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Sample records for adobe photoshop cs

  1. Evaluation of chronic periapical lesions by digital subtraction radiography by using Adobe Photoshop CS: a technical report.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabiola B; Gonçalves, Marcelo; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a new technique by using Adobe Photoshop CS (San Jose, CA) image-analysis software to evaluate the radiographic changes of chronic periapical lesions after root canal treatment by digital subtraction radiography. Thirteen upper anterior human teeth with pulp necrosis and radiographic image of chronic periapical lesion were endodontically treated and radiographed 0, 2, 4, and 6 months after root canal treatment by using a film holder. The radiographic films were automatically developed and digitized. The radiographic images taken 0, 2, 4, and 6 months after root canal therapy were submitted to digital subtraction in pairs (0 and 2 months, 2 and 4 months, and 4 and 6 months) choosing "image," "calculation," "subtract," and "new document" tools from Adobe Photoshop CS image-analysis software toolbar. The resulting images showed areas of periapical healing in all cases. According to this methodology, the healing or expansion of periapical lesions can be evaluated by means of digital subtraction radiography by using Adobe Photoshop CS software.

  2. Digital Imaging: An Adobe Photoshop Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces digital imaging, an Adobe Photoshop course at Shrewsbury High School in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. Students are able to earn art credits to graduate by successfully completing the course. Digital imaging must cover art criteria as well as technical skills. The course begins with tutorials created by the instructor and other…

  3. [Use of Adobe Photoshop software in medical criminology].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, S A; Demidov, I V

    2000-01-01

    Describes the method of comparative analysis of various objects in practical medical criminology and making of high-quality photographs with the use of Adobe Photoshop software. Options of the software needed for expert evaluations are enumerated.

  4. Technical report on semiautomatic segmentation using the Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk; Hwang, Sung Bae; Lee, Yong Sook; Har, Dong-Hwan

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to enable users to semiautomatically segment the anatomical structures in magnetic resonance images (MRIs), computerized tomographs (CTs), and other medical images on a personal computer. The segmented images are used for making 3D images, which are helpful to medical education and research. To achieve this purpose, the following trials were performed. The entire body of a volunteer was scanned to make 557 MRIs. On Adobe Photoshop, contours of 19 anatomical structures in the MRIs were semiautomatically drawn using MAGNETIC LASSO TOOL and manually corrected using either LASSO TOOL or DIRECT SELECTION TOOL to make 557 segmented images. In a similar manner, 13 anatomical structures in 8,590 anatomical images were segmented. Proper segmentation was verified by making 3D images from the segmented images. Semiautomatic segmentation using Adobe Photoshop is expected to be widely used for segmentation of anatomical structures in various medical images.

  5. Techniques on semiautomatic segmentation using the Adobe Photoshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to enable anybody to semiautomatically segment the anatomical structures in the MRIs, CTs, and other medical images on the personal computer. The segmented images are used for making three-dimensional images, which are helpful in medical education and research. To achieve this purpose, the following trials were performed. The entire body of a volunteer was MR scanned to make 557 MRIs, which were transferred to a personal computer. On Adobe Photoshop, contours of 19 anatomical structures in the MRIs were semiautomatically drawn using MAGNETIC LASSO TOOL; successively, manually corrected using either LASSO TOOL or DIRECT SELECTION TOOL to make 557 segmented images. In a likewise manner, 11 anatomical structures in the 8,500 anatomcial images were segmented. Also, 12 brain and 10 heart anatomical structures in anatomical images were segmented. Proper segmentation was verified by making and examining the coronal, sagittal, and three-dimensional images from the segmented images. During semiautomatic segmentation on Adobe Photoshop, suitable algorithm could be used, the extent of automatization could be regulated, convenient user interface could be used, and software bugs rarely occurred. The techniques of semiautomatic segmentation using Adobe Photoshop are expected to be widely used for segmentation of the anatomical structures in various medical images.

  6. Asian Rhinoplasty: Preoperative Simulation and Planning Using Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Nguyen, Anh H

    2015-11-01

    A rhinoplasty in Asians differs from a rhinoplasty performed in patients of other ethnicities. Surgeons should understand the concept of Asian beauty, the nasal anatomy of Asians, and common problems encountered while operating on the Asian nose. With this understanding, surgeons can set appropriate goals, choose proper operative procedures, and provide an outcome that satisfies patients. In this article the authors define the concept of an Asian rhinoplasty-a paradigm shift from the traditional on-top augmentation rhinoplasty to a structurally integrated augmentation rhinoplasty-and provide a step-by-step procedure for the use of Adobe Photoshop as a preoperative program to simulate the expected surgical outcome for patients and to develop a preoperative plan for surgeons.

  7. GrinLine identification using digital imaging and Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Susan A; Brumit, Paula C; Schrader, Bruce A; Senn, David R

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to outline a method by which an antemortem photograph of a victim can be critically compared with a postmortem photograph in an effort to facilitate the identification process. Ten subjects, between 27 and 55 years old provided historical pictures of themselves exhibiting a broad smile showing anterior teeth to some extent (a grin). These photos were termed "antemortem" for the purpose of the study. A digital camera was used to take a current photo of each subject's grin. These photos represented the "postmortem" images. A single subject's "postmortem" photo set was randomly selected to be the "unknown victim." These combined data of the unknown and the 10 antemortem subjects were digitally stored and, using Adobe Photoshop software, the images were sized and oriented for comparative analysis. The goal was to devise a technique that could facilitate the accurate determination of which "antemortem" subject was the "unknown." The generation of antemortem digital overlays of the teeth visible in a grin and the comparison of those overlays to the images of the postmortem dentition is the foundation of the technique. The comparisons made using the GrinLine Identification Technique may assist medical examiners and coroners in making identifications or exclusions.

  8. Image editing with Adobe Photoshop 6.0.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Ronald D; Postel, Gregory C

    2002-01-01

    The authors introduce Photoshop 6.0 for radiologists and demonstrate basic techniques of editing gray-scale cross-sectional images intended for publication and for incorporation into computerized presentations. For basic editing of gray-scale cross-sectional images, the Tools palette and the History/Actions palette pair should be displayed. The History palette may be used to undo a step or series of steps. The Actions palette is a menu of user-defined macros that save time by automating an action or series of actions. Converting an image to 8-bit gray scale is the first editing function. Cropping is the next action. Both decrease file size. Use of the smallest file size necessary for the purpose at hand is recommended. Final file size for gray-scale cross-sectional neuroradiologic images (8-bit, single-layer TIFF [tagged image file format] at 300 pixels per inch) intended for publication varies from about 700 Kbytes to 3 Mbytes. Final file size for incorporation into computerized presentations is about 10-100 Kbytes (8-bit, single-layer, gray-scale, high-quality JPEG [Joint Photographic Experts Group]), depending on source and intended use. Editing and annotating images before they are inserted into presentation software is highly recommended, both for convenience and flexibility. Radiologists should find that image editing can be carried out very rapidly once the basic steps are learned and automated.

  9. DICOM to print, 35-mm slides, web, and video projector: tutorial using Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Jud W

    2002-10-01

    Preparing images for publication has dealt with film and the photographic process. With picture archiving and communications systems, many departments will no longer produce film. This will change how images are produced for publication. DICOM, the file format for radiographic images, has to be converted and then prepared for traditional publication, 35-mm slides, the newest techniques of video projection, and the World Wide Web. Tagged image file format is the common format for traditional print publication, whereas joint photographic expert group is the current file format for the World Wide Web. Each medium has specific requirements that can be met with a common image-editing program such as Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). High-resolution images are required for print, a process that requires interpolation. However, the Internet requires images with a small file size for rapid transmission. The resolution of each output differs and the image resolution must be optimized to match the output of the publishing medium.

  10. How to optimize radiological images captured from digital cameras, using the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 program.

    PubMed

    Chalazonitis, A N; Koumarianos, D; Tzovara, J; Chronopoulos, P

    2003-06-01

    Over the past decade, the technology that permits images to be digitized and the reduction in the cost of digital equipment allows quick digital transfer of any conventional radiological film. Images then can be transferred to a personal computer, and several software programs are available that can manipulate their digital appearance. In this article, the fundamentals of digital imaging are discussed, as well as the wide variety of optional adjustments that the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) program can offer to present radiological images with satisfactory digital imaging quality.

  11. Adobe photoshop quantification (PSQ) rather than point-counting: A rapid and precise method for quantifying rock textural data and porosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Bo; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Zhe; Shi, Kaibo; Wu, Shuanglin

    2014-08-01

    Commonly used petrological quantification methods are visual estimation, counting, and image analyses. However, in this article, an Adobe Photoshop-based analyzing method (PSQ) is recommended for quantifying the rock textural data and porosities. Adobe Photoshop system provides versatile abilities in selecting an area of interest and the pixel number of a selection could be read and used to calculate its area percentage. Therefore, Adobe Photoshop could be used to rapidly quantify textural components, such as content of grains, cements, and porosities including total porosities and different genetic type porosities. This method was named as Adobe Photoshop Quantification (PSQ). The workflow of the PSQ method was introduced with the oolitic dolomite samples from the Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China, for example. And the method was tested by comparing with the Folk's and Shvetsov's "standard" diagrams. In both cases, there is a close agreement between the "standard" percentages and those determined by the PSQ method with really small counting errors and operator errors, small standard deviations and high confidence levels. The porosities quantified by PSQ were evaluated against those determined by the whole rock helium gas expansion method to test the specimen errors. Results have shown that the porosities quantified by the PSQ are well correlated to the porosities determined by the conventional helium gas expansion method. Generally small discrepancies (mostly ranging from -3% to 3%) are caused by microporosities which would cause systematic underestimation of 2% and/or by macroporosities causing underestimation or overestimation in different cases. Adobe Photoshop could be used to quantify rock textural components and porosities. This method has been tested to be precise and accurate. It is time saving compared with usual methods.

  12. Photoshop tips and tricks every facial plastic surgeon should know.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Grant S

    2010-05-01

    Postprocessing of patient photographs is an important skill for the facial plastic surgeon. Postprocessing is intended to optimize the image, not change the surgical result. This article refers to use of Photoshop CS3 (Adobe Systems Incorporated, San Jose, CA, USA) for descriptions, but any recent version of Photoshop is sufficiently similar. Topics covered are types of camera, shooting formats, color balance, alignment of preoperative and postoperative photographs, and preparing figures for publication. Each section presents step-by-step guidance and instructions along with a graphic depiction of the computer screen and Photoshop tools under discussion.

  13. Clean Up Your Image: A Beginner's Guide to Scanning and Photoshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzer, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author addresses the key steps of scanning and illustrates the process with screen shots taken from a Macintosh G4 Powerbook computer running OSX and Adobe Photoshop 7.0. After reviewing scanning procedures, the author describes how to use Photoshop 7.0 to manipulate a scanned image. This activity gives students a good general…

  14. The ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator 3: Have your say on new features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L. H.; Christensen, L. L.; Hurt, R. L.; Nielsen, K.; Johansen, T.

    2008-06-01

    The popular, free ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator image processing software (a plugin for Adobe Photoshop) is about to get simpler, faster and more user-friendly! Here we would like to solicit inputs from the community of users.

  15. Technobabble: Photoshop 6 Converges Web, Print Photograph-Editing Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication: Journalism Education Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the newly-released Adobe Photoshop 6, and its use in student publications. Notes its refined text-handling capabilities, a more user-friendly interface, integrated vector functions, easier preparation of Web images, and new and more powerful layer functions. (SR)

  16. The Photoshop Smile Design technique (part 1): digital dental photography.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Edward A; Garber, David A; Figueira, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The proliferation of digital photography and imaging devices is enhancing clinicians' ability to visually document patients' intraoral conditions. By understanding the elements of esthetics and learning how to incorporate technology applications into clinical dentistry, clinicians can predictably plan smile design and communicate anticipated results to patients and ceramists alike. This article discusses camera, lens, and flash selection and setup, and how to execute specific types of images using the Adobe Photoshop Smile Design (PSD) technique.

  17. Quantitative measurement of holographic image quality using Adobe Photoshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesly, E.

    2013-02-01

    Measurement of the characteristics of image holograms in regards to diffraction efficiency and signal to noise ratio are demonstrated, using readily available digital cameras and image editing software. Illustrations and case studies, using currently available holographic recording materials, are presented.

  18. A Snapshot of Photo Editing Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, J.V.

    2004-01-01

    Plenty of digital imaging professionals claim that Adobe's Photoshop CS is the best photo editing application money can buy. This document reviews Adobe's Photoshop CS and its worthy competitors. In addition to Adobe, the following programs are reviewed in this document: (1) Adobe Photoshop Elements 2.0; (2) Arcsoft PhotoImpression; (3) Jasc Paint…

  19. Threat Modelling Adobe PDF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    on the MS Windows Server, Sun Solaris , IBM AIX, Red Hat or SUSE platforms. Figure 15. A registry setting for the Adobe Reader lockdown If an...be typed into the Acrobat console and executed. The console is designed for testing. 3. Batch JavaScript: a powerful batch system for the execution

  20. Appling Andragogy Theory in Photoshop Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alajlan, Abdulrahman Saad

    2015-01-01

    Andragogy is a strategy for teaching adults that can be applied to Photoshop training. Photoshop workshops are frequented by adult learners, and thus andragogical models for instruction would be extremely helpful for prospective trainers looking to improve their classroom designs. Adult learners are much different than child learners, given the…

  1. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  2. Dielectric barrier discharge image processing by Photoshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lifang; Li, Xuechen; Yin, Zengqian; Zhang, Qingli

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, the filamentary pattern of dielectric barrier discharge has been processed by using Photoshop, the coordinates of each filament can also be obtained. By using Photoshop two different ways have been used to analyze the spatial order of the pattern formation in dielectric barrier discharge. The results show that the distance of the neighbor filaments at U equals 14 kV and d equals 0.9 mm is about 1.8 mm. In the scope of the experimental error, the results from the two different methods are similar.

  3. Contrast enhancement of bite mark images using the grayscale mixer in ACR in Photoshop®.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Noorbhai, Suzanne; Lawson, Zoe; Stacey-Jones, Seren; Carabott, Romina

    2013-05-01

    Enhanced images may improve bite mark edge definition, assisting forensic analysis. Current contrast enhancement involves color extraction, viewing layered images by channel. A novel technique, producing a single enhanced image using the grayscale mix panel within Adobe Camera Raw®, has been developed and assessed here, allowing adjustments of multiple color channels simultaneously. Stage 1 measured RGB values in 72 versions of a color chart image; eight sliders in Photoshop® were adjusted at 25% intervals, all corresponding colors affected. Stage 2 used a bite mark image, and found only red, orange, and yellow sliders had discernable effects. Stage 3 assessed modality preference between color, grayscale, and enhanced images; on average, the 22 survey participants chose the enhanced image as better defined for nine out of 10 bite marks. The study has shown potential benefits for this new technique. However, further research is needed before use in the analysis of bite marks.

  4. Beauty is only photoshop deep: legislating models' BMIs and photoshopping images.

    PubMed

    Krawitz, Marilyn

    2014-06-01

    Many women struggle with poor body image and eating disorders due, in part, to images of very thin women and photoshopped bodies in the media and advertisements. In 2013, Israel's Act Limiting Weight in the Modelling Industry, 5772-2012, came into effect. Known as the Photoshop Law, it requires all models in Israel who are over 18 years old to have a body mass index of 18.5 or higher. The Israeli government was the first government in the world to legislate on this issue. Australia has a voluntary Code of Conduct that is similar to the Photoshop Law. This article argues that the Australian government should follow Israel's lead and pass a law similar to the Photoshop Law because the Code is not sufficiently binding.

  5. Using photoshop filters to create anatomic line-art medical images.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Jacobo; Geller, Brian S

    2006-08-01

    There are multiple ways to obtain anatomic drawings suitable for publication or presentations. This article demonstrates how to use Photoshop to alter digital radiologic images to create line-art illustrations in a quick and easy way. We present two simple to use methods; however, not every image can adequately be transformed and personal preferences and specific changes need to be applied to each image to obtain the desired result. There are multiple ways to obtain anatomic drawings suitable for publication or to prepare presentations. Medical illustrators have always played a major role in the radiology and medical education process. Whether used to teach a complex surgical or radiologic procedure, to define typical or atypical patterns of the spread of disease, or to illustrate normal or aberrant anatomy, medical illustration significantly affects learning (). However, if you are not an accomplished illustrator, the alternatives can be expensive (contacting a professional medical illustrator or buying an already existing stock of digital images) or simply not necessarily applicable to what you are trying to communicate. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how using Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) to alter digital radiologic images we can create line-art illustrations in a quick, inexpensive, and easy way in preparation for electronic presentations and publication.

  6. Preservation of adobe buildings. Study of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velosa, A.; Rocha, F.; Costa, C.; Varum, H.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe buildings are common in the central region of Portugal due to the lack of natural stone in the surrounding area. This type of construction technique lasted until the 20th Century, at which time cementitious materials, with faster hardening and greater structural capacity substituted traditional materials and techniques. Currently, a significant percentage of these buildings is vacant and many are degraded and in need of conservation actions. Adobes from central Portugal are distinctive as they are lightly coloured and made from air lime and quarry sand. Although some adobes were manufactured locally, most were produced almost 'industrially' and sold to nearby regions. In order to preserve this heritage, conservation actions must be undertaken. So as to ensure the adequacy of these actions and compatibility between original materials and new ones, a thorough study of adobe compostion is mandatory. The current study is an initial step in the characterization of earth based construction materials from central Portugal. Adobe samples were collected from residential buildings in two different locations. The determination of the composition of adobe blocks encompassed the determination of the binder fraction and of their chemical composition and also the particle size analysis of the aggregate. For this purpose FRX analysis, acid dissolution and dry sieving were performed. Methylene blue test was also executed in order to determine the clay fraction. Additionally, the mineral composition of powder samples and oriented samples was performed using XRD analysis in order to determine the clay minerals present in the blocks. As adobe blocks are extremely prone to the action of water the Geelong test was undertaken in order to provide information in terms of durability. It was concluded that air lime was generally used in adobe compositions. However, the clay content varies in adobes from different regions, providing distinct durability characteristics to these materials.

  7. Shock compression of simulated adobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, C. H.; Church, P. D.; Gould, P. J.; Stewart, B.; Jardine, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    A series of plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the shock response of a simulant for adobe, a traditional form of building material widely used around the world. Air dried bricks were sourced from the London brick company, dry machined and impacted at a range of velocities in a single stage gas gun. The shock Hugoniot was determined (Us =2.26up+0.37) as well as release information. The material was found to behave in a manner which was similar to that of loose sand and considerably less stiff than a weak porous sandstone. The effect of any cementing of the grains was examined by shocking powdered samples contained within a cell arrangement.

  8. The hen's egg chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) test to predict the ophthalmic irritation potential of a cysteamine-containing gel: Quantification using Photoshop® and ImageJ.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Barbara; Kay, Graeme; Matthews, Kerr H; Knott, Rachel M; Cairns, Donald

    2015-07-25

    A modified hen's egg chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) test has been developed, combining ImageJ analysis with Adobe(®) Photoshop(®). The irritation potential of an ophthalmic medicine can be quantified using this method, by monitoring damage to blood vessels. The evaluation of cysteamine containing hyaluronate gel is reported. The results demonstrated that the novel gel formulation is non-irritant to the ocular tissues, in line with saline solution (negative control). In conclusion, the modification of the established HET-CAM test can quantify the damage to minute blood vessels. These results offer the possibility to formulate cysteamine in an ocular applicable gel formulation.

  9. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3)) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3) were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  10. Residential Mercury Contamination in Adobe Brick Homes in Huancavelica, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB.; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m3) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production. PMID:24040399

  11. Physico-mechanical characterization of adobe bricks from Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, I.; Illampas, R.; Charmpis, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe bricks have been used in the construction of buildings for thousands of years. In our days, adobe masonry is no longer a prevailing form of construction. However, a great number of earthen buildings still survives in most regions of the world and constitutes an essential part of the international architectural and cultural heritage. Furthermore, efforts are currently being made to reintroduce adobes as an environmentally-friendly building material to contemporary architecture within the context of sustainable development. Despite the long-term use of adobes and their importance for the society, our knowledge of many aspects of this material is still rather limited. As a result, there are many ongoing research initiatives worldwide aiming to investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of adobe bricks and related durability problems. In this paper, we present our work (which is funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation Project EΠIXEIPHΣEIΣ/ΠPOION/0609/41, the Republic of Cyprus and the European Regional Development Fund) on the physico-mechanical characterization of adobes from Cyprus. In the absence of standardized procedures for most of the tests carried out, testing methodologies that either refer to other types of masonry materials and/or are encountered in the literature are adopted. The results show that adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in the X-ray diffraction analyses patterns. The average capillary water absorption coefficient of the test specimens rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1/2 (when measured against a saturated sponge surface), while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. Extensive experimental data on the material's mechanical behaviour show that adobes' response to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average value of compressive strength depends greatly on the form of specimen examined (cube, cylinder, prism) and the failure criterion

  12. Characterization, reproduction and optimization of traditional adobe bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Eftychiou, Marina; Costi de Castrillo, Maria; Illampas, Rogiros

    2013-04-01

    Adobe bricks were first introduced 10-12,000 years ago. Extensive use of the material throughout the centuries has led to strong local traditions of building with earth and has established adobe masonry as an important feature of the international architectural heritage. Today, despite no longer being a prevalent building material, adobes are still in use, since a number of earthen structures survive worldwide. Furthermore, the simplicity, low cost and almost negligible embodied energy associated with the production of adobes, as well as their good thermal and acoustic properties, render them an attractive option for use in contemporary sustainable construction. Therefore, several ongoing research projects internationally investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of traditional adobe bricks and the design/production of optimized adobes, with improved characteristics, for use in contemporary architecture. Here, we present ongoing research on adobe bricks carried out in the framework of the project E& IXEIPH EI / POION/0609/41, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus, through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. Our work focuses on the characterization of traditional adobes, their reproduction and optimization in the laboratory to produce materials with improved physicomechanical properties. Results up-to-date show that traditional adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in relevant X-ray diffraction analyses. The average capillary water absorption coefficient (measured against a saturated sponge surface) of samples collected from market suppliers rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1 -2, while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. The response of traditional adobes to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average compressive strength recorded depends on the form of test specimen (cube, cylinder, prism). Samples with aspect

  13. 25. MCDONALD RANCH: RUINS OF AN UNIDENTIFIED ADOBE OUTBUILDING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. MCDONALD RANCH: RUINS OF AN UNIDENTIFIED ADOBE OUTBUILDING WEST OF RANCH HOUSE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - White Sands Missile Range, Trinity Site, Vicinity of Routes 13 & 20, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  14. 20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, stood on the site later occupied by the Stroud Building. The Salt River Herald, Phoenix's first newspaper, was founded in 1878; in 1879, it became the Phoenix Herald. Prior to 1879, the adobe building served as the office for a stagecoach line operating between Maricopa and Prescott via Phoenix. Credit PPL. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. Digitally quantifying cerebral hemorrhage using Photoshop and Image J.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xian Nan; Berman, Ari Ethan; Swanson, Raymond Alan; Yenari, Midori Anne

    2010-07-15

    A spectrophotometric hemoglobin assay is widely used to estimate the extent of brain hemorrhage by measuring the amount of hemoglobin in the brain. However, this method requires using the entire brain sample, leaving none for histology or other assays. Other widely used measures of gross brain hemorrhage are generally semi-quantitative and can miss subtle differences. Semi-quantitative brain hemorrhage scales may also be subject to bias. Here, we present a method to digitally quantify brain hemorrhage using Photoshop and Image J, and compared this method to the spectrophotometric hemoglobin assay. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received varying amounts of autologous blood injected into the cerebral hemispheres in order to generate different sized hematomas. 24h later, the brains were harvested, sectioned, photographed then prepared for the hemoglobin assay. From the brain section photographs, pixels containing hemorrhage were identified by Photoshop and the optical intensity was measured by Image J. Identification of hemorrhage size using optical intensities strongly correlated to the hemoglobin assay (R=0.94). We conclude that our method can accurately quantify the extent of hemorrhage. An advantage of this technique is that brain tissue can be used for additional studies.

  16. The application of image processing software: Photoshop in environmental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Baohua; Zhang, Chunmi; Zhuo, Chen

    2011-02-01

    In the process of environmental design and creation, the design sketch holds a very important position in that it not only illuminates the design's idea and concept but also shows the design's visual effects to the client. In the field of environmental design, computer aided design has made significant improvement. Many types of specialized design software for environmental performance of the drawings and post artistic processing have been implemented. Additionally, with the use of this software, working efficiency has greatly increased and drawings have become more specific and more specialized. By analyzing the application of photoshop image processing software in environmental design and comparing and contrasting traditional hand drawing and drawing with modern technology, this essay will further explore the way for computer technology to play a bigger role in environmental design.

  17. Seeding Success on Topsoiled and Nontopsoiled Slopes at Adobe Dam,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    established from seed , [however seed germination inhibitors in the seed coat may result in a long dormancy period. Nord (1977) recommends soaking seed in...a species mix rather than a single species is advised (Plummer, Christenson, and Monsen 1968). Germination and purity of native seed species vary...AI S . I SEEDING SUCCESS ON TOPSO LED AND NONTOPSOILED SLOPES AT 11fADOBE DAM A) ARIZ NA STATE UNIV TEMPE CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES C WMOORE

  18. Collecting Response Times using Amazon Mechanical Turk and Adobe Flash

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Travis; Fiez, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Crowdsourcing systems like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) allow data to be collected from a large sample of people in a short amount of time. This use has garnered considerable interest from behavioral scientists. So far, most experiments conducted on AMT have focused on survey-type instruments because of difficulties inherent in running many experimental paradigms over the Internet. This article investigated the viability of presenting stimuli and collecting response times using Adobe Flash to run ActionScript 3 code in conjunction with AMT. First, the timing properties of Adobe Flash were investigated using a phototransistor and two desktop computers running under several conditions mimicking those that may be present in research using AMT. This experiment revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the timing capabilities of this method. Next, a flanker task and a lexical decision task implemented in Adobe Flash were administered to participants recruited with AMT. The expected effects in these tasks were replicated. Power analyses were conducted to describe the number of participants needed to replicate these effects. A questionnaire was used to investigate previously undescribed computer use habits of 100 participants on AMT. We conclude that a Flash program in conjunction with AMT can be successfully used for running many experimental paradigms that rely on response times, although experimenters must understand the limitations of the method. PMID:23670340

  19. Using Photoshop with images created by a confocal system.

    PubMed

    Sedgewick, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Many pure colors and grayscales tones that result from confocal imaging are not reproducible to output devices, such as printing presses, laptop projectors, and laser jet printers. Part of the difficulty in predicting the colors and tones that will reproduce lies in both the computer display, and in the display of unreproducible colors chosen for fluorophores. The use of a grayscale display for confocal channels and a LUT display to show saturated (clipped) tonal values aids visualization in the former instance and image integrity in the latter. Computer monitors used for post-processing in order to conform the image to the output device can be placed in darkened rooms, and the gamma for the display can be set to create darker shadow regions, and to control the display of color. These conditions aid in visualization of images so that blacks are set to grayer values that are more amenable to faithful reproduction. Preferences can be set in Photoshop for consistent display of colors, along with other settings to optimize use of memory. The Info window is opened so that tonal information can be shown via readouts. Images that are saved as indexed color are converted to grayscale or RGB Color, 16-bit is converted to 8-bit when desired, and colorized images from confocal software is returned to grayscale and re-colorized according to presented methods so that reproducible colors are made. Images may also be sharpened and noise may be reduced, or more than one image layered to show colocalization according to specific methods. Images are then converted to CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black) for consequent assignment of pigment percentages for printing presses. Changes to single images and multiple images from image stacks are automated for efficient and consistent image processing changes. Some additional changes are done to those images destined for 3D visualization to better separate regions of interest from background. Files are returned to image stacks, saved and

  20. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  1. Using Adobe Flash animations of electron transport chain to teach and learn biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the electron transport chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the electron transport chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching.

  2. Complete chromogen separation and analysis in double immunohistochemical stains using Photoshop-based image analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehr, H A; van der Loos, C M; Teeling, P; Gown, A M

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous detection of two different antigens on paraffin-embedded and frozen tissues can be accomplished by double immunohistochemistry. However, many double chromogen systems suffer from signal overlap, precluding definite signal quantification. To separate and quantitatively analyze the different chromogens, we imported images into a Macintosh computer using a CCD camera attached to a diagnostic microscope and used Photoshop software for the recognition, selection, and separation of colors. We show here that Photoshop-based image analysis allows complete separation of chromogens not only on the basis of their RGB spectral characteristics, but also on the basis of information concerning saturation, hue, and luminosity intrinsic to the digitized images. We demonstrate that Photoshop-based image analysis provides superior results compared to color separation using bandpass filters. Quantification of the individual chromogens is then provided by Photoshop using the Histogram command, which supplies information on the luminosity (corresponding to gray levels of black-and-white images) and on the number of pixels as a measure of spatial distribution. (J Histochem Cytochem 47:119-125, 1999)

  3. Revegetation Study of Adobe Dam, Phoenix, Arizona. Task 6. Evaluation of Three Watering and Mulching Techniques on Transplanted Trees at Adobe Dam.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-18

    describes the site characteristics of the Adobe Dam Study Area. Task No. 5 & 7 Seeding Success on Topsoiled and Hard Topspoles Slopes at Ddobe Dam". This...report presents statisfied analysis of the relative success of several seeding methods used at the Adobe Dam site. Task No.6 "Evaluation of three...8217,- ,_ _ .. _. ,’ .’ .’.- .. .. . . .’ .’. -" ". INTRODUCTION On denuded lands, harsh site conditions may render revegetation by seeding risky and the probability of seeding failure high

  4. Building code challenging the ethics behind adobe architecture in North Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Şahali, Öznem

    2015-04-01

    Adobe masonry is part of the vernacular architecture of Cyprus. Thus, it is possible to use this technology in a meaningful way on the island. On the other hand, although adobe architecture is more sustainable in comparison to other building technologies, the use of it is diminishing in North Cyprus. The application of Turkish building code in the north of the island has created complications in respect of the use of adobe masonry, because this building code demands that reinforced concrete vertical tie-beams are used together with adobe masonry. The use of reinforced concrete elements together with adobe masonry causes problems in relation to the climatic response of the building as well as causing other technical and aesthetic problems. This situation makes the design of adobe masonry complicated and various types of ethical problems also emerge. The objective of this article is to analyse the ethical problems which arise as a consequence of the restrictive character of the building code, by analysing two case studies and conducting an interview with an architect who was involved with the use of adobe masonry in North Cyprus. According to the results of this article there are ethical problems at various levels in the design of both case studies. These problems are connected to the responsibilities of architects in respect of the social benefit, material production, aesthetics and affordability of the architecture as well as presenting distrustful behaviour where the obligations of architects to their clients is concerned.

  5. A Technique Using Calibrated Photography and Photoshop for Accurate Shade Analysis and Communication.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Edward A; Figueira, Johan; Goldstein, Ronald E

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews the critical aspects of controlling the shade-taking environment and discusses various modalities introduced throughout the years to acquire and communicate shade information. Demonstrating a highly calibrated digital photographic technique for capturing shade information, this article shows how to use Photoshop® to standardize images and extract color information from the tooth and shade tab for use by a ceramist for an accurate shade-matching restoration.

  6. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  7. Revegetation Study of Adobe Dam, Phoenix, Arizona. Task 3. Revision. Revegetation Methods for Arid Areas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-18

    This report describes the site characteristics of the Adobe Dam Study Area. Task No. 5 & 7 Seeding Success on Topsoiled and Hard Topspoles Slopes at...Ddobe Dam". This report presents statisfied analysis of the relative success of several seeding methods used at the Adobe Dam site. Task No.6...to moisture stress , soil fertility and toxicity problems are also common on areas in need of revegetation. Several agencies deal successfully with

  8. Platelet-Associated CD40/CD154 Mediates Remote Tissue Damage After Mesenteric Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-27

    contribute to the severity of the disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus patients [10]. In a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis platelets...plasmacytoid dendritic cells in systemic lupus erythematosus . Sci Transl Med 2: 47ra63. 11. Andoh A, Yoshida T, Yagi Y, Bamba S, Hata K, et al. (2006...captured using Nikon Eclipse 80i microscope and adjusted using the adjustment feature in the RGB channel using Adobe Photoshop CS2 (Adobe Systems , San

  9. Photoshop(®) Assisted Spectroscopy: An Economical and Non-Destructive Method for Tracking Color Shift.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kristi; Herro, Holly

    Many historically and culturally significant objects from the mid-to-late 20(th) century were created with media which contains light sensitive dyes that present problems for collection custodians and conservators. The conservation staff at the National Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health, conducted a multi-phase project on the aging of ballpoint pen ink in a variety of enclosure types that ultimately culminated in the development of a new method to detect color shift in documents with light sensitive media. This article offers instructions on how to detect color shift in digitized materials using Photoshop® Assisted Spectroscopy.

  10. Photoshop® Assisted Spectroscopy: An Economical and Non-Destructive Method for Tracking Color Shift

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kristi; Herro, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Many historically and culturally significant objects from the mid-to-late 20th century were created with media which contains light sensitive dyes that present problems for collection custodians and conservators. The conservation staff at the National Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health, conducted a multi-phase project on the aging of ballpoint pen ink in a variety of enclosure types that ultimately culminated in the development of a new method to detect color shift in documents with light sensitive media. This article offers instructions on how to detect color shift in digitized materials using Photoshop® Assisted Spectroscopy. PMID:27182186

  11. Using Adobe Connect to Deliver Online Library Instruction to the RN to BSN Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a look at how one academic health sciences librarian brought mediated literature searching to the distance RN to BSN nursing students. It takes a look at why Adobe Connect was the webinar software that was selected to deliver online instruction to the students. The article explains how students participated in a pre-class survey…

  12. Building on Tradition: The Art of Adobe and the Revival of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Amanda; Swan, Susan

    2001-01-01

    A New Mexico foundation helps primarily Hispanic and American Indian communities restore adobe churches by supplying technical assistance and matching grants. Community leadership of the projects enhances volunteer commitment. The projects build community cohesiveness and pride, maintain local culture, foster intergenerational relations, teach…

  13. Vector Graphics for Web Lectures: Experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterl, Markus; Mertens, Robert; Vornberger, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe vector graphics for web lectures, focusing on the experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents experiences made during the development and everyday use of two versions of the lecture-recording system virtPresenter. The first of these versions is based on…

  14. Using Adobe Flash Animations of Electron Transport Chain to Teach and Learn Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash…

  15. Enriching Learning for First Year Chemistry Students: Introduction of Adobe Connect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Lye, Peter; Greatrex, Ben; Taylor, Michelle; Stupans, Ieva

    2013-01-01

    The study of chemistry is central within science and other associated degrees. At the University of New England in Armidale academics need to provide chemistry teaching in both a distance and the traditional on-campus mode within science and other degrees. This study explores the contribution that the adoption of Adobe Connect technology can make…

  16. Staying on Top of Your Game and Scoring Big with Adobe Presenter Multimedia Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koury, Regina; Francis, Marcia J.; Gray, Catherine J.; Jardine, Spencer J.; Guo, Ruiling

    2010-01-01

    In order to reach distance students in times of financial uncertainty, librarians must be creative. While much has been written about Camtasia, Captivate and Jing tutorial software, Adobe Presenter, a Microsoft PowerPoint plug-in, has not been discussed. This article describes how our library team created multimedia tutorial projects at Idaho…

  17. Improving CS regulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, R.J.; Scheer, R.M.; Marasco, A.L.; Furey, R.

    1980-10-01

    President Carter issued Executive Order 12044 (3/28/78) that required all Federal agencies to distinguish between significant and insignificant regulations, and to determine whether a regulation will result in major impacts. This study gathered information on the impact of the order and the guidelines on the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) regulatory practices, investigated problems encountered by the CS staff when implementing the order and guidelines, and recommended solutions to resolve these problems. Major tasks accomplished and discussed are: (1) legislation, Executive Orders, and DOE Memoranda concerning Federal administrative procedures relevant to the development and analysis of regulations within CS reviewed; (2) relevant DOE Orders and Memoranda analyzed and key DOE and CS staff interviewed in order to accurately describe the current CS regulatory process; (3) DOE staff from the Office of the General Counsel, the Office of Policy and Evaluation, the Office of the Environment, and the Office of the Secretary interviewed to explore issues and problems encountered with current CS regulatory practices; (4) the regulatory processes at five other Federal agencies reviewed in order to see how other agencies have approached the regulatory process, dealt with specific regulatory problems, and responded to the Executive Order; and (5) based on the results of the preceding four tasks, recommendations for potential solutions to the CS regulatory problems developed. (MCW)

  18. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-04-01

    Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg)-contaminated urban areas in the world. Exposure is amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. The objectives of this study were to compare two Hg-leaching procedures, and their application as risk-assessment screening tools in Hg-contaminated adobe brick homes in Huancavelica. The purpose was to evaluate potential health implications, particularly for children, after ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. Hg was measured in adobe brick and dirt floor samples from 60 households by total Hg extraction, simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction, and sequential selective extraction (SSE), which provides more detailed data but is resource-intensive. Most of the Hg present in samples was relatively insoluble, although in some households soluble Hg species were present at concentrations that may be of concern after ingestion. A strong correlation was identified between results from simulated GF extraction of adobe bricks and dirt floors and the more soluble fractions of Hg from SSE. Simulated GF extraction data were combined with ingestion and body mass characteristics for small children to compare potential risk of ingestion of Hg-contaminated soil with current health standards. Simulated GF extraction can be used as a risk assessment screening tool for effective allocation of time and resources to households that have measurable concentrations of bioaccessible Hg. Combining simulated GF extraction data with health standards enables intervention strategies targeted at households with the greatest potential health threat from ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles.

  19. EXTRAGALACTIC CS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bayet, E.; Viti, S.; Aladro, R.; MartIn, S.; MartIn-Pintado, J.

    2009-12-10

    We present a coherent and homogeneous multi-line study of the CS molecule in nearby (D < 10 Mpc) galaxies. We include, from the literature, all the available observations from the J = 1-0 to the J = 7-6 transitions toward NGC 253, NGC 1068, IC 342, Henize 2-10, M 82, the Antennae Galaxies, and M 83. We have, for the first time, detected the CS(7-6) line in NGC 253, M 82 (both in the northeast and southwest molecular lobes), NGC 4038, M 83 and tentatively in NGC 1068, IC 342, and Henize 2-10. We use the CS molecule as a tracer of the densest gas component of the interstellar medium in extragalactic star-forming regions, following previous theoretical and observational studies by Bayet et al. In this first paper out of a series, we analyze the CS data sample under both local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE (large velocity gradient) approximations. We show that except for M 83 and Overlap (a shifted gas-rich position from the nucleus NGC 4039 in the Antennae Galaxies), the observations in NGC 253, IC 342, M 82-NE, M 82-SW, and NGC 4038 are not well reproduced by a single set of gas component properties and that, at least, two gas components are required. For each gas component, we provide estimates of the corresponding kinetic temperature, total CS column density, and gas density.

  20. Application of photoshop-based image analysis to quantification of hormone receptor expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lehr, H A; Mankoff, D A; Corwin, D; Santeusanio, G; Gown, A M

    1997-11-01

    The benefit of quantifying estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in breast cancer is well established. However, in routine breast cancer diagnosis, receptor expression is often quantified in arbitrary scores with high inter- and intraobserver variability. In this study we tested the validity of an image analysis system employing inexpensive, commercially available computer software on a personal computer. In a series of 28 invasive ductal breast cancers, immunohistochemical determinations of ER and PR were performed, along with biochemical analyses on fresh tumor homogenates, by the dextran-coated charcoal technique (DCC) and by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). From each immunohistochemical slide, three representative tumor fields (x20 objective) were captured and digitized with a Macintosh personal computer. Using the tools of Photoshop software, optical density plots of tumor cell nuclei were generated and, after background subtraction, were used as an index of immunostaining intensity. This immunostaining index showed a strong semilogarithmic correlation with biochemical receptor assessments of ER (DCC, r = 0.70, p < 0.001; EIA, r = 0.76, p < 0.001) and even better of PR (DCC, r = 0.86; p < 0.01; EIA, r = 0.80, p < 0.001). A strong linear correlation of ER and PR quantification was also seen between DCC and EIA techniques (ER, r = 0.62, p < 0.001; PR, r = 0.92, p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that a simple, inexpensive, commercially available software program can be accurately applied to the quantification of immunohistochemical hormone receptor studies.

