000-03-01

    Meteorites contain millimeter-sized objects called chondrules. They were melted in the solar nebula, the cloud of gas and dust in which the Sun and planets formed. Numerous experiments on rock powders have been done to understand the melting process and the cooling rates chondrules experienced. Most meteorite specialists believe that chondrules formed by flash heating, with almost instantaneous melting, though the length of time they remained molten is uncertain. Can conventional laboratory furnaces heat rock powders rapidly enough to flash melt them? Susan Maharaj and Roger Hewins (Rutgers University, New Brunswick) tested this idea by inserting tiny wires of pure elements (which have precise melting temperatures) into compressed rock powders about 3.5 mm in diameter, and placing the samples into a furnace heated to a range of temperatures. They found that at 1600 C, a sample took only six seconds to reach 1538 C. When placed into a furnace at 1500 C, samples took ten seconds to reach 1495 C. This shows that the flash heating process can be studied in conventional laboratory furnaces.

  8. Lunar Impact Flash Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    A bright impact flash detected by the NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring Program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. A process for locating the impact flash, and presumably its associated crater, was developed using commercially available software tools. The process was successfully applied to the March 2013 impact flash and put into production on an additional 300 impact flashes. The goal today: provide a description of the geolocation technique developed.

  9. Technical report on semiautomatic segmentation using the Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk; Hwang, Sung Bae; Lee, Yong Sook; Har, Dong-Hwan

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to enable users to semiautomatically segment the anatomical structures in magnetic resonance images (MRIs), computerized tomographs (CTs), and other medical images on a personal computer. The segmented images are used for making 3D images, which are helpful to medical education and research. To achieve this purpose, the following trials were performed. The entire body of a volunteer was scanned to make 557 MRIs. On Adobe Photoshop, contours of 19 anatomical structures in the MRIs were semiautomatically drawn using MAGNETIC LASSO TOOL and manually corrected using either LASSO TOOL or DIRECT SELECTION TOOL to make 557 segmented images. In a similar manner, 13 anatomical structures in 8,590 anatomical images were segmented. Proper segmentation was verified by making 3D images from the segmented images. Semiautomatic segmentation using Adobe Photoshop is expected to be widely used for segmentation of anatomical structures in various medical images.

  10. Seeding Success on Topsoiled and Nontopsoiled Slopes at Adobe Dam,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    established from seed , [however seed germination inhibitors in the seed coat may result in a long dormancy period. Nord (1977) recommends soaking seed in...a species mix rather than a single species is advised (Plummer, Christenson, and Monsen 1968). Germination and purity of native seed species vary...AI S . I SEEDING SUCCESS ON TOPSO LED AND NONTOPSOILED SLOPES AT 11fADOBE DAM A) ARIZ NA STATE UNIV TEMPE CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES C WMOORE

  11. Techniques on semiautomatic segmentation using the Adobe Photoshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to enable anybody to semiautomatically segment the anatomical structures in the MRIs, CTs, and other medical images on the personal computer. The segmented images are used for making three-dimensional images, which are helpful in medical education and research. To achieve this purpose, the following trials were performed. The entire body of a volunteer was MR scanned to make 557 MRIs, which were transferred to a personal computer. On Adobe Photoshop, contours of 19 anatomical structures in the MRIs were semiautomatically drawn using MAGNETIC LASSO TOOL; successively, manually corrected using either LASSO TOOL or DIRECT SELECTION TOOL to make 557 segmented images. In a likewise manner, 11 anatomical structures in the 8,500 anatomcial images were segmented. Also, 12 brain and 10 heart anatomical structures in anatomical images were segmented. Proper segmentation was verified by making and examining the coronal, sagittal, and three-dimensional images from the segmented images. During semiautomatic segmentation on Adobe Photoshop, suitable algorithm could be used, the extent of automatization could be regulated, convenient user interface could be used, and software bugs rarely occurred. The techniques of semiautomatic segmentation using Adobe Photoshop are expected to be widely used for segmentation of the anatomical structures in various medical images.

  12. [Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].

    PubMed

    Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

    2013-01-16

    Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions.

  13. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  14. Revegetation Study of Adobe Dam, Phoenix, Arizona. Task 6. Evaluation of Three Watering and Mulching Techniques on Transplanted Trees at Adobe Dam.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-18

    describes the site characteristics of the Adobe Dam Study Area. Task No. 5 & 7 Seeding Success on Topsoiled and Hard Topspoles Slopes at Ddobe Dam". This...report presents statisfied analysis of the relative success of several seeding methods used at the Adobe Dam site. Task No.6 "Evaluation of three...8217,- ,_ _ .. _. ,’ .’ .’.- .. .. . . .’ .’. -" ". INTRODUCTION On denuded lands, harsh site conditions may render revegetation by seeding risky and the probability of seeding failure high

  15. Flash protection controller

    DOEpatents

    Galbraith, Lee K.

    1981-01-01

    A controller provides a high voltage to maintain an electro-optic shutter in a transparent condition until a flash of light which would be harmful to personnel is sensed by a phototransistor. The controller then shorts the shutter to ground to minimize light transmission to the user and maintains light transmission at the pre-flash level for a predetermined time to allow the flash to subside. A log converter and differential trigger circuit keep the controller from being triggered by other light flashes which are not dangerous.

  16. Flash protection controller

    DOEpatents

    Galbraith, L.K.

    1979-12-07

    A controller provides a high voltage to maintain an electro-optic shutter in a transparent condition until a flash of light which would be harmful to personnel is sensed by a phototransistor. The controller then shorts the shutter to ground to minimize light transmission to the user and maintains light transmission at the pre-flash level for a predetermined time to allow the flash to subside. A log converter and differential trigger circuit keep the controller from being triggered by other light flashes which are not dangerous.

  17. Turbulence in Reynolds' flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerbus, Rory; Liu, Chien-Chia; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-11-01

    Osborne Reynolds' seminal work from 1883 revealed that the transition from quiescent, laminar flow to a turbulent pipe filled with roiling eddies is mediated by localized flashes of fluctuations. Later work has unveiled many features of these flashes: they proliferate or fade away, maintain their shape or continually expand. The nature of the fluctuations in the flashes, however, has remained mysterious. Here, using measures traditionally attributed to high Reynolds number (Re) flows, we present experimental results on the fluctuations of the flashes. Our results suggest that the transition to turbulence is the low Re limit of the high Re, fully developed flow. Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology.

  18. Flash-Type Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  19. Building code challenging the ethics behind adobe architecture in North Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Şahali, Öznem

    2015-04-01

    Adobe masonry is part of the vernacular architecture of Cyprus. Thus, it is possible to use this technology in a meaningful way on the island. On the other hand, although adobe architecture is more sustainable in comparison to other building technologies, the use of it is diminishing in North Cyprus. The application of Turkish building code in the north of the island has created complications in respect of the use of adobe masonry, because this building code demands that reinforced concrete vertical tie-beams are used together with adobe masonry. The use of reinforced concrete elements together with adobe masonry causes problems in relation to the climatic response of the building as well as causing other technical and aesthetic problems. This situation makes the design of adobe masonry complicated and various types of ethical problems also emerge. The objective of this article is to analyse the ethical problems which arise as a consequence of the restrictive character of the building code, by analysing two case studies and conducting an interview with an architect who was involved with the use of adobe masonry in North Cyprus. According to the results of this article there are ethical problems at various levels in the design of both case studies. These problems are connected to the responsibilities of architects in respect of the social benefit, material production, aesthetics and affordability of the architecture as well as presenting distrustful behaviour where the obligations of architects to their clients is concerned.

  20. Asian Rhinoplasty: Preoperative Simulation and Planning Using Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Nguyen, Anh H

    2015-11-01

    A rhinoplasty in Asians differs from a rhinoplasty performed in patients of other ethnicities. Surgeons should understand the concept of Asian beauty, the nasal anatomy of Asians, and common problems encountered while operating on the Asian nose. With this understanding, surgeons can set appropriate goals, choose proper operative procedures, and provide an outcome that satisfies patients. In this article the authors define the concept of an Asian rhinoplasty-a paradigm shift from the traditional on-top augmentation rhinoplasty to a structurally integrated augmentation rhinoplasty-and provide a step-by-step procedure for the use of Adobe Photoshop as a preoperative program to simulate the expected surgical outcome for patients and to develop a preoperative plan for surgeons.

  1. The Flash Grab Effect

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Patrick; Anstis, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    When an object moves back and forth, its trajectory appears significantly shorter than it actually is. The object appears to stop and reverse well before its actual reversal point, as if there is some averaging of location within a window of about 100 ms (Sinico et al, 2009). Surprisingly, if a bar is flashed at the physical end point of the trajectory, right on top of the object, just as it reverses direction, the flash is also shifted – grabbed by the object – and is seen at the perceived endpoint of the trajectory rather than the physical endpoint. This can shift the perceived location of the flash by as much as 2 or 3 times its physical size and by up to several degrees of visual angle. We first show that the position shift of the flash is generated by the trajectory shortening, as the same shift is seen with or without the flash. The flash itself is only grabbed if it is presented within a small spatiotemporal attraction zone around the physical end point of the trajectory. Any flash falling in that zone is pulled toward the perceived endpoint. The effect scales linearly with speed, up to a maximum, and is independent of the contrast of the moving stimulus once it is above 5%. Finally, we demonstrate that this position shift requires attention. These results reveal a new “flash grab” effect in the family of motion-induced position shifts. Although it most resembles the flash drag effect, it differs from this in the following ways: 1) it has a different temporal profile, 2) it requires attention, 3) it is about 10 times larger. PMID:23872166

  2. Understanding Green Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrew T.

    1998-05-01

    Most astronomers learn about green flashes from either Minnaert's old book (Dover, 1954) or O'Connell's ``The Green Flash....'' Both have defects. Minnaert's account mostly represents what was known in the 1920s; it repeats Mulder's 3-fold classification, which omits Joule's second type of flash --- the one most commonly seen from mountain observatories. O'Connell searched only the astronomical literature, missing Dietze's crucially important paper (Z.f.Met. 9, 169 (1955)) showing that the ``textbook'' mechanism cannot produce flashes visible to the naked eye. He also erred in thinking that distortions of the setting Sun arise in the upper atmosphere (they are due to the marine boundary layer), and copied an error from Feenstra Kuiper's thesis that misidentified a common mirage-like phenomenon as Wegener's ``blank strip'' (Young et al., Appl. Opt. 36, 2689 (1997).) Most phenomena shown in O'Connell's book are caused by inversion layers below eye level, not above as in Wegener's phenomenon. The two commonest forms of green flash are associated with the inferior mirage and the mock mirage, corresponding to Fisher's Type A and Type B sunsets, respectively. Superrefraction, advocated by Wood and by Rayleigh as the cause of large flashes, actually suppress them: the airmass is proportional to the refraction (by Laplace's extinction theorem), so no green is transmitted when refraction is much larger than average. Although there is a physical green flash that can be photographed, the colors seen at sunset are strongly modified by bleaching of the L cones. Most ``green'' sunset flashes are actually yellow. Writers should stop representing Jules Verne's ``ancient legend'' as fact, as it was invented by Verne as a plot device for his novel ``Le Rayon Vert.'' Green-flash photos and simulations will be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Award No. ATM-9714357.

  3. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  4. Floods and Flash Flooding

    MedlinePlus

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  5. Flash Bulletin: Fireflies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Debbie

    1984-01-01

    Explains the flashes of light emitted by fireflies as competition, species-specific code, species identification and mating behavior and ecology. Suggests activities to conduct to study the insects and their behavior. (ERB)

  6. Revegetation Study of Adobe Dam, Phoenix, Arizona. Task 3. Revision. Revegetation Methods for Arid Areas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-18

    This report describes the site characteristics of the Adobe Dam Study Area. Task No. 5 & 7 Seeding Success on Topsoiled and Hard Topspoles Slopes at...Ddobe Dam". This report presents statisfied analysis of the relative success of several seeding methods used at the Adobe Dam site. Task No.6...to moisture stress , soil fertility and toxicity problems are also common on areas in need of revegetation. Several agencies deal successfully with

  7. GrinLine identification using digital imaging and Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Susan A; Brumit, Paula C; Schrader, Bruce A; Senn, David R

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to outline a method by which an antemortem photograph of a victim can be critically compared with a postmortem photograph in an effort to facilitate the identification process. Ten subjects, between 27 and 55 years old provided historical pictures of themselves exhibiting a broad smile showing anterior teeth to some extent (a grin). These photos were termed "antemortem" for the purpose of the study. A digital camera was used to take a current photo of each subject's grin. These photos represented the "postmortem" images. A single subject's "postmortem" photo set was randomly selected to be the "unknown victim." These combined data of the unknown and the 10 antemortem subjects were digitally stored and, using Adobe Photoshop software, the images were sized and oriented for comparative analysis. The goal was to devise a technique that could facilitate the accurate determination of which "antemortem" subject was the "unknown." The generation of antemortem digital overlays of the teeth visible in a grin and the comparison of those overlays to the images of the postmortem dentition is the foundation of the technique. The comparisons made using the GrinLine Identification Technique may assist medical examiners and coroners in making identifications or exclusions.

  8. Flash fire propensity of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Flash fire test results on 86 materials, evaluated using the USF flash fire screening test, are presented. The materials which appear least prone to flash fires are PVC, polyphenylene oxide and sulfide, and polyether and polyaryl sulfone; these did not produce flash fires under these particular test conditions. The principal value of these screening tests at the present time is in identifying materials which appear prone to flash fires, and in identifying which formulations of a generic material are more or less prone to flash fires.

  9. Evaluating Internet Health Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... content requires the Adobe Flash Player and a JavaScript-enabled browser. It seems JavaScript is disabled in your browser settings. Please enable JavaScript and reload this page, or use a different ...

  10. Depomedroxyprogesterone acetate for hot flashes.

    PubMed

    Barton, Debra; Loprinzi, Charles; Quella, Susan; Sloan, Jeff; Pruthi, Sandya; Novotny, Paul

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a long-acting preparation of medroxyprogesterone acetate for hot flash management, 3 men receiving androgen ablation therapy for prostate cancer and 15 women with a history of breast cancer were treated as part of clinical practice with three biweekly intramuscular injections of 500 mg depomedroxyprogesterone. A review of hot flash diaries and patient charts were completed to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of these injections for managing hot flashes. Treatment was associated with an approximate 90% decrease in hot flashes (95% CI 82-97%). Daily hot flash frequency decreased from a mean of 10.9 on the first day of treatment (95% CI 8.0-13.8 hot flashes per day) to a mean of 1.1 hot flashes 6 weeks later (95% CI 0.5-1.8 hot flashes) and to a mean of 0.7 hot flashes 12 weeks following therapy initiation (95% CI 0.1-1.2). Improvement in the hot flashes remained for months after discontinuing the injections in many patients. Reported side effects were minimal. This experience suggests that treatment with depomedroxyprogesterone may be an effective and well-tolerated option for the treatment of hot flashes.

  11. Observations of Umbral Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Krijger, J. M.

    2003-10-01

    We present observations of oscillations in the chromosphere of the umbra of sunspots. The observations were obtained with the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope (SVST) and the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma, comprising spectrograms and filtergrams in the Ca II H line. The sawtooth pattern in the spectroscopic time evolution of the Ca II H core is shown as well as evidence for a connection between umbral flashes and running penumbral waves from image sequences. Running waves, coherent over a large fraction of the penumbra, seem to be excited by flashes that occur close to the umbra-penumbral boundary. Comparing the intensity oscillations in the Ca II H line with TRACE observations in the 1600 Å passband, we find a phase difference of approximately 25 ° with 1600 Å leading the Ca II H intensity oscillation which we attribute to complex dynamical behaviour.

  12. Flash Lidar Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergkoetter, M. D.; Ruppert, L.; Weimer, C. S.; Ramond, T.; Lefsky, M. A.; Burke, I. C.; Hu, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Late last year, a prototype Flash LIDAR instrument flew on a series of airborne tests to demonstrate its potential for improved vegetation measurements. The prototype is a precursor to the Electronically Steerable Flash LIDAR (ESFL) currently under development at Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp. with funding from the NASA Earth Science Technology Office. ESFL may soon significantly expand our ability to measure vegetation and forests and better understand the extent of their role in global climate change and the carbon cycle - all critical science questions relating to the upcoming NASA DESDynI and ESA BIOMASS missions. In order to more efficiently exploit data returned from the experimental Flash Lidar system and plan for data exploitation from future flights, Ball funded a graduate student project (through the Ball Summer Intern Program, summer 2009) to develop and implement algorithms for post-processing of the 3-Dimensional Flash Lidar data. This effort included developing autonomous algorithms to resample the data to a uniform rectangular grid, geolocation of the data, and visual display of large swaths of data. The resampling, geolocation, surface hit detection, and aggregation of frame data are implemented with new MATLAB code, and the efficient visual display is achieved with free commercial viewing software. These efforts directly support additional tests flights planned as early as October 2009, including possible flights over Niwot Ridge, CO, for which there is ICESat data, and a sea-level coastal area in California to test the effect of higher altitude (above ground level) on the divergence of the beams and the beam spot sizes.

  13. Physics Flash August 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth

    2016-08-25

    Physics Flash is the newsletter for the Physics Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This newsletter is for August 2016. The following topics are covered: "Accomplishments in the Trident Laser Facility", "David Meyerhofer elected as chair-elect APS Nominating Committee", "HAWC searches for gamma rays from dark matter", "Proton Radiography Facility commissions electromagnetic magnifier", and "Cosmic ray muon computed tomography of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks."

  14. Physics Flash December 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    This is the December 2016 issue of Physics Flash, the newsletter of the Physics Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In this issue, the following topics are covered: Novel liquid helium technique to aid highly sensitive search for a neutron electrical dipole moment; Silverleaf: Prototype Red Sage experiments performed at Q-site; John L. Kline named 2016 APS Fellow; Physics students in the news; First Entropy Engine quantum random number generator hits the market; and celebrating service.

  15. Flash Rust & Waterjetting Study

    SciTech Connect

    DORSH, P.M..

    2001-11-14

    Certain areas of the primary wall in the AY-101 tank annulus are being cleaned with a remotely operated waterjet. There is some concern on how it will effect the surface of the tank wall after cleaning and how to prevent rust and corrosion from developing on the wall in the future. This study addresses the cause and effects of flash rust, which typically develops on steel surfaces after the waterjetting process.

  16. Optimal flash rate and duty cycle for flashing visual indicators.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, J.

    1971-01-01

    This experiment examined the ability of observers to determine, as quickly as possible, whether a visual indicator was steadily on or flashing. Six flash rates (periods) were combined factorially with three duty cycles (on-off ratios) to define 18 ?types' of intermittent signals. Experimental sessions were divided into six runs of 100 trials, each run utilizing one of the six flash rates. On any given trial in a run, the probability of a steady signal occurring was 0.5 and the probability of a flashing signal occurring was 0.5. A different duty cycle was employed daily for each experimental session. In all, 400 trials were devoted to each of the flash rates at each duty cycle. Accuracy and latency of response were the dependent variables of interest. The results show that the observers view the light for an interval of time appropriate to the expected flash rate and duty cycle; whether they judge the light to be steady or intermittent depends upon whether the light is extinguished during the predetermined waiting period. Adoption of this temporal criterion delays responding in comparison to those tasks involving responses to light onset. The decision or response criteria held by the observers are also sensitive to the parameters of the flashing light: observers become increasingly willing to call a flashing light ?steady' as flash duration increases.

  17. Using Adobe Connect to Deliver Online Library Instruction to the RN to BSN Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a look at how one academic health sciences librarian brought mediated literature searching to the distance RN to BSN nursing students. It takes a look at why Adobe Connect was the webinar software that was selected to deliver online instruction to the students. The article explains how students participated in a pre-class survey…

  18. Building on Tradition: The Art of Adobe and the Revival of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Amanda; Swan, Susan

    2001-01-01

    A New Mexico foundation helps primarily Hispanic and American Indian communities restore adobe churches by supplying technical assistance and matching grants. Community leadership of the projects enhances volunteer commitment. The projects build community cohesiveness and pride, maintain local culture, foster intergenerational relations, teach…

  19. Enriching Learning for First Year Chemistry Students: Introduction of Adobe Connect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Lye, Peter; Greatrex, Ben; Taylor, Michelle; Stupans, Ieva

    2013-01-01

    The study of chemistry is central within science and other associated degrees. At the University of New England in Armidale academics need to provide chemistry teaching in both a distance and the traditional on-campus mode within science and other degrees. This study explores the contribution that the adoption of Adobe Connect technology can make…

  20. Staying on Top of Your Game and Scoring Big with Adobe Presenter Multimedia Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koury, Regina; Francis, Marcia J.; Gray, Catherine J.; Jardine, Spencer J.; Guo, Ruiling

    2010-01-01

    In order to reach distance students in times of financial uncertainty, librarians must be creative. While much has been written about Camtasia, Captivate and Jing tutorial software, Adobe Presenter, a Microsoft PowerPoint plug-in, has not been discussed. This article describes how our library team created multimedia tutorial projects at Idaho…

  1. Flash evaporator systems test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    A flash evaporator heat rejection system representative of that proposed for the space shuttle orbiter underwent extensive system testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to determine its operational suitability and to establish system performance/operational characteristics for use in the shuttle system. During the tests the evaporator system demonstrated its suitability to meet the shuttle requirements by: (1) efficient operation with 90 to 95% water evaporation efficiency, (2) control of outlet temperature to 40 + or - 2 F for partial heat load operation, (3) stability of control system for rapid changes in Freon inlet temperature, and (4) repeated dormant-to-active device operation without any startup procedures.

  2. Methods of flash sintering

    DOEpatents

    Raj, Rishi; Cologna, Marco; Francis, John S.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure provides methods of flash sintering and compositions created by these methods. Methods for sintering multilayered bodies are provided in which a sintered body is produced in less than one minute. In one aspect, each layer is of a different composition, and may be constituted wholly from a ceramic or from a combination of ceramic and metallic particles. When the body includes a layer of an anode composition, a layer of an electrolyte composition and a layer of a cathode composition, the sintered body can be used to produce a solid oxide fuel cell.

  3. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  4. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.; Gross, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  5. Geomorphological factors of flash floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    Growing anthropogenic load, rise of extreme meteorological events frequency and total precipitation depth often lead to increasing danger of catastrophic fluvial processes worldwide. Flash floods are one of the most dangerous and less understood types of them. Difficulties of their study are mainly related to short duration of single events, remoteness and hard access to origin areas. Most detailed researches of flash floods focus on hydrological parameters of the flow itself and its meteorological factors. At the same time, importance of the basin geological and geomorphological structure for flash floods generation and the role they play in global sediment redistribution is yet poorly understood. However, understanding and quantitative assessment of these features is a real basis for a complete concept of factors, characteristics and dynamics of flash floods. This work is a review of published data on flash floods, and focuses on the geomorphological factors of the phenomenon. We consider both individual roles and interactions between different geomorphological features (the whole basin parameters, characteristics of the single slopes and valley bottom). Special attention is paid to critical values of certain factors. This approach also highlights the gaps or less studied factors of flash floods. Finally, all data is organized into a complex diagram that may be used for flash floods modeling. This also may help to reach a new level of flash flood predictions and risk assessment.

  6. Superoxide flashes in single mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wang; Fang, Huaqiang; Groom, Linda; Cheng, Aiwu; Zhang, Wanrui; Liu, Jie; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Kaitao; Han, Peidong; Zheng, Ming; Yin, Jinhu; Wang, Weidong; Mattson, Mark P; Kao, Joseph P Y; Lakatta, Edward G; Sheu, Shey-Shing; Ouyang, Kunfu; Chen, Ju; Dirksen, Robert T; Cheng, Heping

    2008-07-25

    In quiescent cells, mitochondria are the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated by leakiness of the electron transport chain (ETC). High levels of ROS can trigger cell death, whereas lower levels drive diverse and important cellular functions. We show here by employing a newly developed mitochondrial matrix-targeted superoxide indicator, that individual mitochondria undergo spontaneous bursts of superoxide generation, termed "superoxide flashes." Superoxide flashes occur randomly in space and time, exhibit all-or-none properties, and provide a vital source of superoxide production across many different cell types. Individual flashes are triggered by transient openings of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore stimulating superoxide production by the ETC. Furthermore, we observe a flurry of superoxide flash activity during reoxygenation of cardiomyocytes after hypoxia, which is inhibited by the cardioprotective compound adenosine. We propose that superoxide flashes could serve as a valuable biomarker for a wide variety of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  7. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-04-01

    Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg)-contaminated urban areas in the world. Exposure is amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. The objectives of this study were to compare two Hg-leaching procedures, and their application as risk-assessment screening tools in Hg-contaminated adobe brick homes in Huancavelica. The purpose was to evaluate potential health implications, particularly for children, after ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. Hg was measured in adobe brick and dirt floor samples from 60 households by total Hg extraction, simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction, and sequential selective extraction (SSE), which provides more detailed data but is resource-intensive. Most of the Hg present in samples was relatively insoluble, although in some households soluble Hg species were present at concentrations that may be of concern after ingestion. A strong correlation was identified between results from simulated GF extraction of adobe bricks and dirt floors and the more soluble fractions of Hg from SSE. Simulated GF extraction data were combined with ingestion and body mass characteristics for small children to compare potential risk of ingestion of Hg-contaminated soil with current health standards. Simulated GF extraction can be used as a risk assessment screening tool for effective allocation of time and resources to households that have measurable concentrations of bioaccessible Hg. Combining simulated GF extraction data with health standards enables intervention strategies targeted at households with the greatest potential health threat from ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles.

  8. FLASH LIDAR Based Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazzel, Jack; Clark, Fred; Milenkovic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Relative navigation remains the most challenging part of spacecraft rendezvous and docking. In recent years, flash LIDARs, have been increasingly selected as the go-to sensors for proximity operations and docking. Flash LIDARS are generally lighter and require less power that scanning Lidars. Flash LIDARs do not have moving parts, and they are capable of tracking multiple targets as well as generating a 3D map of a given target. However, there are some significant drawbacks of Flash Lidars that must be resolved if their use is to be of long-term significance. Overcoming the challenges of Flash LIDARs for navigation-namely, low technology readiness level, lack of historical performance data, target identification, existence of false positives, and performance of vision processing algorithms as intermediaries between the raw sensor data and the Kalman filter-requires a world-class testing facility, such as the Lockheed Martin Space Operations Simulation Center (SOSC). Ground-based testing is a critical step for maturing the next-generation flash LIDAR-based spacecraft relative navigation. This paper will focus on the tests of an integrated relative navigation system conducted at the SOSC in January 2014. The intent of the tests was to characterize and then improve the performance of relative navigation, while addressing many of the flash LIDAR challenges mentioned above. A section on navigation performance and future recommendation completes the discussion.

  9. Ballistic Flash Characterization: Penetration and Back-Face Flash

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    14 Figure 3: Shot T210 Flash X-Radius vs Time .................................................................. 24 Figure 4: 7075 Set A Model...Cumulative Area ................................................................. 35 Figure 5: 7075 Set A Model Average Area...35 Figure 6: 7075 Set B Model Cumulative Area

  10. Protons Trigger Mitochondrial Flashes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Zhanglong; Wu, Di; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Rufeng; Yin, Rongkang; Hou, Tingting; Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Jiejia; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yanru; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Heping

    2016-07-26

    Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are highly conserved elemental mitochondrial signaling events. However, which signal controls their ignition and how they are integrated with other mitochondrial signals and functions remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to further delineate the signal components of the mitoflash and determine the mitoflash trigger mechanism. Using multiple biosensors and chemical probes as well as label-free autofluorescence, we found that the mitoflash reflects chemical and electrical excitation at the single-organelle level, comprising bursting superoxide production, oxidative redox shift, and matrix alkalinization as well as transient membrane depolarization. Both electroneutral H(+)/K(+) or H(+)/Na(+) antiport and matrix proton uncaging elicited immediate and robust mitoflash responses over a broad dynamic range in cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells. However, charge-uncompensated proton transport, which depolarizes mitochondria, caused the opposite effect, and steady matrix acidification mildly inhibited mitoflashes. Based on a numerical simulation, we estimated a mean proton lifetime of 1.42 ns and diffusion distance of 2.06 nm in the matrix. We conclude that nanodomain protons act as a novel, to our knowledge, trigger of mitoflashes in energized mitochondria. This finding suggests that mitoflash genesis is functionally and mechanistically integrated with mitochondrial energy metabolism.

  11. Electronic Flash In Data Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. E.

    1982-02-01

    Photographic acquisition of data often may be simplified, or the data quality improved upon by employing electronic flash sources with traditional equipment or techniques. The relatively short flash duration compared to movie camera shutters, or to the long integration time of video camera provides improved spatial resolution through blur reduction, particularly important as image movement becomes a significant fraction of film format dimension. Greater accuracy typically is achieved in velocity and acceleration determinations by using a stroboscopic light source rather than a movie camera frame-rate control as a time standard. Electrical efficiency often is an important advantage of electronic flash sources since almost any necessary light level for exposure may be produced, yet the source typically is "off" most of the time. Various synchronization techniques greatly expand the precise control of exposure. Biomechanical and sports equipment studies may involve velocities up to 200 feet-per-second, and often will have associated very rapid actions of interest. The need for brief exposures increases H.s one "ZOOMS in on the action." In golf, for example, the swing may be examined using 100 microsecond (Us) flashes at rates of 60 or 120 flashes-per-second (FPS). Accurate determination of linear and rotational velocity of the ball requires 10 Us flashes at 500-1,000 FPS, while sub-Us flashes at 20,000-50,000 FPS are required to resolve the interaction of the ball and the club, head. Some seldom. used techniques involving streak photography are described, with enhanced results obtained by combining strobe with the usual continuous light source. The combination of strobe and a fast electro-mechanical shutter is considered for Us photography under daylight conditions.

  12. Menopausal hot flashes: Randomness or rhythmicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, Fredi

    1991-10-01

    Menopausal hot flashes are episodes of flushing, increased heart rate, skin blood flow and skin temperature, and a sensation of heat. The thermoregulatory and cardiovascular concomitants of hot flashes are associated with peaks in the levels of various hormones and neurotransmitters in the peripheral circulation. Although hot flashes affect about 75% of women, and are the primary reason that women at menopause seek medical attention, the mechanism of hot flashes is still not understood. Hot flashes vary in frequency and intensity both within and between individuals, and have been thought of as occurring randomly. Yet, some women report that their hot flashes are worse at a particular time of day or year. Initial examination of subjects' recordings of their hot flashes showed diurnal patterns of hot flash occurrence. There also seems to be a diurnal rhythm of hot flash intensity. Continuous physiological monitoring of hot flashes is facilitating the analysis of these patterns, which is revealing circadian and ultradian periodicities. The occurrence of hot flashes can be modulated by external and internal factors, including ambient temperature and fever. Rhythms of thermoregulatory and endocrine functions also may influence hot flash patterns. Examination of the interrelationships between the various systems of the body involved in hot flashes, and a multidisciplinary approach to the analysis of hot flash patterns, will aid our understanding of this complex phenomenon.

  13. MedlinePlus: Viewers & Players

    MedlinePlus

    ... Player Play video and audio files on Apple operating systems. mov Apple iTunes Download NLM podcasts and applications. ... Player Play video and audio files on PC operating systems. mp3 wav wmz Microsoft Excel Viewer Open, view ...

  14. Teaching Beginning Trombone Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallis, Todd L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the process of introducing the trombone to beginning students and addresses the issue of warming-up. Provides resources for beginning trombone methods, band methods, and daily warm-up studies. Includes resources for scale studies and etudes for beginning to intermediate trombone players. (CMK)

  15. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2016-03-01

    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera.

  16. Flash sintering of ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dancer, C. E. J.

    2016-10-01

    During flash sintering, ceramic materials can sinter to high density in a matter of seconds while subjected to electric field and elevated temperature. This process, which occurs at lower furnace temperatures and in shorter times than both conventional ceramic sintering and field-assisted methods such as spark plasma sintering, has the potential to radically reduce the power consumption required for the densification of ceramic materials. This paper reviews the experimental work on flash sintering methods carried out to date, and compares the properties of the materials obtained to those produced by conventional sintering. The flash sintering process is described for oxides of zirconium, yttrium, aluminium, tin, zinc, and titanium; silicon and boron carbide, zirconium diboride, materials for solid oxide fuel applications, ferroelectric materials, and composite materials. While experimental observations have been made on a wide range of materials, understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the onset and latter stages of flash sintering is still elusive. Elements of the proposed theories to explain the observed behaviour include extensive Joule heating throughout the material causing thermal runaway, arrested by the current limitation in the power supply, and the formation of defect avalanches which rapidly and dramatically increase the sample conductivity. Undoubtedly, the flash sintering process is affected by the electric field strength, furnace temperature and current density limit, but also by microstructural features such as the presence of second phase particles or dopants and the particle size in the starting material. While further experimental work and modelling is still required to attain a full understanding capable of predicting the success of the flash sintering process in different materials, the technique non-etheless holds great potential for exceptional control of the ceramic sintering process.

  17. FLASH SPECTROSCOPY AND FLASH FLUORIMETRY IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC STUDIES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A comparative study of the flash induced forma tion of a pigment , X, absorbing at 515 millimicron in different classes of algae was made. This...that it occurs as a non- photosynthetic inter mediate, specifically as a consequence of damag ing photo-oxidation processes was examined. The latter

  18. How to optimize radiological images captured from digital cameras, using the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 program.

    PubMed

    Chalazonitis, A N; Koumarianos, D; Tzovara, J; Chronopoulos, P

    2003-06-01

    Over the past decade, the technology that permits images to be digitized and the reduction in the cost of digital equipment allows quick digital transfer of any conventional radiological film. Images then can be transferred to a personal computer, and several software programs are available that can manipulate their digital appearance. In this article, the fundamentals of digital imaging are discussed, as well as the wide variety of optional adjustments that the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) program can offer to present radiological images with satisfactory digital imaging quality.

  19. Hot Flashes amd Night Sweats (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview ... quality of life in many patients with cancer. Hot flashes and night sweats may be side effects ...

  20. From Hot Flashes to Cool Insights: Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Menopause From Hot Flashes to Cool Insights: Menopause Winter 2017 Table ... experienced the menopausal transition. Researching "the menopause transition" Hot flashes, weight gain, night sweats, insomnia, and moodiness— ...

  1. Adobe acrobat: an alternative electronic teaching file construction methodology independent of HTML restrictions.

    PubMed

    Katzman, G L

    2001-03-01

    The goal of the project was to create a method by which an in-house digital teaching file could be constructed that was simple, inexpensive, independent of hypertext markup language (HTML) restrictions, and appears identical on multiple platforms. To accomplish this, Microsoft PowerPoint and Adobe Acrobat were used in succession to assemble digital teaching files in the Acrobat portable document file format. They were then verified to appear identically on computers running Windows, Macintosh Operating Systems (OS), and the Silicon Graphics Unix-based OS as either a free-standing file using Acrobat Reader software or from within a browser window using the Acrobat browser plug-in. This latter display method yields a file viewed through a browser window, yet remains independent of underlying HTML restrictions, which may confer an advantage over simple HTML teaching file construction. Thus, a hybrid of HTML-distributed Adobe Acrobat generated WWW documents may be a viable alternative for digital teaching file construction and distribution.

  2. DICOM to print, 35-mm slides, web, and video projector: tutorial using Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Jud W

    2002-10-01

    Preparing images for publication has dealt with film and the photographic process. With picture archiving and communications systems, many departments will no longer produce film. This will change how images are produced for publication. DICOM, the file format for radiographic images, has to be converted and then prepared for traditional publication, 35-mm slides, the newest techniques of video projection, and the World Wide Web. Tagged image file format is the common format for traditional print publication, whereas joint photographic expert group is the current file format for the World Wide Web. Each medium has specific requirements that can be met with a common image-editing program such as Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). High-resolution images are required for print, a process that requires interpolation. However, the Internet requires images with a small file size for rapid transmission. The resolution of each output differs and the image resolution must be optimized to match the output of the publishing medium.

  3. Multi-stage flash degaser

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, P.M.

    1980-06-26

    A multi-stage flash degaser is incorporated in an energy conversion system having a direct-contact, binary-fluid heat exchanger to remove essentially all of the noncondensable gases from geothermal brine ahead of the direct-contact binary-fluid heat exchanger in order that the heat exchanger and a turbine and condenser of the system can operate at optimal efficiency.

  4. Undergraduate Separations Utilizing Flash Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, G.

    2000-02-01

    This article describes the procedures used to carry out four flash chromatography experiments: the isolation of the carotenes, chlorophylls and xanthophylls from a spinach extract; the separation of ß-carotene from tetraphenyl cyclopentadienone; the isolation of (+) and (-) carvone from caraway and spearmint oil; and the purification of benzil from benzoin. Apparatus used is nonbreakable, easy to use, and inexpensive.

  5. 77 FR 30003 - FDIC Advisory Committee on Community Banking; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... broad range of policy issues that have particular impact on small community banks throughout the United... Player is required to view these presentations. The latest version of Adobe Flash Player can be.... Installation questions or troubleshooting help can be found at the same link. For optimal viewing, a high...

  6. Adobe InDesign vs. QuarkXPress and PageMaker: The Best of Both Worlds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the newly released Adobe InDesign software, finding that while it brings new life into desktop publishing, it is not yet a "must buy" for publications advisers. Compares specific features that are relevant for student publications, including: character, paragraph, drop caps, define styles, page setup, text wrap, defining and using…

  7. 75 FR 60820 - United States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the Antitrust Procedures and Penalties Act, 15 U.S.C. 16(b)-(h), that a proposed Final...

  8. SteroMoviePlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, Steve; Pugmire, Dave

    2005-03-14

    StereoMoviePlayer StereoMoviePlayer (SMP) is a software package for creating and displaying stereo movies on a variety of computer architectures and display configuations. SMP is capable of running in serial, or in parallel to facilitate multiple computers driving a collection of display surfaces. SMP utilizes the standatd openGL gaphics library for display of both monoscopic and stereoscopic images and MPI for parallel communication and sychronization between multiple computers. SMP uses standard IO methods for loading movie files into memory and, when compressed movies are being displayed uses zLIB (which is standard in most Linux/Unix;/IRIX distributions) for decompression. A movie file is simply a concatenation of each frame. Each frame is a raw red/green/blue encoding. For stereoscopic movies, concatenation is left followed by right, as follows; Frame0-Left, Frame0-Right, Frame1-Left, Frame1-Right .... FrameN-Left, FrameN-Right To enhance performance, this concatenation of frames can be compressed using the aforementioned zLib compression/decompression library. ConvertMovie is a utility that converts between compressed and uncompressed movie formats. ConvertMovie uses zLib, which is included in most standard Linux/Unix/IRIX distributions for compression and decompression. StereoMoviePlayer consists of 3 main parts: 1-Initialization. Information is parsed from a configuration script that specifies machines on which to run, the movie file and the parameters for each graphics display. MPI is then used to instantiate a movie player on each specified computer. 2-Per-node initialization. Each parallel node creates 2 threads of execution, an IO thread and a display and communication thread. 3-Execution: The IO thread reads movie frames from disk, decompresses if necessary and places the frames in main memory. The display thread copies fromes from main memory to the graphics card for display. The display thread also handles synchronization among the other nodes

  9. Multi-stage flash degaser

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, Pascal M.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-stage flash degaser (18) is incorporated in an energy conversion system (10) having a direct-contact, binary-fluid heat exchanger to remove essentially all of the noncondensable gases from geothermal brine ahead of the direct-contact binary-fluid heat exchanger (22) in order that the heat exchanger (22) and a turbine (48) and condenser (32) of the system (10) can operate at optimal efficiency.

  10. Firefly flashing under strong static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Barua, Anurup Gohain; Iwasaka, Masakazu; Miyashita, Yuito; Kurita, Satoru; Owada, Norio

    2012-02-01

    Firefly flashing has been the subject of numerous scientific investigations. Here we present in vivo flashes from male specimens of three species of fireflies-two Japanese species Luciola cruciata, Luciola lateralis and one Indian species Luciola praeusta-positioned under a superconducting magnet. When the OFF state of the firefly becomes long after flashing in an immobile state under the strong static magnetic field of strength 10 Tesla for a long time, which varies widely from species to species as well as from specimen to specimen, the effect of the field becomes noticeable. The flashes in general are more rapid, and occasionally overlap to produce broad compound flashes. We present the broadest flashes recorded to date, and propose that the strong static magnetic field affects the neural activities of fireflies, especially those in the spent up or 'exhausted' condition.

  11. Changes of flash droughts over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linying; Yuan, Xing

    2016-04-01

    The rapidly evolving drought events, which are recently termed as "flash droughts", can seriously affect vegetation and water supply due to extreme heat, low soil moisture and high evapotranspiration (ET). The changes of flash droughts are not only caused by natural climate variability similar to the traditional drought events, but also associated with global warming since abnormally high temperature is an important criterion for the triggering of flash droughts. Here, we have assessed the long-term trend and variability of flash droughts over China from 1979 to 2010, based on over two thousand meteorological observations of surface air temperature and three global reanalysis products for the soil moisture and ET estimations. Our results suggest that the flash droughts are most likely to occur in humid and semihumid regions, such as southern and northeastern China. Basically, there are increasing trends for flash droughts over different regions in China mainly due to the temperature increases. The increasing trends of flash droughts do not decline during the second half of the study period, but the warming hiatus does exist over many regions of China. The underlying mechanisms are being attributed by investigating the changes in temperature, soil moisture and ET over different parts of China. This study uniquely demonstrates the favorable regions for the occurrence of flash droughts over China, and is targeted at attributing the changes of flash droughts within the context of the understanding of the terrestrial water and energy cycle in a changing climate.

  12. Dry-Column Flash Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shusterman, Alan J.; McDougal, Patrick G.; Glasfeld, Arthur

    1997-10-01

    Dry-column flash chromatography is a safe, powerful, yet easily learned preparative chromatography technique. It has proven useful in research, and an adaptation of the technique for use in large teaching laboratories (general chemistry, organic chemistry) is described here. The student version is similar to vacuum filtration, uses the same compact, readily available glassware, and inexpensive and safe solvents (ethyl acetate and hexane) and adsorbent (Merck grade 60 silica gel). The technique is sufficiently simple and powerful that a beginning student can successfully resolve diastereomers on sample scales ranging from 100 mg to >1 g.

  13. Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000826.htm Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats To use the sharing ... JavaScript. Certain types of cancer treatments can cause hot flashes and night sweats. Hot flashes are when ...

  14. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community.

  15. Radon and thoron levels, their spatial and seasonal variations in adobe dwellings - a case study at the great Hungarian plain.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba; Horváth, Ákos; Holm, Óskar; Kocsy, Gábor; Csige, István; Szabó, Péter; Homoki, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Radon and thoron isotopes are responsible for approximately half of the average annual effective dose to humans. Although the half-life of thoron is short, it can potentially enter indoor air from adobe walls. Adobe was a traditional construction material in the Great Hungarian Plain. Its major raw materials are the alluvial sediments of the area. Here, seasonal radon and thoron activity concentrations were measured in 53 adobe dwellings in 7 settlements by pairs of etched track detectors. The results show that the annual average radon and thoron activity concentrations are elevated in these dwellings and that the proportions with values higher than 300 Bq m(-3) are 14-17 and 29-32% for radon and thoron, respectively. The calculated radon inhalation dose is significantly higher than the world average value, exceeding 10 mSv y(-1) in 7% of the dwellings of this study. Thoron also can be a significant contributor to the inhalation dose with about 30% in the total inhalation dose. The changes of weather conditions seem to be more relevant in the variation of measurement results than the differences in the local sedimentary geology. Still, the highest values were detected on clay. Through the year, radon follows the average temperature changes and is affected by the ventilation, whereas thoron rather seems to follow the amount of precipitation.

  16. Evaluation of chronic periapical lesions by digital subtraction radiography by using Adobe Photoshop CS: a technical report.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabiola B; Gonçalves, Marcelo; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a new technique by using Adobe Photoshop CS (San Jose, CA) image-analysis software to evaluate the radiographic changes of chronic periapical lesions after root canal treatment by digital subtraction radiography. Thirteen upper anterior human teeth with pulp necrosis and radiographic image of chronic periapical lesion were endodontically treated and radiographed 0, 2, 4, and 6 months after root canal treatment by using a film holder. The radiographic films were automatically developed and digitized. The radiographic images taken 0, 2, 4, and 6 months after root canal therapy were submitted to digital subtraction in pairs (0 and 2 months, 2 and 4 months, and 4 and 6 months) choosing "image," "calculation," "subtract," and "new document" tools from Adobe Photoshop CS image-analysis software toolbar. The resulting images showed areas of periapical healing in all cases. According to this methodology, the healing or expansion of periapical lesions can be evaluated by means of digital subtraction radiography by using Adobe Photoshop CS software.

  17. Au Contraire: Gifted in a Flash (Mob)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, James R.

    2012-01-01

    A "flash mob" is defined by Wikipedia as "a large group of people who assemble suddenly in a public place, perform an unusual and pointless act for a brief time, then disperse." Fueled by social media and Smartphones, flash mobs have been used, primarily, as entertaining diversions by addicted techies with (apparently) tons of time on their hands.…

  18. Communicative Competency among Poker Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayano, David M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the use of specific styles of strategic interaction among professional poker players in their attempts to conceal, distort, or discover useful information about their opponents in order to maximize some gain. (JMF)

  19. Organic flash cycles for efficient power production

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Tony; Mao, Samuel S.; Greif, Ralph

    2016-03-15

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to an Organic Flash Cycle (OFC). In one aspect, a modified OFC system includes a pump, a heat exchanger, a flash evaporator, a high pressure turbine, a throttling valve, a mixer, a low pressure turbine, and a condenser. The heat exchanger is coupled to an outlet of the pump. The flash evaporator is coupled to an outlet of the heat exchanger. The high pressure turbine is coupled to a vapor outlet of the flash evaporator. The throttling valve is coupled to a liquid outlet of the flash evaporator. The mixer is coupled to an outlet of the throttling valve and to an outlet of the high pressure turbine. The low pressure turbine is coupled to an outlet of the mixer. The condenser is coupled to an outlet of the low pressure turbine and to an inlet of the pump.

  20. Statistical Evolution of the Lightning Flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Cohen, M.; Said, R.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-12-01

    Natural lightning is one of the most fascinating and powerful electrical processes on Earth. To date, the physics behind this natural phenomenon are not fully understood, due primarily to the difficulty of obtaining measurements inside thunderstorms and to the wide range of timescales involved (from nanoseconds to seconds). Our aim is to use accurate lightning geo-location data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) to study statistical patterns in lightning, taking advantage of the fact that millions of lightning flashes occur around the globe every day. We present two sets of results, one involving the patterns of flashes in a storm, and a second involving the patterns of strokes in a flash. These patterns can provide a surrogate measure of the timescales and the spatial extents of the underlying physical processes. First, we study the timescales of charge buildup inside thunderstorms. We find that, following a lightning flash, the probability of another neighboring flash decreases and takes tens of seconds to recover. We find that this suppression effect is a function of flash type, stroke peak current, cloud-to-ground (CG) stroke multiplicity, and other lightning and geographical parameters. We find that the probabilities of subsequent flashes are more suppressed following oceanic lightning, or following flashes with higher peak currents and/or higher multiplicities (for CG flashes). Second, we use NLDN data to study the evolution of the strokes within a CG flash. A CG flash typically includes multiple return strokes, which can occur in the same channel or in multiple channels within a few kilometers. We cluster NLDN stroke data into flashes and produce the probability density function of subsequent strokes as a function of distance and time-delays relative to the previous stroke. Using this technique, we investigate processes which occur during the CG lightning flash with nanosecond to millisecond timescales. For instance, our results suggest

  1. NUCLEAR FLASH TYPE STEAM GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Johns, F.L.; Gronemeyer, E.C.; Dusbabek, M.R.

    1962-09-01

    A nuclear steam generating apparatus is designed so that steam may be generated from water heated directly by the nuclear heat source. The apparatus comprises a pair of pressure vessels mounted one within the other, the inner vessel containing a nuclear reactor heat source in the lower portion thereof to which water is pumped. A series of small ports are disposed in the upper portion of the inner vessel for jetting heated water under pressure outwardly into the atmosphere within the interior of the outer vessel, at which time part of the jetted water flashes into steam. The invention eliminates the necessity of any intermediate heat transfer medium and components ordinarily required for handling that medium. (AEC)

  2. Hartmann wavefront measurements at FLASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keitel, Barbara; Flöter, Bernhard; Kreis, Svea; Kuhlmann, Marion; Mann, Klaus; Mey, Tobias; Plönjes, Elke; Schäfer, Bernd; Tiedtke, Kai

    2013-05-01

    We report on online measurements of photon beam parameters during mirror alignment in the soft x-ray spectral region of FLASH, the free-electron laser in Hamburg. A compact Hartmann sensor operating in the wavelength range from 6 to 35nm was used to determine the wavefront quality of individual free-electron laser (FEL) pulses during the alignment procedure as well as aberrations. Beam characterization and alignment of beamline BL3 was performed with λ13.5??/ 116 accuracy for wavefront rms (W???). Second moment beam parameters are computed using a spherical reference wavefront generated by a 5μm pinhole. The Hartmann sensor was used for alignment of the ellipsoidal focusing mirror of beamline BL3, resulting in a reduction of (W???;) by 33%.

  3. Flash Droughts over the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.; Mo, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    Flash drought refers to relatively short periods of warm surface temperature and anomalously low and rapid decreasing soil moisture (SM). Based on the physical mechanisms associated with flash droughts, we classify them into two categories: heat wave and precipitation (P) deficit flash droughts. We analyze the flash droughts based on the observations and the land surface model reconstructed soil moisture (SM) and evaporation (ET) from 1916 to 2013. Heat wave flash droughts are most likely to occur over the Midwest and the Pacific Northwest during the growing season. They do not occur often. The maximum frequency of occurrence is only 4%. Heat wave flash drought is temperature driven. High temperatures increase the transpiration and drive down soil moisture and cause drought to occur. The P deficit flash droughts are more common than the heat wave droughts and the maximum frequency of occurrence is about 8- 10 %. They are most likely to occur over the southern United States with a maximum over the Southern Plains. They are P driven. Heat waves are caused by P deficits. P deficits drive down SM and cause ET to decreases and temperature to increase.