  1. Activation of CS2 and CS by ML3 complexes.

    PubMed

    Ariafard, Alireza; Brookes, Nigel J; Stranger, Robert; Yates, Brian F

    2008-09-10

    The aim of this study was to determine the best neutral ML3 metal complexes for activating and cleaving the multiple bonds in CS2 and CS. Current experimental results show that, so far, only one bond in CS2 can be cleaved, and that CS can be activated but the bond is not broken. In the work described in this paper, density functional theory calculations have been used to evaluate the effectiveness of different ML3 complexes to activate the C-S bonds in CS2 and CS, with M = Mo, Re, W, and Ta and L = NH2. These calculations show that the combination of Re and Ta in the L3Re/CS2/TaL3 complex would be the most promising system for the cleavage of both C-S bonds of CS2. The reaction to cleave both C-S bonds is predicted to be exothermic by about 700 kJ mol(-1) and to proceed in an almost barrierless fashion. In addition, we are able to rationalize why the breaking of the C-S bond in CS has not been observed experimentally with M = Mo: this reaction is strongly endothermic. There is a subtle interplay between charge transfer and pi back-donation, and it appears that the Mo-C and Mo-S bonds are not strong enough to compensate for the breaking of the C-S bond. Our results suggest that, instead, CS could be cleaved with ReL3 or, even better, with a combination of ReL3 and TaL3. Molecular orbitals and Mulliken charges have been used to help explain these trends and to make predictions about the most promising systems for future experimental exploration.

  2. Adobe acrobat: an alternative electronic teaching file construction methodology independent of HTML restrictions.

    PubMed

    Katzman, G L

    2001-03-01

    The goal of the project was to create a method by which an in-house digital teaching file could be constructed that was simple, inexpensive, independent of hypertext markup language (HTML) restrictions, and appears identical on multiple platforms. To accomplish this, Microsoft PowerPoint and Adobe Acrobat were used in succession to assemble digital teaching files in the Acrobat portable document file format. They were then verified to appear identically on computers running Windows, Macintosh Operating Systems (OS), and the Silicon Graphics Unix-based OS as either a free-standing file using Acrobat Reader software or from within a browser window using the Acrobat browser plug-in. This latter display method yields a file viewed through a browser window, yet remains independent of underlying HTML restrictions, which may confer an advantage over simple HTML teaching file construction. Thus, a hybrid of HTML-distributed Adobe Acrobat generated WWW documents may be a viable alternative for digital teaching file construction and distribution.

  3. Semi-automated relative quantification of cell culture contamination with mycoplasma by Photoshop-based image analysis on immunofluorescence preparations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Yerneni, Lakshmana K

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma contamination in cell culture is a serious setback for the cell-culturist. The experiments undertaken using contaminated cell cultures are known to yield unreliable or false results due to various morphological, biochemical and genetic effects. Earlier surveys revealed incidences of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures to range from 15 to 80%. Out of a vast array of methods for detecting mycoplasma in cell culture, the cytological methods directly demonstrate the contaminating organism present in association with the cultured cells. In this investigation, we report the adoption of a cytological immunofluorescence assay (IFA), in an attempt to obtain a semi-automated relative quantification of contamination by employing the user-friendly Photoshop-based image analysis. The study performed on 77 cell cultures randomly collected from various laboratories revealed mycoplasma contamination in 18 cell cultures simultaneously by IFA and Hoechst DNA fluorochrome staining methods. It was observed that the Photoshop-based image analysis on IFA stained slides was very valuable as a sensitive tool in providing quantitative assessment on the extent of contamination both per se and in comparison to cellularity of cell cultures. The technique could be useful in estimating the efficacy of anti-mycoplasma agents during decontaminating measures.

  4. Adobe InDesign vs. QuarkXPress and PageMaker: The Best of Both Worlds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the newly released Adobe InDesign software, finding that while it brings new life into desktop publishing, it is not yet a "must buy" for publications advisers. Compares specific features that are relevant for student publications, including: character, paragraph, drop caps, define styles, page setup, text wrap, defining and using…

  5. 75 FR 60820 - United States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the Antitrust Procedures and Penalties Act, 15 U.S.C. 16(b)-(h), that a proposed Final...

  6. Mentoring and the 6Cs.

    PubMed

    Young, Lorna

    2016-02-10

    As a staff nurse in a rehabilitation unit, I have been involved in patient care initiatives using the 6Cs of nursing: care, compassion, competence, communication, courage and commitment. However, I had not appreciated the benefits of using the 6Cs of nursing in the mentorship role.

  7. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community.

  8. Radon and thoron levels, their spatial and seasonal variations in adobe dwellings - a case study at the great Hungarian plain.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba; Horváth, Ákos; Holm, Óskar; Kocsy, Gábor; Csige, István; Szabó, Péter; Homoki, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Radon and thoron isotopes are responsible for approximately half of the average annual effective dose to humans. Although the half-life of thoron is short, it can potentially enter indoor air from adobe walls. Adobe was a traditional construction material in the Great Hungarian Plain. Its major raw materials are the alluvial sediments of the area. Here, seasonal radon and thoron activity concentrations were measured in 53 adobe dwellings in 7 settlements by pairs of etched track detectors. The results show that the annual average radon and thoron activity concentrations are elevated in these dwellings and that the proportions with values higher than 300 Bq m(-3) are 14-17 and 29-32% for radon and thoron, respectively. The calculated radon inhalation dose is significantly higher than the world average value, exceeding 10 mSv y(-1) in 7% of the dwellings of this study. Thoron also can be a significant contributor to the inhalation dose with about 30% in the total inhalation dose. The changes of weather conditions seem to be more relevant in the variation of measurement results than the differences in the local sedimentary geology. Still, the highest values were detected on clay. Through the year, radon follows the average temperature changes and is affected by the ventilation, whereas thoron rather seems to follow the amount of precipitation.

  9. Bandhead Energies in 125Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ji; Hu, Xue-Yuan; Ma, Ying-Jun; Liu, Yun-Zuo; Tetsuro, Komatsubara; Kohei, Furuno; Zhang, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Wen-Ping; Wang, Shou-Yu

    Excited states in 125Cs have been studied with the fusion-evaporation-reaction 116Cd(14N,5n)125Cs at 65 MeV beam energy, using the Nordball-multidetector-system at the Niels-Bohr-Institute in Denmark. The level scheme of 125Cs was extended with the addition of more than 40 new γ-transitions. Moreover, the bandhead excitation energies of the previously known g9/2 and h11/2 bands were unambiguously corrected with plenty of hard evidence.

  10. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems.

  11. Presentation and response timing accuracy in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Web-based research is becoming ubiquitous in the behavioral sciences, facilitated by convenient, readily available participant pools and relatively straightforward ways of running experiments: most recently, through the development of the HTML5 standard. Although in most studies participants give untimed responses, there is a growing interest in being able to record response times online. Existing data on the accuracy and cross-machine variability of online timing measures are limited, and generally they have compared behavioral data gathered on the Web with similar data gathered in the lab. For this article, we took a more direct approach, examining two ways of running experiments online-Adobe Flash and HTML5 with CSS3 and JavaScript-across 19 different computer systems. We used specialist hardware to measure stimulus display durations and to generate precise response times to visual stimuli in order to assess measurement accuracy, examining effects of duration, browser, and system-to-system variability (such as across different Windows versions), as well as effects of processing power and graphics capability. We found that (a) Flash and JavaScript's presentation and response time measurement accuracy are similar; (b) within-system variability is generally small, even in low-powered machines under high load; (c) the variability of measured response times across systems is somewhat larger; and (d) browser type and system hardware appear to have relatively small effects on measured response times. Modeling of the effects of this technical variability suggests that for most within- and between-subjects experiments, Flash and JavaScript can both be used to accurately detect differences in response times across conditions. Concerns are, however, noted about using some correlational or longitudinal designs online.

  12. Influence of geological features (geochemistry and mineralogy) of soil wich constitutes adobes in their durability - Huambo, Angola.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Isabel; Pedro, Elsa; Varum, Humberto; Mirão, José; Pinho, António

    2014-05-01

    After long years of war, great efforts have been made for the socio-economic development of Angola, mainly in the construction industry. Among the construction techniques, the Adobe is the most used in the province of Huambo, especially by low-income families, which constitute the majority. This technique was established as a historical heritage in the culture of that population. The Huambo province is located in the central region of Angola (Central Plateau) and is bounded on the northeast and east by the province of Bié, on the south and southern by province of Huila, and on the west by the province of Benguela and on the northwest by the province of Kwanza Sul. Has an area of 35,771 km2 and approximately 2,301,524 inhabitants, which corresponds to 58 inhabitants per km2 (Government of the Province of Huambo, 2006). The buildings in this province, particularly in rural areas, were deeply marked by war. Given the current scenario of development of the country and considering the possibility of integrate systems and traditional building materials, that respect the environment and fit harmoniously into its natural habitat, one of the alternative options in the actual construction, undergoes resume old solutions and traditional materials such as adobe construction.It is in this context that this project is part of a scientific research in order to permit the improvement and optimization of these traditional solutions, responding to current demands for social, economic and environmental sustainability. The adobe is a building element with potential degradation by water. Due to the climate, subtropical, hot and humid, and geomorphology of the province, about 1000 to 2000 meters of altitude and an extensive river system, these buildings can be vulnerable and present early degradation, exacerbated by lack of knowledge of the properties of geomaterials used and techniques that allow their stabilization and conservation. This paper aims to study the influence of

  13. A comparative study between xerographic, computer-assisted overlay generation and animated-superimposition methods in bite mark analyses.

    PubMed

    Tai, Meng Wei; Chong, Zhen Feng; Asif, Muhammad Khan; Rahmat, Rabiah A; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran

    2016-09-01

    This study was to compare the suitability and precision of xerographic and computer-assisted methods for bite mark investigations. Eleven subjects were asked to bite on their forearm and the bite marks were photographically recorded. Alginate impressions of the subjects' dentition were taken and their casts were made using dental stone. The overlays generated by xerographic method were obtained by photocopying the subjects' casts and the incisal edge outlines were then transferred on a transparent sheet. The bite mark images were imported into Adobe Photoshop® software and printed to life-size. The bite mark analyses using xerographically generated overlays were done by comparing an overlay to the corresponding printed bite mark images manually. In computer-assisted method, the subjects' casts were scanned into Adobe Photoshop®. The bite mark analyses using computer-assisted overlay generation were done by matching an overlay and the corresponding bite mark images digitally using Adobe Photoshop®. Another comparison method was superimposing the cast images with corresponding bite mark images employing the Adobe Photoshop® CS6 and GIF-Animator©. A score with a range of 0-3 was given during analysis to each precision-determining criterion and the score was increased with better matching. The Kruskal Wallis H test showed significant difference between the three sets of data (H=18.761, p<0.05). In conclusion, bite mark analysis using the computer-assisted animated-superimposition method was the most accurate, followed by the computer-assisted overlay generation and lastly the xerographic method. The superior precision contributed by digital method is discernible despite the human skin being a poor recording medium of bite marks.

  14. Ultrasound estimates of muscle quality in older adults: reliability and comparison of Photoshop and ImageJ for the grayscale analysis of muscle echogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Seamon, Bryant A.; Teixeira, Carla; Ismail, Catheeja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Quantitative diagnostic ultrasound imaging has been proposed as a method of estimating muscle quality using measures of echogenicity. The Rectangular Marquee Tool (RMT) and the Free Hand Tool (FHT) are two types of editing features used in Photoshop and ImageJ for determining a region of interest (ROI) within an ultrasound image. The primary objective of this study is to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of Photoshop and ImageJ for the estimate of muscle tissue echogenicity in older adults via grayscale histogram analysis. The secondary objective is to compare the mean grayscale values obtained using both the RMT and FHT methods across both image analysis platforms. Methods. This cross-sectional observational study features 18 community-dwelling men (age = 61.5 ± 2.32 years). Longitudinal views of the rectus femoris were captured using B-mode ultrasound. The ROI for each scan was selected by 2 examiners using the RMT and FHT methods from each software program. Their reliability is assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the standard error of the measurement (SEM). Measurement agreement for these values is depicted using Bland-Altman plots. A paired t-test is used to determine mean differences in echogenicity expressed as grayscale values using the RMT and FHT methods to select the post-image acquisition ROI. The degree of association among ROI selection methods and image analysis platforms is analyzed using the coefficient of determination (R2). Results. The raters demonstrated excellent intrarater and interrater reliability using the RMT and FHT methods across both platforms (lower bound 95% CI ICC = .97–.99, p < .001). Mean differences between the echogenicity estimates obtained with the RMT and FHT methods was .87 grayscale levels (95% CI [.54–1.21], p < .0001) using data obtained with both programs. The SEM for Photoshop was .97 and 1.05 grayscale levels when using the RMT and FHT ROI selection methods

  15. Ultrasound estimates of muscle quality in older adults: reliability and comparison of Photoshop and ImageJ for the grayscale analysis of muscle echogenicity.

    PubMed

    Harris-Love, Michael O; Seamon, Bryant A; Teixeira, Carla; Ismail, Catheeja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Quantitative diagnostic ultrasound imaging has been proposed as a method of estimating muscle quality using measures of echogenicity. The Rectangular Marquee Tool (RMT) and the Free Hand Tool (FHT) are two types of editing features used in Photoshop and ImageJ for determining a region of interest (ROI) within an ultrasound image. The primary objective of this study is to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of Photoshop and ImageJ for the estimate of muscle tissue echogenicity in older adults via grayscale histogram analysis. The secondary objective is to compare the mean grayscale values obtained using both the RMT and FHT methods across both image analysis platforms. Methods. This cross-sectional observational study features 18 community-dwelling men (age = 61.5 ± 2.32 years). Longitudinal views of the rectus femoris were captured using B-mode ultrasound. The ROI for each scan was selected by 2 examiners using the RMT and FHT methods from each software program. Their reliability is assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the standard error of the measurement (SEM). Measurement agreement for these values is depicted using Bland-Altman plots. A paired t-test is used to determine mean differences in echogenicity expressed as grayscale values using the RMT and FHT methods to select the post-image acquisition ROI. The degree of association among ROI selection methods and image analysis platforms is analyzed using the coefficient of determination (R (2)). Results. The raters demonstrated excellent intrarater and interrater reliability using the RMT and FHT methods across both platforms (lower bound 95% CI ICC = .97-.99, p < .001). Mean differences between the echogenicity estimates obtained with the RMT and FHT methods was .87 grayscale levels (95% CI [.54-1.21], p < .0001) using data obtained with both programs. The SEM for Photoshop was .97 and 1.05 grayscale levels when using the RMT and FHT ROI selection methods

  16. CHeCS Commanding Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) commanding hardware. It includes information on the hardware status, commanding plan, and command training status with specific information the EV-CPDS 2 and 3, TEPC, MEC, and T2

  17. ITER CS Intermodule Support Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Myatt, R.; Freudenberg, Kevin D

    2011-01-01

    With five independently driven, bi-polarity power supplies, the modules of the ITER central solenoid (CS) can be energized in aligned or opposing field directions. This sets up the possibility for repelling modules, which indeed occurs, particularly between CS2L and CS3L around the End of Burn (EOB) time point. Light interface compression between these two modules at EOB and wide variations in these coil currents throughout the pulse produce a tendency for relative motion or slip. Ideally, the slip is purely radial as the modules breathe without any accumulative translational motion. In reality, however, asymmetries such as nonuniformity in intermodule friction, lateral loads from a plasma Vertical Disruption Event (VDE), magnetic forces from manufacturing and assembly tolerances, and earthquakes can all contribute to a combination of radial and lateral module motion. This paper presents 2D and 3D, nonlinear, ANSYS models which simulate these various asymmetries and determine the lateral forces which must be carried by the intermodule structure. Summing all of these asymmetric force contributions leads to a design-basis lateral load which is used in the design of various support concepts: the CS-CDR centering rings and a variation, the 2001 FDR baseline radial keys, and interlocking castles structures. Radial key-type intermodule structure interface slip and stresses are tracked through multiple 15 MA scenario current pulses to demonstrate stable motion following the first few cycles. Detractions and benefits of each candidate intermodule structure are discussed, leading to the simplest and most robust configuration which meets the design requirements: match-drilled radial holes and pin-shaped keys.

  18. Economic assessment and pathogenic bacteria inhibition of bovine hide presoaking solutions formulated with enzymes that can remove adobe-type manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presoaking formulations that have recently been developed are effective in removing the damaging adobe type bovine manure and eco-friendly because the ingredients used are recycled and required only a quarter of the amount of biocide and surfactant that the industry is commonly using. The goal ...

  19. Using built-in functions of Adobe Acrobat Pro DC to help the selection process in systematic reviews of randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Nur, Selin; Adams, Clive E; Brailsford, David F

    2016-02-18

    This letter describes a simple way of using Adobe Acrobat Pro DC to help select and auto-extract data from Portable Document Format (PDFs) of randomised trials in order to assist swift early selection of trials for a systematic review.

  20. Using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones for psychological research: Reaction time measurement reliability and interdevice variability.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2008-11-01

    Mobile telephones have significant potential for use in psychological research, possessing unique characteristics-not least their ubiquity--that may make them useful tools for psychologists. We examined whether it is possible to measure reaction times (RTs) accurately using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones. We ran simple and choice RT experiments on two widely available mobile phones, a Nokia 6110 Navigator and a Sony Ericsson W810i, using a wireless application protocol (WAP) connection to access the Internet from the devices. RTs were compared within subjects with those obtained using a Linux-based millisecond-accurate measurement system. Results show that measured RTs were significantly longer on mobile devices, and that overall RTs and distribution of RTs varied across devices.

  1. Collage with Photoshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparkman, Russell

    The creative processes of 14 computer graphic artists are recorded in this book. Artists represented include: Joseph Kelter; Glenn Mitsui; Diane Fenster; Steve Lyons; Jeff Brice; Thirst; Pamela Hobbs; Lance Hidy; SKOLOS/WEDELL; Marcolina Design/Dan Marcolina; John Hersey; David Carson; Bert Monroy; and Jack Davis. The narrative provides insight…

  2. Reactive barriers for {sup 137}Cs retention

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19

    {sup 137}Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of {sup 137}Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half life of {sup 137}Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if {sup 137}Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with {sup 135}Cs (half life 2.3x10{sup 6} years) in addition to {sup 137}Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention Cs resorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO{sub 3} and LiCl washes. Washed clay were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F- 111 were similar; 0.017 to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12 to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake so most soils have some limited ability to act as a natural barrier to Cs migration. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt ({approximately} 0.33 wt% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artificial reactive barriers.

  3. Tracking Color Shift in Ballpoint Pen Ink Using Photoshop Assisted Spectroscopy: A Nondestructive Technique Developed to Rehouse a Nobel Laureate's Manuscript

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kristi; Herro, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Many historically and culturally significant documents from the mid-to-late twentieth century were written in ballpoint pen inks, which contain light-sensitive dyes that present problems for collection custodians and paper conservators. The conservation staff at the National Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health, conducted a multiphase project on the chemistry and aging of ballpoint pen ink that culminated in the development of a new method to detect aging of ballpoint pen ink while examining a variety of storage environments. NLM staff determined that ballpoint pen ink color shift can be detected noninvasively using image editing software. Instructions are provided on how to detect color shift in digitized materials using a technique developed specifically for this project—Photoshop Assisted Spectroscopy.1 The study results offer collection custodians storage options for historic documents containing ballpoint pen ink. PMID:27587904

  4. Tracking Color Shift in Ballpoint Pen Ink Using Photoshop Assisted Spectroscopy: A Nondestructive Technique Developed to Rehouse a Nobel Laureate's Manuscript.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kristi; Herro, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Many historically and culturally significant documents from the mid-to-late twentieth century were written in ballpoint pen inks, which contain light-sensitive dyes that present problems for collection custodians and paper conservators. The conservation staff at the National Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health, conducted a multiphase project on the chemistry and aging of ballpoint pen ink that culminated in the development of a new method to detect aging of ballpoint pen ink while examining a variety of storage environments. NLM staff determined that ballpoint pen ink color shift can be detected noninvasively using image editing software. Instructions are provided on how to detect color shift in digitized materials using a technique developed specifically for this project-Photoshop Assisted Spectroscopy.(1) The study results offer collection custodians storage options for historic documents containing ballpoint pen ink.

  5. On the detection of adobe buried archaeological structures using multiscale remote sensing techniques : Piramide Naranja in Cahuachi (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.; Lasaponara, R.; Orefici, G.

    2009-04-01

    The detection of buried adobe structures is a crucial issue for the remote sensing (ground, aerial and satellite) applied to archaeology for the widespread of sun-dried earth as building material in several ancient civilizations in Central and Southern America, Middle East and North Africa. Moreover it is complex, due to the subtle contrast existing between the archaeological features and the surrounding, especially in arid setting, as in the case of the well know Nazca Ceremonial Centre of Cahuachi, located in the desert of Nazca (Southern Peru) . During the last two decades of excavations adobe monuments dating back from the 6th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D have been highlighted by the Centro de Estudios Arqueológicos Precolombinos (CEAP), an italian-peruvian mission directed by Giuseppe Orefici. Actually, the archaeologists are excavating and restoring the core of the Ceremonial centre where is located a great pyramid (kown as Gran Piramide). Beginning from 2007 the two institutes of CNR, IMAA and IBAM, have been involved by CEAP, in order to provide a scientific and technological support for the archaeological research. Therefore, a multi-scale approach based on the integration of aerial and satellite remote sensing with geophysical techniques was employed in order to provide data useful for archaeological excavations. The abstract refers to the last investigations performed on a mound, known as "Piramide Naranja", during the 2008. The processing of an aerial imagery time series and two QuickBird satellite images acquired in 2002 and 2005, allowed for identifying some features related to shallow and buried structures. Such features were verified by means of geophysical prospections, performed by using the magnetometric method which observed changes in the magnetic field within the first few metres beneath the subsurface detecting buried walls and anomalies linked to ceramic deposits referable to possible tombs. Finally, the integration of all data

  6. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  7. Memory Is Not Extinguished along with CS Presentation but within a Few Seconds after CS-Offset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Cuesta, Luis Maria; Hepp, Yanil; Pedreira, Maria Eugenia; Maldonado, Hector

    2007-01-01

    Prior work with the crab's contextual memory model showed that CS-US conditioned animals undergoing an unreinforced CS presentation would either reconsolidate or extinguish the CS-US memory, depending on the length of the reexposure to the CS. Either memory process is only triggered once the CS is terminated. Based on these results, the following…

  8. The "Seven Cs" for Employee Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Sherrie Gong

    2001-01-01

    Defines the "Seven Cs," traditional yet effective business fundamentals used to engage employees. Discusses how many companies are leveraging the basics of good employee relations in order to inspire staff productivity and loyalty. (GCP)

  9. PyCS : Python Curve Shifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewes, Malte

    2015-09-01

    PyCS is a software toolbox to estimate time delays between multiple images of strongly lensed quasars, from resolved light curves such as obtained by the COSMOGRAIL monitoring program. The pycs package defines a collection of classes and high level functions, that you can script in a flexible way. PyCS makes it easy to compare different point estimators (including your own) without much code integration. The package heavily depends on numpy, scipy, and matplotlib.

  10. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%–52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  11. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-07

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure (135)Cs, there were no (135)Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited (135)Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of (134)Cs, (135)Cs, and (137)Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace (135)Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%-52.6%. The obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  12. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%–52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future. PMID:27052481

  13. Cs(3)Sm(7)Se(12).

    PubMed

    Schneck, Christof; Elbe, Andreas; Schurz, Christian M; Schleid, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, tricaesium hepta-samarium(III) dodeca-selenide, is setting a new starting point for realization of the channel structure of the Cs(3)M(7)Se(12) series, now with M = Sm, Gd-Er. This Cs(3)Y(7)Se(12)-type arrangement is structurally based on the Z-type sesquiselenides M(2)Se(3) adopting the Sc(2)S(3) structure. Thus, the structural set-up of Cs(3)Sm(7)Se(12) consists of edge- and vertex-connected [SmSe(6)](9-) octa-hedra [d(Ø)(Sm(3+) - Se(2-)) = 2.931 Å], forming a rock-salt-related network [Sm(7)Se(12)](3-) with channels along [001] that are apt to take up monovalent cations (here Cs(+)) with coordination numbers of 7 + 1 for one and of 6 for the second cation. The latter cation has a trigonal-prismatic coordination and shows half-occupancy, resulting in an impossible short distance [2.394 (4) Å] between symmetrically coupled Cs(+) cations of the same kind. While one Sm atom occupies Wyckoff position 2b with site symmetry ..2/m, all other 11 crystallographically different atoms (namely 2 × Cs, 3 × Sm and 6 × Se) are located at Wyckoff positions 4g with site symmetry ..m.

  14. Fast CsI-phoswich detector

    DOEpatents

    Langenbrunner, J.R.

    1996-05-07

    An improved phoswich radiation detector used pure CsI crystal and a fast plastic scintillator and a single photomultiplier tube. The plastic is arranged to receive incident radiation, and that which passed through then strikes the CsI crystal. Scintillation light from both the plastic and CsI crystal are applied to the photomultiplier tube, with the light from the plastic passing through the crystal without absorption therein. Electronics are provided for analyzing the output of the photomultiplier tube to discriminate responses due to the plastic and the CsI crystal, through short gate and long gate integration, to produce results which are indicative of the characteristics of the different types of incident radiation, even in the presence of large amounts of radiation. The phoswich detector has excellent timing resolution. The scintillators of the CsI- phoswich were chosen for their fast risetimes, of about 3 ns for NE102A, and 30 ns for the pure CsI. 5 figs.

  15. Fast CsI-phoswich detector

    DOEpatents

    Langenbrunner, James R.

    1996-01-01

    An improved phoswich radiation detector used pure CsI crystal and a fast plastic scintillator and a single photomultiplier tube. The plastic is arranged to receive incident radiation, and that which passed through then strikes the CsI crystal. Scintillation light from both the plastic and CsI crystal are applied to the photomultiplier tube, with the light from the plastic passing through the crystal without absorption therein. Electronics are provided for analyzing the output of the photomultiplier tube to discriminate responses due to the plastic and the CsI crystal, through short gate and long gate integration, to produce results which are indicative of the characteristics of the different types of incident radiation, even in the presence of large amounts of radiation. The phoswich detector has excellent timing resolution. The scintillators of the CsI- phoswich were chosen for their fast risetimes, of about 3 ns for NE102A, and 30 ns for the pure CsI.

  16. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) in rice fractions during polishing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Okunishi, Tomoya; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the distribution of cesium-134 ((134)Cs) and cesium-137 ((137)Cs) during polishing and cooking of rice to obtain their processing factors (Pf) and food processing retention factors (Fr) to make the information available for an adequate understanding of radioactive Cs dynamics. Polishing brown rice resulted in a decreased radioactive Cs concentration of the polished rice, but the bran and germ (outer layers) exhibited higher concentrations than brown rice. The Pf values for 100% polished rice and outer layers ranged from 0.47 to 0.48 and 6.5 to 7.8, respectively. The Fr values for 100% polished rice and outer layers were 0.43 and 0.58 to 0.60, respectively. The distribution of radioactive Cs in polished rice and outer layers was estimated at approximately 40 and 60%, respectively. On the other hand, cooked rice showed significantly lower levels of radioactive Cs than polished rice, and transfer of radioactive Cs into wash water was observed. The Pf and Fr values for cooked rice were 0.28 and 0.65 to 0.66, respectively. From these results, we can calculate that if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice is 100 Bq/kg, the concentrations of Cs in polished rice and cooked rice will be 47 to 48 Bq/kg and 13 Bq/kg, respectively.

  17. A comparative study of 2 computer-assisted methods of quantifying brightfield microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Tse, George H; Marson, Lorna P

    2013-10-01

    Immunohistochemistry continues to be a powerful tool for the detection of antigens. There are several commercially available software packages that allow image analysis; however, these can be complex, require relatively high level of computer skills, and can be expensive. We compared 2 commonly available software packages, Adobe Photoshop CS6 and ImageJ, in their ability to quantify percentage positive area after picrosirius red (PSR) staining and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. On analysis of DAB-stained B cells in the mouse spleen, with a biotinylated primary rat anti-mouse-B220 antibody, there was no significant difference on converting images from brightfield microscopy to binary images to measure black and white pixels using ImageJ compared with measuring a range of brown pixels with Photoshop (Student t test, P=0.243, correlation r=0.985). When analyzing mouse kidney allografts stained with PSR, Photoshop achieved a greater interquartile range while maintaining a lower 10th percentile value compared with analysis with ImageJ. A lower 10% percentile reflects that Photoshop analysis is better at analyzing tissues with low levels of positive pixels; particularly relevant for control tissues or negative controls, whereas after ImageJ analysis the same images would result in spuriously high levels of positivity. Furthermore comparing the 2 methods by Bland-Altman plot revealed that these 2 methodologies did not agree when measuring images with a higher percentage of positive staining and correlation was poor (r=0.804). We conclude that for computer-assisted analysis of images of DAB-stained tissue there is no difference between using Photoshop or ImageJ. However, for analysis of color images where differentiation into a binary pattern is not easy, such as with PSR, Photoshop is superior at identifying higher levels of positivity while maintaining differentiation of low levels of positive staining.

  18. Potential role of CS2 photooxidation in tropospheric sulfur chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wine, P. H.; Chameides, W. L.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Absorption cross section measurements and model calculations indicate that CS2 photooxidation may be an important tropospheric sink for the CS2, giving a lifetime on the order of a week or two. If background CS2 levels are 10-20 pptv, then CS2 photooxidation may be an important global source of OCS as well.

  19. A biokinetic model for {sup 137}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    An improved biokinetic model for {sup 137}Cs in humans was developed based on an analysis of data obtained from individuals internally contaminated during an accident in Goiania, Brazil, and other data. Seventeen children (ten girls and seven boys 1-10 y old), ten adolescents (four females and six males), and thirty adults, (fifteen females and fifteen males) contaminated in the accident in Goiania contributed to this study. {sup 137}Cs retention was determined through periodic measurements in a whole-body counter. In addition to the data on {sup 137}Cs retention from these individuals, data from a study on the metabolism of {sup 137}Cs in immature, adult, and aged Beagle dogs and data from the literature were used in the formulation of the {sup 137}Cs biokinetic model presented. Mathematically, the retention of cesium is described by three exponential terms, and the retention model is based on a step function of body weight. When the ICRP Publication 56 model for cesium was compared to the model suggested in this paper, it was determined that the ICRP model predicts lower effective doses in 5-y-old children and higher effective doses in infants, adolescents, and adults.

  20. CS Unplugged and Middle-School Students' Views, Attitudes, and Intentions regarding CS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Rivka; Armoni, Michal; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    Many students hold incorrect ideas and negative attitudes about computer science (CS). In order to address these difficulties, a series of learning activities called Computer Science Unplugged was developed by Tim Bell and his colleagues. These activities expose young people to central concepts in CS in an entertaining way without requiring a…

  1. CS Emission Near MIR-bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, C.; Devine, Kathryn; Quintanar, N.; Candelaria, T.

    2016-02-01

    We survey 44 young stellar objects located near the edges of mid-IR-identified bubbles in CS (1-0) using the Green Bank Telescope. We detect emission in 18 sources, indicating young protostars that are good candidates for being triggered by the expansion of the bubble. We calculate CS column densities and abundances. Three sources show evidence of infall through non-Gaussian line-shapes. Two of these sources are associated with dark clouds and are promising candidates for further exploration of potential triggered star formation. We obtained on-the-fly maps in CS (1-0) of three sources, showing evidence of significant interactions between the sources and the surrounding environment.

  2. CS EMISSION NEAR MIR-BUBBLES

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, C.; Devine, Kathryn; Quintanar, N.; Candelaria, T. E-mail: KDevine@collegeofidaho.edu E-mail: tcandela@nmt.edu

    2016-02-10

    We survey 44 young stellar objects located near the edges of mid-IR-identified bubbles in CS (1–0) using the Green Bank Telescope. We detect emission in 18 sources, indicating young protostars that are good candidates for being triggered by the expansion of the bubble. We calculate CS column densities and abundances. Three sources show evidence of infall through non-Gaussian line-shapes. Two of these sources are associated with dark clouds and are promising candidates for further exploration of potential triggered star formation. We obtained on-the-fly maps in CS (1–0) of three sources, showing evidence of significant interactions between the sources and the surrounding environment.

  3. Near-yrast structure of {sup 142}Cs and {sup 144}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    RzaPca-Urban, T.; Sadowski, M. P.; Genevey, J.; Pinston, J. A.; Urban, W.; Smith, A. G.; Simpson, G. S.; Bail, A.; Mathieu, L.; Serot, O.; Michel-Sendis, F.; Ahmad, I.

    2009-12-15

    Excited states in {sup 142}Cs and {sup 144}Cs, populated in the spontaneous fission of {sup 248}Cm and {sup 252}Cf and in thermal neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 242}Am were studied by means of {gamma} spectroscopy using the EUROGAM2 and Gammasphere multidetector Ge arrays and the LOHENGRIN fission-fragment separator, respectively. In {sup 142}Cs, a band and an isomer with a half-life of T{sub 1/2}=11(3) ns have been identified. Spins and parities have been proposed for excited levels in this nucleus. In {sup 144}Cs excited levels have been observed. A T{sub 1/2}=1.1(1) {mu}s isomer was found with a {gamma} cascade, which probably feeds this isomer. There is also an indication of a nanosecond isomer in {sup 144}Cs. Quasiparticle-rotor model calculations done in this work allowed proton-neutron configurations to be proposed for levels in {sup 142}Cs and {sup 144}Cs.

  4. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    DOE PAGES

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-11-02

    135Cs/137Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135Cs/137Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement withmore » values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. Furthermore, the differences in 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe.« less

  5. Transverse-pumped Cs vapor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, B. V.; Shaffer, M. K.; Sell, J.; Knize, R. J.

    2009-02-01

    Scaling of alkali lasers to higher powers requires combining beams of multiple diode laser pump sources. For longitudinal pumping this can be very complicated if more than four beams are to be combined. In this paper we report a first demonstration of a transversely pumped Cs laser with fifteen laser diode arrays. The LDA pump beams were individually collimated with a beam size of about 1 x 4 cm as measured at a 1 m distance from the diodes. All these beams were incident on a cylindrical lens to be focused and coupled through the side slit of a hollow, cylindrical diffuse reflector which contained the Cs vapor cell. We measured the output power and efficiency of the Cs laser for pump powers up to 200 W at different cell temperatures. Although the values of output power and slope efficiency obtained for this laser system were less than those for a longitudinally pumped alkali laser, these recent results can be significantly improved by using a more optimal laser cavity design. The demonstrated operation of Cs laser with transverse pumping opens new possibilities in power scaling of alkali lasers.

  6. Atmospheric oxidation of carbon disulfide (CS2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhe; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.

    2017-02-01

    This contribution investigates primary steps governing the OH-initiated atmospheric oxidation of CS2. Our approach comprises high-level density functional theory calculation of energies and optimisation of molecular structures as well as RRKM-ME analysis for estimating pressure-dependent reaction rate constants. We find the overall reaction OH + CS2 → OCS + SH too slow to account for the formation of the reported experimental products. The initial reaction of OH with CS2 proceeds to produce an S-adduct, SCS(OH). Species-formation history for the system OH + CS2 indicates that, the S-adduct represents the most plausible product with a barrier-less addition process and a stability amounting to 48.5 kJ/mol, in reference to the separated reactants. This adduct then undergoes a bimolecular reaction with atmospheric O2 yielding OCS and HOSO, rather than dissociating back into its separated reactants. We also find that further atmospheric oxidation of the C-adduct (if formed) yields two of the major experimental products namely OCS and SO2. The kinetic analysis provided in this study explains the atmospheric fate of reduced sulfur species, an important S-bearing group in the global cycle of sulfur.

  7. Monitoring 137Cs and 134Cs at marine coasts in Indonesia between 2011 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Suseno, Heny; Prihatiningsih, Wahyu Retno

    2014-11-15

    Environmental samples (seawater, sediments and biota) were collected along the eastern and western Indonesian coasts between 2011 and 2013 to anticipate the possible impacts of the Fukushima radioactive releases in Indonesia. On the eastern coasts (south and north Sulawesi), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.32 Bq m(-3) and 0.10-1.03 Bq kg(-1), respectively. On the western coasts (West Sumatra, Bangka Island, North Java, South Java and Madura island), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.66 Bq m(-3) and 0.19-1.64 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In general, the (137)Cs concentrations in the fish from several Indonesian coasts were Cs concentrations in mollusk, crab and prawn were 10.65-38.78, 4.02 and 6.16 mBq kg(-1), respectively. (134)Cs was not detected in the seawater, sediments or biota. Thus, it was concluded that (137)Cs on the eastern and western Indonesian coasts originated from global fallout.

  8. Luminescence of CsPbBr 3-like quantum dots in CsBr single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikl, M.; Nitsch, K.; Mihóková, E.; Polák, K.; Fabeni, P.; Pazzi, G. P.; Gurioli, M.; Santucci, S.; Phani, R.; Scacco, A.; Somma, F.

    Luminescence and decay kinetics of the Pb 2+ aggregates in CsBr host crystals were measured in the 4-300 K temperature interval and in 10 -10-10 -3 time scale. Their emission properties are similar to those of CsPbBr 3 bulk crystal showing a subnanosecond free exciton emission in the 520-540 nm spectral region and slower trapped exciton emission in the 530-580 nm spectral region. An efficient energy exchange between the free and trapped exciton states is shown by the temperature dependencies of emission spectra. The quantum size effect is demonstrated in the high energy shift and broadening of the absorption and emission spectra and an estimate of the size of the CsPbBr 3-like aggregates is provided. Independent evidence of the presence of the CsPbBr 3 and Cs 4PbBr 6 aggregated phases in the CsBr host was obtained by X-ray structural studies.

  9. Distribution of dendritic cells expressing dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN, CD209): Morphological analysis using a novel Photoshop-aided multiple immunohistochemistry technique.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akihiro; Nishikawa, Toshio

    2014-08-01

    The distribution of dendritic cells (DCs) expressing DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN, CD209) and the morphological interaction of DC-SIGN⁺ DCs with other cells, especially B cells, in tonsillar and other lymphoid tissues were investigated by multiple immunohistochemistry (IHC) using the graphics editing program Photoshop, which enabled staining with 4 or more antibodies in formalin-fixed paraffin sections. Images obtained by repetition of conventional IHC using diaminobenzidine color development in a tissue section were processed on Photoshop for multiple staining. DC-SIGN⁺ DCs were present in the area around the lymphoid follicles and formed a DC-SIGN⁺ DC-rich area, and these cells contacted not only T cells, fascin⁺ DCs, and blood vessels but also several subsets of B cells simultaneously, including naïve and memory B cells. DC-SIGN⁺ DCs may play an important role in the regulation of the immune response mediated by not only T cells but also B cells. The multiple IHC method introduced in the present study is a simple and useful method for analyzing details of complex structures. Because this method can be applied to routinely processed paraffin sections with conventional IHC with diaminobenzidine, it can be applied to a wide variety of archival specimens.

  10. Translocation of (133)Cs administered to Cryptomeria japonica wood.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Dan; Asai, Ryutaro; Tomioka, Rie; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Asakura, Hiroyuki; Tabuchi, Masao; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2017-04-15

    To reveal the in planta behaviour of caesium (Cs), the stable isotope (133)Cs was administered into 3-year-old Cryptomeria japonica seedlings by the application of (133)CsCl aqueous solution to the bark surface. The administered (133)Cs was quantified by ICP-MS measurements, which showed transportation of (133)Cs in an ascending direction in the stem. Distribution of (133)Cs was visualized using freeze-fixed C. japonica woody stem samples and cryo-time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry/scanning electron microscopy (cryo-TOF-SIMS/SEM) analysis. Cryo-TOF-SIMS/SEM visualization suggested that (133)Cs was rapidly transported radially by ray parenchyma cells followed by axial transportation by pith and axial parenchyma cells. Adsorption experiments using powdered C. japonica wood samples and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis suggested that (133)Cs was in the hydrated state following its deposition into tracheid cell walls.

  11. Communications satellite no. 2 (CS-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the Japanese CS-2 satellite is to provide national communications and industrial communications, such as special emergency and remote communications, and to contribute to the development of technology pertaining to communications satellites. Description and operating parameters of the following satellite components are presented: structure, communications system, telemetry/command system, electric power system, attitude and antenna control system, secondary propulsion system, apogee motor, framework, and heat control system.

  12. End-Pumped 895 nm Cs Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R J; Krupke, W F; Kanz, V K; Payne, S A; Dubinskii, M A; Merkle, L D

    2004-02-09

    A scientific demonstration of a Cs laser is described in which the measured slope efficiency is as high as 0.59 W/W using a Ti:Sapphire laser as a surrogate diode-pump. In addition to presenting experimental data, a laser energetics model that accurately predicts laser performance is described and used to model a power-scaled, diode-pumped system.

  13. IR-Improved DGLAP-CS Theory

    DOE PAGES

    Ward, B. F. L.

    2008-01-01

    We show that it is possible to improve the infrared aspects of the standard treatment of the DGLAP-CS evolution theory to take into account a large class of higher-order corrections that significantly improve the precision of the theory for any given level of fixed-order calculation of its respective kernels. We illustrate the size of the effects we resum using the moments of the parton distributions.

  14. Cesium Platinide Hydride 4Cs2 Pt⋅CsH: An Intermetallic Double Salt Featuring Metal Anions.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2016-11-14

    With Cs9 Pt4 H a new representative of ionic compounds featuring metal anions can be added to this rare-membered family. Cs9 Pt4 H exhibits a complex crystal structure containing Cs(+) cations, Pt(2-) and H(-) anions. Being a red, transparent compound its band gap is in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum and the ionic type of bonding is confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. This cesium platinide hydride can formally be considered as a double salt of the "alloy" cesium-platinum, or better cesium platinide, Cs2 Pt, and the salt cesium hydride CsH according to Cs9 Pt4 H≡4 Cs2 Pt⋅CsH.

  15. Cesium Platinide Hydride 4Cs 2 Pt-CsH: An Intermetallic Double Salt Featuring Metal Anions

    SciTech Connect

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2016-10-24

    With Cs9Pt4H a new representative of ionic compounds featuring metal anions can be added to this rare-membered family. Cs9Pt4H exhibits a complex crystal structure containing Cs+ cations, Pt2- and H- anions. Being a red, transparent compound its band gap is in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum and the ionic type of bonding is confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. This cesium platinide hydride can formally be considered as a double salt of the “alloy” cesium–platinum, or better cesium platinide, Cs2Pt, and the salt cesium hydride CsH according to Cs9Pt4H≡4 Cs2Pt∙CsH.

  16. Developments towards detection of 135Cs at VERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachner, Johannes; Kasberger, Magdalena; Martschini, Martin; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Radioisotopes produced in natural or anthropogenic fission are widely used for tracer studies of environmental processes, in nuclear forensics, and are important for nuclear waste disposal. Besides the well-known 137Cs, the longer-lived sister isotope 135Cs (T1/2 = 2.3 Myr) is also produced, and the combined measurement of the two isotopes would allow for assessment of contaminating sources. The insufficient suppression of the stable isobar 135Ba presently prevents AMS measurements down to expected natural levels of 135Cs/133Cs ≈ 10-11. Via the difference in electron affinities between Cs and Ba further isobar suppression should be achievable after the installation of the Ion-Laser-Interaction System (ILIAS) at VERA. We present a preparatory study on the performance of the 3 MV VERA AMS facility for 135Cs concerning ion formation, transmission and detection. Since the usual Cs sputtering would obscure the 135Cs/133Cs ratio of a sample, Rb sputtering was successfully applied and tested also for various other typical AMS elements. Partial suppression of 135Ba is possible with the extraction of Cs- and negative Cs-fluorides. Cs- currents of several 10 nA were extracted over hours from mg amounts of Cs2SO4 material. The transmission to various charge states was tested with gas (Ar, He) and foil stripping. Experiments showed that no suppression in the detection system is possible at high beam energies with the VERA facility. For this reason, gas stripping to low charge states (2+, 3+) with transmissions up to 30% is favorable to guarantee optimal beam transport to the detector. In the present setup, utilizing a simple Bragg-type detector, the blank 135Cs/133Cs ratios from chemically pure samples are determined by the 135Ba background to a value of (4.0 ± 1.3)·10-9.

  17. Pressure-induced metathesis reaction to sequester Cs.

    PubMed

    Im, Junhyuck; Seoung, Donghoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Blom, Douglas A; Vogt, Thomas; Kao, Chi-Chang; Lee, Yongjae

    2015-01-06

    We report here a pressure-driven metathesis reaction where Ag-exchanged natrolite (Ag16Al16Si24O80·16H2O, Ag-NAT) is pressurized in an aqueous CsI solution, resulting in the exchange of Ag(+) by Cs(+) in the natrolite framework forming Cs16Al16Si24O80·16H2O (Cs-NAT-I) and, above 0.5 GPa, its high-pressure polymorph (Cs-NAT-II). During the initial cation exchange, the precipitation of AgI occurs. Additional pressure and heat at 2 GPa and 160 °C transforms Cs-NAT-II to a pollucite-related, highly dense, and water-free triclinic phase with nominal composition CsAlSi2O6. At ambient temperature after pressure release, the Cs remains sequestered in a now monoclinic pollucite phase at close to 40 wt % and a favorably low Cs leaching rate under back-exchange conditions. This process thus efficiently combines the pressure-driven separation of Cs and I at ambient temperature with the subsequent sequestration of Cs under moderate pressures and temperatures in its preferred waste form suitable for long-term storage at ambient conditions. The zeolite pollucite CsAlSi2O6·H2O has been identified as a potential host material for nuclear waste remediation of anthropogenic (137)Cs due to its chemical and thermal stability, low leaching rate, and the large amount of Cs it can contain. The new water-free pollucite phase we characterize during our process will not display radiolysis of water during longterm storage while maintaining the Cs content and low leaching rate.

  18. Spin accumulation in thin Cs salts on contact with optically polarized Cs vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2011-09-15

    The spin angular momentum accumulates in the Cs nuclei of salt on contact with optically pumped Cs vapor. The spin polarization in stable chloride as well as dissociative hydride indicates that nuclear dipole interaction works in spin transferring with a lesser role of atom exchange. In the solid film, not only the spin buildup but also the decay of enhanced polarization is faster than the thermal recovery rate for the bulk salt. Eliminating the signal of thick salt, we find that the nuclear spin polarization in the chloride film reaches over 100 times the thermal equilibrium.

  19. K2CsSb Cathode Development

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley,J.; Rao, T.; Wang, E.

    2008-10-01

    K{sub 2}CsSb is an attractive photocathode for high current applications. With a quantum efficiency of >4% at 532nm and >10% at 355nm, it is the only cathode to have demonstrated an average current of 35mA in an accelerator environment We describe ongoing cathode development work. for the energy recovery linac being constructed at BNL Several cathodes have been created on both copper and stainless steel substrates, and their spatial uniformity and spectral response have been characterized. Preliminary lifetime measurements have been performed at high average current densities (>1 mA/mm{sup 2}).

  20. Thermal Beam Spectroscopy of 133 Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerginov, Vladislav; Tanner, Carol E.

    2001-05-01

    We report our progress towards high resolution frequency measurements of the cesium excited states hyperfine structure (HFS). A thermal beam apparatus is used to eliminate the Doppler background and collision effects present in vapor cells. A tubing array expands the beam size without increasing its divergence. The beam is collimated using thin parallel glass plate collimator. The optical detection system and the photo detector amplifier circuit allow measurements of extremely low fluorescence signals. The direct computer based measurement of the photo detector amplifier output assures a good signal linearity and no systematic line shape distortion. The estimations of different broadening effects are based on Cs D2 line HFS measurements. The spectra are fitted with exactly calculated Voigt profiles using a Fortran fitting program based on Levenberg-Marquardt method. The diode laser linewidth is determined from the beat note between two separate laser systems. The natural linewidth of Cs 6 2P3/2 is taken from our precise lifetime measurements. The residual Doppler broadening due to the finite angular beam distribution and optical alignment is estimated from the data. Financial support for this work is provided by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Energy Research at the U. S. Department of Energy under contract number DE-FG02-95ER14579.

  1. Antibodies derived from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesin tip MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) against adherence of nine ETEC adhesins: CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS21 and EtpA.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Rahul M; Ruan, Xiaosai; Duan, Qiangde; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-06-30

    Diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in developing countries. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading bacterial cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. ETEC bacteria initiate diarrheal disease by attaching to host receptors at epithelial cells and colonizing in small intestine. Therefore, preventing ETEC attachment has been considered the first line of defense against ETEC diarrhea. However, developing vaccines effectively against ETEC bacterial attachment encounters challenge because ETEC strains produce over 23 immunologically heterogeneous adhesins. In this study, we applied MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) approach to integrate epitopes from adhesin tips or adhesive subunits of CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS21 and EtpA adhesins and to construct an adhesin tip MEFA peptide. We then examined immunogenicity of this tip MEFA in mouse immunization, and assessed potential application of this tip MEFA for ETEC vaccine development. Data showed that mice intraperitoneally immunized with this adhesin tip MEFA developed IgG antibody responses to all nine ETEC adhesins. Moreover, ETEC and E. coli bacteria expressing these nine adhesins, after incubation with serum of the immunized mice, exhibited significant reduction in attachment to Caco-2 cells. These results indicated that anti-adhesin antibodies induced by this adhesin tip MEFA blocked adherence of the most important ETEC adhesins, suggesting this multivalent tip MEFA may be useful for developing a broadly protective anti-adhesin vaccine against ETEC diarrhea.

  2. Changing US Attributes After CS-US Pairings Changes CS-Attribute-Assessments: Evidence for CS-US Associations in Attribute Conditioning.

    PubMed

    Förderer, Sabine; Unkelbach, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Attribute Conditioning (AC) refers to people's changed assessments of stimuli's (CSs) attributes due to repeated pairing with stimuli (USs) possessing these attributes; for example, when an athletic person (US) is paired with a neutral person (CS), the neutral person is judged to be more athletic after the pairing. We hypothesize that this AC effect is due to CSs' associations with USs rather than direct associations with attributes. Three experiments test this hypothesis by changing US attributes after CS-US pairings. Experiments 1 and 2 conditioned athleticism by pairing neutral men (CSs) with athletic and non-athletic USs. Post-conditioning, USs' athleticism was reversed, which systematically influenced participants' assessment of CS athleticism. Experiment 3 conditioned athleticism and changed USs' musicality after CS-US pairings. This post-conditioning change affected musicality assessments of CSs but did not influence athleticism-assessments. The results indicate that AC effects are based on an associative CS-US-attribute structure.

  3. Efimov Physics in a 6Li-133Cs Atomic Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Jacob; Feng, Lei; Parker, Colin; Chin, Cheng; Wang, Yujun

    2015-05-01

    We investigate Efimov physics based on three-body recombination in an atomic mixture of 6Li and 133Cs in the vicinity of interspecies Feshbach resonances at 843 and 889 G. This allows us to compare the loss spectra near different resonances and test the universality of Efimov states. Theoretically the Efimov spectrum near 889 G is expected to be similar to that near 843 G, except that the first resonance is absent near the former Feshbach resonance. This is due to the difference in the Cs-Cs scattering length near the two resonances: At 843 G it is negative, whereas at 889 G it is positive. Although it is primarily the Li-Cs interactions that lead to Efimov resonances, the Cs-Cs scattering length is expected to influence the spectrum. This work is supported by NSF and Chicago MRSEC.

  4. Experimental Progress in a 6Li-133Cs Atomic Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lei; Johansen, Jacob; Parker, Colin; Chin, Cheng

    2015-05-01

    We report experimental progress in a mixture of 6Li and 133Cs. The mass imbalance of this system results in a particular challenge, as gravity has a significant influence on Cs position, but not on Li, separating the two gases at temperatures on the order of 200 nK. We overcome this difficulty using a two color optical dipole trap. We demonstrate mixing of these species below 100 nK in preparation for studies of quantum degenerate mixtures of this system. We further report on progress toward degeneracy and many-body physics measurements in this trap. Finally, we consider Efimov physics in this system, studying the effects of Cs-Cs interaction on the spectrum of LiCsCs trimers by a comparison of Feshbach resonances at 843 and 889 G. This work is supported by NSF and Chicago MRSEC.

  5. Thermionic work function of /Cs/ZnO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommer, A. H.; Briere, T. R.

    1976-01-01

    The collector electrode of a thermionic converter requires a material having a low thermionic work function and chemical stability in a Cs atmosphere in the 800-K range. This letter reports that ZnO with an adsorbed Cs film meets these requirements. The work function is approximately 1.3 eV. Various methods of preparing the ZnO film are described as well as an experiment in which Cs was replaced by K.

  6. Fractionation of (137)Cs and Pu in natural peatland.

    PubMed

    Mihalík, Ján; Bartusková, Miluše; Hölgye, Zoltán; Ježková, Tereza; Henych, Ondřej

    2014-08-01

    High Cs-137 concentrations in plants growing on peatland inspired us to investigate the quantity of its bioavailable fraction in natural peat. Our investigation aims to: a) estimate the quantity of bioavailable Cs-137 and Pu present in peat, b) verify the similarity of Cs-137 and K-40 behaviours, and c) perform a quantification of Cs-137 and Pu transfer from peat to plants. We analysed the vertical distribution of Cs-137 and Pu isotopes in the peat and their concentrations in plants growing on these places. Bioavailability of radionuclides was investigated by sequential extraction. Sequential analyses revealed that it was the upper layer which contained the majority of Cs-137 in an available form while deeper layers retained Cs-137 in immobile fractions. We can conclude that 18% of all Cs-137 in the peat is still bioavailable. Despite of the low quantity of bioavailable fraction of Cs-137 its transfer factor reached extremely high values. In the case of Pu, 64% of its total amount was associated with fulvic/humic acids which resulted in the high transfer factor from peat to plants. 27 years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the significant part of radionuclides deposited in peatland is still bioavailable.

  7. Improved TV-CS Approaches for Inverse Scattering Problem

    PubMed Central

    Bevacqua, M. T.; Di Donato, L.

    2015-01-01

    Total Variation and Compressive Sensing (TV-CS) techniques represent a very attractive approach to inverse scattering problems. In fact, if the unknown is piecewise constant and so has a sparse gradient, TV-CS approaches allow us to achieve optimal reconstructions, reducing considerably the number of measurements and enforcing the sparsity on the gradient of the sought unknowns. In this paper, we introduce two different techniques based on TV-CS that exploit in a different manner the concept of gradient in order to improve the solution of the inverse scattering problems obtained by TV-CS approach. Numerical examples are addressed to show the effectiveness of the method. PMID:26495420

  8. CS-Studio Scan System Parallelization

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay; Pearson, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    For several years, the Control System Studio (CS-Studio) Scan System has successfully automated the operation of beam lines at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). As it is applied to additional beam lines, we need to support simultaneous adjustments of temperatures or motor positions. While this can be implemented via virtual motors or similar logic inside the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input/Output Controllers (IOCs), doing so requires a priori knowledge of experimenters requirements. By adding support for the parallel control of multiple process variables (PVs) to the Scan System, we can better support ad hoc automation of experiments that benefit from such simultaneous PV adjustments.

  9. Thermal ionization of Cs Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhov, I. L.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.

    2009-01-01

    Rates Pnl of photoionization from Rydberg ns-, np-, nd-states of a valence electron in Cs, induced by black-body radiation, were calculated on the basis of the modified Fues model potential method. The numerical data were approximated with a three-term expression which reproduces in a simple analytical form the dependence of Pnl on the ambient temperature T and on the principal quantum number n. The comparison between approximate and exactly calculated values of the thermal ionization rate demonstrates the applicability of the proposed approximation for highly excited states with n from 20 to 100 in a wide temperature range of T from 100 to 10,000 K. We present coefficients of this approximation for the s-, p- and d-series of Rydberg states.

  10. Microhydration of caesium compounds: Cs, CsOH, CsI and Cs₂I₂ complexes with one to three H₂O molecules of nuclear safety interest.

    PubMed

    Sudolská, Mária; Cantrel, Laurent; Cernušák, Ivan

    2014-04-01

    Structure and thermodynamic properties (standard enthalpies of formation and Gibbs free energies) of hydrated caesium species of nuclear safety interest, Cs, CsOH, CsI and its dimer Cs₂I₂, with one up to three water molecules, are calculated to assess their possible existence in severe accident occurring to a pressurized water reactor. The calculations were performed using the coupled cluster theory including single, double and non-iterative triple substitutions (CCSD(T)) in conjunction with the basis sets (ANO-RCC) developed for scalar relativistic calculations. The second-order spin-free Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonian was used to account for the scalar relativistic effects. Thermodynamic properties obtained by these correlated ab initio calculations (entropies and thermal capacities at constant pressure as a function of temperature) are used in nuclear accident simulations using ASTEC/SOPHAEROS software. Interaction energies, standard enthalpies and Gibbs free energies of successive water molecules addition determine the ordering of the complexes. CsOH forms the most hydrated stable complexes followed by CsI, Cs₂I₂, and Cs. CsOH still exists in steam atmosphere even at quite high temperature, up to around 1100 K.

  11. Phase Transitions in CsSnCl3 and CsPbBr3 An NMR and NQR Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Surendra; Weiden, Norbert; Weiss, Alarich

    1991-04-01

    The phase transitions in CsSnCl3 and CsPbBr3 have been studied by X-ray powder diffraction, by 81Br-NQR and by 'H-, 119Sn-, and 113Cs-NMR. At room temperature in air CsSnCl3 forms a hydrate which can be dehydrated to the monoclinic phase II of CsSnCl3. The high temperature phase I has the Perovskite structure, as the X-ray and NMR experiments show. The three phases of CsPbBr3, known from literature, have been corroborated. The results are discussed in the framework of the group ABX3, A = alkalimetal ion, B = IV main group ion, and X = Halogen ion

  12. Using Atmospheric (137)Cs Measurements and Hysplit to Confirm Chernobyl as a Source of (137)Cs in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    USING ATMOSPHERIC 137CS MEASUREMENTS AND HYSPLIT TO CONFIRM CHERNOBYL AS A SOURCE OF 137CS IN EUROPE Erik L. Swanberg1 and Steven G. Hoffert2...Veridian Systems1, Autometric2 Sponsored by Defense Threat Reduction Agency Contract No. DTRA01-99-C-0031 ABSTRACT The Chernobyl ...this 137Cs is the ground contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. The PIDC routinely uses HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated

  13. Memory is not extinguished along with CS presentation but within a few seconds after CS-offset

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cuesta, Luis María; Hepp, Yanil; Pedreira, María Eugenia; Maldonado, Héctor

    2007-01-01

    Prior work with the crab’s contextual memory model showed that CS-US conditioned animals undergoing an unreinforced CS presentation would either reconsolidate or extinguish the CS-US memory, depending on the length of the reexposure to the CS. Either memory process is only triggered once the CS is terminated. Based on these results, the following questions are raised. First, when is extinction memory acquired, if not along extinction training, and how long does it take? Second, can acquisition and consolidation of extinction memory be pharmacologically dissected? Here we address these questions performing three series of experiments: a first one aimed to study systematically the relationship between extinction and increasing periods of unreinforced CS presentations, a second one to determine the time boundaries of the extinction memory acquisition, and the third one to assay the requirement for protein synthesis and NMDA-like receptors of acquisition and consolidation of extinction memory. Our results confirm that it is CS-offset and not the mere retrieval (CS-onset) that triggers acquisition of extinction memory and that it is completed in less than 45 sec after CS-offset. In addition, protein synthesis is required for consolidation but not for acquisition of this memory and, conversely, NMDA-like receptor activity is required for its acquisition but not for its consolidation. Finally, we offer an interpretative scheme of our results and we discuss to what extent it could apply to multitrial extinction. PMID:17272655

  14. CsEuBr3: Crystal structure and its role in the photostimulation of CsBr :Eu2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, S.; Zimmermann, J.; von Seggern, H.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.; Fasel, C.; Riedel, R.

    2006-10-01

    CsBr :Eu2+ has recently been investigated as a photostimulable x-ray storage phosphor with great potential for application in high-resolution image plates. In a recent paper Hackenschmied et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5109 (2003)] suggested that segregations of CsEuBr3 or Cs4EuBr6 formed within CsBr :Eu2+ during annealing are responsible for an increase in the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) yield. In this work single crystals of CsEuBr3 were prepared by a one step synthesis and identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as single phase perovskites. It was concluded that, after preparation, CsEuBr3 degrades in normal atmosphere into at least two phases, one of which is the orthorhombic structure of Cs2EuBr5•10H2O. The XRD powder diffraction pattern of this compound is very similar to that of the segregations observed within CsBr :Eu2+ and reported by Hackenschmied et al. However, the increased PSL yield in CsBr :Eu2+ after annealing cannot be due to the segregations, because the trivalent nature of the europium in the segregations renders them PSL inactive.

  15. Correlated electronic structure of Fe in bulk Cs and on a Cs surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, M.; Thunström, P.; Di Marco, I.; Bergman, A.; Klautau, A. B.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Eriksson, O.

    2013-03-01

    We have investigated the spectral properties of Fe impurities in a Cs host, for both surface and bulk systems, by means of a combination of density functional theory in the local density approximation and dynamical mean-field theory (LDA + DMFT). The effective impurity model arising in LDA + DMFT was solved via two different techniques, i.e., the Hubbard I approximation and the exact diagonalization. It is shown that noticeable differences can be seen in the unoccupied part of the spectrum for different positions of Fe atoms in the host, despite the fact that hybridization between Fe d-states and Cs is low. Our calculations show good agreement with the experimental photoemission spectra reported by Carbone [Carbone, Veronese, Moras, Gardonio, Grazioli, Zhou, Rader, Varykhalov, Krull, Balashov, Mugarza, Gambardella, Lebègue, Eriksson, Katsnelson, and Lichtenstein, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.117601 104, 117601 (2010)].

  16. Cesium Accumulation and Growth Characteristics of Rhodococcus erythropolis CS98 and Rhodococcus sp. Strain CS402

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Noriko; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Yagi, Osami

    1994-01-01

    Growth and cesium accumulation characteristics of two cesium-accumulating bacteria isolated from soils were investigated. Rhodococcus erythropolis CS98 and Rhodococcus sp. strain CS402 accumulated high levels of cesium (approximately 690 and 380 μmol/g [dry weight] of cells or 92 and 52 mg/g [dry weight] of cells, respectively) after 24 h of incubation in the presence of 0.5 mM cesium. The optimum pH for cesium uptake by both Rhodococcus strains was 8.5. Rubidium and cesium assumed part of the role of potassium in the growth of both Rhodococcus strains. Potassium and rubidium inhibited cesium accumulation by these Rhodococcus strains. It is likely that both Rhodococcus strains accumulated cesium through a potassium transport system. PMID:16349312

  17. Occasion Setting Is Specific to the CS-US Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonardi, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In Experiment 1, rats were trained on a discrimination in which one occasion setter, A, signaled that one cue (conditioned stimulus, CS), x, would be followed by one outcome, p (unconditioned stimulus, US), and a second CS, y, by a different outcome, q (x [right arrow] p and y [right arrow] q); a second occasion setter, B signalled the reverse…

  18. Narrating Data Structures: The Role of Context in CS2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarosh, Svetlana; Guzdial, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Learning computing with respect to the context of its use has been linked in previous reports to student motivation in introductory Computer Science (CS) courses. In this report, we consider the role of context in a second course. We present a case study of a CS2 data structures class that uses a media computation context. In this course, students…

  19. Determination of 135Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, C. M.; Charles, C. R. J.; Zhao, X.-L.; Kieser, W. E.; Cornett, R. J.; Litherland, A. E.

    2015-10-01

    The ratio of anthropogenic 135Cs and 137Cs isotopes is characteristic of a uranium fission source. This research evaluates the technique of isotope dilution (yield tracing) for the purpose of quantifying 135Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry with on-line isobar separation. Interferences from Ba, Zn2, and isotopes of equal mass to charge ratios were successfully suppressed. However, some sample crosstalk from source contamination remains. The transmission and di-fluoride ionization efficiencies of Cs isotopes were found to be 8 × 10-3 and 1.7 × 10-7 respectively. This quantification of 135Cs using yield tracing by accelerator mass spectrometry shows promise for future environmental sample analysis once the issues of sample crosstalk and low efficiency can be resolved.

  20. Transformation of Sintered CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals to Cubic CsPbI3 and Gradient CsPbBrxI3-x through Halide Exchange.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jacob B; Schleper, A Lennart; Kamat, Prashant V

    2016-07-13

    All-inorganic cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X = Br(-), I(-)) perovskites could potentially provide comparable photovoltaic performance with enhanced stability compared to organic-inorganic lead halide species. However, small-bandgap cubic CsPbI3 has been difficult to study due to challenges forming CsPbI3 in the cubic phase. Here, a low-temperature procedure to form cubic CsPbI3 has been developed through a halide exchange reaction using films of sintered CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. The reaction was found to be strongly dependent upon temperature, featuring an Arrhenius relationship. Additionally, film thickness played a significant role in determining internal film structure at intermediate reaction times. Thin films (50 nm) showed only a small distribution of CsPbBrxI3-x species, while thicker films (350 nm) exhibited much broader distributions. Furthermore, internal film structure was ordered, featuring a compositional gradient within film. Transient absorption spectroscopy showed the influence of halide exchange on the excited state of the material. In thicker films, charge carriers were rapidly transferred to iodide-rich regions near the film surface within the first several picoseconds after excitation. This ultrafast vectorial charge-transfer process illustrates the potential of utilizing compositional gradients to direct charge flow in perovskite-based photovoltaics.

  1. Differential fear conditioning induces reciprocal changes in the sensory responses of lateral amygdala neurons to the CS(+) and CS(-).

    PubMed

    Collins, D R; Paré, D

    2000-01-01

    In classical fear conditioning, a neutral sensory stimulus (CS) acquires the ability to elicit fear responses after pairing to a noxious unconditioned stimulus (US). As amygdala lesions prevent the acquisition of fear responses and the lateral amygdaloid (LA) nucleus is the main input station of the amygdala for auditory afferents, the effect of auditory fear conditioning on the sensory responsiveness of LA neurons has been examined. Although conditioning was shown to increase CS-evoked LA responses, the specificity of the changes in responsiveness was not tested. Because conditioning might induce nonspecific increases in LA responses to auditory afferents, we re-examined this issue in conscious, head-restrained cats using a differential conditioning paradigm where only one of two tones (CS(+) but not CS(-)) was paired to the US. Differential conditioning increased unit and field responses to the CS(+), whereas responses to the CS(-) decreased. Such changes have never been observed in the amygdala except in cases where the CS(-) had been paired to the US before and fear responses not extinguished. This suggests that fear conditioning is not only accompanied by potentiation of amygdalopetal pathways conveying the CS(+) but also by the depression of sensory inputs unpaired to noxious stimuli.

  2. CsAlSi/sub 5/O/sub 12/: a possible host for /sup 137/Cs immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Adl, T.; Vance, E.R.

    1982-03-31

    CsAlSi/sub 5/O/sub 12/ exhibits more acid resistance than pollucite (CsAlSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/). At pH values of 1.02 and 1.40, the extraction of Cs from CsAlSi/sub 5/O/sub 12/ at 25/sup 0/C was approximately proportional to the square root of leach time. The Cs extraction at 25/sup 0/C varied as (H/sup +/)/sup 0/ /sup 36/ over the pH range of 1 to 6. Also, the Cs extraction in various brines at 300/sup 0/C/30 MPa was comparable with that for pollucite. CsAlSi/sub 5/O/sub 12/ can be crystallized at about 1000/sup 0/C from calcines if a small amount of CaO is present, but in the absence of such sintering acids, crystallization temperatures of about 1400/sup 0/C are necessary. Compatibility data were also obtained with respect to several other phases with which CsAlSi/sub 5/O/sub 12/ might be expected to coexist in tailored ceramics designed for high-level defense waste.

  3. Epiphytic fruticose lichens as biomonitors for retrospective evaluation of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio in Fukushima fallout.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Barkovsky, A; Gromov, A; Ivanov, S; Kaduka, M

    2014-12-01

    In 2011-2013, sampling of epiphytic fruticose lichens of the genera Usnea, Bryoria and Alectoria was carried out on Sakhalin and Kuril Islands (the Sakhalin region, Russia) to investigate contamination of these organisms with the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and (137)Cs. Activities of the radionuclides were determined in all 56 samples of lichens taken for the analysis. After correction for radioactive decay (on 15 March 2011), the activity concentrations ranged from 2.1 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.) to 52 Bq kg(-1) for (134)Cs and from 2.3 Bq kg(-1) to 52 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. Cesium-134 and (137)Cs activities for the whole set of lichens (n = 56) were strongly positively correlated; Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated as 0.991 (P < 0.01). The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in Usnea lichens from the Sakhalin and Kunashir islands declined with a factor of three in the period from 2011 to 2013. The average biological half-time for both cesium radionuclides in lichens of the genus Usnea is estimated as 1.3 y. The mean of 0.99 ± 0.10 and median of 0.99 were calculated for the decay corrected (134)Cs/(137)Cs activities ratios in the lichens (n = 56). The radionuclides ratio in the lichens did not depend on location of sampling site, species and the time that had passed after the Fukushima accident. The regression analysis has shown the background pre-Fukushima level of (137)Cs of 0.4 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), whereas the ratio between the Fukushima-borne (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the lichens was estimated as 1.04. The (134)Cs/(137)Cs activities ratio in lichens from the Sakhalin region is consistent with the ratios reported by others for the heavy contaminated areas on Honshu Island in Japan following the Fukushima accident. The activity concentrations of natural (7)Be in lichens from the Sakhalin region varied between 100 Bq kg(-1) and 600 Bq kg(-1); the activity concentrations did not exhibit temporal variations during a 2y

  4. Photoresponse of CsPbBr3 and Cs4PbBr6 Perovskite Single Crystals.

    PubMed

    Cha, Ji-Hyun; Han, Jae Hoon; Yin, Wenping; Park, Cheolwoo; Park, Yongmin; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Cho, Jeong Ho; Jung, Duk-Young

    2017-02-02

    High-quality and millimeter-sized perovskite single crystals of CsPbBr3 and Cs4PbBr6 were prepared in organic solvents and studied for correlation between photocurrent generation and photoluminescence (PL) emission. The CsPbBr3 crystals, which have a 3D perovskite structure, showed a highly sensitive photoresponse and poor PL signal. In contrast, Cs4PbBr6 crystals, which have a 0D perovskite structure, exhibited more than 1 order of magnitude higher PL intensity than CsPbBr3, which generated an ultralow photoresponse under illumination. Their contrasting optoelectrical characteristics were attributed to different exciton binding energies, induced by coordination geometry of the [PbBr6](4-) octahedron sublattices. This work correlated the local structures of lead in the primitive perovskite and its derivatives to PL spectra as well as photoconductivity.

  5. Coaxial Measurement of the Translational Distribution of CS Produced in the Laser Photolysis of CS2 at 193nm.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-04

    IKasakawi, and R. Bersohn, J. Chemn. Phys. 72, 4058 (1980). *2. M.C. Addison, C.D. Bryne and R.J. Donovan, Chem. Phys. Letters, 64, 57 (1979). *3. J.E...population of CS2 fragments produced in processes: (a). CS2- + hV CS ( Z ,v" ) + S (3p) represented by 0; (b). CS2 + hv CS (X1 Z +,v") + S (1D...0 0 1 1 1 fl l i 0 z 0 - >0 -) p ~m 0 z D:O m l CCD X CA > 0__ -" -’ o- o 0 -0 "C 0 o 00 CL CL 0 0 -." - ’ .:.-:.- "- * -.5

  6. 137Cs in the western South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2007-09-01

    The 137Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea (two stations) Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean by gamma spectrometry using a low background Ge detector. The 137Cs activities ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 Bq m(-3) over the depth interval 0-250 m and decreased exponentially from the subsurface to 1000 m depth. The distribution profiles of 137Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. There was a remarkable difference for the vertical profiles of 137Cs activity between the East Caroline Basin station in this study and the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) station at the same latitude in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean; the 137Cs inventory over the depth interval 100-1000 m increased from 400+/-30 Bq m(-2) to 560+/-30 Bq m(-2) during the period from 1973 to 1992. The total 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850+/-70 Bq m(-2) in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270+/-90 Bq m(-2) in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137Cs inventories were 1.9-4.5 times (2.9+/-0.7 on average) and 1.7-4.3 times (3.1+/-0.7 on average) higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude and that of the estimated 137Cs deposition density in 10 degrees latitude by 10 degrees longitude grid data obtained by Aoyama et al. [Aoyama M, Hirose K, Igarashi Y. Re-construction and updating our understanding on the global weapons tests 137Cs fallout. J Environ Monit 2006;8:431-438], respectively. The possible processes for higher 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout may be attributable to the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137Cs from

  7. Plutonium, (137)Cs and uranium isotopes in Mongolian surface soils.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Kikawada, Y; Igarashi, Y; Fujiwara, H; Jugder, D; Matsumoto, Y; Oi, T; Nomura, M

    2017-01-01

    Plutonium ((238)Pu and (239,240)Pu), (137)Cs and plutonium activity ratios ((238)Pu/(239,240)Pu) as did uranium isotope ratio ((235)U/(238)U) were measured in surface soil samples collected in southeast Mongolia. The (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs concentrations in Mongolian surface soils (<53 μm of particle size) ranged from 0.42 ± 0.03 to 3.53 ± 0.09 mBq g(-1) and from 11.6 ± 0.7 to 102 ± 1 mBq g(-1), respectively. The (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu activity ratios in the surface soils (0.013-0.06) coincided with that of global fallout. The (235)U/(238)U atom ratios in the surface soil show the natural one. There was a good correlation between the (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs concentrations in the surface soils. We introduce the migration depth to have better understanding of migration behaviors of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil. We found a difference of the migration behavior between (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs from (137)Cs/(239,240)Pu - (137)Cs plots for the Mongolian and Tsukuba surface soils; plutonium in surface soil is migrated easier than (137)Cs.

  8. Radioactive Cs capture in the early solar system

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2013-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of primitive materials in the solar system are generally affected by s- and r-process nucleosynthetic components that hide the contribution of the isotopic excess of 135Ba formed by decay of radioactive 135Cs. However, the Ba isotopic composition of the chemical separates from chondrules in the Sayama CM2 chondrite shows an excess of 135Ba isotopic abundance up to (0.33 ± 0.06)%, which is independent of the isotopic components from s- and r-process nucleosyntheses. The isotopic excesses of 135Ba correlate with the elemental abundance of Ba relative to Cs, providing chemical and isotopic evidence for the existence of the presently extinct radionuclide 135Cs (t1/2 = 2.3 million years) in the early solar system. The estimated abundance of 135Cs/133Cs = (6.8 ± 1.9) × 10−4 is more than double that expected from the uniform production model of the short-lived radioisotopes, suggesting remobilization of Cs including 135Cs in the chondrules of the meteorite parent body. PMID:23435551

  9. Method for simulating paint mixing on computer monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabott, Ferdinand; Lewis, Garth; Piehl, Simon

    2002-06-01

    Computer programs like Adobe Photoshop can generate a mixture of two 'computer' colors by using the Gradient control. However, the resulting colors diverge from the equivalent paint mixtures in both hue and value. This study examines why programs like Photoshop are unable to simulate paint or pigment mixtures, and offers a solution using Photoshops existing tools. The article discusses how a library of colors, simulating paint mixtures, is created from 13 artists' colors. The mixtures can be imported into Photoshop as a color swatch palette of 1248 colors and as 78 continuous or stepped gradient files, all accessed in a new software package, Chromafile.

  10. Physics Design for ARIES-CS

    SciTech Connect

    L.P. Ku, P.R. Garabedian, J. Lyon, A. Turnbull, A. Grossman, T.K. Mau, M. Zarnstorff, and the ARIES Team

    2007-10-10

    Novel stellarator configurations have been developed for ARIES-CS. These configurations are optimized to provide good plasma confinement and flux surface integrity at high beta. Modular coils have been designed for them in which the space needed for the breeding blanket and radiation shielding was specifically targeted such that reactors generating GW electrical powers would require only moderate major radii (<10 m). These configurations are quasi-axially symmetric in the magnetic field topology and have small number of field periods (≤3) and low aspect ratios (≤6). The baseline design chosen for detailed systems and power plant studies has 3 field periods, aspect ratio 4.5 and major radius 7.5 m operating at β~6.5% to yield 1 GW electric power. The shaping of the plasma accounts for ≥75% of the rotational transform. The effective helical ripples are very small (< 0.6% everywhere) and the energy loss of alpha particles is calculated to be ≤5% when operating in high density regimes. An interesting feature in this configuration is that instead of minimizing all residues in the magnetic spectrum, we preferentially retained a small amount of the non-axisymmetric mirror field. The presence of this mirror and its associated helical field alters the ripple distribution, resulting in the reduced ripple-trapped loss of alpha particles despite the long connection length in a tokamak-like field structure. Additionally, we discuss two other potentially attractive classes of configurations, both quasi-axisymmetric: one with only two field periods, very low aspect ratios (~2.5), and less complex coils, and the other with the plasma shaping designed to produce low shear rotational transform so as to assure the robustness and integrity of flux surfaces when operating at high β.

  11. Influence of water management and fertilizer application on (137)Cs and (133)Cs uptake in paddy rice fields.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Shokichi; Itoh, Sumio; Kihou, Nobuharu; Matsunami, Hisaya; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2016-06-01

    Cesium-137 derived from the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated large areas of agricultural land in Eastern Japan. Previous studies before the accident have indicated that flooding enhances radiocesium uptake in rice fields. We investigated the influence of water management in combination with fertilizers on (137)Cs concentrations in rice plants at two fields in southern Ibaraki Prefecture. Stable Cs ((133)Cs) in the plants was also determined as an analogue for predicting (137)Cs behavior after long-term aging of soil (137)Cs. The experimental periods comprised 3 y starting from 2012 in one field, and 2 y from 2013 in another field. These fields were divided into three water management sections: a long-flooding section without midsummer drainage, and medial-flooding, and short-flooding sections with one- or two-week midsummer drainage and earlier end of flooding than the long-flooding section. Six or four types of fertilizer subsections (most differing only in potassium application) were nested in each water management section. Generally, the long-flooding treatment led to higher (137)Cs and (133)Cs concentrations in both straw and brown rice than medial- and short-flooding treatments, although there were some notable exceptions in the first experimental year at each site. Effects of differing potassium fertilizer treatments were cumulative; the effects on (137)Cs and (133)Cs concentrations in rice plants were not obvious in 2012 and 2013, but in 2014, these concentrations were highest where potassium fertilizer had been absent and lowest where basal dressings of K had been tripled. The relationship between (137)Cs and (133)Cs in rice plants was not correlative in the first experimental year at each site, but correlation became evident in the subsequent year(s). This study demonstrates a novel finding that omitting midsummer drainage and/or delaying drainage during the grain-filling period enhances

  12. Altimeter Products for the Sentinel-6/Jason-CS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharroo, Remko; Bonekamp, Hans; Ponsard, Christelle; Nogueira Loddo, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    The Sentinel-6 mission will be developed and implemented through a partnership between the EU, ESA, EUMETSAT and NOAA . Its aim is to secure the continuity until 2030+ of critical high precision observations of ocean surface topography beyond Jason-3. The European contribution will be implemented through the combination of the ESA Copernicus Space Component, the EUMETSAT Jason-CS optional programme, and the EU Copernicus programme, for the joint benefits of the meteorological and Copernicus user communities in Europe. NASA and CNES will be supporting partners. The mission will start with the launch of Jason-CS A in 2020, followed by Jason-CS B in 2025.

  13. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    SciTech Connect

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G.

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Status and prospect of the Swiss continuous Cs fountain FoCS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallageas, A.; Devenoges, L.; Petersen, M.; Morel, J.; Bernier, L.-G.; Thomann, P.; Südmeyer, T.

    2016-06-01

    The continuous cesium fountain clock FoCS-2 at METAS presents many unique characteristics and challenges in comparison with standard pulsed fountain clocks. For several years FoCS-2 was limited by an unexplained frequency sensitivity on the velocity of the atoms, in the range of 140 • 10-15. Recent experiments allowed us to identify the origin of this problem as undesirable microwave surface currents circulating on the shield of the coaxial cables that feed the microwave cavity. A strong reduction of this effect was obtained by adding microwave absorbing coatings on the coaxial cables and absorbers inside of the vacuum chamber. This breakthrough opens the door to a true metrological validation of the fountain. A series of simulation tools have already been developed and proved their efficiency in the evaluation of some of the uncertainties of the continuous fountain. With these recent improvements, we are confident in the future demonstration of an uncertainty budget at the 10-15 level and below.

  15. Structures and isomorphous substitutions in Cs-Mg-beryl and Cs-rich beryllian indialite formed in a flux medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, M. A.; Rozhdestvenskaya, I. V.; Bannova, I. I.

    2012-11-01

    The crystal structures of isostructural compounds — Cs-Mg-beryl (Al1.68Mg0.31Fe0.01)(Be2.68Si0.02Al0.26□0.04)Si6.00O18 · Cs0.07 ( a = 9.2359(9) Å, c = 9.204(1)Å) and the Cs variety of beryllian indialite (Mg1.90Fe0.10)(Be1.02Al1.98)(Al0.30Si5.70)O18 · Na0.02Cs0.16 ( a = 9.598(3) Å, c = 9.284(3) Å) — were refined. These compounds were formed in the Al2Be3Si6O18-Mg,Ca/F,Cl flux system in the presence of cesium chloride. The main structural features of these compounds were determined. It was found that the iso-morphous incorporation of Cs+ cations into anhydrous beryl proceeds according to the simple "vacancy" scheme BeT2 → 2(Cs+) R + □T2, whereas the complex heterovalent substitution 9SiT1 + AlT2 → 9AlT1 + BeT2 + 9(Cs, Na) R is observed in Cs-rich beryllian indialite under anhydrous conditions; i.e., no vacancies are formed in the tetrahedral framework of the latter structure. In Cs-Mg-beryl, an increase in the average bond lengths in the M octahedron and in the interring T2 tetrahedron leads to an increase in the unit-cell parameters a and c. In Cs-rich beryllian indialite, a slight increase in the M-O bond length and a decrease in T2-O bond length cause a slight increase in the parameter a and a decrease in the parameter c. The Cs+ cations are incorporated into the channels of both compounds at the height of the interring M-T2 layer (like K+ cations), whereas the Na+ cation is incorporated inside the Si6O18 ring. The δT1 value suggests that the change in the composition caused by the incorporation of Cs+ cations leads to the incongruent melting of beryllian indialite.