  4. Flash Flooding Events in South Central Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    I AD-ALI 977 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFa OH F/G 4/2 FLASH FLOODING EVENTS IN SOUTH CENTRAL TEXAS. CU) N AU 82 T W UTLEY UNCLASSIFIED...COVERED Flash Flooding Events in South Central Texas THESIS/ESeAMAN S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORI NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Tom...and to flash flooding events which occurred in 1981 they proved to be excellent predi’ctors. When compared to the 1981 National Weather Service

  5. 49 CFR 234.217 - Flashing light units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flashing light units. 234.217 Section 234.217..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.217 Flashing light units. (a) Each flashing light unit.... (b) Each flashing light unit shall be maintained to prevent dust and moisture from entering...

  6. 49 CFR 234.217 - Flashing light units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flashing light units. 234.217 Section 234.217..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.217 Flashing light units. (a) Each flashing light unit.... (b) Each flashing light unit shall be maintained to prevent dust and moisture from entering...

  7. The flash-lag effect and the flash-drag effect in the same display.

    PubMed

    Murai, Yuki; Murakami, Ikuya

    2016-09-01

    Visual motion distorts the perceived position of a stimulus. In the flash-drag effect (FDE), the perceived position of a flash appears to be shifted in the direction of nearby motion. In the flash-lag effect (FLE), a flash adjacent to a moving stimulus appears to lag behind. The FLE has been explained by several models, including the differential latency hypothesis, that a moving stimulus has a shorter processing latency than a flash does. The FDE even occurs when the flash is presented earlier than the moving stimulus, and it has been discussed whether this temporal property can be explained by the differential latency model. In the present study, we simultaneously quantified the FDE and FLE using the random jump technique (Murakami, 2001b) and compared their temporal properties. While the positional offset between a randomly jumping stimulus and a flashed stimulus determined the FLE, a drifting grating appeared next to the flash at various stimulus-onset asynchronies to induce the FDE. The grating presented up to 200 ms after the flash onset induced the FDE, whose temporal tuning was explained by a simple convolution model incorporating stochastic fluctuations of differential latency estimated from the FLE data and a transient-sustained temporal profile of motion signals. Thus, a common temporal mechanism to compute the stimulus position in reference to surrounding stimuli governs both the FDE and the FLE.

  8. Influence of geological features (geochemistry and mineralogy) of soil wich constitutes adobes in their durability - Huambo, Angola.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Isabel; Pedro, Elsa; Varum, Humberto; Mirão, José; Pinho, António

    2014-05-01

    After long years of war, great efforts have been made for the socio-economic development of Angola, mainly in the construction industry. Among the construction techniques, the Adobe is the most used in the province of Huambo, especially by low-income families, which constitute the majority. This technique was established as a historical heritage in the culture of that population. The Huambo province is located in the central region of Angola (Central Plateau) and is bounded on the northeast and east by the province of Bié, on the south and southern by province of Huila, and on the west by the province of Benguela and on the northwest by the province of Kwanza Sul. Has an area of 35,771 km2 and approximately 2,301,524 inhabitants, which corresponds to 58 inhabitants per km2 (Government of the Province of Huambo, 2006). The buildings in this province, particularly in rural areas, were deeply marked by war. Given the current scenario of development of the country and considering the possibility of integrate systems and traditional building materials, that respect the environment and fit harmoniously into its natural habitat, one of the alternative options in the actual construction, undergoes resume old solutions and traditional materials such as adobe construction.It is in this context that this project is part of a scientific research in order to permit the improvement and optimization of these traditional solutions, responding to current demands for social, economic and environmental sustainability. The adobe is a building element with potential degradation by water. Due to the climate, subtropical, hot and humid, and geomorphology of the province, about 1000 to 2000 meters of altitude and an extensive river system, these buildings can be vulnerable and present early degradation, exacerbated by lack of knowledge of the properties of geomaterials used and techniques that allow their stabilization and conservation. This paper aims to study the influence of

  9. A Simple Lightning Flash Polarity Discriminating Counter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devan, K. R. S.; Jayaratne, E. R.

    1990-01-01

    Described are the apparatus and procedures needed for a demonstration of a determination of the polarity of charges carried by individual ground flashes of lightning. Discussed are materials, apparatus construction, and experimental results. (CW)

  10. An Inexpensive, Foolproof Apparatus for Flash Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Wayne J.; Hanson, Bryan A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a new, modified "flash chromatography" apparatus which overcomes difficulties found in conventional apparatus. For example, an expensive teflon pressure valve is not necessary in the modified version. The apparatus is suitable as an instructional tool in undergraduate courses. (JN)

  11. A global flash flood forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baugh, Calum; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Hewson, Tim; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-04-01

    The sudden and devastating nature of flash flood events means it is imperative to provide early warnings such as those derived from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecasts. Currently such systems exist on basin, national and continental scales in Europe, North America and Australia but rely on high resolution NWP forecasts or rainfall-radar nowcasting, neither of which have global coverage. To produce global flash flood forecasts this work investigates the possibility of using forecasts from a global NWP system. In particular we: (i) discuss how global NWP can be used for flash flood forecasting and discuss strengths and weaknesses; (ii) demonstrate how a robust evaluation can be performed given the rarity of the event; (iii) highlight the challenges and opportunities in communicating flash flood uncertainty to decision makers; and (iv) explore future developments which would significantly improve global flash flood forecasting. The proposed forecast system uses ensemble surface runoff forecasts from the ECMWF H-TESSEL land surface scheme. A flash flood index is generated using the ERIC (Enhanced Runoff Index based on Climatology) methodology [Raynaud et al., 2014]. This global methodology is applied to a series of flash floods across southern Europe. Results from the system are compared against warnings produced using the higher resolution COSMO-LEPS limited area model. The global system is evaluated by comparing forecasted warning locations against a flash flood database of media reports created in partnership with floodlist.com. To deal with the lack of objectivity in media reports we carefully assess the suitability of different skill scores and apply spatial uncertainty thresholds to the observations. To communicate the uncertainties of the flash flood system output we experiment with a dynamic region-growing algorithm. This automatically clusters regions of similar return period exceedence probabilities, thus presenting the at-risk areas at a spatial

  12. Shoulder injuries in soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Berton, Alessandra; Martinelli, Nicolò; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Summary Even though soccer is the most popular sport of the world, no review is available at present to resume the available data on shoulder injuries in soccer. The aim of this review is to report the available epidemiological data on shoulder specific injuries in soccer players and to describe the common mechanisms of shoulder injuries in soccer. Studies published through September 15, 2011, were identified by using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Pre-CINAHL, Pub-Med, Web of Science, and the full Cochrane Library. Reference lists of included studies were searched by hand. Studies were included if they reported on shoulder injuries in soccer players. Limits were not placed on year of publication, status of publication, or language. The journal, authors, and author affiliations of included studies were masked from 2 reviewers. We planned to perform a study on the epidemiology, mechanisms and management of shoulder injuries in elite soccer players. We also planned to use Review Manager (RevMan. Version 5 for Windows) to calculate the magnitude of treatment effect. No studies on clinical outcome of shoulder injuries in elite soccer athletes were found. No studies on the mechanism of shoulder injury in elite soccer players were found. The results of the available studies on epidemiology are reported. Despite soccer is the world’s game, few studies focused on shoulder injuries in soccer players, and therefore no definitive conclusions can be drawn. Further research is warranted to clarify the epidemiology, mechanisms and management of shoulder injuries in elite soccer players. PMID:23289025

  13. Method for programming a flash memory

    DOEpatents

    Brosky, Alexander R.; Locke, William N.; Maher, Conrado M.

    2016-08-23

    A method of programming a flash memory is described. The method includes partitioning a flash memory into a first group having a first level of write-protection, a second group having a second level of write-protection, and a third group having a third level of write-protection. The write-protection of the second and third groups is disabled using an installation adapter. The third group is programmed using a Software Installation Device.

  14. Flash Flood Nowcasting in an Urban Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, H.; Yates, D.; Roberts, R.; Brandes, E.

    2003-04-01

    Flash floods occur when particular meteorological events are combined with certain hydrologic conditions. Several approaches to nowcast flash floods are being developed,> However, predictions of the magnitude and timing of flash flood events is a major challenge. Nowcasts of convective storm events need to be linked with robust hydrologic modeling and analysis in order to produce useful flash flood predictions in terms of timing, and the spatial and temporal distribution of the runoff. Advances in radar-rainfall estimation and two-dimensional physically based runoff modeling offer tools to improve flash flooding forecasting and to reduce the potential for loss of life and property damage in urban catchments. The ability to model extreme hydrologic events in detail was demonstrated using the physically based distributed-parameter hydrologic model GSSHA (Downer and Ogden, 2002) on an urban watershed in Denver, Colorado (Sharif et al., 2002). The study addressed the necessary detail in urban topography and drainage characteristics needed for accurate simulations of urban flood events. With this kind of detailed hydrologic model, accurate short-range meteorological nowcasts (30 60 minutes) would prove useful. Such a nowcast is available from the National Center for Atmospheric Research’s (NCAR) Autonowcaster, a data fusion system that combines several predictor fields with membership functions and weighting schemes to produce automated time and place specific nowcasts of convective rainfall. Predictor fields are derived from characteristics of boundary layer convergence regions, storm characteristics, and dynamic and kinematic attributes of the boundary layer. Simple extrapolations are also used as benchmark nowcasts. The GSSHA model was coupled with the Autonowcaster to produce distributed, physics-based hydrologic predictions in the urban setting. Flash flood predictions of the coupled system are compared to predictions computed using traditional approaches and

  15. Flash Flood Trail near Parras, Coahuila, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Evidence of a recent flash flood can be seen in the form of light brown sediment that flowed down gullies and mountain sides forming ponds of debris over agricultural areas in the broad valley near the town of Parras (26.5N, 102.5W). This part of Mexico has extensive vineyards, orchards and both dry land and irrigated agriculture. Based on the photo, it appears that flash flood waters damaged some 300 square miles of property in this area alone.

  16. Hydrodynamic simulations of the core helium flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocák, Miroslav; Müller, Ewald; Weiss, Achim; Kifonidis, Konstantinos

    2008-10-01

    We desribe and discuss hydrodynamic simulations of the core helium flash using an initial model of a 1.25 M⊙ star with a metallicity of 0.02 near at its peak. Past research concerned with the dynamics of the core helium flash is inconclusive. Its results range from a confirmation of the standard picture, where the star remains in hydrostatic equilibrium during the flash (Deupree 1996), to a disruption or a significant mass loss of the star (Edwards 1969; Cole & Deupree 1980). However, the most recent multidimensional hydrodynamic study (Dearborn et al. 2006) suggests a quiescent behavior of the core helium flash and seems to rule out an explosive scenario. Here we present partial results of a new comprehensive study of the core helium flash, which seem to confirm this qualitative behavior and give a better insight into operation of the convection zone powered by helium burning during the flash. The hydrodynamic evolution is followed on a computational grid in spherical coordinates using our new version of the multi-dimensional hydrodynamic code HERAKLES, which is based on a direct Eulerian implementation of the piecewise parabolic method.

  17. Who Are the Players in Canadian Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Geoffrey

    1987-01-01

    Labels range of persons advocating different theoretical positions of Canadian curriculum as "players." Describes players as "managers,""predictors,""transformers,""sleuths,""analysts." Values varied viewpoints for attention to language regarding curriculum, critical review of…

  18. The Effectiveness Evaluation among Different Player-Matching Mechanisms in a Multi-Player Quiz Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Fu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether different player-matching mechanisms in educational multi-player online games (MOGs) can affect students' learning performance, enjoyment perception and gaming behaviors. Based on the multi-player quiz game, TRIS-Q, developed by Tsai, Tsai and Lin (2015) using a free player-matching (FPM) mechanism, the same…

  19. Single Particle Difraction at FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Bogan, M.; Boutet, S.; Starodub, Dmitri; Decorwin-Martin, Philippe; Chapman, H.; Bajt, S.; Schulz, J.; Hajdu, Janos; Seibert, M.M.; Iwan, Bianca; Timneanu, Nicusor; Marchesini, Stefano; Barty, Anton; Benner, W.Henry; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Woods, Bruce; Rohner, Urs; /Tofwerk AG, Thun

    2010-06-11

    Single-pulse coherent diffraction patterns have been collected from randomly injected single particles with a soft X-ray free-electron laser (FEL). The intense focused FEL pulse gives a high-resolution low-noise coherent diffraction pattern of the object before that object turns into a plasma and explodes. A diffraction pattern of a single particle will only be recorded when the particle arrival into the FEL interaction region coincides with FEL pulse arrival and detector integration. The properties of the experimental apparatus coinciding with these three events set the data acquisition rate. For our single particle FLASH diffraction imaging experiments: (1) an aerodynamic lens stack prepared a particle beam that consisted of particles moving at 150-200 m/s positioned randomly in space and time, (2) the 10 fs long FEL pulses were delivered at a fixed rate, and (3) the detector was set to integrate and readout once every two seconds. The effect of these experimental parameters on the rate of data acquisition using randomly injected particles will be discussed. Overall, the ultrashort FEL pulses do not set the limit of the data acquisition, more important is the effective interaction time of the particle crossing the FEL focus, the pulse sequence structure and the detector readout rate. Example diffraction patterns of randomly injected ellipsoidal iron oxide nanoparticles in different orientations are presented. This is the first single particle diffraction data set of identical particles in different orientations collected on a shot-to-shot basis. This data set will be used to test algorithms for recovering 3D structure from single particle diffraction.

  20. FPGA Flash Memory High Speed Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, April

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design and implement a VHDL ONFI Controller module for a Modular Instrumentation System. The goal of the Modular Instrumentation System will be to have a low power device that will store data and send the data at a low speed to a processor. The benefit of such a system will give an advantage over other purchased binary IP due to the capability of allowing NASA to re-use and modify the memory controller module. To accomplish the performance criteria of a low power system, an in house auxiliary board (Flash/ADC board), FPGA development kit, debug board, and modular instrumentation board will be jointly used for the data acquisition. The Flash/ADC board contains four, 1 MSPS, input channel signals and an Open NAND Flash memory module with an analog to digital converter. The ADC, data bits, and control line signals from the board are sent to an Microsemi/Actel FPGA development kit for VHDL programming of the flash memory WRITE, READ, READ STATUS, ERASE, and RESET operation waveforms using Libero software. The debug board will be used for verification of the analog input signal and be able to communicate via serial interface with the module instrumentation. The scope of the new controller module was to find and develop an ONFI controller with the debug board layout designed and completed for manufacture. Successful flash memory operation waveform test routines were completed, simulated, and tested to work on the FPGA board. Through connection of the Flash/ADC board with the FPGA, it was found that the device specifications were not being meet with Vdd reaching half of its voltage. Further testing showed that it was the manufactured Flash/ADC board that contained a misalignment with the ONFI memory module traces. The errors proved to be too great to fix in the time limit set for the project.

  1. An "anomalous" triggered lightning flash in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J.; Ngin, T.; Jordan, D. M.; Mata, C. T.

    2013-04-01

    An "anomalous" rocket-and-wire triggered lightning flash, a flash whose leaders do not follow the triggering wire remnants to ground, is characterized via high-speed video images at 10 and 300 kilo-frames per second, still camera images, 66-72 MHz source locations from a Lightning Mapping Array, channel-base current, and electric field and electric field derivative (dE/dt) measurements. This is the first anomalous flash of about 410 classically triggered flashes in north-central Florida. The flash began with an upward positively charged leader (UPL) initiating from the tip of the upward-moving triggering wire about 280 m above ground level. All but the bottom 17 m of wire exploded (became luminous) 37.6 ms after UPL initiation. A stepped leader initiated, likely from the top of the wire remnants, 282 m above ground level about 1.3 ms after the wire explosion and propagated downward for 2.1 ms, attaching to the top of a grounded utility pole 117 m southwest of the launching facility. The line charge density on the stepped leader is estimated to be of the order of 10-3 C m-1. Contrary to previously reported "anomalous" flashes in France and New Mexico (roughly 16% and 31%, respectively, of their triggered flashes), in our event, there was not a tens of milliseconds current-zero period preceding the stepped leader, there was no observed downward dart leader in the UPL channel prior to the stepped leader to ground, and there was a failed attempt to reestablish current in the exploded-wire channel between the UPL and ground.

  2. Flash flood awareness in southwest Virginia.

    PubMed

    Knocke, Ethan T; Kolivras, Korine N

    2007-02-01

    Flash floods are one of the most dangerous weather-related natural disasters in the world. These events develop less than six hours after a rainfall event and create hazardous situations for people and extensive damage to property. It is critical for flash flood conditions to be warned of in a timely manner to minimize impacts. There is currently a knowledge gap between flood experts and the general public about the level of perceived risk that the latter has toward the powerful flood waters and how events should be warned of, which affects the communication capabilities and efficiency of the warning process. Prior research has addressed risk perception of natural disasters, but there is little emphasis on flash floods within flood-prone regions of the United States. This research utilizes an online survey of 300 respondents to determine the current state of flash flood awareness and preparation in southwest Virginia. Analysis of trends involved the use of chi-squared tests (chi2) and simple frequency and percentage calculations. Results reveal that a knowledge base of flash floods does exist, but is not advanced enough for proper awareness. Young adults have a lower understanding and are not as concerned about flood impacts. Increased exposure and perceived risk play a key role in shaping the way a person approaches flash floods. People do monitor flood events, but they are unaware of essential guidance and communication mechanisms. Finally, results suggest that the current method of warning about flash floods is not provided at an appropriate level of detail for effective communication.

  3. 50 CFR 622.20 - Individual fishing quota (IFQ) program for Gulf groupers and tilefishes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... account to participate. The computer must have browser software installed, e.g. Internet Explorer, Netscape, Mozilla Firefox; as well as the software Adobe Flash Player version 9.0 or greater, which may be downloaded from the Internet for free. Assistance with online functions is available from IFQ...

  4. General review of flashing jet studies.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Geanette; Holdø, Arne Erik; Munday, George

    2010-01-15

    The major concern on the management of superheated liquids, in industrial environments, is the large potential hazards involved in cases of any accidental release. There is a possibility that a violent phase change could take place inside the fluid released generating a flashing jet. This violent phase change might produce catastrophic consequences, such as explosions, fires or toxic exposure, in the installations and in the surroundings. The knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms involved in those releases become an important issue in the prevention of these consequences and the minimization of their impact. This work presents a comprehensive review of information about flashing processes. The review begins with a description of the single phase jet followed by a description of the two-phase flashing jet. The concepts and implications of the thermodynamic and mechanical effects on the behaviour of the jets are considered at the beginning of the review. Following the review is devoted to the classification of the different study approaches used to understand flashing processes in the past, highlighting various critical parameters on the behaviour and the hazard consequences of flashing jets. The review also contains an extensive compilation of experimental, theoretical and numerical data relating to these phenomena, which includes information on the distinct characteristics of the jet, since type of jet, velocity distribution, expansion angle and mass phase change all require individual estimation.

  5. Firefly light flashing: oxygen supply mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yueh-Lin; Li, Chia-Wei; Hong, Tzay-Ming; Ho, Jen-Zon; Yang, En-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Yen; Margaritondo, G; Hsu, Su-Ting; Ong, Edwin B L; Hwu, Y

    2014-12-19

    Firefly luminescence is an intriguing phenomenon with potential technological applications, whose biochemistry background was only recently established. The physics side of this phenomenon, however, was still unclear, specifically as far as the oxygen supply mechanism for light flashing is concerned. This uncertainty is due to the complex microscopic structure of the tracheal system: without fully knowing its geometry, one cannot reliably test the proposed mechanisms. We solved this problem using synchrotron phase contrast microtomography and transmission x-ray microscopy, finding that the oxygen consumption corresponding to mitochondria functions exceeds the maximum rate of oxygen diffusion from the tracheal system to the photocytes. Furthermore, the flashing mechanism uses a large portion of this maximum rate. Thus, the flashing control requires passivation of the mitochondria functions, e.g., by nitric oxide, and switching of the oxygen supply from them to photoluminescence.

  6. Digital Speckle X-Ray Flash Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, S. G.; Proud, W. G.

    2002-07-01

    The new technique of digital speckle X-ray flash photography (DSXFP), which has been successfully applied to polyester and cement specimens, is being further developed and used to study materials in ballistic situations in a way not previously possible. The technique involves seeding the specimen with a lead layer and then taking flash X-ray images before and during an impact event. Digital cross-correlation can then be used to make measurements of the internal displacements occurring throughout the specimen. Using a stereoscopic geometry the out of plane displacements can also be determined and a full 3-dimensional displacement map constructed. In this paper these two powerful and complementary techniques of flash X-rays and DSXFP are used to study the ballistic response of a borosilicate sample to produce information that other techniques are unable to provide.

  7. Orbital debris characterization with impact flash signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.A.

    1991-12-31

    Orbital debris is recognized as a serious and growing threat to man`s utilization and exploration of space. While some information is available on the material composition of orbital debris, most measurements of orbital debris size and velocity distributions do not distinguish material type. The analysis and understanding of impact flash signatures can lead to an in-situ detector system with the ability to determine size and impact velocity distribution for orbital debris segregated by material type. This detector concept is based on an understanding of how material shock properties govern the flash signature arising from the impact of a piece of orbital debris (impactor) against a witness plate (target). Analytical results are presented that identify the most promising witness plate materials with respect to producing impact flash signatures that characterize the orbital debris material. 7 refs.

  8. Orbital debris characterization with impact flash signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Orbital debris is recognized as a serious and growing threat to man's utilization and exploration of space. While some information is available on the material composition of orbital debris, most measurements of orbital debris size and velocity distributions do not distinguish material type. The analysis and understanding of impact flash signatures can lead to an in-situ detector system with the ability to determine size and impact velocity distribution for orbital debris segregated by material type. This detector concept is based on an understanding of how material shock properties govern the flash signature arising from the impact of a piece of orbital debris (impactor) against a witness plate (target). Analytical results are presented that identify the most promising witness plate materials with respect to producing impact flash signatures that characterize the orbital debris material. 7 refs.

  9. Light-Flash Wind-Direction Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zysko, Jan A.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed wind-direction indicator read easily by distant observers. Indicator emits bright flashes of light separated by interval of time proportional to angle between true north and direction from which wind blowing. Timing of flashes indicates direction of wind. Flashes, from high-intensity stroboscopic lights seen by viewers at distances up to 5 miles or more. Also seen more easily through rain and fog. Indicator self-contained, requiring no connections to other equipment. Power demand satisfied by battery or solar power or both. Set up quickly to provide local surface-wind data for aircraft pilots during landing or hovering, for safety officers establishing hazard zones and safety corridors during handling of toxic materials, for foresters and firefighters conducting controlled burns, and for real-time wind observations during any of variety of wind-sensitive operations.

  10. Process for energy reduction with flash fusing

    SciTech Connect

    Berkes, J.S.

    1987-10-06

    This patent describes a process for affecting a reduction in the energy needed for accomplishing the flash fusing of a developed image which comprises (1) providing a toner composition with resin particles, pigment articles, and wax. The wax possesses a lower melting temperature than the resin particles and is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene and polypropylene with a molecular weight of less than about 6,000; (2) introducing the aforementioned toner composition into a xerographic imaging apparatus having incorporated therein a flash fusing device; (3) generating an electrostatic latent image in the imaging apparatus, and subsequently developing this image with the toner composition; (4) transferring the image to a supporting substrate; and (5) permanently attaching the image to the substrate with energy emitted from a flash fusing device, and wherein there is formed between the supporting substrate and the toner composition during fusing a wax layer.

  11. Mental models of flash floods and landslides.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Klaus

    2007-06-01

    Perceptions of flash floods and landslides were analyzed in four communities of the Bavarian Alps using the mental model approach. Thirty-eight qualitative interviews, two telephone surveys with 600 respondents, and two onsite interviews (74/95 respondents) were conducted. Mental models concerning flash floods are much better developed than those for landslides because the key physical processes for flash floods are easier for the general public to recognize and understand. Mental models are influenced by the local conditions. People who have a better knowledge about the hazards are those who use many different sources to inform themselves, express fear about natural hazards, or have previous experience with hazards. Conclusions for how to improve information for the general public are discussed.

  12. Spondylolysis in young tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz‐Cotorro, A; Balius‐Matas, R; Estruch‐Massana, A; Angulo, J Vilaró

    2006-01-01

    The general aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of spondylolysis, a bone defect in the pars interarticularis of the vertebra, are reviewed. A retrospective study of young tennis players diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 with spondylolysis with or without spondylolisthesis, assessed by radiography and planar bone scintigraphy, is described. If the radiographic results were negative, computed tomography was performed. Sixty six cases were evaluated: 53 L5 lesions, eight L4 lesions, two L3 lesions, and one bilateral lesion at the L2 level. Two more lesions at two levels were found (bilateral L5 and unilateral L4 and L3 on the right side). Classification, treatment, and outcome of the cases are reported. A combination of radiography, planar bone scintigraphy, and SPECT is useful for evaluating spondylolysis in tennis players and recommending treatment. Use of a brace did not appear to achieve significant results. PMID:16632576

  13. [Feet dermatophytosis in soccer players].

    PubMed

    Purim, Kátia Sheylla Malta; de Freitas, Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro; Leite, Neiva

    2009-01-01

    Athletes present risk of cutaneous mycosis. A study was carried out with 23 soccer players using clinical and mycological examination (direct microscopic examination and culture) and nail clipping. Eighteen (78.26%) did not present mycosis; two (8.70%) presented tinea pedis, and three (13.04%) presented onychomycosis associated to tinea pedis, mainly for Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Infected tinea pedis has produced cellulitis in one of the athletes. It is necessary to create an educative program of skin care during sports practice.

  14. Economic assessment and pathogenic bacteria inhibition of bovine hide presoaking solutions formulated with enzymes that can remove adobe-type manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presoaking formulations that have recently been developed are effective in removing the damaging adobe type bovine manure and eco-friendly because the ingredients used are recycled and required only a quarter of the amount of biocide and surfactant that the industry is commonly using. The goal ...

  15. Using built-in functions of Adobe Acrobat Pro DC to help the selection process in systematic reviews of randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Nur, Selin; Adams, Clive E; Brailsford, David F

    2016-02-18

    This letter describes a simple way of using Adobe Acrobat Pro DC to help select and auto-extract data from Portable Document Format (PDFs) of randomised trials in order to assist swift early selection of trials for a systematic review.

  16. Longitudinal Diagnostics of Short Bunches at FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Shaukat

    2009-01-22

    Novel acceleration concepts such as laser- or beam-driven plasma acceleration require advanced diagnostic techniques to characterize and monitor the beam. A particular challenge is to measure bunch lengths of the order of 10 femtoseconds. Several methods are currently explored at the free-electron laser FLASH at DESY/Hamburg and will be discussed it this paper, such as electro-optical sampling, streaking bunches with a transversely deflecting cavity, and -most recently implemented at FLASH--the optical-replica synthesizer, a laser-based technique promising a time resolution of a few femtoseconds.

  17. Probabilistic Flash Flood Forecasting using Stormscale Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, J.; Gourley, J. J.; Kain, J. S.; Clark, A.; Novak, D.; Hong, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Flash flooding is one of the most costly and deadly natural hazards in the US and across the globe. The loss of life and property from flash floods could be mitigated with better guidance from hydrological models, but these models have limitations. For example, they are commonly initialized using rainfall estimates derived from weather radars, but the time interval between observations of heavy rainfall and a flash flood can be on the order of minutes, particularly for small basins in urban settings. Increasing the lead time for these events is critical for protecting life and property. Therefore, this study advances the use of quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) from a stormscale NWP ensemble system into a distributed hydrological model setting to yield basin-specific, probabilistic flash flood forecasts (PFFFs). Rainfall error characteristics of the individual members are first diagnosed and quantified in terms of structure, amplitude, and location (SAL; Wernli et al., 2008). Amplitude and structure errors are readily correctable due to their diurnal nature, and the fine scales represented by the CAPS QPF members are consistent with radar-observed rainfall, mainly showing larger errors with afternoon convection. To account for the spatial uncertainty of the QPFs, we use an elliptic smoother, as in Marsh et al. (2012), to produce probabilistic QPFs (PQPFs). The elliptic smoother takes into consideration underdispersion, which is notoriously associated with stormscale ensembles, and thus, is good for targeting the approximate regions that may receive heavy rainfall. However, stormscale details contained in individual members are still needed to yield reasonable flash flood simulations. Therefore, on a case study basis, QPFs from individual members are then run through the hydrological model with their predicted structure and corrected amplitudes, but the locations of individual rainfall elements are perturbed within the PQPF elliptical regions using Monte

  18. Photoinjector drive laser of the FLASH FEL.

    PubMed

    Will, Ingo; Templin, Horst I; Schreiber, Siegfried; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2011-11-21

    The upgraded photoinjector drive laser of the free-electron laser facility FLASH at DESY Hamburg is described in this paper. This laser produces trains of 800 and 2400 ultraviolet picosecond pulses at 1 MHz and 3 MHz repetition rate in the trains, respectively. The amplifying elements of the system are Nd:YLF-rods, which are pumped by fiber-coupled semiconductor diodes. Compared to the flashlamp-pumped photocathode laser previously used at FLASH, the new diode-pumped laser features a better reliability and a significantly improved stability of its pulse parameters.

  19. Two-Player Graph Pebbling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudente, Matthew James

    Given a graph G with pebbles on the vertices, we define a pebbling move as removing two pebbles from a vertex u, placing one pebble on a neighbor v, and discarding the other pebble, like a toll. The pebbling number pi( G) is the least number of pebbles needed so that every arrangement of pi(G) pebbles can place a pebble on any vertex through a sequence of pebbling moves. We introduce a new variation on graph pebbling called two-player pebbling. In this, players called the mover and the defender alternate moves, with the stipulation that the defender cannot reverse the previous move. The mover wins only if they can place a pebble on a specified vertex and the defender wins if the mover cannot. We define η(G), analogously, as the minimum number of pebbles such that given every configuration of the η( G) pebbles and every specified vertex r, the mover has a winning strategy. First, we will investigate upper bounds for η( G) on various classes of graphs and find a certain structure for which the defender has a winning strategy, no matter how many pebbles are in a configuration. Then, we characterize winning configurations for both players on a special class of diameter 2 graphs. Finally, we show winning configurations for the mover on paths using a recursive argument.

  20. Early Onset Hot Flashes May Signal Higher Heart Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164627.html Early Onset Hot Flashes May Signal Higher Heart Risks Study found ... 13, 2017 THURSDAY, April 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Hot flashes may be more than a troublesome nuisance ...

  1. Adobe photoshop quantification (PSQ) rather than point-counting: A rapid and precise method for quantifying rock textural data and porosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Bo; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Zhe; Shi, Kaibo; Wu, Shuanglin

    2014-08-01

    Commonly used petrological quantification methods are visual estimation, counting, and image analyses. However, in this article, an Adobe Photoshop-based analyzing method (PSQ) is recommended for quantifying the rock textural data and porosities. Adobe Photoshop system provides versatile abilities in selecting an area of interest and the pixel number of a selection could be read and used to calculate its area percentage. Therefore, Adobe Photoshop could be used to rapidly quantify textural components, such as content of grains, cements, and porosities including total porosities and different genetic type porosities. This method was named as Adobe Photoshop Quantification (PSQ). The workflow of the PSQ method was introduced with the oolitic dolomite samples from the Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China, for example. And the method was tested by comparing with the Folk's and Shvetsov's "standard" diagrams. In both cases, there is a close agreement between the "standard" percentages and those determined by the PSQ method with really small counting errors and operator errors, small standard deviations and high confidence levels. The porosities quantified by PSQ were evaluated against those determined by the whole rock helium gas expansion method to test the specimen errors. Results have shown that the porosities quantified by the PSQ are well correlated to the porosities determined by the conventional helium gas expansion method. Generally small discrepancies (mostly ranging from -3% to 3%) are caused by microporosities which would cause systematic underestimation of 2% and/or by macroporosities causing underestimation or overestimation in different cases. Adobe Photoshop could be used to quantify rock textural components and porosities. This method has been tested to be precise and accurate. It is time saving compared with usual methods.

  2. Photorealistic rendering application to the design of LED flash lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Jyh-Long

    2012-10-01

    LED flash module becomes popular in current mobile communication devices, such as for the smart phones and tablet. As a lighting apparatus for image taking, photo rendering performance is crucial. We explore the LED flash lens design with a stress of photorealistic rendering application toward a high-performance LED flash illumination.

  3. 49 CFR 234.217 - Flashing light units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flashing light units. 234.217 Section 234.217... light units. (a) Each flashing light unit shall be properly positioned and aligned and shall be visible to a highway user approaching the crossing. (b) Each flashing light unit shall be maintained...

  4. 49 CFR 234.217 - Flashing light units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flashing light units. 234.217 Section 234.217... light units. (a) Each flashing light unit shall be properly positioned and aligned and shall be visible to a highway user approaching the crossing. (b) Each flashing light unit shall be maintained...

  5. 49 CFR 234.217 - Flashing light units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flashing light units. 234.217 Section 234.217... light units. (a) Each flashing light unit shall be properly positioned and aligned and shall be visible to a highway user approaching the crossing. (b) Each flashing light unit shall be maintained...

  6. Vitamin D Deficiency Among Professional Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Matthew P.; Lombardo, Stephen J.; Kharrazi, F. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D plays an important role in several systems of the human body. Various studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to stress and insufficiency fractures, muscle recovery and function, and athletic performance. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the elite athletic population has not been extensively studied, and very few reports exist among professional athletes. Hypothesis: There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among players attending the National Basketball Association (NBA) Combine. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This is a retrospective review of data previously collected as part of the routine medical evaluation of players in the NBA Combines from 2009 through 2013. Player parameters evaluated were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D level. Statistical analysis using t tests and analysis of variance was used to detect any correlation between the player parameters and vitamin D level. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient (<20 ng/mL), insufficient (20-32 ng/mL), and sufficient (>32 ng/mL). Results: After institutional review board approval was submitted to the NBA, the NBA released deidentified data on 279 players who participated in the combines from 2009 through 2013. There were 90 players (32.3%) who were deficient, 131 players (47.0%) who were insufficient, and 58 players (20.8%) who were sufficient. A total of 221 players (79.3%) were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Among all players included, the average vitamin D level was 25.6 ± 10.2 ng/mL. Among the players who were deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, the average vitamin D levels were 16.1 ± 2.1 ng/mL, 25.0 ± 3.4 ng/mL, and 41.6 ± 8.6 ng/mL, respectively. Player height and weight were significantly increased in vitamin D–sufficient players compared with players who were not sufficient (P = .0008 and .009, respectively). Player age and BMI did not significantly

  7. Flash Cards and Animation Software for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a software program for DOS/Windows manages a collection of pictures such as photographic slides, overheads, or computer images in one or more databases. Explains how it transforms image files to raw binary files that can then be displayed like flash cards, or as an animated series of images. (Author/LRW)

  8. ESCITALOPRAM TREATMENT OF MENOPAUSAL HOT FLASHES

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Robert R.; Kruger, Michael L.; Tancer, Manuel E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of 10 mg and 20 mg/day of escitalopram on objectively-recorded hot flashes and on the rectal temperature threshold for sweating. Method Two studies were performed: 16 women received 10 mg/day and 26 women received 20 mg/day escitalopram for eight weeks. They were randomly assigned in equal numbers to receive active drug or placebo in double-blind fashion. Hot flash frequency was measured with an ambulatory recorder during the first three weeks and during the eighth week of the study. The rectal temperature threshold for sweating was measured during the first and eighth weeks of the study using published methods. Results In the first study, there were no significant effects whatsoever for any measure. In the second study, the escitalopram group showed an average decline in hot flash frequency of 14.4%, whereas, the placebo group showed an average increase of 6.7% (P < .05). However, there were no significant effects across time for either group. There were no significant effects whatsoever for rectal temperature sweating thresholds. Conclusions Escitalopram at 10 mg or 20 mg/day is not effective in the treatment of menopausal hot flashes. PMID:21540755

  9. A hybrid ferroelectric-flash memory cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Hyo; Byun, Chang Woo; Seok, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Chae, Hee Jae; Lee, Sol Kyu; Son, Se Wan; Ahn, Donghwan; Joo, Seung Ki

    2014-09-01

    A ferroelectric-flash (F-flash) memory cells having a metal-ferroelectric-nitride-oxynitride-silicon structure are demonstrated, and the ferroelectric materials were perovskite-dominated Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) crystallized by Pt gate electrode. The PZT thin-film as a blocking layer improves electrical and memorial performance where programming and erasing mechanism are different from the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor device or the conventional silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon device. F-flash cells exhibit not only the excellent electrical transistor performance, having 442.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 of field-effect mobility, 190 mV dec-1 of substhreshold slope, and 8 × 105 on/off drain current ratio, but also a high reliable memory characteristics, having a large memory window (6.5 V), low-operating voltage (0 to -5 V), faster P/E switching speed (50/500 μs), long retention time (>10 years), and excellent fatigue P/E cycle (>105) due to the boosting effect, amplification effect, and energy band distortion of nitride from the large polarization. All these characteristics correspond to the best performances among conventional flash cells reported so far.

  10. Flash Cards: Common Chinese-Cantonese Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This set of flash cards is designed to accompany the Defense Language Institute's instructional programs in Cantonese Chinese. Each card displays six Chinese characters, for a total of 1500 characters. Each character is printed two inches tall. Above each character are transcriptions of the Chinese words represented by the character (marked for…

  11. Assessment of flash flood warning procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lynn E.

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of four alternate flash flood warning procedures was conducted to ascertain their suitability for forecast operations using radar-rainfall imagery. The procedures include (1) areal mean basin effective rainfall, (2) unit hydrograph, (3) time-area, and (4) 2-D numerical modeling. The Buffalo Creek flash flood of July 12, 1996, was used as a case study for application of each of the procedures. A significant feature of the Buffalo Creek event was a forest fire that occurred a few months before the flood and significantly affected watershed runoff characteristics. Objectives were to assess the applicability of the procedures for watersheds having spatial and temporal scale similarities to Buffalo Creek, to compare their technical characteristics, and to consider forecaster usability. Geographic information system techniques for hydrologic database development and flash flood potential computations are illustrated. Generalizations of the case study results are offered relative to their suitability for flash flood forecasting operations. Although all four methods have relative advantages, their application to the Buffalo Creek event resulted in mixed performance. Failure of any method was due primarily to uncertainties of the land surface response (i.e., burn area imperviousness). Results underscore the need for model calibration; a difficult requirement for real-time forecasting.

  12. A polychromatic flash photolysis apparatus (PFPA).

    PubMed

    Uhl, R; Meyer, B; Desel, H

    1984-11-01

    A wide variety of biologically relevant chemical intermediates have been identified and characterised by their spectral properties. When rapid kinetics, i.e. rapid changes in these spectral properties are studied, the equipment designed for these studies (flash photolysis-, T-jump apparatus) usually allows only the registration of intensity changes of the monitoring light beam at one particular wavelength. Quite frequently, however, particularly in biological systems, the reactions of interest are too complex to be fully understood using single wavelength techniques. We have therefore designed and built a flash photolysis apparatus which permits the simultaneous recording of absorbance changes at 32 wavelengths, freely selectable between 300 and 1000 nm, as well as changes in fluorescence, luminescence, birefringence and light scattering. The apparatus, which we have called Polychromatic Flash Photolysis Apparatus (PFPA), acquires up to 8000 difference spectra per second with an amplitude resolution of better than 0.0001 absorbance unit. Data acquisition and activation of an actinic xenon flash unit occurs under computer control. The same computer is responsible for data storage, handling and graphic display. This communication describes the PFPA, its performance, and, as a demonstration of its potential usefulness, its application to the measurement of the light driven photocycle of bacterial rhodopsin, the proton pumping protein of Halobacterium halobium.

  13. High-Fidelity Flash Lidar Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technologies (ALHAT) project is currently developing the critical technologies to safely and precisely navigate and land crew, cargo and robotic spacecraft vehicles on and around planetary bodies. One key element of this project is a high-fidelity Flash Lidar sensor that can generate three-dimensional (3-D) images of the planetary surface. These images are processed with hazard detection and avoidance and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and then are subsequently used by the Guidance, Navigation and Control subsystem to generate an optimal navigation solution. A complex, high-fidelity model of the Flash Lidar was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and its interaction with the interfacing ALHAT components on vehicles with different configurations and under different flight trajectories. The model contains a parameterized, general approach to Flash Lidar detection and reflects physical attributes such as range and electronic noise sources, and laser pulse temporal and spatial profiles. It also provides the realistic interaction of the laser pulse with terrain features that include varying albedo, boulders, craters slopes and shadows. This paper gives a description of the Flash Lidar model and presents results from the Lidar operating under different scenarios.

  14. Compact Flash X-Ray Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-07-01

    Flash x-ray units are used to diagnose pulsed power driven experiments on the Pegasus machine at Los Alamos. Several unique designs of Marx powered...employing an x-ray tube configuration which allows closely spaced x-ray emitting anodes. These units all emit a 10 ns FWHM x-ray pulse. Their Marx banks

  15. Sight-Word Practice in a Flash!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Robin W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    For learners who need sight-word practice, including young students and struggling readers, digital flash cards may promote automatic word recognition when used as a supplemental activity to regular reading instruction. A novel use of common presentation software efficiently supports this practice strategy.

  16. A method for probabilistic flash flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Jill; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Hong, Yang; Kong, Fanyou; Flamig, Zachary L.

    2016-10-01

    Flash flooding is one of the most costly and deadly natural hazards in the United States and across the globe. This study advances the use of high-resolution quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) for flash flood forecasting. The QPFs are derived from a stormscale ensemble prediction system, and used within a distributed hydrological model framework to yield basin-specific, probabilistic flash flood forecasts (PFFFs). Before creating the PFFFs, it is important to characterize QPF uncertainty, particularly in terms of location which is the most problematic for hydrological use of QPFs. The SAL methodology (Wernli et al., 2008), which stands for structure, amplitude, and location, is used for this error quantification, with a focus on location. Finally, the PFFF methodology is proposed that produces probabilistic hydrological forecasts. The main advantages of this method are: (1) identifying specific basin scales that are forecast to be impacted by flash flooding; (2) yielding probabilistic information about the forecast hydrologic response that accounts for the locational uncertainties of the QPFs; (3) improving lead time by using stormscale NWP ensemble forecasts; and (4) not requiring multiple simulations, which are computationally demanding.

  17. Flash Diffusivity Technique Applied to Individual Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayeaux, Brian; Yowell, Leonard; Wang, Hsin

    2007-01-01

    A variant of the flash diffusivity technique has been devised for determining the thermal diffusivities, and thus the thermal conductivities, of individual aligned fibers. The technique is intended especially for application to nanocomposite fibers, made from narrower fibers of polyphenylene benzobisthiazole (PBZT) and carbon nanotubes. These highly aligned nanocomposite fibers could exploit the high thermal conductivities of carbon nanotubes for thermal-management applications. In the flash diffusivity technique as practiced heretofore, one or more heat pulse(s) is (are) applied to the front face of a plate or disk material specimen and the resulting time-varying temperature on the rear face is measured. Usually, the heat pulse is generated by use of a xenon flash lamp, and the variation of temperature on the rear face is measured by use of an infrared detector. The flash energy is made large enough to produce a usefully high temperature rise on the rear face, but not so large as to significantly alter the specimen material. Once the measurement has been completed, the thermal diffusivity of the specimen is computed from the thickness of the specimen and the time dependence of the temperature variation on the rear face. Heretofore, the infrared detector used in the flash diffusivity technique has been a single-point detector, which responds to a spatial average of the thermal radiation from the rear specimen surface. Such a detector cannot distinguish among regions of differing diffusivity within the specimen. Moreover, two basic assumptions of the thermaldiffusivity technique as practiced heretofore are that the specimen is homogeneous and that heat flows one-dimensionally from the front to the rear face. These assumptions are not valid for an inhomogeneous (composite) material.

  18. Initiation Locations of Lightning Flashes in Two Florida Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, T. C.; Karunarathna, N.; Stolzenburg, M.; Karunarathne, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we investigate the initiation locations of all intracloud (IC) and cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes in two small thunderstorms which occurred over NASA/Kennedy Space Center on July 22, 2011. Initiation points of 47 of the 58 lightning flashes (19 IC and 28 CG) were identified using the first initial breakdown (IB) pulse of each flash measured with E-change data. In this study 32 of the flashes had an LDAR2 (VHF) location coincident with the first IB pulse. For 15 flashes we used Position By Fast Antenna or PBFA [Karunarathne et al., 2013, JGR Atmospheres] to determine the location of the first IB pulse. (The remaining flashes had neither LDAR2 nor PBFA locations of the first IB pulse.) All these initiation points were then mapped onto radar reflectivity of the parent thundercloud. The initiation points of the flashes tend to cluster in specific regions in thundercloud. Lightning activity in both thunderstorms lasted 35 minutes, and all the flash initiation points in each storm occurred within a horizontal region of 4 km by 8 km. Flash initiation altitudes for IC flashes of the two thunderstorms ranged from 5.1 km to 12.1 km altitude while for CG flashes the altitude ranged from 4.6 km to 8.1 km. Based on available radar data for 14 IC flashes and 27 CG flashes, all but one of the IC flashes originated in 10 dBZ - 30 dBZ reflectivity regions while 22 of the CG flashes originated in 30 dBZ - 40 dBZ reflectivities. During the lifetimes of these two storms, no Narrow Bipolar Events occurred.

  19. The Prevalence of Injuries in Professional Turkish Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaner, Faruk; Gumusdag, Hayrettin; Kartal, Alparslan; Gumus, M.; Gullu, A.; Imamoglu, O.

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season. Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in…

  20. A spiking neuron model for synchronous flashing of fireflies.

    PubMed

    Kim, DaeEun

    2004-01-01

    Certain species of fireflies show a group behavior of synchronous flashing. Their synchronized and rhythmic flashing has received much attention among many researchers, and there has been a study of biological models for their entrainment of flashing. The synchronous behavior of fireflies resembles the firing synchrony of integrate-and-fire neurons with excitatory or inhibitory connections. This paper shows an analysis of spiking neurons specialized for a firefly flashing model, and provides simulation results of multiple neurons with various transmission delays and coupling strengths. It also explains flashing patterns of some firefly species and examines the synchrony conditions depending on transmission delays and coupling strengths.

  1. Global optical lightning flash rates determined with the Forte satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Light, T.; Davis, S. M.; Boeck, W. L.; Jacobson, A. R.; Suszcynsky, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Using FORTE photodiode detector (PDD) observations of lightning, we have determined the geographic distribution of nighttime flash rate density. We estimate the PDD flash detection efficiency to be 62% for total lightning through comparison to lightning observations by the TRMM satellite's Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), using cases in which FORTE and TRMM viewed the same storm. We present here both seasonal and l,ot,al flash rate maps. We examine some characteristics of the optical emissions of lightning in both high and low flash rate environments, and find that while lightning occurs less frequently over ocean, oceanic lightning flashes are somewhat more powerful, on average, than those over land.

  2. Anthropometric Characteristics of Columbia, South Carolina, Youth Baseball Players and Dixie Youth World Series Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Karen E.; Spurgeon, John H.; Nevett, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare measures of body size in two samples of youth baseball players with normative data from the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts. One sample of youth baseball players participated in a local little league. The second sample of youth baseball players were members of eight…

  3. Matter Flashed at Ultra Speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    "REM observations of GRB060418 and GRB060607A: the onset of the afterglow and the initial fireball Lorentz factor determination", by E. Molinari, S. D. Vergani, D. Malesani, S. Covino, et al. The paper is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20077388 (A&A, 469, L13-L16, 2007). The REM team is formed by G. Chincarini, E. Molinari, F.M. Zerbi, L.A. Antonelli, S. Covino, P. Conconi, L. Nicastro, E. Palazzi, M. Stefanon, V. Testa, G. Tosti, F. Vitali, A. Monfardini, F. D'Alessio, P. D'Avanzo, D. Fugazza, G. Malaspina, S. Piranomonte, S.D. Vergani, P.A. Ward, S. Campana, P. Goldoni, D. Guetta, D. Malesani, N. Masetti, E.J.A. Meurs, L. Norci, E. Pian, A. Fernandez-Soto, L. Stella, G. Tagliaferri, G. Ihle, L. Gonzalez, A. Pizarro, P. Sinclair, and J. Valenzuela. Notes Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short flashes of energetic gamma-rays lasting from less than a second to several minutes. They release a tremendous quantity of energy in this short time making them the most powerful events since the Big Bang. They come in two different flavours, long and short ones. Over the past few years, international efforts have convincingly shown that long gamma-ray bursts are linked with the ultimate explosion of massive stars (hypernovae; see e.g. ESO PR 16/03) while the short ones most likely originate from the violent collision of neutron stars and/or black holes (see e.g. ESO PR 26/05 and 32/05). Irrespective of the original source of the GRB energy, the injection of so much energy into a confined volume will cause a fireball to form. Gamma-ray photons have nearly a million times more energy than the 'visual' photons the eye can see. Strictly speaking, the Lorentz factor is the ratio between the total and rest-mass energy of the fireball. REM (Rapid Eye Mount) is a small (60 cm mirror diameter) rapid reaction automatic telescope dedicated to monitor the prompt afterglow of Gamma Ray Burst events. It is located at the ESO La Silla Observatory in Chile. For more information, see

  4. Phenomenology of the sound-induced flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Richard V; Murphy, Jonathan S

    2014-07-01

    Past studies, using pairings of auditory tones and visual flashes, which were static and coincident in space but variable in time, demonstrated errors in judging the temporal patterning of the visual flashes-the sound-induced flash illusion. These errors took one of the two forms: under-reporting (sound-induced fusion) or over-reporting (sound-induced fission) of the flash numbers. Our study had three objectives: to examine the robustness of both illusions and to consider the effects of stimulus set and response bias. To this end, we used an extended range of fixed spatial location flash-tone pairings, examined stimuli that were variable in space and time and measured confidence in judging flash numbers. Our results indicated that the sound-induced flash illusion is a robust percept, a finding underpinned by the confidence measures. Sound-induced fusion was found to be more robust than sound-induced fission and a most likely outcome when high numbers of flashes were incorporated within an incongruent flash-tone pairing. Conversely, sound-induced fission was the most likely outcome for the flash-tone pairing which contained two flashes. Fission was also shown to be strongly driven by stimuli confounds such as categorical boundary conditions (e.g. flash-tone pairings with ≤2 flashes) and compressed response options. These findings suggest whilst both fission and fusion are associated with 'auditory driving', the differences in the occurrence and strength of the two illusions not only reflect the separate neuronal mechanisms underlying audio and visual signal processing, but also the test conditions that have been used to investigate the sound-induced flash illusion.