  16. Measurement of |V{sub cs}| with DELPHI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Golob, Bostjan

    1998-10-19

    Pair production of charged weak bosons W{sup {+-}} at LEP2 collider can be exploited to measure the absolute value of the V{sub cs} element of Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. The value can be most accurately extracted from the measured hadronic branching ratio of W{sup {+-}} bosons. An independent method to obtain the |V{sub cs}| value consists of tagging the flavour of primary quarks in jets, produced in W{sup {+-}} decays. Using both methods on the data collected with DELPHI experiment during 1996 and 1997 runs, we obtained |V{sub cs}|=0.99{+-}0.06(stat.){+-}0.04(syst.). Combined result of |V{sub cs}| measurements with four LEP experiments enables a test of CKM matrix unitarity.

  17. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOEpatents

    Kilbane, II, John J.

    1994-01-01

    A microbial process for selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials, Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  18. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOEpatents

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1994-10-25

    A microbial process is described for selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials. Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  19. /sup 137/Cs radioactive dating of Lake Ontario sediment cores

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.E.; Breeden, J.; Komisarcik, K.; Porter, R.; Czuczwa, J.; Kaminski, R.; McVeety, B.D.

    1987-12-01

    The distribution of /sup 137/Cs in sediment cores from Lake Ontario provides estimates of the sediment accumulation rates. Geochronology with /sup 210/Pb dating and distribution of Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen compare well with /sup 137/Cs dating. These methods can determine with precision, changes in sedimentation occurring over the past 100 years or so. Typical sedimentation rates of 0.18-0.36 cm/yr were measured. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold highly excited NaCs molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Haruza, Marek; Bigelow, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    We report on our spectroscopic investigations of translationally ultracold NaCs molecules. Photoassociation from laser cooled mixtures of ground state sodium and excited cesium atoms creates molecules in excited states detuned from the Na(3s) + Cs(6d) dissociation asymptote. This is an as yet unexplored asymptote for molecule formation. We infer properties of the scattering wave from the PA spectra, and investigate the populated ground states using photoionization and depletion spectroscopy.

  1. Surface adsorption of Cs137 ions on quartz crystals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antkiw, Stephen; Waesche, H.; Senftle, F.

    1954-01-01

    Adsorption tests were made on four large synthetic and three natural quartz crystals to see if surface defects might be detected by subsequent autoradiography techniques. The adsorbent used was radioactive Cs137 in a solution of Cs 137Cl. Natural quartz crystals adsorbed more cesium than the synthetic crystals. Certain surface defects were made evident by this method, but twinning features could not be detected.

  2. Dielectric breakdown during Cs+ sputtering of polyvinyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahoud, F.; Guillot, J.; Audinot, J. N.; Bertrand, P.; Delcorte, A.; Migeon, H. N.

    2014-02-01

    Thin films of insulating polymers are sometimes analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) or by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) without the use of an electron gun. In this work, both SIMS and XPS have been used to study the chemical and structural modifications due to the charge effect during Cs+ sputtering of a thin film of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The kinetic energy distribution study shows that at a small primary fluence ˜1015 Cs+ ions/cm2, the dielectric breakdown voltage of the PVC film is reached, i.e. the minimum voltage that causes a portion of an insulator to become electrically conductive. XPS study indicates that the conducting phase created in the PVC film after energetic Cs+ bombardment consists of graphitized carbon and metallic cesium clusters. After the dielectric breakdown of the film, the positive charge, previously accumulated on the surface, is neutralized through the conductive regions, which are created in the insulating film. During Cs+ sputtering of a PVC film, the chemical structure of the analyzed surface is completely modified and some ionic bonds such as CsC and CsCl are also created.

  3. The Transfer of Dissolved Cs-137 from Soil to Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Prorok, V.V.; Melnichenko, L.Yu.; Mason, C.F.V.; Ageyev, V.A.; Ostashko, V.V.

    2006-07-01

    Rapidly maturing plants were grown simultaneously at the same experimental sites under natural conditions at the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Roots of the plants were side by side in the soil. During two seasons we selected samples of the plants and of the soils several times every season. Content of Cs-137 in the plant and in the soil solution extracted from the samples of soils was measured. Results of measurements of the samples show that, for the experimental site, Cs-137 content in the plant varies with date of the sample selection. The plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio depends strongly on the date of selection and also on the type of soil. After analysis of the data we conclude that Cs-137 plant uptake is approximately proportional to the content of dissolved Cs-137 in the soil per unit of volume, and the plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio for the soil is approximately proportional to the soil moisture. (authors)

  4. From sneeze to wheeze: what we know about rhinovirus Cs.

    PubMed

    Miller, E Kathryn; Mackay, Ian M

    2013-08-01

    While the discovery of HRV-Cs is recent, there are no indications that they are new viruses, or that they are emerging in real-time. Genetically, HRV-Cs are most closely related to the members of HRV-A and HRV-B but even a small genetic difference can impart encompass significant changes to their clinical impact, complicated by a diverse human background of prior virus exposure and underlying host immune and disease variability. It is well known that HRVs are a major trigger of asthma exacerbations and HRV-Cs are now under investigation for their potential involvement in asthma inception. The newly described HRV-Cs account for a large proportion of HRV-related illness, including common colds and wheezing exacerbations. HRV-Cs are genetically diverse and appear to circulate with seasonal variation, exchanging dominance with HRV-A. Whether HRV-Cs are consistently more pathogenic or "asthmagenic" is unproven. Antigenic diversity complicates passive and active prophylactic interventions (i.e. antibodies or vaccines), so further identification and characterisation of individual types (and their neutralising antigens) is likely to inform future preventive strategies. In the meantime, new antivirals should benefit groups at risk of the most severe disease.

  5. Syntheses, structures, and optical properties of the indium/germanium selenides Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16}, CsInSe{sub 2}, and CsInGeSe{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Matthew D.; Pozzi, Eric A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.; Ibers, James A.

    2014-04-01

    The three solid-state indium/germanium selenides Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16}, CsInSe{sub 2}, and CsInGeSe{sub 4} have been synthesized at 1173 K. The structure of Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16} is a three-dimensional framework whereas those of CsInSe{sub 2} and CsInGeSe{sub 4} comprise sheets separated by Cs cations. Both Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16} and CsInGeSe{sub 4} display In/Ge disorder. From optical absorption measurements these compounds have band gaps of 2.20 and 2.32 eV, respectively. All three compounds are charge balanced. - Graphical abstract: Structure of Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16}. - Highlights: • The solid-state In/Ge selenides Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16}, CsInSe{sub 2}, and CsInGeSe{sub 4} have been synthesized. • Both Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16} and CsInGeSe{sub 4} display In/Ge disorder. • Cs{sub 4}In{sub 8}GeSe{sub 16} and CsInGeSe{sub 4} have band gaps of 2.20 eV and 2.32 eV, respectively.

  6. The distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs in plants in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland in eastern central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Johanson, K J; Rydin, H; Rosén, K

    2010-02-01

    We record the distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs within individual Sphagnum plants (down to 20cm depth) as well as (137)Cs in vascular plants growing on a peatland in eastern central Sweden. In Calluna vulgaris(137)Cs was mainly located within the green parts, whereas Andromeda polifolia, Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium oxycoccos showed higher (137)Cs activity in roots. Carex rostrata and Menyanthes trifoliata showed variable distribution of (137)Cs within the plants. The patterns of (137)Cs activity concentration distribution as well as K, Rb and Cs concentrations within individual Sphagnum plants were rather similar and were usually highest in the capitula and/or in the subapical segments and lowest in the lower dead segments, which suggests continuous relocation of those elements to the actively growing apical part. The (137)Cs and K showed relatively weak correlations, especially in capitula and living green segments (0-10cm) of the plant (r=0.50). The strongest correlations were revealed between (137)Cs and Rb (r=0.89), and between (137)Cs and stable Cs (r=0.84). This suggests similarities between (137)Cs and Rb in uptake and relocation within the Sphagnum, but that (137)Cs differs from K.

  7. Safety and immunogenicity of the malaria candidate vaccines FP9 CS and MVA CS in adult Gambian men.

    PubMed

    Imoukhuede, E B; Berthoud, T; Milligan, P; Bojang, K; Ismaili, J; Keating, S; Nwakanma, D; Keita, S; Njie, F; Sowe, M; Todryk, S; Laidlaw, S M; Skinner, M A; Lang, T; Gilbert, S; Greenwood, B M; Hill, A V S

    2006-10-30

    We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of prime-boost vectors encoding the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) protein expressed either in the attenuated fowl-pox virus (FP9) or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). Thirty-two adult Gambians in groups of four to eight received one, two or three doses of FP9 CS and/or MVA CS. No serious adverse event was observed following vaccination. The most immunogenic regimen was two doses of FP9 followed by a single dose of MVA 4 weeks later (an average of 1000 IFN-gamma spot forming units/million PBMCs). This level of effector T-cell responses appears higher than that seen in previously reported studies of CS-based candidate malaria vaccines.

  8. Properties of CsI, CsBr and GaAs thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Brendel, V M; Garnov, S V; Yagafarov, T F; Iskhakova, L D; Ermakov, R P

    2014-09-30

    CsI, CsBr and GaAs thin films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on glass substrates. The morphology and structure of the films have been studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The CsI and CsBr films were identical in stoichiometry to the respective targets and had a polycrystalline structure. Increasing the substrate temperature led to an increase in the density of the films. All the GaAs films differed in stoichiometry from the target. An explanation was proposed for this fact. The present results demonstrate that, when the congruent transport condition is not fulfilled, films identical in stoichiometry to targets can be grown by pulsed laser deposition in the case of materials with a low melting point and thermal conductivity. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  9. Correlations between potassium, rubidium and cesium ((133)Cs and (137)Cs) in sporocarps of Suillus variegatus in a Swedish boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Rosén, K; Johanson, K J; Dahlberg, A

    2011-04-01

    An analysis of sporocarps of ectomycorrhizal fungi Suillus variegatus assessed whether cesium ((133)Cs and (137)Cs) uptake was correlated with potassium (K) or rubidium (Rb) uptake. The question was whether intraspecific correlations of Rb, K and (133)Cs mass concentrations with (137)Cs activity concentrations in sporocarps were higher within, rather than among, different fungal species, and if genotypic origin of sporocarps within a population affected uptake and correlation. Sporocarps (n = 51) from a Swedish forest population affected by the fallout after the Chernobyl accident were studied. The concentrations were 31.9 ± 6.79 g kg(-1) for K (mean ± SD, dwt), 0.40 ± 0.09 g kg(-1) for Rb, 8.7 ± 4.36 mg kg(-1) for (133)Cs and 63.7 ± 24.2 kBq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. The mass concentrations of (133)Cs correlated with (137)Cs activity concentrations (r = 0.61). There was correlation between both (133)Cs concentrations (r = 0.75) and (137)Cs activity concentrations (r = 0.44) and Rb, but the (137)Cs/(133)Cs isotopic ratio negatively correlated with Rb concentration. Concentrations of K and Rb were weakly correlated (r = 0.51). The (133)Cs mass concentrations, (137)Cs activity concentrations and (137)Cs/(133)Cs isotopic ratios did not correlate with K concentrations. No differences between, within or, among genotypes in S. variegatus were found. This suggested the relationships between K, Rb, (133)Cs and (137)Cs in sporocarps of S. variegatus is similar to other fungal species.

  10. The interaction of H 2S and S 2 with Cs and {Cs}/{ZnO} surfaces: photoemission and molecular-orbital studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, JoséA.; Jirsak, Tomas; Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Hrbek, Jan

    1998-06-01

    the surface chemistry of H 2S and S 2 on metallic Cs and {Cs}/{ZnO} surfaces has been investigated using high-resolution synchrotron based photoemission and ab initio self-consistent-field calculations. Metallic Cs is very reactive toward H 2S and S 2 at temperatures between 100 and 300 K. Pure cesium decomposes H 2S to form Cs 2S compounds. After dosing S 2 to Cs, one obtains Cs 2S and Cs 2S 2 m ( m ≥1 ) compounds. The formation of cesium sulfides induces an increase in the intensity of the Cs 3d levels and large negative shifts (0.8-1.3 eV) in their peak positions. Cesium atoms supported on ZnO are in an ionic state (Cs δ+), but they are still able to interact with H 2S and S 2 more strongly than Zn and O sites of the oxide support. A correlation is found between the electron density on the Cs adatoms and their reactivity: Cs atoms supported on Zn sites of the oxide bond S-containing species (H 2S, HS, S 2, S) are stronger than Cs atoms supported on O sites. H 2S dissociates into HS and atomic S upon adsorption on {Cs}/{ZnO} surfaces at 300 K. The HS species decompose at temperatures below 450 K leaving S atoms that are bonded to Cs and Zn. The adsorption of S 2 on {Cs}/{ZnO} surfaces at 300 K leads to the formation of Cs 2S and Cs 2S 2 m ( m ≥ 1) compounds. Cs↔S interactions increase the thermal stability of cesium on the ZnO surface. The poisoning of Cs/Cu/ZnO catalysts is discussed in light of these results and those previously reported for the S 2/Cu/ZnO system.

  11. Replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Brian; Vetter, Richard J

    2009-02-01

    Self-shielded 137Cs irradiators have been used for many years to irradiate blood products to prevent graft vs. host disease and to irradiate cells and small animals in research. A report by the National Academy of Sciences recommends that careful consideration be given to replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators. Several manufacturers and users of x-ray irradiators were contacted to determine costs of replacing and maintaining 137Cs irradiators with x-ray units and to assess users' experience with x-ray irradiators. Purchase costs of x-ray units are similar to 137Cs irradiators, but maintenance costs are significantly higher if annual service contracts are used. Performance of the two irradiator types appears to be equivalent, but in some cases x-ray irradiations may need to be performed in multiple configurations to achieve adequate uniformity in dose. No literature reports were found that evaluated the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays; therefore, a careful study should be conducted to determine the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays for biological responses relevant to transfusion medicine and immunological research. Throughput may be problematic for large transfusion medicine programs, and back-up plans may be necessary in case the x-ray unit needs to be taken out of service for extended maintenance. Disposition of a 137Cs irradiator will add to the cost of replacement with an x-ray unit, but disposal may be possible through the U.S. Department of Energy's Off-Site Source Recovery Program.

  12. Aerial Population Estimates of Wild Horses (Equus caballus) in the Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas Using an Integrated Simultaneous Double-Count and Sightability Bias Correction Technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lubow, Bruce C.; Ransom, Jason I.

    2007-01-01

    An aerial survey technique combining simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction methodologies was used to estimate the population of wild horses inhabiting Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas, Wyoming. Based on 5 surveys over 4 years, we conclude that the technique produced estimates consistent with the known number of horses removed between surveys and an annual population growth rate of 16.2 percent per year. Therefore, evidence from this series of surveys supports the validity of this survey method. Our results also indicate that the ability of aerial observers to see horse groups is very strongly dependent on skill of the individual observer, size of the horse group, and vegetation cover. It is also more modestly dependent on the ruggedness of the terrain and the position of the sun relative to the observer. We further conclude that censuses, or uncorrected raw counts, are inadequate estimates of population size for this herd. Such uncorrected counts were all undercounts in our trials, and varied in magnitude from year to year and observer to observer. As of April 2007, we estimate that the population of the Adobe Town /Salt Wells Creek complex is 906 horses with a 95 percent confidence interval ranging from 857 to 981 horses.

  13. Chemistry in circumstellar disks - CS toward HL Tauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Geoffrey A.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Sargent, Anneila I.

    1992-01-01

    High spatial and spectral resolution dust continuum and CS line-emission maps of the material immediately surrounding HL Tauri are presented. The 3.06-thermal dust map gives an upper limit to the source size of roughly 200 AU. When combined with previous millimeter continuum measurements, a beta value of 1.2 +/-0.3 is derived along with a disk mass of 0.1 solar mass, in agreement with previous disk radiative transfer models of the IR and submillimeter flux from HL Tau. The low dust emissivity index as compared to particles in the diffuse ISM is best explained by grain growth or composition evolution. The present observations of the CS and CO emission lines forming the molecular cloud surrounding HL Tauri are consistent with the 'canonical' temperatures, densities, and abundances derived in other Taurus cloud cores. In contrast, the CS emission in aperture synthesis maps at 650-AU spatial resolution is most consistent with CS/CO ratios at least 25-50 times lower in the gas immediately surrounding HL Tauri if the CS emission is optically thin. The continuum and spectral line results obtained are strong indicators of conditions thought to be similar to those in the presolar nebula some 4.5 AE ago.

  14. Radiation stability of CsBr:Eu needle image plates

    SciTech Connect

    Batentschuk, M.; Neudert, S.; Weidner, M.; Osvet, A.; Struye, L.; Tahon, J.-P.; Leblans, P.

    2009-10-15

    Needle image plates (NIPs) based on CsBr:Eu are a good alternative to the BaFBr:Eu powder image plates due to their higher sensitivity and improved spatial resolution. The x-ray radiation stability of the NIPs produced by Agfa Gevaert was investigated and it was found that the radiation stability of the optimized NIPs is as high as that of the commercial CsI:Tl single crystals and much higher than reported in literature for the CsBr:Eu NIPs. The dependence of the sensitivity of the NIPs on the accumulated dose was determined for three different types of x-ray irradiation. It is shown that degradation of the sensitivity starts at about 10 Gy and it is the strongest for the most hard x-ray beam. If the energy absorbed by a NIP is taken into account, the degradation does not depend on the hardness of the applied x-ray beam. It is suggested that the main reason for the observed high radiation stability of the CsBr:Eu NIPs is the use of the oxygen-free Eu{sup 2+}-containing precursor CsEuBr{sub 3} for the doping in the manufacturing process.

  15. Optimal High-TC Superconductivity in Cs3C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harshman, Dale; Fiory, Anthony

    The highest superconducting transition temperatures in the (A1-xBx)3C60 superconducting family are seen in the A15 and FCC structural phases of Cs3C60 (optimized under hydrostatic pressure), exhibiting measured values for near-stoichiometric samples of TC0 meas . = 37.8 K and 35.7 K, respectively. It is argued these two Cs-intercalated C60 compounds represent the optimal materials of their respective structures, with superconductivity originating from Coulombic e- h interactions between the C60 molecules, which host the n-type superconductivity, and mediating holes associated with the Cs cations. A variation of the interlayer Coulombic pairing model [Harshman and Fiory, J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 28 ̲, 2967 (2015), and references therein] is introduced in which TC0 calc . ~ 1 / lζ , where l relates to the mean spacing between interacting charges on surfaces of the C60 molecules, and ζ is the average radial distance between the surface of the C60 molecules and the neighboring Cs cations. For stoichiometric Cs3C60, TC0 calc . = 38.08 K and 35.67 K for the A15 and FCC macrostructures, respectively; the dichotomy is attributable to differences in ζ.

  16. Radiation stability of CsBr:Eu needle image plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batentschuk, M.; Neudert, S.; Weidner, M.; Osvet, A.; Struye, L.; Tahon, J.-P.; Leblans, P.

    2009-10-01

    Needle image plates (NIPs) based on CsBr:Eu are a good alternative to the BaFBr:Eu powder image plates due to their higher sensitivity and improved spatial resolution. The x-ray radiation stability of the NIPs produced by Agfa Gevaert was investigated and it was found that the radiation stability of the optimized NIPs is as high as that of the commercial CsI:Tl single crystals and much higher than reported in literature for the CsBr:Eu NIPs. The dependence of the sensitivity of the NIPs on the accumulated dose was determined for three different types of x-ray irradiation. It is shown that degradation of the sensitivity starts at about 10 Gy and it is the strongest for the most hard x-ray beam. If the energy absorbed by a NIP is taken into account, the degradation does not depend on the hardness of the applied x-ray beam. It is suggested that the main reason for the observed high radiation stability of the CsBr:Eu NIPs is the use of the oxygen-free Eu2+-containing precursor CsEuBr3 for the doping in the manufacturing process.

  17. Photoelectron Emission Studies in CsBr at 257 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, Juan R.; Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yun; Pianetta, Piero A.; Pease, Fabian W.; /Stanford U., Elect. Eng. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-09-28

    CsBr/Cr photocathodes were found [1,2] to meet the requirements of a multi-electron beam lithography system operating with a light energy of 4.8 eV (257nm). The fact that photoemission was observed with a light energy below the reported 7.3 eV band gap for CsBr was not understood. This paper presents experimental results on the presence of intra-band gap absorption sites (IBAS) in CsBr thin film photo electron emitters, and presents a model based on IBAS to explain the observed photoelectron emission behavior at energies below band gap. A fluorescence band centered at 330 nm with a FWHM of about 0.34 eV was observed in CsBr/Cr samples under 257 nm laser illumination which can be attributed to IBAS and agrees well with previously obtained synchrotron photoelectron spectra[1] from the valence band of CsBr films.

  18. Laboratory Characterization of Adobe (Scottsdale)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Testing and Materials. 2009a. Standard test method for pulse velocity through concrete. Designation C 597-97. Philadelphia, PA: American Society for ... Testing and Materials. _____. 2009b. Standard test method for laboratory determination of water (moisture) content of soil and rock by mass...Designation D 2216-98. Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials. _____. 2009c. Standard test method for preparing

  19. Atomic sites and stability of Cs+ captured within zeolitic nanocavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kaname; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Nakahira, Atsushi; Kurata, Hiroki; Ikuhara, Yumi H.; Sasaki, Yukichi

    2013-08-01

    Zeolites have potential application as ion-exchangers, catalysts and molecular sieves. Zeolites are once again drawing attention in Japan as stable adsorbents and solidification materials of fission products, such as 137Cs+ from damaged nuclear-power plants. Although there is a long history of scientific studies on the crystal structures and ion-exchange properties of zeolites for practical application, there are still open questions, at the atomic-level, on the physical and chemical origins of selective ion-exchange abilities of different cations and detailed atomic structures of exchanged cations inside the nanoscale cavities of zeolites. Here, the precise locations of Cs+ ions captured within A-type zeolite were analyzed using high-resolution electron microscopy. Together with theoretical calculations, the stable positions of absorbed Cs+ ions in the nanocavities are identified, and the bonding environment within the zeolitic framework is revealed to be a key factor that influences the locations of absorbed cations.

  20. Quasi-freestanding graphene on Ni(111) by Cs intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alattas, M.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-05-01

    A possible approach to achieve quasi-freestanding graphene on a substrate for technological purpose is the intercalation of alkali metal atoms. Cs intercalation between graphene and Ni(111) therefore is investigated using density functional theory, incorporating van der Waals corrections. It is known that direct contact between graphene and Ni(111) perturbs the Dirac states. We find that Cs intercalation restores the linear dispersion characteristic of Dirac fermions, which agrees with experiments, but the Dirac cone is shifted to lower energy, i.e., the graphene sheet is n-doped. Cs intercalation therefore decouples the graphene sheet from the substrate except for a charge transfer. On the other hand, the spin polarization of Ni(111) does not extend through the intercalated atoms to the graphene sheet, for which we find virtually spin-degeneracy.

  1. Performance verification tests of JT-60SA CS model coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro; Murakami, Haruyuki; Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Mito, Toshiyuki; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Kizu, Kaname; Natsume, Kyohei; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2015-11-01

    As a final check of the coil manufacturing method of the JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA) central solenoid (CS), we verified the performance of a CS model coil. The model coil comprised a quad-pancake wound with a Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor. Measurements of the critical current, joint resistance, pressure drop, and magnetic field were conducted in the verification tests. In the critical-current measurement, the critical current of the model coil coincided with the estimation derived from a strain of -0.62% for the Nb3Sn strands. As a result, critical-current degradation caused by the coil manufacturing process was not observed. The results of the performance verification tests indicate that the model coil met the design requirements. Consequently, the manufacturing process of the JT-60SA CS was established.

  2. Rate of reaction of OH with CS/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Wine, P.H.; Shah, R.C.; Ravishankara, A.R.

    1980-10-02

    The flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique has been employed to study the kinetics of the reaction OH + CS/sub 2/ ..-->.. products (k/sub 1/) over the temperature range 251-363 K. Complicating secondary reactions involving CS/sub 2/ photofragments were eliminated only when the photoflash was filtered by 10 torr cm of CS/sub 2/ and SF/sub 6/ was used as the buffer gas. The rate constant was found to be much slower than previous measurements indicated. Based on our experiments, upper limits for k/sub 1/ (in units of 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/s/sup -1/) are 9.9 at 251 K, 1.5 at 297 K, and 1.6 at 363 K. Our results suggest that the title reaction is unimportant as a source for COS in the atmosphere.

  3. Accumulation of K+ and Cs+ in Tropical Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, H.; Anjos, R. M.; Zamboni, C. B.; Macario, K. D.; Rizzotto, M.; Cid, A. S.; Medeiros, I. M. A.; Fernández, J.; Rubio, L.; Audicio, P.; Lacerda, T.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of K+ and 137Cs+ in tissues of the Citrus aurantifolia were measured both by gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis, aiming to understand the behavior of monovalent inorganic cations in plants as well as its capability to store these elements. In contrast to K+, Cs+ ions are not essential elements to plants, what might explain the difference in bioavailability. However, our results have shown that 137Cs+ is positively correlated to 40K+ concentration within tropical plant species, suggesting that these elements might be assimilated in a similar way, and that they pass through the biological cycle together. A simple mathematical model was also proposed to describe the temporal evolution of 40K activity concentration in such tropical woody fruit species. This model exhibited close agreement with the 40K experimental results in the fruit ripening processes of lemon trees.

  4. Quantum Efficiency Enhancement in CsI/Metal Photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Lingmei; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2015-02-01

    High quantum efficiency enhancement is found for hybrid metal-insulator photocathodes consisting of thin films of CsI deposited on Cu(100), Ag(100), Au(111) and Au films irradiated by 266 nm laser pulses. Low work functions (near or below 2 eV) are observed following ultraviolet laser activation. Work functions are reduced by roughly 3 eV from that of clean metal surfaces. We discuss various mechanisms of quantum efficiency enhancement for alkali halide/metal photocathode systems and conclude that the large change in work function, due to Cs accumulation of Cs metal at the metal-alkali halide interface, is the dominant mechanism for quantum efficiency enhancement

  5. Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996{+-}0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2{+-}1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of {sup 134}Cs/ {sup 137}Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

  6. Cs-137 concentration in reindeer and its fodder plants.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, K; Rahola, T

    1989-09-01

    Radionuclides, especially the long-lived 137Cs (physical half-life 30 years), are accumulated efficiently in the northern, subarctic, lichen-reindeer-man foodchain. Until the Chernobyl accident the fallout nuclides studied originated from nuclear weapons tests. After this accident some fresh fallout was deposited in Finnish Lapland. Lichens grow very slowly and collect nutrients very efficiently from air, rain and snow. During winter the basic fodder plants for reindeer are lichens and some winter-green plants, shrubs and dry leaves. During the bare-ground season, the reindeer eat various grasses, herbs and leaves etc. Lichens constitute 30-50 per cent of the entire vegetable mass consumed by the reindeer in a year. The highest 137Cs-concentration 2500 Bq/kg dry weight was found in lichen in the middle of the 1960s. In 1985 the concentration had decreased to about 240 Bq/kg dry weight. After the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration in lichen varied from 200 to 2000 Bq/kg dry weight in Finnish Lapland. In reindeer fodder plant samples collected in the 1980s before the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration varied from 5 to 970 Bq/kg dry weight. The highest 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat, about 2500 Bq/kg fresh weight, was found in 1965 and thereafter decreased to about 300 Bq/kg fresh weight in the winter before the Chernobyl accident. After the accident the mean 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat from the 1986-87 slaughtering period was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight and in 1987-88, 630 Bq/kg fresh weight.

  7. A winning combination: the 3Cs of business continuity.

    PubMed

    Glendon, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Contingency planning is a natural part of business life and is used across identified strategic, financial and operational risks. But is it being done well and is it the right approach all of the time? This paper shows how contingency planning forms one layer of a three-line defence termed 'the 3Cs of business continuity': contingency planning; continuity capability; crisis response. Collectively, 'the 3Cs' help organisations deliver a robust response to the risks that can be seen and those that cannot.

  8. Fluorescence polarization studies of autoionization in CS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poliakoff, E. D.; Dehmer, J. L.; Parr, A. C.; Leroi, G. E.

    1987-03-01

    The fluorescence polarization spectrum of CS2(+) produced by photoionization of CS2 (using synchrotron radiation from the NBS SURF-II electron-storage ring) at excitation wavelengths 875-967 A is investigated experimentally, with a focus on autoionization features. The results of polarization measurements for the A2Pi-X2Pi transition are presented in graphs and compared with spectra simulated using the procedure of Poliakoff et al. (1982); qualitative agreement is obtained, but quantitative discrepancies are noted, especially on the low-wavelength side of the resonance. The spectral assignments of Ogawa and Chang (1970) for the autoionizing Rydberg states are confirmed.

  9. Spin-Exchange-Relaxation-Free Magnetometry with Cs Vapor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-13

    Larmor precession 6,7. In Ref. 5, sensitivity of 5 pG /Hz was achieved with the cell operating at 190 °C using potassium atoms. Estimates of the...cell containing a droplet of Cs metal, 600 Torr He buffer gas to reduce the rate at which atoms in the central part of the cell diffuse to the cell...broadening of Cs lines by helium 19, we extrapolate the FWHM of the D1 and D2 optical resonances to be =15.7 and 14.1 GHz, respectively. The cell was

  10. The Submillimeter-Wave Spectrum of the CS+ Radical Ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailleux, Stéphane; Walters, Adam; Grigorova, Eva; Margulès, Laurent

    2008-05-01

    The submillimeter-wave spectrum of the CS+ radical cation in its ground electronic state (X2Σ+) has been observed for the first time, in a flowing positive column discharge in a CS2-Ar mixture partially cooled with a limited flow of liquid nitrogen. Nine rotational transition frequencies were recorded between 414 and 622 GHz, leading to the determination of accurate molecular constants B0 = 25908.8560(41) MHz, D0 = 41.344(18) kHz, and γ0 = 597.629(41) MHz, which we use to predict transition frequencies up to the terahertz region in order to stimulate new attempts at astronomical detection.

  11. 137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M; Johanson, K J

    2009-07-01

    The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity in peat soil profiles and (137)Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of (137)Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23,000 Bq m(-2). In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of (137)Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site (137)Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr(-1) at the open bog site and the migration centre of (137)Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr(-1) and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest (137)Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq(-1) DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. (137)Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m(2)kg(-1) DM at the low pine site.

  12. SorCS1 variants and amyloid precursor protein (APP) are co-transported in neurons but only SorCS1c modulates anterograde APP transport.

    PubMed

    Hermey, Guido; Schmidt, Nadine; Bluhm, Björn; Mensching, Daniel; Ostermann, Kristina; Rupp, Carsten; Kuhl, Dietmar; Kins, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is crucial for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because this processing is highly dependent on its intracellular itinerary, altered subcellular targeting of APP is thought to directly affect the degree to which Aβ is generated. The sorting receptor SorCS1 has been genetically linked to AD, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We analyze two SorCS1 variants; one, SorCS1c, conveys internalization of surface-bound ligands whereas the other, SorCS1b, does not. In agreement with previous studies, we demonstrate co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization of both SorCS1 variants with APP. Our results suggest that SorCS1c and APP are internalized independently, although they mostly share a common post-endocytic pathway. We introduce functional Venus-tagged constructs to study SorCS1b and SorCS1c in living cells. Both variants are transported by fast anterograde axonal transport machinery and about 30% of anterograde APP-positive transport vesicles contain SorCS1. Co-expression of SorCS1b caused no change of APP transport kinetics, but SorCS1c reduced the anterograde transport rate of APP and increased the number of APP-positive stationary vesicles. These data suggest that SorCS1 and APP share trafficking pathways and that SorCS1c can retain APP from insertion into anterograde transport vesicles. Altered APP trafficking is thought to modulate its processing. SorCS1 has been suggested to function in APP trafficking. We analyzed if the two SorCS1 variants, SorCS1b and SorCS1c, tie APP to the cell surface or modify its internalization and intracellular targeting. We observed co-localization and vesicular co-transport of APP and SorCS1, but independent internalization and sorting through a common post-endocytic pathway. Co-expression of one variant, SorCS1c, reduced anterograde APP transport. These data demonstrate that SorCS1 and APP share trafficking pathways and

  13. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-11-02

    135Cs/137Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135Cs/137Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. Furthermore, the differences in 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe.

  14. CHeCS: International Space Station Medical Hardware Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this catalog is to provide a detailed description of each piece of hardware in the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS), including subpacks associated with the hardware, and to briefly describe the interfaces between the hardware and the ISS. The primary user of this document is the Space Medicine/Medical Operations ISS Biomedical Flight Controllers (ISS BMEs).

  15. There and Back Again?: The Disappearing Pulsations of CS 1246

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez Soto, Alan; Barlow, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Hot subdwarf stars were once main sequence stars, like the sun, that deviated from normal stellar evolution due to binary interactions and evolved into extreme horizontal branch stars. Several of these stars exhibit rapid pulsations driven by iron opacity instabilities. CS 1246 is a rapidly pulsating hot subdwarf discovered in 2009 that is dominated by a single 371 second pulsation. At the time of its discovery, the pulsational amplitude was one of the largest known, making CS 1246 an ideal candidate for follow up studies. Observations in 2013 implied that the pulsational amplitude had decreased significantly. Since then we have continued monitoring the star using the robotic SKYNET telescopes in Chile, in order to further characterize any changes. Our recent observations show that the pulsational amplitude has gone down by a factor of six: CS 1246 is barely a pulsator anymore. The decay in amplitude over time is reminiscent of a damped harmonic oscillator. Here we present six years of photometry for CS 1246 and discuss possible scenarios that might explain its interesting behavior.

  16. Excitation-transfer collisions in cesium vapor: CS(5d (5/2)) + CS(6s (1/2)) yields CS(5d (3/2)) + CS(6s (1/2))

    SciTech Connect

    Keramati, B.; Masters, M.; Huennekens, J.

    1988-11-01

    The excitation-transfer collision Cs(5D5/2) + Cs(6S) yields CS(5D3/2) + Cs(6S) was studied. The upper 5D5/2 state was excited by a c-w dye laser tuned to the one photon, quadrupole-allowed 6S yields 5D5/2 transition. Since the direct 5D yields 6P fluorescence could not be detected with our apparatus we monitored instead the cascade 6P yields 6S fluorescence. The ratio of 6P 1/2 to 6P3/2 fluorescence contains information on the collisional mixing that takes place in the 5D levels but also includes a significant contribution from mixing in the 6P levels. This latter contribution could effectively be subtracted out using the results of a second experiment in which a tunable cw diode laser was used to pump the 6P3/2 state, and the same fluorescence ratio monitored. The 5D mixing cross section obtained, 70 A, is significantly larger than previous indirect determinations.

  17. Excitation-transfer collisions in cesium vapor: Cs(5D/sub 5/2/)+Cs(6S/sub 1/2/). -->. Cs (5D/sub 3/2/)+ Cs(6S/sub 1/2/)

    SciTech Connect

    Keramati, B.; Masters, M.; Huennekens, J.

    1988-11-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the excitation-transfer collision Cs(5D/sub 5/2/)+Cs(6S)..-->..CS ((5D/sub 3/2/)+Cs(6S). The upper 5D/sub 5/2/ state was excited by a cw dye laser tuned to the one-photon, quadrupole-allowed 6S..-->..5D/sub 5/2/ transition. Since the direct 5D..-->..6P fluorescence could not be detected with our apparatus, we monitored instead the cascade 6P..-->..6S fluorescence. The ratio of 6P/sub 1/2/ to 6P/sub 3/2/ fluorescence contains information on the collisional mixing that takes place in the 5D levels but also includes a significant contribution from mixing in the 6P levels. This latter contribution could effectively be subtracted out using the results of a second experiment in which a tunable cw diode laser was used to pump the 6P/sub 3/2/ state, and the same fluorescence ratio monitored. The 5D mixing cross section we obtain, 70 A/sup 2/, is significantly larger than previous indirect determinations.

  18. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in tropical plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjos, R. M.; Carvalho, C.; Mosquera, B.; Veiga, R.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Macario, K.

    2007-02-01

    The accumulation and distribution of 40K and 137Cs in several tropical plant species were studied through measurements of gamma-ray spectra, focusing on establishing the suitability of using radiocesium to trace the plant uptake of nutrients such as potassium.

  19. Fallout 137Cs in reindeer herders in Arctic Norway.

    PubMed

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Thørring, Håvard

    2015-03-03

    Reindeer herders in the Arctic were among the most heavily exposed populations to the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, due to high transfer of radionuclides in the lichens-reindeer-human food chain. Annual studies of (137)Cs in reindeer herders in Kautokeino, Norway, were initiated in 1965 to monitor radiation doses and follow environmental (137)Cs behavior. The (137)Cs concentrations declined from the peak in 1965 with effective half-times of 6-8 years, only interrupted by a temporary doubling in levels from 1986 to 1987 due to the Chernobyl fallout. During the period of 1950-2010 an average herder received an integrated effective dose from incorporated (137)Cs of about 18 mSv. This dose represents an insignificant increase in the risk for developing cancer. Health studies even show a significantly lower cancer incidence among Sámis and reindeer herders in northern Norway compared to other populations in the same area.

  20. A CS1 Pedagogical Approach to Parallel Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rague, Brian William

    2010-01-01

    Almost all collegiate programs in Computer Science offer an introductory course in programming primarily devoted to communicating the foundational principles of software design and development. The ACM designates this introduction to computer programming course for first-year students as CS1, during which methodologies for solving problems within…

  1. Measurements of Cs absorption and retention in man

    SciTech Connect

    Henrichs, H.; Paretzke, H.G.; Voigt, G.; Berg, D. )

    1989-10-01

    One of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986 was a comparatively high contamination of foodstuffs in Southern Federal Republic of Germany. In order to test radioecological models predicting the radiological consequences of such accidents, several thousand measurements were performed to determine Cs body burdens in members of the public. For the interpretation of these data and as a contribution to the improvement of the available database on the biokinetics of Cs isotopes in humans, we followed a small group of volunteers after their consumption of highly contaminated venison. Intakes, excretion rates and total body activities were measured during a period of more than 200 d. The data obtained were evaluated in terms of a compartment model to derive gastrointestinal uptakes, biological half-lives and dose conversion factors. The resulting uptake factors range from 65-90%, the half-lives of the long-term retention from 45 to 200 d. The majority of the resulting dose conversion factors lie below the values recommended by the ICRP, showing that the ICRP model is a reasonable and safe description of the Cs biokinetics in our study group, while the great variability of the results shows that it is not an accurate representation of the individual Cs retention.

  2. Isoform Specificity of Protein Kinase Cs in Synaptic Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sossin, Wayne S.

    2007-01-01

    Protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are implicated in many forms of synaptic plasticity. However, the specific isoform(s) of PKC that underlie(s) these events are often not known. We have used "Aplysia" as a model system in order to investigate the isoform specificity of PKC actions due to the presence of fewer isoforms and a large number of documented…

  3. Changing CS Features Alters Evaluative Responses in Evaluative Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unkelbach, Christian; Stahl, Christoph; Forderer, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to changes in people's evaluative responses toward initially neutral stimuli (CSs) by mere spatial and temporal contiguity with other positive or negative stimuli (USs). We investigate whether changing CS features from conditioning to evaluation also changes people's evaluative response toward these CSs. We used…

  4. Plutonium and Cs-137 in autopsy tissues in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Popplewell, D S; Ham, G J; Dodd, N J; Shuttler, S D

    1988-03-01

    Tissues removed at autopsy from members of the general public contain significantly higher concentrations of plutonium and 137Cs in west Cumbrians than in people from three other regions of Great Britain. Several autopsy cases from Cumbria showed unusually high values of plutonium. Subsequently it was found that the subjects had been former employees of British Nuclear Fuels.

  5. Phase transitions in CsCl-type intemetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bai-Hao.

    1990-06-13

    Phase transitions in binary intermetallic compounds with the CsCl-type structure have been studied by a novel combination of high-temperature powder X-ray diffraction and Rietveld Landau theory of symmetry and phase transitions and the Gibbs-Knonvalow equation have been applied to understand the phase behavior of some systems with the CsCl-type structure. The nonstoichiometric compounds RhTi, NbRu, and RuTa with the CsCl-type structure at high temperature undergo thermal symmetry breaking transitions upon cooling. The transitions are first to the AuCu-type tetragonal, and taken to the orthorhombic NbRu-type with Cmmm symmetry. Alloys Ir-Ti which are titanium rich have the CsCl-type structure. This cubic structure transforms to the AuCu-type tetragonal structure and then to the NbRu-type structure with increasing atomic percent iridium. New partial phase diagrams for the composition ranges in near equiatomic MnAu, NbRu, and RuTa are also presented.

  6. Developing a Technology Enhanced CS0 Course for Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokkila, Erno; Kaila, Erkki; Lindén, Rolf; Laakso, Mikko-Jussi; Sutinen, Erkki

    2016-01-01

    The CS0 course in the curriculum typically has the role of introducing students into basic concepts and terminology of computer science. Hence, it is used to form a base on which the subsequent programming courses can build on. However, much of the effort to build better methodologies for courses is spent on introductory programming courses…

  7. Integrating Internet Tools into Traditional CS Distance Education Students' Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal-Ezer, Judith; Lupo, David

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study conducted on the attitudes of students towards the integration of the Web as a channel of communication and a study tool in traditional distance teaching of Computer Science (CS) at the Open University of Israel. Results of questionnaires show the Web cannot substitute entirely for face-to-face learning. (Author/LRW)

  8. Teaching a CS Introductory Course: An Active Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moura, Isabel C.; van Hattum-Janssen, Natascha

    2011-01-01

    Computer Science (CS) introductory courses that are offered by the Department of Information Systems at the University of Minho (UM), Portugal, seem to abound in non-motivated students. They are characterized by high failure and withdrawal rates and use mainly deductive teaching approaches. Deductive instruction begins with theories and progresses…

  9. ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs radioactivity in soil and moss samples of Jeju Island after Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Ho; Kang, Tae-Woo; Kim, Won-Jik; Park, Jae Woo

    2013-11-01

    Specific activities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in surface soil and moss samples were investigated at 12 locations of Jeju Island, Korea. Specific activities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the surface soil vary from less than MDA to 17 Bq/kg and from 12 Bq/kg to 109 Bq/kg, respectively. Specific activities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in moss samples lie in the range 6 Bq/kg-39 Bq/kg and 15 Bq/kg-41 Bq/kg, respectively. The activity ratios (134)Cs/(137)Cs in the soil samples are much less than the reference value of about 1.0, but they are close to 1.0 in the moss samples. Average amount of (137)Cs added to the surface soil after the Fukushima accident is estimated to be 7.8 ± 1.7 Bq/kg. The depth profile of (137)Cs specific activity has a lognormal shape with a peak between 5 cm and 7.5 cm below the ground. For the cored soil sample, (134)Cs was detected up to 3 cm below the ground.

  10. 137 Cs Activities and 135 Cs/ 137 Cs Isotopic Ratios from Soils at Idaho National Laboratory: A Case Study for Contaminant Source Attribution in the Vicinity of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.; Clark, Sue B.; Kelley, Morgan; Delmore, James E.

    2015-03-03

    Radiometric and mass spectrometric analyses of Cs contamination in the environment can reveal the location of Cs emission sources, release mechanisms, modes of transport, prediction of future contamination migration, and attribution of contamination to specific generator(s) and/or process(es). The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) represents a complicated case study for demonstrating the current capabilities and limitations to environmental Cs analyses. 137Cs distribution patterns, 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios, known Cs chemistry at this site, and historical records enable narrowing the list of possible emission sources and release events to a single source and event, with the SDA identified as the emission source and flood transport of material from within Pit 9 and Trench 48 as the primary release event. These data combined allow refining the possible number of waste generators from dozens to a single generator, with INL on-site research and reactor programs identified as the most likely waste generator. A discussion on the ultimate limitations to the information that 135Cs/137Cs ratios alone can provide is presented and includes (1) uncertainties in the exact date of the fission event and (2) possibility of mixing between different Cs source terms (including nuclear weapons fallout and a source of interest).

  11. Prescription dose in permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Ning; Heron, Dwight E.; Komanduri, Krishna; Huq, M. Saiful

    2005-08-15

    Recently, {sup 131}Cs seeds have been introduced for prostate permanent seed implants. This type of seed has a relatively short half-life of 9.7 days and has its most prominent emitted photon energy peaks in the 29-34 keV region. Traditionally, 145 and 125 Gy have been prescribed for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seed prostate implants, respectively. Since both the half-life and dosimetry characteristics of {sup 131}Cs seed are quite different from those of {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd, the appropriate prescription dose for {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implant may well be different. This study was designed to use a linear quadratic radiobiological model to determine an appropriate dose prescription scheme for permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants. In this model, prostate edema was taken into consideration. Calculations were also performed for tumors of different doubling times and for other related radiobiological parameters of different values. As expected, the derived prescription dose values were dependent on type of tumors and types of edema. However, for prostate cancers in which tumor cells are relatively slow growing and are reported to have a mean potential doubling time of around 40 days, the appropriate prescription dose for permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants was determined to be: 127{sub -12}{sup +5}Gy if the experiences of {sup 125}I seed implants were followed and 121{sub -3}{sup +0}Gy if the experiences of {sup 103}Pd seed implants were followed.

  12. The fragmentation dynamics of small Cs(CsI)n+ cluster ions under low-energy multiple collision conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzschuh, Rainer; Drewello, Thomas

    2004-04-01

    The collision-induced dissociations of small caesium iodide cluster ions of the type Cs(CsI)n+ where n=3-7, have been investigated under low-energy multiple collision conditions. The collisions were performed in the rf-only quadrupole of a BEqQ hybrid mass spectrometer. Breakdown graphs of selected parent ions were obtained by varying the laboratory collision energy in the range of 0-400 eV. The fragmentation dynamic established under these conditions provides a link between the well-known decay behaviour occurring unimolecularly and the dissociations following high energy (keV) collisional activation. Of particular interest is the observation that the energy-dependent dissociation pattern supplies support for the occurrence of one-step fission reactions, featuring the evaporation of presumably intact (CsI)n neutrals as opposed to a sequential decay via nCsI losses. The breakdown graphs thus provide a valuable tool to enhance insight into the fragmentation mechanism of these clusters.

  13. Vaporization Mechanisms of Water-Insoluble Cs in Ash During Thermal Treatment with Calcium Chloride Addition.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Facun; Iwata, Norie; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Kawaguchi, Masato; Asada, Motoyuki; Honda, Maki; Sueki, Keisuke; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-20

    The vaporization mechanisms of water-insoluble Cs in raw ash and Cs-doped ash during thermal treatment with CaCl2 addition was systematically examined in a lab-scale electrical heating furnace over a temperature range of 500-1500 °C. The results indicate that the water-insoluble Cs in the ash was associated with aluminosilicate as pollucite. Addition of 10% CaCl2 caused the maximum vaporization ratio of Cs in the raw ash to reach approximately 80% at temperatures higher than 1200 °C, whereas approximately 95% of Cs was vaporized at temperatures higher than 1300 °C when 30% CaCl2 was added. The formation of an intermediate compound, CsCaCl3, through the chemical reaction of Cs with CaCl2 was responsible for Cs vaporization by means of the subsequent decomposition of this intermediate upon the increase in temperature. The indirect chlorination of Cs by the gaseous chlorine released from the decomposition of CaCl2 was insignificant. A high CaCl2 content in the resulting annealed products with 30% CaCl2 addition delayed the decomposition of CsCaCl3 and thus lowered the Cs vaporization ratio compared to that with 10% CaCl2 addition at 900-1250 °C. Thermal treatment with CaCl2 addition is a proposed method to remove Cs from Cs-contaminated incineration ash.

  14. Phytoremediation of stable Cs from solutions by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Moogouei, Roxana; Borghei, Mehdi; Arjmandi, Reza

    2011-10-01

    Uptake rate of (133)Cs, at three different concentrations of CsCl, by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album plants grown outdoors was studied. These plants grow abundantly in semi-arid regions and their varieties exist in many parts of the world. When exposed to lowest Cs concentration 68 percent Cs was remediated by Chenopodium album.(133)Cs accumulation in shoots of Amaranthus chlorostachys reached its highest value of 2146.2 mg kg(-1) at a (133)Cs supply level of 3.95 mg l(-1) of feed solution. The highest concentration ratio value was 4.89 for Amaranthus chlorostachys, whereas for the other tests it ranged from 0.74 to 3.33. Furthermore uptake of (133)Cs by all three species increased with increasing metal concentrations. The results also indicated that hydroponically grown Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album could be used as potential candidate plants for phytoremediation of solutions contaminated with Cs.

  15. Pretreatment/Radionuclide Separations of Cs/Tc from Supernates

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.C.

    1998-09-01

    Significant improvements have been made in ion exchange and solvent extraction materials and processes available for separation of the radionuclides cesium and technetium from both acid and alkaline waste solutions. New ion exchange materials and solvent extraction reagents are more selective for Cs over sodium and potassium than previous materials. The higher selectivity gives higher Cs capacity and improved separation processes. Technetium removal has been improved by new ion exchange resins, which have either improved capacity or easier elution. Several different crown ethers have been shown to extract pertechnetate ion selectively over other anions. Organic complexants in some waste solutions reduce pertechnetate ion and stabilize the reduced species. Selective oxidation allows conversion to pertechnetate without oxidation of the organic complexants.

  16. Flash radiography studies with microcolumnar CsI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalley, Duane; Lutz, Steve; Baker, Stuart A.; Morgan, Dane V.; Brown, Kristina K.; Corredor, Andrew; Castaneda, Jesus J.; Phillips, David H.; Smith, Andrew S.

    2016-09-01

    There is growing interest in using low-energy flash x-ray sources in radiographic applications to provide high-contrast images of low-density objects. Due to the low-energy nature of the detected photons, thin bright scintillators are desired. In order to pursue an optimum radiographic system, experimental studies have been performed of the static imaging properties of thin microcolumnar CsI using a Platts x-ray source. The Platts source is a nominally 300 keV endpoint rod pinch diode x-ray source with a 35 ns pulse time. The source was used to measure the imaging properties of microcolumnar CsI with various thicknesses and backings. The experimental setup was modeled in GEANT4, and the images were simulated to estimate system performance. Taking into account the source photon production, radiation transport, and system optical performance, an accurate assessment of the detection system can be deduced.

  17. Absorption spectra of shocked liquid CS/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Dallman, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of shock initiation of high explosives (HE) was understood as early as 1863 when Alfred Nobel introduced the detonator as a means of detonating nitroglycerine. The critical pressure rise times required to achieve shock initiation and steady propagation of detonation are determined by the chemical and mechanical properties of an explosive. Although progress has been made in the understanding of the effects of mechanical properties, the detailed effects of high pressures on chemical reaction mechanisms are still only poorly understood. This paper reports the results of two experiments using CS/sub 2/, which is known to undergo electronic state transitions when shocked to high pressures. The goal of these experiments was to examine the known shock-generated expansion of CS/sub 2/ absorption bands while generating the shocks with a flyer plate system driven by high explosives.

  18. Chemistry, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology of CS and Synthesis of Its Novel Analogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    fluorine and fluorine -containing groups have been synthesized using microwave irradiation and novel catalysts. The structures and physical properties and...safe, and biologically more potent CS analogs. To this end, the synthesis of a novel group of CS-agents incorporating fluorine and fluorine ...CONCLUSION The new CS-analogs are expected to be more potent than CS. This observation is based on the following considerations. First, fluorine is

  19. Assessment of CS (o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile) Environmental Toxicity at Eglin AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    duckweed . The growth of two of the three duckweed species tested was reduced at a CS concentration of 1 ppm, while all three had reduced growth at 5...and that the soil burden would tnpelld -on the deposition rate from training exercises. Management of CS use should include rotating exercises...degradation rate of CS on Eglin soil. In addition, it contains recommendations concerning the use of CS and addresses the issue of environmental

  20. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Vecchione, Theodore; Maldonado, Juan R.; Gierman, Stephen; ...

    2015-04-03

    CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80 MV/m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 2×10⁻⁹ torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  1. Predictors of Urinary Morbidity in Cs-131 Prostate Brachytherapy Implants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ryan P.; Jones, Heather A.; Beriwal, Sushil; Gokhale, Abhay; Benoit, Ronald

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Cesium-131 is a newer radioisotope being used in prostate brachytherapy (PB). This study was conducted to determine the predictors of urinary morbidity with Cs-131 PB. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 159 patients underwent PB with Cs-131 at our institution and were followed by using Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) surveys to determine urinary morbidity over time. EPIC scores were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months. Different factors were evaluated to determine their individual effect on urinary morbidity, including patient characteristics, disease characteristics, treatment, and dosimetry. Multivariate analysis of covariance was carried out to identify baseline determinants affecting urinary morbidity. Factors contributing to the need for postoperative catheterization were also studied and reported. Results: At 2 weeks, patient age, dose to 90% of the organ (D90), bladder neck maximum dose (D{sub max}), and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) predicted for worse function. At 4 weeks, age and EBRT continued to predict for worse function. At the 3-month mark, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT predicted for worse urinary morbidity. At 6 months, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT were predictive of increased urinary problems. High bladder neck D{sub max} and poor preoperative urinary function predicted for the need for catheterization. Conclusions: The use of EBRT plus Cs-131 PB predicts for worse urinary toxicity at all time points studied. Patients should be cautioned about this. Age was a consistent predictor of worsened morbidity immediately following Cs-131 PB, while bladder D{sub max} was the only consistent dosimetric predictor. Paradoxically, patients with better preoperative urinary function had worse urinary morbidity at 3 and 6 months, consistent with

  2. Characterisation of CS Aerosol used in Mask Test Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    riot control and military forces for training and combat. It produces transient discomfort and eye closure to render the recipient temporarily...health (IDLH) value 2 mg/m3 [4], [7]. Under normal conditions CS is a white solid with a pepper odour , low vapour pressure (ə mm of Hg), molecular...2.3 Laboratory studies Preliminary assessment of the measuring system and sampling procedures were conducted in the laboratory under controlled

  3. Duration Test Report for the Viryd CS8 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roadman, J.; Murphy, M.; van Dam, J.

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a duration noise test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on the Viryd CS8 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with Clause 9.4 of the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind turbines - Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed. 2.0:2006-03. NREL researchers evaluated the turbine based on structural integrity and material degradation, quality of environmental protection, and dynamic behavior.

  4. Decontamination Efficiencies of Pot-Type Water Purifiers for 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs in Rainwater Contaminated during Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Rainwater was contaminated by a large release of radionuclides into the environment during the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. It became a matter of concern for Japan when several water purification plants detected 131I contamination in the drinking water. In the present study, the decontamination efficiency of two easily obtainable commercial water purifiers were examined for rainwater contaminated with 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs. The water purifiers removed 94.2–97.8% of the 131I and 84.2–91.5% of the 134Cs and 137Cs after one filtration. Seven filtrations removed 98.2–99.6% of the 131I and over 98.0% of the 134Cs and 137Cs. From a practical perspective, over the fourth filtrations were not needed because of no significant improvements after the third filtration. PMID:22615935

  5. Elastic scattering of electrons from Rb, Cs and Fr atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, R. K.; Tripathi, A. N.; Sharma, L.; Srivastava, R.

    2010-04-01

    Differential, integrated elastic, momentum-transfer and total cross sections as well as differential S, T and U spin parameters for scattering of electrons from rubidium, caesium and francium atoms in the incident energy range up to 300 eV are calculated using a relativistic Dirac equation. The projectile electron-target atom interaction is represented by both real and complex parameter-free optical potentials for obtaining the solution of a Dirac equation for scattered electrons. The Dirac-Fock wavefunctions have been used to represent the Rb, Cs and Fr target atoms. The results of differential cross sections and spin asymmetry parameter S for e-Rb and e-Cs have been compared with the available experimental and theoretical results. Detailed results are reported for the elastic scattering of electrons from the ground states of a francium atom for the first time in the wide range of incident electron energies. The results of electron-Fr elastic scattering show the similar features to those obtained in the case of e-Rb and e-Cs elastic scattering.

  6. ARIES-CS Magnet Conductor and Structure Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X. R.; Raffary, A. R.; Bromberg, L.; Schultz, J. H.; Ku, L. P.; Lyon, J. F.; Mulang, L.; Waganer, L.; El-GuebalyUniv. Wisco, L.; MartinUniv Wiscons, C.

    2008-10-01

    The ARIES-CS study focusing on the conceptual design and assessment of a compact stellarator power plant identified the important advantages and key issues associated with such a design. The coil configuration and structural support approach represent key design challenges, with the final design and material choices affected by a number of material and geometry constraints. This paper describes the design configuration and analysis and material choices for the ARIES-CS magnets and its structure. To meet aggressive cost and assembly/maintenance goals, the magnets are designed as lifetime components. Due to the very complex geometry, one of the goals of the study was to provide a robust operational design. This decision has significant implications on cost and manufacturing requirements. Concepts with both conventional and advanced superconductors have been explored. The coil structure design approach adopted is to wind all six modular coils of one field period in grooves in one monolithic coil structural shell (one per field period). The coil structural shells are then bolted together to form a strong structural shell to react the net radial forces. Extensive engineering analyses of the coil system have been performed using ANSYS shell and solid modeling. These include electromagnetic (EM) analyses to calculate the magnetic fields and EM forces and structural analyses to evaluate the structural responses and optimize the coil support system, which has a considerable impact on the cost of the ARIES-CS power plant.

  7. Cs 728 nm Laser Spectroscopy and Faraday Atomic Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong-Zheng; Tao, Zhi-Ming; Jiang, Zhao-Jie; Chen, Jing-Biao

    2014-12-01

    We mainly present the 728 nm laser spectroscopy and Faraday atomic filter of Cs atoms with 650 MHz linewidth and 2.6% transmission based on an electrodeless discharge vapor lamp, compared with Rb 728 nm laser spectroscopy. Accidentally, this remarkably strong Cs 728 nm transition from the 6F7/2 state to the 5D5/2 state is only about 2.5 GHz away from the Rb 728 nm transition of the future potential four-level active optical clock, once laser cooled and trapped from the 7S1/2 state to the 5P1/2 state, as we proposed previously. A Faraday atomic filter stabilized 728 nm laser using a Cs electrodeless discharge vapor lamp with a power of 10mW will provide a frequency reference to evaluate the performance of the potential Rb four-level active optical clock at 728 nm with power less than 1 nW by 2.5 GHz heterodyne measurements.

  8. A (137)Cs erosion model with moving boundary.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chuan; Ji, Hongbing

    2015-12-01

    A novel quantitative model of the relationship between diffused concentration changes and erosion rates using assessment of soil losses was developed. It derived from the analysis of surface soil (137)Cs flux variation under persistent erosion effect and based on the principle of geochemistry kinetics moving boundary. The new moving boundary model improves the basic simplified transport model (Zhang et al., 2008), and mainly applies to uniform rainfall areas which show a long-time soil erosion. The simulation results for this kind of erosion show under a long-time soil erosion, the influence of (137)Cs concentration will decrease exponentially with increasing depth. Using the new model fit to the measured (137)Cs depth distribution data in Zunyi site, Guizhou Province, China which has typical uniform rainfall provided a good fit with R(2) = 0.92. To compare the soil erosion rates calculated by the simple transport model and the new model, we take the Kaixian reference profile as example. The soil losses estimated by the previous simplified transport model are greater than those estimated by the new moving boundary model, which is consistent with our expectations.

  9. A retrieved upper limit of CS in Neptune's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, T.; Mizuno, A.; Nagahama, T.; Hirota, A.; Nakajima, T.

    2012-12-01

    We present our new result of CS(J=7-6), CO(J=3-2) observations of Neptune's atmosphere carried out with 10-m ASTE sub-mm waveband telescope on August 2010. As a result, while CS line was not detected with 6.4 mK 1-sigma r.m.s. noise level, CO line was detected as 282 mK with 9.7 mK noise level in antenna temperature scale. All of the observations were carried out with 512 MHz bandwidth and 500 kHz resolution, the total integration time for CS and CO were 23 m 40 s and 11 m 00 s, respectively. Abundances have been obtained from the comparison between the intensity and the synthesis spectra modeled by plane parallel 1-D radiative transfer code assuming various mixing ratio of each gas. The retrieved upper limit of CS mixing ratio was 0.03 ppb throughout tropopause to stratosphere. CO mixing ratio have been retrieved 1.0 ppm with errors +0.3 and -0.2 ppm, and the result was consistent with previous observation [1]. The origin of abundant CO in Neptune's atmosphere has been long discussed since its mixing ratio is 30 - 500 times higher than the value of other gas giants [2][3][4]. Assuming that all of CO is produced by thermochemical equilibrium process in deep interior of Neptune, required O/H value in interior is 440 times higher than the solar value [5]. For this reason, it is claimed that the external CO supply source, such as the impact of comet or asteroid, is also the possible candidates of the origin of CO along with the internal supply source [6]. In this observation, we searched the remnant gas of cometary impact in Neptune's atmosphere. Along with CO and HCN, CS could be one of the possible candidate of the remnant gas of cometary impact since CS was largely produced after the impact of comet SL/9 on Jupiter while many other major sulfur compounds have not been detected. Actually, derived < 0.00003 [CS]/[CO] value from our observations is 1000 times more smaller than the value of Jupiter of 0.037 [7]. Our observation result shows the depletion of CS in

  10. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections in Rb and Cs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddish, T. J.; Lukomski, M.; Sutton, S.; Kedzierski, W.; McConkey, J. W.; Bartschat, K.; Bartlett, P. L.; Stelbovics, A. T.; Bray, I.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new atom trapping technique for determining absolute, total ionisation cross sections (TICS) out of an excited atom. The novel feature of this method is in utilizing Doppler cooling of neutral atoms to determine ionisation cross sections. This fluorescence-monitoring experiment, which is a variant of the `trap loss' technique, has enabled us to obtain the experimental electron impact ionisation cross sections out of the Cs 6^2P3/2 excited state between 7 - 400 eV. New CCC, R-Matrix with Pseudo-States (RMPS), and Born approximation single ionisation cross sections (SICS) are also presented for both the ground and excited states of Cs and Rb, and compared with the available experimental data. The comparison of the results reveals the importance of the autoionisation and multiple ionisation contributions to the TICS. The autoionisation contribution appears to be substantial for ionisation out of the Cs 6^2P and Rb 5^2P excited states; ˜ 3-4 larger than the direct ionisation contribution predicted by CCC at ˜ 30-50 eV. This surprising result shows the importance of multi-electron processes in determining the ionisation cross sections of heavy alkali atoms.

  11. Localization of a continuum shape resonance - Photoionization of CS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakar, Sandeep; Choi, Heung-Cheun; Poliakoff, E. D.

    1992-10-01

    We report a vibrationally resolved investigation into the 5sigma(u) exp -1 shape-resonant ionization dynamics for CS2 in the range h nu 18-30 eV. The intensity of dispersed fluorescence from CS2(+)(B 2Sigma(u)(+) photoions is measured to obtain partial photoionization cross-section curves for the v = (0,0,0) and (1,0,0) levels of CS2(+)(B 2Sigma(u)(+), as well as the vibrational branching ratio. Our results indicate a shape resonance at hv equal to about 21 eV which is insensitive to changes in the symmetric stretching coordinate. These data are consistent with recent theoretical efforts that predict a shape resonance in the 5sigma(u) - epsilon pi(g) channel. All previous vibrationally resolved data on shape resonances have been obtained for systems whose shape resonances occur in the (epsilon sigma) continuum. The current results are in contrast to behavior observed for other shape resonances, highlighting both their diverse nature and possible extensions of the current measurements.

  12. Matched field localization based on CS-MUSIC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuangle; Tang, Ruichun; Peng, Linhui; Ji, Xiaopeng

    2016-04-01

    The problem caused by shortness or excessiveness of snapshots and by coherent sources in underwater acoustic positioning is considered. A matched field localization algorithm based on CS-MUSIC (Compressive Sensing Multiple Signal Classification) is proposed based on the sparse mathematical model of the underwater positioning. The signal matrix is calculated through the SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) of the observation matrix. The observation matrix in the sparse mathematical model is replaced by the signal matrix, and a new concise sparse mathematical model is obtained, which means not only the scale of the localization problem but also the noise level is reduced; then the new sparse mathematical model is solved by the CS-MUSIC algorithm which is a combination of CS (Compressive Sensing) method and MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) method. The algorithm proposed in this paper can overcome effectively the difficulties caused by correlated sources and shortness of snapshots, and it can also reduce the time complexity and noise level of the localization problem by using the SVD of the observation matrix when the number of snapshots is large, which will be proved in this paper.

  13. Brachytherapy dosimetry parameters calculated for a 131Cs source.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Mark J

    2007-02-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the IsoRay Medical model CS-1 Rev2 131Cs brachytherapy source was performed. Dose distributions were simulated using Monte Carlo methods (MCNP5) in liquid water, Solid Water, and Virtual Water spherical phantoms. From these results, the in-water brachytherapy dosimetry parameters have been determined, and were compared with those of Murphy et al. [Med. Phys. 31, 1529-1538 (2004)] using measurements and simulations. Our results suggest that calculations obtained using erroneous cross-section libraries should be discarded as recommended by the 2004 AAPM TG-43U1 report. Our Mclambda value of 1.046+/-0.019 cGy h(-1) U(-1) is within 1.3% of that measured by Chen et al. [Med. Phys. 32, 3279-3285 (2005)] using TLDs and the calculated results of Wittman and Fisher [Med. Phys. 34, 49-54 (2007)] using MCNP5. Using the discretized energy approach of Rivard [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 55, 775-782 (2001)] to ascertain the impact of individual 131Cs photons on radial dose function and anisotropy functions, there was virtual equivalence of results for 29.461< or =Egamma< or = 34.419 keV and for a mono-energetic 30.384 keV photon source. Comparisons of radial dose function and 2D anisotropy function data are also included, and an analysis of material composition and cross-section libraries was performed.

  14. Microstructure of Cs-implanted zirconia: Role of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, L.; Thomé, L.; Garrido, F.; Kaitasov, O.; Houdelier, F.

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify experimentally the phase which includes cesium in yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The solubility and retention of cesium in YSZ were studied at high temperature (HT). Cesium was ion implanted (at 300 keV) into YSZ at room temperature (RT), 750 °C, or 900 °C at fluences up to 5×1016 cm-2. The temperature dependence of the radiation-induced damage and of the cesium distribution in YSZ single crystals was investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed in order to determine the damage nature and search for a predicted ternary phase of cesium zirconate. Whatever the implantation temperature, the thickness of the damaged layer increases inwards with ion fluence. At RT, amorphization occurs, caused by the high Cs concentration (7at.%). In situ TEM during postannealing shows recrystallization of cubic zirconia after release of cesium. A high implantation temperature has a significant influence on the nature of radiation defects and on the retained Cs concentration. At HT, dislocation loops and voids are formed but no amorphization is observed whereas polygonization occurs at high fluence. The implanted cesium concentration reaches a saturation value of 1.5 at. % above which Cs can no longer be retained in the matrix and is then released at the surface. At that concentration, cesium forms a solid solution in YSZ; no other phase is formed, neither during irradiation nor after thermal annealing.

  15. Highly Excited States of cs Atoms on Helium Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, F.; Theisen, M.; Koch, M.; Ernst, W. E.

    2011-06-01

    Cs atoms on the surface of helium nanodroplets have been excited to high lying nS (n = 8-11), nP (n = 8-11), and nD (n = 6-10) levels. A two-step excitation scheme via the 62P1/2(2Π1/2) state using two cw lasers was applied. This intermediate state has the advantage that a large fraction of the excited Cs atoms does not desorb from the helium nanodroplets. An absorption spectrum was recorded by detecting laser induced fluorescence light from the 62P3/2→62S1/2 transition. The pseudo-diatomic model for helium nanodroplets doped with single alkali-metal atoms holds for the observed spectrum. An investigation of spectral trends shows that the n'2P(Π)←62P1/2(2Π1/2) and n'2D(Δ)←62P1/2(2Π1/2) (n' > 9) transitions are lower in energy than the corresponding free-atom transitions. This indicates that the Cs*--HeN potential becomes attractive for these highly excited states. Our results suggest a possibility of generating an artificial super-atom with a positive ion core inside a helium nanodroplet and the electron outside, which will be subject to future experiments. M. Theisen, F. Lackner, F. Ancilotto, C. Callegari, and W.E. Ernst, Eur. Phys. J. D 61, 403-408 (2011)

  16. Detection and Evaluation of Skin Disorders by One of Photogrammetric Image Analysis Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güçin, M.; Patias, P.; Altan, M. O.

    2012-08-01

    Abnormalities on skin may vary from simple acne to painful wounds which affect a person's life quality. Detection of these kinds of disorders in early stages, followed by the evaluation of abnormalities is of high importance. At this stage, photogrammetry offers a non-contact solution to this concern by providing geometric highly accurate data. Photogrammetry, which has been used for firstly topographic purposes, in virtue of terrestrial photogrammetry became useful technique in non-topographic applications also (Wolf et al., 2000). Moreover the extension of usage of photogrammetry, in parallel with the development in technology, analogue photographs are replaced with digital images and besides digital image processing techniques, it provides modification of digital images by using filters, registration processes etc. Besides, photogrammetry (using same coordinate system by registration of images) can serve as a tool for the comparison of temporal imaging data. The aim of this study is to examine several digital image processing techniques, in particular the digital filters, which might be useful to determine skin disorders. In our study we examine affordable to purchase, user friendly software which needs neither expertise nor pre-training. Since it is a pre-work for subsequent and deeper studies, Adobe Photoshop 7.0 is used as a present software. In addition to that Adobe Photoshop released a DesAcc plug-ins with CS3 version and provides full compatibility with DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) and PACS (Picture Archiving and Communications System) that enables doctors to store all medical data together with relevant images and share if necessary.

  17. Protection from Extinction by Concurrent Presentation of an Excitor or an Extensively Extinguished CS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineno, Oskar

    2007-01-01

    One conditioned taste aversion experiment with rats assessed the impact of extinguishing a target conditioned stimulus (CS), S, in compound with a second CS, A, upon conditioned responding elicited by CS S when presented alone at test. Following initial conditioning treatment with CSs A and S, the experiment manipulated number of extinction trials…

  18. Temporal variation of post-accident atmospheric (137)Cs in an evacuated area of Fukushima Prefecture: Size-dependent behaviors of (137)Cs-bearing particles.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Shinya; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Ueda, Shinji; Tokonami, Shinji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2016-12-01

    The concentrations of (137)Cs in the air, which were divided into coarse (>1.1 μm ϕ) and fine (<1.1 μm ϕ) fractions of particulate matter (PM), were measured from October 2012 to December 2014 in an area evacuated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Total atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations showed a clear seasonal variation, with high concentrations during summer and autumn related to the dominant easterly wind blowing from the highly radioactivity contaminated area. This seasonal peak was dominated by (137)Cs in the coarse PM fraction. The (137)Cs specific activity (massic (137)Cs concentration) in the coarse PM was also found to increase significantly in summer, whereas that in the fine PM showed no variability during the year. These results show that coarse and fine (137)Cs-bearing PM have different origins and behaviors in the resuspension process. The seasonal variation in atmospheric (137)Cs concentration was well correlated with the mean (137)Cs surface contamination (deposition density) around the observation site weighted by the frequency of wind direction, indicating that the atmospheric (137)Cs concentration in the observation site was explained by the distribution of the (137)Cs surface contamination and the frequency of different wind directions. We introduced a resuspension factor corrected for wind direction, consisting of the ratio of the atmospheric (137)Cs concentration to the weighted mean (137)Cs surface contamination, which evaluated the intensity of resuspension better than the conventional resuspension factor. This ratio ranged from 5.7 × 10(-11) to 8.6 × 10(-10) m(-1) and gradually decreased during the study period.

  19. Shape and phase evolution from CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocubes to tetragonal CsPb2Br5 nanosheets with an indirect bandgap.

    PubMed

    Li, Guopeng; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Zhifeng; Chang, Yajing; Zhang, Ting; Song, Zihang; Jiang, Yang

    2016-09-13

    Tetragonal CsPb2Br5 nanosheets were obtained by an oriented attachment of orthorhombic CsPbBr3 nanocubes, involving a lateral shape evolution from octagonal to square. Meanwhile, the experimental results, together with DFT simulation results, indicated that the tetragonal CsPb2Br5 is an indirect bandgap semiconductor that is PL-inactive with a bandgap of 2.979 eV.

  20. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Cucumber Genes Encoding Two Copper ATPases CsHMA5.1 and CsHMA5.2*

    PubMed Central

    Migocka, Magdalena; Posyniak, Ewelina; Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Papierniak, Anna; Kosieradzaka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Plant copper P1B-type ATPases appear to be crucial for maintaining copper homeostasis within plant cells, but until now they have been studied mostly in model plant systems. Here, we present the molecular and biochemical characterization of two cucumber copper ATPases, CsHMA5.1 and CsHMA5.2, indicating a different function for HMA5-like proteins in different plants. When expressed in yeast, CsHMA5.1 and CsHMA5.2 localize to the vacuolar membrane and are activated by monovalent copper or silver ions and cysteine, showing different affinities to Cu+ (Km ∼1 or 0.5 μm, respectively) and similar affinity to Ag+ (Km ∼2.5 μm). Both proteins restore the growth of yeast mutants sensitive to copper excess and silver through intracellular copper sequestration, indicating that they contribute to copper and silver detoxification. Immunoblotting with specific antibodies revealed the presence of CsHMA5.1 and CsHMA5.2 in the tonoplast of cucumber cells. Interestingly, the root-specific CsHMA5.1 was not affected by copper stress, whereas the widely expressed CsHMA5.2 was up-regulated or down-regulated in roots upon copper excess or deficiency, respectively. The copper-induced increase in tonoplast CsHMA5.2 is consistent with the increased activity of ATP-dependent copper transport into tonoplast vesicles isolated from roots of plants grown under copper excess. These data identify CsHMA5.1 and CsHMA5.2 as high affinity Cu+ transporters and suggest that CsHMA5.2 is responsible for the increased sequestration of copper in vacuoles of cucumber root cells under copper excess. PMID:25963145

  1. Ingestion doses in Finland due to (90)Sr, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs from nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Rantavaara, A

    2008-11-01

    (90)Sr and (137)Cs in domestic foodstuffs and water have been analysed in Finland since the early 1960s, and (134)Cs since 1986. Using data on radionuclide deposition levels, agricultural production, and the processing and consumption of foodstuffs, the average intake and radiation dose from the ingestion of these radionuclides have been assessed. The estimated committed effective dose from the ingestion of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, and (134)Cs in food and water for the period 1960-2005 is 2.2 mSv, and for the period since the Chernobyl accident in 1986 it is 1.3 mSv.

  2. Thermoelectric properties of quaternary Uranium chalcogenides Cs2Pt3US6 and Cs2Pt3USe6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Fahad Ali; Azam, Sikander

    2014-08-01

    Electronic and thermoelectric behaviors of Cs2Pt3US6 and Cs2Pt3USe6 compounds have been revealed in the present work. The calculations have been performed with the help of full potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW). Engel-Vosko generalize gradient approximation was used for the exchange correlation energy. Thermoelectric properties were deal with generalized BoltzTraP program. Band structure calculation resulted in metallic nature of the materials. Calculated Fermi surfaces have been found to consist of two sheets. Bonding characteristics have studied with the help of electron charge density in (1 1 0) crystallographic plane. Seebeck coefficient, electric conductivity, power factor, figure of merit and thermal conductivity has been calculated.

  3. Cs and Ag co-incorporation in cubic silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro; Heim, Andrew J.; Kim, Sungtae; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the diffusion of fission products Cs and Ag through the SiC layer of TRISO particles is of particular interest for the progress and improvement of the High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies. Although the SiC layer acts as a barrier for fission products, there is experimental evidence of Cs and Ag diffusion through this layer. Previous considerations of Ag and Cs in SiC have focused on the element interacting with SiC, but have not considered the possibility of co-incorporation with another species. This paper presents a ab initio study on the co-incorporation of Cs and Ag with an anion (Iodine (I) or Oxygen (O)) into SiC as an alternative incorporation mechanism. It is found that for crystalline SiC, Ag co-incorporation with Iodine (I) and Oxygen (O) into SiC is not energetically favorable, while Cs co-incorporation with O is a preferred mechanism under some oxygen partial pressures of interest. However, Cs-O co-incorporation into the crystalline portion of SiC is not sufficiently strong to enable a Cs solubility that accounts for the Cs release observed in some experiments. Formation energies are a function of the chemical potential of Si and C. Calculations in this paper are performed for Si-rich and C-rich conditions, which constitute the boundaries for which the formation energies are allowed to vary. Calculation of the electronic potential shift is required in order to ensure that the Fermi level in a defected cell is defined with respect to the same valence band level in the undefected cell [21,23]. The potential shift is calculated by aligning low energy levels in the total density of states (DOS) [24]. Spurious interactions between images of the charged defects make it necessary to correct for unphysical electrostatic interactions. Both the monopole-monopole and monopole-quadrupole Makov Payne corrections are used for this purpose. However, strain and incompletely corrected electrostatic interactions can still lead to significant

  4. CsI Calorimeter for a Compton-Pair Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Eric J.

    We propose to build and test a hodoscopic CsI(Tl) scintillating-crystal calorimeter for a medium-energy γ-ray Compton and pair telescope. The design and technical approach for this calorimeter relies deeply on heritage from the Fermi LAT CsI Calorimeter, but it dramatically improves the low-energy performance of that design by reading out the scintillation light with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), making the technology developed for Fermi applicable in the Compton regime. While such a hodoscopic calorimeter is useful for an entire class of medium-energy γ-ray telescope designs, we propose to build it explicitly to support beam tests and balloon flight of the Proto-ComPair telescope, the development and construction of which was funded in a four-year APRA program beginning in 2015 ("ComPair: Steps to a Medium Energy γ-ray Mission" with PI J. McEnery of GSFC). That award did not include funding for its CsI calorimeter subsystem, and this proposal is intended to cover that gap. ComPair is a MIDEX-class instrument concept to perform a high-sensitivity survey of the γ-ray sky from 0.5 MeV to 500 MeV. ComPair is designed to provide a dramatic increase in sensitivity relative to previous instruments in this energy range (predominantly INTEGRAL/SPI and Compton COMPTEL), with the same transformative sensitivity increase – and corresponding scientific return– that the Fermi Large Area Telescope provided relative to Compton EGRET. To enable transformative science over a broad range of MeV energies and with a wide field of view, ComPair is a combined Compton telescope and pair telescope employing a silicon-strip tracker (for Compton scattering and pair conversion and tracking) and a solid-state CdZnTe calorimeter (for Compton absorption) and CsI calorimeter (for pair calorimetry), surrounded by a plastic scintillator anti-coincidence detector. Under the current proposal, we will complete the detailed design, assembly, and test of the CsI calorimeter for the risk

  5. Cs phytoremediation by Sorghum bicolor cultivated in soil and in hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Chen, Can; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-04-03

    Cs accumulation characteristics by Sorghum bicolor were investigated in hydroponic system (Cs level at 50-1000 μmol/L) and in soil (Cs-spiked concentration was 100 and 400 mg/kg soil). Two varieties of S. bicolor Cowly and Nengsi 2# grown on pot soil during the entire growth period (100 days) did not show significant differences on the height, dry weight (DW), and Cs accumulation. S. bicolor showed the potential phytoextraction ability for Cs-contaminated soil with the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) and the translocation factor (TF) values usually higher than 1 in soil system and in hydroponic system. The aerial parts of S. bicolor contributed to 86-92% of the total removed amounts of Cs from soil. Cs level in solution at 100 μmol/L gave the highest BCF and TF values of S. bicolor. Cs at low level tended to transfer to the aerial parts, whereas Cs at high level decreased the transfer ratio from root to shoot. In soil, the plant grew well when Cs spiked level was 100 mg/kg soil, but was inhibited by Cs at 400 mg/kg soil with Cs content in sorghum reaching 1147 mg/kg (roots), 2473 mg/kg (stems), and 2939 mg/kg (leaves). In hydroponic system, average Cs level in sorghum reached 5270 mg/kg (roots) and 4513 mg/kg (aerial parts), without significant damages to its biomass at 30 days after starting Cs treatment. Cs accumulation in sorghum tissues was positively correlated with the metal concentration in medium.

  6. Interception of the Fukushima reactor accident-derived 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I by coniferous forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Gomi, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the surrounding forests. In this study, we analyzed fallout 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I in rainwater, throughfall, and stemflow in coniferous forest plantations immediately after the accident. We show selective fractionation of the deposited radionuclides by the forest canopy and contrasting transfer of radiocesium and 131I from the canopy to the forest floor in association with precipitation. More than 60% of the total deposited radiocesium remained in the canopy after 5 month of the initial fallout, while marked penetration of the initially deposited 131I through the canopy was observed. The half-lives of 137Cs absorbed in the cypress and cedar canopies were calculated as 620 days and 890 days, respectively for the period of 0-160 days. The transfer of the deposited radiocesium from the canopy to the forest floor was slow compared with that of the spruce forest affected by fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.