  5. [Almaty club "KAIRAT" young football players' health].

    PubMed

    Kausova, G K; Karabaeva, A I

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study young football players' health. The study was conducted on 161 football players (mean age 12.3) of six children football teams of Almaty club "KAIRAT" during the competition period. It was found that 55,5% of the football players are practically healthy; 18,6% of football players have iron deficiency anemia. 32,6% of football players have caries; 5% of football players have problems of cardiopulmonary system. Investigation reveal, that in a junior sportsman was body weigh surging with downtrend during contest, testify to portability of aerobic load and in childhood unconformable of metabolism' level. This tendency was retain also in the oldest sportsman, this testify to most emulative aerobic load in comparison with junior sportsman. According as the age increases it is emulative load's extension and free occurrence of body weigh subsequent reduction but in the oldest sportsman with prevalence macrosomia. Concurrently with improvement of the anthropometric profile as far as increase of age in soccer players it is forming of a high training level. In spite of lowering of energy resources and the physical load organism's adaptation there are these phenomena. According as the age increases in a soccer player's performance of cardiac and respiratory system are improved.

  6. N-player stochastic differential games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varaiya, P.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents conditions which guarantee that the control strategies adopted by N players constitute an efficient solution, an equilibrium, or a core solution. The system dynamics are described by an Ito equation, and all players have perfect information. When the set of instantaneous joint costs and velocity vectors is convex, the conditions are necessary.

  7. Quantum Two Player Game in Thermal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Dajka, Jerzy; Kłoda, Dawid; Łobejko, Marcin; Sładkowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A two-player quantum game is considered in the presence of thermal decoherence. It is shown how the thermal environment modeled in terms of rigorous Davies approach affects payoffs of the players. The conditions for either beneficial or pernicious effect of decoherence are identified. The general considerations are exemplified by the quantum version of Prisoner Dilemma. PMID:26322833

  8. Atmospheric gamma-ray and neutron flashes

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, L. P. Kudryavtsev, A. Yu. Kudryavtseva, M. L. Kutsyk, I. M.

    2008-01-15

    Gamma-ray pulses are calculated from 2D numerical simulations of an upward atmospheric discharge in a self-consistent electric field using the multigroup approach to the kinetics of relativistic runaway electrons (REs). Computed {gamma}-ray numbers and spectra are consistent with those of terrestrial {gamma}-ray flashes (TGFs) observed aboard spacecrafts. The RE flux is concentrated mainly within the domain of the Blue Jet fluorescence. This confirms that exactly the domain adjacent to a thundercloud is the source of the observed {gamma}-ray flashes. The yield of photonuclear neutrons is calculated. One {gamma}-ray pulse generates {approx}10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} neutrons. The possibility of the direct deposition of REs to the detector readings and the origin of the lightning-advanced TGFs are discussed.

  9. 'European approach' to arc flash risk.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    DuPont claims that electrical arc, and the resulting "arc flash", are among the deadliest, least understood hazards of electricity", and can potentially occur in many industrial and other applications, including hospital plant rooms. Technical and engineering personnel from DuPont Engineering Technology, DuPont Personal Protection, and external independent experts, have thus collaborated to develop "a European approach to electrical arc risk assessment". The resulting free online resource, the DuPont Arc-Guide, sets out key steps to minimise serious arc flash incident risk, and details a range of optional, paid-for tailored risk assessment services, and an accompanying secure web portal, offering more in-depth guidance on this important, but apparently often overlooked, issue. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports.

  10. Flash butt welding of marine pipeline materials

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.L. Jr.; Paton, B.E.; Lebedev, V.K.; Kutchuk-Yatsenko, S.I.

    1982-04-01

    US engineers agree that Soviet flash butt welding machines used to join segments of marine pipelines substantially reduce manpower and increase production rates over conventional methods (manual shielded metal arc welding). Extensive tests with a Soviet-built prototype machine (K775) and US-manufactured support equipment confirmed the system's reliability, wide operating tolerances, and easy adaptability to variable welding parameters. In addition, radiographic, ultrasonic, and mechanical tests demonstrated that a strip-chart recording of welding parameters is a good indicator of weld quality, lending itself to in-process control and rapid diagnosis of equipment problems. Because of the K775 prototype's success, McDermott is proceeding with the design and manufacture of production flash butt welding machines for marine pipeline construction.

  11. Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Protections

    SciTech Connect

    R. Camp

    2008-03-04

    Over the past four years, the Electrical Safety Program at PPPL has evolved in addressing changing regulatory requirements and lessons learned from accident events, particularly in regards to arc flash hazards and implementing NFPA 70E requirements. This presentation will discuss PPPL's approaches to the areas of electrical hazards evaluation, both shock and arc flash; engineered solutions for hazards mitigation such as remote racking of medium voltage breakers, operational changes for hazards avoidance, targeted personnel training and hazard appropriate personal protective equipment. Practical solutions for nominal voltage identification and zero voltage checks for lockout/tagout will also be covered. Finally, we will review the value of a comprehensive electrical drawing program, employee attitudes expressed as a personal safety work ethic, integrated safety management, and sustained management support for continuous safety improvement.

  12. Flash evaporation of liquid monomer particle mixture

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.; Darab, J.G.; Gross, M.E.

    1999-05-11

    The present invention is a method of making a first solid composite polymer layer. The method has the steps of (a) mixing a liquid monomer with particles substantially insoluble in the liquid monomer forming a monomer particle mixture; (b) flash evaporating the particle mixture and forming a composite vapor; and (c) continuously cryocondensing said composite vapor on a cool substrate and cross-linking the cryocondensed film thereby forming the polymer layer. 3 figs.

  13. Flash evaporation of liquid monomer particle mixture

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.; Darab, John G.; Gross, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method of making a first solid composite polymer layer. The method has the steps of (a) mixing a liquid monomer with particles substantially insoluble in the liquid monomer forming a monomer particle mixture; (b) flash evaporating the particle mixture and forming a composite vapor; and (c) continuously cryocondensing said composite vapor on a cool substrate and cross-linking the cryocondensed film thereby forming the polymer layer.

  14. Synchronized Flashing Lights For Approach And Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Michael L.; Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Bell, Joseph L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed optoelectronic system for guiding vehicle in approaching and docking with another vehicle includes active optical targets (flashing lights) on approached vehicle synchronized with sensor and image-processing circuitry on approaching vehicle. Conceived for use in automated approach and docking of two spacecraft. Also applicable on Earth to manually controlled and automated approach and docking of land vehicles, aircraft, boats, and submersible vehicles, using GPS or terrestrial broadcast time signals for synchronization. Principal advantage: optical power reduced, with consequent enhancement of safety.

  15. Advances of Flash LIDAR Development Onboard Uav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G.; Yang, J.; Li, X.; Yang, X.

    2012-07-01

    A small cost-low civilian UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - UAV) platform usually requests that all carried components should be light in weight, small in volume, and efficient in energy. This paper presents the advance of a pre-mature of flash LiDAR system including laser emitting system, associate with the pulsed voltage technology. A complete laser emitting system, including laser diode, conic lens, alignment, divergence angle, etc., has been designed and implemented. The laser emitting system is first simulated and tested using 3D-Tool software, and then manufactured by an industrial company. In addition, a novel power supply topology based on two coupled coils, pulse generator circuit, and a fast switch, is proposed since several 100 V in voltage, 10-100 A in current, several hundred millisecond in pulse width is needed for flash LiDAR system onboard a small low-cost civilian UAV platform, and the traditional power supply had problems in efficiency and bulk. Finally, laser emitting and the power supply are assembled and tested. The size of laser footprint is 4398.031 mm x 4398.031 mm in x and y axes, respectively, when shitting from a flight height of 300 m, which is close to the theoretic size of 4.5 m x 4.5 m. The difference of 102 mm can meet the requirement of flash LiDAR data collection at a flight height of 300 m. Future work on extensive and on-going investigation and investments for a prototype of flash LiDAR system is drawn up as well.

  16. Evaluation of Flash Bainite in 4130 Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    austenitized) to above 1050°C (>A3) using either oxy-propane or induction heating . After heating , the material is purportedly quenched within...and Gleeble heat affected zone tests were performed on AISI 4130 steel plate. When possible, testing was baselined against conventional quench and...observed on the fracture surface of some the Flash Bainite impact toughness specimens. The impact toughness testing on the Gleeble heat affected zone

  17. Advances in flash flood monitoring using UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perks, Matthew; Russell, Andrew; Large, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    UAVs have the potential to capture information about the earth's surface in dangerous and previously inaccessible locations. Through image acquisition of flash flood events and subsequent object-based analysis, highly dynamic and oft-immeasurable hydraulic phenomenon may be quantified at previously unattainable spatial and temporal resolutions. The potential for this approach to provide valuable information about the hydraulic conditions present during dynamic, high-energy flash floods has until now not been explored. In this paper we adopt a novel approach, utilising the Kande-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) algorithm to track features present on the water surface which are related to the free-surface velocity. Following the successful tracking of features, a method analogous to the vector correction method has enabled accurate geometric rectification of velocity vectors. Uncertainties associated with the rectification process induced by unsteady camera movements are subsequently explored. Geo-registration errors are relatively stable and occur as a result of persistent residual distortion effects following image correction. The apparent ground movement of immobile control points between measurement intervals ranges from 0.05 - 0.13m. The application of this approach to assess the hydraulic conditions present in Alyth Burn, Scotland during a 1:200 year flash flood resulted in the generation of an average 4.2 measurements/m2 at a rate of 508 measurements/s. Analysis of these vectors provide a rare insight into the complexity of channel-overbank interactions during flash floods. The uncertainty attached to the calculated velocities is relatively low with a spatial average across the area of ± 0.15m/s. Little difference is observed in the uncertainty attached to out-of-bank velocities (± 0.15m/s), and within-channel velocities (± 0.16m/s), illustrating the consistency of the approach.

  18. Progress towards regional flash flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, P. D.; Coxon, G.; Quinn, N.; Freer, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Flash flooding causes widespread disruption and damage across the UK, with recent research indicating that the occurrence and severity of intense rainfall is likely to increase in the future. To date, our ability to model such events at anything other than local scales has been hindered both by a lack of data at adequate spatial and temporal resolutions and a limited understanding of the processes involved in flooding from short duration, high intensity rainfall events. To enable effective flood risk management and decisions, it is essential that we improve our understanding of the variability in risk from such events across the UK and this requires an ability to undertake flash flood modelling at regional scales. In this study, we have implemented a coupled hydrological - hydrodynamic model for the representation of flash flooding at regional scales over long durations. To provide inputs to these models, we have developed a gridded sub-daily (hourly) rainfall record of the UK from 1993 to 2011. This enables us to more accurately represent flooding resulting from short duration rainfall events that are poorly represented by commonly utilised daily rainfall data. For a given region of interest we cascade rainfall estimates from our sub-daily dataset into a semi-distributed hydrological model (Dynamic Topmodel) in order to generate river discharge estimates which are then used to force a widely utilised inundation model (LISFLOOD-FP). Here we present the results from a test case in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the modelling framework over a variety of events with differing characteristics. The results will provide an insight into our capabilities of representing flash flooding and highlight key areas for future model development and enhanced process understanding.

  19. A Flash Sterilizer using Peracetic Acid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    REPORT 7606 / A FLASH STERILIZER USING PERACETIC ACID H. BRUCE CRANFORD, JR. C Reproduced From Best Available Copy US ARMY MEDICAL BIOENGINEERING...Operating Room area whereby an accidentally contaminated Instrument can be * rapidly resterilized using peracetic acid and returned to use was designedand...Pvoperties of Peracetic Acid 5 S..Proposed Design Approach 6 "Equipment 11 SUMM•ARY 17 BIBLIOGRAPHY 19 A*?ENDICES 23 A. Ltr, HQDA. (SGRD-SDM), WASH, DC, A-1

  20. FILTR: Flash Isotope Library and Training Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D; Trombino, D

    2007-07-26

    The subject of radiation detection is replete with complex concepts and challenging nomenclature. Furthermore, a daunting variety of radioactive isotopes may be encountered during the routine operation of a radiation detector. Individuals tasked with searching for illicit sources of radiation must remain vigilant while navigating through more frequently encountered mundane and legitimate radioactive sources. The Flash Isotope Library and Training Resource (FILTR) is being developed as an easily accessible and intuitive reference tool to manage the high volume of complex information required for this task. FILTR is an extended version of the Primary Utility for Nuclear Terminology (PUNT) software developed by the Counter Measures Test Beds group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the United States Secret Service. Authored in the Flash multimedia development environment, FILTR contains detailed information on potentially encountered isotopes as well as training on radiation and operational procedures. Reference material is organized to present critical information quickly while facilitating more in-depth investigation through an intuitive interface and engaging content. FILTR is being developed for a diverse audience of law enforcement organizations and government agencies and a wide range of skill sets from expert analysts to officers whose primary role is not radiation detection. Additionally, the wide compatibility of Flash content will allow FILTR to be readily accessible through the growing number of multi-media enabled electronic devices, including PDAs and cellular phones.

  1. Executive functioning in highly talented soccer players.

    PubMed

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J A; van Lange, Paul A M; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.

  2. Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735

  3. On the detection of adobe buried archaeological structures using multiscale remote sensing techniques : Piramide Naranja in Cahuachi (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.; Lasaponara, R.; Orefici, G.

    2009-04-01

    The detection of buried adobe structures is a crucial issue for the remote sensing (ground, aerial and satellite) applied to archaeology for the widespread of sun-dried earth as building material in several ancient civilizations in Central and Southern America, Middle East and North Africa. Moreover it is complex, due to the subtle contrast existing between the archaeological features and the surrounding, especially in arid setting, as in the case of the well know Nazca Ceremonial Centre of Cahuachi, located in the desert of Nazca (Southern Peru) . During the last two decades of excavations adobe monuments dating back from the 6th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D have been highlighted by the Centro de Estudios Arqueológicos Precolombinos (CEAP), an italian-peruvian mission directed by Giuseppe Orefici. Actually, the archaeologists are excavating and restoring the core of the Ceremonial centre where is located a great pyramid (kown as Gran Piramide). Beginning from 2007 the two institutes of CNR, IMAA and IBAM, have been involved by CEAP, in order to provide a scientific and technological support for the archaeological research. Therefore, a multi-scale approach based on the integration of aerial and satellite remote sensing with geophysical techniques was employed in order to provide data useful for archaeological excavations. The abstract refers to the last investigations performed on a mound, known as "Piramide Naranja", during the 2008. The processing of an aerial imagery time series and two QuickBird satellite images acquired in 2002 and 2005, allowed for identifying some features related to shallow and buried structures. Such features were verified by means of geophysical prospections, performed by using the magnetometric method which observed changes in the magnetic field within the first few metres beneath the subsurface detecting buried walls and anomalies linked to ceramic deposits referable to possible tombs. Finally, the integration of all data

  4. Arc Flash Boundary Calculations Using Computer Software Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, M.D.

    2005-01-07

    Arc Flash Protection boundary calculations have become easier to perform with the availability of personal computer software. These programs incorporate arc flash protection boundary formulas for different voltage and current levels, calculate the bolted fault current at each bus, and use built in time-current coordination curves to determine the clearing time of protective devices in the system. Results of the arc flash protection boundary calculations can be presented in several different forms--as an annotation to the one-line diagram, as a table of arc flash protection boundary distances, and as printed placards to be attached to the appropriate equipment. Basic arc flash protection boundary principles are presented in this paper along with several helpful suggestions for performing arc flash protection boundary calculations.

  5. Comparison of flash calculations in compositional reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P.; Barker, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper compares several recent flash algorithms in the context of compositional reservoir simulation. We evaluate three reduced equation methods: (1) the 3-equation flash of Michelsen, which applies only when all binary interaction coefficients (k{sub ij}) are zero; (2) Hendricks and van Bergen; and (3) Kaul and Thrasher. We also evaluate; (4) the non-iterative flash; and (5) the method of Young. We find that these last two methods, which are similar in concept, work well for reservoir simulation where the flash must be closely coupled with the solution of the pressure equation, and where a good initial guess is generally available. The reduced equation flashes offer no significant improvement over these other methods; this is true even for the 3-equation flash which solves a simpler problem (with k{sub ij} = 0).

  6. Susceptibility to the Flash-Beep Illusion Is Increased in Children Compared to Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innes-Brown, Hamish; Barutchu, Ayla; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Crewther, David P.; Grayden, David B.; Paolini, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Audio-visual integration was studied in children aged 8-17 (N = 30) and adults (N = 22) using the "flash-beep illusion" paradigm, where the presentation of two beeps causes a single flash to be perceived as two flashes ("fission" illusion), and a single beep causes two flashes to be perceived as one flash ("fusion" illusion). Children reported…

  7. Pilot evaluation of bupropion for the treatment of hot flashes.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Domingo G; Loprinzi, Charles L; Sloan, Jeff; Novotny, Paul; Barton, Debra; Carpenter, Lisa; Smith, Deanne; Christensen, Brad; Rummans, Teresa

    2006-06-01

    Bupropion is commonly used in the treatment of nicotine dependence and depression, and in most people, does not cause sexual dysfunction, weight gain, or sedation. Given its attractive side effect profile, the efficacy of other newer antidepressants against hot flashes and anecdotal observations of resolution of hot flashes in some patients taking bupropion for nicotine dependence, it was decided to explore its clinical activity as a hot flash remedy in a pilot study. Between January 1999 and October 2004, 21 patients (7 men and 14 women) were enrolled in the study. Self-completed daily hot flash diaries were used to document the frequency and severity of hot flashes at baseline (week 1) and during the treatment period (weeks 2 through 5). Participants received bupropion 150 mg every morning for the first 3 days and then 150 mg twice per day for a total of 4 weeks. One woman did not provide any hot flash information and was excluded from the analysis. Five women could not complete the study because of side effects. The study did not show a reduction in hot flash frequency and/or severity significantly higher than what would be expected with a placebo. Even though the sample size was small, these results are consistent with bupropion's mechanism of action (norepinephrine reuptake inhibition without serotonergic effects) and what it is now hypothesized about the pathophysiology of hot flashes (increased noradrenergic activity and decreased serotonergic activity). These data suggest that bupropion should not be further investigated as a remedy for hot flashes.

  8. SUMO modification regulates the transcriptional activity of FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Alm-Kristiansen, Anne Hege; Norman, Ingrid Louise; Matre, Vilborg; Gabrielsen, Odd Stokke

    2009-09-25

    FLASH is a huge multifunctional nuclear protein that has been linked to apoptotic signalling, transcriptional control and Cajal body function. To gain further insight into the functions of the FLASH protein, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening with FLASH as bait and identified the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 as an interaction partner. The main interaction surface for Ubc9 was found in the C-terminal part of FLASH, which is also a target for sumoylation. We identified K1813 as the major sumoylation site in FLASH, being enhanced by the SUMO E3 ligases Pc2 and PIASy. Disruption of this SUMO-conjugation site did not change the speckled subnuclear localization of FLASH, but it caused a reduction in FLASH activity as measured in a Gal4-tethering assay. Interestingly, the SUMO-specific protease SENP1 activated FLASH in the same assay. Overall, our results point to a complex involvement of sumoylation in modulating the function of FLASH.

  9. Hold-up power supply for flash memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, William E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A hold-up power supply for flash memory systems is provided. The hold-up power supply provides the flash memory with the power needed to temporarily operate when a power loss exists. This allows the flash memory system to complete any erasures and writes, and thus allows it to shut down gracefully. The hold-up power supply detects when a power loss on a power supply bus is occurring and supplies the power needed for the flash memory system to temporally operate. The hold-up power supply stores power in at least one capacitor. During normal operation, power from a high voltage supply bus is used to charge the storage capacitors. When a power supply loss is detected, the power supply bus is disconnected from the flash memory system. A hold-up controller controls the power flow from the storage capacitors to the flash memory system. The hold-up controller uses feedback to assure that the proper voltage is provided from the storage capacitors to the flash memory system. This power supplied by the storage capacitors allows the flash memory system to complete any erasures and writes, and thus allows the flash memory system to shut down gracefully.

  10. Does Education Matter? Major League Baseball Players and Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalist, David E.; Peng, Yingwei

    2007-01-01

    The authors used duration analysis to examine the longevity of Major League Baseball players. Using data on players who were born between 1945 and 1964, the authors found that the hazard rate of death for players who only attended high school was almost 2.0 times higher than those players who attended a 4-year university, evidence that the…

  11. Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma Flashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Kippen, R. M.; vonKienlin, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Smith, D. M.; Holzworth, R.

    2010-01-01

    In its first two years of operation, the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has observed 79 Terrestrial Gamma Flashes (TGFs). The thick Bismuth Germanate (BGO) detectors are excellent for TGF spectroscopy, having a high probability of recording the full energy of an incident photon, spanning a broad energy range from 150 keV to 40 MeV, and recording a large number of photons per TGF. Correlations between GBM TGF triggers and lightning sferics detected with the World-Wide Lightning Location Network indicate that TGFs and lightning are simultaneous to within tens of microseconds.

  12. 3D flash lidar imager onboard UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Liu, Yilong; Yang, Jiazhi; Zhang, Rongting; Su, Chengjie; Shi, Yujun; Zhou, Xiang

    2014-11-01

    A new generation of flash LiDAR sensor called GLidar-I is presented in this paper. The GLidar-I has been being developed by Guilin University of Technology in cooperating with the Guilin Institute of Optical Communications. The GLidar-I consists of control and process system, transmitting system and receiving system. Each of components has been designed and implemented. The test, experiments and validation for each component have been conducted. The experimental results demonstrate that the researched and developed GLiDAR-I can effectively measure the distance about 13 m at the accuracy level about 11cm in lab.

  13. Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the observation of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes (TGFs) by Gamma-Ray Telescopes. These were: (1) BATSE /Compton Observatory, (2) Solar Spectroscopic Imager, (3) AGILE Gamma-ray Telescope, and (4) Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It contains charts which display the counts over time, a map or the TGFs observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). and a map showing the latitude and longitude of 85 of the TGFs observed by the Fermi GBM.

  14. Apollo-Soyuz light-flash observations.

    PubMed

    Budinger, T F; Tobias, C A; Huesman, R H; Upham, F T; Wieskamp, T F; Hoffman, R A

    1977-01-01

    While dark adapted, two Apollo-Soyuz astronauts saw eighty-two light flash events during a complete 51 degrees orbit which passed near the north magnetic pole and through the South Atlantic Anomaly. The frequency of events at the polar parts of the orbit is 25 times that noted in equatorial latitudes and no increased frequency was noted in the South Atlantic Anomaly at the 225-km altitude. The expected flux of heavy particles at the northern and southern points is 1-2 min-1 per eye, and the efficiency for seeing HZE particles which were below the Cerenkov threshold is 50%.

  15. Ambulatory glucose profile: Flash glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2015-12-01

    Ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) is a novel way of assessing glycaemic levels on a 24 hour basis, through a minimally invasive method, known as flash glucose monitoring. This review describes the unique features of AGP, differentiates it from existing methods of glucose monitoring, and explains how it helps pursue the glycaemic pentad. The review suggests pragmatic usage of this technology, including pre-test, intra-test, and post-test counselling, and lists specific clinical scenarios where the investigation seems to be of immense benefit.

  16. Multi-player games on the cycle

    PubMed Central

    van Veelen, Matthijs; Nowak, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In multi-player games n individuals interact in any one encounter and derive a payoff from that interaction. We assume that individuals adopt one of two strategies, and we consider symmetric games, which means the payoff depends only on the number of players using either strategy, but not on any particular configuration of the encounter. On the cycle we assume that any string of n neighbouring players interacts. We study fixation probabilities of stochastic evolutionary dynamics. We derive analytical results on the cycle both for linear and exponential fitness for any intensity of selection, and compare those to results for the well-mixed population. As particular examples we study multi-player public goods games, stag hunt games and snowdrift games. PMID:21907215

  17. Experienced poker players are emotionally stable.

    PubMed

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2014-10-01

    Online poker and poker subcultures have become exceedingly popular. Previous studies assessing experience and skill in poker have revealed that proficiency in emotion regulation is a consequential factor in explaining financial success in the game. We assessed (N=478) the associations between poker players' (recruited from online poker forums) level of poker experience and HEXACO-PI-R personality traits. The results indicate that a predisposition for emotional stability-that is, lower scores on emotionality-is linked to high levels of poker experience. Thus, in order to become a successful and experienced poker player, it helps to be able to "keep cool" under pressure. Further exploratory analyses suggest that players who prefer live play to online play are more likely to be extroverted and open to experiences. The results contribute to the extant literature on individual differences in personality in poker players, and in particular help to fill the interdisciplinary gap between personality and gambling research.

  18. Video Player Keyboard Shortcuts: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/hotkeys.html Video Player Keyboard Shortcuts To use the sharing features ... of accessible keyboard shortcuts for our latest Health videos on the MedlinePlus site. These shortcuts allow you ...

  19. Replicator dynamics with turnover of players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juul, Jeppe; Kianercy, Ardeshir; Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Pigolotti, Simone

    2013-08-01

    We study adaptive dynamics in games where players abandon the population at a given rate and are replaced by naive players characterized by a prior distribution over the admitted strategies. We demonstrate how such a process leads macroscopically to a variant of the replicator equation, with an additional term accounting for player turnover. We study how Nash equilibria and the dynamics of the system are modified by this additional term for prototypical examples such as the rock-paper-scissors game and different classes of two-action games played between two distinct populations. We conclude by showing how player turnover can account for nontrivial departures from Nash equilibria observed in data from lowest unique bid auctions.

  20. Menstrual cycle disorders in female volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.

  1. The hospital manager and game theory: chess master, poker player, or cooperative game player?

    PubMed

    Dowd, Steven B; Root, Alexey

    2003-01-01

    Hospital management can be seen as a game, and doctors, nurses, and health maintenance organizations are its players. The astute hospital manager realizes the interdependence of individual career strategies and the hospital's success, just as players in a game are interdependent on each other. Managers familiar with game theory may successfully transfer that knowledge to the hospital realm. They may recognize patterns and calculate outcomes like chess players, bluff other hospitals into folding services as poker players do, and cooperate with their own team to maximize productivity. Knowledge of game theory may also make the hospital manager's job.

  2. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S

    2017-01-01

    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai‘i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play. PMID:28352493

  3. Explosive Strength Imbalances in Professional Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Schiltz, Marc; Lehance, Cédric; Maquet, Didier; Bury, Thierry; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    Context: Despite the high rate of lower limb injuries in basketball players, studies of the dominant-limb effect in elite athletes often neglect injury history. Objective: To determine lower limb explosive-strength asymmetries in professional basketball players compared with junior basketball players and control participants. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Academic medical institution. Patients or Other Participants: 15 professional basketball players, 10 junior basketball players, and 20 healthy men. Main Outcome Measure(s): We performed an isokinetic examination to evaluate the knee extensor (Ext) and flexor (Fl) concentric peak torque at 60°·s−1 and 240°·s−1 and (Fl only) eccentric peak torque at 30°·s−1 and 120°·s−1. Functional evaluation included countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arms, 10-m sprint, single-leg drop jump, and single-leg, 10-second continuous jumping. Variables were compared among groups using analysis of variance or a generalized linear mixed model for bilateral variables. Results: The 2 groups of basketball players demonstrated better isokinetic and functional performances than the control group did. No differences in functional or relative isokinetic variables were noted between professional and junior basketball players. Professional players with a history of knee injury failed to reach normal knee extensor strength at 60°·s−1. Knee Ext (60°·s−1) and Fl (eccentric 120°·s−1) torque values as well as 10-second continuous jumping scores were higher in those professional players without a history of knee injury than those with such a history. Compared with the group without a history of knee injury, the group with a history of knee injury maintained leg asymmetry ratios greater than 10% for almost all isokinetic variables and more than 15% for unilateral functional variables. Conclusions: The relative isokinetic and functional performances of professional basketball players were similar to those of junior

  4. Somatotype of Italian rugby players.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, G; Viviani, F

    1993-03-01

    Our aim was to collect lacking first-hand data on Italian rugby players. The Heath/Carter anthropometric somatotype method was applied to 28 "A" League performers (RP) aged 25 +/- 3.9 years of age. Their somatotypes and dimensions were compared with those found in previous studies on athletes involved in the same sporting activity, with data collected on 25 "sedentary" young Italians, and with Bailey et al.'s study on Canadians (1982). On average, the RP group resulted as being endomorphic mesomorphs (3.1 +/- 1.1 - 5.6 +/- 1.3 - 1.4 +/- 1.1), a result that is congruent with international data. They differed significantly from the balanced mesomorph CG (2.3 +/- 1.0 - 4.5 +/- 1.2 - 2.5 +/- 1.4) for all the measurements taken, apart from bi-epycondylar width. The peculiar somatotype scores found are congruent with the needs of rugby, an aerobic-anaerobic discipline which requires performers with great muscular power associated with a capacity to furnish energy, mainly through the anaerobic metabolism.

  5. Symptom Clusters among MsFLASH Clinical Trial Participants

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Nancy Fugate; Hohensee, Chancellor; Carpenter, Janet S.; Cohen, Lee; Ensrud, Kristine; Freeman, Ellen W.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Joffe, Hadine; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Otte, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Women experience multiple co-occurring symptoms (symptom clusters) during the menopausal transition and early postmenopause. Although symptom clusters have been identified among community-dwelling midlife women, to date there have been no studies of midlife participants in clinical trials for hot flashes. Our objective was to identify symptom clusters using standardized measures completed by participants in the Menopausal Strategies: Finding Lasting Answers to Symptoms and Health (MsFLASH) clinical trial at baseline including: hot flash interference, and sleep, depressive, anxiety, and pain symptoms. Methods Data from all women randomized to interventions and controls from MsFLASH studies 1, 2, and 3 (N=899) were included; 797 with complete data were used in the analyses. Scores from standardized measures obtained at baseline included: Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale (HFRDIS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ 9) measure of depressed mood, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and Brief Pain Inventory PEG scores. Latent class analysis was used to identify symptom clusters using standardized scale scores and their established cut points. Results We identified 5 classes using the BIC and AIC criteria. Women in classes 1 and 2 had high hot flash interference levels relative to the others, and class 1 (10.5% of total) included severe hot flash interference, severe sleep symptoms, and moderately severe pain symptoms (hot flash, sleep, pain). In class 2 (14.1%), severe hot flash interference was paired with the severe sleep symptoms, and moderate to severe depressed and anxious mood symptoms and pain (hot flash, sleep, mood, pain). In class 3 (39.6%) women reported moderately severe sleep symptoms with moderate hot flash interference, and low severity mood and pain symptoms (hot flash, sleep). Those in class 4 (7.0%) reported moderate hot flash interference with severe levels of

  6. Rectus abdominis muscle strains in tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Maquirriain, Javier; Ghisi, Juan P; Kokalj, Antonio M

    2007-01-01

    Rectus abdominis muscle strains are common and debilitating injuries among competitive tennis players. Eccentric overload, followed by forced contraction of the non‐dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion is the accepted injury mechanism. A tennis‐specific rehabilitation program emphasising eccentrics and plyometric strengthening of the abdominal wall muscles, contributes to the complete functional recovery in tennis players, and could help reduce recurrences. PMID:17957025

  7. Rectus abdominis muscle strains in tennis players.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, Javier; Ghisi, Juan P; Kokalj, Antonio M

    2007-11-01

    Rectus abdominis muscle strains are common and debilitating injuries among competitive tennis players. Eccentric overload, followed by forced contraction of the non-dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion is the accepted injury mechanism. A tennis-specific rehabilitation program emphasising eccentrics and plyometric strengthening of the abdominal wall muscles, contributes to the complete functional recovery in tennis players, and could help reduce recurrences.

  8. Characteristics of flash initiations in a supercell cluster with tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dong; MacGorman, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Flash initiations within a supercell cluster during 10-11 May 2010 in Oklahoma were investigated based on observations from the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array and the Norman, Oklahoma, polarimetric radar (KOUN). The flash initiations at positions dominated by graupel, dry snow, small hail and crystals accounted for 44.3%, 44.1%, 8.0% and 3.0% of the total flashes, respectively. During the tornadic stage of the southern supercell in the cluster, flash initiations associated with graupel occupied the main body, the right flank and the forward flank of the supercell, while those associated with dry snow dominated the outskirts of the adjacent forward anvil, right anvil and rear anvil. The flash initiations associated with small hail were concentrated around the main updraft, particularly toward its front side. Highly dense flash initiations were located in the regions overlying the differential reflectivity (ZDR) arc and right anvil. The average initial height of the flashes decreased gradually from the rear to the front and from the right to the left flanks, while the height range over which initiations occurred reached a maximum at the front of the updraft. The flashes that were initiated in the adjacent forward anvils were largest on average, followed by those in the regions ahead of the updraft and near the ZDR arc. This study supports the concept of charge pockets and further deduces that the pockets in the right anvil are the most abundant and compact due to the frequent flash initiations, small-sized flashes and thin layers including flash initiations.

  9. Aging, Spatial Disparity, and the Sound-Induced Flash Illusion

    PubMed Central

    DeLoss, Denton J.; Andersen, George J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined age-related differences in multisensory integration and the effect of spatial disparity on the sound-induced flash illusion—-an illusion used in previous research to assess age-related differences in multisensory integration. Prior to participation in the study, both younger and older participants demonstrated their ability to detect 1–2 visual flashes and 1–2 auditory beep presented unimodally. After passing the pre-test, participants were then presented 1–2 flashes paired with 0–2 beeps that originated from one of five speakers positioned equidistantly 100cm from the participant. One speaker was positioned directly below the screen, two speakers were positioned 50cm to the left and right from the center of the screen, and two more speakers positioned to the left and right 100cm from the center of the screen. Participants were told to report the number of flashes presented and to ignore the beeps. Both age groups showed a significant effect of the beeps on the perceived number of flashes. However, neither younger nor older individuals showed any significant effect of spatial disparity on the sound-induced flash illusion. The presence of a congruent number of beeps increased accuracy for both older and younger individuals. Reaction time data was also analyzed. As expected, older individuals showed significantly longer reaction times when compared to younger individuals. In addition, both older and younger individuals showed a significant increase in reaction time for fusion trials, where two flashes and one beep are perceived as a single flash, as compared to congruent single flash trials. This increase in reaction time was not found for fission trials, where one flash and two beeps were perceived as two flashes. This suggests that processing may differ for the two forms for fission as compared to fusion illusions. PMID:26619352

  10. Soccer skill development in talented players.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, B C H; Elferink-Gemser, M T; Ali, A; Visscher, C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to gain insight into the development of soccer-specific skills and whether differences between talented players exist on the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT). Two scores were derived from the LSPT: 1) execution time: time to complete 16 passes (speed) and 2) skill performance time: execution time including bonus and penalty time for accuracy. The study consisted of 2 parts, the first of which incorporated a quasi-longitudinal design with 270 talented players aged 10-18 years performing the LSPT (661 measurement occasions); multilevel modelling was applied. Secondly, differences between those players allowed to continue in the development program (selected, n=269) and players who were forced to leave (de-selected, n=50) were investigated using independent sample t-tests. The longitudinal data showed that the predicted execution time (i. e., speed) improved approximately 18% from age 10-18 years (P<0.05), skill performance time (i. e., combination of speed and accuracy) was predicted to improve approximately 32% (P<0.05). The second part showed that selected players outscored de-selected players only on skill performance time (P<0.05), not on execution time (P>0.05). In conclusion, in high-level youth soccer, the combination of speed and accuracy in soccer skills might be more important than speed alone.

  11. Efficiently Communicating Rich Heterogeneous Geospatial Data from the FeMO2008 Dive Cruise with FlashMap on EarthRef.org

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnett, R. C.; Koppers, A. A.; Staudigel, D.; Staudigel, H.

    2008-12-01

    EarthRef.org is comprehensive and convenient resource for Earth Science reference data and models. It encompasses four main portals: the Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM), the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC), the Seamount Biogeosciences Network (SBN), and the Enduring Resources for Earth Science Education (ERESE). Their underlying databases are publically available and the scientific community has contributed widely and is urged to continue to do so. However, the net result is a vast and largely heterogeneous warehouse of geospatial data ranging from carefully prepared maps of seamounts to geochemical data/metadata, daily reports from seagoing expeditions, large volumes of raw and processed multibeam data, images of paleomagnetic sampling sites, etc. This presents a considerable obstacle for integrating other rich media content, such as videos, images, data files, cruise tracks, and interoperable database results, without overwhelming the web user. The four EarthRef.org portals clearly lend themselves to a more intuitive user interface and has, therefore, been an invaluable test bed for the design and implementation of FlashMap, a versatile KML-driven geospatial browser written for reliability and speed in Adobe Flash. FlashMap allows layers of content to be loaded and displayed over a streaming high-resolution map which can be zoomed and panned similarly to Google Maps and Google Earth. Many organizations, from National Geographic to the USGS, have begun using Google Earth software to display geospatial content. However, Google Earth, as a desktop application, does not integrate cleanly with existing websites requiring the user to navigate away from the browser and focus on a separate application and Google Maps, written in Java Script, does not scale up reliably to large datasets. FlashMap remedies these problems as a web-based application that allows for seamless integration of the real-time display power of Google Earth and the flexibility of

  12. Flash Infrared Thermography Contrast Data Analysis Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast versus time evolutions from the flash thermography inspection infrared video data. The analysis calculates thermal measurement features from the contrast evolution. In addition, simulation of the contrast evolution is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat-bottom holes in the subject material. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography data in order to characterize delamination-like anomalies. The thermal measurement features relate to the anomaly characteristics. The contrast evolution simulation is matched to the measured contrast evolution over an anomaly to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width which correspond to the depth and diameter of the equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) similar to that used as input to the simulation. A similar analysis, in terms of diameter and depth of an equivalent uniform gap (EUG) providing a best match with the measured contrast evolution, is also provided. An edge detection technique called the half-max is used to measure width and length of the anomaly. Results of the half-max width and the EFBH/EUG diameter are compared to evaluate the anomaly. The information provided here is geared towards explaining the IR Contrast technique. Results from a limited amount of validation data on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) hardware are included in this paper.

  13. Flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, M.J.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-03-01

    Despite the extensive research into the pyrolysis of lignin, the underlying chemical reactions that lead to product formation are poorly understood. Detailed mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of biomass and lignin under conditions relevant to current process conditions could provide insight into utilizing this renewable resource for the production of chemicals and fuel. Currently, flash or fast pyrolysis is the most promising process to maximize the yields of liquid products (up to 80 wt %) from biomass by rapidly heating the substrate to moderate temperatures, typically 500{degrees}C, for short residence times, typically less than two seconds. To provide mechanistic insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds that contain a {beta}-ether. linkage and {alpha}- or {gamma}-alcohol, which are key structural elements in lignin. The dominant products from the FVP of PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh (PPE), PhC(OH)HCH{sub 2}OPh, and PhCH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 2}OH)OPh at 500{degrees}C can be attributed to homolysis of the weakest bond in the molecule (C-O bond) or 1,2-elimination. Surprisingly, the hydroxy-substituent dramatically increases the decomposition of PPE. It is proposed that internal hydrogen bonding is accelerating the reaction.

  14. Flash X-ray testing of ER3400 EAROMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abare, W. E.; Riley, R. M.; Thygeson, T. L.

    1983-12-01

    Flash X-ray testing of ER3400 MNOS memories demonstrates their memory volatility. Flash X-ray test data is presented for four bias conditions and two write pulse widths. A simple electrical screening technique is described which increases the memory vulnerability threshold. Permanent shifts in access time and memory reference voltage from accumulated doses are discussed.

  15. Genetic Polymorphisms, Hormone Levels, and Hot Flashes in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Chrissy; Gallicchio, Lisa; Miller, Susan R.; Langenberg, Patricia; Zacur, Howard; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Hot flashes disrupt the lives of millions of women each year. Although hot flashes are a public health concern, little is known about risk factors that predispose women to hot flashes. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine whether sex steroid hormone levels and genetic polymorphisms in hormone biosynthesis and degradation enzymes are associated with the risk of hot flashes. Methods In a cross-sectional study design, midlife women aged 45 to 54 years (n=639) were recruited from Baltimore and its surrounding counties. Participants completed a questionnaire and donated a blood sample for steroid hormone analysis and genotyping. The associations between genetic polymorphisms and hormone levels, as well as the associations between genetic polymorphisms, hormone levels, and hot flashes were examined using statistical models. Results A polymorphism in CYP1B1 was associated with lower dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and progesterone levels, while a polymorphism in CYP19 (aromatase) was associated with higher testosterone and DHEA-S levels. Lower progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels, lower free estradiol index, and a higher ratio of total androgens to total estrogens were associated with the experiencing of hot flashes. A polymorphism in CYP1B1 and a polymorphism in 3βHSD were both associated with hot flashes. Conclusion Some genetic polymorphisms may be associated with altered levels of hormones in midlife women. Further, selected genetic polymorphisms and altered hormone levels may be associated with the risk of hot flashes in midlife women. PMID:17187946

  16. Inserting a Flash movie into a PowerPoint presentation.

    PubMed

    Elfarssi, Saïd

    2007-02-01

    Macromedia Flash is a multimedia authoring software that is used to create dynamic presentations for the World Wide Web. Flash allows you to mix sound, animation, and graphics into a single file that can be added to a PowerPoint presentation for dynamic effect.

  17. Intraoperative monitoring of flash visual evoked potential under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hironobu; Kawaguchi, Masahiko

    2017-04-01

    In neurosurgical procedures that may cause visual impairment in the intraoperative period, the monitoring of flash visual evoked potential (VEP) is clinically used to evaluate visual function. Patients are unconscious during surgery under general anesthesia, making flash VEP monitoring useful as it can objectively evaluate visual function. The flash stimulus input to the retina is transmitted to the optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, lateral geniculate body, optic radiation (geniculocalcarine tract), and visual cortical area, and the VEP waveform is recorded from the occipital region. Intraoperative flash VEP monitoring allows detection of dysfunction arising anywhere in the optic pathway, from the retina to the visual cortex. Particularly important steps to obtain reproducible intraoperative flash VEP waveforms under general anesthesia are total intravenous anesthesia with propofol, use of retinal flash stimulation devices using high-intensity light-emitting diodes, and a combination of electroretinography to confirm that the flash stimulus has reached the retina. Relatively major postoperative visual impairment can be detected by intraoperative decreases in the flash VEP amplitude.

  18. Initial Electric Field Changes of Lightning Flashes in Two Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, T. C.; Stolzenburg, M.; Karunarathne, S.; Chapman, R.

    2015-12-01

    In a study of lightning initiation, Marshall et al. [2014, JGR Atmospheres] found that an initial electric field change (IEC) occurred before the initial breakdown (IB) pulses in 18 cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes and in 18 intracloud (IC) flashes. Because the IECs were small in amplitude and slowly developing (i.e., primarily electrostatic events), they were only detected by sensors within the reversal distance of each flash. In this presentation we report on a search for IECs in two small Florida thunderstorms that occurred close to several E-change sensors. One storm had 57 flashes; the other had only 13 flashes. The key result is that 69 of the 70 flashes began with detectable IECs. For the one flash without a detectable IEC, the closest sensor was at the reversal distance, presumably masking the IEC. Three of the flashes analyzed seemed to begin twice, in the sense that they had two sets of IB pulses; each beginning was preceded by an IEC.

  19. Algorithms for Lunar Flash Video Search, Measurement, and Archiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Wesley; Suggs, Robert; Cooke, William

    2007-01-01

    Lunar meteoroid impact flashes provide a method to estimate the flux of the large meteoroid flux and thus their hazard to spacecraft. Although meteoroid impacts on the Moon have been detected using video methods for over a decade, the difficulty of manually searching hours of video for the rare, extremely brief impact flashes has discouraged the technique's systematic implementation. A prototype has been developed for the purpose of automatically searching Lunar video records for impact flashes, eliminating false detections, editing the returned possible flashes, and archiving and documenting the results. The theory and organization of the program is discussed with emphasis on the filtering out of several classes of false detections and retaining the brief portions of the raw video necessary for in depth analysis of the flashes detected. Several utilities for measurement, analysis, and location of the flashes on the moon included in the program are demonstrated. Application of the program to a year's worth of Lunar observations is discussed along with examples of impact flashes as well as several classes of false impact flashes.

  20. Two probable optical flashes from gamma-ray bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, B. E.; Bradt, H. V.; Barat, C.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Cline, T. L.; Desai, U. D.; Teegarden, B. J.; Evans, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Two images on archival photographic plates which are most likely records of optical flashes from gamma-ray bursters (GRBs) were examined. One of these images appears on a 1901 plate in the field of the 5 Nov. 1979 GRB, while the other is in the field of the 13 Jan. 1979 GRB on a plate exposed in 1944. The 1901 optical transient image is circular in shape, while all normal star images are trailed by 8 in. No optical transients are found in a control region which is 34.3 times larger than the GRB error regions examined. Independent limits on the optical flash rate from the sky yield a probability of less than 0.0001 that any one of the optical transients is due to a background flash. A total exposure of 2.7 years was examined for GRB flashes at known GRB locations on the Harvard plates and a total of three GRB flashes were seen, that the average recurrence time scale for optical flashes is roughly one year. The optical fluence of these optical flashes was measured. For the three currently known GRB optical flashes, the ratio of gamma-ray fluence (from a modern burst) to the optical fluence (from a archival burst) were measured to be 800, 900, and 900.

  1. Assessment of vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

    2011-07-01

    There has been an increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration caused by heavy or excessive rainfall intensity over a small area, which presents the greatest potential danger threat to the natural environment, human life, public health and property, etc. Such flash floods have rapid runoff and debris flow that rises quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage. This study develops a flash flood index through the average of the same scale relative severity factors quantifying characteristics of hydrographs generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the long-term observed rainfall data in a small ungauged study basin, and presents regression equations between rainfall characteristics and the flash flood index. The aim of this study is to develop flash flood index-duration-frequency relation curves by combining the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relation and the flash flood index from probability rainfall data in order to evaluate vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms. This study is an initial effort to quantify the flash flood severity of design storms for both existing and planned flood control facilities to cope with residual flood risks due to extreme flash floods that have ocurred frequently in recent years.

  2. Macromedia Flash as a Tool for Mathematics Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Joe; Summers, Tim

    2004-01-01

    Macromedia Flash is a powerful and robust development tool. Because of its graphical, sound, and animation capabilities (and ubiquitous browser plug-in), major companies employ it in their website development (see www.nike.com or www.espn.com). These same features also make Flash a valuable environment for building multi-representational "movies"…

  3. Temporal Ventriloquism: Sound Modulates the Flash-Lag Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroomen, Jean; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2004-01-01

    A sound presented in close temporal proximity to a visual stimulus can alter the perceived temporal dimensions of the visual stimulus (temporal ventriloquism). In this article, the authors demonstrate temporal ventriloquism in the flash-lag effect (FLE), a visual illusion in which a flash appears to lag relative to a moving object. In Experiment…

  4. Flash signals, nuptial gifts and female preference in photinus fireflies.

    PubMed

    Cratsley, Christopher K

    2004-06-01

    The evolution of male courtship signals such as the bioluminescent flashes of fireflies may be shaped, at least in part, by female preference for particular characteristics of the male signal. These female preferences for male courtship signals may arise as a result of the benefits of choosing males with particular traits. One possible benefit of mate choice occurs if females can use male courtship signals as an honest indicator of male nutritional contributions at mating, nuptial gifts. This paper reviews female preference for male flash characteristics in Photinus fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), and the potential for females to use male flash characteristics to predict nuptial gift quality. In Photinus firefly species with single pulse flashes females preferentially respond to flashes of greater intensity and duration. Male Photinus provide a nuptial gift to females at mating in the form of a spermatophore and flash duration serves as a good predictor of spermatophore mass for males collected early in the season. However, Photinus fireflies do not feed as adults, so spermatophore mass decreases with subsequent matings. In response, nutrient-limited females may stop preferentially responding to longer duration flashes, increasing their overall responsiveness later in the mating season as they forage for spermatophores. Therefore, the evolution of male courtship signals in Photinus fireflies is the product not only of female preference for male flash characteristics, but also the costs and benefits of female choice that shape these preferences.

  5. Treatment of Menopausal Hot Flashes with 5-Hydroxytryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Much recent research has focused on nonhormonal treatments for menopausal hot flashes. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of 5-Hydroxytroptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor of serotonin, upon menopausal hot flashes. Selective, serotonergic, reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s), which increase the amount of serotonin in the synaptic gap, have shown some promise in the amelioration of hot flashes. Methods We administered 5-HTP or placebo, in double-blind fashion, to 24 postmenopausal women reporting frequent hot flashes. Treatment outcome was measured using a miniature, electronic, hot flash recorder. Results No significant effects of 150 mg/day 5-HTP upon hot flash frequency were found. The 5-HTP group had 23.8 ± 5.7 (SD) hot flashes/24 hours prior to treatment and 18.5 ± 9.6 at the end of treatment. The placebo group had 18.5 ± 9.6 before treatment and 22.6 ± 12.4 at treatment completion. Conclusions At the dose given, 5-HTP does not significantly ameliorate frequency of menopausal hot flashes, as measured objectively with an electronic recorder. Given the small size, this study must be considered preliminary in nature. PMID:20031347

  6. Behavioral Treatment of Menopausal Hot Flashes: Evaluation by Objective Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germaine, Leonard M.; Freedman, Robert R.