  7. Control of competence by related non-coding csRNAs in Streptococcus pneumoniae R6

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Anke; Sexauer, Anne; Sivaselvarajah, Dineshan; Kaysen, Anne; Brückner, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    The two-component regulatory system CiaRH of Streptococcus pneumoniae is involved in β-lactam resistance, maintenance of cell integrity, bacteriocin production, host colonization, virulence, and competence. The response regulator CiaR controls, among other genes, expression of five highly similar small non-coding RNAs, designated csRNAs. These csRNAs control competence development by targeting comC, encoding the precursor of the competence stimulating peptide, which is essential to initiate the regulatory cascade leading to competence. In addition, another gene product of the CiaR regulon, the serine protease HtrA, is also involved in competence control. In the absence of HtrA, five csRNAs could suppress competence, but one csRNA alone was not effective. To determine if all csRNAs are needed, reporter gene fusions to competence genes were used to monitor competence gene expression in the presence of different csRNAs. These experiments showed that two csRNAs were not enough to prevent competence, but combinations of three csRNAs, csRNA1,2,3, or csRNA1,2,4 were sufficient. In S. pneumoniae strains expressing only csRNA5, a surprising positive effect was detected on the level of early competence gene expression. Hence, the role of the csRNAs in competence regulation is more complex than anticipated. Mutations in comC (comC8) partially disrupting predicted complementarity to the csRNAs led to competence even in the presence of all csRNAs. Reconstitution of csRNA complementarity to comC8 restored competence suppression. Again, more than one csRNA was needed. In this case, even two mutated csRNAs complementary to comC8, csRNA1–8 and csRNA2–8, were suppressive. In conclusion, competence in S. pneumoniae is additively controlled by the csRNAs via post-transcriptional regulation of comC. PMID:26257773

  8. Effect of selective sorptive agents on leachability of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.

    1998-06-01

    Decades ago it was established that illite effectively improves {sup 137}Cs leach resistance. Subsequently, illite has become a standard ingredient used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in grouts developed to stabilize {sup 137}Cs. Adding illite improves {sup 137}Cs leach resistance by three orders of magnitude, and increasing the illite concentration can add another order of magnitude improvement. Adding crystalline silicotitanate, a selective sorptive agent developed more recently for {sup 137}Cs, not only improves {sup 137}Cs leach resistance by an order-of-magnitude over that obtained using illite but also improves {sup 85}Sr leach resistance by two orders of magnitude.

  9. Mass spectrometry for the determination of fission products 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr: A review of methodology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Xuemei; Long, Kaiming; Hu, Sheng; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-05-01

    The radioactive fission products 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr have been released into the environment by human activities such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear power plant accidents. Monitoring of these radionuclides is important for dose assessment. Moreover, the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic ratio can be used as an important long-term fingerprint for radioactive source identification as it varies with weapon, reactor and fuel types. In recent years, mass spectrometry has become a powerful method for the determination of 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr in environmental samples. Mass spectrometry is characterized by the high sensitivity and low detection limit and the relatively shorter sample preparation and analysis times compared with radiometric methods. However, the mass spectrometric determination of radiocesium and 90Sr is affected by the peak tailings of the stable nuclides 133Cs and 88Sr, respectively, and the related isobaric and polyatomic interferences. Chemical separation and optimization of the mass spectrometry instrumental setup are strongly needed prior to the mass spectrometry detection. In this paper, we have reviewed the published works about the determination of 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr by mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometric techniques we cover are resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For each technique, the principles or strategies used for the analysis of these radionuclides are discussed; these included the abundance sensitivity, ways to suppress the interference signals, and the instrumental setup. In particular, the chemical procedures for eliminating the interferences are also summarized. To date, triple quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-QQQ) showed great ability for the analysis of these radionuclides and the detection limits were as low as 0.01 pg/mL levels. Finally, some investigations on the

  10. Symmetry of external auditive meatus. A pilot study on human skulls.

    PubMed

    Mizgiryte, Simona; Vaitelis, Julius; Barkus, Arunas; Zaleckas, Linas; Pletkus, Rolandas; Auskalnis, Adomas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To evaluate the perpendicularity of the line connecting external auditive meatus to the midsagital plane and the palatal suture as a midsagittal symmetry reference line. Setting and Sample Population - 62 randomly chosen human skulls from osteological collection (Vilnius University). MATERIAL AND METHODS. The skulls were photographed (Nikon 40 D, Nikkor lens 50 mm) from basal, frontobasal and frontal views. Photos were analysed with Adobe Photoshop CS5 (Adobe). The first line connected frontal points of external auditive meatus and the angle to the midsagittal plane was measured. The second line (the palatal suture) was compared to the median sagittal plane. Data was analysed with SPSS 17 (IBM). RESULTS. The mean value for the angles of the line between the external auditive meatus and the midsagittal plane in basal views was 90.12° (SD=1.48°) and in frontobasal 90.36° (SD=2.25°). No statistically significant differences were found between groups of age and sex. The inter-rater agreement for evaluation of the adequacy of palatal suture with the midsagital plane was high (Cohen's Kappa 0.702 (p<0.05)) as well as the coincidence of both lines in basal and frontobasal views (90.3% and 85.5% respectively). CONCLUSION. Considering the limits of this study the angle between external auditive meatus and midsagital skull plane has a characteristic fluctuating asymmetry. The congruence of palatal suture and midsagital plane is debatable.

  11. Development and evaluation of a novel smart device-based application for burn assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Zachary; Tan, James; Bockhold, Jennifer; Ma, Jason; Tran, Nam K

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a novel software application that provides a simple and interactive Lund-Browder diagram for automatic calculation of total body surface area (TBSA) burned, fluid formula recommendations, and serial wound photography on a smart device platform. The software was developed for the iPad (Apple, Cupertino, CA) smart device platforms. Ten burns ranging from 5 to 95% TBSA were computer generated on a patient care simulator using Adobe Photoshop CS6 (Adobe, San Jose, CA). Burn clinicians calculated the TBSA first using a paper-based Lund-Browder diagram. Following a one-week "washout period", the same clinicians calculated TBSA using the smart device application. Simulated burns were presented in a random fashion and clinicians were timed. Percent TBSA burned calculated by Peregrine vs. the paper-based Lund-Browder were similar (29.53 [25.57] vs. 28.99 [25.01], p=0.22, n=7). On average, Peregrine allowed users to calculate burn size significantly faster than the paper form (58.18 [31.46] vs. 90.22 [60.60]s, p<0.001, n=7). The smart device application also provided 5 megapixel photography capabilities, and acute burn resuscitation fluid calculator. We developed an innovative smart device application that enables accurate and rapid burn size assessment to be cost-effective and widely accessible.

  12. CS1 is a novel topoisomerase IIα inhibitor with favorable drug resistance profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yan; Chen, Wang; Zhao, Baobing; Hao, Huilin; Li, Zhenyu; Lu, Chunhua; Shen, Yuemao

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • CS1 is a novel nonintercalating topoisomerase IIα poison. • CS1 shows potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity. • CS1 shows 6–10-fold less toxicity to normal cells compared with etoposide. • CS1 is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance irrelevant. - Abstract: DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II) is an essential nuclear enzyme and a validated target for anticancer agent screening. CS1, a novel 2-phenylnaphthalene, had potent cytotoxicity against nine tested tumor cell lines and showed 6–10-fold less toxicity against normal cell lines compared with etoposide. In addition, CS1 showed potential anti-multidrug resistance capabilities. kDNA decatenation, DNA relaxation and cleavage complex assays indicated that CS1 acted as a nonintercalating topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα) inhibitor by stabilizing the DNA-Topo IIα cleavage complex. CS1 also induced DNA breaks in MDA-MB-231 cells evidenced by comet tails and the accumulation of γH2AX foci. The ability of CS1 in inducing DNA breaks mediated by Topo II resulted in G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, CS1 exhibited dramatic in vivo antitumor activity and lower toxicity compared with etoposide. This work supports the development of CS1 as a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer by targeting Topo IIα.

  13. Effect of minerals on accumulation of Cs by fungus Saccaromyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Yamasaki, Shinya; Kozai, Naofumi; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Watanabe, Naoko; Kozaki, Tamotsu

    2015-06-01

    The accumulation of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of minerals has been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radioactive Cs in the environment. Two different types of experiments were employed: experiments using stable Cs to examine the effect of a carbon source on the accumulation of Cs, and accumulation experiments of radioactive Cs from agar medium containing (137)Cs and zeolite, vermiculite, phlogopite, smectite, mica, or illite as mineral supplements. In the former type of experiments, the Cs-accumulated cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS). In the latter type, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. When a carbon source was present, higher amounts of Cs accumulated in the cells than in the resting condition without a carbon source. Analyses with SEM-EDS showed that no mineral formed on the cell surface. These results indicate that the yeast cells accumulate Cs by adsorption on the cell surface and intracellular accumulation. In the presence of minerals in the agar medium, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was in the order of mica > smectite, illite > vermiculite, phlogopite, zeolite. This order is inversely correlated to the ratio of the concentration of radioactive Cs between the minerals and the medium solution. These results strongly suggest that the yeast accumulates radioactive Cs competitively with minerals.

  14. First experiments with Cs doped Mo as surface converter for negative hydrogen ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiesko, L.; Cartry, G.; Hopf, C.; Höschen, T.; Meisl, G.; Encke, O.; Heinemann, B.; Achkasov, K.; Amsalem, P.; Fantz, U.

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted on the properties of molybdenum implanted with caesium as an approach to reduce the Cs consumption of negative hydrogen ion sources based on evaporated Cs. The depth profiles of the implanted Cs were simulated by SDTrimSP and experimentally determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling. In particular, one year after implantation, the depth profiles showed no signs of Cs diffusion into the molybdenum, suggesting long term stability of the implanted Cs atoms. The H- surface generation mechanisms on the implanted samples in hydrogen plasma were investigated, and the stability of the H- yield during four hours low power hydrogen plasma discharges was demonstrated. An estimation of the work function reduction (-0.8 eV) by the Cs implantation was performed, and a comparison of the relative negative ion yields between the implanted samples and highly oriented pyrolitic graphite showed that the Cs doped Mo negative ion yield was larger.

  15. A Double Selection Approach to Achieve Specific Expression of Toxin Genes for Ovarian Cancer Gene Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    cytometer (Beckton Dickenson, San Jose , CA, USA). For the recombinant knob competitive inhibition binding assay, A549 cells (5 105 cells/ml in 100 ml...images were merged using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 (Adobe Systems, Inc., San Jose , CA). DNA Packaging Analysis DNA packaging was analyzed using a...PA) for 1 h in PBS–BSA at 4 °C. Flow cytometry analysis was performed at the UAB FACS Core Facility using FACScan (Beckton Dickenson, San Jose , CA

  16. Office of Education Guide to Graphic Art Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Angela M.

    1995-01-01

    During the summer experience in the LARSS program, the author created a performance support system showing the techniques of creating text in Quark XPress, placed the text into Adobe Illustrator along with scanned images, signatures and art work partially created in Adobe Photoshop. The purpose of the project was to familiarize the Office of Education Staff with Graphic Arts and the computer skills utilized to typeset and design certificates, brochures, cover pages, manuals, etc.

  17. Fukushima 137Cs at the base of planktonic food webs off Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Z.; Fisher, N. S.; Gobler, C. J.; Buesseler, K. O.; George, J. A.; Breier, C. F.; Nishikawa, J.

    2015-12-01

    The potential bioaccumulation of 137Cs in marine food webs off Japan became a concern following the release of radioactive contaminants from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant into the coastal ocean. Previous studies suggest that 137Cs activities increase with trophic level in pelagic food webs, however, the bioaccumulation of 137Cs from seawater to primary producers, to zooplankton has not been evaluated in the field. Since phytoplankton are frequently the largest component of suspended particulate matter (SPM) we used SPM concentrations and particle-associated 137Cs to understand bioaccumulation of 137Cs in through trophic pathways in the field. We determined particle-associated 137Cs for samples collected at 20 m depth from six stations off Japan three months after the initial release from the Fukushima nuclear power plant. At 20 m SPM ranged from 0.65 to 1.60 mg L-1 and rapidly declined with depth. The ratios of particulate organic carbon to chlorophyll a suggested that phytoplankton comprised much of the SPM in these samples. 137Cs activities on particles accounted for on average 0.04% of the total 137Cs in seawater samples, and measured concentration factors of 137Cs on small suspended particles were comparatively low (∼102). However, when 137Cs in crustacean zooplankton was derived based only on modeling dietary 137Cs uptake, we found predicted and measured 137Cs concentrations in good agreement. We therefore postulate the possibility that the dietary route of 137Cs bioaccumulation (i.e., phytoplankton ingestion) could be largely responsible for the measured levels in the copepod-dominated (%) zooplankton assemblages in Japanese coastal waters. Finally, our data did not support the notion that zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton results in a biomagnification of 137Cs.

  18. Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    The transfer coefficient (TF) from soil to rice plants of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the form of radioactive deposition from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 was investigated in three rice paddy fields in Minami-Soma City. Rice crops were planted in the following May and harvested at the end of September. Soil cores of 30-cm depth were sampled from rice-planted paddy fields to measure (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity at 5-cm intervals. (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity was also measured in rice ears (rice with chaff), straws and roots. The rice ears were subdivided into chaff, brown rice, polished rice and rice bran, and the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity concentration of each plant part was measured to calculate the respective TF from the soil. The TF of roots was highest at 0.48 ± 0.10 in the field where the (40)K concentration in the soil core was relatively low, in comparison with TF values of 0.31 and 0.38 in other fields. Similar trends could be found for the TF of whole rice plants, excluding roots. The TF of rice ears was relatively low at 0.019-0.026. The TF of chaff, rice bran, brown rice and polished rice was estimated to be 0.049, 0.10-0.16, 0.013-0.017 and 0.005-0.013, respectively.

  19. Pre-assessment of dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co for marine biota from discharge of Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Senlin; Zhang, Yongxing; Chen, Ling; Yan, Yuan; Cheng, Weiya; Lou, Hailin; Zhang, Yongbao

    2015-09-01

    Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant to be built in China was selected as a case for the dose pre-assessment for marine biota in this study. The concentrations of Cs and Co in organisms (turbot, yellow croaker, swimming crab, abalone, sea cucumber, and sea lettuce), seawater, and bottom sediment sampled on-site were measured by neutron activation analysis, and the site-specific transfer parameters (concentration ratios and distribution coefficients) of Cs and Co were calculated. (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co activity concentrations in the organisms and the sediment at the site were calculated with the site-specific transfer parameters and the anticipated activity concentrations in the liquid effluent of the nuclear power plant. The ERICA tool was used to estimate the dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the selected organisms based on the biological models developed. The total dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the six organisms were all <0.001 μGy h(-1).

  20. Transfer kinetics and coefficients of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs from forage contaminated by Chernobyl fallout to milk of cows

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbri, S.; Sogni, R.; Lusardi, E.

    1994-04-01

    A experiment was conducted to study kinetics, transfer coefficients, and biological half-lives of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs from feed to milk. A cow was fed a diet containing alfalfa hay contaminated by Chernobyl fallout for 14.5 wk. The time-dependent activity in milk was approximated by a two-compartment model with fast biological half-lives of 2, 0.9, and 1 d and slow biological half-lives of 36.9, 8.7, and 12.4 d for {sup 90}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs respectively. The transfer coefficients determined in the experiment were 0.0008 d L{sup -1} for {sup 90}Sr, 0.0029 d L{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs, and 0.0031 d L{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs. The biological elimination phases of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were described by a two-compartment model while a one-compartment model was proposed for {sup 90}Sr. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Distribution of the 134Cs/137Cs ratio around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant using an unmanned helicopter radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, T.; Nishizawa, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Many radioactive substances were released by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident occurred on March 11, 2011 in the atmosphere. A lot of short half-life nuclides which are 131I, 132Te (132I) and 133I, etc., in addition to longer half-lived nuclides such as 134Cs and 137Cs. The estimated release amount of these nuclides from the reactor 1st to 3rd unit is reported, but it's found to be quite different in the short half-lived nuclides by the reactor units. Because the radioactivity ratio of 134Cs and 137Cs was slight different between the reactor units, it can be considered that the valuable source is obtained by the measurement of 134Cs/137Cs ratio in the environment around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station at the present stage when the nuclides with short half-lives had already decayed. We have measured high-resolution gamma-ray spectrum using an unmanned helicopter equipped with LaBr3(Ce) detector in a 3-km range from the power station which was near to the release source of the radioactive cesium. Because the LaBr3(Ce) detector has high resolution of gamma rays, the discrimination of many nuclides is possible. In addition, there is extremely much number of the data provided by the distribution measurement with the unmanned helicopter. Because a new map was illustrated by the analysis of the 134Cs/137Cs ratio, we report the outline.

  2. First observation of sol-gel derived Al:CsZnO/CsZnO bilayer thin film for solar cells application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Rashidi Dafeh, Sajjad; Alinazmabadi, Saeid

    2016-10-01

    In this research, we fabricated CsZnO and Al:CsZnO/CsZnO bilayer thin films grown by the spin-coating-assisted sol-gel method on ITO substrate. The influence of diverse velocity of spin-coating (500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000RPM) and also annealing times (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180min) on the characteristics of the ZnO thin film was examined. The samples were examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Uv-Vis spectrometer and conductivity measurement. With the optimization of the velocity of spin-coating (2500RPM) and annealing times (60min), we fabricated Al:CsZnO/CsZnO bilayer thin films with diverse dopant concentration. By comparing the effect of dopant concentration with different dopant ratio (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2%), 0.5% of CsZnO and Al:CsZnO/CsZnO bilayer was found as the most effective doping level with the best conductivity properties among the selected doping concentrations.

  3. Root endophytic bacteria of a (137)Cs and Mn accumulator plant, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, increase (137)Cs and Mn desorption in the soil.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Keiko; Nagata, Satoshi; Haruma, Toshikatsu; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kozaki, Tamotsu; Watanabe, Naoko; Nanba, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    We found that root endophytes of (137)Cs accumulator plant produce siderophores, resulting in the desorption of (137)Cs from the contaminated soil collected at Fukushima, Japan. We selected an endemic Japanese deciduous tree, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav), that accumulates high concentrations of (137)Cs and Mn. Root endophytic bacteria were isolated from E. sciadophylloides and microbial siderophore production was evaluated via chrome azurol S (CAS) Fe and CAS Al assays. Of the 463 strains that we isolated, 107 (23.1%) produced the siderophores. Using eight strains that showed high siderophore production in our assays, we examined desorption of (137)Cs, Mn, Fe and Al by the bacterial culture filtrates from (137)Cs-contaminated soil after decomposing the soil organic matter using hydrogen peroxide. We found (137)Cs and Mn desorption concomitant with Al and Fe desorption, as well as a decrease of pH. We also detected succinic acid, a well-known siderophore, in the bacterial culture filtrates of our two root endophytic bacteria. Our results strongly suggest that the root endophytic bacteria of E. sciadophylloides produce the siderophores that enhance (137)Cs and Mn desorption in the rhizosphere, making the resulting (137)Cs and Mn ions easier for E. sciadophylloides to absorb from the rhizosphere.

  4. Continuous Nondemolition Measurement of the Cs Clock Transition Pseudospin

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhury, Souma; Smith, Greg A.; Schulz, Kevin; Jessen, Poul S.

    2006-02-03

    We demonstrate a weak continuous measurement of the pseudospin associated with the clock transition in a sample of Cs atoms. Our scheme uses an optical probe tuned near the D{sub 1} transition to measure the sample birefringence, which depends on the z component of the collective pseudospin. At certain probe frequencies the differential light shift of the clock states vanishes, and the measurement is nonperturbing. In dense samples the measurement can be used to squeeze the collective clock pseudospin and has the potential to improve the performance of atomic clocks and interferometers.

  5. Doubly Magic Optical Trapping for Cs Atom Hyperfine Clock Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, A. W.; Saffman, M.

    2016-10-01

    We analyze doubly magic trapping of Cs hyperfine transitions including previously neglected contributions from the ground state hyperpolarizability and the interaction of the laser light and a static magnetic field. Extensive numerical searches do not reveal any doubly magic trapping conditions for any pair of hyperfine states. However, including the hyperpolarizability reveals light intensity insensitive traps for a wide range of wavelengths at specific intensities. We then investigate the use of bichromatic trapping light fields. Deploying a bichromatic scheme, we demonstrate doubly magic red and blue detuned traps for pairs of states separated by one or two single photon transitions.

  6. Relativistic rotation-vibrational energies for the Cs2 molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chun-Sheng; Jia, Yue

    2017-01-01

    We present bound state solutions of the Dirac equation with the improved Rosen-Morse potential energy model. In the non-relativistic limit, the relativistic energy equation becomes the non-relativistic rotation-vibrational energy expression of the diatomic molecule. We find that the relativistic effect of the relative motion of the ions produces an obvious decrease in the vibrational energies for the 33Σg + state of the Cs2 molecule. It is observed that the behavior of the relativistic rotation-vibrational energies in larger rotational quantum numbers remains similar to that of the system with zero rotational quantum number.

  7. Thermodynamic studies on Cs 4U 5O 17(s) and Cs 2U 2O 7(s) by emf and calorimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanthi, K.; Iyer, V. S.; Venugopal, V.

    1997-12-01

    The oxygen potentials over the phase field: Cs 4U 5O 17(s)+Cs 2U 2O 7(s)+Cs 2U 4O 12(s) was determined by measuring the emf values between 1048 and 1206 K using a solid oxide electrolyte galvanic cell. The oxygen potential existing over the phase field for a given temperature can be represented by: Δ μ(O 2) (kJ/mol) (±0.5)=-272.0+0.207 T (K). The differential thermal analysis showed that Cs 4U 5O 17(s) is stable in air up to 1273 K. The molar Gibbs energy formation of Cs 4U 5O 17(s) was calculated from the above oxygen potentials and can be given by, Δ fG0 (kJ/mol)±6=-7729+1.681 T (K). The enthalpy measurements on Cs 4U 5O 17(s) and Cs 2U 2O 7(s) were carried out from 368.3 to 905 K and 430 to 852 K respectively, using a high temperature Calvet calorimeter. The enthalpy increments, ( H0T- H0298), in J/mol for Cs 4U 5O 17(s) and Cs 2U 2O 7(s) can be represented by, H0T- H0298.15 (Cs 4U 5O 17) kJ/mol±0.9=-188.221+0.518 T (K)+0.433×10 -3T2 (K)-2.052×10 -5T3 (K) (368 to 905 K) and H0T- H0298.15 (Cs 2U 2O 7) kJ/mol±0.5=-164.210+0.390 T (K)+0.104×10 -4T2 (K)+0.140×10 5(1/ T (K)) (411 to 860 K). The thermal properties of Cs 4U 5O 17(s) and Cs 2U 2O 7(s) were derived from the experimental values. The enthalpy of formation of (Cs 4U 5O 17, s) at 298.15 K was calculated by the second law method and is: Δ fH0298.15=-7645.0±4.2 kJ/mol.

  8. Chemical information on tank supernatants, Cs adsorption from tank liquids onto Hanford sediments, and field observations of Cs migration from past tank leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Zachara, J.M.; Burke, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole gamma-logging profiles beneath the SX-Tank Farm suggest that contamination from Cs-137 extends to at least a depth of 40 m (130 ft), and may extend even deeper. What is presently not known is the pathway that Cs-137 has taken to reach these depths. In this report we provide an analysis of the chemistry of tank supernates with emphasis on the REDOX waste stream disposed in SX tanks, Cs chemistry in aqueous solutions and adsorption properties onto minerals, available data on Cs adsorption onto Hanford sediments, and information on Cs migration from other Hanford tank leaks that have been studied. The data in this report was used to help guide the vadose zone transport analysis of the SX Tank Farm presented in a companion report. The goal of the vadose zone transport modelling is to attempt to explain the depth and extent of the Cs-137 plume under the SX Tank farm, specifically in the vicinity of the greatest leak, near the SX-109 Tank as inferred from the gamma logs (DOE 1996). In solution Cs is present as the monovalent cation and shows very little tendency to form aqueous complexes with inorganic or organic ligands. Cs is expected to adsorb primarily onto selective minerals that have unique adsorption sites. The small Cs{sup +} ion is accommodated on these frayed edge and interlayer sites. Adsorption within the interlayers often leads to collapse of the layers such that the Cs{sup +} ion is effectively trapped and not readily exchangeable by all other common cations. The degree of adsorption is thus only moderately dependent on the types and high concentrations of other cations in leaking tank liquors.

  9. High-T C superconductivity in Cs3C60 compounds governed by local Cs-C60 Coulomb interactions.

    PubMed

    Harshman, Dale R; Fiory, Anthony T

    2017-02-02

    Unique among alkali-doped A 3C60 fullerene compounds, the A15 and fcc forms of Cs3C60 exhibit superconducting states varying under hydrostatic pressure with highest transition temperatures at [Formula: see text]  =  38.3 and 35.2 K, respectively. Herein it is argued that these two compounds under pressure represent the optimal materials of the A 3C60 family, and that the C60-associated superconductivity is mediated through Coulombic interactions with charges on the alkalis. A derivation of the interlayer Coulombic pairing model of high-T C superconductivity employing non-planar geometry is introduced, generalizing the picture of two interacting layers to an interaction between charge reservoirs located on the C60 and alkali ions. The optimal transition temperature follows the algebraic expression, T C0  =  (12.474 nm(2) K)/ℓζ, where ℓ relates to the mean spacing between interacting surface charges on the C60 and ζ is the average radial distance between the C60 surface and the neighboring Cs ions. Values of T C0 for the measured cation stoichiometries of Cs3-x C60 with x  ≈  0 are found to be 38.19 and 36.88 K for the A15 and fcc forms, respectively, with the dichotomy in transition temperature reflecting the larger ζ and structural disorder in the fcc form. In the A15 form, modeled interacting charges and Coulomb potential e(2)/ζ are shown to agree quantitatively with findings from nuclear-spin relaxation and mid-infrared optical conductivity. In the fcc form, suppression of [Formula: see text] below T C0 is ascribed to native structural disorder. Phononic effects in conjunction with Coulombic pairing are discussed.

  10. Synthesis and optical properties of CsC1-doped gallium-sodium-sulfide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Hehlen, Markus P; Bennett, Bryan L; Williams, Darrick J; Muenchausen, Ross E; Castro, Alonso; Tornga, Stephanie C

    2009-01-01

    Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}S (GNS) glasses doped with CsCl were synthesized in open crucibles under inert atmosphere. The evaporative loss of CsCl during glass melting was measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and corrected for by biasing the CsCl concentration in the mixture of starting materials to obtain glasses with accurately controlled stoichiometry. Glass transition temperatures, refractive index dispersions, and band edge energies were measured for four GNS:CsCl glasses, and the respective values were found to significantly improve over earlier studies that did not mitigate CsCl evaporative losses. The refractive index dispersion measurements indicate that the Cs{sup +} and Cl{sup -} radii are 16% larger in GNS:CsCl glass than in bulk crystalline CsCl. The band edge energy increases from 2.97 eV in GNS glass to 3.32 eV in GNS glass doped with 20 mol% CsCl as a result of introducing Cl{sup -} ions having a large optical electronegativity. The large bandgap of 3.32 eV and the low (450 cm{sup -1}) phonon energy make GNS:20%CsCl an attractive host material for rare-earth ions with radiative transitions in the near ultra-violet, visible, and near-infrared spectral regions.

  11. Cesium power: low Cs(+) levels impart stability to perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Deepa, Melepurath; Salado, Manuel; Calio, Laura; Kazim, Samrana; Shivaprasad, S M; Ahmad, Shahzada

    2017-02-01

    Towards increasing the stability of perovskite solar cells, the addition of Cs(+) is found to be a rational approach. Recently triple cation based perovskite solar cells were found to be more effective in terms of stability and efficiency. Heretofore they were unexplored, so we probed the Cs/MA/FA (cesium/methyl ammonium/formamidinium) cation based perovskites by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and correlated their compositional features with their solar cell performances. The Cs(+) content was found to be optimum at 5%, when incorporated in the (MA0.15FA0.85)Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3 lattice, because the corresponding device yielded the highest fill factor compared to the perovskite without Cs(+) and with 10% Cs(+). XPS studies distinctly reveal how Cs(+) aids in maintaining the expected stoichiometric ratios of I : Pb(2+), I : N and Br : Pb(2+) in the perovskites, and how the valence band (VB) edge is dependent on the Cs(+) proportion, which in turn governs the open circuit voltage. Even at a low content of 5%, Cs(+) resides deep within the absorber layer, and ensures minimum distortion of the VB level (compared to 0% and 10% Cs(+) perovskites) upon Ar(+) sputtering, thus allowing the formation of a stable robust material that delivers excellent solar cell response. This study which brings out the role of Cs(+) is anticipated to be of paramount significance to further engineer the composition and improve device performances.

  12. CS-duration and partial-reinforcement effects counteract overshadowing in select situations.

    PubMed

    Urushihara, Kouji; Miller, Ralph R

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments used rats in a conditioned lick suppression preparation to investigate how the conditioned stimulus (CS)-duration and partial-reinforcement effects (i.e., weakened responding due to conditioning with a CS of longer duration and presenting nonreinforced CSs intermingled with CS-unconditioned stimulus [US] pairings, respectively) interact with overshadowing. Experiment 1 found that when overshadowing treatment was combined with either extended CS duration or partial reinforcement, the response deficit was weaker than when either of these three treatments was administered alone. In Experiment 2, the generality of the findings in Experiment 1 was investigated by replicating it with various US-US intervals. This time counteraction was observed only when both the absolute duration of total CS exposure and the US-US interval were short. The results support neither the view that the ratio between the total CS exposure and total time in the context determines the CS-duration and the partial-reinforcement effects nor the view that these two effects arise from a loss of effectiveness of the excitatory CS-US association during CS-alone exposures in partial reinforcement or early periods of CS exposure with long CSs.

  13. Thermodynamic stability of radiogenic Ba in CsAlSi2O6 pollucite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, John; van Ginhoven, Renée; Jiang, Weilin

    2013-03-01

    Pollucite, a zeolite-like nanoporous aluminosilicate structure with nominal composition CsAlSi2O6, has been suggested as a nuclear waste storage form for fission-product radioactive isotopes of cesium, especially 137Cs. One factor affecting the long-term stability of this waste form is the valence change associated with the beta decay that converts Cs into barium. We have used first-principles density functional total energy calculations to evaluate the thermodynamic stability of pollucite with Ba replacing Cs at regular lattice sites with respect to the precipitation of Ba, Cs or their oxides. We included small clusters of substitutional BaCs as well as localized complexes of BaCs with compensating electron donor defects, specifically Cs vacancies and interstitial oxygen. We conclude that Cs-Ba pollucite is thermodynamically stable against precipitation of Cs or its oxide, but that partial precipitation of Ba or BaO may be thermodynamically favored under some conditions. Even this change may be kinetically limited, however. Fuel Cycle Research and Development, U.S. Department of Energy Waste Form Campaign

  14. Plasma formation in diode pumped alkali lasers sustained in Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markosyan, Aram H.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-11-01

    In diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), lasing action occurs on the resonant lines of alkali atoms following pumping by broadband semiconductor lasers. The goal is to convert the efficient but usually poor optical quality of inexpensive diode lasers into the high optical quality of atomic vapor lasers. Resonant excitation of alkali vapor leads to plasma formation through the excitation transfer from the 2P states to upper lying states, which then are photoionized by the pump and intracavity radiation. A first principles global model was developed to investigate the operation of the He/Cs DPAL system and the consequences of plasma formation on the efficiency of the laser. Over a range of pump powers, cell temperatures, excitation frequency, and mole fraction of the collision mixing agent (N2 or C2H6), we found that sufficient plasma formation can occur that the Cs vapor is depleted. Although N2 is not a favored collisional mixing agent due to large rates of quenching of the 2P states, we found a range of pump parameters where laser oscillation may occur. The poor performance of N2 buffered systems may be explained in part by plasma formation. We found that during the operation of the DPAL system with N2 as the collisional mixing agent, plasma formation is in excess of 1014-1015 cm-3, which can degrade laser output intensity by both depletion of the neutral vapor and electron collisional mixing of the laser levels.

  15. CsI(Tl) for WIMP dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Tovey, D. R.; Roberts, J. W.; Lehner, M. J.; McMillan, J. E.; Lightfoot, P. K.; Lawson, T. B.; Peak, C. D.; Lüscher, R.; Barton, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    We report a study of CsI(Tl) scintillator to assess its applicability in experiments to search for dark matter particles. Measurements of the mean scintillation pulse shapes due to nuclear and electron recoils have been performed. We find that, as with NaI(Tl), pulse shape analysis can be used to discriminate between electron and nuclear recoils down to 4 keV. However, the discrimination factor is typically 10-15% better than in NaI(Tl) above 4 keV. The quenching factor for caesium and iodine recoils was measured and found to increase from 11% to ˜17% with decreasing recoil energy from 60 to 12 keV. Based on these results, the potential sensitivity of CsI(Tl) to dark matter particles in the form of neutralinos was calculated. We find an improvement over NaI(Tl) for the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions up to a factor of 5 assuming comparable electron background levels in the two scintillators.

  16. Potential of largemouth bass as vectors of 137Cs dispersal.

    PubMed

    Paller, M H; Fletcher, D E; Jones, T; Dyer, S A; Isely, J J; Littrell, J W

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a radio telemetry study on the movements of potentially contaminated largemouth bass between Steel Creek, a restricted access (137)Cs contaminated stream on the Savannah River Site (located in South Carolina, USA), and the publicly accessible Savannah River. Largemouth bass were relatively mobile in lower Steel Creek and the portion of the Savannah River near Steel Creek, and there was considerable movement between these two habitats. Largemouth bass had home ranges of about 500 linear meters of shoreline in the Savannah River but sometimes moved long distances. Such movements occurred primarily during the spawning season, largely upstream, and increased when water levels were changing or elevated. However, approximately 90% of the largemouth bass observations were within 10 km of Steel Creek. The total quantity of (137)Cs transported into the Savannah River by largemouth bass was much less than transported by water and suspended sediments discharged from Steel Creek. We conclude that largemouth bass from the Savannah River Site are unlikely to be responsible for long distance dispersal of substantial radiological contamination in the Savannah River.

  17. Michelle and T-ReCS Monitoring of Classical Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, L. Andrew; Woodward, Charles E.

    2009-08-01

    The Galactic cycle of chemical evolution depends upon the redistribution into the ambient interstellar medium (ISM) of elements synthesized by thermonuclear processes. Classical novae (CN) contribute to this cycle by deposition into the ISM of gas enriched through explosive nucleosynthesis and dust grains condensed in their envelopes providing the material from which the next generation of stars and planet grow. We propose to observe CNe in the mid-IR with Michelle and T-ReCS to determine the ejecta mass, the degree of elemental enrichment in the ejecta, the dust grain mineralogy, and the processes of dust grain grown and destruction. Michelle and T-ReCS observations fulfill these goals by providing high S/N data in which we can: 1.) measure H recombination, nebular, and coronal emission lines necessary to determine ejecta abundances and masses; 2.) measure prominent dust features from silicates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to track dust condensation, mass, grain size distribution, and processing; and 3.) estimate the energetics of the eruption providing insight into the underlying white dwarf and the eruption's contribution to the energy budget of the ISM. These observations will complement our extensive, on- going Chandra, Swift, and ground based optical and near-IR observing programs.

  18. MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY OF THE BINARY SYSTEM CS Cha

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, Erick; Espaillat, Catherine; D'Alessio, Paola; Calvet, Nuria

    2012-03-10

    CS Cha is a binary system surrounded by a circumbinary disk. We construct a model for the inner disk regions and compare the resulting synthetic spectral energy distribution (SED) with Infrared Spectrograph spectra of CS Cha taken at two different epochs. For our model, we adopt a non-axisymmetric mass distribution from results of published numerical simulations of the interaction between a circumbinary disk and a binary system, where each star is surrounded by a disk. In particular, we approximate the streams of mass from which the inner circumstellar disks accrete from the circumbinary disk. This structure is due to the gravitational interaction of the stars with the disk, in which an array of disks and streams is formed in an inner hole. We calculate the temperature distribution of the optically thin dust in these inner regions considering the variable impinging radiation from both stars and use the observations to estimate the mass variations in the streams. We find that the SEDs for both epochs can be explained with emission from an optically thick inner edge of the circumbinary disk and from the optically thin streams that connect the circumbinary disk with the two smaller circumstellar disks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the emission from the optically thin material in the hole, suggested by the theory, is tested against observations of a binary system.

  19. Static electric field effects in photodetachment of Cs^-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuskivadze, Amiran; Fabrikant, Ilya; Thumm, Uwe

    2003-05-01

    We calculate near-threshold photodetachment cross sections for Cs^- in the presence of a dc electric field using three different approaches: the frame transformation method (i) including and (ii) not including the rescattering effect and (iii) the Kirchhoff integral approach^1. Radial wavefunctions for electron motion were obtained by using the Pauli-equation method with a model potential describing the effective electron-atom interaction^2. Our calculations show the inadequacy of the frame transformation method in the ^3P resonance region even for weak fields (<10 kV/cm). We show that the triplet and singlet contributions to the total cross section can be manipulated by variation of the electric field. This allows the controlled enhancement of the spin-orbit effects in the photodetachment process and creation of more favorable conditions for observations of the ^3P resonance in Cs^- and other negative ions, such as, e.g. Rb^- ^3. ^1I.I. Fabrikant, J. Phys. B 26, 2533 (1993). ^2C. Bahrim, U. Thumm, A. A. Khuskivadze, and I. I. Fabrikant, Phys. Rev. A 66, 052712 (2002). ^3C. Bahrim, U. Thumm, and I. I. Fabrikant, Phys. Rev. A 63, 042710 (2001).

  20. Vibrationally resolved cross sections for the photoionization of CS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratmann, R. E.; Lucchese, Robert R.

    1994-12-01

    We have performed vibrationally resolved calculations of the excitation of the symmetric stretch in the photoionization of CS2 leading to the X 2Πg, A 2Πu, B 2Σ+u, and C 2Σ+g states of CS+2. Previous theoretical work has determined that the kπg shape resonance in the (5σu)-1 channel consists mainly of a linear combination of low lying virtual d orbitals on sulfur and is thus essentially atomic in nature. This conclusion was primarily based on the shape of the resonant wave function and the insensitivity of the energy of the resonance to bond stretching. Here, we have determined that the energies of the kπ shape resonances located well above threshold and the σ bound states just below threshold are insensitive to bond length. We have also found nearly constant vibrational branching ratios in all channels and polarization components. This is in qualitative agreement with experimental vibrationally resolved cross sections [S. Kakar, H. C. Choi, and E. D. Poliakoff, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 4690 (1992)] which show nearly constant vibrational branching ratios. Our present results indicate that caution must be exercised when using bond length sensitivity as an exclusive means to determine the existence of shape resonances.

  1. 137Cs inventory in semi-isolated basins of the western South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Wang, Z.

    2007-12-01

    The main introduction routes of 137Cs into the Pacific Ocean are worldwide global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and close-in fallout from U. S. tests conducted on the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. The objectives of this study are to measure the 137Cs activities in water columns of the western South Pacific Ocean and to discuss the processes controlling the 137Cs inventory. The 137Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean. The 137Cs activities in surface waters ranged from 1.7 Bq m- 3 in the Tasman Sea Basin to 2.3 Bq m-3 in the East Caroline Basin. The latitudinal 137Cs distributions in surface waters showed the opposite trend to the expected deposition density from global fallout. The distribution profiles of 137Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. The total 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850 Bq m-2 in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270 Bq m-2 in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137Cs inventories were 1.9 - 4.5 times higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude. The possible sources of excess 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean might be attributable to both the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137Cs from the northern stratosphere to the southern one and its subsequent deposition, and water- bearing transport of 137Cs from the North Pacific Ocean to the South Pacific.

  2. Reconstruction of 137Cs activity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2014-05-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the ocean by the comparison model simulations and observed data. We employed a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model to investigate the oceanic contamination. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for more than 2 years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 3.0 x 1010 Bq day-1 by the end of September 2013. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of dose rate and air activity of 137Cs over the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Observed 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition in the ocean helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Although there is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011, observed data of

  3. Behavior of 131I and 137Cs in environments released from the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.; Kubota, T.; Igarashi, T.