    1984-01-01

    Used latency to hot flash onset under heat stress to evaluate the effects of relaxation treatment or a control procedure in 14 menopausal women. Following treatment, the latency to hot flash onset during heat stress was increased in relaxation subjects. Reported symptom frequency was significantly reduced in relaxation subjects. (BH)

  7. Algorithms for Lunar Flash Video Search, Measurement, and Archiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Wesley; Suggs, Robert; Cooke, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Lunar meteoroid impact flashes provide a method to estimate the flux of the large meteoroid flux and thus their hazard to spacecraft. Although meteoroid impacts on the Moon have been detected using video methods for over a decade, the difficulty of manually searching hours of video for the rare, extremely brief impact flashes has discouraged the technique's systematic implementation. A prototype has been developed for the purpose of automatically searching lunar video records for impact flashes, eliminating false detections, editing the returned possible flashes, Z and archiving and documenting the results. The theory and organization of the program is discussed with emphasis on the filtering out of several classes of false detections and retaining the brief portions of the raw video necessary for in depth analysis of the flashes detected. Several utilities for measurement, analysis, and location of the flashes on the moon included in the program are demonstrated. Application of the program to a year's worth of lunar observations is discussed along with examples of impact flashes as well as several classes of false impact flashes.

  8. Assessment of Vulnerability to Extreme Flash Floods in Design Storms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration caused by heavy or excessive rainfall intensity over a small area, which presents the greatest potential danger threat to the natural environment, human life, public health and property, etc. Such flash floods have rapid runoff and debris flow that rises quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage. This study develops a flash flood index through the average of the same scale relative severity factors quantifying characteristics of hydrographs generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the long-term observed rainfall data in a small ungauged study basin, and presents regression equations between rainfall characteristics and the flash flood index. The aim of this study is to develop flash flood index-duration-frequency relation curves by combining the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relation and the flash flood index from probability rainfall data in order to evaluate vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms. This study is an initial effort to quantify the flash flood severity of design storms for both existing and planned flood control facilities to cope with residual flood risks due to extreme flash floods that have ocurred frequently in recent years. PMID:21845165

  9. Kinetics of Reactions of Monomeric Nitrosomethane Induced by Flash Photolysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozubek, H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which the kinetics of dimerization of nitrosamine induced by a flash of light is measured. The experiment can be performed with a commercial ultraviolet-VIS spetrophotometer with easy to make modifications. The experiment demonstrates a flash photolysis system not always available in university chemistry laboratories.…

  10. Intraoperative monitoring of flash visual evoked potential under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hironobu

    2017-01-01

    In neurosurgical procedures that may cause visual impairment in the intraoperative period, the monitoring of flash visual evoked potential (VEP) is clinically used to evaluate visual function. Patients are unconscious during surgery under general anesthesia, making flash VEP monitoring useful as it can objectively evaluate visual function. The flash stimulus input to the retina is transmitted to the optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, lateral geniculate body, optic radiation (geniculocalcarine tract), and visual cortical area, and the VEP waveform is recorded from the occipital region. Intraoperative flash VEP monitoring allows detection of dysfunction arising anywhere in the optic pathway, from the retina to the visual cortex. Particularly important steps to obtain reproducible intraoperative flash VEP waveforms under general anesthesia are total intravenous anesthesia with propofol, use of retinal flash stimulation devices using high-intensity light-emitting diodes, and a combination of electroretinography to confirm that the flash stimulus has reached the retina. Relatively major postoperative visual impairment can be detected by intraoperative decreases in the flash VEP amplitude. PMID:28367282

  11. Lightning Mapping Array flash detection performance with variable receiver thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Vanna C.; Bruning, Eric C.

    2016-07-01

    This study characterizes Lightning Mapping Array performance for networks that participated in the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry field program using new Monte Carlo and curvature matrix model simulations. These open-source simulation tools are readily adapted to real-time operations or detailed studies of performance. Each simulation accounted for receiver threshold and location, as well as a reference distribution of source powers and flash sizes based on thunderstorm observations and the mechanics of station triggering. Source and flash detection efficiency were combined with solution bias and variability to predict flash area distortion at long ranges. Location errors and detection efficiency were highly dependent on the station configuration and thresholds, especially at longer ranges, such that performance varied more than expected across different networks and with azimuth within networks. Error characteristics matched prior studies, which led to an increase in flash distortion with range. Predicted flash detection efficiency exceeded 95% within 100 km of all networks.

  12. Lightning Mapping Array flash detection performance with variable receiver thresholds.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Vanna C; Bruning, Eric C

    2016-07-27

    This study characterizes Lightning Mapping Array performance for networks that participated in the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry field program using new Monte Carlo and curvature matrix model simulations. These open-source simulation tools are readily adapted to real-time operations or detailed studies of performance. Each simulation accounted for receiver threshold and location, as well as a reference distribution of source powers and flash sizes based on thunderstorm observations and the mechanics of station triggering. Source and flash detection efficiency were combined with solution bias and variability to predict flash area distortion at long ranges. Location errors and detection efficiency were highly dependent on the station configuration and thresholds, especially at longer ranges, such that performance varied more than expected across different networks and with azimuth within networks. Error characteristics matched prior studies, which led to an increase in flash distortion with range. Predicted flash detection efficiency exceeded 95% within 100 km of all networks.

  13. The flash-lag effect during illusory chopstick rotation.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    In the 'flash-lag' effect, a static object that is briefly flashed next to a moving object appears to lag behind the moving object. A flash was put up next to an intersection that appeared to be moving clockwise along a circular path but was actually moving counterclockwise [the chopstick illusion; Anstis, 1990, in AI and the Eye Eds A Blake, T Troscianko (London: John Wiley) pp 105 117; 2003, in Levels of Perception Eds L Harris, M Jenkin (New York: Springer) pp 90 93]. As a result, the flash appeared displaced clockwise. This was appropriate to the physical, not the subjective, direction of rotation, and it suggests that the flash-lag illusion occurs early in the visual system, before motion signals are parsed into moving objects.

  14. Flood hazard assessment in areas prone to flash flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvočka, Davor; Falconer, Roger A.; Bray, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary climate projections suggest that there will be an increase in the occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events in the future. These precipitation extremes are usually the main cause for the emergence of extreme flooding, such as flash flooding. Flash floods are among the most unpredictable, violent and fatal natural hazards in the world. Furthermore, it is expected that flash flooding will occur even more frequently in the future due to more frequent development of extreme weather events, which will greatly increase the danger to people caused by flash flooding. This being the case, there will be a need for high resolution flood hazard maps in areas susceptible to flash flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by flash flooding. Two different types of flood hazard assessment methods were tested: (i) a widely used method based on an empirical analysis, and (ii) a new, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. Two flash flood events were considered herein, namely: the 2004 Boscastle flash flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas susceptible to extreme flooding, the flood hazard assessment should be conducted using methods based on a mechanics-based analysis. In comparison to standard flood hazard assessment methods, these physically based methods: (i) take into account all of the physical forces, which act on a human body in floodwater, (ii) successfully adapt to abrupt changes in the flow regime, which often occur for flash flood events, and (iii) rapidly assess a flood hazard index in a relatively short period of time.

  15. Features of positive ground flashes observed in Kathmandu Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Pitri Bhakta; Sharma, Shriram; Baral, Kedarnath

    2016-07-01

    Lightning vertical electric fields pertinent to the subtropical thunderstorms occurring over the rugged terrain have been measured and recorded at a hilly station Kathmandu, Nepal. In the present work, waveforms of the positive ground flashes have been selected from all the records and were analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that fine structure of electric field signature pertinent to the positive return stroke; have been analyzed and presented from Nepal. One hundred and thirty three (133) of the total of four hundred twenty-five (425) flashes were selected from seven thunderstorm days and analyzed. Of the data recorded for seven days, 133 flashes (31.3%) were positive flashes and 276 flashes (64.9%) were cloud flashes. Majority of the positive ground flashes were found to be single stroke ones, whereas, the average number of strokes per flash is found to be 1.1 with a maximum value of 4. Majority of the positive ground flashes were found either lacking the initial breakdown process and the leader stage or these processes could not be detected. The return strokes are found to be succeeded by large in cloud activity in the continuing current portion of the flash. The average zero-crossing time of the positive return strokes was found to be 60.45 μs with a range of 447.81 μs and the average rise time was found to be 9.44 μs with a range of 42.56 μs.

  16. Kappa Agonists as a Novel Therapy for Menopausal Hot Flashes

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Amy E.; Steiner, Robert A.; Chavkin, Charles; Clifton, Donald K.; Ferrara, Laura K.; Reed, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Postmenopausal hot flash etiology is poorly understood, making it difficult to develop and target ideal therapies. A network of hypothalamic estrogen-sensitive neurons producing Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B, and Dynorphin (KNDy neurons), located adjacent to the thermoregulatory center, regulate pulsatile secretion of GnRH and LH. Dynorphin may inhibit this system by binding kappa opioid receptors within the vicinity of KNDy neurons. We hypothesize that hot flashes are reduced by KNDy neuron manipulation. Methods A double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled pilot study evaluated the effect of a kappa agonist (KA).Hot flash frequency was the primary outcome. Twelve healthy postmenopausal women with moderate-severe hot flashes, ages 48-60 years, were randomized. Eight women with sufficient baseline hot flashes for statistical analysis completed all 3 interventions: placebo, standard Pentazocine/Naloxone (50/0.5 mg) or low-dose Pentazocine/Naloxone (25/0.25 mg). In an inpatient research setting, each participant received the 3 interventions, in randomized order, on 3 separate days. On each day, an intravenous catheter was inserted for luteinizing hormone (LH) blood sampling, and skin conductance and Holter monitors were placed. Subjective hot flash frequency and severity were recorded. Results Mean hot flash frequency 2-7 hours following therapy initiation was lower than that for placebo (KA standard-dose: 4.75 ± 0.67; KA low-dose: 4.50 ± 0.57; and placebo: 5.94 ± 0.78 hot flashes/5 hours; p =0.025). Hot flash intensity did not vary between interventions. LH pulsatility mirrored objective hot flashes in some, but not all women. Conclusions This pilot suggests that kappa agonists may affect menopausal vasomotor symptoms. PMID:25988798

  17. Mapping Flash Flood Severity in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saharia, M.; Kirstetter, P. E.; Gourley, J. J.; Hong, Y.; Vergara, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Flash floods have been a major natural hazard in terms of both fatalities and property damage. In the United States, flash floods have only been characterized on a case study basis due to the lack of a comprehensive database matching flood characteristics with geospatial and geomorphologic information. To characterize the ability of a basin to produce flash floods, a new variable called "Flashiness" is derived from the slope of the rising limb in hydrograph time series. It is the basis to document and predict the flash flood potential and severity over the U.S. First a representative and long archive of flood events spanning 78 years is used to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of observed flashiness. The areas and seasons prone to flash floods are documented, highlighting the flash flood alley in Texas, Appalachians, West Coast, and North American monsoon in Arizona etc. Then the flashiness is linked to geomorphologic and climatologic attributes to identify the basin characteristics driving the ability to produce flash floods. The significant impact of characteristics such as slope, precipitation, and basin area are quantified. Next the model is used to predict flashiness all over the continental U.S., specifically over regions poorly covered by hydrological observations. It highlights ungauged areas prone to flash floods such as parts of Florida, Southern Wisconsin, Montana and South Dakota etc. Finally these findings are validated using the National Weather Service storm reports and a historical flood fatalities database. This analysis framework will serve as a baseline for evaluating distributed hydrologic model simulations such as the Flooded Locations And Simulated Hydrographs Project (FLASH) (http://flash.ou.edu).

  18. Concussion among Swedish elite ice hockey players.

    PubMed Central

    Tegner, Y; Lorentzon, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of concussion in Swedish ice hockey and to establish a uniform grading and treatment model for concussions of different severity. METHODS: Frequency of concussion was investigated in two studies, one retrospective and one prospective. In the retrospective study, all Swedish elite ice hockey players (n = 265) were asked to answer a questionnaire on the number and treatment of previous concussions. Only concussions diagnosed by a doctor were recorded. The questionnaire was completed by 227 players (86%). In the prospective study, all injuries including concussions occurring during game and practice in the Swedish Elite League (n = 12 teams) were recorded during four years. The causes of injury, referees judgements, diagnosis, treatment, and time absent from ice hockey were registered on special cards. RESULTS: In the retrospective study, 51 out of 227 players (22%) in the Swedish Elite League reported at least one concussion. In the prospective study, 52 concussions were reported. The incidence of a concussion is at least one concussion every year/team or a yearly risk of about 5% for a player to sustain a concussion. Most concussions occurred during league play (81%). Body contact (checking or boarding) was the most common cause of concussions. The players were absent from full training and play on a mean of 6 d. CONCLUSIONS: As this injury is potentially dangerous it must be treated seriously according to a simple treatment model presented. In cases of repeated concussions during the same season, a longer period of time away from play is suggested. In players who have sustained several concussions over the years a thorough medical examination including EEG, CT/MRI, and neuropsychological tests should be performed. If any of these is pathological the player should be advised to give up ice hockey. PMID:8889123

  19. Climatic and geomorphic controls on flash flood response in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Lorenzo; Borga, Marco; Preciso, Emanuele; Gaume, Eric

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution data enabling identification and analysis of the hydrometeorological causative processes of flash floods have been collected and analysed for 25 extreme flash floods (60 drainage basins) across Europe. Criteria for flood selection were high intensity of triggering rainfall and flood response and availability of reliable high-resolution data. Hydrometeorological data collected for each event were checked by using a hydrological model. The derivation and analysis of summarising variables has made it possible to outline some characteristics of flash floods in various morphoclimatic regions of Europe. Peak discharge data for more than 50% of the studied watersheds derive from post-flood surveys in ungauged streams. This stresses both the significance of post-flood surveys in building and extending flash flood databases, and the need to develop new methods for flash-flood hazard assessment able to take into account data from post-event analysis. Catchments do not need to be particularly steep to favour flash flooding. However, relief is important since it may affect flash flood occurrence in specific catchments by combination of two main mechanisms: orographic effects augmenting precipitation and anchoring convection, and topographic relief promoting rapid concentration of streamflow. Examination of data shows a peculiar seasonality effect on flash flood occurrence, with events in the Mediterranean and Alpine-Mediterranean regions mostly occurring in autumn, whereas events in the inland Continental region commonly occur in summer, revealing different climatic forcing. Consistently with this seasonality effect, spatial extent and duration of the events is generally smaller for the Continental events with respect to those occurring in the Mediterranean region. Furthermore, the flash flood regime is usually more intense in the Mediterranean Region than in the Continental areas. The runoff coefficients of the studied flash floods are usually rather low (mean

  20. Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging

    DOEpatents

    Sandusky, John V.; Pitts, Todd Alan

    2009-02-24

    Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

  1. Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging

    DOEpatents

    Sandusky, John V.; Pitts, Todd Alan

    2008-09-02

    Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

  2. MENOPAUSAL HOT FLASHES: MECHANISMS, ENDOCRINOLOGY, TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Hot flashes (HFs) are a rapid and exaggerated heat dissipation response, consisting of profuse sweating, peripheral vasodilation, and feelings of intense, internal heat. They are triggered by small elevations in core body temperature (Tc) acting within a greatly reduced thermoneutral zone, i.e., the Tc region between the upper (sweating) and lower (shivering) thresholds. This is due in part, but not entirely, to estrogen depletion at menopause. Elevated central sympathetic activation, mediated through α2-adrenergic receptors, is one factor responsible for narrowing of the thermoneutral zone. Procedures which reduce this activation, such as paced respiration and clonidine administration, ameliorate HFs as will peripheral cooling. HFs are responsible for some, but not all, of the sleep disturbance reported during menopause. Recent work calls into question the role of serotonin in HFs. PMID:24012626

  3. Flash photolysis-shock tube studies

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J.V.

    1993-12-01

    Even though this project in the past has concentrated on the measurement of thermal bimolecular reactions of atomic species with stable molecules by the flash or laser photolysis-shock tube (FP- or LP-ST) method using atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS) as the diagnostic technique, during the past year the authors have concentrated on studies of the thermal decompositions of selected chlorocarbon molecules. These studies are necessary if the degradation of chlorine containing organic molecules by incineration are to be understood at the molecular level. Clearly, destruction of these molecules will not only involve abstraction reactions, when possible, but also thermal decomposition followed by secondary reactions of the initially formed atoms and radicals. Studies on the thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}Cl are complete, and the curve-of-growth for Cl-atom atomic resonance absorption has been determined. The new thermal decomposition studies are similar to those already reported for CH{sub 3}Cl.

  4. Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma Flashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Briggs, M. S.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Kippen, R. M.; von Kienlin, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Smith, D. M.; Holzworth, R.

    2010-01-01

    In its first two years of operation, the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has observed more than 77 Terrestrial Gamma Flashes (TGFs). The thick Bismuth Germanate (BGO) detectors are excellent for TGF spectroscopy, having a high probability of recording the full energy of an incident photon, spanning a broad energy range from 150 keV to 40 MeV, and recording a large number of photons per TGF. Correlations between GBM TGF triggers and lightning sferics detected with the World-Wide Lightning Location Network indicate that TGFs and lightning are simultaneous to within tens of microseconds. The energy spectra of some TGFs have strong 511 keV positron annihilation lines, indicating that these TGFs contain a large fraction of positrons

  5. Menopausal hot flashes: mechanisms, endocrinology, treatment.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Robert R

    2014-07-01

    Hot flashes (HFs) are a rapid and exaggerated heat dissipation response, consisting of profuse sweating, peripheral vasodilation, and feelings of intense, internal heat. They are triggered by small elevations in core body temperature (Tc) acting within a greatly reduced thermoneutral zone, i.e., the Tc region between the upper (sweating) and lower (shivering) thresholds. This is due in part, but not entirely, to estrogen depletion at menopause. Elevated central sympathetic activation, mediated through α2-adrenergic receptors, is one factor responsible for narrowing of the thermoneutral zone. Procedures which reduce this activation, such as paced respiration and clonidine administration, ameliorate HFs as will peripheral cooling. HFs are responsible for some, but not all, of the sleep disturbance reported during menopause. Recent work calls into question the role of serotonin in HFs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Menopause'.

  6. Article coated with flash bonded superhydrophobic particles

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; Blue, Craig A [Knoxville, TN; Kiggans, Jr., James O [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-13

    A method of making article having a superhydrophobic surface includes: providing a solid body defining at least one surface; applying to the surface a plurality of diatomaceous earth particles and/or particles characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of nanopores, wherein at least some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features that include a contiguous, protrusive material; flash bonding the particles to the surface so that the particles are adherently bonded to the surface; and applying a hydrophobic coating layer to the surface and the particles so that the hydrophobic coating layer conforms to the nanostructured features.

  7. Complex network study of Brazilian soccer players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onody, Roberto N.; de Castro, Paulo A.

    2004-09-01

    Although being a very popular sport in many countries, soccer has not received much attention from the scientific community. In this paper, we study soccer from a complex network point of view. First, we consider a bipartite network with two kinds of vertices or nodes: the soccer players and the clubs. Real data were gathered from the 32 editions of the Brazilian soccer championship, in a total of 13411 soccer players and 127 clubs. We find a lot of interesting and perhaps unsuspected results. The probability that a Brazilian soccer player has worked at N clubs or played M games shows an exponential decay while the probability that he has scored G goals is power law. Now, if two soccer players who have worked at the same club at the same time are connected by an edge, then a new type of network arises (composed exclusively by soccer player nodes). Our analysis shows that for this network the degree distribution decays exponentially. We determine the exact values of the clustering coefficient, the assortativity coefficient and the average shortest path length and compare them with those of the Erdös-Rényi and configuration model. The time evolution of these quantities are calculated and the corresponding results discussed.

  8. Injury incidence and balance in rugby players

    PubMed Central

    M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. Methods: A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at p<0.05, Odds ratios, and Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Results: 75.50% participated, 71.40% were 18 years old, and 71.40% were White. Injury was sustained by 83% of players with the knee (25%) most commonly injured. Injury incidence was 1.52 per player with an injury rate of 5.95 injuries per 1000 match playing hours. The Stability Index increased significantly (p=0.03) by 15% in the medial/lateral direction post-season compared to pre-season. Significant differences in post-test anterior posterior and overall static and front and front right dynamic stability between injured and uninjured players were noted. Risk factors for injury included the scrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only. PMID:25674136

  9. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

    PubMed Central

    Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Perkowski, Krzysztof; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Skowroński, Waldemar; Gomez, Miguel Angel; Koc, Krzysztof; Rutkowska, Izabela; Szyman, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg), body height (cm), the arm span (cm) and length of the body in the defensive position (cm). The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03) and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04). The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04), the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01), and fouls (p = 0.01). The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level. PMID:26834872

  10. Measurement of g Using a Flashing LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzella, T.; Sundermier, J.; Sinacore, J.; Owen, C.; Takai, H.

    2008-10-01

    In one of the classic free-fall experiments, a small mass is attached to a strip of paper tape and both are allowed to fall through a spark timer, where sparks are generated at regular time intervals. Students analyze marks (dots) left on the tape by the timer, thereby generating distance-versus-time data, which they analyze to extract the acceleration due to gravity g with good results. The apparatus, however, is cumbersome and often frustrating for students. High-tech versions of this experiment are done with an object dropped and followed by a motion sensor connected to a computer. The sensor relies on ultrasonic ranging to record distance and time data, which may then be displayed graphically. Students inspect the graphs to determine the value of g. Although the results are excellent, the emphasis on the computer's ability to collect and analyze data leaves little analysis for the students to perform.2 Furthermore, neither technique gives an intuitive display of what is happening. The motivation for our work was to overcome these issues by developing an innovative method for measuring g. In our version of the experiment, students drop a flashing LED at a known frequency and record its trajectory using long exposure photography with a digital camera. Proper choice of flashing LED timing parameters produces an image that allows for an accurate measurement of g and at the same time helps to explain what happens during free fall. The experiment remains high-tech in the sense that students learn to use updated equipment to record data and to carry out the analysis.

  11. Tamoxifen, hot flashes and recurrence in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Joanne E; Flatt, Shirley W; Parker, Barbara A; Gold, Ellen B; Wasserman, Linda; Natarajan, Loki; Pierce, John P

    2008-04-01

    We utilized data from the comparison group of the Women's Healthy Eating and Living randomized trial to investigate an "a priori" hypothesis suggested by CYP2D6 studies that hot flashes may be an independent predictor of tamoxifen efficacy. A total of 1551 women with early stage breast cancer were enrolled and randomized to the comparison group of the WHEL multi-institutional trial between 1995 and 2000. Their primary breast cancer diagnoses were between 1991 and 2000. At study entry, 864 (56%) of these women were taking tamoxifen, and hot flashes were reported by 674 (78%). After 7.3 years of follow-up, 127 of those who took tamoxifen at baseline had a confirmed breast cancer recurrence. Women who reported hot flashes at baseline were less likely to develop recurrent breast cancer than those who did not report hot flashes (12.9% vs 21%, P = 0.01). Hot flashes were a stronger predictor of breast cancer specific outcome than age, hormone receptor status, or even the difference in the stage of the cancer at diagnosis (Stage I versus Stage II). These findings suggest an association between side effects, efficacy, and tamoxifen metabolism. The strength of this finding suggests that further study of the relationship between hot flashes and breast cancer progression is warranted. Additional work is warranted to clarify the mechanism of hot flashes in this setting.

  12. Pilot evaluation of citalopram for the relief of hot flashes.

    PubMed

    Barton, Debra L; Loprinzi, Charles L; Novotny, Paul; Shanafelt, Tait; Sloan, Jeff; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind; Rummans, Teresa A; Christensen, Bradley; Dakhill, Shaker R; Martin, Laura S

    2003-01-01

    Symptoms associated with premature menopause are a significant problem for women with a history of breast cancer who cannot take hormone replacement therapy. Thus, effective nonhormonal alternatives are needed to manage hot flashes, the most prevalent symptom of menopause. Previous studies have defined that venlafaxine, an anti-depressant, is an effective treatment for such hot flashes. Based on suggestive anecdotal information, we set out to evaluate, in a pilot trial, whether the antidepressant citalopram might be a good nonhormonal treatment option to add to our armamentarium for controlling hot flashes. A prospective pilot study was developed in which patients were studied for 5 weeks, with the first week used to establish a baseline, followed by 4 weeks of treatment with citalopram. During the first week of treatment, 10 mg/day of citalopram was taken while 20 mg/day was taken during each of the following three weeks. Hot-flash diaries were completed daily, symptom diaries and quality-of-life items were completed weekly and the Profile of Mood States was completed at baseline and at week 5. Evaluable patients who completed the study had a mean hot-flash frequency reduction of 58% and a mean hot-flash score reduction of 64% from baseline to week 5. The patients finishing the study also reported decreased anger, tension and depression, as well as improved mood. This pilot trial suggests that citalopram may be an effective non-hormonal treatment for hot flashes in women who can tolerate it.

  13. Restricted connections among distinguished players support cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György

    2008-12-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation within the spatial prisoner’s dilemma game on a square lattice where a fraction of players μ can spread their strategy more easily than the rest due to a predetermined larger teaching capability. In addition, players characterized by the larger teaching capability are allowed to temporarily link with distant opponents of the same kind with probability p , thus introducing shortcut connections among the distinguished players. We show that these additional temporary connections are able to sustain cooperation throughout the whole range of the temptation to defect. Remarkably, we observe that, as the temptation to defect increases the optimal μ decreases, and moreover only minute values of p warrant the best promotion of cooperation. Our study thus indicates that influential individuals must be few and sparsely connected in order for cooperation to thrive in a defection-prone environment.

  14. Restricted connections among distinguished players support cooperation.

    PubMed

    Perc, Matjaz; Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György

    2008-12-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation within the spatial prisoner's dilemma game on a square lattice where a fraction of players mu can spread their strategy more easily than the rest due to a predetermined larger teaching capability. In addition, players characterized by the larger teaching capability are allowed to temporarily link with distant opponents of the same kind with probability p , thus introducing shortcut connections among the distinguished players. We show that these additional temporary connections are able to sustain cooperation throughout the whole range of the temptation to defect. Remarkably, we observe that, as the temptation to defect increases the optimal mu decreases, and moreover only minute values of p warrant the best promotion of cooperation. Our study thus indicates that influential individuals must be few and sparsely connected in order for cooperation to thrive in a defection-prone environment.

  15. Acupuncture For Hot Flashes In Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Tomasz M.; Benavides, Maria; Emmons, Sandra L.; Hayes, Margaret; Liu, Guohui; Garzotto, Mark; Donovan, Deirdre; Katovic, Nina; Reeder, Caron; Eilers, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Hot flashes are a common adverse effect of hormonal therapy for prostate cancer. We sought to determine the effect of acupuncture on hot flash frequency and intensity, quality of life, and sleep quality. Methods Men who had a hot flash score (HFS) > 4 while on androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer received acupuncture with electrostimulation biweekly for 4 weeks, then weekly for 6 weeks using a predefined treatment plan. The primary endpoint was a 50% reduction in HFS after 4 weeks of therapy, calculated from the patient daily hot flash diary. Hot flash related quality of life and sleep quality, and biomarkers potentially related to hot flashes, including serotonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and urinary 5-HIAA were examined. Results Twenty-five men were enrolled between 9/2003 and 4/2007; 22 were eligible and evaluable. After four weeks, 9 of 22 patients (41%, 95%CI 21 to 64%) had a > 50% reduction in HFS. Twelve of 22 patients (55%, 95%CI 32 to 76%) met this response definition at any time during the course of therapy. No patients had a significant increase in HFS on therapy. Reduced HFS was associated with improvement in hot flash related quality of life and sleep quality. Conclusions Multiple placebo-controlled trials have demonstrated a 25% response rate to placebo treatment for hot flashes. 41% of patients responded by week 4 and 55% overall in this pilot study providing evidence of a potentially meaningful benefit. Further studies of acupuncture for hot flashes in this population are warranted. PMID:20494414

  16. Weak positive cloud-to-ground flashes in Northeastern Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Raul E.; Maier, Michael W.; Garcia-Miguel, Juan A.; Holle, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    The frequency distributions of the peak magnetic field associated with the first detected return stroke of positive and negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes were studied using lightning data from northeastern Colorado. These data were obtained during 1985 with a medium-to-high gain network of three direction finders (DF's). The median signal strength of positive flashes was almost two times that of the negatives for flashes within 300 km of the DF's, which have an inherent detection-threshold bias that tends to discriminate against weak signals. This bias increases with range, and affects the detection of positive and negative flashes in different ways, because of the differing character of their distributions. Positive flashes appear to have a large percentage of signals clustered around very weak values that are lost to the medium-to-high gain Colorado Detection System very quickly with increasing range. The resulting median for positive signals could thus appear to be much larger than the median for negative signals, which are more clustered around intermediate values. When only flashes very close to the DF's are considered, however, the two distributions have almost identical medians. The large percentage of weak positive signals detected close to the DF's has not been explored previously. They have been suggested to come from intracloud discharges and thus are improperly classified as CG flashes. Evidence in hand, points to their being real positive, albeit weak CG flashes. Whether or not they are real positive ground flashes, it is important to be aware of their presence in data from magnetic DF networks.

  17. Flash ionization signature in coherent cyclotron emission from brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorgul, I.; Helling, Ch.

    2016-05-01

    Brown dwarfs (BDs) form mineral clouds in their atmospheres, where charged particles can produce large-scale discharges in the form of lightning resulting in substantial sudden increase of local ionization. BDs are observed to emit cyclotron radio emission. We show that signatures of strong transient atmospheric ionization events (flash ionization) can be imprinted on a pre-existing radiation. Detection of such flash ionization events will open investigations into the ionization state and atmospheric dynamics. Such events can also result from explosion shock waves, material outbursts or (volcanic) eruptions. We present an analytical model that describes the modulation of a pre-existing electromagnetic radiation by a time-dependent (flash) conductivity that is characteristic for flash ionization events like lightning. Our conductivity model reproduces the conductivity function derived from observations of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, and is applicable to astrophysical objects with strong temporal variations in the local ionization, as in planetary atmospheres and protoplanetary discs. We show that the field responds with a characteristic flash-shaped pulse to a conductivity flash of intermediate intensity. More powerful ionization events result in smaller variations of the initial radiation, or in its damping. We show that the characteristic damping of the response field for high-power initial radiation carries information about the ionization flash magnitude and duration. The duration of the pulse amplification or the damping is consistently shorter for larger conductivity variations and can be used to evaluate the intensity of the flash ionization. Our work suggests that cyclotron emission could be probe signals for electrification processes inside BD atmosphere.

  18. FLASH is an essential component of Cajal bodies.

    PubMed

    Barcaroli, D; Dinsdale, D; Neale, M H; Bongiorno-Borbone, L; Ranalli, M; Munarriz, E; Sayan, A E; McWilliam, J M; Smith, T M; Fava, E; Knight, R A; Melino, G; De Laurenzi, V

    2006-10-03

    Cajal bodies are small nuclear organelles with a number of nuclear functions. Here we show that FLICE-associated huge protein (FLASH), originally described as a component of the apoptosis signaling pathway, is mainly localized in Cajal bodies and is essential for their structure. Reduction in FLASH expression by short hairpin RNA results in disruption of the normal architecture of the Cajal body and relocalization of its components. Because the function of FLASH in the apoptosis receptor signaling pathway has been strongly questioned, we have now identified a clear function for this protein.

  19. Gamma ray flashes add to mystery of upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmospheric electricity research has come a long way since Benjamin Franklin's kite-flying days. But what researchers have been learning lately about above-thunderstorm electricity has wrought a whole new era of mysteries.For a start, last summer a Colorado meteorologist sparked interest in a terrestrial phenomenon that the community first observed more than 100 years ago: optical flashes that occur above thunderstorms—at least 30 km above Earth. Walter Lyons with the Ft. Collins-based Mission Research Corporation, demonstrated that such flashes are not anomalies, as conventional scientific wisdom had held. He filmed hundreds of flashes during a 2-week period.

  20. NFPA 70E: Performing the electrical flash hazard analysis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, W Jon

    2005-08-01

    Arc flash hazards pose a serious risk to employee safety; proper safe work practices must be utilized. Electrical equipment > or = 50 volts must be deenergized and locked out/tagged out prior to servicing and maintenance unless doing so would increase hazards or is infeasible. Remember, convenience is not an acceptable reason for keeping equipment energized during servicing and maintenance. If electrical equipment must remain energized during Servicing and maintenance, NFPA 70E should be consulted to determine flash hazard boundaries as well as required PPE. Finally, circuit breakers and electrical disconnects must be marked to warn qualified employees of potential arc flash hazards.

  1. Comparing spondylolysis in cricketers and soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, P; Batt, M; Kerslake, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the location of spondylolysis in the lumbar spine of athletes differs with biomechanical factors. Methods: Single photon emission computerised tomography and reverse gantry computerised tomography were used to investigate 42 cricketers and 28 soccer players with activity related low back pain. Sites of increased scintigraphic uptake in the posterior elements of the lumbar spine and complete or incomplete fracture in the pars interarticularis were compared for these two sports. Results: Thirty seven (90.4%) cricketers and 23 (82.1%) soccer players studied had sites of increased uptake. In cricketers, these sites were on the left of the neural arch of 49 lumbar vertebrae and on the right of 33 vertebrae. In soccer players there was a significantly different proportion, with 17 sites on the left and 28 on the right (difference of 22.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04 to 0.38). Lower lumbar levels showed increased scintigraphic uptake more frequently than did higher levels, although the trend was reversed at L3 and L4 in soccer. Forty spondylolyses were identified in the lumbar vertebrae of the cricketers and 35 spondylolyses in the soccer players. These comprised 26 complete and 14 incomplete fractures in the cricketers, and 25 complete and 10 incomplete fractures in the soccer players. Similar numbers of incomplete fractures were found either side of the neural arch in soccer players, but there were more incomplete fractures in the left pars (14) than in the right (2) in cricketers. The proportion of incomplete fractures either side of the neural arch was significantly different between cricket players and soccer players (difference of 37.5%; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.65). Most complete fractures were at L5 (66.7%) and more were found at L3 (15.7%) than L4 (6.9%). However, incomplete fractures were more evenly spread though the lower three lumbar levels with 41.7% at L5, 37.5% at L4, and 20.8% at L3. Conclusions: Fast bowling in cricket is

  2. Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: the case of action video game players.

    PubMed

    Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2006-08-01

    Here, we demonstrate that action video game play enhances subjects' ability in two tasks thought to indicate the number of items that can be apprehended. Using an enumeration task, in which participants have to determine the number of quickly flashed squares, accuracy measures showed a near ceiling performance for low numerosities and a sharp drop in performance once a critical number of squares was reached. Importantly, this critical number was higher by about two items in video game players (VGPs) than in non-video game players (NVGPs). A following control study indicated that this improvement was not due to an enhanced ability to instantly apprehend the numerosity of the display, a process known as subitizing, but rather due to an enhancement in the slower more serial process of counting. To confirm that video game play facilitates the processing of multiple objects at once, we compared VGPs and NVGPs on the multiple object tracking task (MOT), which requires the allocation of attention to several items over time. VGPs were able to successfully track approximately two more items than NVGPs. Furthermore, NVGPs trained on an action video game established the causal effect of game playing in the enhanced performance on the two tasks. Together, these studies confirm the view that playing action video games enhances the number of objects that can be apprehended and suggest that this enhancement is mediated by changes in visual short-term memory skills.

  3. Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: the case of action video game players

    PubMed Central

    Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that action video game play enhances subjects’ ability in two tasks thought to indicate the number of items that can be apprehended. Using an enumeration task, in which participants have to determine the number of quickly flashed squares, accuracy measures showed a near ceiling performance for low numerosities and a sharp drop in performance once a critical number of squares was reached. Importantly, this critical number was higher by about two items in video game players (VGPs) than in non-video game players (NVGPs). A following control study indicated that this improvement was not due to an enhanced ability to instantly apprehend the numerosity of the display, a process known as subitizing, but rather due to an enhancement in the slower more serial process of counting. To confirm that video game play facilitates the processing of multiple objects at once, we compared VGPs and NVGPs on the multiple object tracking task (MOT), which requires the allocation of attention to several items over time. VGPs were able to successfully track approximately two more items than NVGPs. Furthermore, NVGPs trained on an action video game established the causal effect of game playing in the enhanced performance on the two tasks. Together, these studies confirm the view that playing action video games enhances the number of objects that can be apprehended and suggest that this enhancement is mediated by changes in visual short-term memory skills. PMID:16359652

  4. 30 Former NFL Players Pledge Their Brains for Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163416.html 30 Former NFL Players Pledge Their Brains for Research Donations will be used to study ... retired players who have pledged to donate their brains to research on a devastating brain disease that ...

  5. Robust Football Players Tracking Method for Soccer Scene Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Hirokatsu; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    For the analysis of soccer videos, positional information of players and ball is very essential. In order to obtain trajectories of the players, robust tracking for multiple players is highly required. In this paper, we propose a method to track multiple players in a soccer video which is captured by a single camera. In the case of capturing the video from a single view, there might be a lot of occluded situations of players. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a robust tracking method for multiple players by combining Particle Filter and Real AdaBoost Classifier. First, each target player is tracked by using Particle Filter. Next, an occluded situation is automatically detected by checking a distance between the target players. Then we resample the center of the gravities by classifier's detection after Particle Filter tracking. We show the experimental results and effectiveness of our proposed method.

  6. Heavy rainfall induced flash flood management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Markus; Steinbrich, Andreas; Stölzle, Michael; Leistert, Hannes

    2016-04-01

    Heavy rain induced flash floods are still a serious hazard. In context of climate change even a rise of threat potential of flash flood must be suspected. To improve prediction of endangered areas hydraulic models was developed in the past that implement topography information in heigh resolution, gathered by laser scan applications. To run such models it is crucial to estimate the runoff input spatial distributed. However, this information is usually derived with relatively simple models lacking the process rigour that is required for prediction in engaged basins. Though available rain runoff models are able to model runoff response integral for measured catchments they do not indicate the spatial distribution of processes. Moreover they are commonly calibrated to measured runoff data and not applicable in other environments. Since runoff generation is commonly not measured, a calibration on it is hardly possible. In this study, we present a new approach for quantification of runoff generation in height spatial and temporal resolution. A suited model needs to work without calibration in every given environment under any given conditions. It is possible to develop such a model by combining spatial distributed input data of land surface properties (e.g. soil, geology, land use, …) with worldwide findings of runoff generation research. We developed such a model for the state of Baden-Württemberg, what has an extensive pool of spatial data. E.g. a digital elevation model of 1*1m² resolution, degree of sealing of the earth surface in 1*1m² resolution, soil properties (1:50.000) and geology (1:200.000). Within the state of Baden-Württemberg different regions are situated, with distinct environmental characteristics concerning as well climate, soil properties, land use, topography and geology. The model was tested and validated by modelling 36 observed flood events in 13 mesoscale catchments representing the different regions of Baden-Württemberg as well as by

  7. Evaluation of flash supercritical fluid chromatography and alternate sample loading techniques for pharmaceutical medicinal chemistry purifications.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry; Mahoney, Max

    2012-08-10

    Flash chromatography is the preferred approach for small molecule purification in pharmaceutical discovery. This paper will discuss the potential for flash supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) as an alternative technology for these purifications. It was shown that the high sample loadings seen with flash LC could also be achieved using flash SFC. The dry load injection technique greatly increases the amount of sample that can be applied to a flash SFC column while still achieving separation. Flash SFC has much lower solvent usage and higher purification productivities relative to flash LC. Product concentrations post purification were higher for flash SFC vs. flash LC, reducing the time required to isolate dry product. There still exist a number of technical details to be worked out with flash SFC, mainly around the equipment and column/cartridge technology.

  8. Exploring Shared Memory Protocols in FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Mark; Kunz, Robert; Hall, Mary; Lucas, Robert; Chame, Jacqueline

    2007-04-01

    ABSTRACT The goal of this project was to improve the performance of large scientific and engineering applications through collaborative hardware and software mechanisms to manage the memory hierarchy of non-uniform memory access time (NUMA) shared-memory machines, as well as their component individual processors. In spite of the programming advantages of shared-memory platforms, obtaining good performance for large scientific and engineering applications on such machines can be challenging. Because communication between processors is managed implicitly by the hardware, rather than expressed by the programmer, application performance may suffer from unintended communication – communication that the programmer did not consider when developing his/her application. In this project, we developed and evaluated a collection of hardware, compiler, languages and performance monitoring tools to obtain high performance on scientific and engineering applications on NUMA platforms by managing communication through alternative coherence mechanisms. Alternative coherence mechanisms have often been discussed as a means for reducing unintended communication, although architecture implementations of such mechanisms are quite rare. This report describes an actual implementation of a set of coherence protocols that support coherent, non-coherent and write-update accesses for a CC-NUMA shared-memory architecture, the Stanford FLASH machine. Such an approach has the advantages of using alternative coherence only where it is beneficial, and also provides an evolutionary migration path for improving application performance. We present data on two computations, RandomAccess from the HPC Challenge benchmarks and a forward solver derived from LS-DYNA, showing the performance advantages of the alternative coherence mechanisms. For RandomAccess, the non-coherent and write-update versions can outperform the coherent version by factors of 5 and 2.5, respectively. In LS-DYNA, we obtain

  9. Flash signal evolution, mate choice, and predation in fireflies.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sara M; Cratsley, Christopher K

    2008-01-01

    Many key advances in our understanding of firefly biology and signaling have been made over the past two decades. Here we review this recent research, which includes new phylogenetic results that shed light on the evolution of courtship signal diversity within the family Lampyridae, new insights into firefly flash control, and the discovery of firefly nuptial gifts. We present a comprehensive overview of sexual selection in lampyrids, including evidence from Photinus fireflies that females choose their mates on the basis of male flash signals, and discuss the importance of examining both precopulatory and postcopulatory sexual selection in this group. Finally, we review recent findings on firefly chemical defenses, and discuss their implications for flash signal evolution in response to generalist predators as well as specialist predatory fireflies. This review provides new insight into how firefly flash signals have been shaped by the dual evolutionary processes of sexual selection (mate choice) and natural selection (predation), and proposes several exciting directions for future research.

  10. Wedge Heat-Flux Indicators for Flash Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2003-01-01

    Wedge indicators have been proposed for measuring thermal radiation that impinges on specimens illuminated by flash lamps for thermographic inspection. Heat fluxes measured by use of these indicators would be used, along with known thermal, radiative, and geometric properties of the specimens, to estimate peak flash temperatures on the specimen surfaces. These indicators would be inexpensive alternatives to high-speed infrared pyrometers, which would otherwise be needed for measuring peak flash surface temperatures. The wedge is made from any suitable homogenous material such as plastic. The choice of material is governed by the equation given. One side of the wedge is covered by a temperature sensitive compound that decomposes irreversibly when its temperature exceeds a rated temperature (T-rated). The uncoated side would be positioned alongside or in place of the specimen and exposed to the flash, then the wedge thickness at the boundary between the white and blackened portions measured.

  11. A Grobner Basis Solution for Lightning Ground Flash Fraction Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solakiewicz, Richard; Attele, Rohan; Koshak, William

    2011-01-01

    A Bayesian inversion method was previously introduced for retrieving the fraction of ground flashes in a set of flashes observed from a (low earth orbiting or geostationary) satellite lightning imager. The method employed a constrained mixed exponential distribution model to describe the lightning optical measurements. To obtain the optimum model parameters, a scalar function was minimized by a numerical method. In order to improve this optimization, we introduce a Grobner basis solution to obtain analytic representations of the model parameters that serve as a refined initialization scheme to the numerical optimization. Using the Grobner basis, we show that there are exactly 2 solutions involving the first 3 moments of the (exponentially distributed) data. When the mean of the ground flash optical characteristic (e.g., such as the Maximum Group Area, MGA) is larger than that for cloud flashes, then a unique solution can be obtained.

  12. 2. SECTIONAL BOILER '#4 IDEAL RED FLASH.' Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SECTIONAL BOILER '#4 IDEAL RED FLASH.' - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  13. Secrets of a Flash Card-Carrying Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Mel

    1983-01-01

    Eight ways to use flash cards in mathematics instruction are described. These games and other gimmicks help increase students' concentration, build memory skills, sharpen thinking skills, and enliven drills. (PP)

  14. Impact of rainfall spatial variability on Flash Flood Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douinot, Audrey; Roux, Hélène; Garambois, Pierre-André; Larnier, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    According to the United States National Hazard Statistics database, flooding and flash flooding have caused the largest number of deaths of any weather-related phenomenon over the last 30 years (Flash Flood Guidance Improvement Team, 2003). Like the storms that cause them, flash floods are very variable and non-linear phenomena in time and space, with the result that understanding and anticipating flash flood genesis is far from straightforward. In the U.S., the Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) estimates the average number of inches of rainfall for given durations required to produce flash flooding in the indicated county. In Europe, flash flood often occurred on small catchments (approximately 100 km2) and it has been shown that the spatial variability of rainfall has a great impact on the catchment response (Le Lay and Saulnier, 2007). Therefore, in this study, based on the Flash flood Guidance method, rainfall spatial variability information is introduced in the threshold estimation. As for FFG, the threshold is the number of millimeters of rainfall required to produce a discharge higher than the discharge corresponding to the first level (yellow) warning of the French flood warning service (SCHAPI: Service Central d'Hydrométéorologie et d'Appui à la Prévision des Inondations). The indexes δ1 and δ2 of Zoccatelli et al. (2010), based on the spatial moments of catchment rainfall, are used to characterize the rainfall spatial distribution. Rainfall spatial variability impacts on warning threshold and on hydrological processes are then studied. The spatially distributed hydrological model MARINE (Roux et al., 2011), dedicated to flash flood prediction is forced with synthetic rainfall patterns of different spatial distributions. This allows the determination of a warning threshold diagram: knowing the spatial distribution of the rainfall forecast and therefore the 2 indexes δ1 and δ2, the threshold value is read on the diagram. A warning threshold diagram is

  15. Visual Attentional Orienting in Developing Hockey Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enns, James T.; Richards, James C.

    1997-01-01

    Covert visual orienting was measured in 13 twelve-year-old and 11 fifteen-year-old hockey players and in 13 college students with no hockey training. Found that high-skill 15-year-olds were better able than all other groups to take advantage of the general alerting effect produced by the sudden onset of a cue. (MDM)

  16. Knee injuries in women collegiate rugby players.

    PubMed

    Levy, A S; Wetzler, M J; Lewars, M; Laughlin, W

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence and patterns of knee injuries in 810 women collegiate rugby players. Injuries that resulted in players missing at least one game were recorded and a questionnaire was used to delineate players' rugby and knee injury history. There were 76 total knee injuries in 58,296 exposures. This resulted in a 1.3 knee injury rate per 1000 exposures. Twenty-one anterior cruciate ligament tears were reported for a 0.36 incidence per 1000 exposures. Other injuries included meniscal tears (25), medical collateral ligament sprains (23), patellar dislocations (5), and posterior cruciate ligament tears (2). Sixty-one percent of the medial collateral ligament sprains occurred in rugby forwards and 67% of anterior cruciate ligament tears occurred in rugby backs. All other injuries occurred with equal frequency in backs and forwards. This study demonstrates that knee injury rates in women's collegiate rugby are similar to those reported for other women's collegiate sports. The overall rate of anterior cruciate ligament injury in women's rugby, however, is slightly higher than that reported for women soccer and basketball players.

  17. Assessing Soccer Players and Educating Soccer Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    This article offers suggestions on how to assess the abilities of young soccer athletes and ways to educate parents or guardians on how to maintain an attitude that most benefits and supports the players. The abilities of young athletes on a team vary, and the expectations of both team members and parents are high, thus presenting a major…

  18. Motivational Traits of Elite Young Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Craig; Meyers, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Among the most overlooked aspects in the development of elite young soccer players is that of specific psychological traits. Of those traits, motivation has important implications for programs whose objectives are identification and cultivation of young, skilled performers. The growth in popularity of soccer by youth and the successes experienced…

  19. Juggling key players in NMD initiation.

    PubMed

    Bono, Fulvia

    2014-08-05

    In this issue of Structure, Melero and colleagues use electron microscopy combined with biochemistry to provide structural insight into the complex between SMG1, SMG8, SMG9, UPF1, and UPF2, elucidating how key players in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay assemble at the initial steps of the process.

  20. A Player-Centered Approach to Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Adriano; Oslin, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a player-centered approach (PCA), highlighting its qualities, and then to provide examples of its application in coaching and teaching sport. Most of the examples relate to the game of volleyball, but many of the recommendations and examples can be applied to most team sports. The article will conclude…

  1. Low Back Pain in a Tennis Player.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracker, Mark; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A group of physicians meet to discuss a case in which a middle-aged tennis player suffers from low back pain. The diagnosis, treatment and management of the case are discussed. The article is one in an occasional series. (JL)

  2. Hot Flashes and Quality of Life Among Breast Cancer Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Quality of Life Among Breast Cancer Patients 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0264 5c. PROGRAM...used approach to manage hot flashes with 44.2% of sample currently exercising . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast Cancer , Hot Flashes, Quality of Life ... breast cancer patients who were menopausal prior to treatment, at any of the time-points. b. to examine longitudinally the quality of life

  3. Exploring Online Game Players' Flow Experiences and Positive Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Cheng, Chao-Yang; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to explore online game players' flow experiences and positive affect. Our findings indicated that online game are capable of evoking flow experiences and positive affect, and games of violent or nonviolent type may not arouse players' aggression. The players could be placed into four flow conditions: flow,…

  4. Training Patterns of Wheelchair Basketball Players in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Yasar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…

  5. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  6. Are poker players all the same? Latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Magali; Brunelle, Natacha; Roy, Élise

    2015-06-01

    Poker is the gambling game that is currently gaining the most in popularity. However, there is little information on poker players' characteristics and risk factors. Furthermore, the first studies described poker players, often recruited in universities, as an homogeneous group who played in only one of the modes (land based or on the Internet). This study aims to identify, through latent class analyses, poker player subgroups. A convenience sample of 258 adult poker players was recruited across Quebec during special events or through advertising in various media. Participants filled out a series of questionnaires (Canadian Problem Gambling Index, Beck Depression, Beck Anxiety, erroneous belief and alcohol/drug consumption). The latent class analysis suggests that there are three classes of poker players. Class I (recreational poker players) includes those who have the lowest probability of engaging intensively in different game modes. Participants in class II (Internet poker players) all play poker on the Internet. This class includes the highest proportion of players who consider themselves experts or professionals. They make a living in part or in whole from poker. Class III (multiform players) includes participants with the broadest variety of poker patterns. This group is complex: these players are positioned halfway between professional and recreational players. Results indicate that poker players are not an homogeneous group identified simply on the basis of the form of poker played. The specific characteristics associated with each subgroup points to vulnerabilities that could potentially be targeted for preventive interventions.

  7. Concussion Incidences and Severity in Secondary School Varsity Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerberich, Susan Goodwin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Study of Minnesota high school football players found an injury rate of 78 per 100 players; 19/100 players reported a concussion experience characterized by loss of consciousness/awareness. Of these, 69 percent returned to play the same day. Illegal blocking and tackling contributed to increased concussion. Lasting effects were prevalent. (GC)

  8. Clug; Community Land Use Game. Player's Manual with Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Allan G.

    CLUG (Community Land Use Game) is designed to provide players with an understanding of several underlying factors affecting the growth of an urban region. It has been used with players from junior high to graduate school and also with non-students. It unites concepts from sociology, economics, and geography. Players invest in land, construct…

  9. Receptor and neural visual readaptation after exposure to colored flash.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Persson, H E; Söderberg, P G; Tengroth, B

    1995-08-01

    The time needed to recover optokinetic nystagmus or electroretinography complexes after a glare inducing flash was measured to study the receptor and neural visual readaptation. Electroretinographs and optokinetic nystagmus were evoked with low intensity stimuli. The light from a flash tube was filtered with an interference filter (Tmax = 536 or 622 nm) and evenly distributed into a Goldmann hemisphere observed by the subject. The Recovery of the amplitude of the a-wave of the electroretinography is quicker than the recovery of optokinetic nystagmus after a low intensity glare inducing flash. The recovery time was shorter for a red than for a green flash of equivalent dose for both recovery modalities. The time difference between electroretinography a-wave and optokinetic nystagmus recovery was the same and independent of glare inducing flash wavelength. The recovery of the amplitude of the a-wave of the electroretinography was quicker than the recovery of optokinetic nystagmus after a low intensity glare inducing flash. This time difference between the recovery modalities may in part be due to the difference between the physiological stimuli used, but it is believed that most of the time difference is because the recovery of optokinetic nystagmus monitors more of the afferent visual pathway with complex post receptor neural mechanisms than the recovery of the a-wave.

  10. Spectral measurements of muzzle flash with multispectral and hyperspectral sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastek, M.; Dulski, R.; Trzaskawka, P.; Piątkowski, T.; Polakowski, H.

    2011-08-01

    The paper presents some practical aspects of the measurements of muzzle flash signatures. Selected signatures of sniper shot in typical scenarios has been presented. Signatures registered during all phases of muzzle flash were analyzed. High precision laboratory measurements were made in a special ballistic laboratory and as a result several flash patterns were registered. The field measurements of a muzzle flash were also performed. During the tests several infrared cameras were used, including the measurement class devices with high accuracy and frame rates. The registrations were made in NWIR, SWIR and LWIR spectral bands simultaneously. An ultra fast visual camera was also used for visible spectra registration. Some typical infrared shot signatures were presented. Beside the cameras, the LWIR imaging spectroradiometer HyperCam was also used during the laboratory experiments and the field tests. The signatures collected by the HyperCam device were useful for the determination of spectral characteristics of the muzzle flash, whereas the analysis of thermal images registered during the tests provided the data on temperature distribution in the flash area. As a result of the measurement session the signatures of several types handguns, machine guns and sniper rifles were obtained which will be used in the development of passive infrared systems for sniper detection.

  11. Flash floods in the Tatra Mountain streams: frequency and triggers.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, J A; Czajka, B; Janecka, K; Lempa, M; Kaczka, R J; Stoffel, M

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods represent a frequently recurring natural phenomenon in the Tatra Mountains. On the northern slopes of the mountain chain, located in Poland, ongoing and expected future changes in climate are thought to further increase the adverse impacts of flash floods. Despite the repeat occurrence of major floods in the densely populated foothills of the Polish Tatras, the headwaters have been characterized by a surprising lack of data, such that any analysis of process variability or hydrometeorological triggers has been largely hampered so far. In this study, dendrogeomorphic techniques have been employed in four poorly-gauged torrential streams of the northern slope of the Tatra Mountains to reconstruct temporal and spatial patterns of past events. Using more than 1100 increment cores of trees injured by past flash floods, we reconstruct 47 events covering the last 148 years and discuss synoptic situations leading to the triggering of flash floods with the existing meteorological and flow gauge data. Tree-ring analyses have allowed highlighting the seasonality of events, providing new insights about potential hydrometeorological triggers as well as a differentiating flash flood activity between catchments. Results of this study could be useful to design future strategies to deal with flash flood risks at the foothills of the Polish Tatras and in the Vistula River catchment.

  12. Accounting for rainfall systematic spatial variability in flash flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douinot, Audrey; Roux, Hélène; Garambois, Pierre-André; Larnier, Kévin; Labat, David; Dartus, Denis

    2016-10-01

    Just as with the storms that cause them, flash floods are highly variable and non-linear phenomena in both time and space; hence understanding and anticipating the genesis of flash floods is far from straightforward. There is therefore a huge requirement for tools with the potential to provide advance warning of situations likely to lead to flash floods, and thus provide additional time for the flood forecasting services. The Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) method is used on US catchments to estimate the average number of inches of rainfall for given durations required to produce flash flooding. This rainfall amount is used afterwards as a flood warning threshold. In Europe, flash floods often occur on small catchments (approximately 100 km2) and it has already been shown that the spatial variability of rainfall has a great impact on the catchment response (Le Lay and Saulnier, 2007). Therefore, in this study, an improved FFG method which accounts for rainfall spatial variability is proposed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to assess the FFG method applicability on French Mediterranean catchments with a distributed process-oriented hydrological model and (ii) to assess the effect of the rainfall spatial variability on this method. The results confirm the influence of the spatial variability of rainfall events in relation with its interaction with soil properties.

  13. Upward lightning flashes characteristics from high-speed videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, Marcelo M. F.; Schumann, Carina; Warner, Tom A.; Ferro, Marco Antonio S.; Paiva, Amanda Romão.; Helsdon, John; Orville, Richard E.

    2016-07-01

    One hundred high-speed video recordings (72 cases in Brazil and 28 cases in USA) of negative upward lightning flashes were analyzed. All upward flashes were triggered by another discharge, most of them positive CG flashes. A negative leader passing over the tower(s) was frequently seen in the high-speed video recordings before the initiation of the upward leader. One triggering component can sometimes initiate upward leader in several towers. Characteristics of leader branching, ICC pulses, recoil leader incidence, and interpulse interval are presented in this work. A comparison of the results is done for data obtained in Brazil and USA. The duration of ICC and the total flash duration are on average longer in Brazil than in USA. Only one fourth of all upward leaders are followed by any return strokes both in Brazil and USA, and the average number of return strokes following each upward leader is very low. The presence and duration of CC following return strokes in Brazil is more than two times larger than in USA. Several parameters of upward flashes were compared with similar ones from cloud-to-ground flashes.

  14. Some Improvements in Utilization of Flash Memory Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gender, Thomas K.; Chow, James; Ott, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Two developments improve the utilization of flash memory devices in the face of the following limitations: (1) a flash write element (page) differs in size from a flash erase element (block), (2) a block must be erased before its is rewritten, (3) lifetime of a flash memory is typically limited to about 1,000,000 erases, (4) as many as 2 percent of the blocks of a given device may fail before the expected end of its life, and (5) to ensure reliability of reading and writing, power must not be interrupted during minimum specified reading and writing times. The first development comprises interrelated software components that regulate reading, writing, and erasure operations to minimize migration of data and unevenness in wear; perform erasures during idle times; quickly make erased blocks available for writing; detect and report failed blocks; maintain the overall state of a flash memory to satisfy real-time performance requirements; and detect and initialize a new flash memory device. The second development is a combination of hardware and software that senses the failure of a main power supply and draws power from a capacitive storage circuit designed to hold enough energy to sustain operation until reading or writing is completed.

  15. How to keep A players productive.

    PubMed

    Berglas, Steven

    2006-09-01

    After graduating from Harvard Business School with highest honors, Jane rapidly moved up the corporate ladder at a large advertising firm, racking up promotions and responsibilities along the way. By the time she became the company's creative director, she was, in everyone's estimation, an A player--one of the organization's most gifted and productive employees. But although she received an extraordinarily generous pay package and had what some people considered to be one of the most stimulating jobs in the company, Jane felt underappreciated and was talking to head-hunters. Eventually, she was lured away to a competing company that, by her own admission, offered less-challenging work. Both Jane and the advertising firm she left behind lost out. Of course, not all A players are as vulnerable as Jane. Some superstars soar to stunning heights, needing little or no special attention, and have the natural self-confidence and brilliance to stay at the top of their game with elegance and grace. But as every manager knows, megastars with manageable egos are rare. Far more common are people like Jane who are striving to satisfy an inner need for recognition that is often a sign of irrationally low self-esteem. According to the author--an executive coach, management consultant, and former faculty member of the department of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School--if you do not carefully manage the often unconscious need A players have for kudos and appreciation, they will burn out in a way that is damaging to them and unproductive for you. The key is understanding what makes your A players tick. The author suggests that you assist your stars by offering them authentic praise, helping them set boundaries, and teaching them to play nicely with subordinates. In the process, you can turn these high performers into even more effective players.

  16. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo

    2015-01-01

    The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues. PMID:26240653

  17. Flash nanoprecipitation: particle structure and stability.

    PubMed

    Pustulka, Kevin M; Wohl, Adam R; Lee, Han Seung; Michel, Andrew R; Han, Jing; Hoye, Thomas R; McCormick, Alon V; Panyam, Jayanth; Macosko, Christopher W

    2013-11-04

    Flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) is a process that, through rapid mixing, stabilizes an insoluble low molecular weight compound in a nanosized, polymer-stabilized delivery vehicle. The polymeric components are typically amphiphilic diblock copolymers (BCPs). In order to fully exploit the potential of FNP, factors affecting particle structure, size, and stability must be understood. Here we show that polymer type, hydrophobicity and crystallinity of the small molecule, and small molecule loading levels all affect particle size and stability. Of the four block copolymers (BCP) that we have studied here, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-b-PLGA) was most suitable for potential drug delivery applications due to its ability to give rise to stable nanoparticles, its biocompatibility, and its degradability. We found little difference in particle size when using PLGA block sizes over the range of 5 to 15 kDa. The choice of hydrophobic small molecule was important, as molecules with a calculated water-octanol partition coefficient (clogP) below 6 gave rise to particles that were unstable and underwent rapid Ostwald ripening. Studies probing the internal structure of nanoparticles were also performed. Analysis of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and (1)H NMR experiments support a three-layer core-shell-corona nanoparticle structure.

  18. A competitive aggregation model for flash nanoprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Janine Chungyin; Vigil, R D; Fox, R O

    2010-11-15

    Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP) is a novel approach for producing functional nanoparticles stabilized by amphiphilic block copolymers. FNP involves the rapid mixing of a hydrophobic active (organic) and an amphiphilic di-block copolymer with a non-solvent (water) and subsequent co-precipitation of nanoparticles composed of both the organic and copolymer. During this process, the particle size distribution (PSD) is frozen and stabilized by the hydrophilic portion of the amphiphilic di-block copolymer residing on the particle surface. That is, the particle growth is kinetically arrested and thus a narrow PSD can be attained. To model the co-precipitation process, a bivariate population balance equation (PBE) has been formulated to account for the competitive aggregation of the organic and copolymer versus pure organic-organic or copolymer-copolymer aggregation. Aggregation rate kernels have been derived to account for the major aggregation events: free coupling, unimer insertion, and aggregate fusion. The resulting PBE is solved both by direct integration and by using the conditional quadrature method of moments (CQMOM). By solving the competitive aggregation model under well-mixed conditions, it is demonstrated that the PSD is controlled primarily by the copolymer-copolymer aggregation process and that the energy barrier to aggregate fusion plays a key role in determining the PSD. It is also shown that the characteristic aggregation times are smaller than the turbulent mixing time so that the FNP process is always mixing limited.

  19. Flash microwave synthesis of trevorite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bousquet-Berthelin, C. Chaumont, D.; Stuerga, D.

    2008-03-15

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles have several possible applications as cathode materials for rechargeable batteries, named 'lithium-ion' batteries. In this study, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared by microwave induced thermohydrolysis. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET method, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). All the results show that the microwave one-step flash synthesis leads in a very short time to NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with elementary particles size close to 4-5 nm, and high specific surfaces (close to 240 m{sup 2}/g). Thus, microwave heating appears as an efficient source of energy to produce quickly nanoparticles with complex composition as ferrite. - Graphical abstract: At the end of the 20th century, a new concept of battery was introduced, named 'Li ion', where electrodes are both lithium-storage materials. Compounds with a spinel structure are so investigated and microwave heating appears as an efficient source of energy to produce nanoparticles in a very short time and at low temperature, with controlled size (4-5 nm) and high specific area (240 m{sup 2}/g). Legend: Pictogram represents our original microwave reactor, the RAMO (French acronym of Reacteur Autoclave Micro-Onde), containing the reactants and submitted to the microwave irradiation. Multicolor candy represents obtained material.

  20. Studying white dwarf merger remnants with FLASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenks, Malia

    2017-01-01

    There is still uncertainty as to the progenitor systems of type Ia supernova (SN Ia). Both single and double degenerate systems have been suggested as progenitors. In a double degenerate system a merger between the two white dwarfs, with total mass at or exceeding the Chandrasekhar mass, leads to the supernova. If the explosion occurs during the merging process it is a violent merger. If an explosion doesn't occur while the stars merge the system becomes a white dwarf of unstable mass. For mergers of this type with differing starting masses it has been shown that during the viscous evolution carbon burning starts far from the center and stably converts the star to oxygen and neon. In this case the star will eventually collapse to a neutron star and not produce an SN Ia. The case of similar mass mergers has been much less explored. Using the results of a smooth particle hydrodynamic merger we simulate the viscous evolution of models of different mass ratios with FLASH. These simulations test if a similar mass merger can lead to an SN Ia, and begin to probe where the transition from similar to dissimilar mass occurs.

  1. Hydroclimatology of flash flooding in Atlanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Daniel B.; Smith, James A.; Villarini, Gabriele; Baeck, Mary Lynn

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the climatology of extreme rainfall and flash flooding in Atlanta, Georgia using high-resolution land surface, rainfall, and discharge datasets. We examine nine urban watersheds in the Atlanta area that range in size from 3.7 to 225 km2 and exhibit a range of urban development and land-use characteristics. We develop a high-resolution 15 min, 1 km2 radar rainfall data set for the 2002-2010 period using the Hydro-NEXRAD system with volume scan reflectivity observations from the Atlanta WSR-88D radar and rainfall observations from a dense network of 72 U.S. Geological Survey rain gauges. Bias-corrected radar rainfall fields accurately capture the spatial and temporal structure of heavy rainfall. There is enhancement of heavy rainfall within and east of the urban core, and a rainfall minimum north and northwest of the city. There has been an increase in variability of annual flood peaks in Atlanta since the 1960s associated with urban impacts on runoff production. Flood response is dependent on a combination of basin size, drainage network structure, spatial distribution of land use, and basin storage in urban soils and storm water detention ponds. Future studies of urban rainfall modification in Atlanta and elsewhere should consider the influence of regional topography and other geographic features on the storm environment.

  2. Flash Nanoprecipitation: Particle Structure and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Pustulka, Kevin M.; Wohl, Adam R.; Lee, Han Seung; Michel, Andrew R.; Han, Jing; Hoye, Thomas R.; McCormick, Alon V.; Panyam, Jayanth; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) is a process that, through rapid mixing, stabilizes an insoluble low molecular weight compound in a nano-sized, polymer-stabilized delivery vehicle. The polymeric components are typically amphiphilic diblock copolymers (BCPs). In order to fully exploit the potential of FNP, factors affecting particle structure, size, and stability must be understood. Here we show that polymer type, hydrophobicity and crystallinity of the small molecule, and small molecule loading levels all affect particle size and stability. Of the four block copolymers (BCP) that we have studied here, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-b-PLGA) was most suitable for potential drug delivery applications due to its ability to give rise to stable nanoparticles, its biocompatibility, and its degradability. We found little difference in particle size when using PLGA block sizes over the range of 5 to 15kDa. The choice of hydrophobic small molecule was important, as molecules with a calculated water-octanol partition coefficient (clogP) below 6 gave rise to particles that were unstable and underwent rapid Ostwald ripening. Studies probing the internal structure of nanoparticles were also performed. Analysis of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and 1H-NMR experiments support a three-layer core-shell-corona nanoparticle structure. PMID:24053447

  3. Social Awareness and Leader Influence: Development of Classroom and Web-Based Learning Interventions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    and published for Flash Player 8. The role-play was developed using Adobe Captivate. The content was integrated into Moodle , an open- source LMS... Moodle was chosen because of its flexibility, ease of use, ability to capture data, and ability to bookmark pages so that users could exit the program...the content was integrated into Moodle for further testing. This approach allowed for rapid development of the content. Pilot test content

  4. Advance Planning Briefing for Industry. Technology Requirements Briefings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-17

    Adobe Flash Player , as well as various MPEG types Automatically locating and landmarking faces in individual still images Allowing the user to...meters (objective); include a Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module; and have “one-touch” location save of waypoints. The real -time tracking ...required data fields. Retain User Name and Password for login and tracking identification. To automatically reset a forgotten password, under Login

  5. "Know What to Do If You Encounter a Flash Flood": Mental Models Analysis for Improving Flash Flood Risk Communication and Public Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Lazrus, Heather; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how people view flash flood risks can help improve risk communication, ultimately improving outcomes. This article analyzes data from 26 mental models interviews about flash floods with members of the public in Boulder, Colorado, to understand their perspectives on flash flood risks and mitigation. The analysis includes a comparison between public and professional perspectives by referencing a companion mental models study of Boulder-area professionals. A mental models approach can help to diagnose what people already know about flash flood risks and responses, as well as any critical gaps in their knowledge that might be addressed through improved risk communication. A few public interviewees mentioned most of the key concepts discussed by professionals as important for flash flood warning decision making. However, most interviewees exhibited some incomplete understandings and misconceptions about aspects of flash flood development and exposure, effects, or mitigation that may lead to ineffective warning decisions when a flash flood threatens. These include important misunderstandings about the rapid evolution of flash floods, the speed of water in flash floods, the locations and times that pose the greatest flash flood risk in Boulder, the value of situational awareness and environmental cues, and the most appropriate responses when a flash flood threatens. The findings point to recommendations for ways to improve risk communication, over the long term and when an event threatens, to help people quickly recognize and understand threats, obtain needed information, and make informed decisions in complex, rapidly evolving extreme weather events such as flash floods.

  6. A study of lightning flashes attending periods of banded snowfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Market, Patrick S.; Becker, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    Lightning flashes (N = 1088) associated with 24 thundersnow events in the central United States were analyzed to document flash polarity, signal strength, and multiplicity. Negative lightning flashes (N = 872; 80%) dominated positive flashes (N = 216; 20%) with wintry precipitation in this study, which stands in contrast to the majority of the research done on winter thunderstorms (primarily in Japan). Otherwise, limited work has been done, although thundersnow has been documented in the mid-latitudes of North America, Europe and Asia. Statistics on peak amplitude were determined for negative (positive) flashes, yielding mean and standard deviation values of -24 kA +/- 22 kA (+38 kA +/- 34 kA). A subset of winter lightning events (N = 16) were then sought that occurred with banded (single or multiple) snowfall, as banding often denotes greater organization in the atmosphere (e.g., a jet streak aloft to aid in ascent, or a low level jet streak to aid with moisture and thermal transport) and thus the potential for deeper snow totals. Radar reflectivity values were recorded at the location of each lightning flash, as well as the maximum radar reflectivity within the associated snow band. The location of the lightning activity within the snow band was also noted as being either leading edge (LE), trailing edge (TE), core (C), or not correlated (NC), with respect to the motion of the parent band. The majority of lightning flashes were found downstream of areas of highest radar reflectivity with respect to the motion of the snow bands, and not with the highest reflectivity values. If one uses the highest reflectivity values in a snowband as a proxy for the greatest surface snowfall intensity, then the ground terminus of a cloud-to-ground lightning (CG) flash is often not co-located with the heaviest snowfall rates. However, the work completed here does place the location of the typical CG flash ~15 km downstream of the snowband location, so one could use the occurrence

  7. Flash Galaxy Cluster Merger, Simulated using the Flash Code, Mass Ratio 1:1

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Since structure in the universe forms in a bottom-up fashion, with smaller structures merging to form larger ones, modeling the merging process in detail is crucial to our understanding of cosmology. At the current epoch, we observe clusters of galaxies undergoing mergers. It is seen that the two major components of galaxy clusters, the hot intracluster gas and the dark matter, behave very differently during the course of a merger. Using the N-body and hydrodynamics capabilities in the FLASH code, we have simulated a suite of representative galaxy cluster mergers, including the dynamics of both the dark matter, which is collisionless, and the gas, which has the properties of a fluid. 3-D visualizations such as these demonstrate clearly the different behavior of these two components over time. Credits: Science: John Zuhone (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Visualization: Jonathan Gallagher (Flash Center, University of Chicago)

 This research used resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. This research was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Academic Strategic Alliance Program (ASAP).

  8. Tracking soccer players based on homography among multiple views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Sachiko; Saito, Hideo

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a method of tracking soccer players using multiple views. As many researchers have done on soccer scene analysis by using trajectories of the playser and the soccer ball, it is desirable to track soccer players robustly. Soccer player tracking enables strategy analysis, scene recovery, making scenes for broadcasting, and automatic system of the camera control. However, soccer is a sport that occlusion occurs in many cases, and tracking often fails by the occlusion of the players. It is difficult to track the players by using a single camera alone. Therefore, we use multiple view images to avoid the occlusion problem, so that we can obtain robustness in player tracking. As a first step, inner-camera operation is performed independently in each camera to track the players. In any case that player can not be tracked in the camera, inter-camera operation is performed as a second step. Tracking information of all cameras are integrated by using the geometrical relationship between cameras called homography. Inter-camera operation makes it possible to get the location of the player who is not detected in the image, who is occluded by the other player, and who is outside the angle of view. Experimental results show that robust player tracking is available by tracking advantage using multiple cameras.

  9. Reduced attentional capture in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Hickey, Clayton; Theeuwes, Jan; Kingstone, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that playing action video games improves performance on a number of attention-based tasks. However, it remains unclear whether action video game experience primarily affects endogenous or exogenous forms of spatial orienting. To examine this issue, action video game players and non-action video game players performed an attentional capture task. The results show that action video game players responded quicker than non-action video game players, both when a target appeared in isolation and when a salient, task-irrelevant distractor was present in the display. Action video game players additionally showed a smaller capture effect than did non-action video game players. When coupled with the findings of previous studies, the collective evidence indicates that extensive experience with action video games may enhance players' top-down attentional control, which, in turn, can modulate the negative effects of bottom-up attentional capture.

  10. CTE characterization with post-flashed darks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jay

    2013-10-01

    This internal-orbit calibration program will take a combination of short {100s} and long {800s} darks with various levels of post-flash in order to re-calibrate the WFC3/UVIS CTE model. When a similar set of these images was taken in mid-2012, there were not as many warm pixels as there are now and CTE losses were lower. Furthermore, this program will explore a finer spacing of charge injection to help us understand exactly what happens above the "sweet-spot" background of 12 electrons. Once the model is recalibrated using this data set {which should be taken in early 2014}, we can feel confident in making the pixel-based correction part of the pipeline.The observations will be straightforward. We will take short 100s darks with PF levels of: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 100, 115, and 130, and 150 electrons -- 30 levels in all. We will also take 800s darks {can't fit longer} with a PF level of about 100e. We should be able to take two shorts and one deep in each orbit, this will take a total of 15 orbits. This will give us 15 long darks, which can be averaged together to get the noise down.It would be best if this program could be scheduled to be executed over the course of only a few days, since I would prefer not to have much change in the dark during acquisition of the data set.

  11. Identification af explosive power factors as predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Grgantov, Zoran; Milić, Mirjana; Katić, Ratko

    2013-05-01

    With the purpose of determining the factor structure of explosive power, as well as the influence of each factor on situational efficiency, 56 young female volleyball players were tested using 14 tests for assessing nonspecific and specific explosive power. By factor analysis, 4 significant factors were isolated which explained the total of over 80% of the common variability in young female volleyball players. The first factor was defined as volleyball-specific jumping, the second factor as nonspecific jumping and sprinting, the third factor as throwing explosive power, while the fourth factor was interpreted as volleyball-specific throwing and spiking speed from the ground. Results obtained by regression analysis in the latent space of explosive power indicate that the identified factors are good predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players. The fourth factor defined as throwing and spiking speed from the ground had the largest influence on player quality, followed by volleyball-specific jumping and nonspecific jumping and sprinting, and to a much lesser extent, by throwing explosive power The results obtained in this age group bring to the fore the ability of spiking and serving a ball of high speed, which hinders the opponents from playing those balls in serve reception and field defence. This ability, combined with a high standing vertical jump reach and spike approach vertical jump reach (which is the basis of the 1st varimax factor) enables successful performance of all volleyball elements by which points are won in complex 1 (spike) and complex 2 (serve and block). Even though the 2nd factor (nonspecific jumping and sprinting) has a slightly smaller impact on situational efficiency in young players, this ability provides preconditions i.e. preparation for successful realisation of all volleyball elements, so greater attention must be paid to perfecting it in young female volleyball players.

  12. Perceived Control and Hot Flashes in Treatment-seeking Breast Cancer Survivors and Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Janet S.; Wu, Jingwei; Burns, Debra S.; Yu, Menggang

    2011-01-01

    Background Lower perceived control over hot flashes has been linked to fewer coping strategies, more catastrophizing, and greater hot flash severity and distress in midlife women; yet, this important concept has not yet been studied in breast cancer survivors. Objective To explore perceived control over hot flashes and hot flashes in breast cancer survivors compared to midlife women without cancer. Methods 99 survivors and 138 midlife women completed questionnaires and a prospective, electronic hot flash diary. All data were collected at a baseline assessment prior to randomization in a behavioral intervention study. Results Both groups had moderate perceived control over hot flashes. Control was not significantly related to hot flash frequency, but was significantly related to hot flash severity, bother, and interference in both groups. A significantly stronger association between control and hot flash interference was found for survivors than for mid-life women. Survivors using hot flash treatments perceived less control than survivors not using hot flash treatments, whereas the opposite was true in midlife women. Conclusions Findings extend our knowledge of perceived control over hot flashes in both survivors and midlife women. Implications for Practice Findings emphasize the importance of continued menopausal symptom assessment and management, support the importance of continuing nursing care even for survivors who are already using hot flash treatment, and suggest that nursing interventions aimed at improving perceived control over hot flashes may be more helpful for survivors than for midlife women. PMID:21946903

  13. Evolutionary game theory: molecules as players.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Katrin; Hummert, Sabine; Werner, Sarah; Basanta, David; Deutsch, Andreas; Schuster, Stefan; Theissen, Günter; Schroeter, Anja

    2014-12-01

    In this and an accompanying paper we review the use of game theoretical concepts in cell biology and molecular biology. This review focuses on the subcellular level by considering viruses, genes, and molecules as players. We discuss in which way catalytic RNA can be treated by game theory. Moreover, genes can compete for success in replication and can have different strategies in interactions with other genetic elements. Also transposable elements, or "jumping genes", can act as players because they usually bear different traits or strategies. Viruses compete in the case of co-infecting a host cell. Proteins interact in a game theoretical sense when forming heterodimers. Finally, we describe how the Shapley value can be applied to enzymes in metabolic pathways. We show that game theory can be successfully applied to describe and analyse scenarios at the molecular level resulting in counterintuitive conclusions.

  14. Telemetry and Communication IP Video Player

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OFarrell, Zachary L.

    2011-01-01

    Aegis Video Player is the name of the video over IP system for the Telemetry and Communications group of the Launch Services Program. Aegis' purpose is to display video streamed over a network connection to be viewed during launches. To accomplish this task, a VLC ActiveX plug-in was used in C# to provide the basic capabilities of video streaming. The program was then customized to be used during launches. The VLC plug-in can be configured programmatically to display a single stream, but for this project multiple streams needed to be accessed. To accomplish this, an easy to use, informative menu system was added to the program to enable users to quickly switch between videos. Other features were added to make the player more useful, such as watching multiple videos and watching a video in full screen.

  15. The excluded player in coalition formation.

    PubMed

    van Beest, Ilja; Wilke, Henk; van Dijk, Eric

    2003-02-01

    Coalition research generally assumes that people strive to maximize their share of the coalition payoff and that they exclude others from joining a coalition if these others are not needed to obtain the coalition payoff. In two experiments, the authors show that this view is too narrow and that willingness to include such others is dependent on the extent to which people feel that exclusion affects the payoff of the excluded player. This finding was moderated by social value orientations. Proselfs were not affected by the consequences for the excluded players. Prosocials were less willing to exclude others the more harmful were the consequences of exclusion. Results are related to research on social exclusion, the do-no-harm principle, and social value orientations.

  16. Cervical spine injuries in football players.

    PubMed

    Thomas, B E; McCullen, G M; Yuan, H A

    1999-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries have been estimated to occur in 10% to 15% of football players, most commonly in linemen, defensive ends, and linebackers. The overwhelming majority of such injuries are self-limited, and full recovery can be expected. However, the presenting symptoms of serious cervical spine injuries may closely resemble those of minor injuries. The orthopaedic surgeon frequently must make a judgment, on the field or later in the office, about the advisability of returning the athlete to the game. These decisions can have an enormous impact on the player and his family. Most severe cervical spine injuries share the common mechanism of application of an axial load to the straightened spine. Avoiding techniques that employ head-down "spear" tackling and wearing properly fitted equipment markedly reduce the risk of serious injury.

  17. EVALUATION OF PAINFUL SHOULDER IN BASEBALL PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Junior, Adriano Fernando Mendes; Soares, André Lopes; Aihara, Leandro Jun; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between shoulder mobility and strength and the presence of pain among baseball players. Methods: Between April and July 2009, 55 baseball players were assessed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the School of Medical Sciences, Santa Casa de Misericórdia, São Paulo. They were all males, aged between 15 and 33 years (mean of 21); they attended an average of three training sessions per week and had been doing this sport for a mean of 10 years. Results: 14 of the 55 players evaluated were pitchers, and 20 reported pain during the pitching motion. The mean values for lateral and medial rotation and range of motion (ROM) in the dominant shoulder were, respectively, 110 °, 61 ° and 171 °, with a statistically significant difference in relation to the non-dominant limb. Pitchers had greater gains in lateral rotation and deficits in medial rotation than did non-pitchers. Pain presented a statistically significant correlation with diminished ROM, greater length of time playing the sport and situations of “shoulder at risk”. Conclusions: Statistically significant differences in dominant shoulder mobility were found, with increased lateral rotation, diminished medial rotation and smaller ROM, in relation to the contralateral limb. There was a statistically significant relationship between the pitcher's position and greater gain in lateral rotation and diminished medial rotation. There were statistically significant correlations between pain and diminished ROM, greater length of time playing the sport and situations of “shoulder at risk”. There was a statistical tendency suggesting that players with diminished medial rotation of the dominant shoulder presented a relationship with pain. PMID:27028320

  18. Soccer injuries in female youth players.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Melissa A

    2007-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey of injuries among female youth soccer players found 44.6% (95% confidence interval 34.9%-54.8%) had ever been injured. The injury incidence rate for the current season was 2.2/1000 soccer exposure hours (95% CI 1.5-3.1). Future studies should evaluate modifiable risk factors in youth to identify injury prevention strategies.

  19. Musculoskeletal problems in soccer players: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Cavagnino, Roberta; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-05-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, with about 200 million players, both professionals and amateurs. Because of its popularity, it has been often proposed to be able to prevent or cure health problems around the world. Although participation in football leads to significant physical benefits such as improving well-being, extending life expectancy and reducing the likelihood of several major non-communicable diseases, the possibility to incur in soccer injuries must be considered. On average, an elite football player suffers from 1.5-7.6 injuries each 1,000 hours of training and 12-35 injuries each 1000 hours of match. Several risk factors for soccer injuries have been described. The most important of them are the level of play (the risk appears to be higher in professional than amateur players); the exercise load; and the standard of training. The injury prevention program "The 11", developed with the support of the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), aims to reduce the impact of intrinsic injury risk factors in soccer, and it has been validated in that sport. A successive modified version of "The 11" ("The 11+") has been also shown to be effective in preventing injuries in young female soccer players. The FIFA 11+ provided more than 40% of reduction of the risk of injury. Several factors can be related to the risk of injury during sport. Therefore different exercises or factors might have been responsible for efficacy of the FIFA 11+ to prevent injuries. Several improvements have been surely achieved in the last ten years, but further investigation is needed to improve the benefits of playing soccer on human health.

  20. Lunar Impact Flash Locations from NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroids are small, natural bodies traveling through space, fragments from comets, asteroids, and impact debris from planets. Unlike the Earth, which has an atmosphere that slows, ablates, and disintegrates most meteoroids before they reach the ground, the Moon has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact, the meteoroid's kinetic energy is partitioned into crater excavation, seismic wave production, and the generation of a debris plume. A flash of light associated with the plume is detectable by instruments on Earth. Following the initial observation of a probable Taurid impact flash on the Moon in November 2005,1 the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) began a routine monitoring program to observe the Moon for meteoroid impact flashes in early 2006, resulting in the observation of over 330 impacts to date. The main objective of the MEO is to characterize the meteoroid environment for application to spacecraft engineering and operations. The Lunar Impact Monitoring Program provides information about the meteoroid flux in near-Earth space in a size range-tens of grams to a few kilograms-difficult to measure with statistical significance by other means. A bright impact flash detected by the program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. Prior to this time, the location was estimated to the nearest half-degree by visually comparing the impact imagery to maps of the Moon. Better accuracy was not needed because meteoroid flux calculations did not require high-accuracy impact locations. But such a bright event was thought to have produced a fresh crater detectable from lunar orbit by the NASA spacecraft Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The idea of linking the observation of an impact flash with its crater was an appealing one, as it would validate NASA photometric calculations and crater scaling laws developed from hypervelocity gun testing. This idea was

  1. Looking for the best flash floods indicators in Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Turco, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Flash floods are a recurrent hazard in Mediterranean Region. From a global point of view, a distinction between two kinds of floods can be made (Llasat, 2009): a) Short-lived and strongly convective events (<3 h) of very intense precipitation (peaks above 3 mm/min) and total rainfall <100 mm, that usually appear during summer and early autumn and produce local flash-floods in small catchments; b) Moderate convective events that last less than 24 hours and the maximum precipitation is usually recorded in less than 6 hours, with accumulated rainfall above 200 mm, although in some occasions they can be produced in the context of a longest event; they can produce catastrophic flash floods, and are usually recorded in autumn and end of summer. First ones are more frequent and have an important social impact, due to the great urbanization of some areas in which ephemeral channels are present; they can bring road traffic to a standstill, give rise to power cuts, and sweep away cars parked in the littoral water courses or in adjoining streets, but lose of lives are usually the result of the imprudent behaviour of people. The second type of flash-flood has produced the highest number of casualties when they have affected flood-prone areas with high concentrations of people, and catastrophic damages. However, there is not an agreement about the criteria of damages evaluation, in the same sense that there are notable discrepancies between authors in the criteria used to estimate the vulnerability. A number above 185 flood events have been recorded between 1990 and 2006 in Mediterranean region (Llasat et al, in press). A great part of them have been flash-floods, but, in order to make a good characterization of them, it is needed to recur to the most suitable indicators (Gruntfest, 1997, Messner and Meyer, 2006). The presentation is based on the research developed in the framework of the European Project FLASH (http://flash-eu.tau.ac.il/index.php), and particularly in the

  2. Central Flash Analysis of the 29 June 2015 Occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Person, Michael J.; Bosh, A. S.; Sickafoose, A. A.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Levine, S. E.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Dunham, E. W.; McLean, I.; Wolf, J.; Abe, F.; Becklin, E.; Bida, T. A.; Bright, L. P.; Brothers, T. C.; Christie, G.; Collins, P. L.; Durst, R. F.; Gilmore, A. C.; Hamilton, R.; Harris, H. C.; Johnson, C.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Kosiarek, M. R.; Leppik, K.; Logsdon, S. E.; Lucas, R.; Mathers, S.; Morley, C. J. K.; Natusch, T.; Nelson, P.; Ngan, H.; Pfueller, E.; Roeser, H.-P.; Sallum, S.; Savage, M.; Seeger, C. H.; Siu, H.; Stockdale, C.; Suzuki, D.; Thanathibodee, T.; Tilleman, T.; Tristram, P. J.; Van Cleeve, J.; Varughese, C.; Weisenbach, L. W.; Widen, E.; Wiedemann, M.

    2015-11-01

    After an extensive prediction effort, the 29 June 2015 occultation by Pluto was observed from both airborne (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy - SOFIA) and numerous ground-based telescopes (Bosh et al. - this meeting). Real-time prediction updates allowed placement of the SOFIA telescope with its four detectors deep within the central-flash region of the atmospheric occultation. Fortuitously, the Mount John University Observatory (Lake Tekapo, New Zealand) was also within the central-flash region (Pasachoff et al. - this meeting). This happenstance resulted in multiple central-flash detections in several colors from each facility allowing direct comparison of different areas of the central-flash evolute.Here we examine and discuss the central-flash signatures from the highest signal-to-noise light curves from each facility. The relative orientations and asymmetries in the central flashes allow us to use them to tightly constrain the lower atmospheric ellipticity and orientation of likely winds with respect to Pluto’s figure. The ratio of the two separate central flashes is also a strong constraint on the geometric solution for the full occultation data set, and the absolute height of the central flashes with respect to those expected for a clear isothermal atmosphere places constraints on haze densities and thermal gradients in Pluto’s lower atmosphere. We can also compare the central-flash signatures in several colors (similar to Sickafoose et. al - this meeting) to establish bounds on haze-particle sizes in the lower atmosphere.SOFIA is jointly operated by the Universities Space Research Association, Inc. (USRA), under NASA contract NAS2-97001, and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) under DLR contract 50 OK 0901 to the University of Stuttgart. Support for this work was provided, in part, by NASA grants SSO NNX15AJ82G (Lowell Observatory), PA NNX10AB27G (MIT), and PA NNX12AJ29G (Williams College), as well as the National Research Foundation of

  3. Expression of the nos gene and firefly flashing: a test of the nitric-oxide-mediated flash control model.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Hajime; Yokoyama, Jun; Ohba, Nobuyoshi; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Kawata, Masakado

    2014-04-19

    Fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) emit various types of light that differ among species and populations of the same species. Their lights are assumed to be biological properties that play important ecological and evolutionary roles. Some species in the Lampyridae emit periodic luminescence, the patterns of which are characterized by species-specific intervals. In previous work, it was predicted that the nitric oxide (NO) regulates the oxygen supply required for the bioluminescence reaction of fireflies. Here, the expression of the NO synthase (NOS) mRNA in some fireflies was examined to verify the predictive model of nitric-oxide-mediated flash control in these insects. The expression of the nos gene in the lantern organ was observed not only in nocturnal flashing species but also in diurnal non-flashing species. It was shown that the expression levels of nos were higher in the lantern of Luciola cruciata (Motschulsky) larvae, which that emits continuous light, than in other body parts, although expression in the lantern of the adults, who flash periodically, was not high. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in expression levels among adults of Luciola cruciata characterized by different flashing intervals. The data do not support the model of an NO-mediated flash control mechanism, during which oxygen becomes available for the luciferin-luciferase reaction through NO-mediated inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. It is also indicated that flash patterns do not co-vary with NOS production. However, high nos expression in the larval lantern suggests that NO may play a role in producing continuous light by functioning as a neurotransmitter signal for bioluminescence.

  4. Effects of plyometric training on soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Plyometric training (PT) is a technique used to increase strength and explosiveness. It consists of physical exercises in which muscles exert maximum force at short intervals to increase dynamic performances. In such a training, muscles undergo a rapid elongation followed by an immediate shortening (stretch-shortening contraction), utilizing the elastic energy stored during the stretching phase. There is consensus on the fact that when used, PT contributes to improvement in vertical jump performance, acceleration, leg strength, muscular power, increase of joint awareness and overall sport-specific skills. Consequently, PT which was primarily used by martial artists, sprinters and high jumpers to improve performances has gained in popularity and has been used by athletes in all types of sports. However, although PT has been shown to increase performance variables in many sports, little scientific information is currently available to determine whether PT actually enhances skill performance in soccer players, considering that soccer is an extremely demanding sport. Soccer players require dynamic muscular performance for fighting at all levels of training status, including rapid movements such as acceleration and deceleration of the body, change of direction, vertical and horizontal jumps, endurance, speed as well as power for kicking and tackling. In this review we discussed the effects of PT on soccer players by considering gender and age categories. PMID:27446242

  5. Tibia and fibula fractures in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Boden, B P; Lohnes, J H; Nunley, J A; Garrett, W E

    1999-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of 31 athletes who sustained a fracture of the lower leg from a direct blow while playing soccer. Fifteen fractures involved both the tibia and fibula 11 only the tibia, and 5 only the fibula. Information was collected using a standardized questionnaire. The mean follow-up from the time of injury was 30 months. Injuries typically occurred in young, competitive athletes during game situations. The mechanisms were broadly classified into several categories: contact during a slide tackle (13, 42%), a collision with the goalkeeper (8, 26%), two opposing players colliding while swinging for a loose ball (7, 23%), or a player being kicked by a standing opponent (3, 10%). The majority of fractures (26, 90%) occurred while the athletes were wearing shin guards. The point of impact was with the shin guard prior to the fracture in 16 cases (62%). Return to competitive soccer averaged 40 weeks for combined tibia and fibula fractures, 35 weeks for isolated tibia fractures, and 18 weeks for isolated fibula fractures. Injuries were associated with a high incidence of major complications (12 out of 31, 39%), especially in concurrent tibia and fibula fractures (8 out of 15, 50%). These findings suggest that lower leg fractures in soccer players are serious injuries, often necessitating a prolonged recovery time. In addition, this study questions the ability of shin guards to protect against fractures.

  6. The El Dorado of Handball? Foreign Female Players Stay, while Domestic Players Return from Abroad.

    PubMed

    Bon, Marta; Topič, Mojca Doupona; Šibila, Marko

    2016-04-01

    The main purpose of this research was to study the characteristics of migration in European women's handball based on the Slovenian example and to find the differences between the foreigners coming to Slovenia and the Slovenians transferring to foreign clubs. The research was based on 16 open face-to-face semi-structured interviews (8 Slovenians (age 29.5 ± 6.2 years) and 8 foreigners (age 35.5 ± 8.7 years)). We found out that the most powerful factor in foreigners was the financial one, while within Slovenian players it was their personal desire for progression within their sport, the club's reputation and poor conditions in their previous club. The results confirm that when making a decision on transfer, all players had the support of family and friends, while the clubs of foreign players were not as supportive. Most interviewees considered their careers successful and did not regret going abroad. The research indicates that the largest differences discovered between Slovenians and foreigners were that foreign female players chose to stay in the new country (Slovenia), while domestic players returned home after few years playing abroad. In conclusion, the results show that in top-level handball there are important differences between migration models which are based on nationality and also that the migration models change throughout time, which is largely connected with the socioeconomic events in the country of origin or transfer.

  7. The El Dorado of Handball? Foreign Female Players Stay, while Domestic Players Return from Abroad

    PubMed Central

    Topič, Mojca Doupona; Šibila, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The main purpose of this research was to study the characteristics of migration in European women’s handball based on the Slovenian example and to find the differences between the foreigners coming to Slovenia and the Slovenians transferring to foreign clubs. The research was based on 16 open face-to-face semi-structured interviews (8 Slovenians (age 29.5 ± 6.2 years) and 8 foreigners (age 35.5 ± 8.7 years)). We found out that the most powerful factor in foreigners was the financial one, while within Slovenian players it was their personal desire for progression within their sport, the club’s reputation and poor conditions in their previous club. The results confirm that when making a decision on transfer, all players had the support of family and friends, while the clubs of foreign players were not as supportive. Most interviewees considered their careers successful and did not regret going abroad. The research indicates that the largest differences discovered between Slovenians and foreigners were that foreign female players chose to stay in the new country (Slovenia), while domestic players returned home after few years playing abroad. In conclusion, the results show that in top-level handball there are important differences between migration models which are based on nationality and also that the migration models change throughout time, which is largely connected with the socioeconomic events in the country of origin or transfer. PMID:28149349

  8. Risk factors, pathophysiology, and treatment of hot flashes in cancer.

    PubMed

    Fisher, William I; Johnson, Aimee K; Elkins, Gary R; Otte, Julie L; Burns, Debra S; Yu, Menggang; Carpenter, Janet S

    2013-05-01

    Hot flashes are prevalent and severe symptoms that can interfere with mood, sleep, and quality of life for women and men with cancer. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on the risk factors, pathophysiology, and treatment of hot flashes in individuals with cancer. Electronic searches were conducted to identify relevant English-language literature published through June 15, 2012. Results indicated that risk factors for hot flashes in cancer include patient-related factors (eg, age, race/ethnicity, educational level, smoking history, cardiovascular risk including body mass index, and genetics) and disease-related factors (eg, cancer diagnosis and dose/type of treatment). In addition, although the pathophysiology of hot flashes has remained elusive, these symptoms are likely attributable to disruptions in thermoregulation and neurochemicals. Therapies that have been offered or tested fall into 4 broad categories: pharmacological, nutraceutical, surgical, and complementary/behavioral strategies. The evidence base for this broad range of therapies varies, with some treatments not yet having been fully tested or showing equivocal results. The evidence base surrounding all therapies is evaluated to enhance hot flash treatment decision-making by clinicians and patients.

  9. Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, and Treatment of Hot Flashes in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, William I.; Johnson, Aimee K.; Elkins, Gary R.; Otte, Julie L.; Burns, Debra S.; Yu, Menggang; Carpenter, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    Hot flashes are prevalent and severe symptoms that can interfere with mood, sleep, and quality of life for women and men with cancer. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on the risk factors, pathophysiology, and treatment of hot flashes in persons with cancer. Electronic searches were conducted to identify relevant, English-language literature published through June 15, 2012. Results indicated that risk factors for hot flashes in cancer include patient-related factors (eg, age, race/ethnicity, educational level, smoking history, cardiovascular risk including BMI, and genetics) and disease-related factors (eg, cancer diagnosis, and dose/type of treatment). In addition, although the pathophysiology of hot flashes has remained elusive, these symptoms are likely attributable to disruptions in thermoregulation and neurochemicals. Therapies that have been offered or tested fall into 4 broad categories: pharmacological, nutraceutical, surgical, and complementary/behavioral strategies. The evidence base for this broad range of therapies varies, with some treatments not yet having been fully tested or showing equivocal results. The evidence base surrounding all therapies is evaluated to enhance hot flash treatment decision making by clinicians and patients. PMID:23355109

  10. Study of Beijiang catchment flash-flood forecasting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Li, J.; Huang, S.; Dong, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Beijiang catchment is a small catchment in southern China locating in the centre of the storm areas of the Pearl River Basin. Flash flooding in Beijiang catchment is a frequently observed disaster that caused direct damages to human beings and their properties. Flood forecasting is the most effective method for mitigating flash floods, the goal of this paper is to develop the flash flood forecasting model for Beijiang catchment. The catchment property data, including DEM, land cover types and soil types, which will be used for model construction and parameter determination, are downloaded from the website freely. Based on the Liuxihe Model, a physically based distributed hydrological model, a model for flash flood forecasting of Beijiang catchment is set up. The model derives the model parameters from the terrain properties, and further optimized with the observed flooding process, which improves the model performance. The model is validated with a few observed floods occurred in recent years, and the results show that the model is reliable and is promising for flash flood forecasting.

  11. A Unified Flash Flood Database across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang; Flamig, Zachary L.; Arthur, Ami; Clark, Robert; Calianno, Martin; Ruin, Isabelle; Ortel, Terry W.; Wieczorek, Michael; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Clark, Edward; Krajewski, Witold F.

    2013-01-01

    Despite flash flooding being one of the most deadly and costly weather-related natural hazards worldwide, individual datasets to characterize them in the United States are hampered by limited documentation and can be difficult to access. This study is the first of its kind to assemble, reprocess, describe, and disseminate a georeferenced U.S. database providing a long-term, detailed characterization of flash flooding in terms of spatiotemporal behavior and specificity of impacts. The database is composed of three primary sources: 1) the entire archive of automated discharge observations from the U.S. Geological Survey that has been reprocessed to describe individual flooding events, 2) flash-flooding reports collected by the National Weather Service from 2006 to the present, and 3) witness reports obtained directly from the public in the Severe Hazards Analysis and Verification Experiment during the summers 2008–10. Each observational data source has limitations; a major asset of the unified flash flood database is its collation of relevant information from a variety of sources that is now readily available to the community in common formats. It is anticipated that this database will be used for many diverse purposes, such as evaluating tools to predict flash flooding, characterizing seasonal and regional trends, and improving understanding of dominant flood-producing processes. We envision the initiation of this community database effort will attract and encompass future datasets.

  12. Multi-Level Bitmap Indexes for Flash Memory Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Madduri, Kamesh; Canon, Shane

    2010-07-23

    Due to their low access latency, high read speed, and power-efficient operation, flash memory storage devices are rapidly emerging as an attractive alternative to traditional magnetic storage devices. However, tests show that the most efficient indexing methods are not able to take advantage of the flash memory storage devices. In this paper, we present a set of multi-level bitmap indexes that can effectively take advantage of flash storage devices. These indexing methods use coarsely binned indexes to answer queries approximately, and then use finely binned indexes to refine the answers. Our new methods read significantly lower volumes of data at the expense of an increased disk access count, thus taking full advantage of the improved read speed and low access latency of flash devices. To demonstrate the advantage of these new indexes, we measure their performance on a number of storage systems using a standard data warehousing benchmark called the Set Query Benchmark. We observe that multi-level strategies on flash drives are up to 3 times faster than traditional indexing strategies on magnetic disk drives.