    2011-12-01

    The devastating tsunami that caused by the great earthquake (M = 9.0) off the coast of northeastern Honshu on 11 March 2011 destroyed large coastal areas of Tohoku and north Kanto, Japan. Radionuclides, including 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs, were released into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Daiichi plants. Concentration of levels of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, released from the Fukushima Daiichi plant were investigated in the soil and precipitation. The concentrations of 131I and 137Cs in the soil from the surface to 1 cm depth in Ibaraki Prefecture were 9360-13,400 Bq/kg and 720-3250 Bq/kg, respectively. The concentration of 137Cs at this soil observation site originating from the Fukushima plant was 8.4 to 21 times that found locally after the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion. Most of the 134Cs and 137Cs from rainwater were trapped by the surface soil and sand to a depth of 1 cm, whereas only about 30% of the 131I was collected by the surface soil, suggesting that 131I would move deeper than 137Cs and 134Cs. The 131I in the rainwater was in the anion exchangeable form, and all of it could be collected by anion exchangeable mechanisms, whereas 30% of the 131I that had passed through the soil could not be trapped by the anion exchange resin, suggesting that the chemical form of this 30% was in a changeable, organic-bound form. The 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs that were absorbed on soil were difficult to be dissolved into water. As the half-life of 131I is short and 137Cs is strongly adsorbed on the surface soil and sand, these radionuclides would be unlikely to reach the groundwater before completely decaying; contamination of groundwater with 131I and 137Cs supplied from rainwater to the surface soil is therefore exceedingly unlikely. As the 137Cs is likely to migrate only 0.6 cm in 10 years, people living in the Fukushima and Kanto areas will be exposed to radiation from 137Cs in the surface soil and sand. For protection, surface soils and sands

  4. Ternary chalcogenides Cs2Zn3Se4 and Cs2Zn3Te4 : Potential p -type transparent conducting materials

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Hongliang; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Singh, David J.; ...

    2014-11-11

    Here we report prediction of two new ternary chalcogenides that can potentially be used as p-type transparent conductors along with experimental synthesis and initial characterization of these previously unknown compounds, Cs2Zn3Ch4 (Ch = Se, Te). In particular, the structures are predicted based on density functional calculations and confirmed by experiments. Phase diagrams, electronic structure, optical properties, and defect properties of Cs2Zn3Se4 and Cs2Zn3Te4 are calculated to assess the viability of these materials as p-type TCMs. Cs2Zn3Se4 and Cs2Zn3Te4, which are stable under ambient air, display large optical band gaps (calculated to be 3.61 and 2.83 eV, respectively) and have smallmore » hole effective masses (0.5-0.77 me) that compare favorably with other proposed p-type TCMs. Defect calculations show that undoped Cs2Zn3Se4 and Cs2Zn3Te4 are p-type materials. However, the free hole concentration may be limited by low-energy native donor defects, e.g., Zn interstitials. Lastly, non-equilibrium growth techniques should be useful for suppressing the formation of native donor defects, thereby increasing the hole concentration.« less

  5. Isoelectronic caesium compounds: the triphosphenide Cs[tBu3SiPPPSitBu3] and the enolate Cs[OCH=CH2].

    PubMed

    Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Sänger, Inge; Schödel, Frauke; Lorbach, Andreas; Bolte, Michael; Wagner, Matthias

    2008-02-14

    The caesium triphosphenide Cs[tBu3SiPPPSitBu3] was accessible from the reaction of CsF with the sodium triphosphenide Na[tBu3SiPPPSitBu3] in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature. In contrast to the preparation of tetrahydrofuran-solvated silanides M[SitBu3] (M = Li, Na, K), our efforts to synthesize the caesium silanide Cs[SitBu3] as a tetrahydrofuran complex failed. When tBu3SiBr was treated with an excess of caesium metal in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature, the caesium enolate Cs[OCH=CH2] and the supersilane tBu3SiH formed rather than the silanide Cs[SitBu3]. X-Ray quality crystals of the enolate Cs[OCH=CH2] (orthorhombic, Pnma) were obtained from tetrahydrofuran at ambient temperature. In contrast to the structures of its homologues M[tBu3SiPPPSitBu3] (M = Na, K), the caesium triphosphenide Cs[tBu3SiPPPSitBu3] features a polymer in the solid state (orthorhombic, Cmcm).

  6. Uptake and elimination of 137Cs by climbing perch (Anabus testudineus).

    PubMed

    Malek, M A

    1999-12-01

    This work describes the uptake and retention/biological elimination of 137Cs by climbing perch (Anabus testudineus) under laboratory conditions. The accumulated 137Cs concentration in the whole body of the fish was measured at certain intervals up to 38 d. A significant accumulation of 137Cs was found, but a steady state accumulation of 137Cs was not achieved by the end of the experiment. The bioaccumulation factors and the distribution of the radionuclide in edible parts of the fish were determined. The effective half-life of 137Cs in the fish species was found to be approximately 147 d (average) for elderly and adult fishes and approximately 300 d for younger fishes. Accumulation of 137Cs in the edible parts of the fish was found to be approximately 77% of whole body accumulation.

  7. Transfer factors and effective half-lives of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in different environmental sample types obtained from Northern Finland: case Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Koivurova, Matias; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kallio, Antti

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima NPP accident caused a small but detectable cesium fallout in northern Finland, of the order of 1 Bq/m(2). This fallout transferred further to soil, water, flora and fauna. By using modern HPGe detector systems traces of (134)Cs from the Fukushima fallout were observed in various samples of biota. In northern Finland different types of environmental samples such as reindeer meat, berries, fish, lichens and wolf were collected during 2011-2013. The observed (134)Cs concentrations varied from 0.1 Bq/kg to a few Bq/kg. By using the known (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio observed in Fukushima fallout the increase of the Fukushima accident to the (137)Cs concentrations was found to vary from 0.06 % to 6.9 % depending on the sample type. The aggregated transfer factors (Tag) and effective half-lives (Teff) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also determined and then compared with known values found from earlier studies which are calculated based on the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Generally, the Tag and Teff values determined in this study were found to agree with the values found in the earlier studies. The Teff values were sample-type specific and were found to vary from 0.91 to 2.1 years for (134)Cs and the estimates for (137)Cs ranged between 1.6 and 19 years. Interestingly, the ground lichens had the longest Teff whereas the beard lichen had the shortest. In fauna, highest Tag values were determined for wolf meat ranging between 1.0 and 2.2 m(2)/kg. In flora, the highest Tag values were determined for beard lichens, ranging from 1.9 m(2)/kg to 3.5 m(2)/kg.

  8. A CS1 pedagogical approach to parallel thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rague, Brian William

    Almost all collegiate programs in Computer Science offer an introductory course in programming primarily devoted to communicating the foundational principles of software design and development. The ACM designates this introduction to computer programming course for first-year students as CS1, during which methodologies for solving problems within a discrete computational context are presented. Logical thinking is highlighted, guided primarily by a sequential approach to algorithm development and made manifest by typically using the latest, commercially successful programming language. In response to the most recent developments in accessible multicore computers, instructors of these introductory classes may wish to include training on how to design workable parallel code. Novel issues arise when programming concurrent applications which can make teaching these concepts to beginning programmers a seemingly formidable task. Student comprehension of design strategies related to parallel systems should be monitored to ensure an effective classroom experience. This research investigated the feasibility of integrating parallel computing concepts into the first-year CS classroom. To quantitatively assess student comprehension of parallel computing, an experimental educational study using a two-factor mixed group design was conducted to evaluate two instructional interventions in addition to a control group: (1) topic lecture only, and (2) topic lecture with laboratory work using a software visualization Parallel Analysis Tool (PAT) specifically designed for this project. A new evaluation instrument developed for this study, the Perceptions of Parallelism Survey (PoPS), was used to measure student learning regarding parallel systems. The results from this educational study show a statistically significant main effect among the repeated measures, implying that student comprehension levels of parallel concepts as measured by the PoPS improve immediately after the delivery of

  9. REMOVAL OF 137Cs FROM DISSOLVED HANFORD TANK SALTCAKE BY TREATMENT WITH IONSIV IE-911

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Sinkov, Serguei I.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes the preparation of a 137Cs-depleted form of dissolved Hanford tank saltcake. A composite feed solution was treated with IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911, which effectively reduced the concentration of 137Cs. This allowed for subsequent testing of waste immobilization without significant radiological hazard. Limited characterization of the initial feed solution and a more extensive characterization of the 137Cs-depleted material also are provided.

  10. Radioactive Cs in the estuary sediments near Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Shinya; Imoto, Junpei; Furuki, Genki; Ochiai, Asumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sueki, Keisuke; Nanba, Kenji; Ewing, Rodney C; Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The migration and dispersion of radioactive Cs (mainly (134)Cs and (137)Cs) are of critical concern in the area surrounding the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Considerable uncertainty remains in understanding the properties and dynamics of radioactive Cs transport by surface water, particularly during rainfall-induced flood events to the ocean. Physical and chemical properties of unique estuary sediments, collected from the Kuma River, 4.0km south of the FDNPP, were quantified in this study. These were deposited after storm events and now occur as dried platy sediments on beach sand. The platy sediments exhibit median particle sizes ranging from 28 to 32μm. There is increasing radioactivity towards the bottom of the layers deposited; approximately 28 and 38Bqg(-1) in the upper and lower layers, respectively. The difference in the radioactivity is attributed to a larger number of particles associated with radioactive Cs in the lower part of the section, suggesting that radioactive Cs in the suspended soils transported by surface water has decreased over time. Sequential chemical extractions showed that ~90% of (137)Cs was strongly bound to the residual fraction in the estuary samples, whereas 60~80% of (137)Cs was bound to clays in the six paddy soils. This high concentration in the residual fraction facilitates ease of transport of clay and silt size particles through the river system. Estuary sediments consist of particles <100μm. Radioactive Cs desorption experiments using the estuary samples in artificial seawater revealed that 3.4±0.6% of (137)Cs was desorbed within 8h. More than 96% of (137)Cs remained strongly bound to clays. Hence, particle size is a key factor that determines the travel time and distance during the dispersion of (137)Cs in the ocean.

  11. Experimental observation of structural phase transition in CsBr clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautala, L.; Jänkälä, K.; Löytynoja, T.; Mikkelä, M.-H.; Prisle, N.; Tchaplyguine, M.; Huttula, M.

    2017-01-01

    Formation and growth of CsBr clusters embedded in unsupported Ar clusters was studied using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy. The development of the core-level electronic structure for cluster sizes between a few and a few hundred atoms contained information about the local coordination of the constituent particles. The experimental results indicate that a gradual structural phase transition from NaCl structure to CsCl structure for CsBr clusters takes place at around 160 atoms per cluster.

  12. Determination of the amount of Cs-137 in the sea water obtained from the Dardanelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataseven, D.; Şen, S.

    2017-02-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, high concentrations of Cs-137 radioisotope reached the Black Sea through dry and wet fallout. Therefore, a number of studies were performed to determine the current activity of Cs-137 near this region in the sea water and in marine organisms. Cs-137 activity was determined in the Dardanelles sea water taken from three separate locations and two different depths for each location. The old data base obtained in our previous studies was updated.

  13. Inferring the chemical form of 137Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring (137)Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees.

    PubMed

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato; Sugiura, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of (137)Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the (137)Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ((137)Cs pre-accident N), and the amount of (137)Cs in the initial fallout itself ((137)Cs fallout) was determined ((137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout) at 66 sites. In addition, the (137)Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ((137)Cs male cone) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ((137)Cs 2011N) was determined at 82 sites ((137)Cs male cone/(137) Cs 2011N). Most of the sites with lower (137)Cs pre-accident N /(137)Cs fallout ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower (137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout and higher (137)Cs malecone/(137)Cs 2011N were found to be associated with higher proportions of (137)Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium.

  14. Different cucumber CsYUC genes regulate response to abiotic stresses and flower development

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shuangshuang; Che, Gen; Ding, Lian; Chen, Zijing; Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hongyin; Zhao, Wensheng; Ning, Kang; Zhao, Jianyu; Tesfamichael, Kiflom; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is essential for plant growth and development, and YUCCA (YUC) proteins catalyze a rate-limiting step for endogenous auxin biosynthesis. Despite YUC family genes have been isolated from several species, systematic expression analyses of YUCs in response to abiotic stress are lacking, and little is known about the function of YUC homologs in agricultural crops. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a world cultivated vegetable crop with great economical and nutritional value. In this study, we isolated 10 YUC family genes (CsYUCs) from cucumber and explored their expression pattern under four types of stress treatments. Our data showed that CsYUC8 and CsYUC9 were specifically upregulated to elevate the auxin level under high temperature. CsYUC10b was dramatically increased but CsYUC4 was repressed in response to low temperature. CsYUC10a and CsYUC11 act against the upregulation of CsYUC10b under salinity stress, suggesting that distinct YUC members participate in different stress response, and may even antagonize each other to maintain the proper auxin levels in cucumber. Further, CsYUC11 was specifically expressed in the male flower in cucumber, and enhanced tolerance to salinity stress and regulated pedicel and stamen development through auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:26857463

  15. Half metallic ferromagnetism in alkali metal nitrides MN (M = Rb, Cs): A first principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Murugan, A. Rajeswarapalanichamy, R. Santhosh, M. Sudhapriyanga, G.; Kanagaprabha, S.

    2014-04-24

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of two alkali metal nitrides (MN: M= Rb, Cs) are investigated by the first principles calculations based on density functional theory using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package. At ambient pressure the two nitrides are stable in ferromagnetic state with CsCl structure. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. The electronic structure reveals that these materials are half metallic in nature. A pressure-induced structural phase transition from CsCl to ZB phase is observed in RbN and CsN.

  16. Photoluminescence and photostimulated luminescence of oxygen impurities in CsBr

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, G. A.; Zimmermann, J.; Hesse, S.; Seggern, H. von

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen impurities have been detected in undoped CsBr by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and their contribution to photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of powdered CsBr is discussed. When excited at 200 nm, PL is observed from CsBr which consists of three separate emission peaks. The intrinsic luminescence of CsBr at 379 nm is accompanied by two emission peaks at 395 and 460 nm which arise from oxygen impurities, the latter of which is also PSL active following x-irradiation. Sintering of CsBr with the reducing agent NH{sub 4}Br removes the oxygen impurities so that the 395 and 460 nm emissions are no longer detectable, and subsequently the PSL emission is significantly reduced. PSL storage time measurements of these materials show that oxygen impurities favorably increase both the PSL sensitivity and radiation induced charge-center stability in CsBr:Eu{sup 2+}. The oxygen impurities and their associated luminescence properties can be reintroduced to the CsBr matrix with a controlled concentration by doping with CsOH and then subsequently sintering the resultant CsBr:OH{sup -} with NH{sub 4}Br, which in this system reduces the OH{sup -} centers to O{sup 2-}.

  17. Molecular Simulation of Interlayer Structure and Dynamics in 12.4 Å Cs-Smectite Hydrates.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison

    2001-05-15

    A detailed understanding of hydrated Cs-smectites is necessary to predict the permeability of clay liners to radiocesium cations at nuclear waste containment facilities. Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) modeling techniques were applied to three representative Cs-smectites to interpret a variety of experimental data on interlayer structure and dynamics. Spectroscopic and surface chemistry methods that attempt to differentiate interlayer water from water residing in micropores have provided data suggesting that, in stable 12.4 Å Cs-smectite hydrates, the interlamellar water content is less than one-half monolayer. Convergence profiles in MC simulations predicted stable hydrates at interlayer water contents of 1/3 or possibly 2/3 water monolayer. Radial distribution functions and coordination number data illustrated the ability of Cs(+) to organize water molecules into partial hydration shells and displayed the distortions of water structure induced by the clay surface. Molecular dynamics simulations of the MC-stable Cs-smectites revealed interlayer Cs(+) to be strongly bound as innersphere surface complexes, in agreement with published bulk diffusion coefficients. The strongly adsorbed Cs(+) can be associated with one of the species identified in (133)Cs NMR spectroscopic studies of hydrated Cs-smectites. These cations typically exhibited jump diffusion, whereas continuous diffusion of H(2)O occurred. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Synchrotron radiation photoemission study of the ultrathin Cs/InN interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benemanskaya, G. V.; Lapushkin, M. N.; Timoshnev, S. N.; Nelubov, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Electronic structure of the ultrathin Cs/n-InN interface has been studied in situ via synchrotron-based photoemission spectroscopy by excitation in the energy range of 70-400 eV. Changes in the In 4d, Cs 4d, Cs 5p, N 2s core level spectra and in the surface state spectra have been revealed under different cesium coverages. The intrinsic surface state for the clean InN surface at binding energy of 2.5 eV (SS1) is found to attenuate during the Cs adsorption. Simultaneously the Cs induced surface state at binding energy of 0.9 eV (SS2) arises. For the Cs/InN interface, the In 4d peak displays the strong core level shift and the appearance of an additional In 4d peak originated from In-Cs interface bonding. Change in the surface electronic structure of the InN caused by Cs adsorption is found to originate predominantly from suppression of the intrinsic surface state concerned with the local interaction of In dangling bonds and Cs adatoms.

  19. Evidence for octupole excitations in the odd-odd neutron-rich nucleus {sup 142}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S. H.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Hwang, J. K.; Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Zhu, S. J.; Ma, W. C.; Daniel, A. V.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.

    2010-05-15

    High-spin states in the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 142}Cs are reinvestigated from a study of the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf with the Gammasphere detector array. A new level scheme is built and spin-parities are assigned to levels based on angular correlation measurements and systematics. The new structure of {sup 142}Cs is proposed to be related to octupole correlations. The electric dipole moment of {sup 142}Cs is measured and a dramatic decrease of the dipole moments with increasing neutron numbers in the Cs isotopic chain is found.

  20. An exploratory study of recycled sputtering and CsF2- current enhancement for AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.-L.; Charles, C. R. J.; Cornett, R. J.; Kieser, W. E.; MacDonald, C.; Kazi, Z.; St-Jean, N.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of 135Cs/Cs ratios at levels below 10-12 by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) would preferably use commonly available negative ion injection systems. The sputter ion sources in these injectors should ideally produce currents of Cs- or Cs-containing molecular anions approaching μA levels from targets containing mg quantities of Cs. However, since Cs is the most electro-positive stable element in nature with a low electron affinity, the generation of large negative atomic, or molecular beams containing Cs, has been very challenging. In addition, the reduction of the interferences from the 135Ba isobar and the primary 133Cs+ beam used for sputtering are also necessary. The measurement of a wide range of the isotope ratios also requires the ion source memory of previous samples be minimized. This paper describes some progresses towards a potential solution of all these problems by recycled sputtering using fluorinating targets of PbF2 with mg CsF mixed in. The problems encountered indicate that considerable further studies and some redesign of the present ion sources will be desirable.

  1. Experimental investigation of the influence of Mo contained in stainless steel on Cs chemisorption behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lemma, F. G.; Nakajima, K.; Yamashita, S.; Osaka, M.

    2017-02-01

    Chemisorption phenomena can affect fission products (FP) retention in a nuclear reactor vessel during a severe accident (SA). Detailed information on the FP chemisorbed deposits, especially for Cs, are important for a rational decommissioning of the reactor following a SA, as for the Fukushima Daiichi Power Station. Moreover the retention of Cs will influence the source term assessment and thus improved models for this phenomenon are needed in SA codes. This paper describes the influence on Cs chemisorption of molybdenum contained in stainless steel (SS) type 316. In our experiments it was observed that Cs-Mo deposits (CsFe(MoO4)3, Cs2MoO4) were formed together with CsFeSiO4, which is the predominant compound formed by chemisorption. The Cs-Mo deposits were found to revaporize from the SS sample at 1000 °C, and thus could contribute to the source term. On the other hand, CsFeSiO4 will be probably retained in the reactor during a SA due to its stability.

  2. Transcranial current brain stimulation (tCS): models and technologies.

    PubMed

    Ruffini, Giulio; Wendling, Fabrice; Merlet, Isabelle; Molaee-Ardekani, Behnam; Mekonnen, Abeye; Salvador, Ricardo; Soria-Frisch, Aureli; Grau, Carles; Dunne, Stephen; Miranda, Pedro C

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we provide a broad overview of models and technologies pertaining to transcranial current brain stimulation (tCS), a family of related noninvasive techniques including direct current (tDCS), alternating current (tACS), and random noise current stimulation (tRNS). These techniques are based on the delivery of weak currents through the scalp (with electrode current intensity to area ratios of about 0.3-5 A/m2) at low frequencies (typically < 1 kHz) resulting in weak electric fields in the brain (with amplitudes of about 0.2-2 V/m). Here we review the biophysics and simulation of noninvasive, current-controlled generation of electric fields in the human brain and the models for the interaction of these electric fields with neurons, including a survey of in vitro and in vivo related studies. Finally, we outline directions for future fundamental and technological research.

  3. 137Cs uptake with cafeteria food after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G. )

    1992-11-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium were measured in both the meals served at the cafeteria of a research center and in the employees eating there. The time-dependent means of monthly 137Cs activities in meals and people show a similar distribution pattern with highest values between March and July 1987, i.e., only 1 y after the accident. In meals, the highest activities were found when the menu consisted of pork, milk, or milk products. The 50-y cumulative effective dose calculated from the whole-body measurements is 0.21 mSv for male and 0.15 mSv for female employees. Cafeteria food contributed only a small share to this exposure.

  4. Recent 137Cs deposition in sediments of Admiralty Bay, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Christian J; Santos, Isaac R; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R; Schaefer, Carlos; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V

    2010-05-01

    Cesium-137, radium-226 and lead-210 profiles of a 25 cm sediment core give an indication of recent changes in land-ocean interactions at a polar coastal environment (Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica). The linear sedimentation accumulation rate at the study site calculated from the unsupported (210)Pb profile was 6.7 mm/year from 1965 to 2005. A 3.5-fold increase in (137)Cs concentrations was observed in the top layer of this sediment core. This sharp increase seems to indicate a recent redistribution of fallout radionuclides previously deposited on soil, vegetation and snow. These results imply enhanced land-ocean interactions at this site likely as a result of climate change. Because our results are based on a single core, additional investigations are needed to confirm our observations.

  5. Experimental Studies of Interacting Electronic States in NaCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Carl E.

    This dissertation describes methods and results of spectroscopic studies of the NaCs molecule. NaCs is of particular interest in many labs where experimental studies of ultra-cold molecules are being conducted. Data obtained in the present work will also be useful as benchmarks for various theoretical calculations. Our goals in studying this molecule were to map out high lying electronic states and to understand how these states interact with one another. Sodium and cesium metal were heated in a heat-pipe oven to form a vapor of NaCs molecules. These molecules were excited using narrow band, continuous wave (cw), tunable lasers. We employed the optical-optical double resonance (OODR) technique to obtain Doppler-free spectra of transitions to rotational and vibrational levels of high lying electronic states. One state of particular interest was the 12(0+) electronic state. Rovibrational level energies corresponding to this state were measured and used to generate a potential energy curve using computer programs to implement both the Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) method and the inverted perturbation approach (IPA). By observing fluorescence from the 12(0+) state resolved as a function of wavelength, we determined that this state interacts with the nearby 11(0+) electronic state, which was previously mapped out by Ashman et al. A two-stage coupling model was devised to describe the resolved fluorescence originating from these two interacting states. The electronic states interact via spin-orbit coupling, while the individual rovibrational levels interact via a second mechanism, likely nonadiabatic coupling. This two-stage coupling between the levels of these states causes quantum interference between fluorescence pathways associated with different components of the wavefunctions describing these levels. This interference results in more complicated resolved fluorescence spectra. The model was used to fit parameters describing these interactions so that the resolved

  6. Magic wavelengths, matrix elements, polarizabilities, and lifetimes of Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, M. S.; Safronova, U. I.; Clark, Charles W.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by recent interest in their applications, we report a systematic study of Cs atomic properties calculated by a high-precision relativistic all-order method. Excitation energies, reduced matrix elements, transition rates, and lifetimes are determined for levels with principal quantum numbers n ≤12 and orbital angular momentum quantum numbers l ≤3 . Recommended values and estimates of uncertainties are provided for a number of electric-dipole transitions and the electric dipole polarizabilities of the n s , n p , and n d states. We also report a calculation of the electric quadrupole polarizability of the ground state. We display the dynamic polarizabilities of the 6 s and 7 p states for optical wavelengths between 1160 and 1800 nm and identify corresponding magic wavelengths for the 6 s -7 p1 /2 and 6 s -7 p3 /2 transitions. The values of relevant matrix elements needed for polarizability calculations at other wavelengths are provided.

  7. Compact DEMO, SlimCS: design progress and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobita, K.; Nishio, S.; Enoeda, M.; Kawashima, H.; Kurita, G.; Tanigawa, H.; Nakamura, H.; Honda, M.; Saito, A.; Sato, S.; Hayashi, T.; Asakura, N.; Sakurai, S.; Nishitani, T.; Ozeki, T.; Ando, M.; Ezato, K.; Hamamatsu, K.; Hirose, T.; Hoshino, T.; Ide, S.; Inoue, T.; Isono, T.; Liu, C.; Kakudate, S.; Kawamura, Y.; Mori, S.; Nakamichi, M.; Nishi, H.; Nozawa, T.; Ochiai, K.; Ogiwara, H.; Oyama, N.; Sakamoto, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Seki, Y.; Shibama, Y.; Shimizu, K.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Tsuru, D.; Yamanishi, T.; Yoshida, T.

    2009-07-01

    The design progress in a compact low aspect ratio (low A) DEMO reactor, 'SlimCS', and its design issues are reported. The design study focused mainly on the torus configuration including the blanket, divertor, materials and maintenance scheme. For continuity with the Japanese ITER-TBM, the blanket is based on a water-cooled solid breeder blanket. For vertical stability of the elongated plasma and high beta access, the blanket is segmented into replaceable and permanent blankets and a sector-wide conducting shell is arranged inbetween these blankets. A numerical calculation indicates that fuel self-sufficiency can be satisfied when the blanket interior is ideally fabricated. An allowable heat load to the divertor plate should be 8 MW m-2 or lower, which can be a critical constraint for determining a handling power of DEMO.

  8. Intermolecular potential energy surface for CS2 dimer.

    PubMed

    Farrokhpour, Hossein; Mombeini, Zainab; Namazian, Mansoor; Coote, Michelle L

    2011-04-15

    A new four-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface for CS(2) dimer is obtained by ab initio calculation of the interaction energies for a range of configurations and center-of-mass separation distances for the first time. The calculations were performed using the supermolecular approach at the Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation (MP2) level of theory with the augmented correlation consistent basis sets (aug-cc-pVxZ, x = D, T) and corrected for the basis-set superposition error using the full counterpoise correction method. A two-point extrapolation method was used to extrapolate the calculated energy points to the complete basis set limit. The effect of using the higher levels of theory, quadratic configuration interaction containing single, double, and perturbative triple excitations QCISD(T) and coupled cluster singles, doubles and perturbative triples excitations CCSD(T), on the shape of potential energy surface was investigated. It is shown that the MP2 level of theory apparently performs extremely poorly for describing the intermolecular potential energy surface, overestimating the total energy by a factor of nearly 1.73 in comparison with the QCISD(T) and CCSD(T) values. The value of isotropic dipole-dipole dispersion coefficient (C(6) ) of CS(2) fluid was obtained from the extrapolated MP2 potential energy surface. The MP2 extrapolated energy points were fitted to well-known analytical potential functions using two different methods to represent the potential energy surface analytically. The most stable configuration of the dimer was determined at R = 6.23 au, α = 90°, β = 90°, and γ = 90°, with a well depth of 3.980 kcal mol(-1) at the MP2 level of theory. Finally, the calculated second virial coefficients were compared with experimental values to test the quality of the presented potential energy surface.

  9. Apparatus development for measurement of (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Okashiro, Yasuharu; Kai, Hiroaki; Fujii, Syuuji; Mishima, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahide; Yoshida, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We developed an apparatus containing a NaI(Tl) scintillator to measure the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The unfolding method with the least-squares technique was used to determine the radioactivity. Detector responses for each radionuclide in soil were calculated with EGS5 code for the unfolding method. The radionuclides that were measured were (40)K, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (214)Bi, and (228)Ac. The measured spectrum agreed well with the spectrum calculated from the response matrix and measured radioactivities. The unfolding method allows us to use the NaI(Tl) scintillator despite the overlap of peaks.

  10. Estimation of total released amount of Cs-137 and Cs-134 derived from TEPCO-FNPP1 accident into the North Pacific Ocean by using optimal interpolation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-04-01

    The oceanic distribution of Cs-137 and Cs-134 released from the Tokyo Electric Power Company-Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (TEPCO-FNPP1) accident were investigated by using the optimal interpolation (OI) analysis. The two domains (open ocean, >141.5°E; coastal region near the TEPCO-FNPP1, <141.5°E) were set to the OI analysis. During the period from end of March to early of April 2011, extremely high activities of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in seawater were concentrated along the coast near the TEPCO-FNPP1. The high activities area spread to the region of 165°E with a latitudinal center of 40°N in the western North Pacific Ocean. Atmospheric deposition is also cause to high activities in the region between 180° and 130° W in the North Pacific Ocean. The total inventory of FNPP1-released Cs-134 in the North Pacific Ocean is estimated to be 15.2±1.8 PBq. In these, about half (8.3±1.8 PBq) of the total released Cs-134 amount existed in the coastal region near the TEPCO-FNPP1. It appeared that the total OICs134 inventory, which is defined as a total Cs-134 inventory in the coastal area near the TEPCO-FNPP1, is controlled by direct release, atmospheric deposition, and coastal current system. Leak of stagnant water induced by heavy rainfall would also cause the increase of the total OICs134 inventory. After the direct discharge of the contaminated water ceased on 6 April, 2011, the total OICs134 inventory exponentially with a half-time of 4.2±0.5 days and became to about 2.0±0.4 PBq at the middle of May 2011. Considering that the Cs-134/Cs-137 activity ratios for the FNPP1 accident were very close to one (0.99±0.03) and extremely uniform during the first month, the total amount of Cs-137 released by the TEPCO-FNPP1 accident reached to 20% of a current North Pacific inventory (60 PBq, Aoyama et al., 2012) of bomb-derived Cs-137 injected in the 1950s and early 1960s.

  11. Identification of the slow E3 transition {sup 136}Cs{sup m{yields}136}Cs with conversion electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmer, K.; Koester, U.; Hoff, P.; Kroell, Th.; Kruecken, R.; Lutter, R.; Morgan, Th.; Schwerdtfeger, W.; Thirolf, P. G.; Mach, H.; Sarkar, S.; Sarkar, M. Saha; Srivastava, P. C.; Van Isacker, P.

    2011-07-15

    We performed at ISOLDE the spectroscopy of the decay of the 8{sup -} isomer in {sup 136}Cs by {gamma} and conversion-electron detection. For the first time the excitation energy of the isomer and the multipolarity of its decay have been measured. The half-life of the isomeric state was remeasured to T{sub 1/2}=17.5(2) s. This isomer decays via a very slow 518-keV E3 transition to the ground state. In addition to this, a much weaker decay branch via a 413-keV M4 and a subsequent 105-keV E2 transition has been found. Thus we have found a new level at 105 keV with spin 4{sup +} between the isomeric and the ground state. The results are discussed in comparison to shell-model calculations.

  12. CsI-Silicon Particle detector for Heavy ions Orbiting in Storage rings (CsISiPHOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, M. A.; Dillmann, I.; Bosch, F.; Faestermann, T.; Gao, B.; Gernhäuser, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Litvinov, S. A.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Maier, L.; Nolden, F.; Popp, U.; Sanjari, M. S.; Spillmann, U.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Weick, H.

    2016-11-01

    A heavy-ion detector was developed for decay studies in the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. This detector serves as a prototype for the in-pocket particle detectors for future experiments with the Collector Ring (CR) at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). The detector includes a stack of six silicon pad sensors, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD), and a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector. It was used successfully in a recent experiment for the detection of the β+-decay of highly charged 142Pm60+ ions. Based on the ΔE / E technique for particle identification and an energy resolution of 0.9% for ΔE and 0.5% for E (Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM)), the detector is well-suited to distinguish neighbouring isobars in the region of interest.

  13. PLA/CS/Nifedipine Nanocomposite Films: Properties and the In Vitro Release of Nifedipine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, Nguyen Thi Thu; Chinh, Nguyen Thuy; Giang, Nguyen Vu; Thanh, Dinh Thi Mai; Lam, Tran Dai; Hoang, Thai

    2016-07-01

    The polylactic acid (PLA)/chitosan (CS) films containing a drug, nifedipine (NIF), in the presence of polyethylene oxide (PEO) as a compatibilizer were prepared by the solution method. This method has not been used to form films containing four components (PLA, CS, NIF, PEO) up to now. The CS, PEO, and NIF contents are 25 wt.%, 6-8 wt.%, and 10-50 wt.% in comparison with PLA weight, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to characterize the interactions, properties, and morphology of the PLA/CS/PEO/NIF films. The FTIR, TGA, and DSC results show that NIF carried by PLA/CS/PEO films and PLA, CS, NIF had better interaction and were more compatible when using PEO. The surface morphology of PLA/CS/PEO/NIF films was similar to that of PLA/CS/PEO films. Moreover, this was the first time drug loading and NIF release content from PLA/CS/PEO films were determined by the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy method. The drug loading of PLA/CS/PEO/NIF films was from 80.99% to 93.61%. The in vitro NIF release studies were carried out in pH 2, 6.8, and 7.4 solutions corresponding to the pH of stomach, colon, and duodenum regions in the human body, respectively. The NIF release content in different pH solutions is in the order: pH 2 > pH 6.8 > pH 7.4 and increases when there is increasing NIF loading. The PLA/CS/PEO films are potential materials to apply for long-circulating systems for NIF delivery.

  14. Synthesis and optical properties of Ga 2S 3-Na 2S-CsCl glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehlen, Markus P.; Bennett, Bryan L.; Castro, Alonso; Williams, Darrick J.; Tornga, Stephanie C.; Muenchausen, Ross E.

    2010-02-01

    Ga 2S 3-Na 2S-CsCl (GNC) glasses were synthesized in open crucibles under inert atmosphere. The evaporative loss of CsCl during glass melting was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and corrected for by biasing the CsCl concentration in the mixture of starting materials to obtain glasses with accurately controlled stoichiometry. Glass-transition temperatures, refractive-index dispersions, visible and near-infrared transmittance, and band edge energies were measured for four GNC glasses with varying CsCl content, and the respective values were found to significantly improve over earlier studies that did not mitigate CsCl evaporative losses. Glass durability was assessed by a water immersion test at 74 °C. A respective weight loss rate of 39.2 ± 0.3 μg/(cm 2 h) was found for a GNC glass containing 14 mol% CsCl, indicating good glass durability despite the high CsCl content. The refractive-index dispersion measurements indicate that the Cs + and Cl - radii are 16% larger in GNC glass than in bulk crystalline CsCl. The band edge energy increases from 2.97 eV in Ga 2S 3-Na 2S glass to 3.32 eV in Ga 2S 3-Na 2S-CsCl glass containing 20 mol% CsCl as a result of introducing Cl - ions having a large optical electronegativity. The large bandgap of 3.32 eV, the low (450 cm -1) phonon energy, and the good chemical durability make GNC glass an attractive host material for rare-earth ions with radiative transitions in the near ultra-violet, visible, and near-infrared spectral regions.

  15. Plutonium as a chronomarker in Australian and New Zealand sediments: a comparison with (137)Cs.

    PubMed

    Hancock, G J; Leslie, C; Everett, S E; Tims, S G; Brunskill, G J; Haese, R

    2011-10-01

    The construction of high resolution chronologies of sediment profiles corresponding to the last 50-100 years usually entails the measurement of fallout radionuclides (210)Pb and (137)Cs. The anthropogenic radionuclide, (137)Cs, originating from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing can provide an important "first appearance" horizon of known age (1954-1955), providing much-needed validation for the sometimes uncertain interpretations associated with (210)Pb geochronology. However, while (137)Cs usually provides a strong signal in sediment in the northern hemisphere, total fallout of (137)Cs in the southern hemisphere was only 25% that of the north and the low activities of (137)Cs seen in Australian and New Zealand sediments can make its horizon of first appearance somewhat arguable. Low (137)Cs fallout also limited the size of the 1963-1964 fallout peak, a peak that is usually seen in northern hemisphere sediment profiles but is often difficult to discern south of the equator. This paper shows examples of the use of nuclear weapons fallout Pu as a chronomarker in sediment cores from Australia (3 sites) and New Zealand (1 site). The Pu profiles of five cores are examined and compared with the corresponding (137)Cs profiles and (210)Pb geochronologies. We find that Pu has significant advantages over (137)Cs, including greater measurement sensitivity using alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometric techniques compared to (137)Cs measurements by gamma spectrometry. Moreover, Pu provides additional chronomarkers associated with changes in the Pu isotopic composition of fallout during the 1950s and 1960s. In particular, the (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratio shows distinct shifts in the early 1950s and the mid to late 1960s, providing important known-age horizons in southern hemisphere sediments. For estuarine and near-shore sediments Pu sometimes has another significant advantage over (137)Cs due to its enrichment in bottom sediment relative to (137)Cs resulting from the

  16. CsMgCl{sub 3}: A promising cross luminescence material

    SciTech Connect

    Shwetha, G.; Kanchana, V.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2015-07-15

    Full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method has been used to study the cross luminescence of halide scintillators. The electronic structure and optical properties of alkali halides such as CsMgCl{sub 3}, CsCaCl{sub 3}, and CsSrCl{sub 3} are presented. One of the major criteria for the cross luminescence to happen is the energy difference between valence band and next deeper core valence band being lesser when compared to energy gap of the compound, so that radiative electronic transition may occur between core valence band and valence band which might lead to fast scintillation. We found this criterion to be satisfied in these compounds leading to cross luminescence. The presence of high energy peaks in the absorption spectra indicates the creation of holes in the core valence band, which is an essential criterion for the occurrence of cross luminescence. The electronic structure, and optical properties studies clearly indicate CsMgCl{sub 3}, CsCaCl{sub 3}, and CsSrCl{sub 3} to be cross luminescence materials comparable to CsCl which is one of the well known fast scintillators. In addition, CsMgCl{sub 3} is found to be better among the studied compounds with optical isotropy though the compound is structurally anisotropic. - Graphical abstract: Absorption spectra of CsMCl{sub 3} (M=Mg, Ca, and Sr) along with CsCl, indicating both the spectra are similar in the lower energy region. - Highlights: • These are cross valence luminescence (CVL) materials with short day time of the order of nanosecond. • Chemical bonding of these compounds studied observed the ionic nature. • These are fast scintillators comparable to their binary halide. • CsMgCl{sub 3} good scintillator with optically isotropic nature.

  17. Isolation and functional characterization of CsLsi1, a silicon transporter gene in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Guo, Jia; Duan, Yaoke; Zhang, Tiantian; Huo, Heqiang; Gong, Haijun

    2017-02-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely grown cucurbitaceous vegetable that exhibits a relatively high capacity for silicon (Si) accumulation, but the molecular mechanism for silicon uptake remains to be clarified. Here we isolated and characterized CsLsi1, a gene encoding a silicon transporter in cucumber (cv. Mch-4). CsLsi1 shares 55.70 and 90.63% homology with the Lsi1s of a monocot and dicot, rice (Oryza sativa) and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), respectively. CsLsi1 was predominantly expressed in the roots, and application of exogenous silicon suppressed its expression. Transient expression in cucumber protoplasts showed that CsLsi1 was localized in the plasma membrane. Heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that CsLsi1 evidenced influx transport activity for silicon but not urea or glycerol. Expression of cucumber CsLsi1-mGFP under its own promoter showed that CsLsi1 was localized at the distal side of the endodermis and the cortical cells in the root tips as well as in the root hairs near the root tips. Heterologous expression of CsLsi1 in a rice mutant defective in silicon uptake and the over-expression of this gene in cucumber further confirmed the role of CsLsi1 in silicon uptake. Our results suggest that CsLsi1 is a silicon influx transporter in cucumber. The cellular localization of CsLsi1 in cucumber roots is different from that in other plants, implying the possible effect of transporter localization on silicon uptake capability.