  13. Flash Precision at the Start of Synchrony in Photuris frontalis.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Jonathan; Moiseff, Andrew

    2004-06-01

    Synchronous flashing occurs in certain species of Southeast Asian and North American fireflies. Most Southeast Asian synchrony involves stationary congregating fireflies, but North American synchrony occurs in flying fireflies that do not congregate. Southeast Asian synchrony is usually continuous, but North American synchrony is interrupted. Photuris frontalis, the only member of the North American genus Photuris to synchronize, shows an intermittent synchrony. This involves synchronization and repeated re-synchronizations while in flight. The precision that occurs at the start of synchrony was studied in Ph. frontalis using caged fireflies and photometry. Barrier experiments (using two fireflies) or flash entrainment experiments (using one LED and one firefly) were performed to measure the temporal precision of the first entrained flash. In both cases, the first entrained flash was close to unison synchrony (phase = 1.0) and showed little variability. The behavioral implications of the ability to synchronize with the first entrained flash are not known, but it might facilitate male-male interactions during brief, transient encounters such as maintaining distance between closely flying males in search of females.

  14. An Evaluation of Flash Cells Used in Critical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Rich; Flowers, David; Bergevin, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Due to the common use of Flash technology in many commercial and industrial Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) such as FPGAs and mixed-signal microcontrollers, flash technology is being utilized in fuzed munition applications. This presents a long-term reliability issue for both DoD and NASA safety- and mission-critical applications. A thorough understanding of the data retention failure modes and statistics associated with Flash data retention is of vital concern to the fuze safety community. A key retention parameter for a flash cell is the threshold voltage (VTH), which is an indirect indicator of the amount of charge stored on the cells floating gate. Initial test results based on a study of charge loss in flash cells in an FPGA device is presented. Statistical data taken from a small sample set indicates quantifiable charge loss for devices stored at both room temperature and 150 C. Initial evaluation of the distribution of threshold voltage in a large sample set (800 devices) is presented. The magnitude of charge loss from exposure to electrostatic discharge and electromagnetic fields is measured and presented. Simulated data (and measured data as available) resultant from harsh-environment testing (neutron, heavy ion, EMP) is presented.

  15. Flash X-Ray Studies Of Ballistic Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Edwin A.

    1983-03-01

    Frankford Arsenal was a pioneer in the development and application of flash radiography of ballistic phenomena. Frankford Arsenal first began using the Westinghouse Micronex flash X-ray system in 1941, and converted to Field Emission Corporation (now Hewlett-Packard) flash X-ray equipment in the early 1960's. When Frankford Arsenal closed in 1977, its missions and equipment were transferred to U.S. Army Armament Research and Development Command. The flash X-ray studies performed at Frankford Arsenal are now being continued at the ARRADCOM Test Site, Fort Dix, New Jersey as well as at ARRADCOM Headquarters, Dover, New Jersey. These studies are concerned with investigations of small caliber ammunition and weapons, and reduced scale models of large caliber projectiles. The important feature of flash X-rays in ballistics research and development is that high speed radiographs provide qualitative and quantitative information which frequently cannot be obtained by any other means or which can be obtained more easily and inexpensively by this technique. This paper describes some of the experimental applications of high speed radiography in obtaining data on various ballistic phenomena such as the determination of projectile penetration of armor plate, and particle size and orientation after penetration.

  16. Average evoked potential correlates of two-flash perceptual discrimination in cats.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, C. K.; Lindsley, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    Average evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded from the optic tract, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex of cats trained to discriminate between two successive flashes of light at various interflash intervals (IFI) and a single flash. The percent of correct responses to two-flash stimuli decreased sharply as IFI decreased from 100 to 20 msec. This behavioral response decrement was paralleled by a progressive overlapping of the AEPs to the two flashes and at 20 msec the AEPs resembled those to a single flash at all levels of the visual pathways. Implications for the coding of the information relevant to the discrimination of two flashes are discussed.

  17. Modular, Microprocessor-Controlled Flash Lighting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Dwayne; Gray, Elizabeth; Skupinski, Robert; Stachowicz, Arthur; Birchenough, William

    2006-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled lighting system generates brief, precisely timed, high-intensity flashes of light for scientific imaging at frame rates up to about 1 kHz. The system includes an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that are driven in synchronism with an externally generated timing signal (for example, a timing signal generated by a video camera). The light output can be varied in peak intensity, pulse duration, pulse delay, and pulse rate, all depending on the timing signal and associated externally generated control signals. The array of LEDs comprises as many as 16 LED panels that can be attached together. Each LED panel is a module consisting of a rectangular subarray of 10 by 20 LEDs of advanced design on a printed-circuit board in a mounting frame with a power/control connector. The LED panels are controlled by an LED control module that contains an AC-to-DC power supply, a control board, and 8 LED-panel driver boards. In prior LED panels, the LEDs are packaged at less than maximum areal densities in bulky metal housings that reduce effective active areas. In contrast, in the present LED panels, the LEDs are packed at maximum areal density so as to afford 100-percent active area and so that when panels are joined side by side to form the array, there are no visible seams between them and the proportion of active area is still 100 percent. Each panel produces an illuminance of .5 x 10( exp 4) lux at a distance of 5.8 in. (approx.1.6 cm). The LEDs are driven according to a pulse-width-modulation control scheme that makes it safe to drive the LEDs beyond their rated steady-state currents in order to generate additional light during short periods. The drive current and the pulse-width modulation for each LED panel can be controlled independently of those of the other 15 panels. The maximum allowable duration of each pulse of drive current is a function of the amount of overdrive, the total time to be spent in overdrive operation, and the limitations

  18. Recent Flash X-Ray Injector Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, T; Blackfield, D; Burke, J; Chen, Y; Javedani, J; Paul, A C

    2004-11-10

    The injector of the Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator has a significantly larger than expected beam emittance. A computer modeling effort involving three different injector design codes was undertaken to characterize the FXR injector and determine the cause of the large emittance. There were some variations between the codes, but in general the simulations were consistent and pointed towards a much smaller normalized, rms emittance (36 cm-mr) than what was measured (193 cm-mr) at the exit of the injector using a pepperpot technique. The simulations also indicated that the present diode design was robust with respect to perturbations to the nominal design. Easily detected mechanical alignment/position errors and magnet errors did not lead to appreciable increase in the simulated emittance. The physics of electron emission was not modeled by any of the codes and could be the source of increased emittance. The nominal simulation assumed uniform Child-Langmuir Law emission from the velvet cathode and no shroud emission. Simulations that looked at extreme non-uniform cathode and shroud emission scenarios resulted in doubling of the emittance. An alternative approach was to question the pepperpot measurement. Simulations of the measurement showed that the pepperpot aperture foil could double the emittance with respect to the non-disturbed beam. This leads to a diplomatic explanation of the discrepancy between predicted and measured emittance where the fault is shared. The measured value is too high due to the effect of the diagnostic on the beam and the simulations are too low because of unaccounted cathode and/or shroud emission physics. Fortunately there is a relatively simple experiment that can resolve the emittance discrepancy. If the large measured emittance value is correct, the beam envelope is emittance dominated at modest values of focusing field and beam radius. Measurements of the beam envelope on an imaging foil at the exit of the injector would lead to an

  19. Modeling midwave infrared muzzle flash spectra from unsuppressed and flash-suppressed large caliber munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, Bryan J.; Perram, Glen P.; Gross, Kevin C.

    2012-07-01

    Time-resolved infrared spectra of firings from a 152 mm howitzer were acquired over an 1800-6000 cm-1 spectral range using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. The instrument collected primarily at 32 cm-1 spectral and 100 Hz temporal resolutions. Munitions included unsuppressed and chemically flash suppressed propellants. Secondary combustion occurred with unsuppressed propellants resulting in flash emissions lasting ˜100 ms and dominated by H2O and CO2 spectral structure. Non-combusting plume emissions were one-tenth as intense and approached background levels within 20-40 ms. A low-dimensional phenomenological model was used to reduce the data to temperatures, soot absorbances, and column densities of H2O, CO2, CH4, and CO. The combusting plumes exhibit peak temperatures of ˜1400 K, areas of greater than 32 m2, low soot emissivity of ˜0.04, with nearly all the CO converted to CO2. The non-combusting plumes exhibit lower temperatures of ˜1000 K, areas of ˜5 m2, soot emissivity of greater than 0.38 and CO as the primary product. Maximum fit residual relative to peak intensity are 14% and 8.9% for combusting and non-combusting plumes, respectively. The model was generalized to account for turbulence-induced variations in the muzzle plumes. Distributions of temperature and concentration in 1-2 spatial regions demonstrate a reduction in maximum residuals by 40%. A two-region model of combusting plumes provides a plausible interpretation as a ˜1550 K, optically thick plume core and ˜2550 K, thin, surface-layer flame-front. Temperature rate of change was used to characterize timescales and energy release for plume emissions. Heat of combustion was estimated to be ˜5 MJ/kg.

  20. Hot flashes and cardiac vagal control: a link to cardiovascular risk?

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Christie, Israel C.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The understanding of the physiology of hot flashes is incomplete. The autonomic nervous system has been hypothesized to play a role in hot flashes but has received limited empirical attention. Further, emerging research has linked hot flashes to cardiovascular risk. Reduced high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), an index of vagal control of heart rate, has been associated with cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that decreases in HF-HRV would occur during hot flashes relative to periods preceding and following the hot flash. Methods Thirty peri- and postmenopausal women ages 40–60 reporting ≥4 hot flashes/day underwent laboratory hot flash provocation testing, with measurement of sternal skin conductance and electrocardiogram. Hot flashes were reported and identified from sternal skin conductance. HF-HRV was estimated using spectral analysis of the heart rate time series. The five minute interval during the hot flash was compared to two non-flash periods prior and following the hot flash via mixed effects models. Results HRV was significantly decreased during hot flashes relative to periods prior to (b=0.18, SE=0.05 p=0.0001) and after (b=0.16, SE=0.05, p=0.002) physiologically-measured hot flashes, controlling for age, race, education, task condition, menopausal status, task, hypertension status, diabetes status, physical activity, body mass index, smoking, and anxiety. Findings were unchanged considering self-reported hot flashes. Conclusions Significant decreases in cardiac vagal control occurred during hot flashes, which may help shed light on the physiology of hot flashes. The autonomic nervous system may deserve greater attention in understanding the mechanisms linking hot flashes to cardiovascular risk. PMID:20042892

  1. Hot flashes in prostate cancer: state of the science.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Christine A

    2008-06-01

    The lack of progress concerning the concept of the hot flash experience in men is an indication of the need for exploration of this phenomenon. The hot flash experience in men is a problem that can no longer be ignored. The results of this literature review will provide a foundation for additional development of the concept and facilitate further inquiry into the phenomenon. The purpose of the article is to provide the current state of the science of hot flashes related to androgen ablation treatment in prostate cancer patients; sleep, sweating, cognitive impairment, and the implications on health-related quality of life. Due to the sparse literature on this concept in men, information is extrapolated from the literature on female breast cancer patients treated with hormones and on menopausal women.

  2. PNNL 331 Building Arc Flash Team Investigation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Deichman, Mark L.; Drewrey, John C.; Hodges, Hurtis; Madson, Vernon J.; Minton, Allen L.; Montgomery, Daniel M.; Olson, Marvin E.; Rojas, Pedro H.; Sanan, Sanjay K.; Sharp, Reed D.; Sparks, Bobby R.; Swearingen, Gary L.

    2006-06-06

    On Friday, April 21, 2006, a PNNL electrician was performing repair of an electrical system for the 331 Building chilled water pump (CHWP) No.2, when an electrical arc flash occurred inside a 480V combination motor starter. The electrician was taken to the on-site medical provider for evaluation and was released for return to work without restriction. The electrician was not shocked, but did receive a minor, superficial (first degree) burn on the left wrist. This report, the result of a thorough review by the 331 Building Arc Flash Assessment Team, provides an in-depth look at the steps leading up to the arc-flash and recommendations and opportunities for improvement.

  3. A simple experiment that demonstrates the ``green flash''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtial, Johannes

    2012-11-01

    The green flash occurs when, under certain atmospheric conditions, the top segment of the low sun is visibly green. It is surrounded—in at least a few minds—by an air of mystery. I describe a simple experiment that demonstrates different aspects of the green flash. The experiment uses an odd-shaped, water-filled, fish tank to simulate the refractive properties of the atmosphere; milk powder added to the water mimicks the atmosphere's scattering properties. A circular white-light source is viewed through the fish tank and the combination of refraction and scattering makes one end of the light source look green. The setup also allows experimentation with mirage effects, thereby drawing attention to their often neglected contribution to the green flash.

  4. Climatological analyses of LMA data with an open-source lightning flash-clustering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Brody R.; Bruning, Eric C.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 63 million lightning flashes have been identified and analyzed from multiple years of Washington, D. C., northern Alabama, and northeast Colorado lightning mapping array (LMA) data using an open-source flash-clustering algorithm. LMA networks detect radiation produced by lightning breakdown processes, allowing for high-resolution mapping of lightning flashes. Similar to other existing clustering algorithms, the algorithm described herein groups lightning-produced radiation sources by space and time to estimate total flash counts and information about each detected flash. Various flash characteristics and their sensitivity to detection efficiency are investigated to elucidate biases in the algorithm, detail detection efficiencies of various LMAs, and guide future improvements. Furthermore, flash density values in each region are compared to corresponding satellite estimates. While total flash density values produced by the algorithm in Washington, D. C. ( 20 flashes km-2 yr-1), and Alabama ( 35 flashes km-2 yr-1) are within 50% of satellite estimates, LMA-based estimates are approximately a factor of 3 larger (50 flashes km-2 yr-1) than satellite estimates in northeast Colorado. Accordingly, estimates of the ratio of in-cloud to cloud-to-ground flashes near the LMA network ( 20) are approximately a factor of 3 larger than satellite estimates in Colorado. These large differences between estimates may be related to the distinct environment conducive to intense convection, low-altitude flashes, and unique charge structures in northeast Colorado.

  5. A study of thunderstorm microphysical properties and lightning flash counts associated with terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. E.; Splitt, M. E.; Dwyer, J. R.; Lazarus, S.; Smith, D. M.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2015-04-01

    The terrestrial gamma ray flash (TGF) is an emission of highly energetic radiation produced by or at least in close association with lightning. Previous investigations attempted to isolate the production mechanisms and production altitude(s) of TGFs as well as macrophysical characteristics, while thunderstorm microphysical characteristics were largely ignored. This investigation into thunderstorms and their hydrometeor and flash characteristics utilize temporal and spatial coincident satellite passes between the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission to determine the bulk (or footprint) microphysical properties of two types of study events, the thunderstorm complexes which are associated with TGFs (TGF case) and the thunderstorm complexes which did not produce a TGF detected by Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager during the pass (non-TGF case). Results are presented for two different comparison methods. The first case utilizes geographic region weighted by TGF distribution, and the second is based on TGF percentage of occurrence when compared to total flash count of data set. Results show that the associated storms around the TGF location possess differences in the hydrometeor concentrations: cloud liquid water, cloud ice, precipitation water, and precipitation ice. These results take place at different levels of the atmosphere, including the mixed phase region. Additionally, results will show that TGFs are a consistent percentage of observed flashes as the rate of TGFs as a function of Lightning Imaging Sensor flash count is relatively constant.

  6. Sympathetic enhancement in futsal players but not in football players after repeated sprint ability test

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Liao, Chih-Jung; Lu, Wan-An; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) can disclose the specific adaptation of sympathovagal modulation to exercise. This study investigated the change in HRV measures after anaerobic and aerobic intermittent exercises in university football and futsal players. Method 36 male university students with physically active lifestyle (n=14), football (n=12), and futsal (n=10) participated in this study. The participants completed the repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and Yo-Yo (YY) intermittent recovery test level 1 in randomised order. ECG signals of the participants were recorded in supine position 15 min before and 30 min after exercises. Before exercise, and 5 and 30 min after exercise, the blood pressures were also taken. Results In the RSA protocol, the percentage changes in normalised high-frequency power (nHFP) were significantly decreased, while the percentage changes in the very low/high frequency power ratio (VLHR) and low/high frequency power ratio (LHR) were significantly increased in futsal players after exercise, as compared with the controls. No significant changes in all HRV indices were found in the YY protocol, except the respiratory frequency. Conclusions After exercise, the percent decrease in vagal modulation in futsal players was significantly reduced, while the percentage increase in sympathetic modulation in futsal players was significantly enhanced in the RSA test, but not in the YY test, as compared with the control group. The increase in sympathetic activity and the decrease in vagal activity in the futsal players were greater than the corresponding increase and decrease in the football players in the RSA test. PMID:27900135

  7. Flash heat simulation events in the north Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon, Jordi; Pino, David

    2013-04-01

    According to the definition of flash heat event proposed by Mazon et al. in the European Meteorology Meeting (2011 and 2012) from the studied case produced in the Northeast of the Iberian peninsula on 27th August 20120, some other flash heat events have been detected by automatic weather stations around the in the Mediterranean basin (South Italy, Crete island, South Greece and the northeast of the Iberian peninsula). Flash heat event covers those events in which a large increase of temperature last a spatial and temporal scale between heat wave (defined by the WMO as a phenomenon in which the daily maximum temperature of more than five consecutive days exceeds the average maximum temperature by 5°C, with respect to the 1961-1990 period) and heat burst (defined by the AMS as a rare atmospheric event characterized by gusty winds and a rapid increase in temperature and decrease in humidity that can last some minutes). Thus flash heat event may be considered as a rapid modification of the temperature that last several hours, lower than 48 hours, but usually less than 24 hours. Two different flash heat events have been simulated with the WRF mesoscale model in the Mediterranean basin. The results show that two different mechanisms are the main causes of these flash heat events. The first one occurred on 23rd March 2008 in Crete Island due to a strong Foehn effect caused by a strong south and southeast wind, in which the maximum temperature increased during some hours on the night at 32°C. The second one occurred on 1st August 2012 in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, caused by a rapid displacement of warm a ridge from North Africa that lasted around 24 hours.

  8. Multisensory integration, aging, and the sound-induced flash illusion.

    PubMed

    DeLoss, Denton J; Pierce, Russell S; Andersen, George J

    2013-09-01

    The present study examined age-related differences in multisensory integration and the role of attention in age-related differences in multisensory integration. The sound-induced flash illusion--the misperception of the number of visual flashes due to the simultaneous presentation of a different number of auditory beeps--was used to examine the strength of multisensory integration in older and younger observers. The effects of integration were examined when discriminating 1-3 flashes, 1-3 beeps, or 1-3 flashes presented with 1-3 beeps. Stimulus conditions were blocked according to these conditions with baseline (unisensory) performance assessed during the multisensory block. Older participants demonstrated greater multisensory integration--a greater influence of the beeps when judging the number of visual flashes--than younger observers. In a second experiment, the role of attention was assessed using a go/no-go paradigm. The results of Experiment 2 replicated those of Experiment 1. In addition, the strength of the illusion was modulated by the sensory domain of the go/no-go task, though this did not differ by age group. In the visual go/no-go task we found a decrease in the illusion, yet in the auditory go/no-go task we found an increase in the illusion. These results demonstrate that older individuals exhibit increased multisensory integration compared with younger individuals. Attention was also found to modulate the strength of the sound-induced flash illusion. However, the results also suggest that attention was not likely to be a factor in the age-related differences in multisensory integration.

  9. Discovery of intense gamma-ray flashes of atmospheric origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Mallozzi, R.; Horack, J. M.; Koshut, T.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pendleton, G. N.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Paciesas, W. S.

    1994-01-01

    Observations have been made of a new terrestrial phenomenon: brief (approx. millisecond), intense flashes of gamma rays, observed with space-borne detectors. These flashes must originate at altitudes in the atmosphere above at least 30 km in order to be observable by orbiting detectors aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). At least a dozen events have been detected over the past 2 years. The photon spectra from the events are very hard and are consistent with bremsstrahlung emission from energetic (MeV) electrons. The most likely origin of these high energy electrons, while speculative at this time, is a rare type of high altitude electrical discharge above thunderstorm regions.

  10. Radiant flash pyrolysis of biomass using a xenon flashtube

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, M.W.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    Biomass materials, including lignin, redwood, corn cob, Calotropis Procera, Leucaena wood, Kraft paper, newsprint, cow manure, D-glucose, and D-cellobiose, were pyrolyzed in vacuum by the visible radiant flux emitted from a Xenon flashtube. The flux density exceeded 8 kW/cm/sup 2/ during the 1 ms flash. Sirup yields were low (avg 25%), while the gas yield was high (avg 32%). The gaseous products were composed primarily of CO and CO/sub 2/. The high relative yields of CO establish the existence of a high temperature fragmentation pathway active during the flash pyrolysis of all biomass materials. 39 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  11. Parallel data analysis in a multichannel flash-ADC-system

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Schmitt, H.V.D.; Wagner, A.; Walter, P.V.; Zimmer, M.

    1987-02-01

    Parallel analysis of drift chamber signals with M68000 processors has proven to be an efficient way to deal with the tremendous data flow generated by high speed (100 MHz) Flash-ADCs in real time. The authors report on the experience gained with a network of 34 processors, placed in 3 VME crates, to read out the 3072 Flash-ADC channels of the JADE Jet-Chamber at PETRA (1). The properties of such a system are compared to more conventional readout schemes for drift chambers.

  12. Space and terrestrial radiation effects in flash memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagatin, Marta; Gerardin, Simone; Paccagnella, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    We present a comprehensive review of the effects of ionizing radiation on advanced flash memories. The effects of ionizing radiation as well as the mechanisms underlying the observed phenomena are thoroughly discussed on both floating gate cells and the complex control circuitry. The covered effects are relevant for all floating-gate based flash memories that require very high levels of reliability, from critical applications at the terrestrial level to radiation-harsh environments, such as space, nuclear power plants, and high-energy physics experiments.

  13. 46 CFR 113.25-10 - Emergency red-flashing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... heard over the background noise, there must be a red-flashing light or rotating beacon, in addition to... system. (b) A red-flashing light or rotating beacon must be installed so that it is visible in the...

  14. Recipe for a Flash Flood: Identifying Meteorological and Landscape Hydrological Conditions of Flash Flood Events in the Northeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjerison, R.; Walter, T.; Jessup, S.; Colucci, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Flash floods are a serious concern in the Northeast US because they often result in property damage, injuries, or loss of life. The landscape hydrological and meteorological conditions that will result in a flash flood are difficult to quantify. In this study we aim to characterize the watersheds of a sample of flash floods in the Northeast US. We intend to show that in the Northeast US, different combinations of space- and time-variant watershed characteristics will lead to flooding under different precipitation profiles. A better understanding of the landscape hydrological factors (e.g. topography, soil characteristics) in flood-impacted watersheds could improve predictions of when and where floods are likely to occur.

  15. Player preferences among new and old violins

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Claudia; Curtin, Joseph; Poitevineau, Jacques; Morrel-Samuels, Palmer; Tao, Fan-Chia

    2012-01-01

    Most violinists believe that instruments by Stradivari and Guarneri “del Gesu” are tonally superior to other violins—and to new violins in particular. Many mechanical and acoustical factors have been proposed to account for this superiority; however, the fundamental premise of tonal superiority has not yet been properly investigated. Player's judgments about a Stradivari's sound may be biased by the violin's extraordinary monetary value and historical importance, but no studies designed to preclude such biasing factors have yet been published. We asked 21 experienced violinists to compare violins by Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu with high-quality new instruments. The resulting preferences were based on the violinists’ individual experiences of playing the instruments under double-blind conditions in a room with relatively dry acoustics. We found that (i) the most-preferred violin was new; (ii) the least-preferred was by Stradivari; (iii) there was scant correlation between an instrument's age and monetary value and its perceived quality; and (iv) most players seemed unable to tell whether their most-preferred instrument was new or old. These results present a striking challenge to conventional wisdom. Differences in taste among individual players, along with differences in playing qualities among individual instruments, appear more important than any general differences between new and old violins. Rather than searching for the “secret” of Stradivari, future research might best focused on how violinists evaluate instruments, on which specific playing qualities are most important to them, and on how these qualities relate to measurable attributes of the instruments, whether old or new. PMID:22215592

  16. Making star teams out of star players.

    PubMed

    Mankins, Michael; Bird, Alan; Root, James

    2013-01-01

    Top talent is an invaluable asset: In highly specialized or creative work, for instance, "A" players are likely to be six times as productive as "B" players. So when your company has a crucial strategic project, why not multiply all that firepower and have a team of your best performers tackle it? Yet many companies hesitate to do this, believing that all-star teams don't work: Big egos will get in the way. The stars won't be able to work with one another. They'll drive the team Leader crazy. Mankins, Bird, and Root of Bain & Company believe it's time to set aside that thinking. They have seen all-star teams do extraordinary work. But there is a right way and a wrong way to organize them. Before you can even begin to assemble such a team, you need to have the right talent management practices, so you hire and develop the best people and know what they're capable of. You have to give the team appropriate incentives and leaders and support staffers who are stars in their own right. And projects that are ill-defined or small scale are not for all-star teams. Use them only for critical missions, and make sure their objectives are clear. Even with the right setup, things can still go wrong. The wise executive will take steps to manage egos, prune non-team-players, and prevent average coworkers from feeling completely undervalued. She will also invest a lot of time in choosing the right team Leader and will ask members for lots of feedback to monitor how that leader is doing.

  17. Player preferences among new and old violins.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Claudia; Curtin, Joseph; Poitevineau, Jacques; Morrel-Samuels, Palmer; Tao, Fan-Chia

    2012-01-17

    Most violinists believe that instruments by Stradivari and Guarneri "del Gesu" are tonally superior to other violins--and to new violins in particular. Many mechanical and acoustical factors have been proposed to account for this superiority; however, the fundamental premise of tonal superiority has not yet been properly investigated. Player's judgments about a Stradivari's sound may be biased by the violin's extraordinary monetary value and historical importance, but no studies designed to preclude such biasing factors have yet been published. We asked 21 experienced violinists to compare violins by Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu with high-quality new instruments. The resulting preferences were based on the violinists' individual experiences of playing the instruments under double-blind conditions in a room with relatively dry acoustics. We found that (i) the most-preferred violin was new; (ii) the least-preferred was by Stradivari; (iii) there was scant correlation between an instrument's age and monetary value and its perceived quality; and (iv) most players seemed unable to tell whether their most-preferred instrument was new or old. These results present a striking challenge to conventional wisdom. Differences in taste among individual players, along with differences in playing qualities among individual instruments, appear more important than any general differences between new and old violins. Rather than searching for the "secret" of Stradivari, future research might best focused on how violinists evaluate instruments, on which specific playing qualities are most important to them, and on how these qualities relate to measurable attributes of the instruments, whether old or new.

  18. Racism in soccer? Perception of challenges of black and white players by white referees, soccer players, and fans.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Egger, Pascal; Gygax, Pascal; Ribordy, Farfalla

    2012-02-01

    This experiment investigated challenge evaluations in soccer and their relation to prejudice: more precisely, whether skin colour may influence judgments of soccer tackles. Three groups of participants (soccer players, referees,and soccer fans) were asked to evaluate challenges, featuring Black and White players as aggressors and victims in a mixed-design study. Results showed that participants made some differentiations between Black and White players in a challenge evaluation task. Participants were more likely to consider within-group challenges as fouls and were faster to consider challenges made by Black players as fouls. On the other hand, fouls made by White players were seen as more severe. There were no major differences between the participating groups, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of how good players were or whether the participants were referees or not.

  19. Occupational acroosteolysis in a guitar player.

    PubMed

    Baran, R; Tosti, A

    1993-02-01

    A case of occupational acroosteolysis in a 24-year-old classical guitar player is reported. Nail tenderness was the only manifestation of initial acroosteolysis, which was due to mechanical stress on the fingers. Radiographs showed initial resorption of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th finger of the left hand. The authors review the clinical and radiological features of acroosteolysis. The pathogenesis of acroosteolysis is discussed as well as the different diseases that may cause destructive changes of the distal phalangeal bones.

  20. Acing common skin problems in tennis players.

    PubMed

    Basler, R S; Garcia, M A

    1998-12-01

    The following measures can help prevent skin disorders in tennis players: wearing properly fitted shoes to avoid tennis toe, talon noir, and calluses; applying lubricants to protect against blisters and chafing; washing skin thoroughly to reduce the risk of acne mechanica; and wearing a hat and sunscreen to guard against photoinjury. 'Stringer's fingers' can be prevented by breaking the habit of adjusting the racket strings after each point. Should these disorders become troublesome, conservative treatments are usually effective. For example, calluses may be carefully pared, and pain from a subungual hemorrhage can be relieved by piercing the toenail with a hot paper clip.

  1. Elbow and Shoulder Lesions of Baseball Players*

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    George Eli Bennett was born in Claryville, NY, in the Catskill Mountains, in 1885 [3]. His parents both died by the time he was 11, leaving him the need to work while going to school, but he excelled in school and sports. He played semipro baseball at the age of 16. After high school he work in various jobs in the Midwest before he could afford to attend the University of Maryland Medical School, from which he graduated in 1908. At the age of 25 in 1910, he joined the staff at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, where he remained until his resignation in 1947. Dr. Bennett was one of a few men who served as President of both the American Orthopaedic Association and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. While Dr. Bennett made many contributions to orthopaedic surgery, including children’s and nonoperative orthopaedics, he was best known for his work in sports medicine (undoubtedly related to his being a gifted athlete). His fame extended well beyond the orthopaedic community, for he treated many famous athletes. Sports Illustrated recognized him upon his death in an article entitled, “Mender of Immortals” [4]. His intimate knowledge of sports undoubtedly contributed to his sage judgments. At an emotional dinner in 1958 many famous athletes sometimes tearfully paid tribute to Dr. Bennett. Joe Garagiola commented on the occasion, “After listening to that all-star team of players Dr. Bennett has mended, I’m sorry I didn’t break my leg” [4]. Among Dr. Bennett’s many publications, including those related to sports, we have chosen one [2] of two articles [1,2] he wrote on elbow and shoulder problems in baseball players. He described the now well-known degenerative changes and periarticular calcific deposits that occur in the elbows and shoulders of pitchers. Some of these, he suggested, were not symptomatic and he advised against treatment. Dr. Bennett commented, however, “Since professional athletes are human beings, not supermen, general health often

  2. What Differentiates Professional Poker Players from Recreational Poker Players? A Qualitative Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Abby; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of poker (and in particular online poker) has increasingly grown worldwide in recent years. This increase in the popularity of poker has led to the increased incidence of the "professional poker player". However, very little empirical research has been carried out into this relatively new group of gamblers. The aim was to determine…

  3. Relations between basic and specific motor abilities and player quality of young basketball players.

    PubMed

    Marić, Kristijan; Katić, Ratko; Jelicić, Mario

    2013-05-01

    Subjects from 5 first league clubs from Herzegovina were tested with the purpose of determining the relations of basic and specific motor abilities, as well as the effect of specific abilities on player efficiency in young basketball players (cadets). A battery of 12 tests assessing basic motor abilities and 5 specific tests assessing basketball efficiency were used on a sample of 83 basketball players. Two significant canonical correlations, i.e. linear combinations explained the relation between the set of twelve variables of basic motor space and five variables of situational motor abilities. Underlying the first canonical linear combination is the positive effect of the general motor factor, predominantly defined by jumping explosive power, movement speed of the arms, static strength of the arms and coordination, on specific basketball abilities: movement efficiency, the power of the overarm throw, shooting and passing precision, and the skill of handling the ball. The impact of basic motor abilities of precision and balance on specific abilities of passing and shooting precision and ball handling is underlying the second linear combination. The results of regression correlation analysis between the variable set of specific motor abilities and game efficiency have shown that the ability of ball handling has the largest impact on player quality in basketball cadets, followed by shooting precision and passing precision, and the power of the overarm throw.

  4. Effect of Escitalopram on Hot Flash Interference: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Janet S.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Larson, Joseph C.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Joffe, Hadine; Reed, Susan D.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the effect of escitalopram 10–20 mg/day versus placebo for reducing hot flash interference in daily life and understand correlates and predictors of reductions in hot flash interference, a key measure of quality of life. Design Multi-site, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients 205 midlife women (46% African-American) who met criteria participated. Setting MsFLASH clinical sites in Boston, Indianapolis, Oakland, and Philadelphia. Intervention After baseline, women were randomized to 1 pill of escitalopram 10 mg/day (n=104) or placebo (n=101) with follow-up at 4- and 8-weeks. At week 4, those not achieving 50% fewer hot flashes were increased to 2 pills daily (20 mg/day or 2 placebo pills). Main outcome measures The Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale; Correlates were variables from hot flash diaries; Predictors were baseline demographics, clinical variables, depression, anxiety, sleep quality, and hot flashes. Results Compared to placebo, escitalopram significantly reduced hot flash interference by 6.0 points at week 4 and 3.4 points at week 8 more than placebo (p=0.012). Reductions in hot flash interference correlated with changes in hot flash diary variables. However, baseline variables did not significantly predict reductions in hot flash interference. Conclusions Escitalopram 10–20mg/day for 8 weeks improves women’s quality of life and this benefit did not vary by demographic, clinical, mood, sleep, or hot flash variables. PMID:22480818

  5. 32 CFR 268.8 - Flash report of major foreign debt arrearages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flash report of major foreign debt arrearages... OF DEFENSE § 268.8 Flash report of major foreign debt arrearages. Major foreign debt arrearages are monitored by the NAC. Therefore, periodically DSAA will request flash reports from the DoD Components...

  6. 32 CFR 268.8 - Flash report of major foreign debt arrearages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flash report of major foreign debt arrearages... OF DEFENSE § 268.8 Flash report of major foreign debt arrearages. Major foreign debt arrearages are monitored by the NAC. Therefore, periodically DSAA will request flash reports from the DoD Components...

  7. 49 CFR 234.253 - Flashing light units and lamp voltage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flashing light units and lamp voltage. 234.253... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.253 Flashing light units and lamp voltage. (a) Each flashing light unit shall be inspected when installed and at least once every twelve months...

  8. Hot Flashes and Panic Attacks: A Comparison of Symptomatology, Neurobiology, Treatment, and a Role for Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Laura J.; Hantsoo, Liisa; Freeman, Ellen W.; Sullivan, Gregory M.; Coyne, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the causal mechanisms of hot flashes are not adequately understood, and a biopsychosocial perspective on hot flashes remains underdeveloped. This article explores overlooked parallels between hot flashes and panic attacks within 5 areas: course and symptomatology, physiological indicators, neurocircuitry and…

  9. 46 CFR 167.65-5 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-5 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light. Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding...

  10. 46 CFR 167.65-5 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-5 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light. Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding...

  11. 46 CFR 167.65-5 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-5 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light. Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding...

  12. 46 CFR 167.65-5 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-5 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light. Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding...

  13. 46 CFR 167.65-5 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-5 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light. Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding...

  14. Prospective Player-Reported Injuries in Female Youth Fast-Pitch Softball Players

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew V.; Davis, Randi; Brophy, Robert H.; Prather, Heidi; Garbutt, Jane; Wright, Rick W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a scarcity of literature evaluating injuries in youth fast-pitch softball players. Purpose: To perform a descriptive analysis of player-reported injuries in youth fast-pitch softball position players and pitchers during a single select-level season. Study Design: Prospective observation cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Ninety-eight athletes (48 pitchers, 50 position players) were followed for a single select fast-pitch softball season. Study participants completed web-based surveys every 3 weeks reporting injuries related to participation in fast-pitch softball. Injury was defined as pain causing cessation of participation in the current game or practice that prevents the player’s return to that session or any pain that causes cessation of a player’s customary participation on the day after the day of onset. Results: The median age of the study participants was 14 years (range, 9-18 years). There were 49 reported injuries in 98 athletes. The average age was 13 years for those not injured and 14 years for those who were injured (P < 0.02). There were 31 injuries that were not related to pitching: 19 occurred in position players and 12 occurred in pitchers; 70% of these injuries were to the lower extremity. The proportion of injuries not related to pitching was significantly greater than the proportion of injuries related to pitching (P < 0.02). Eighteen injuries among the 48 pitchers (38%) were directly attributed to pitching. Among the 18 pitching injuries, 11 (61%) involved the shoulder. The majority (78%) of injuries related to pitching occurred in the first 6 weeks of the season. Conclusion: There was a high incidence of injury in this prospective cohort of youth select-level fast-pitch softball players. Better off-season and preseason conditioning may be a key factor for reducing pitching injuries. Clinical Relevance: Recognition of injury patterns in fast-pitch softball players is critical to developing strategies to

  15. Flashes of light-radiation therapy to the brain.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Deborah T; Corn, Benjamin W; Shtraus, Natan

    2015-08-01

    We present a series of three patients who received therapeutic external beam radiation to the brain and experienced a phenomenon of the sensation of flashes of bright or blue light, simultaneous with radiation delivery. We relate this benign phenomenon to low-dose exposure to the eye fields and postulate that the occurrence is underreported in this treated population.

  16. Flash floods, hydro-geomorphic response and risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braud, Isabelle; Borga, Marco; Gourley, Jonathan; Hürlimann, Marcel; Zappa, Massimilano; Gallart, Francesc

    2016-10-01

    Each year, natural disasters are responsible for fatalities and economic losses worldwide with 101 billion USD in economic losses and 7000 fatalities reported for 2014 (SwissRE, 2015). Even if earthquakes are responsible for most of these fatalities, flash floods and landslides are recognized as a significant source of threat to human lives (SwissRE, 2015). Jonkman (2005), in a global assessment of flood-related casualties, showed that flash floods lead to the highest mortality (number of fatalities divided by the number of affected people). They are also often associated with shallow landslides and geomorphic processes that can increase threat to human lives. Analysis of a global data set of fatalities from non-seismically triggered landslides (Petley, 2012) shows that 2620 fatal landslides were recorded worldwide in the period 2004-2010, causing a total of 32,322 recorded fatalities. In addition, heavy precipitation events, at the origin of flash floods and shallow landsliding are expected to increase in the future (e.g. Scoccimarro et al., 2016 for a recent study in Europe). Progress in flash floods and landslides understanding, forecasting and warning is therefore still needed to disentangle the complex interactions between hazards, exposure and vulnerability and to increase resilience (Borga et al., 2014).

  17. FLASH assembly of TALENs for high-throughput genome editing.

    PubMed

    Reyon, Deepak; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Khayter, Cyd; Foden, Jennifer A; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith

    2012-05-01

    Engineered transcription activator–like effector nucleases (TALENs) have shown promise as facile and broadly applicable genome editing tools. However, no publicly available high-throughput method for constructing TALENs has been published, and large-scale assessments of the success rate and targeting range of the technology remain lacking. Here we describe the fast ligation-based automatable solid-phase high-throughput (FLASH) system, a rapid and cost-effective method for large-scale assembly of TALENs. We tested 48 FLASH-assembled TALEN pairs in a human cell–based EGFP reporter system and found that all 48 possessed efficient gene-modification activities. We also used FLASH to assemble TALENs for 96 endogenous human genes implicated in cancer and/or epigenetic regulation and found that 84 pairs were able to efficiently introduce targeted alterations. Our results establish the robustness of TALEN technology and demonstrate that FLASH facilitates high-throughput genome editing at a scale not currently possible with other genome modification technologies.

  18. Ultrafast-Contactless Flash Sintering using Plasma Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Theo; Grasso, Salvatore; Reece, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel derivative of flash sintering, in which contactless flash sintering (CFS) is achieved using plasma electrodes. In this setup, electrical contact with the sample to be sintered is made by two arc plasma electrodes, one on either side, allowing current to pass through the sample. This opens up the possibility of continuous throughput flash sintering. Preheating, a usual precondition for flash sintering, is provided by the arc electrodes which heat the sample to 1400 °C. The best results were produced with pre-compacted samples (bars 1.8 mm thick) of pure B4C (discharge time 2s, current 4A) and SiC:B4C 50 wt% (3s at 6A), which were fully consolidated under a heating rate approaching 20000 °C/min. For the composite a cylindrical volume of 14 mm3 was sintered to full density with limited grain growth. PMID:27273255

  19. Spectral unfolds of PITHON Flash X-ray source.

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Riordan, John C.

    2007-11-01

    Using a differential absorption spectrometer we obtained experimental spectral information for the PITHON Flash X-ray Machine located in San Leandro, California at L-3 Communications. Spectral information we obtained pertained to the 200 keV to 800 keV endpoint operation of PITHON. We also obtained data on the temporal behavior of high energy and low energy spectral content.

  20. The Magnocellular visual pathway and the flash-lag illusion.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Mark; Mullen, Kathy T

    2010-09-27

    Determining how the visual system locates moving stimuli continues to be an experimental and theoretical challenge. By making a moving visual stimulus equiluminant with its background, and immersing it in luminance noise, the spatial lead it normal enjoys over a flashed stimulus (the flash-lag illusion) was completely eliminated (the illusion was actually reversed for 6 out of 11 participants). As this manipulation is typically used to reduce Magnocellular (M) visual pathway processing, this is strong evidence that processing in this pathway advances the moving stimulus' perceived position. However, when the flashed stimulus was also made equiluminant in luminance noise, the illusion reappeared, indicating that M pathway processing contributed to its perception too. The presence of the illusion when both stimuli were equiluminant in luminance noise indicates that the illusion can be generated in the absence of M cell activation. To explicate the result with moving stimuli, we displayed two adjacent moving stimuli, one luminance-modulated, and the other equiluminant in noise. The latter was perceived to significantly lag the former (an 'M-P-Hess' illusion), and 39% of the difference in flash-lag illusions, with comparable moving stimulus contrasts, could be accounted for by this illusion.

  1. Novel approach for low-cost muzzle flash detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskoboinik, Asher

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost muzzle flash detection based on CMOS sensor technology is proposed. This low-cost technology makes it possible to detect various transient events with characteristic times between dozens of microseconds up to dozens of milliseconds while sophisticated algorithms successfully separate them from false alarms by utilizing differences in geometrical characteristics and/or temporal signatures. The proposed system consists of off-the-shelf smart CMOS cameras with built-in signal and image processing capabilities for pre-processing together with allocated memory for storing a buffer of images for further post-processing. Such a sensor does not require sending giant amounts of raw data to a real-time processing unit but provides all calculations in-situ where processing results are the output of the sensor. This patented CMOS muzzle flash detection concept exhibits high-performance detection capability with very low false-alarm rates. It was found that most false-alarms due to sun glints are from sources at distances of 500-700 meters from the sensor and can be distinguished by time examination techniques from muzzle flash signals. This will enable to eliminate up to 80% of falsealarms due to sun specular reflections in the battle field. Additional effort to distinguish sun glints from suspected muzzle flash signal is made by optimization of the spectral band in Near-IR region. The proposed system can be used for muzzle detection of small arms, missiles and rockets and other military applications.

  2. An empirical explanation of the flash-lag effect.

    PubMed

    Wojtach, William T; Sung, Kyongje; Truong, Sandra; Purves, Dale

    2008-10-21

    When a flash of light is presented in physical alignment with a moving object, the flash is perceived to lag behind the position of the object. This phenomenon, known as the flash-lag effect, has been of particular interest to vision scientists because of the challenge it presents to understanding how the visual system generates perceptions of objects in motion. Although various explanations have been offered, the significance of this effect remains a matter of debate. Here, we show that: (i) contrary to previous reports based on limited data, the flash-lag effect is an increasing nonlinear function of image speed; and (ii) this function is accurately predicted by the frequency of occurrence of image speeds generated by the perspective transformation of moving objects. These results support the conclusion that perceptions of the relative position of a moving object are determined by accumulated experience with image speeds, in this way allowing for visual behavior in response to real-world sources whose speeds and positions cannot be perceived directly.

  3. Apparatus for Spraying Thin Films by the Flash Evaporation Method,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The article describes a flash evaporation apparatus used for coating materials with compounds and alloys. The apparatus is simple and easy to produce and can be mounted in a conventional vacuum apparatus. The operation of this apparatus was tested during the spraying of the InSb thin films .

  4. Thermal diffusivity of nonflat plates using the flash method

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, Agustin; Fuente, Raquel; Apinaniz, Estibaliz; Mendioroz, Arantza

    2011-01-15

    The flash method is the standard technique to measure the thermal diffusivity of solid samples. It consists of heating the front surface of an opaque sample by a brief light pulse and detecting the temperature evolution at its rear surface. The thermal diffusivity is obtained by measuring the time corresponding to the half maximum of the temperature rise, which only depends on the sample thickness and thermal diffusivity through a simple formula. Up to now, the flash method has been restricted to flat samples. In this work, we extend the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of nonflat samples. In particular, we focus on plates with cylindrical and spherical shapes. The theoretical model indicates that the same expression for flat samples can also be applied to cylindrical and spherical plates, except for extremely curved samples. Accordingly, a curvature limit for the application of the expression for flat samples is established. Flash measurements on lead foils of cylindrical shape confirm the validity of the model.

  5. Lightning flash density in relation to aerosol over Nanjing (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y. B.; Peng, L.; Shi, Z.; Chen, H. R.

    2016-06-01

    Time series data of lightning flash density, aerosol optical depth (AOD), surface temperature, convective available potential energy (CAPE) and thunderstorm days for 10 years (2002-2011), cloud-to-ground lightning (CG), and AOD of 5 years for summer season, i.e., June, July, and August over Nanjing, China, have been analyzed, to investigate the impact of aerosols on lightning. The results indicate that the radiative effect of aerosol may be one of the main reason for the decrease of the lightning flash density in a long period, while the aerosol microphysical effect may be a major role in the increase of the percent of + CG flashes (P+ CG). The dependence of surface temperature, CAPE, and thunderstorm days on AOD (R = - 0.748, - 0.741, - 0.744), and the negative correlation (R = - 0.634) between lightning flash density and AOD may lend support for the radiative effect of aerosol on lightning. In addition, elevated aerosols may change the charge distribution in thundercloud, hence enhancing the positive cloud-to-ground lightning (+ CG) activity, as P+ CG is positively correlated with AOD.

  6. Flash floods warning technique based on wireless communication networks data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Noam; Alpert, Pinhas; Messer, Hagit

    2010-05-01

    Flash floods can occur throughout or subsequent to rainfall events, particularly in cases where the precipitation is of high-intensity. Unfortunately, each year these floods cause severe property damage and heavy casualties. At present, there are no sufficient real time flash flood warning facilities found to cope with this phenomenon. Here we show the tremendous potential of flash floods advanced warning based on precipitation measurements of commercial microwave links. As was recently shown, wireless communication networks supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in flood prone areas, covering large parts of these hazardous regions. We present the flash flood warning potential of the wireless communication system for two different cases when floods occurred at the Judean desert and at the northern Negev in Israel. In both cases, an advanced warning regarding the hazard could have been announced based on this system. • This research was supported by THE ISRAEL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (grant No. 173/08). This work was also supported by a grant from the Yeshaya Horowitz Association, Jerusalem. Additional support was given by the PROCEMA-BMBF project and by the GLOWA-JR BMBF project.

  7. Recognizing Words and Reading Sentences with Microsecond Flash Displays

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Strings of dots can be used to construct easily identifiable letters, and these in turn can be used to write words and sentences. Prior work found that respondents could identify individual letters when all the dots were simultaneously flashed for an ultra-brief duration. Four of the experiments reported here constructed five-letter words with these dot-letters and a fifth experiment used them to write complete sentences. Respondents were able to recognize individual words that were displayed with a single, simultaneous ultra-brief flash of all the letters. Further, sentences could be efficiently read with a sequence of simultaneous flashes at a frequency that produced perceptual fusion. One experiment determined the frequency range that would produce flicker-fusion. Two experiments established the relation of intensity to probability of recognition with single flashes and with fused-flicker frequencies. Another established the intensities at which flicker-fused and steady displays were judged to be equal in brightness. The final experiment used those flicker-fused and steady intensities to display sentences. The two display conditions were read with equal efficiency, even though the flicker-fused displays provided light stimulation only 0.003% of the time. PMID:26800027

  8. Ultrafast-Contactless Flash Sintering using Plasma Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Theo; Grasso, Salvatore; Reece, Michael J

    2016-06-08

    This paper presents a novel derivative of flash sintering, in which contactless flash sintering (CFS) is achieved using plasma electrodes. In this setup, electrical contact with the sample to be sintered is made by two arc plasma electrodes, one on either side, allowing current to pass through the sample. This opens up the possibility of continuous throughput flash sintering. Preheating, a usual precondition for flash sintering, is provided by the arc electrodes which heat the sample to 1400 °C. The best results were produced with pre-compacted samples (bars 1.8 mm thick) of pure B4C (discharge time 2s, current 4A) and SiC:B4C 50 wt% (3s at 6A), which were fully consolidated under a heating rate approaching 20000 °C/min. For the composite a cylindrical volume of 14 mm(3) was sintered to full density with limited grain growth.

  9. Measuring and Estimating Normalized Contrast in Infrared Flash Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared flash thermography (IRFT) is used to detect void-like flaws in a test object. The IRFT technique involves heating up the part surface using a flash of flash lamps. The post-flash evolution of the part surface temperature is sensed by an IR camera in terms of pixel intensity of image pixels. The IR technique involves recording of the IR video image data and analysis of the data using the normalized pixel intensity and temperature contrast analysis method for characterization of void-like flaws for depth and width. This work introduces a new definition of the normalized IR pixel intensity contrast and normalized surface temperature contrast. A procedure is provided to compute the pixel intensity contrast from the camera pixel intensity evolution data. The pixel intensity contrast and the corresponding surface temperature contrast differ but are related. This work provides a method to estimate the temperature evolution and the normalized temperature contrast from the measured pixel intensity evolution data and some additional measurements during data acquisition.

  10. Normalized Temperature Contrast Processing in Flash Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents further development in normalized contrast processing of flash infrared thermography method by the author given in US 8,577,120 B1. The method of computing normalized image or pixel intensity contrast, and normalized temperature contrast are provided, including converting one from the other. Methods of assessing emissivity of the object, afterglow heat flux, reflection temperature change and temperature video imaging during flash thermography are provided. Temperature imaging and normalized temperature contrast imaging provide certain advantages over pixel intensity normalized contrast processing by reducing effect of reflected energy in images and measurements, providing better quantitative data. The subject matter for this paper mostly comes from US 9,066,028 B1 by the author. Examples of normalized image processing video images and normalized temperature processing video images are provided. Examples of surface temperature video images, surface temperature rise video images and simple contrast video images area also provided. Temperature video imaging in flash infrared thermography allows better comparison with flash thermography simulation using commercial software which provides temperature video as the output. Temperature imaging also allows easy comparison of surface temperature change to camera temperature sensitivity or noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) to assess probability of detecting (POD) anomalies.

  11. Premixing and flash vaporization in a two-stage combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoblom, B.G.A.

    1982-01-01

    A double recirculation zone two-stage combustor fitted with airblast atomizers has been investigated in a previous work. This paper describes further tests with premixing tubes in the secondary combustion zone. Flash vaporization was employed to ensure complete vaporization of the secondary fuel, which was heated to 600K by the combustor inlet air. 9 refs.

  12. Hearing flashes and seeing beeps: Timing audiovisual events

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Many events from daily life are audiovisual (AV). Handclaps produce both visual and acoustic signals that are transmitted in air and processed by our sensory systems at different speeds, reaching the brain multisensory integration areas at different moments. Signals must somehow be associated in time to correctly perceive synchrony. This project aims at quantifying the mutual temporal attraction between senses and characterizing the different interaction modes depending on the offset. In every trial participants saw four beep-flash pairs regularly spaced in time, followed after a variable delay by a fifth event in the test modality (auditory or visual). A large range of AV offsets was tested. The task was to judge whether the last event came before/after what was expected given the perceived rhythm, while attending only to the test modality. Flashes were perceptually shifted in time toward beeps, the attraction being stronger for lagging than leading beeps. Conversely, beeps were not shifted toward flashes, indicating a nearly total auditory capture. The subjective timing of the visual component resulting from the AV interaction could easily be forward but not backward in time, an intuitive constraint stemming from minimum visual processing delays. Finally, matching auditory and visual time-sensitivity with beeps embedded in pink noise produced very similar mutual attractions of beeps and flashes. Breaking the natural auditory preference for timing allowed vision to take over as well, showing that this preference is not hardwired. PMID:28207786

  13. DETAIL OF TYPICAL ALUMINUM FLASHING AT THE BOTTOM OF AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF TYPICAL ALUMINUM FLASHING AT THE BOTTOM OF AN EXTERIOR WALL AT UNIT B. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, Desikan

    1984-01-01

    A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a superheated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

  15. Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, D.

    1984-01-01

    A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a super-heated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

  16. Thermal diffusivity of nonflat plates using the flash method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Agustín; Fuente, Raquel; Apiñaniz, Estibaliz; Mendioroz, Arantza

    2011-01-01

    The flash method is the standard technique to measure the thermal diffusivity of solid samples. It consists of heating the front surface of an opaque sample by a brief light pulse and detecting the temperature evolution at its rear surface. The thermal diffusivity is obtained by measuring the time corresponding to the half maximum of the temperature rise, which only depends on the sample thickness and thermal diffusivity through a simple formula. Up to now, the flash method has been restricted to flat samples. In this work, we extend the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of nonflat samples. In particular, we focus on plates with cylindrical and spherical shapes. The theoretical model indicates that the same expression for flat samples can also be applied to cylindrical and spherical plates, except for extremely curved samples. Accordingly, a curvature limit for the application of the expression for flat samples is established. Flash measurements on lead foils of cylindrical shape confirm the validity of the model.

  17. Recognizing Words and Reading Sentences with Microsecond Flash Displays.

    PubMed

    Greene, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Strings of dots can be used to construct easily identifiable letters, and these in turn can be used to write words and sentences. Prior work found that respondents could identify individual letters when all the dots were simultaneously flashed for an ultra-brief duration. Four of the experiments reported here constructed five-letter words with these dot-letters and a fifth experiment used them to write complete sentences. Respondents were able to recognize individual words that were displayed with a single, simultaneous ultra-brief flash of all the letters. Further, sentences could be efficiently read with a sequence of simultaneous flashes at a frequency that produced perceptual fusion. One experiment determined the frequency range that would produce flicker-fusion. Two experiments established the relation of intensity to probability of recognition with single flashes and with fused-flicker frequencies. Another established the intensities at which flicker-fused and steady displays were judged to be equal in brightness. The final experiment used those flicker-fused and steady intensities to display sentences. The two display conditions were read with equal efficiency, even though the flicker-fused displays provided light stimulation only 0.003% of the time.

  18. Evaporant feed device facilitates flash vapor deposition process in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermann, W. A.; Stirn, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Mechanism using a helix sequentially feeds prescribed amounts of metal charges into an evaporation boat used for flash vapor deposition of the evaporants onto a substrate in a vacuum chamber. The helix is advanced by external manual controls extending through sealed feed- through devices into the chamber wall.

  19. Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Professional Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Mehran, Nima; Schulz, Brian M.; Neri, Brian R.; Robertson, William J.; Limpisvasti, Orr

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble hormone that plays a role in bone health, muscle function, and athletic performance. Studies have shown that low levels of vitamin D can lead to slower muscle recovery and function, increased rates of stress fractures, and even poorer athletic performance. Insufficient vitamin D levels have been demonstrated in professional basketball and football players, however, there have been no studies to date reviewing vitamin D insufficiency in professional hockey players. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-sectional review to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in professional hockey players. The hypothesis was that there would be a high percentage of players with vitamin D insufficiency. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The preseason serum 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D laboratory test results of 105 professional hockey players were retrospectively reviewed. All players on 3 National Hockey League (NHL) teams were included. Player parameters evaluated included age, height, weight, body mass index, and 25(OH) vitamin D level. Players were divided into 4 groups based on serum vitamin D levels: deficient (<20 ng/mL), insufficient (20-31.9 ng/mL), sufficient (≥32 ng/mL), and ideal (≥40 ng/mL). Descriptive statistics were performed, in addition to 2-group and 3-group comparisons. Results: The average 25(OH) vitamin D level of 105 players was 45.8 ± 13.7 ng/mL (range, 24-108 ng/mL). No players in the study were considered deficient. A total of 14 players (13.3%) were considered insufficient, while 91 players (86.7%) were considered sufficient. However, only 68 players (64.8%) were considered ideal. When comparing groups, athletes with sufficient vitamin D levels were older than athletes with insufficient vitamin D levels (25.9 vs 23.1 years; P = .018). All other player parameters demonstrated no significant difference between groups

  20. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Eri; Iwamoto, Jun; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females) were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%), and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%). The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%), while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper’s knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy) in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively). However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball. PMID:25565908

  1. Strength Asymmetry of the Shoulders in Elite Volleyball Players

    PubMed Central

    Hadzic, Vedran; Sattler, Tine; Veselko, Matjaž; Markovic, Goran; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Volleyball players are reported to have shoulder strength imbalances. Previous authors have primarily investigated small samples of male players at a single skill level, without considering playing position, and with inconsistent findings. Objective: To evaluate shoulder strength asymmetry and a history of shoulder injury in a large sample of professional volleyball players of both sexes across different playing positions and skill levels. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Patients or Other Participants: A sample of 183 volleyball players (99 men, 84 women). Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed shoulder internal-rotator and external-rotator concentric strength at 60°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer and dominant-nondominant differences in shoulder strength and strength ratios using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Peak torque was normalized for body mass and external-rotation/internal-rotation concentric strength. Results: Internal-rotation strength was asymmetric in favor of the dominant side in both sexes, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. Male volleyball players had a lower shoulder strength ratio on the dominant side, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. However, this finding was valid only when hand dominance was taken into account. Female volleyball players playing at a higher level (ie, first versus second division) were 3.43 times more likely to have an abnormal strength ratio. Playing position was not associated with an abnormal shoulder strength ratio or strength asymmetry. Conclusions: In male volleyball players, the external-rotation/internal-rotation strength ratio of the dominant shoulder was lower, regardless of playing position, skill level, or a previous shoulder injury. In female players, the ratio was less only in those at a higher skill level. Although speculative, these findings generally suggest that female volleyball players could have a lower risk of developing shoulder-related problems than male

  2. N-player quantum games in an EPR setting.

    PubMed

    Chappell, James M; Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    The N-player quantum games are analyzed that use an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiment, as the underlying physical setup. In this setup, a player's strategies are not unitary transformations as in alternate quantum game-theoretic frameworks, but a classical choice between two directions along which spin or polarization measurements are made. The players' strategies thus remain identical to their strategies in the mixed-strategy version of the classical game. In the EPR setting the quantum game reduces itself to the corresponding classical game when the shared quantum state reaches zero entanglement. We find the relations for the probability distribution for N-qubit GHZ and W-type states, subject to general measurement directions, from which the expressions for the players' payoffs and mixed Nash equilibrium are determined. Players' N x N payoff matrices are then defined using linear functions so that common two-player games can be easily extended to the N-player case and permit analytic expressions for the Nash equilibrium. As a specific example, we solve the Prisoners' Dilemma game for general N ≥ 2. We find a new property for the game that for an even number of players the payoffs at the Nash equilibrium are equal, whereas for an odd number of players the cooperating players receive higher payoffs. By dispensing with the standard unitary transformations on state vectors in Hilbert space and using instead rotors and multivectors, based on Clifford's geometric algebra (GA), it is shown how the N-player case becomes tractable. The new mathematical approach presented here has wide implications in the areas of quantum information and quantum complexity, as it opens up a powerful way to tractably analyze N-partite qubit interactions.

  3. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Gretchen; Weimar, Wendi

    2015-01-01

    Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly. PMID:26839605

  4. Knee alignment in professional tennis players.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, Javier

    2002-01-01

    This study determined lower-limb alignment and knee geometry in professional tennis players and compared the data with those from nonathletic individuals. Twenty-four radiographs from 12 asymptomatic players (mean age: 23.4+/-3.8 years) were prospectively studied. The three angles most useful for describing limb alignment and knee geometry in the coronal plane were measured: hip-knee-ankle, condylar-hip, and plateau-ankle. The condylar-plateau angle, frontal foot rotation angle, and the relationship between the mechanical axis and tibial plateau also were calculated. Varus limb alignment was predominant and the mechanical axis passed medially through the knee center; there was increased valgus inclination of the distal femur, varus angulation of the tibial plateau, near parallel alignment of the joint, and exaggerated external foot rotation. Hip-knee-ankle, condylar-hip, plateau-ankle, and frontal foot rotation angles were significantly different (P<.05, two-tailed t test) from previously reported angles of nonathletic individuals. Variations, probably due to repetitive dynamic demands imposed on lower limbs from an early age, seem to involve both femoral condyles and proximal tibial metaphyses, maintaining normal parallel joint alignment.

  5. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen; Weimar, Wendi

    2015-12-22

    Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.

  6. Temporal integration of light flashes by the human circadian system

    PubMed Central

    Najjar, Raymond P.; Zeitzer, Jamie M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Beyond image formation, the light that is detected by retinal photoreceptors influences subcortical functions, including circadian timing, sleep, and arousal. The physiology of nonimage-forming (NIF) photoresponses in humans is not well understood; therefore, the development of therapeutic interventions based on this physiology, such as bright light therapy to treat chronobiological disorders, remains challenging. METHODS. Thirty-nine participants were exposed to 60 minutes of either continuous light (n = 8) or sequences of 2-millisecond light flashes (n = 31) with different interstimulus intervals (ISIs; ranging from 2.5 to 240 seconds). Melatonin phase shift and suppression, along with changes in alertness and sleepiness, were assessed. RESULTS. We determined that the human circadian system integrates flash sequences in a nonlinear fashion with a linear rise to a peak response (ISI = 7.6 ± 0.53 seconds) and a power function decrease following the peak of responsivity. At peak ISI, flashes were at least 2-fold more effective in phase delaying the circadian system as compared with exposure to equiluminous continuous light 3,800 times the duration. Flashes did not change melatonin concentrations or alertness in an ISI-dependent manner. CONCLUSION. We have demonstrated that intermittent light is more effective than continuous light at eliciting circadian changes. These findings cast light on the phenomenology of photic integration and suggest a dichotomous retinohypothalamic network leading to circadian phase shifting and other NIF photoresponses. Further clinical trials are required to judge the practicality of light flash protocols. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01119365. FUNDING. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (1R01HL108441-01A1) and Department of Veterans Affairs Sierra Pacific Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center. PMID:26854928

  7. A Comparison of Radiometric Calibration Techniques for Lunar Impact Flashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, R.

    2016-01-01

    Video observations of lunar impact flashes have been made by a number of researchers since the late 1990's and the problem of determination of the impact energies has been approached in different ways (Bellot Rubio, et al., 2000 [1], Bouley, et al., 2012.[2], Suggs, et al. 2014 [3], Rembold and Ryan 2015 [4], Ortiz, et al. 2015 [5]). The wide spectral response of the unfiltered video cameras in use for all published measurements necessitates color correction for the standard filter magnitudes available for the comparison stars. An estimate of the color of the impact flash is also needed to correct it to the chosen passband. Magnitudes corrected to standard filters are then used to determine the luminous energy in the filter passband according to the stellar atmosphere calibrations of Bessell et al., 1998 [6]. Figure 1 illustrates the problem. The camera pass band is the wide black curve and the blue, green, red, and magenta curves show the band passes of the Johnson-Cousins B, V, R, and I filters for which we have calibration star magnitudes. The blackbody curve of an impact flash of temperature 2800K (Nemtchinov, et al., 1998 [7]) is the dashed line. This paper compares the various photometric calibration techniques and how they address the color corrections necessary for the calculation of luminous energy (radiometry) of impact flashes. This issue has significant implications for determination of luminous efficiency, predictions of impact crater sizes for observed flashes, and the flux of meteoroids in the 10s of grams to kilogram size range.

  8. Some features of stroke occurrence in Florida lightning flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, E. M.; Galib, M. A.; Uman, M. A.; Beasley, W. H.; Master, M. J.

    1984-06-01

    Characteristics of stroke occurrence are investigated for lightning to ground observed near Tampa, Florida (latitude = 27.4°N, longitude = 82.2°W) during three days of convective thunderstorm activity in July 1979. Strokes were identified from both wideband (0.2 Hz to 1.5 MHz) electric field records and simultaneous video tape recordings from a network of TV cameras. The average number of strokes per flash was 4.0 for 105 flashes and the average number of channels per flash was 1.6 for 78 multiple-stroke flashes. Interstroke intervals were distributed according to a lognormal rather than a normal distribution with a geometric mean of 69 ms and standard deviation of 0.32 decades in the logarithmic distribution for 310 intervals. Interstroke intervals preceding new channels had a geometric mean of 83 ms and standard deviation of 0.33 decades in the logarithmic distribution for 28 intervals. By comparing our results with others in Florida and New Mexico, we could find no obvious relationship between these intervals and channel length. Histograms of interstroke interval plotted as a function of stroke order did not appear to reveal the systematic increase noted by workers in Japan. This conclusion is corroborated here on the basis of the same statistical tests used by the Japanese workers. The effectiveness of videotape records for determining stroke occurrence in daytime lightning is considered: although 82% of strokes were detected on the videotape record, for ground flashes with at least one stroke visible on TV, there was a significant difference at the 1% confidence level for the t test between the interstroke interval distribution obtained using both wideband electric field and videotape records and that obtained using only videotape records.

  9. Upper limits of flash flood stream power in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco; Amponsah, William; Borga, Marco; Crema, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Flash floods are characterized by strong spatial gradients of rainfall inputs that hit different parts of a river basin with different intensity. Stream power values associated with flash floods therefore show spatial variations that depend on geological controls on channel geometry and sediment characteristics, as well as on the variations of flood intensity: this stresses the need for a field approach that takes into account the variability of the controlling factors. Post-flood assessment of peak discharge after major floods makes it possible to analyse stream power in fluvial systems affected by flash floods. This study analyses the stream power of seven intense (return period of rainfall > 100 years at least in some sectors of the river basin) flash floods that occurred in mountainous basins of central and southern Europe from 2007 to 2014. In most of the analysed cross sections, high values of unit stream power were observed; this is consistent with the high severity of the studied floods. The highest values of cross-sectional stream power and unit stream power usually occur in Mediterranean regions. This is mainly ascribed to the larger peak discharges that characterize flash floods in these regions. The variability of unit stream power with catchment area is clearly nonlinear and has been represented by log-quadratic relations. The values of catchment area at which maximum values of unit stream power occur show relevant differences among the studied floods and are linked to the spatial scale of the events. Values of stream power are generally consistent with observed geomorphic changes in the studied cross sections: bedrock channels show the highest values of unit stream power but no visible erosion, whereas major erosion has been observed in alluvial channels. Exceptions to this general pattern, which mostly occur in semi-alluvial cross sections, urge the recognition of local or event-specific conditions that increase the resistance of channel bed and

  10. Flash flood warning based on fully dynamic hydrology modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejanovic, Goran; Petkovic, Slavko; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Nickovic, Slobodan

    2016-04-01

    Numerical hydrologic modeling has achieved limited success in the past due to, inter alia, lack of adequate input data. Over the last decade, data availability has improved substantially. For modelling purposes, high-resolution data on topography, river routing, and land cover and soil features have meanwhile become available, as well as the observations such as radar precipitation information. In our study, we have implemented the HYPROM model (Hydrology Prognostic Model) to predict a flash flood event at a smaller-scale basin in Southern Serbia. HYPROM is based on the full set of governing equations for surface hydrological dynamics, in which momentum components, along with the equation of mass continuity, are used as full prognostic equations. HYPROM also includes a river routing module serving as a collector for the extra surface water. Such approach permits appropriate representation of different hydrology scales ranging from flash floods to flows of large and slow river basins. The use of full governing equations, if not appropriately parameterized, may lead to numerical instability systems when the surface water in a model is vanishing. To resolve these modelling problems, an unconditionally stable numerical scheme and a method for height redistribution avoiding shortwave height noise have been developed in HYPROM, which achieve numerical convergence of u, v and h when surface water disappears. We have applied HYPROM, driven by radar-estimated precipitation, to predict flash flooding occurred over smaller and medium-size river basins. Two torrential rainfall cases have been simulated to check the accuracy of the model: the exceptional flooding of May 2014 in Western Serbia, and the convective flash flood of January 2015 in Southern Serbia. The second episode has been successfully predicted by HYPROM in terms of timing and intensity six hours before the event occurred. Such flash flood warning system is in preparation to be operationally implemented in the

  11. Effect of color of flash stimulus on variability of flash visual evoked potential latencies.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Gaur, Giriwar Singh; Narayan, Sunil K

    2012-01-01

    Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs) are evoked potentials generated in response to visual stimuli. The flash VEP (FVEP) is used less frequently than pattern-reversal VEP (PR-VEP) because; it shows great variations in both latency and amplitude in normal subjects. The advantage of FVEP is its feasibility in non-cooperative subjects, which circumvents the major limitation of PR-VEP. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of change of color of flashlight on variability of FVEP latencies. Healthy subjects in the age group of 18-30 years underwent the standard stimulus using white light, followed by altered stimuli done with red and blue light. 2 trials were given for each eye, for each type of stimulus. The same set of studies was repeated at the same clock time the following day. The inter-individual and intra-individual variability in the peak latency of P2 and N2 waveforms was assessed using coefficient of variation (COV). Both inter-individual and intra-individual variability was less when monochromatic light was used. Between red and blue FVEP, inter-individual variability was less in blue FVEP and the results of intra-individual variability was inconclusive. Monochromatic stimulation preferably with blue light reduced both inter-individual and intra-individual variability seen in latency of P2 and N2 waveforms in FVEP and hence recommended in preference to standard white stimulus for FVEP recording.

  12. Decision-Making and Thought Processes among Poker Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Germain, Joseph; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at delineating decision-making and thought processing among poker players who vary in skill-level. Forty-five participants, 15 in each group, comprised expert, intermediate, and novice poker players. They completed the Computer Poker Simulation Task (CPST) comprised of 60 hands of No-Limit Texas Hold 'Em. During the CPST, they…

  13. Gender Differences in Coping among Elite Table Tennis Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirimoglu, Huseyin

    2011-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the explanatory power of social support and coping in relation to a competitive sport event between male and female table tennis players. 246 university students table tennis players (120 men and 126 women) from different region and part of Turkey were invited to participate in a survey study included the…

  14. Space-Derived Transparency: Players, Policies, Implications, and Synergies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Dr. Florini�s idealistic definition, transparency today is at best a mix of � legislated � voluntary and involuntary disclosure by states, private...SPACE-DERIVED TRANSPARENCY : PLAYERS, POLICIES, IMPLICATIONS, AND SYNERGIES BY C. J. KINNAN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE...to) - Title and Subtitle Space-Derived Transparency : Players, Policies, Implicatons, and Synergies Contract Number Grant Number Program Element

  15. Differences in Soccer Kick Kinematics between Blind Players and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p less than 0.05) ball…

  16. The Mental Skills Training of University Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Hassan; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd-Sofian; Jamalis, Marjohan; Ab-Latif, Rozita; Cheric, Majid Chahrdah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the kind of mental skills training needed most by the university soccer players. Eight male university football players (aged 25 to 36) from one large university in Kuala Lumpur agreed to participate in this study. On average, they have 10 years of playing experience. All of them have signed the informed…

  17. Relative risk for concussions in young female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Strand, Sarah; Lechuga, David; Zachariah, Thomas; Beaulieu, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative risk and reported symptoms of concussions in 11- to 13-year-old, female soccer players. For this, a survey to compare the reported incidence of concussion in age-matched female soccer players to nonsoccer players was performed. The survey included 342 girls between the ages of 11 and 13: 195 were involved in an organized soccer team and 147 were not involved in organized soccer but were allowed to participate in any other sport or activity. A total of 94 of the 195 soccer players, or 48%, reported at least one symptom consistent with a concussion. The most prevalent symptom for these girls was headache (84%). A total of 34 of the 147 nonsoccer players, or 23%, reported at least one symptom consistent with a concussion in the previous six months. These results determined that the relative risk of probable concussions among 11- to 13-year-old, female soccer players is 2.09 (p < .001, α = .05, CI = 95%). This demonstrates that the relative risk of probable concussions in young female soccer players is significantly higher than in a control group of nonsoccer players of the same sex and age.

  18. Labor Market Structure and Salary Determination among Professional Basketball Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)

  19. Flash memory management system and method utilizing multiple block list windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, James (Inventor); Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a flash memory management system and method with increased performance. The flash memory management system provides the ability to efficiently manage and allocate flash memory use in a way that improves reliability and longevity, while maintaining good performance levels. The flash memory management system includes a free block mechanism, a disk maintenance mechanism, and a bad block detection mechanism. The free block mechanism provides efficient sorting of free blocks to facilitate selecting low use blocks for writing. The disk maintenance mechanism provides for the ability to efficiently clean flash memory blocks during processor idle times. The bad block detection mechanism provides the ability to better detect when a block of flash memory is likely to go bad. The flash status mechanism stores information in fast access memory that describes the content and status of the data in the flash disk. The new bank detection mechanism provides the ability to automatically detect when new banks of flash memory are added to the system. Together, these mechanisms provide a flash memory management system that can improve the operational efficiency of systems that utilize flash memory.

  20. National survey of spinal injuries in hockey players.

    PubMed Central

    Tator, C. H.; Edmonds, V. E.

    1984-01-01

    There has been an alarming increase in the number of spinal injuries in hockey players. Between 1976 and 1983, 42 were reported to the Committee on Prevention of Spinal Injuries due to Hockey. The median age of the injured players was 17 years. Of the 42 players 28 had spinal cord injuries, and 17 of them had complete paralysis below the vertebral level of the injury. Strikes from behind and collisions with the boards were common mechanisms of injury. Many of the players had suffered a burst fracture of the cervical spine following a blow to the top of the helmet when the neck was slightly flexed. The committee studied a number of possible etiologic factors and made several recommendations regarding prevention. League officials, coaches, players and equipment manufacturers can all play a role in prevention. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6704840

  1. Cosmic X-ray Flashes Reveal Their Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    Astronomers using X-ray, radio, and optical telescopes have announced a big leap in solving the origin of mysterious objects known as X-ray flashes (XRFs) by finding that they originate from blue star forming galaxies. This discovery of the cosmic distance scale effectively ends the widely-held speculation that XRFs are the death-cries from stars exploding in the infant universe. X-ray flashes resemble a lower energy and longer-duration version of a gamma-ray burst, an energetic explosion thought to signal the death of a massive star. The properties of XRFs led to speculation that they were gamma-ray bursts that occurred less than a few billion years after the Big Bang, and whose light had been subsequently weakened and time-stretched by the expansion of the universe. "Now that the very distant origin has been ruled out, X-ray flashes could be due to exploding massive stars, just like gamma-ray bursts" explained Dr. Joshua Bloom at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., lead author on the paper announcing the results to be published in The Astrophysical Journal. Bloom continued: "But the explosion from an X-ray flash would need to contain less matter or less energy than a typical gamma-ray burst. Alternatively, X-ray flashes could be gamma-ray bursts viewed off-axis." These results are being discussed at the "30th Anniversary of the Discovery of Gamma-ray Bursts" conference currently being held in Sante Fe, New Mexico. The location of the sources studied by Bloom's group required a careful coordination of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope, along with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array (VLA) in Socorro, New Mexico. Chandra and the VLA provided a precise location of the fading X-ray and radio "afterglow" of two X-ray flashes known as XRF 011030 and XRF 020427. The Hubble Space Telescope was used to identify and study galaxies at these locations and estimate their distances to between

  2. Hypnotic relaxation therapy for treatment of hot flashes following prostate cancer surgery: a case study.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Gary R; Kendrick, Cassie; Koep, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This case study reports on a 69-year-old African American male who presented with hot flashes following a diagnosis of prostate cancer and subsequent prostatectomy. Measures include both self-reported and physiologically measured hot flash frequency and sleep quality. The intervention involved 7 weekly sessions of hypnotic relaxation therapy directed toward alleviation of hot flashes. Posttreatment self-reported hot flashes decreased 94%; physiologically measured hot flashes decreased 100%; and sleep quality improved 87.5%. At week 12, both self-reported and physiologically measured hot flashes decreased 95% and sleep quality improved 37.5% over baseline, suggesting hypnotic relaxation therapy may be an effective intervention for men with hot flashes following treatment for prostate cancer.

  3. Obtaining the Grobner Initialization for the Ground Flash Fraction Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solakiewicz, R.; Attele, R.; Koshak, W.

    2011-01-01

    At optical wavelengths and from the vantage point of space, the multiple scattering cloud medium obscures one's view and prevents one from easily determining what flashes strike the ground. However, recent investigations have made some progress examining the (easier, but still difficult) problem of estimating the ground flash fraction in a set of N flashes observed from space In the study by Koshak, a Bayesian inversion method was introduced for retrieving the fraction of ground flashes in a set of flashes observed from a (low earth orbiting or geostationary) satellite lightning imager. The method employed a constrained mixed exponential distribution model to describe the lightning optical measurements. To obtain the optimum model parameters, a scalar function of three variables (one of which is the ground flash fraction) was minimized by a numerical method. This method has formed the basis of a Ground Flash Fraction Retrieval Algorithm (GoFFRA) that is being tested as part of GOES-R GLM risk reduction.

  4. High-speed video and electric field observation of upward flashes in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, Marcelo M. F.; Schumann, Carina; Ferro, Marco A. S.; Paiva, Amanda R.; Jaques, Robson; Warner, Tom A.

    2015-04-01

    Upward flashes from tall towers in Brazil have been observed since January 2012. They have been responsible for damages on equipment installed nearby tall structures that caused their initiation. Almost all upward flashes were observed with high-speed cameras and electric field sensors; a combination of measurements that provides a very accurate classification and characterization of their properties. Although present during all seasons, upward flashes are predominant during summer. They are almost always initiated by a preceding positive cloud-to-ground flash. This study is based on an up-to-date database of 86 upward flashes observed during the last three years. The main characteristics described in this work are: time interval between triggering event and the upward leader initiation, characteristics of the triggering +CG flashes, upward leader characteristics (polarity, presence of recoil leaders and branching), initial continuous current (duration, presence of pulses and recoil leaders), flash duration and presence of subsequence of return stroke.

  5. Influence of players' physique on rugby football injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A J; Myers, J L; Garraway, W M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there is an association between a player's physique and injuries incurred while playing rugby football. METHODS: A cohort study was carried out involving all senior rugby clubs in the Scottish Borders during the 1993-1994 rugby season. Somatotype estimates were determined for 1152 (95%) of the 1216 eligible players. Body mass index (BMI), chest to waist ratio, and the ponderal index (PI) were used to classify players' physique as endomorphic (obese), mesomorphic (muscular), and ectomorphic (linear). RESULTS: A strong association was found between physique and age (chi 2 test: chi 2 = 317.2, df = 10, P < 0.0001). More younger players were ectomorphs. Older players were more often endomorphic. The physiques of forwards and backs were significantly different (chi 2 test: chi 2 = 58.6, df = 2, P < 0.0001), with forwards being of a heavier build than three-quarters, even after adjustment for age. Endomorphic players were more likely than ectomorphs to be injured in a match after adjustment for age (age-adjusted mean BMI for players who were injured in a match was 25.4 compared with 24.6 for players who were not injured in a match, P < 0.0001; adjusted chest to waist ratio means were 1.136 and 1.125 respectively, P = 0.0307; adjusted PI means were 0.414 and 0.417 respectively, P = 0.0056). Increased risk of injury may occur when players play out of position, since one fifth of all injuries occurred in this circumstance. CONCLUSIONS: Further research needs to be conducted using a more objective method of measuring somatotype on a further cohort of players so that the risk of injury for different body types can be examined more closely and related to other potential confounding factors. The level of increased risk for individuals playing out of their usual playing position needs to be established with a greater degree of certainty. PMID:9192128

  6. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  7. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  8. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  9. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  10. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  11. Flash Heating of Crustal Rocks at Seismic Slip Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsby, D. L.; Spagnuolo, E.; Smith, S. A.; Beeler, N. M.; Tullis, T. E.; Di Toro, G.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2012-12-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that rocks undergo extreme frictional weakening at near-earthquake slip rates due to the thermal degradation of the strength, or even melting, of microscopic asperity contacts on their sliding surfaces (Goldsby and Tullis, 2012). These previous experiments, conducted at constant normal stress and slip rates of up to ~0.4 m/s, revealed a 1/V dependence of friction on slip rate above a characteristic weakening velocity, Vw, in accord with theories of flash heating (e.g., Rice, 2006). The weakening velocity obtains values of ~0.1 m/s for many crustal silicate rocks (Goldsby and Tullis, 2012). Here we test two further predictions of flash-heating theory - that the degree of weakening saturates at slip rates approaching 1 m/s, and that the weakening behavior due to flash heating is independent of normal stress - by testing samples at slip rates of up to 1 m/s at different normal stresses. Experiments were conducted in a 1-atm, high-velocity friction apparatus at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Rome. A sample consisted of a pair of hollow cylinders of Westerly granite or Frederick diabase subjected to a nominally constant normal stress of from 1 to 30 MPa and subjected to a variety of rate-stepping sequences. Data were acquired at rates of up to 1 MHz. As predicted, the experiments demonstrate that the degree of weakening due to flash heating saturates at slip rates approaching 1 m/s; in a few cases, friction even increases slightly with increasing slip rate near 1 m/s. The experiments also demonstrate that, within the scatter of the data, the value of Vw and the friction coefficient in the weakened state is independent of normal stress, the expected result if average contact sizes and contact stresses are independent of normal stress. The data thus further corroborate existing theories and experimental data for flash heating, allowing for a more reliable determination of the conditions under which flash heating

  12. Charge Trapping Flash Memory With High-k Dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, Dong Seog

    2011-12-01

    High capacity and affordable price of flash memory make portable electronic devices popular, which in turn stimulates the further scaling down effort of the flash memory cells. Indeed the flash memory cells have been scaling down aggressively and face several crucial challenges. As a result, the technology trend is shifting from the floating-gate cell to the charge-trap cell in order to overcome fatal interference problems between cells. There are critical problems in the charge-trap memory cell which will become main-stream in the near future. The first potential problem is related to the memory retention which is degraded by the charge leakage through thin tunnel dielectrics. The second is the reduction of charge-storage capacity in the scaled down SiN trapping layer. The third is the low operation-efficiency resulting from the methods used to solve the first two problems. Using high-k tunnel dielectrics can solve the first problem. The second problem can be overcome by adopting a high-k trapping dielectric. The dielectric constant of the blocking layer must be higher than those of the tunnel dielectric and the trapping dielectric in order to maintain operation efficiency. This dissertation study is focused on adopting high-k dielectrics in all three of the aforementioned layers for figure generations of flash memory technology. For the high-k tunnel dielectric, the MAD Si3N4 and the MAD Al2O3 are used to fabricate the MANNS structure and the MANAS structure. The MANNS structure has the advantage of reducing the erase voltage due to its low barrier height for holes. In addition, the retention characteristic of the MANAS structure is not sensitive to temperature. The reason is that the carrier transport in MAD Al2O3 is dominated by F-N tunneling, which is nearly independent of temperature. Adopting TiOx as the trapping dielectric forms the MATAS structure. Although the charge capacity of TiOx is not very high, the operating voltage can be reduced to less than 10V

  13. Audition influences color processing in the sound-induced visual flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Jyoti; Martinez, Antigona; Hillyard, Steven A

    2013-12-18

    Multisensory interactions can lead to illusory percepts, as exemplified by the sound-induced extra flash illusion (SIFI: Shams, Kamitani, & Shimojo, 2000, 2002). In this illusion, an audio-visual stimulus sequence consisting of two pulsed sounds and a light flash presented within a 100 ms time window generates the visual percept of two flashes. Here, we used colored visual stimuli to investigate whether concurrent auditory stimuli can affect the perceived features of the illusory flash. Zero, one or two pulsed sounds were presented concurrently with either a red or green flash or with two flashes of different colors (red followed by green) in rapid sequence. By querying both the number and color of the participants' visual percepts, we found that the double flash illusion is stimulus specific: i.e., two sounds paired with one red or one green flash generated the percept of two red or two green flashes, respectively. This implies that the illusory second flash is induced at a level of visual processing after perceived color has been encoded. In addition, we found that the presence of two sounds influenced the integration of color information from two successive flashes. In the absence of any sounds, a red and a green flash presented in rapid succession fused to form a single orange percept, but when accompanied by two sounds, this integrated orange percept was perceived to flash twice on a significant proportion of trials. In addition, the number of concurrent auditory stimuli modified the degree to which the successive flashes were integrated to an orange percept vs. maintained as separate red-green percepts. Overall, these findings show that concurrent auditory input can affect both the temporal and featural properties of visual percepts.

  14. Coach/player relationships in tennis.

    PubMed

    Prapavessis, H; Gordon, S

    1991-09-01

    The present study examined the variables that predict coach/athlete compatibility. Compatibility among a sample of 52 elite tennis coach/player dyads was assessed using a sport adapted version of Schutz's (1966) Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behaviour (FIRO-B), a sport adapted version of Fiedler's (1967) Least Preferred Co-worker scale (LPC), and Chelladurai and Saleh's (1980) Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS). Self-ratings of the quality of the interaction were obtained from both coach and athlete. Multiple-regression analyses using self-rating scores as the dependent measure were carried out to determine which variables best predicted the degree of compatibility. The sole inventory that significantly predicted compatibility was the LSS. More specifically, the discrepancy between the athlete's preferences and perceptions on the autocratic dimension was the best predictor. Implications for tennis coaches and recommendations for future research in this area are discussed.

  15. Iliopsoas haematoma in an adolescent Taekwondo player.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, N; So, W S; Ahuja, A; Chan, K M

    1996-01-01

    A 16-year-old male Taekwondo player was admitted with a 1-day history of right groin pain and a palpable mass in the right lower abdominal quadrant following a Taekwondo training session. No history of direct trauma was given, but the pain followed a high inward-to-outward kick. The patient was not on any medication, and tumour and infection were excluded. A high-resolution real-time ultrasound scan identified a well-defined, hyperechoic, heterogeneous mass in the substance of the right iliopsoas muscle, compatible with a collection of partially clotted blood, confirming the clinical diagnosis of iliopsoas haematoma. After conservative treatment the patient resumed training and is now fully asymptomatic.

  16. Histone variants: emerging players in cancer biology

    PubMed Central

    Vardabasso, Chiara; Hasson, Dan; Ratnakumar, Kajan; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Duarte, Luis F.

    2014-01-01

    Histone variants are key players in shaping chromatin structure, and, thus, in regulating fundamental cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene expression. Emerging evidence points towards a role for histone variants in contributing to tumor progression, and, recently, the first cancer-associated mutation in a histone variant-encoding gene was reported. In addition, genetic alterations of the histone chaperones that specifically regulate chromatin incorporation of histone variants are rapidly being uncovered in numerous cancers. Collectively, these findings implicate histone variants as potential drivers of cancer initiation and/or progression, and, therefore, targeting histone deposition or the chromatin remodeling machinery may be of therapeutic value. Here, we review the mammalian histone variants of the H2A and H3 families in their respective cellular functions, and their involvement in tumor biology. PMID:23652611

  17. Musculoskeletal profile of male collegiate soccer players.

    PubMed

    Agre, J C; Baxter, T L

    1987-03-01

    Twenty-five collegiate soccer players were evaluated for lower extremity flexibility and muscle strength at the end of preseason training and before the onset of the collegiate soccer season on two successive seasons. The purpose of the evaluation was to determine whether symmetry was present in their legs and whether deficits in flexibility or strength would affect the susceptibility to hamstring or groin muscle strain injuries. The mean (+/- SE) flexibility of the dominant leg for hip abduction was 41 degrees +/- 1.2 degree; for hip flexion, 76 degrees +/- 1.9 degree; for hip extension, 174 degrees +/- 0.7 degree; and for ankle dorsiflexion, 33 degrees +/- 1.3 degree. The mean (+/- SE) isokinetic torque of the dominant leg (tested at 30 degrees per second) for knee extension was 214 +/- 8 newton meters and for flexion was 128 +/- 4 newton meters, while isometric strength for hip flexion was 315 +/- 8 newtons and for ankle plantar flexion was 1721 +/- 58 newtons. No significant differences were found between the dominant and nondominant legs in flexibility or strength. During this study no hamstring or groin strain injuries occurred. The lack of leg muscle strain injuries appeared to be directly related to the initiation of a controlled warmup and stretching program and underlines the importance of this in injury prevention. Interestingly, more than 50% (13 of 25) of the players were found to have significant deficits in one or more specific muscle groups. Two athletes sustained low back strain injuries and one athlete had a knee sprain injury.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. University Football Players, Postural Stability, and Concussions.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara Sue

    2016-02-01

    Concussion in football athletes is certainly more prevalent and has potentially serious outcomes. With current concerns and increasing return-to-play issues, additional assessment focus is needed. Division 1 college football athletes, from 18 to 20.9 years (n = 177; age, 19.7 ± 1.2 years; height, 182.3 ± 4.5 cm; weight, 97.3 ± 10.6 kg), before fall practice, over a period of 3 years, underwent baseline postural stability testing (sensory organization test [SOT], NeuroCom). Individuals, who were diagnosed with a concussion (headache, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, or loss of consciousness) during practice or actual competition (n = 15; age, 18.9 ± 0.9 years; height, 181.8 ± 2.5 cm; weight, 86.6 ± 3.6 kg), underwent serial evaluation after injury and 24 hours after concussion. As soon as the player was considered asymptomatic, the test was completed on the first and 14th day. A control group of noninjured male athletes (n = 15; age, 19.1 ± 0.4 years; height, 178.2 ± 3.2 cm; weight, 78.6 ± 2.1 kg) were tested for the same time frame. This particular study was only one part of the total evaluation conducted for the concussed athlete's return to play. Results indicated that the concussion group had a statistically significant (p = 0.037) change from their baseline SOT score and the control group (p = 0.025). This change remained significant until day 14 of posttesting. These data indicate that the SOT, when available, may be a positive additional assessment of concussed college-aged football players. Professionals, when dealing with concussion in competitive sports, do need to continue to work together, but awareness of SOT assessments may also contribute to the return-to-play decisions.

  19. Performance demands of professional male tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C D

    2006-01-01

    Objective To quantify the performance demands in professional male tennis. Methods Games from three grand slam tournaments were analysed by an elite tennis player from video recordings. Game related data were collected on 22 players (French Open, 8 (186 games); Wimbledon, 11 (206 games); US Open, 9 (224 games)). Total number of strokes per game was quantified separately for service and return games. Strokes were categorised by type and designated as forehand or backhand. Differences in the types of strokes in a game were analysed using one factor (type of stroke) repeated measures analysis of variance. Differences in total strokes and stroke distributions between playing surfaces were analysed by analysis of variance (surface type) with Tukey's post hoc pairwise comparisons. Results For service games there were more serves per game than any other type of stroke (p<0.001), with topspin forehand and topspin backhand the only other strokes averaging more than one per service game. For return games there were more forehand and backhand returns and topspin forehands and backhands than other types of stroke (p<0.01). Total number of strokes per game was greater in the French Open than Wimbledon (p<0.01), with more topspin forehands (p<0.01) and more topspin backhands (p<0.01). Total strokes per game in the US Open were not different from the other two tournaments. Conclusions The serve was the predominant stroke accounting for 45% (French Open) to 60% (Wimbledon) of strokes during service games. The greater number of strokes per game on clay v grass may contribute to earlier fatigue. PMID:16864564

  20. Cervical range of motion and proprioception in rugby players versus non-rugby players.

    PubMed

    Lark, Sally D; McCarthy, Peter W

    2007-06-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of number of years of playing rugby on neck function. Active cervical spine range of motion and proprioception were assessed in 14 non-rugby-playing but trained sportsmen (mean age 28 years, s = 7) and 46 rugby players (26 rugby forwards: mean age 26 years, s = 5; mean years played 14 years; 20 backs: mean age 24 years, s = 5; mean years played 14 years). Active cervical range of motion in flexion, extension, left and right lateral flexion, plus left and right rotation were measured using a cervical range of motion device. The ability to reposition the head in a central position with eyes closed was taken as a measure of proprioception. Results show that rugby forwards generally had the least active cervical range of motion, particularly neck extension (forwards, 43 degrees ; backs, 55 degrees ; controls, 58 degrees ), with the decrement correlating with the number of years played. In addition, repositioning was significantly worse in rugby players after neck extension than non-rugby players (6 degrees vs. 3 degrees ). The active cervical range of motion of rugby forwards is similar to that of whiplash patients, suggesting that participation in rugby can have an effect on neck range of motion that is equivalent to chronic disability. Reduced active cervical range of motion could also increase the likelihood of injury and exacerbate age-related neck problems.

  1. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGFs) Above Thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are being observed with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) detectors on Fermi about once every four weeks. These intense millisecond flashes of MeV photons have been observed with four space-borne experiments since their initial discovery by the BATSE-CGRO experiment in the early 1990s. TGFs have extremely hard spectra (harder than GRBs) and photons are seen to extend to over 30 MeV. The GBM-Fermi observations have the highest temporal resolution of any previous TGF observations and time-resolved coarse spectra can be derived. These features will be crucial for testing the leading current model of TGF production: relativistic run-away electron cascades formed in the intense electric fields within thunderstorms.

  2. Flash characteristics of plasma induced by hypervelocity impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Long, Renrong; Zhang, Qingming; Xue, Yijiang; Ju, Yuanyuan

    2016-08-01

    Using a two-stage light gas gun, a series of hypervelocity impact experiments was conducted in which 6.4-mm-diameter spherical 2024-aluminum projectiles impact 23-mm-thick targets made of the same material at velocities of 5.0, 5.6, and 6.3 km/s. Both an optical pyrometer composed of six photomultiplier tubes and a spectrograph were used to measure the flash of the plasma during hypervelocity impact. Experimental results show that, at a projectile velocity of 6.3 km/s, the strong flash lasted about 10 μs and reached a temperature of 4300 K. Based on the known emission lines of AL I, spectral methods can provide the plasma electron temperature. An electron-temperature comparison between experiment and theoretical calculation indicates that single ionization and secondary ionization are the two main ionizing modes at velocities 5.0-6.3 km/s.

  3. Mechanistic model for void distribution in flashing flow

    SciTech Connect

    Riznic, J.; Ishii, M.; Afgan, N.

    1987-01-01

    A problem of discharging of an initially subcooled liquid from a high pressure condition into a low pressure environment is quite important in several industrial systems such as nuclear reactors and chemical reactors. A new model for the flashing process is proposed here based on the wall nucleation theory, bubble growth model and drift-flux bubble transport model. In order to calculate the bubble number density, the bubble number transport equation with a distributed source from the wall nucleation sites is used. The model predictions in terms of the void fraction are compared to Moby Dick and BNL experimental data. It shows that satisfactory agreements could be obtained from the present model without any floating parameter to be adjusted with data. This result indicates that, at least for the experimental conditions considered here, the mechanistic prediction of the flashing phenomenon is possible based on the present wall nucleation based model. 43 refs., 4 figs.

  4. A flash photographic method for droplet impingement studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, V.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes an experimental method to visualize the impingement process of a liquid droplet onto a solid surface with sufficient clarity to reveal fine details of the droplet surface structure and rim jet produced during the impingement process. The method incorporates a 35 mm SLR camera with bellows, motor drive, macro lens, backlighting by a short duration flash lamp, diffusers and a commercially available timing control unit to trigger the flash. Results using the experimental arrangement are demonstrated for a water droplet striking a horizontal surface at a velocity of about 1 m/s, though the photographic method may be applied to any other condition and liquid. A series of photographs are presented that show the repeatability of the impingement process, image clarity, surface structure of the droplet during impingement.

  5. Proton irradiation effects on 2Gb flash memory

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, William; Nelson, Charles; Marriner, John

    2004-08-18

    The authors report total ionizing dose and single event effects on 2Gb Samsung flash memory devices after exposure to 200 MeV protons to various doses up to 83 krad(Si). They characterize observed failures and single event upsets on 22 devices from two different lots. Devices from both lots are robust to greater than 20 krad(Si) although they see evidence for lot-to-lot variation where only one lot appears robust up to about 50 krad(Si). Single event upsets are observed at a relatively low rate and are consistent with single isolated bit flips within registers that transfer bits to and from the flash memory cells.

  6. On the generation of umbral flashes and running penumbral waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    From a review of the observed properties of umbral flashes and running penumbral waves it is proposed that the source of these periodic phenomena is the oscillatory convection which Danielson and Savage (1968) and Savage (1969) have shown is likely to occur in the superadiabatic subphotospheric layers of sunspot umbras. Periods and growth rates are computed for oscillatory modes arising in a simple two-layer model umbra. The results suggest that umbral flashes result from disturbances produced by oscillatory convection occurring in the upper subphotospheric layer of the umbra, where the superadiabatic temperature gradient is much enhanced over that in lower layers, while running penumbral waves are due to oscillations in a layer just below this upper layer.

  7. Lignin Sensor Based On Flash-Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwack, Eug Y.; Lawson, Daniel D.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy

    1990-01-01

    New lignin sensor takes only few minutes to measure lignin content of specimen of wood, pulp, paper, or similar material. Includes flash pyrolizer and ion-trap detector that acts as mass spectrometer. Apparatus measures amount of molecular fragments of lignin in pyrolysis products of samples. Helpful in controlling digestors in paper mills to maintain required lignin content, and also in bleaching plants, where good control of bleaching becomes possible if quick determination of lignin content made.

  8. Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Kippen, R. M.; vonKienlin, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Smith, D. M.; Holzworth, R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation explores the relationship between Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGF) and lightning. Using data from the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), and the gamma ray observations from Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), the study reviews any causal relationship between TGFs and lightning. The conclusion of the study is that the TGF and lightning are simultaneous with out a causal relationship.

  9. The significance of the solid transport during flash floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodor, Sorin

    2010-05-01

    The increase in intensity of the torrential rains in Romania as a direct consequence of global warming has triggered the formation of flash floods especially in small and very small river basins leading to important losses, both in terms of human lives and material goods. The paper "The significance of the solid transport during flash floods" focuses on a few flash floods that developed over very short periods of time, mainly between 2-4 hours that have taken place all over Romania, in various regions and landshapes of the country: Tecuel river in Barlad river basin, Grinties river in Bistricioara river basin, Sambata river in Olt river basin. These flash floods were started by heavy downpours that have fallen over small areas of land and mounted 100-130 l/sq m, generating liquid discharges with an exceeding probability of 1% to 0.5%. The important rainfall that affected the slopes of these river basins (mostly poorly covered with vegetation and especially forests) has generated important erosional processes that produced large quantitites of solid material which was eventually carried downstream by the water torrents. The high liquid discharges produced during such episodes made possible for large solid sediments to be transported, many of them having > 400 mm in diametre. These boulders blocked the natural flow of waters in the river bed leading to accumulation of important volumes of water behind the so-formed barriers and flooding the agricultural fields ,crops and households located in the nearby vicinity. In order to present this extreme phase of hydrological regime, the author has provided information regarding the meteorological and hydrological characteristics on the three rivers as well as an evaluation of the damaged produced. The photos that accompany the paper show very clear the effects that the transport of such big solid sediments had.

  10. The Role of Serotonin in Hot Flashes after Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    not clear whether benefits are due to physiological effects on hot flashes or due to improvements in mood or other related symptoms. In addition...flavorings were most palatable - chocolate mint and orange. We rejected a lemon flavoring as being unpalatable. We eliminated the mid-day snack per...glucose tablets. Mood was not significantly impacted. Hamilton Rating Scale-Depression scores remained < 18 at all time points and for both study

  11. Increased occurrence of lightning flashes in Sweden during 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Israelsson, S.; Schuette, T.; Pisler, E.; Lundquist, S.

    1987-09-20

    As a result of the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, USSR, a considerable increase in radioactive background radiation was noted in some regions of Sweden. In areas with high radioactive fallout an increase in the amount of lightning flashes was observed during the 1986 thunderstorm season. A statistical test shows that there is a risk of less than 1% that the observed difference has occurred by mere chance. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  12. Flash electroretinography in the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Sonia E; Hendrix, Diane V H; Sims, Michael H; Ward, Daniel A; Jones, Michael P; Baine, Katherine H

    2014-09-01

    Photopic and scotopic flash electroretinograms (fERGs) were done on 12 adult captive anesthetized bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) following a complete ophthalmic exam. The b-wave amplitude in the bald eagle exceeds that seen in other species when using a similar protocol. This data may be used clinically as a reference for bald eagles undergoing fERG evaluation for retinal disease or as a preoperative screening tool before phacoemulsification.

  13. Fluctuation theorem for the flashing ratchet model of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoste, D.; Mallick, K.

    2009-08-01

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy derived from the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into mechanical energy. A well-studied model of a molecular motor is the flashing ratchet model. We show that this model exhibits a fluctuation relation known as the Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry. Our study highlights the fact that the symmetry is present only if the chemical and mechanical degrees of freedom are both included in the description.

  14. Fluctuation theorem for the flashing ratchet model of molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Lacoste, D; Mallick, K

    2009-08-01

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy derived from the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into mechanical energy. A well-studied model of a molecular motor is the flashing ratchet model. We show that this model exhibits a fluctuation relation known as the Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry. Our study highlights the fact that the symmetry is present only if the chemical and mechanical degrees of freedom are both included in the description.

  15. Parameters of triggered-lightning flashes in Florida and Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.J.; Schnetzer, G.H.; Thottappillil, R.; Rakov, V.A.; Uman, M.A.; Goldberg, J.D.

    1993-12-20

    Channel base currents from triggered lightning were measured at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during summer 1990 and at Fort McClellan, Alabama, during summer 1991. Additionally, 16-mm cinematic records with 3- or 5-ms resolution were obtained for all flashes, and streak camera records were obtained for three of the Florida flashes. The 17 flashes analyzed contained 69 strokes, all lowering negative charge from cloud to ground. Statistics on interstroke interval, no-current interstroke interval, total stroke duration, total stroke charge, total stroke action integral ({integral}i{sup 2}dt), return stroke current wave front characteristics, time to half peak value, and return stroke peak current are presented. Return stroke current pulses, characterized by rise times of the order of a few microseconds or less and peak values in the range of 4 to 38 kA, were found not to occur until after any preceding current at the bottom of the lightning channel fell below the noise level of less than 2 A. A relatively strong positive correlation was found between return stroke current average rate of rise and current peak. There was essentially no correlation between return stroke current peak and 10-90% rise time or between return stroke peak and the width of the current waveform at half of its peak value. Parameters of the lightning flashes triggered in Florida and Alabama are similar to each other but are different from those of triggered lightning recorded in New Mexico during the 1981 Thunderstorm Research International Program. Continuing currents that follow return stroke current peaks and last for more than 10 ms exhibit a variety of wave shapes that the authors have subdivided into four categories. All such continuing currents appear to start with a current pulse presumably associated with an M component. A brief summary of lightning parameters important for lightning protection, is presented in an appendix. 43 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Enabling smarter smart displays with solid state flash disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsur, Ofer

    2006-05-01

    This paper discusses data storage requirements for Smart displays which are based of a display with a single-board computer built into the casing. This paper evaluates the ability of three of the most popular COTS data storage solutions - mechanical disk, ruggedized mechanical disk and solid-state flash disk - to meet these requirements today and in the future. It addresses issues of capacity, data reliability, endurance, form factor, cost and security features.

  17. OTD Observations of Continental US Ground Flashes Detected by NLDN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Boccippio, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    Lightning optical flash parameters (e.g., radiance, area, duration, number of optical groups, and number of optical events) derived from almost 5 yrs of Optical Transient Detector (OTD) data are compared with peak current and multiplicity observations derived from the US National Lightning Detection Networkm (NLDN). Despite the relatively low lightning geolocation accuracy afforded by OTD, a total of 48,870 NLDN cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes were correlated with OTD flashes, or about 10,000 CGs per year. The median values of the above OTD flash parameters for the 48,870 CGs were, respectively: 0.137 J/square meters/sr/micrometers, 313.7 square kilometers, 0.189 s, 4 optical groups per CG, and 8 optical events per CG. Invoking the multiplicity data, the median number of optical groups per stroke was 2.5, and the median number of optical events per stroke was 5.0. Median values of peak current for negative and positive CGs were -21.6 kA and 17.8 kA, respectively, and as expected, the negative CGs had a larger average multiplicity than the positive CGs. A statistical summary is provided for all CGs, for positive and negative CGs, and for CGs from different seasons. Standard two-distribution hypothesis tests were perfonned to intercompare the population means of the various lightning parameters. In particular, and to greater than the 99% confidence level, it was found that positive CGs are on average more radiant, of greater areal extent, and are longer lasting than negative CGs. Rankings from a complete set of hypothesis tests between CGs of different polarities and from different seasons are also provided. Most notably, wintertime positive CGs tend to be more radiant, of greater areal extent, and longer lasting than any other group of CGs (i.e., negative springtime CGs, positive summertime CGs, etc.).

  18. Radiation Tests on 2Gb NAND Flash Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Duc N.; Guertin, Steven M.; Patterson, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    We report on SEE and TID tests of highly scaled Samsung 2Gbits flash memories. Both in-situ and biased interval irradiations were used to characterize the response of the total accumulated dose failures. The radiation-induced failures can be categorized as followings: single event upset (SEU) read errors in biased and unbiased modes, write errors, and single-event-functional-interrupt (SEFI) failures.

  19. Nutrition and hydration concerns of the female football player.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2007-08-01

    There is little information on the nutritional habits of female football players at any level of the game. There is also a shortage of information on the nutrition and hydration strategies that players should adopt. In general, differences in nutritional needs between males and females are smaller than differences between individuals, so that principles developed for male players also apply to women. There is a need to address energy balance and body composition: prolonged energy deficits cannot be sustained without harm to health and performance. Published reports show mean carbohydrate intakes for female players of about 5 g/kg/day, and this seems to be too low to sustain consistent intensive training. The timing of protein intake may be as important as the amounts consumed, provided that the total intake is adequate. Dehydration adversely affects skill and stamina in women as it does in men, so an individualised hydration strategy should be developed. The prevalence of iron deficiency in women generally is high, but it seems to be alarmingly high in female players. All players should adopt dietary habits that ensure adequate iron intake. Football training seems to increase bone mass in the weight-bearing limbs, with positive implications for bone health in later life, but some players may be at risk from inadequate calcium dietary intake.

  20. Tracking of ball and players in beach volleyball videos.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Gabriel; Herrera López, Patricia; Link, Daniel; Eskofier, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents methods for the determination of players' positions and contact time points by tracking the players and the ball in beach volleyball videos. Two player tracking methods are compared, a classical particle filter and a rigid grid integral histogram tracker. Due to mutual occlusion of the players and the camera perspective, results are best for the front players, with 74,6% and 82,6% of correctly tracked frames for the particle method and the integral histogram method, respectively. Results suggest an improved robustness against player confusion between different particle sets when tracking with a rigid grid approach. Faster processing and less player confusions make this method superior to the classical particle filter. Two different ball tracking methods are used that detect ball candidates from movement difference images using a background subtraction algorithm. Ball trajectories are estimated and interpolated from parabolic flight equations. The tracking accuracy of the ball is 54,2% for the trajectory growth method and 42,1% for the Hough line detection method. Tracking results of over 90% from the literature could not be confirmed. Ball contact frames were estimated from parabolic trajectory intersection, resulting in 48,9% of correctly estimated ball contact points.

  1. Throwing speed and accuracy in baseball and cricket players.

    PubMed

    Freeston, Jonathan; Rooney, Kieron

    2014-06-01

    Throwing speed and accuracy are both critical to sports performance but cannot be optimized simultaneously. This speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO) is evident across a number of throwing groups but remains poorly understood. The goal was to describe the SATO in baseball and cricket players and determine the speed that optimizes accuracy. 20 grade-level baseball and cricket players performed 10 throws at 80% and 100% of maximal throwing speed (MTS) toward a cricket stump. Baseball players then performed a further 10 throws at 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of MTS toward a circular target. Baseball players threw faster with greater accuracy than cricket players at both speeds. Both groups demonstrated a significant SATO as vertical error increased with increases in speed; the trade-off was worse for cricketers than baseball players. Accuracy was optimized at 70% of MTS for baseballers. Throwing athletes should decrease speed when accuracy is critical. Cricket players could adopt baseball-training practices to improve throwing performance.

  2. Measurement of head impacts in youth ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Reed, N; Taha, T; Keightley, M; Duggan, C; McAuliffe, J; Cubos, J; Baker, J; Faught, B; McPherson, M; Montelpare, W

    2010-11-01

    Despite growing interest in the biomechanical mechanisms of sports-related concussion, ice hockey and the youth sport population has not been studied extensively. The purpose of this pilot study was: 1) to describe the biomechanical measures of head impacts in youth minor ice hockey players; and, 2) to investigate the influence of player and game characteristics on the number and magnitude of head impacts. Data was collected from 13 players from a single competitive Bantam boy's (ages 13-14 years) AAA ice hockey team using telemetric accelerometers implanted within the players' helmets at 27 ice hockey games. The average linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, Gadd Severity Index and Head Injury Criterion of head impacts were recorded. A significantly higher number of head impacts per player per game were found for wingers when compared to centre and defense player positions (df=355, t=3.087, p=0.00218) and for tournament games when compared to regular season and playoff games (df=355, t=2.641, p=0.086). A significant difference in rotational acceleration according to player position (F2,1812=4.9551, p=0.0071) was found. This study is an initial step towards a greater understanding of head impacts in youth ice hockey.

  3. Physical performance of elite and subelite Spanish female futsal players

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Arias, JA; Carrasco-Poyatos, M; Alcaraz, PE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the parameters distinguishing top female futsal players from lower level players. Twenty-seven female futsal players participated in the study, composed of professional first division (elite; n = 15) players and semi-professional second division players (sub-elite; n = 14). Active and passive straight leg raise tests, isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60° · s-1 angular velocity, squat and counter movement jumps, 30 m sprint, 30 m agility, repeated sprint ability test and maximum ball speed during shooting were measured. The elite players were more agile and kicked harder than sub-elite players in maximum ball speed during the shooting test (P ≤ 0.05). However, no significant differences between teams were observed in active and passive hamstring flexibility, jumping ability, repeated sprint ability test, 30 m sprint time, H/Q ratio and absolute and relative torque from 60° · s-1 angular velocity. Based on these findings we conclude that agility and maximum ball speed during shooting may be important determinant factors of Spanish female futsal actions and could distinguish ability at high-level games. PMID:27601786

  4. Physical and performance characteristics of successful high school football players.

    PubMed

    Williford, H N; Kirkpatrick, J; Scharff-Olson, M; Blessing, D L; Wang, N Z

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the performance and physiologic characteristics of a "successful" American high school football team, and to compare the present values with values reported for other groups of high school, college, and professional players. For descriptive purposes, players were divided into two groups: backs (N = 8) and linemen (N = 10). Maximal aerobic power (VO2max) was determined from a maximal treadmill test, and body composition was evaluated by hydrostatic weighing. Maximal strength values were evaluated by one-repetition maximum bench press and squat test; the sit-and-reach test was used to measure flexibility. Speed and power were evaluated by a vertical jump and a 36.6-meter sprint. Results indicate that compared with other groups of college and professional players, as the level of competition increases so do height, weight, and fat-free weight of the players. Similar maximum oxygen consumption values were found for the present group when compared with other groups of these players. From the strength and power standpoint, football players at all levels are becoming stronger. Incorporation of strength training programs has greatly improved strength and performance profiles of football players at all levels of competition.

  5. Active tuning of stroke-induced vibrations by tennis players.

    PubMed

    Chadefaux, Delphine; Rao, Guillaume; Androuet, Philippe; Berton, Eric; Vigouroux, Laurent

    2016-09-06

    This paper investigates how tennis players control stroke-induced vibration. Its aim is to characterise how a tennis player deals with entering vibration waves or how he/she has the ability to finely adjust them. A specific experimental procedure was designed, based on simultaneously collecting sets of kinematic, vibration and electromyographic data during forehand strokes using various commercial rackets and stroke intensities. Using 14 expert players, a wide range of excitations at spectral and temporal levels were investigated. Energetic and spectral descriptors of stroke-induced vibration occurring at the racket handle and at the player's wrist and elbow were computed. Results indicated that vibrational characteristics are strongly governed by grip force and to a lower extent by the racket properties. Grip force management drives the amount of energy, as well as its distribution, into the forearm. Furthermore, hand-grip can be assimilated to an adaptive filter which can significantly modify the spectral parameters propagating into the player's upper limb. A significant outcome is that these spectral characteristics are as much dependent on the player as on the racket. This contribution opens up new perspectives in equipment manufacture by underlining the need to account for player/racket interaction in the design process.

  6. Tracking of Ball and Players in Beach Volleyball Videos

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Gabriel; Herrera López, Patricia; Link, Daniel; Eskofier, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents methods for the determination of players' positions and contact time points by tracking the players and the ball in beach volleyball videos. Two player tracking methods are compared, a classical particle filter and a rigid grid integral histogram tracker. Due to mutual occlusion of the players and the camera perspective, results are best for the front players, with 74,6% and 82,6% of correctly tracked frames for the particle method and the integral histogram method, respectively. Results suggest an improved robustness against player confusion between different particle sets when tracking with a rigid grid approach. Faster processing and less player confusions make this method superior to the classical particle filter. Two different ball tracking methods are used that detect ball candidates from movement difference images using a background subtraction algorithm. Ball trajectories are estimated and interpolated from parabolic flight equations. The tracking accuracy of the ball is 54,2% for the trajectory growth method and 42,1% for the Hough line detection method. Tracking results of over 90% from the literature could not be confirmed. Ball contact frames were estimated from parabolic trajectory intersection, resulting in 48,9% of correctly estimated ball contact points. PMID:25426936

  7. Split-Step Timing of Professional and Junior Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Leskosek, Bojan; Filipcic, Tjasa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the study was to determine the timing of a split-step in three categories of tennis players in four groups of strokes. Subjects were divided into three groups: male and female junior, and male professional tennis players. During two tournaments, all matches were recorded with two fixed video cameras. For every stroke, the timing of the split-step between the opponent’s impact point when hitting the ball and the player’s split-step was measured. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the differences between groups of strokes, players and the interaction Player x Stroke Group. A Tukey post-hoc test was employed to determine specific differences. The results revealed differences between players in detecting the opponent’s movement, stroke and ball flight, which were reflected in different split-step timings. Each tennis player has his/her own timing mechanism which they adapt to various game situations. Response times differ significantly depending on the game situation. On average, they are the lowest in the serve, and then gradually rise from the return of the serve to baseline game, reaching the highest values in specific game situations. Players react faster in the first serve than in the second one and in the return of the serve, the response times are lower after the return of the second serve PMID:28210342

  8. Ignitron-driven soft flash x-ray generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagae, Michiaki; Sato, Eiichi; Ichimaru, Toshio; Obara, Haruo; Sakamaki, Kimio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu

    1997-12-01

    The fundamental study on a soft flash x-ray generator utilizing an ignitron is described. This generator consists of the following essential components: a high-voltage power supply, a high-voltage pulser having an ignitron, an oil diffusion pump, and a flash x-ray tube. The x-ray tube employs a molybdenum anode rod, a pipe-shaped carbon cathode, a polymethylmeth acrylate tube body, and a polyethylene terephthalate x-ray window. The space between the anode and the cathode electrodes (ac space) can be controlled by rotating the anode rod. The high-voltage condenser in the pulser is charged from 40 to 60 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the tube by the ignitron through a 2.0 m coaxial cable. Because the maximum anode voltage of the ignitron is 50 kV, a free-air gap switch is employed in order to increase the high-voltage durability. In the present work, the anode electrode is connected to the ground, and the negative high-voltage output is applied to the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The peak cathode voltage and tube current had values of minus 56 kV and 11.5 kA, respectively, with a charging voltage of 60 kV and an ac space of 6.0 mm, and the pulse widths were less than 300 ns.

  9. Rushton's paradox: rod dark adaptation after flash photolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, E N

    1975-01-01

    1. Rod dark adaptations after a photoregenerating flash and quantum-equivalent 30 sec bleach are found to be in exact agreement, while the measured rhodopsin regenerations are grossly different. This finding confirms and clarifies "Rushton's paradox', the failure of the Dowling-Rushton equation (linking log sensitivity linearly with unregenerated rhodopsin) to account for human rod dark adaptation after flash photolysis. 2. The hypothesis that the agreement between rod dark adaptation curves after a photoregenerating flash and after a quantum-equivalent 30 sec bleach is coincidental is rejected on the basic of two classes of experiments. 3. Rod "bleaching' adaptation is demonstrated to be entirely determined by the number of rhodopsin molecules which absorb at least one quantum in a temporal period T, whose range includes the time interval 600 musec less than or equal T less than or equal 30 sec. This generalization obtains over the entire scotopic energy range (congruent to 3 log units) where rod dark adaptations has been studied. 4. Thus, the state of "bleaching' adaptation is determined by some by-product of the normal chain of events in scotopic excitation. About this by-product three important deductions are made: (i) its production is a monotonic function of the initial effective quantum absorptions; (ii) its production occurs before the metarhodopsin I leads to to metarhodopsin II dark reaction; (iii) it cannot be any photoproduct of the rhodopsin cycle. PMID:1151791

  10. Infrared Contrast Analysis Technique for Flash Thermography Nondestructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the infrared flash thermography inspection to detect and analyze delamination-like anomalies in nonmetallic materials. It provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast verses time evolutions from the flash thermography infrared video data. The paper provides the analytical model used in the simulation of infrared image contrast. The contrast evolution simulation is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat bottom holes in the subject material. The paper also provides formulas to calculate values of the thermal measurement features from the measured contrast evolution curve. Many thermal measurement features of the contrast evolution that relate to the anomaly characteristics are calculated. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography inspection data in order to characterize the delamination-like anomalies. In addition, the contrast evolution prediction is matched to the measured anomaly contrast evolution to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width in terms of depth and diameter of the corresponding equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) or equivalent uniform gap (EUG). The paper provides anomaly edge detection technique called the half-max technique which is also used to estimate width of an indication. The EFBH/EUG and half-max width estimations are used to assess anomaly size. The paper also provides some information on the "IR Contrast" software application, half-max technique and IR Contrast feature imaging application, which are based on models provided in this paper.

  11. Flash spectroscopic studies of the kinetics of the halorhodopsin photocycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.; Vodyanoy, V.

    1986-01-01

    The photoreactions of halorhodopsin are complicated by the fact that the parent pigment and its photoproducts interact with chloride. Thus, in any photoreaction scheme at least four species have to be accounted for: HR565 and HR578 Cl-, as well as HR640 and HR520 Cl-. A photocycle scheme proposed earlier places the two main photointermediates of halorhodopsin, HR520 Cl- and HR640, into a single photocycle, with a chloride-dependent equilibrium between them [Oesterhelt, D., Hegemann, P., & Tittor, J. (1985) EMBO J. 4, 2351-2356]. This scheme, with the additional feature of direct photoproduction of HR640 from HR565, was tested in this work by using numerical solutions of the appropriate differential equations to simulate flash-induced absorption changes at 500 nm (production of HR520 Cl-) and at 660 nm (production of HR640). The time scale of the simulation was ms following the flash. Comparison of the simulated curves with experimental traces yielded a unique set of three rate constants. The proposed photocycle scheme and these rate constants predict well the shapes and amplitudes of flash traces at various chloride concentrations. It appears from the photocycle scheme, and the numerical values of rate constants, that chloride is bound with high affinity to the parent halorhodopsin molecule, but with much lower affinity to its main photointermediate. This may be the consequence of the fact that in the parent halorhodopsin in the retinal configuration is all-trans, but in the two photointermediates it is 13-cis.

  12. Electric Field Change Measurements of a Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Thomas; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Stolzenburg, Maribeth

    2016-04-01

    Cummer et al. [GRL, 2014] reported on two terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) detected by the Gamma ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi satellite. At a range of 632 km we detected an electric field change pulse associated with the first of these TGFs. The sensor bandwidth was 0.16 Hz - 2.6 MHz and was sampled at 5 MS/s. The measured zero-to-peak amplitude was 3.1 V/m. Assuming a 1/R range dependence, the amplitude range normalized to 100 km would be about 20 V/m. However, a little more than half of the path from the TGF to the sensor was over land rather than ocean, which should cause the attenuation to be greater than 1/R. Based on recent measurements of Kolmasova et al. (2015 AGU Fall Meeting), we estimate that the real peak amplitude was 40 - 50 V/m. The detected pulse was bipolar with a leading positive peak and had an overall duration of about 50 μs; these characteristics are typical of initial breakdown pulses (IBPs) that occur at the beginning of intracloud (IC) flashes. However, the pulse amplitude is an order of magnitude larger than typical IBPs. These data support the notion that IBPs of IC flashes cause TGFs [e.g., Shao et al., JGR 2010; Lu et al., GRL 2010; Cummer et al., GRL 2014].

  13. Sensitivity analysis of flash-flood modelling in Grenada, as a small island Caribbean states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratomo, R. A.

    2016-05-01

    Flash-flood is an unpredictable event, has a great and destructive power. Because of these characteristics, flash-flood gives the extremely dangerous impacts to society, infrastructures, and economic losses. In order to reduce those impacts, it is required to understand the uncertainty conditions in flash-flood susceptibility areas and prediction of the flash-flood impacts by conducting flash-flood modelling. One of the appropriate software to develop this model is OpenLISEM. This modelling is required in Gouyave and St. John's watershed, as the higher susceptible areas to flash-flood in Grenada. In order to get the best model's performance, an appropriate configuration of the model is required. Therefore, it is important to analyze the parameters that influence this model by conducting sensitivity analysis. This paper aims to find out the most influential parameter to the result of flash-flood modelling. Parameters that are analyzed, such as saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), initial soil moisture, surface roughness (manning's n), random roughness, and fraction coverage of vegetation. The result shows that Ksat is the most sensitive parameter of flash-flood modelling. When these parameters values increase or decrease, they always give the different values of flash-flood characteristics. It implies that these parameters have significant influences to flash-flood characteristics that are generated by this model.

  14. Synergistic triggering of superoxide flashes by mitochondrial Ca2+ uniport and basal reactive oxygen species elevation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tingting; Zhang, Xing; Xu, Jiejia; Jian, Chongshu; Huang, Zhanglong; Ye, Tao; Hu, Keping; Zheng, Ming; Gao, Feng; Wang, Xianhua; Cheng, Heping

    2013-02-15

    Mitochondrial superoxide flashes reflect a quantal, bursting mode of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that arises from stochastic, transient opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in many types of cells and in living animals. However, the regulatory mechanisms and the exact nature of the flash-coupled mPTP remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate a profound synergistic effect between mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniport and elevated basal ROS production in triggering superoxide flashes in intact cells. Hyperosmotic stress potently augmented the flash activity while simultaneously elevating mitochondrial Ca(2+) and ROS. Blocking mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport by knockdown of MICU1 or MCU, newly identified components of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter, or scavenging mitochondrial basal ROS markedly diminished the flash response. More importantly, whereas elevating Ca(2+) or ROS production alone was inefficacious in triggering the flashes, concurrent physiological Ca(2+) and ROS elevation served as the most powerful flash activator, increasing the flash incidence by an order of magnitude. Functionally, superoxide flashes in response to hyperosmotic stress participated in the activation of JNK and p38. Thus, physiological levels of mitochondrial Ca(2+) and ROS synergistically regulate stochastic mPTP opening and quantal ROS production in intact cells, marking the flash as a coincidence detector of mitochondrial Ca(2+) and ROS signals.

  15. Pilot evaluation of a stellate ganglion block for the treatment of hot flashes

    PubMed Central

    Pachman, Deirdre R.; Barton, Debra; Carns, Paul E.; Novotny, Paul J.; Wolf, Sherry; Linquist, Breanna; Kohli, Sadhna; Smith, DeAnne R.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Hot flashes are a significant problem in breast cancer patients, especially because the most effective therapy, estrogen, is often contraindicated. Based on recent pilot data from a single group supporting the use of a stellate ganglion block for the treatment of hot flashes, the present pilot trial was done to further evaluate the hypothesis that a stellate ganglion block may be a safe and effective therapy for hot flashes. Methods In women with breast cancer who had hot flashes, a stellate ganglion block was performed after 1 week of baseline hot flash data collection. The main efficacy measures were the changes from baseline in hot flash frequency and hot flash score during the 6th week. Results Ten patients were enrolled between 4/23/2009 and 7/10/2009; eight patients were evaluable. After the stellate ganglion block, the mean hot flash frequency and score decreased from baseline values by over 60% during some of the post-treatment weeks. The mean hot flash frequency and score at week 6 decreased from baseline values by 44% and 45%, respectively. There were no significant adverse events clearly attributed to the stellate ganglion blocks. Conclusions The results of this pilot trial support that stellate ganglion blocks may be a helpful therapy for hot flashes. A prospective placebo-controlled clinical trial should be done to more definitively determine this contention. PMID:20496155

  16. Short flashes and continuous light have similar photoinhibitory efficiency in intact leaves

    PubMed Central

    Sarvikas, Päivi; Hakala-Yatkin, Marja; Dönmez, Sirin; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2010-01-01

    Lincomycin-treated pumpkin leaves were illuminated with either continuous light or saturating single-turnover xenon flashes to study the dependence of photoinactivation of photosystem II (PSII) on the mode of delivery of light. The flash energy and the time interval between the flashes were varied between the experiments, and photoinactivation was measured with oxygen evolution and the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm). The photoinhibitory efficiency of saturating xenon flashes was found to be directly proportional to flash energy and independent of the time interval between the flashes. These findings indicate that a low-light-specific mechanism, based on charge recombination between PSII electron acceptors and the oxygen-evolving complex, is not the main cause of photoinactivation caused by short flashes in vivo. Furthermore, the relationship between the rate constant of photoinactivation and photon flux density was similar for flashes and continuous light when Fv/Fm was used to quantify photoinactivation, suggesting that continuous-light photoinactivation has a mechanism in which the quantum yield does not depend on the mode of delivery of light. A similar quantum yield of photoinhibition for flashes and continuous light is compatible with the manganese-based photoinhibition mechanism and with mechanisms in which singlet oxygen, produced via a direct photosensitization reaction, is the agent of damage. However, the classical acceptor-side and donor-side mechanisms do not predict a similar quantum yield for flashes and continuous light. PMID:20643811

  17. Acupuncture as Treatment of Hot Flashes and the Possible Role of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Spetz Holm, Anna-Clara E.; Frisk, Jessica; Hammar, Mats L.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms behind hot flashes in menopausal women are not fully understood. The flashes in women are probably preceded by and actually initiated by a sudden downward shift in the set point for the core body temperature in the thermoregulatory center that is affected by sex steroids, β-endorphins, and other central neurotransmitters. Treatments that influence these factors may be expected to reduce hot flashes. Since therapy with sex steroids for hot flashes has appeared to cause a number of side effects and risks and women with hot flashes and breast cancer as well as men with prostate cancer and hot flashes are prevented from sex steroid therapy there is a great need for alternative therapies. Acupuncture affecting the opioid system has been suggested as an alternative treatment option for hot flashes in menopausal women and castrated men. The heat loss during hot flashes may be mediated by the potent vasodilator and sweat gland activator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) the concentration of which increases in plasma during flashes in menopausal women and, according to one study, in castrated men with flushes. There is also evidence for connections between the opioid system and the release of CGRP. In this paper we discuss acupuncture as a treatment alternative for hot flashes and the role of CGRP in this context. PMID:22110545

  18. Evaluating letter recognition, flicker fusion, and the Talbot-Plateau law using microsecond-duration flashes.

    PubMed

    Greene, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments examined the ability of respondents to identify letters that were displayed on an LED array with flashes lasting little more than a microsecond. The first experiment displayed each letter with a single, simultaneous flash of all the dots forming the letter and established the relation of flash intensity to the probability of letter identification. The second experiment displayed the letters with multiple flashes at different frequencies to determine the probability that the sequence of flashes would be perceived as fused. The third experiment displayed the letters at a frequency that was above the flicker-fusion frequency, varying flash intensity to establish the amount needed to elicit a given probability of letter identification. The fourth experiment displayed each letter twice, once at a frequency where no flicker was perceived and also with steady light emission. The intensity of each flash was fixed and the steady intensity was varied; respondents were asked to judge whether the fused-flicker display and the steady display appeared to be the same brightness. Steady intensity was about double the average flash intensity where the two conditions were perceived as being equal in brightness. This is at odds with Talbot-Plateau law, which predicts that these two values should be equal. The law was formulated relative to a flash lasting half of each period, so it is surprising that it comes this close to being correct where the flash occupies only a millionth of the total period.

  19. Acupuncture as treatment of hot flashes and the possible role of calcitonin gene-related Peptide.

    PubMed

    Spetz Holm, Anna-Clara E; Frisk, Jessica; Hammar, Mats L

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms behind hot flashes in menopausal women are not fully understood. The flashes in women are probably preceded by and actually initiated by a sudden downward shift in the set point for the core body temperature in the thermoregulatory center that is affected by sex steroids, β-endorphins, and other central neurotransmitters. Treatments that influence these factors may be expected to reduce hot flashes. Since therapy with sex steroids for hot flashes has appeared to cause a number of side effects and risks and women with hot flashes and breast cancer as well as men with prostate cancer and hot flashes are prevented from sex steroid therapy there is a great need for alternative therapies. Acupuncture affecting the opioid system has been suggested as an alternative treatment option for hot flashes in menopausal women and castrated men. The heat loss during hot flashes may be mediated by the potent vasodilator and sweat gland activator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) the concentration of which increases in plasma during flashes in menopausal women and, according to one study, in castrated men with flushes. There is also evidence for connections between the opioid system and the release of CGRP. In this paper we discuss acupuncture as a treatment alternative for hot flashes and the role of CGRP in this context.

  20. Performance Outcomes After Metacarpal Fractures in National Basketball Association Players.

    PubMed

    Guss, Michael S; Begly, John P; Ramme, Austin J; Hinds, Richard M; Karia, Raj J; Capo, John T

    2016-12-01

    Background: The aim was to determine whether players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who sustain metacarpal fractures demonstrate decreased performance upon return to competition when compared with their performance before injury and that of their control-matched peers. Methods: Data for 32 NBA players with metacarpal fractures incurred over 11 seasons (2002-2003 to 2012-2013) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, and player profiles (www.nba.com and www.basketballreference.com). Player age, body mass index (BMI), position, shooting hand, number of years in the league, and treatment (surgical vs nonsurgical) were recorded. Individual season statistics for the 2 seasons immediately prior to injury and the 2 seasons after injury, including player efficiency rating (PER), were obtained. Thirty-two controls matched by player position, age, and performance statistics were identified. A performance comparison of the cohorts was performed. Results: Mean age at the time of injury was 27 years with an average player BMI of 24. Players had a mean 5.6 seasons of NBA experience prior to injury. There was no significant change in PER when preinjury and postinjury performances were compared. Neither injury to their shooting hand nor operative management of the fracture led to a decrease in performance during the 2 seasons after injury. When compared with matched controls, no significant decline in performance in PER the first season and second season after injury was found. Conclusion: NBA players sustaining metacarpal fractures can reasonably expect to return to their preinjury performance levels following appropriate treatment.

  1. Somatotype, size and body composition of competitive female volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Malousaris, Grigoris G; Bergeles, Nikolaos K; Barzouka, Karolina G; Bayios, Ioannis A; Nassis, George P; Koskolou, Maria D

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the morphological characteristics of competitive female volleyball players. For this purpose, body weight and height, breadths and girths as well as skinfold thickness at various body sites were assessed in 163 elite female volleyball players (age: 23.8+/-4.7 years, years of playing: 11.5+/-4.2, hours of training per week: 11.9+/-2.9, means+/-S.D.). Seventy-nine of these players were from the A1 division and the rest from the A2 division of the Greek National League. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the differences in these characteristics between competition level and playing position. Body height ranged from 161cm to 194cm, and the mean value (177.1+/-6.5cm) was not inferior to that of international players of similar calibre. Adiposity of these players (sum of 5 skinfolds: 51.8+/-10.2mm, percent body fat: 23.4+/-2.8) was higher than that reported in other studies in which, however, different methodology was used. Volleyball athletes of this study were mainly balanced endomorphs (3.4-2.7-2.9). The A1 division players were taller and slightly leaner with greater fat-free mass than their A2 counterparts. Significant differences were found among athletes of different playing positions which are interpreted by their varying roles and physical demands during a volleyball game. The volleyball players who play as opposites were the only subgroup of players differing between divisions; the A2 opposites had more body fat than A1 opposites. These data could be added in the international literature related to the anthropometric characteristics of competitive female volleyball players.

  2. Atmospheric ultraviolet and red-infrared flashes from Universitetsky-Tatiana-2 satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedenkin, N. N.; Garipov, G. K.; Klimov, P. A.; Klimenko, V. V.; Mareev, E. A.; Martinez, O.; Morozenko, V. S.; Park, I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Ponce, E.; Salazar, H.; Tulupov, V. I.; Khrenov, B. A.; Yashin, I. V.

    2011-11-01

    Millisecond ultraviolet (240-400 nm) and red-infrared (610-800 nm) flashes were detected in the nighttime atmosphere with the scientific payload installed onboard the Universitetsky-Tatiana-2 micro-satellite. Flashes with various numbers of photons, from 1020 to 1026, were detected within the atmospheric area 300 km in diameter observed by the detector. The flashes differ in duration and temporal profile: from single short flashes ˜1 ms in duration to flashes with a complex profile more than 100 ms in duration. Different global geographic distributions are observed for flashes with different numbers of photons. Flashes with fewer than 1022 photons are distributed uniformly over the Earth's map. Flashes with more than 1022 photons are concentrated near the equator and above the continents. Series of flashes were observed in one turn of the satellite when flying not only over thunderstorm regions but also over cloudless ones. The flash number distribution has been derived from the ratio of the numbers of red-infrared and ultraviolet photons. As applied to discharges in the upper atmosphere, whose glow is dominated by the emission in the first and second positive systems of molecular nitrogen bands (1PN2 and 2PN2), this distribution is equivalent to the flash altitude distribution in the atmosphere. The observed ratio of the numbers of photons in red-infrared and ultraviolet flashes agrees with the calculated one for electric discharges at altitudes higher than 50 km. In-orbit measurements of the charged particle flux (with a threshold energy for electrons of 1 MeV) provide no evidence for a synchronous occurrence of an ultraviolet flash and a burst in the particle flux in the orbit.

  3. Atmospheric ultraviolet and red-infrared flashes from Universitetsky-Tatiana-2 satellite data

    SciTech Connect

    Vedenkin, N. N.; Garipov, G. K.; Klimov, P. A.; Klimenko, V. V.; Mareev, E. A.; Martinez, O.; Morozenko, V. S.; Park, I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Ponce, E.; Salazar, H.; Tulupov, V. I.; Khrenov, B. A.; Yashin, I. V.

    2011-11-15

    Millisecond ultraviolet (240-400 nm) and red-infrared (610-800 nm) flashes were detected in the nighttime atmosphere with the scientific payload installed onboard the Universitetsky-Tatiana-2 micro-satellite. Flashes with various numbers of photons, from 10{sup 20} to 10{sup 26}, were detected within the atmospheric area 300 km in diameter observed by the detector. The flashes differ in duration and temporal profile: from single short flashes {approx}1 ms in duration to flashes with a complex profile more than 100 ms in duration. Different global geographic distributions are observed for flashes with different numbers of photons. Flashes with fewer than 10{sup 22} photons are distributed uniformly over the Earth's map. Flashes with more than 10{sup 22} photons are concentrated near the equator and above the continents. Series of flashes were observed in one turn of the satellite when flying not only over thunderstorm regions but also over cloudless ones. The flash number distribution has been derived from the ratio of the numbers of red-infrared and ultraviolet photons. As applied to discharges in the upper atmosphere, whose glow is dominated by the emission in the first and second positive systems of molecular nitrogen bands (1PN{sub 2} and 2PN{sub 2}), this distribution is equivalent to the flash altitude distribution in the atmosphere. The observed ratio of the numbers of photons in red-infrared and ultraviolet flashes agrees with the calculated one for electric discharges at altitudes higher than 50 km. In-orbit measurements of the charged particle flux (with a threshold energy for electrons of 1 MeV) provide no evidence for a synchronous occurrence of an ultraviolet flash and a burst in the particle flux in the orbit.

  4. Physical interpersonal relationships and social anxiety among online game players.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shao-Kang; Wang, Chih-Chien; Fang, Wenchang

    2005-02-01

    Many online game players spend inordinate amounts of time in their favorite virtual worlds. A large percentage of these players are teenagers who show behaviors normally associated with physical addiction. Parents, educators, and social scientists are therefore saying that online games are sources of social problems. The authors surveyed 174 Taiwanese college-age online players to collect data on the potential effects of online games on the quality of interpersonal relationships and levels of social anxiety. According to the results, the quality of interpersonal relationships decreased and the amount of social anxiety increased as the amount of time spent playing online games increased.

  5. Management of concussion in the professional football player.

    PubMed

    Pieroth, Elizabeth M; Hanks, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    There is no other sport that has come under greater scrutiny surrounding the incidence and treatment of concussion than football, and there is no other professional sports league that has experienced more intense focus of its handling of concussions than the National Football League (NFL). The NFL has received significant criticism of their management of concussion in players from both the popular press and the medical community. However, those working with active NFL players have changed their assessment and treatment of these injuries as the knowledge of concussions has evolved over time. We review the current approach to the management of concussions in the professional football player.

  6. Perceived hotness affects behavior of basketball players and coaches.

    PubMed

    Attali, Yigal

    2013-07-01

    Although "hot hands" in basketball are illusory, the belief in them is so robust that it not only has sparked many debates but may also affect the behavior of players and coaches. On the basis of an entire National Basketball Association season's worth of data, the research reported here shows that even a single successful shot suffices to increase a player's likelihood of taking the next team shot, increase the average distance from which this next shot is taken, decrease the probability that this next shot is successful, and decrease the probability that the coach will replace the player.

  7. Adductor Pollicis Longus Strain in a Professional Baseball Player

    PubMed Central

    Pinkowsky, Gregory J.; Roberts, John; Allred, Jeff; Pujalte, George G.; Gallo, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Thenar pain can represent a significant morbidity for a baseball player who relies on manual dexterity for gripping a bat and precise and accurate throws. While osseous, ligamentous, and neurovascular pathologies are commonly considered, musculotendinous injuries are often neglected in the differential diagnosis of thenar pain. We present a case of adductor pollicis longus strain as a cause of acute thenar pain in a baseball player. Adductor pollicis longus strains should be considered in any baseball player sustaining a hyperabduction force to the thumb. PMID:24459545

  8. Sagittal Spinal Morphology in Highly Trained Adolescent Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Muyor, José M.; Sánchez-Sánchez, Estefanía; Sanz-Rivas, David; López-Miñarro, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    Sports with a predominance of forward-bending and extension postures have been associated with alterations in the sagittal spinal curvatures and greater risk of spinal injury. Because, the tennis players adopt these postures, the aims of this study were: 1) to describe spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt in male and female highly trained adolescent tennis players during relaxed standing posture and with thoracic spine corrected (in prone lying on the floor); and 2) to determine the frequency of thoracic hyperkyphosis and lumbar hypo/hyper lordosis in these postures. Forty adolescent tennis players (24 male and 16 female) aged 13-18 years, participated voluntarily in this study. The Spinal Mouse system was used to measure sagittal spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt. The mean values in the relaxed standing posture were 43.83° ± 7.87° (thoracic kyphosis), - 27.58° ± 7.01° (lumbar lordosis), and 13.38° ± 5.57° (pelvic tilt) for male tennis players, respectively; and 36.13° ± 6.69° (thoracic kyphosis), - 32.69° ± 5.06° (lumbar lordosis), 20.94° ± 5.36° (pelvic tilt) for female tennis players (p < 0.05 between genders in all spinal parameters). The male and female tennis players showed a frequency of 62.5% and 93.8% (p = 0.032) for neutral thoracic kyphosis, and 83.3% and 93.8% (p = 0.062) in neutral lumbar lordosis, respectively. In conclusion, due to the high percentage of neutral spinal curvatures in both male and female tennis players, to practice tennis in these levels does not alter sagittal spinal morphology in the relaxed standing posture in adolescent highly trained tennis players. Key Points This study evaluated thoracic and lumbar spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt during several postures in young highly trained tennis players. Female tennis players showed statistically significant greater anterior pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis and lower thoracic kyphosis than male tennis players. The high percentage of neutral thoracic kyphosis and lumbar

  9. Observations of High Peak Current 'lull' Lightning Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Edens, H. E.; Stock, M.

    2015-12-01

    A new and peculiar type of negative cloud-to-ground (-CG) lightning flash has been found from LMA observations of storms. Called a 'lull' flash, the discharge begins with a short duration (~5-10 ms), stepped leader and high peak current return stroke, followed by a brief period of inactivity. After a few tens to a few hundreds of milliseconds, the discharge reignites in the same location as a normal -CG. VHF observations show a complete lack of activity during the lull. The flashes were first identified from LMA observations during a 2008 lightning study in West Virginia (Krehbiel, 2012 ILDC), but are seen in other normally electrified storms. They are characterized by large negative peak currents (-50 to -150 kA) in NLDN data. Here we report detailed LMA, interferometer, and fast antenna observations of lull flashes obtained at Langmuir Laboratory in 2013. A series of six lull CGs occurred over an 11 min time interval in a small storm on August 5. Analysis of the observations shows the breakdown immediately produced a stepped leader that went straight to ground. The durations from initial breakdown to the return stroke (RS) was 2-15 ms, corresponding to leader speeds of 4×105 to 3×106 m/s. Peak currents of the RSs were -32 to -188 kA. The lulls began 10-29 ms after the RSs, and lasted 40-100 ms before the discharge reignited. By contrast, the durations, speeds and peak current values of the reignited first strokes were those of normal -CGs, namely, 9 to 105 ms, -11.5kA to 55.8kA, and 0.6×105 to 6.7×105 m/s. Further analysis indicates the lull flashes occurred when the storm had substantial negative charge but little lower positive charge, allowing the initial stroke to go straight to ground at a high speed. The energetic stroke somehow quenches the discharge a short time afterward while much negative charge remains, which leads to reignition and the second part of the discharge. Exactly how and why this happens remains an open question.

  10. Sporadic impact flashes on the Moon and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Ortiz, J. L.; Llorca, J.; Santos-Sanz, P.

    The systematic impact flash survey that we carried out between 2001 and 2004 resulted in the first unambiguous detection of lunar sporadic impact flashes (Ortiz et al., 2006) and already allowed us to estimate the impact rate of objects on Earth as a function of their incoming energy under the assumption of a certain range of luminous efficiencies of the impact processes. Some present unknown parameters can be constrained in the future by monitoring impact flashes associated with meteoroid streams exhibiting a wide range of impact angles and energies. Here we further investigate some implications of the sporadic impact flashes detected so far and in particular we focus on whether the SMART-1 impact flash can give additional constraints on the luminous efficiency applicable to sporadic impacts, in order to derive more accurate impact rates on Earth. We have compared our derived impact fluxes with those obtained by Ceplecha (2001) and Brown et al. (2002) and we conclude that the present flux in the observed energy range would be underestimated. Finally, we conclude that the large lunar surface coverage and increasing sensitivity of modern video cameras makes this a powerful method to estimate terrestrial impact rates of large bodies that are statistically difficult to be detected from more limited atmospheric coverages characteristic of terrestrial networks. REFERENCES Brown, P., Spalding, R. E., Revelle, D. O., Tagliaferri, E., Worden, S. P. 2002. The flux of small near-Earth objects colliding with the Earth. Nature 420, 294-296. Ceplecha Z. (2001) in Collisional processes in the solar system, eds. Mikhail Ya. Marov and Hans Rickman, Astrophysics and Space Science library, Vol. 261, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 35 - 50. Ortiz J.L., F.J. Aceituno, J.A. Quesada, J. Aceituno, M. Fernández, P. Santos-Sanz, J.M. Trigo-Rodríguez, J. Llorca, F.J. Martín-Torres, P. Montañés-Rodríguez, E. Pallé (2006) Icarus, in press.

  11. Flow ensemble prediction for flash flood warnings at ungauged basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demargne, Julie; Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Caseri, Angelica; Ramos, Maria-Helena; de Saint Aubin, Céline; Jurdy, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods, which are typically triggered by severe rainfall events, are difficult to monitor and predict at the spatial and temporal scales of interest due to large meteorological and hydrologic uncertainties. In particular, uncertainties in quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) and quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) need to be taken into account to provide skillful flash flood warnings with increased warning lead time. In France, the AIGA discharge-threshold flood warning system is currently being enhanced to ingest high-resolution ensemble QPFs from convection-permitting numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, as well as probabilistic QPEs, to improve flash flood warnings for small-to-medium (from 10 to 1000 km²) ungauged basins. The current deterministic AIGA system is operational in the South of France since 2005. It ingests the operational radar-gauge QPE grids from Météo-France to run a simplified hourly distributed hydrologic model at a 1-km² resolution every 15 minutes (Javelle et al. 2014). This produces real-time peak discharge estimates along the river network, which are subsequently compared to regionalized flood frequency estimates of given return periods. Warnings are then provided to the French national hydro-meteorological and flood forecasting centre (SCHAPI) and regional flood forecasting offices, based on the estimated severity of ongoing events. The calibration and regionalization of the hydrologic model has been recently enhanced to implement an operational flash flood warning system for the entire French territory. To quantify the QPF uncertainty, the COSMO-DE-EPS rainfall ensembles from the Deutscher Wetterdienst (20 members at a 2.8-km resolution for a lead time of 21 hours), which are available on the North-eastern part of France, were ingested in the hydrologic model of the AIGA system. Streamflow ensembles were produced and probabilistic flash flood warnings were derived for the Meuse and Moselle river basins and

  12. Number of Players and Relative Pitch Area per Player: Comparing Their Influence on Heart Rate and Physical Demands in Under-12 and Under-13 Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Julen; Puente, Asier; Echeazarra, Ibon; Usabiaga, Oidui; Casamichana, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyse the influence of different large-sided games (LSGs) on the physical and physiological variables in under-12s (U12) and -13s (U13) soccer players. The effects of the combination of different number of players per team, 7, 9, and 11 (P7, P9, and P11, respectively) with three relative pitch areas, 100, 200, and 300 m2 (A100, A200, and A300, respectively), were analysed in this study. The variables analysed were: 1) global indicator such as total distance (TD); work:rest ratio (W:R); player-load (PL) and maximal speed (Vmax); 2) heart rate (HR) mean and time spent in different intensity zones of HR (<75%, 75–84%, 84–90% and >90%), and; 3) five absolute (<8, 8–13, 13–16 and >16 Km h-1) and three relative speed categories (<40%, 40–60% and >60% Vmax). The results support the theory that a change in format (player number and pitch dimensions) affects no similarly in the two players categories. Although it can seem that U13 players are more demanded in this kind of LSG, when the work load is assessed from a relative point of view, great pitch dimensions and/or high number of player per team are involved in the training task to the U12 players. The results of this study could alert to the coaches to avoid some types of LSGs for the U12 players such as: P11 played in A100, A200 or A300, P9 played in A200 or A300 and P7 played in A300 due to that U13>U12 in several physical and physiological variables (W:R, time spent in 84–90%HRmax, distance in 8–13 and 13–16 Km h-1 and time spent in 40–60%Vmax). These results may help youth soccer coaches to plan the progressive introduction of LSGs so that task demands are adapted to the physiological and physical development of participants. PMID:26752422

  13. Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Rugby League Football Players: Determination of Positional Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…

  14. Developing Self-Efficacy within Role Players in Collegiate Athletics: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perchinsky, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the level of self-efficacy between starting players and role players in a college Midwest Division III men's football team. The research questions were: 1) What differences in satisfaction levels, if any, can be found among starting players and role players with coach leadership, social…

  15. The effectiveness of a program to reduce the rate of flash sterilization.

    PubMed

    Smart, Julia D; Belkoff, Stephen M; Mears, Simon C

    2012-08-01

    Flash sterilization of surgical instruments has been a common practice, but patient safety and quality assurance health care groups have recently recommended minimizing its use. Our goals were to describe the implementation and effectiveness of our institution's program for reducing the flash sterilization rate of instruments used for total hip and knee arthroplasties. We reviewed flash sterilization logs of all hip and knee arthroplasties from the program's implementation in July 2009 through August 2010 (N = 555) and calculated the monthly percentage of cases using flash sterilization. From the first to the last month, the amount of flash sterilization decreased significantly (P < .05): 6 of 34 to 0 of 41, respectively. Our results show that the rate of flash sterilization can be reduced with this strategic program.

  16. Control of striking velocity by table tennis players.

    PubMed

    Marinovic, Welber; Iizuka, Cristina Akiko; Freudenheim, Andrea Michele

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated how 7 skilled table tennis players controlled velocity of a forehand drive stroke when the ball's trajectory, velocity, and spin were modified. They hit a target in response to balls launched under four different conditions. The relative and absolute times used in the backswing phase showed no significant differences among conditions. When subjects hit fastballs, there was a significant change in the time required for them to reach the peak of velocity in the forward swing phase. In addition, players decreased the velocity of their strokes to hit fast-approaching balls. These results indicate that highly skilled table tennis players need to adjust the striking velocity and striking time (relative and absolute) required to reach the peak of velocity in the forward swing phase for these task modifications. Since they used slower movement velocities to hit faster-approaching balls, skilled table tennis players may override this speed-coupling process.

  17. Hypoconnectivity and hyperfrontality in retired American football players.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M

    2013-10-17

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  18. Violent Video Games May Not 'Desensitize' Players, Brain Scans Suggest

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163987.html Violent Video Games May Not 'Desensitize' Players, Brain Scans ... 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Young men who play violent video games the most -- at least two hours ...

  19. 'Pokemon Go' Players Add 2,000 Steps a Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pokemon Go' Players Add 2,000 Steps a Day Smartphone game benefits overweight, sedentary people most, researchers ... as likely to walk 10,000 steps a day than they were before taking up the game, ...

  20. Soccer players' fitting perception of different upper boot materials.

    PubMed

    Olaso Melis, J C; Priego Quesada, J I; Lucas-Cuevas, A G; González García, J C; Puigcerver Palau, S

    2016-07-01

    The present study assessed the influence of upper boot materials on fitting perception. Twenty players tested three soccer boots only differing in the upper boot material (natural calf leather, natural kangaroo leather and synthetic leather). Players reported fitting perception and preference on specific foot areas using a perceived fitting scale. Ratings were averaged for every foot area. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the differences between boots. The kangaroo leather boots were perceived tighter and closer to the preferred fitting in general fitting, metatarsals area and instep area. The synthetic leather boots were perceived as the loosest and as the most distant boot from the preferred fitting in medial front area and instep area. In conclusion, the type of upper boot material influences the fitting perception of soccer players. The kangaroo leather was the material whose fitting was perceived closest to the players fitting preference.