  18. Cucumber Metallothionein-Like 2 (CsMTL2) Exhibits Metal-Binding Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yu; Pan, Yanglu; Zhai, Junpeng; Xiong, Yan; Li, Jinhua; Du, Xiaobing; Su, Chenggang; Zhang, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    We identified a novel member of the metallothionein (MT) family, Cucumis sativus metallothionein-like 2 (CsMTL2), by screening a young cucumber fruit complementary DNA (cDNA) library. The CsMTL2 encodes a putative 77-amino acid Class II MT protein that contains two cysteine (Cys)-rich domains separated by a Cys-free spacer region. We found that CsMTL2 expression was regulated by metal stress and was specifically induced by Cd2+ treatment. We investigated the metal-binding characteristics of CsMTL2 and its possible role in the homeostasis and/or detoxification of metals by heterologous overexpression in Escherichia coli cells. Furthermore, we produced a deletion mutant form of the protein, CsMTL2m, that contained the two Cys-rich clusters but lacked the spacer region, in E. coli. We compared the metal-binding properties of CsMTL2 with those of CsMTL2m, the β domain of human metallothionein-like protein 1 (HsMTXb), and phytochelatin-like (PCL) heterologously expressed in E. coli using metal-binding assays. We found that E. coli cells expressing CsMTL2 accumulated the highest levels of Zn2+ and Cd2+ of the four transformed cell types, with levels being significantly higher than those of control cells containing empty vector. E. coli cells expressing CsMTL2 had a higher tolerance for cadmium than for zinc ions. These findings show that CsMTL2 improves metal tolerance when heterologously expressed in E. coli. Future studies should examine whether CsMTL2 improves metal tolerance in planta. PMID:27916887

  19. A Phase Ia Study to Assess the Safety and Immunogenicity of New Malaria Vaccine Candidates ChAd63 CS Administered Alone and with MVA CS

    PubMed Central

    de Barra, Eoghan; Hodgson, Susanne H.; Ewer, Katie J.; Bliss, Carly M.; Hennigan, Kerrie; Collins, Ann; Berrie, Eleanor; Lawrie, Alison M.; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Nicosia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Development of an effective vaccine would be a key intervention to reduce the considerable social and economic impact of malaria. Methodology We conducted a Phase Ia, non-randomized, clinical trial in 24 healthy, malaria-naïve adults of the chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) replication-deficient viral vectored vaccines encoding the circumsporozoite protein (CS) of P. falciparum. Results ChAd63-MVA CS administered in a heterologous prime-boost regime was shown to be safe and immunogenic, inducing high-level T cell responses to CS. With a priming ChAd63 CS dose of 5×109 vp responses peaked at a mean of 1947 SFC/million PBMC (median 1524) measured by ELIspot 7 days after the MVA boost and showed a mixed CD4+/CD8+ phenotype. With a higher priming dose of ChAd63 CS dose 5×1010 vp T cell responses did not increase (mean 1659 SFC/million PBMC, median 1049). Serum IgG responses to CS were modest and peaked at day 14 post ChAd63 CS (median antibody concentration for all groups at day 14 of 1.3 µg/ml (range 0–11.9), but persisted throughout late follow-up (day 140 median antibody concentration groups 1B & 2B 0.9 µg/ml (range 0–4.7). Conclusions ChAd63-MVA is a safe and highly immunogenic delivery platform for the CS antigen in humans which warrants efficacy testing. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01450280 PMID:25522180

  20. In situ 7Li and 133Cs nuclear magnetic resonance investigations on the role of Cs+ additive in lithium-metal deposition process

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Zhao, Zhenchao; Hu, Mary Y.; Feng, Ju; Deng, Xuchu; Chen, Xilin; Xu, Wu; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-02-01

    Application of Li metal electrode in rechargeable lithium battery is hindered by safety concerns due to dendritic growth on the electrode over several charge-discharge cycles. We have found previously that adding low concentration Cs+ in electrolytes can promote smooth deposition of lithium onto metal electrode during repeated charge-discharge cycling using idea Li|Cu battery without the using of a separator. In this work, quantitative in situ 7Li and 133Cs NMR investigations using real planar symmetric lithium battery cells with and without Cs+ additives were carried out. It is found that the deposited lithium atoms on electrodes are highly porous. Detailed analysis of the data were carried out by separating the 7Li signal from deposited lithium that was oriented parallel to the electrode surface with the signal from the Li-metal nanorodes oriented perpendicular or nearly perpendicular to the electrode surface. The results demonstrate that addition of Cs+ can significantly enhance both the formation of uniform Li nanorods, and the reversibility of electrode. In situ 133Cs NMR directly confirms that Cs+ migrates to the electrode to form a positively charged electrostatic shield during cycling process. Combining the quantitative analysis of the orientation dependent signals of deposited metal Li and previous ex-situ results, different Li deposition models are proposed. During cycling process, more “active” lithium participates in the Li transfer between the electrode and nanorods for the battery with Cs+, while for the battery without Cs+ more dead and thinker lithium rods are formed and Li transfer between dendrites from different electrodes dominates.

  1. The Dependence of the Oxidation Enhancement of InP(100) Surface on the Coverage of the Adsorbed Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yun

    2010-06-07

    We report the oxidation of the InP(100) surface promoted by adsorbed Cs by synchrotron radiation photoemission. Oxygen exposure causes reduction of the charge transferred to the InP substrate from Cs and the growth of indium oxide and phosphorous oxide. The oxide growth displays a clear dependence on the Cs coverage. The oxidation of phosphorous is negligible up to 1000 L of O{sub 2} exposure when the Cs coverage is less than half a monolayer (ML), but the formation of the second half monolayer of Cs greatly accelerates the oxidation. This different enhancement of the InP oxidation by the first and the second half monolayer of Cs is due to the double layer structure of the adsorbed Cs atoms, and consequently the higher 6s electron density in the Cs atoms when Cs coverage is larger than 0.5 ML.

  2. Export of 134Cs and 137Cs in the Fukushima river systems at heavy rains by Typhoon Roke in September 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, S.; Kanamori, M.; Ochiai, S.; Tomihara, S.; Fukushi, K.; Yamamoto, M.

    2013-02-01

    Effects of a heavy rain event on radiocesium export were studied at stations on the Natsui River and the Same River in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan after Typhoon Roke during 21-22 September 2011, six months after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Radioactivity of 134Cs and 137Cs in river waters was 0.011-0.098 Bq L-1 at normal flow conditions during July-September in 2011, but it increased to 0.85 Bq L-1 in high flow conditions by heavy rains occurring with the typhoon. The particulate fractions of 134Cs and 137Cs were 21-56% in the normal flow condition, but were close to 100% after the typhoon. These results indicate that the pulse input of radiocesium associated with suspended particles from land to coastal ocean occurred by the heavy rain event. Export flux of 134Cs and 137Cs by the heavy rain accounts for 30-50% of annual radiocesium flux in 2011. Results show that rain events are one factor controlling the transport and dispersion of radiocesium in river watersheds and coastal marine environments.

  3. Utilization of (134)Cs/(137)Cs in the environment to identify the reactor units that caused atmospheric releases during the Fukushima Daiichi accident.

    PubMed

    Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Katata, Genki; Mikami, Satoshi; Torii, Tatsuo; Saito, Kimiaki; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu

    2016-08-22

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power reactor units that generated large amounts of airborne discharges during the period of March 12-21, 2011 were identified individually by analyzing the combination of measured (134)Cs/(137)Cs depositions on ground surfaces and atmospheric transport and deposition simulations. Because the values of (134)Cs/(137)Cs are different in reactor units owing to fuel burnup differences, the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio measured in the environment was used to determine which reactor unit ultimately contaminated a specific area. Atmospheric dispersion model simulations were used for predicting specific areas contaminated by each dominant release. Finally, by comparing the results from both sources, the specific reactor units that yielded the most dominant atmospheric release quantities could be determined. The major source reactor units were Unit 1 in the afternoon of March 12, 2011, Unit 2 during the period from the late night of March 14 to the morning of March 15, 2011. These results corresponded to those assumed in our previous source term estimation studies. Furthermore, new findings suggested that the major source reactors from the evening of March 15, 2011 were Units 2 and 3 and that the dominant source reactor on March 20, 2011 temporally changed from Unit 3 to Unit 2.

  4. Utilization of 134Cs/137Cs in the environment to identify the reactor units that caused atmospheric releases during the Fukushima Daiichi accident

    PubMed Central

    Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Katata, Genki; Mikami, Satoshi; Torii, Tatsuo; Saito, Kimiaki; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power reactor units that generated large amounts of airborne discharges during the period of March 12–21, 2011 were identified individually by analyzing the combination of measured 134Cs/137Cs depositions on ground surfaces and atmospheric transport and deposition simulations. Because the values of 134Cs/137Cs are different in reactor units owing to fuel burnup differences, the 134Cs/137Cs ratio measured in the environment was used to determine which reactor unit ultimately contaminated a specific area. Atmospheric dispersion model simulations were used for predicting specific areas contaminated by each dominant release. Finally, by comparing the results from both sources, the specific reactor units that yielded the most dominant atmospheric release quantities could be determined. The major source reactor units were Unit 1 in the afternoon of March 12, 2011, Unit 2 during the period from the late night of March 14 to the morning of March 15, 2011. These results corresponded to those assumed in our previous source term estimation studies. Furthermore, new findings suggested that the major source reactors from the evening of March 15, 2011 were Units 2 and 3 and that the dominant source reactor on March 20, 2011 temporally changed from Unit 3 to Unit 2. PMID:27546490

  5. Emission mechanism of polyatomic ions Cs2Cl+ and Cs2BO2(+) in thermal ionization mass spectrometry with various carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Zhen; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Hemming, Gary N; Yang, Jing-Hong; Xiao, Ying-Kai; Yang, Tao; Yan, Xiong; Yan, Yan

    2011-12-29

    The emission behavior of polyatomic ions Cs(2)Cl(+) and Cs(2)BO(2)(+) in the presence of various carbon materials (Graphite, Carbon, SWNTs, and Fullerenes) in the ionization source of thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) has been investigated. The emission capacity of various carbon materials are remarkably different as evidenced by the obvious discrepancy in signal intensity of polyatomic ions and accuracy/precision of boron and chlorine isotopic composition determined using Cs(2)Cl(+)-graphite-PTIMS/Cs(2)BO(2)(+)-graphite-PTIMS methods. Combined with morphology and microstructure properties of four selected carbon materials, it could be concluded that the emission behavior of the polyatomic ions strongly depends on the microstructure of the carbon materials used. A surface-induced collision mechanism for formation of such kinds of polyatomic ions in the ionization source of TIMS has been proposed based on the optimized configuration of Cs(2)BO(2)(+) and Cs(2)Cl(+) ions in the gas phase using a molecular dynamics method. The combination of the geometry of the selected carbon materials with the configuration of two polyatomic ions explains the structure effect of carbon materials on the emission behavior of polyatomic ions, where graphite samples with perfect parallels and equidistant layers ensure the capacity of emission to the maximum extent, and fullerenes worsen the emission of polyatomic ions by blocking their pathway.

  6. Utilization of 134Cs/137Cs in the environment to identify the reactor units that caused atmospheric releases during the Fukushima Daiichi accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Katata, Genki; Mikami, Satoshi; Torii, Tatsuo; Saito, Kimiaki; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu

    2016-08-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power reactor units that generated large amounts of airborne discharges during the period of March 12–21, 2011 were identified individually by analyzing the combination of measured 134Cs/137Cs depositions on ground surfaces and atmospheric transport and deposition simulations. Because the values of 134Cs/137Cs are different in reactor units owing to fuel burnup differences, the 134Cs/137Cs ratio measured in the environment was used to determine which reactor unit ultimately contaminated a specific area. Atmospheric dispersion model simulations were used for predicting specific areas contaminated by each dominant release. Finally, by comparing the results from both sources, the specific reactor units that yielded the most dominant atmospheric release quantities could be determined. The major source reactor units were Unit 1 in the afternoon of March 12, 2011, Unit 2 during the period from the late night of March 14 to the morning of March 15, 2011. These results corresponded to those assumed in our previous source term estimation studies. Furthermore, new findings suggested that the major source reactors from the evening of March 15, 2011 were Units 2 and 3 and that the dominant source reactor on March 20, 2011 temporally changed from Unit 3 to Unit 2.

  7. Mineralogical and geomicrobial examination of soil contamination by radioactive Cs due to 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Junji; Nomura, Nao; Matsushita, Shin; Kudo, Hisaaki; Fukuhara, Haruo; Matsuoka, Shiro; Matsumoto, Jinko

    Soil contamination by radioactive Cs from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated. Absorption and desorption experiments of Cs were conducted for several phyllosillicates (kaolinite, sericite, montmorillonite, vermiculite, chrysotile and biotite), zeolite and solid organic matter (dead and green leaves). The results confirmed the characteristic sorption and desorption of Cs by these materials. The 2:1 type phyllosilicate, especially, vermiculite and montmorillonite absorbed Cs well. Heated vermiculite for agricultural use and weathered montmorillonite also adsorbed Cs. Leaves also absorbed Cs considerably but easily desorbed it. In summary, the relative capacity and strength of different materials for sorption of Cs followed the order: zeolite (clinoptilolite) > 2:1 type clay mineral > 1:1 type clay mineral > dead and green leaves. Culture experiments using bacteria of both naturally living on dead leaves in Iitate village, Fukushima Pref. and bacterial strains of Bacillus subtillis, Rhodococus erythropolis, Streptomyces aomiensis and Actinomycetospora chlora were carried out. Non-radioactive 1% Cs solution (CsCl) was added to the culture media. Two types of strong or considerable bacterial uptakes of Cs were found in bacterial cells. One is that Cs was contained mainly as globules inside bacteria and the other is that Cs was absorbed in the whole bacterial cells. The globules consisted mainly of Cs and P. Based on all these results, future diffusion and re-circulation behavior of Cs in the surface environment was discussed.

  8. Upward mobilization of 137Cs in surface soils of Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc. (hinoki) plantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Taijiro; Takenaka, Chisato

    2004-01-05

    The use of 137Cs has recently been adopted to estimate erosion in hinoki plantations in Japan. However, there have been several reports of the upward mobilization of 137Cs in forest humus layers. In this study, the vertical distribution of 137Cs within the soil profile was measured in a hinoki plantation. In order to confirm the upward migration of 137Cs from mineral soil to fresh surface litter and to identify mechanisms of the transfer, changes in 137Cs specific activity in the contents of litterbags were examined in a hinoki plantation. A controlled laboratory experiment was also conducted to assess the effect of microbial activity on the upward migration of 137Cs. As a result, the higher 137Cs activities in the surface organic layer of a hinoki plantation than in fresh litter and the increasing 137Cs total content of litterbags with time demonstrated the upward mobilization of 137Cs from mineral soil to the surface organic layer. Physical movement of soil particles by raindrop splash was considered an important process in 137Cs upward migration. The results of our laboratory experiment indicate an influence from soil microbial activity on the upward mobilization of 137Cs. Thus, upward migration of 137Cs and constant litter removal by runoff may induce 137Cs loss from steep forested catchments and underestimation of the 137Cs inventory leading to the overestimation of soil redistribution rates.

  9. Bridging Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    This brief article tells the story of one young man's complicated history and background that was turned around for the better through his involvement with the YMCA Youth Institute and a camp providing team-building exercises, and in-depth instruction in digital arts skills, such as how to edit photos with Adobe Photoshop and create 3D animations…

  10. Albedo Study of the Depositional Fans Associated with Martian Gullies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, J.; Sears, D. W. G.

    2005-03-01

    This work is a two-part investigation of the albedo of the depositional aprons or fans associated with Martian gully features. Using Adobe Systems Photoshop 5.0 software we analyzed numerous Mars Global Surveyor MOC and Mars Odyssey THEMIS images.

  11. Finding Your Place in Art History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Lauren Parmelee

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art history project used with fifth-grade students where they selected a famous painting as a background for a self-portrait. Explains how the students used Adobe Photoshop to place a digital photograph of themselves into a scanned image of the artwork. (CMK)

  12. Modern Print Making Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    1998-01-01

    Recognizes that art students can take advantage of the new mediums technology offers them. Describes how one student utilized Adobe Photoshop in creating her artwork, while other students used a photocopier as a tool. Maintains that teachers and students should realize that computers and other media are nothing more than tools. (CMK)

  13. Mucosal and systemic immune responses in patients with diarrhea due to CS6-expressing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Firdausi; Ahmed, Tanvir; Ahmed, Firoz; Bhuiyan, M Saruar; Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Cassels, Frederick J; Helander, Anna; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2007-05-01

    Colonization factor CS6 expressed by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a nonfimbrial polymeric protein. A substantial proportion of ETEC strains isolated from patients in endemic settings and in people who travel to regions where ETEC is endemic are ETEC strains expressing CS6, either alone or in combination with fimbrial colonization factor CS5 or CS4. However, relatively little is known about the natural immune responses elicited against CS6 expressed by ETEC strains causing disease. We studied patients who were hospitalized with diarrhea (n = 46) caused by CS6-expressing ETEC (ETEC expressing CS6 or CS5 plus CS6) and had a disease spectrum ranging from severe dehydration (27%) to moderate or mild dehydration (73%). Using recombinant CS6 antigen, we found that more than 90% of the patients had mucosal immune responses to CS6 expressed as immunoglobulin (IgA) antibody-secreting cells (ASC) or antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) and that about 57% responded with CS6-specific IgA antibodies in feces. More than 80% of the patients showed IgA seroconversion to CS6. Significant increases in the levels of anti-CS6 antibodies of the IgG isotype were also observed in assays for ASC (75%), ALS (100%), and serum (70%). These studies demonstrated that patients hospitalized with the noninvasive enteric pathogen CS6-expressing ETEC responded with both mucosal and systemic antibodies against CS6. Studies are needed to determine if the anti-CS6 responses protect against reinfection and if protective levels of CS6 immunity are induced by vaccination.

  14. Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite with different solution concentration, pH and packing density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Li, Ming-Hsu; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2008-09-01

    In this work we used an "in-diffusion" method to study the effects of pH, solution concentration and packing density on Cs diffusion by packing local Taiwan laterite (LTL) into modified capillary columns with 5mm diameter. These packed columns were first pre-equilibrated with synthetic groundwater (GW) for 3 weeks. The diffusion experiments were then carried out at ambient condition for 2 weeks. Our experimental results showed that the Cs diffusion profile fits Fick's second law very well in given experimental conditions, indicating the validity of modified capillary column method. Generally speaking, Cs diffusion in LTL decreases as the pH increases and as Cs concentration decreases. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D(a)) increases from 5.52 x 10(-12) (10(-7)M) to 2.18 x 10(-11) (10(-3)M)m(2)/s, while the effective diffusion coefficient (D(e)) shows slight variation as the Cs concentration changes. Both the derived D(a) and D(e) values decrease as the pH increases, implying that the diffusion mechanisms of Cs nuclide in alkaline and acid environment are different. In addition, our results show that Cs diffusion is unaffected by the given packing density, indicating the interlaminary space is not the major determinant of Cs adsorption and diffusion in LTL.

  15. Behaviour of (137)Cs in forest humus detected across the territory of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Škrkal, Jan; Pilátová, Helena; Rulík, Petr; Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie

    2017-03-22

    The activity concentration of (137)Cs in samples of coniferous forest humus collected across the territory of the Czech Republic in 1995 and 2005 was analysed, and it was found significantly correlated with the surface deposition caused by the Chernobyl accident. The effective (12.8 y) and environmental (22.3 y) half-lives of radiocaesium in humus were calculated and compared with those in spruce bark. The impact of important forest stand factors, that is, precipitation, content of organic matter, age of trees and pH, on the behaviour of (137)Cs in humus was studied. It was observed that humus samples with a higher proportion of organic matter, higher pH(H2O) and pH(CaCl2) contained higher amounts of (137)Cs. Conversely, with the age of trees, the activity concentration of (137)Cs in humus is decreasing. Higher precipitation and humus acidity decrease the reduction rate of the (137)Cs in humus. These stand factors increase bioavailability of (137)Cs in humus. The transfer and retention of available (137)Cs in biomass of organisms living in humus for a long time can satisfactorily explain the longer residence time of (137)Cs in humus affected by the studied factors.

  16. Experiments for improving fabrication, recovery and surface-protection of Cs3Sb photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimoto, Takayoshi; Arai, Yoshihiro; Nagayama, Kuniak

    2017-01-01

    We examined 1) the photocurrent from Cs3Sb photocathode as a function of anode voltage below 200 V, 2) the relationship between the quantum efficiency of photoemission and the conditions for fabrication by the sandwich method, 3) recovery of the photoemission by additional Cs deposition, and 4) the effects of surface protection of Cs3Sb photocathodes by WO3 and Cr2O3 films in the passive state. The photocurrent had a maximum at approximately 68 V except when we increased the anode voltage extraordinarily slowly. Cs3Sb photocathodes were fabricated by increasing the temperature of sandwiched layers of Sb, Cs and Sb deposited on the fine tips of eight cathodes at less than -12 °C. Cs3Sb photocathodes having higher quantum efficiency were fabricated by smoothly increasing the temperature of the layers quickly after we deposited the second Sb layer. The photocurrent from the Cs3Sb photocathodes was significantly higher when Cs was deposited at temperatures of 50-70 °C. Deposition of a one- to three- atomic-layer W or Cr film extended the photoemission lifetime after the layers were oxidized to WO3 or Cr2O3 in the passive state due to oxidation. The WO3 or Cr2O3 in the passive state provided more surface protection as their thickness increased.

  17. Theoretical investigation on reactivity of Ag and Au atoms toward CS2 in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Yang, Ling; Tian, An-Min; Wong, Ning-Bew

    2008-02-01

    The reaction mechanisms of Ag and Au atoms with CS2 on both doublet and quartet potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been investigated using UBPW91 and UCCSD(T) methods. The two studied reactions proceed via a similar insertion-elimination mechanism instead of a direct abstract mechanism. The reaction Ag + CS2 --> SAgCS is endothermic by about 21E0 kcal/mol. But another reaction Au + CS2 --> SAuCS is slightly exothermic by about 8.8 kcal/mol, which is different from the previous theoretical prediction. In the overall reactions, the rate-determining step is found to be the C-S bond cleavage step with a high-activation barrier of about 40 kcal/mol. The calculated vibration frequencies are in good agreement with the experiment values and show that the BPW91 method is very good for the calculation of small molecules containing Ag and Au. The reactivity of the two atoms toward CS2 is compared with those of the first-row transition-metal atoms. The present study provides a detailed picture of the C-S bond activation and cleavage in carbon disulfide mediated by second and the third row transition-metal atoms Ag and Au.

  18. On the crystal structure of colloidally prepared CsPbBr3 quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, Patrick; Brutchey, Richard L

    2016-04-18

    Colloidally synthesized quantum dots of CsPbBr3 are highly promising for light-emitting applications. Previous reports based on benchtop diffraction conflict as to the crystal structure of CsPbBr3 quantum dots. We present X-ray diffraction and PDF analysis of X-ray total scattering data that indicate that the crystal structure is unequivocally orthorhombic (Pnma).

  19. Encapsulation of Cs/Sr contaminated clinoptilolite in geopolymers produced from metakaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuenzel, C.; Cisneros, J. F.; Neville, T. P.; Vandeperre, L. J.; Simons, S. J. R.; Bensted, J.; Cheeseman, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    The encapsulation of caesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) contaminated clinoptilolite in Na and K based metakaolin geopolymers is reported. When Cs or Sr loaded clinoptilolite is mixed with a metakaolin geopolymer paste, the high pH of the activating solution and the high concentration of ions in solution cause ion exchange reactions and dissolution of clinoptilolite with release of Cs and Sr into the geopolymer matrix. The leaching of Cs and Sr from metakaolin-based geopolymer has therefore been investigated. It was found that Na-based geopolymers reduce leaching of Cs compared to K-based geopolymers and the results are in agreement with the hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) theory. Cs ions are weak Lewis acids and aluminates are a weak Lewis base. During the formation of the geopolymer matrix Cs ions are preferentially bound to aluminate phases and replace Na in the geopolymer structure. Sr uptake by Na-geopolymers is limited to 0.4 mol Sr per mole of Al and any additional Sr is immobilised by the high pH which causes precipitation of Sr as low solubility hydroxide and carbonate phases. There was no evidence of any other phases being formed when Sr or Cs are added to metakaolin geopolymers.

  20. CsAP3: A Cucumber Homolog to Arabidopsis APETALA3 with Novel Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin-Jing; Li, Feng; Wang, Dong-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xia; Liu, Na; Gu, Hai-Tao; Zou, Cheng; Luo, Jing-Chu; He, Chao-Xing; Huang, San-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2016-01-01

    In our previous efforts to understand the regulatory mechanisms of cucumber unisexual flower development, we observed a stamen-specific down-regulation of the ethylene receptor CsETR1 in stage 6 female flowers of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). This down-regulation is correlated with the primordial anther-specific DNA damage that characterizes inappropriate stamen development in cucumber female flowers. To understand how CsETR1 is down regulated in the stamen, we characterized a cucumber MADS box gene homologous to Arabidopsis AP3, CsAP3. We demonstrated that CsAP3 is functionally equivalent to the Arabidopsis B-class MADS gene AP3. However, three novel characteristics of CsAP3 were found. These include firstly, binding and activating CsETR1 promoter in vitro and in vivo; secondly, containing a GV repeat in its C-terminus, which is conserved in cucurbits and required for the transcription activation; and thirdly, decreased expression as the node number increases, which is similar to that found for CsETR1. These findings revealed not only the conserved function of CsAP3 as a B-class floral identity gene, but also its unique functions in regulation of female flower development in cucumber. PMID:27540391

  1. The sorption behavior of Cs and Cd onto oxide and clay surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Westrich, H.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Brady, P.V.; Nagy, K.L.; Anderson, H.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.J.

    1995-03-01

    The sorption of Cs and Cd on model soil minerals was examined by complementary analytical and experimental procedures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the chemical and physical nature of Cs-reacted soil minerals. Cd and Cs adsorption isotherms for kaolinite were also measured at variable pH and temperature to establish likely reaction stoichiometries, while atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the microtopography of the clay surface. XPS analyses of Cs-exchanged samples show that Cs is sorbed at mineral surfaces and at the interlayer site of smectite clays, although the spectral resolution of XPS analyses is insufficient to differentiate between basal, edge or interlayer sites. {sup 133}Cs MAS-NMR results also show that Cs is adsorbed primarily in an interlayer site of montmorillonite and on edge and basal sites for kaolinite. Cd adsorption isotherms on kaolinite were found to be additive using Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} + Si0{sub 2} Cd binding constants. AFM quantification of kaolinite crystallites suggest that edges comprise up to 50% of the BET surface area, and are consistent with NMR and surface charge results that Cs an Cd adsorption occur primarily at edge sites.

  2. A Purposeful MOOC to Alleviate Insufficient CS Education in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurhila, Jaakko; Vihavainen, Arto

    2015-01-01

    The Finnish national school curriculum, effective from 2004, does not include any topics related to Computer Science (CS). To alleviate the problem that school students are not able to study CS-related topics, the Department of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki prepared a completely online course that is open to pupils and students in…

  3. Computational modeling of 137Cs contaminant transfer associated with sediment transport in Abukuma River.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, T; Nabi, M; Shimizu, Y; Kimura, I

    2015-01-01

    A numerical model capable of simulating the transfer of (137)Cs in rivers associated with transport of fine sediment is presented. The accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) released radionuclides into the atmosphere, and after fallout several radionuclides in them, such as radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) and radioiodine ((131)I) were adsorbed on surface soil particles around FDNPP and transported by surface water. To understand the transport and deposition of the radioactive contaminant along with surface soil particles and its flux to the ocean, we modeled the transport of the (137)Cs contaminant by computing the water flow and the associated washload and suspended load transport. We have developed a two-dimensional model to simulate the plane flow structure, sediment transport and associated (137)Cs contaminant transport in rivers by combining a shallow water flow model and an advection-diffusion equation for the transport of sediment. The proposed model has been applied to the lower reach of Abukuma River, which is the main river in the highly contaminated area around FDNPP. The numerical results indicate that most (137)Cs supplied from the upstream river reach with washload would directly reach to Pacific Ocean. In contrast, washload-oriented (137)Cs supplied from the upstream river basin has a limited role in the radioactive contamination in the river. The results also suggest that the proposed framework of computational model can be a potential tool for understanding the sediment-oriented (137)Cs behavior in rivers.

  4. Long-term selective retention of natural Cs and Rb by highly weathered coastal plain soils.

    PubMed

    Wampler, J M; Krogstad, Eirik J; Elliott, W Crawford; Kahn, Bernd; Kaplan, Daniel I

    2012-04-03

    Naturally occurring Cs and Rb are distinctly more abundant relative to K in the highly weathered upland soils of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, than in average rock of Earth's upper continental crust (UCC), by factors of 10 and 4, respectively. Naturally occurring Cs has been selectively retained during soil evolution, and Rb to a lesser extent, while K has been leached away. In acid extracts of the soils, the Cs/K ratio is about 50 times and the Rb/K ratio about 15 times the corresponding ratios for the UCC, indicating that relatively large amounts of natural Cs and Rb have been sequestered in soil microenvironments that are highly selective for these elements relative to K. Cation exchange favoring Cs and Rb ions, and subsequent fixation of the ions, at sites in interlayer wedge zones within hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite particles may account for the observations. The amounts of stable Cs retained and the inferred duration of the soil evolution, many thousands of years, provide new insights regarding long-term stewardship of radiocesium in waste repositories and contaminated environments. Study of natural Cs in soil adds a long-term perspective on Cs transport in soils not available from studies of radiocesium.

  5. First-Year Students' Impressions of Pair Programming in CS1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Beth; Hanks, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Pair programming, as part of the Agile Development process, has noted benefits in professional software development scenarios. These successes have led to a rise in use of pair programming in educational settings, particularly in Computer Science 1 (CS1). Specifically, McDowell et al. [2006] has shown that students using pair programming in CS1 do…

  6. Using Radioactive Fallout Cesium (137Cs) to Distinguish Sediment Sources in an Agricultural Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radioactive fallout Cesium (Cs-137) has been used for quantifying sources of accumulating sediment in water bodies and to determine the rates and pattern of soil erosion. The objectives of this research are to use Cs-137 as a tracer to determine patterns of soil erosion and deposition of eroding soi...

  7. Rapid determination of ¹³⁵Cs and precise ¹³⁵Cs/¹³⁷Cs atomic ratio in environmental samples by single-column chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-02-18

    For source identification, measurement of (135)Cs/(137)Cs atomic ratio not only provides information apart from the detection of (134)Cs and (137)Cs, but it can also overcome the application limit that measurement of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio has due to the short half-life of (134)Cs (2.06 y). With the recent advancement of ICP-MS, it is necessary to improve the corresponding separation method for rapid and precise (135)Cs/(137)Cs atomic ratio analysis. A novel separation and purification technique was developed for the new generation of triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). The simple chemical separation, incorporating ammonium molybdophosphate selective adsorption of Cs and subsequent single cation-exchange chromatography, removes the majority of isobaric and polyatomic interference elements. Subsequently, the ICP-MS/MS removes residual interference elements and eliminates the peak tailing effect of stable (133)Cs, at m/z 134, 135, and 137. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to measure (135)Cs/(137)Cs atomic ratios and (135)Cs activities in environmental samples (soil and sediment) for radiocesium source identification.

  8. Fixation of Cs to marine sediments estimated by a stochastic modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Børretzen, Peer; Salbu, Brit

    2002-01-01

    Dumping of nuclear waste in the Kara Sea represents a potential source of radioactive contamination to the Arctic Seas in the future. The mobility of 137Cs ions leached from the waste will depend on the interactions with sediment particles. Whether sediments will act as a continuous permanent sink for released 137Cs, or contaminated sediments will serve as a diffuse source of 137Cs in the future, depends on the interaction kinetics and binding mechanisms involved. The main purpose of this paper is to study the performance of different stochastic models using kinetic information to estimate the time needed for Cs ions to become irreversibly fixed within the sediments. The kinetic information was obtained from 134Cs tracer sorption and desorption (sequential extractions) experiments, conducted over time, using sediments from the Stepovogo Fjord waste dumping site, on the east coast of Novaya Zemlya. Results show that 134Cs ions interact rapidly with the surfaces of the Stepovogo sediment, with an estimated distribution coefficient Kd(eq) of 300 ml/g (or 13m2/g), and the 134Cs ions are increasingly irreversibly fixed to the sediment over time. For the first time, stochastic theory has been utilised for sediment-seawater systems to estimate the mean residence times (MRTs) of Cs ions in operationally defined sediment phases described by compartment models. In the present work, two different stochastic models (i) a Markov process model (MP) being analogous to deterministic compartment models, and (ii) a semi-Markov process model (SMP) which should be physically more relevant for inhomogeneous systems, have been compared. As similar results were obtained using the two models, the less complicated MP model was utilised to predict the time needed for an average Cs ion to become irreversibly fixed in the Stepovogo sediments. According the model, approximately 1100 days of contact time between Cs ions and sediments is needed before 50% of the 134Cs ion becomes fixed in the

  9. C-S bond cleavage by a polyketide synthase domain

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ming; Lohman, Jeremy R.; Liu, Tao; Shen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Leinamycin (LNM) is a sulfur-containing antitumor antibiotic featuring an unusual 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety that is spiro-fused to a thiazole-containing 18-membered lactam ring. The 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety is essential for LNM’s antitumor activity, by virtue of its ability to generate an episulfonium ion intermediate capable of alkylating DNA. We have previously cloned and sequenced the lnm gene cluster from Streptomyces atroolivaceus S-140. In vivo and in vitro characterizations of the LNM biosynthetic machinery have since established that: (i) the 18-membered macrolactam backbone is synthesized by LnmP, LnmQ, LnmJ, LnmI, and LnmG, (ii) the alkyl branch at C-3 of LNM is installed by LnmK, LnmL, LnmM, and LnmF, and (iii) leinamycin E1 (LNM E1), bearing a thiol moiety at C-3, is the nascent product of the LNM hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-acyltransferase (AT)-less type I polyketide synthase (PKS). Sulfur incorporation at C-3 of LNM E1, however, has not been addressed. Here we report that: (i) the bioinformatics analysis reveals a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent domain, we termed cysteine lyase (SH) domain (LnmJ-SH), within PKS module-8 of LnmJ; (ii) the LnmJ-SH domain catalyzes C-S bond cleavage by using l-cysteine and l-cysteine S-modified analogs as substrates through a PLP-dependent β-elimination reaction, establishing l-cysteine as the origin of sulfur at C-3 of LNM; and (iii) the LnmJ-SH domain, sharing no sequence homology with any other enzymes catalyzing C-S bond cleavage, represents a new family of PKS domains that expands the chemistry and enzymology of PKSs and might be exploited to incorporate sulfur into polyketide natural products by PKS engineering. PMID:26240335

  10. The Ocean Surface Topography JASON-CS/SENTINEL-6 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, R.; Francis, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 programme will consist of 2 spacecraft and will be the latest in a series of ocean surface topography missions that will span nearly three decades. They follow the altimeters on-board TOPEX/Poseidon through to Jason-3 (expected March 2015). Jason-CS will continue to fulfil objectives of the reference series whilst introducing a major enhancement in capability providing the operational and science oceanographic community with the state of the art in terms of platform, measurement instrumentation design thus securing optimal operational and science data return. The programme is a part of the EC Copernicus initiative, whose objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. The programme brings together: ESA for development, procurement & early orbit activities; EUMETSAT for mission management, ground segment, flight ops, contributing funding of the 1st satellite and participation in funding for the 2nd satellite; NOAA for US payload instruments, launcher, ground stations & operations; NASA for developing the US payload, launcher procurement and funding US science; EU for funding the operations and participation in funding (with EUMETSAT) for the 2nd satellite; CNES for mission expertise and provision of POD. The consortium plan to procure 2 satellites with the 1st planned for launch readiness in the 1st half of 2020 with the 2nd satellite 5 years later. The first major commitment to funding was given by the ESA member states that approved the programme in June 2014 and in addition the European Union funding is also secure. The design will be based on a platform derived from CryoSat-2 but adjusted to the specific requirements of the higher orbit. The principle payload instrument is a high precision Ku/C band radar altimeter with retrieval of geophysical parameters (surface elevation, wind speed and SWH) from

  11. The Ocean Surface Topography SENTINEL-6/JASON-CS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Sentinel-6/Jason-CS mission will consist of 2 spacecraft and will be the latest in a series of ocean surface topography missions that will span nearly three decades. They follow the altimeters on- board TOPEX/Poseidon through to Jason-3 (expected March 2015). Jason-CS will continue to fulfil objectives of the reference series whilst introducing a major enhancement in capability providing the operational and science oceanographic community with the state of the art in terms of platform, measurement instrumentation design thus securing optimal operational and science data return. The programme is a part of the EC Copernicus initiative, whose objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. The programme brings together: ESA for development, procurement & early orbit activities; EUMETSAT for mission management, ground segment, flight ops, contributing funding of the 1st satellite and participation in funding for the 2nd satellite; NASA for the US payload and launcher procurement in addition to funding US science opportunities; EC for funding the operations and participation in funding (with EUMETSAT) for the 2nd satellite; NOAA are expected to provide US ground stations & operations services; CNES for mission expertise and provision of the POD service. The consortium plan to procure 2 satellites with the 1st planned for launch readiness in the 1st half of 2020 with the 2nd satellite 5 years later. The first major commitment to funding was given by the ESA member states that approved the programme in June 2014 and in addition the European Commission funding is also fully secure. The design is based on a platform derived from CryoSat-2 adjusted to the specific requirements of the higher orbit. The principle payload instrument is a high precision Ku/C band radar altimeter with retrieval of geophysical parameters (surface

  12. Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a ΔguaBA Strain CVD 1204 Expressing Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) CS2 and CS3 Fimbriae as a Live Mucosal Vaccine against Shigella and ETEC Infection

    PubMed Central

    Altboum, Zeev; Barry, Eileen M.; Losonsky, Genevieve; Galen, James E.; Levine, Myron M.

    2001-01-01

    To construct a prototype hybrid vaccine against Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the genes encoding the production of ETEC CS2 and CS3 fimbriae were isolated and expressed in attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a guaBA strain CVD 1204. The CS2 cotA to -D genes, isolated from ETEC strain C91F, and the CS3 cstA to -H genes, subcloned from plasmid pCS100, were cloned into ∼15-copy-number-stabilized pGA1 behind the osmotically regulated ompC promoter, resulting in high expression of both fimbriae. Under nonselective in vitro growth conditions, pGA1-CS2 and pGA1-CS3 were stable in CVD 1204, exhibiting a plasmid loss of only approximately 1% per duplication. Expression of CS2 and CS3 reduced the invasiveness of Shigella for HeLa cells and slowed the intracellular growth rate. Guinea pigs immunized intranasally with CVD 1204(pGA1-CS2) or CVD 1204(pGA1-CS3), or with a mixture of these strains, developed secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) in tears and serum IgG antibodies against Shigella lipopolysaccharide, CS2, and CS3 antigens. Moreover, the animals were protected against keratoconjunctivitis following conjunctival challenge with virulent S. flexneri 2a strain 2457T. Animals immunized with Shigella expressing CS2 or CS3 developed serum antibodies that agglutinated Shigella as well as an ETEC strain bearing the homologous fimbriae, whereas animals immunized with combined CVD 1204(pGA1-CS2) and CVD 1204(pGA1-CS3) developed antibodies that agglutinated all three test strains. These observations support the feasibility of a multivalent vaccine against shigellosis and ETEC diarrhea consisting of multiple Shigella live vectors expressing relevant ETEC antigens. PMID:11292735

  13. Synthesis and characterization of the quaternary scandium uranium selenide CsScUSe3(Se2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Matthew D.; Lee, Minseong; Choi, Eun Sang; Ibers, James A.

    2015-03-01

    The compound CsScUSe3(Se2) has been synthesized by the reaction of U, Sc, and Se in a CsCl flux at 1173 K. Its structure is composed of infinite ∞ 2[ScUSe5 - ] sheets that are separated by Cs+ ions. The structure contains one Se22- unit per U. Accordingly, the formula is charge balanced with U4+ and Sc3+ as Cs1+Sc3+U4+(Se2-)3(Se22-). From magnetic susceptibility measurements the magnetic behavior of CsScUSe3(Se2) can be divided into three different regions: paramagnetic, T>TN; antiferromagnetic ordering, T

  14. Exciton Relaxation Dynamics in Photo-Excited CsPbI3 Perovskite Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qinghui; Wang, Yinghui; Sui, Ning; Wang, Yanting; Chi, Xiaochun; Wang, Qianqian; Chen, Ying; Ji, Wenyu; Zou, Lu; Zhang, Hanzhuang

    2016-01-01

    The exciton relaxation process of CsPbI3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) has been investigated by using transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. The hot exciton relaxation process is confirmed to exist in the CsPbI3 NCs, through comparing the TA data of CsPbI3 NCs in low and high energy excitonic states. In addition, the Auger recombination and intrinsic decay paths also participate in the relaxation process of CsPbI3 NCs, even the number of exciton per NC is estimated to be less than 1. Excitation intensity-dependent TA data further confirms the existence of Auger recombination. Meanwhile, the spectral data also confirms that the weight of hot exciton also increase together with that of Auger recombination at high excitation intensity when CsPbI3 NCs in high energy excitonic states. PMID:27405786

  15. 137Cs as a tracer of recent sedimentary processes in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahill, R.A.; Steele, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    To determine recent sediment movement, we measured the levels of 137Cs (an artificial radionuclide produced during nuclear weapons testing) of 118 southern Lake Michigan samples and 27 in Green Bay. These samples, taken from 286 grab samples of the upper 3 cm of sediment, were collected in 1975 as part of a systematic study of Lake Michigan sediment. 137Cs levels correlated well with concentrations of organic carbon, lead, and other anthropogenic trace metals in the sediment. 137Cs had a higher correlation with silt-sized than with clay-sized sediment (0.55 and 0.46, respectively). Atmospherically derived 137Cs and trace metals are being redistributed by sedimentary processes in Lake Michigan after being incorporated in suspended sediment. We determined a distribution pattern of 137Cs that represents areas of southern Lake Michigan where sediment deposition is occurring. ?? 1986 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  16. Evidence for extinct 135Cs from Ba isotopes in Allende CAIs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Mezger, K.; Desch, S. J.; Scherer, E. E.; Horstmann, M.

    2014-05-01

    The abundance and distribution of isotopes throughout the Solar System can be used to constrain the number and type of nucleosynthetic events that contributed material to the early nebula. Barium is particularly well suited to quantifying the degree of isotope heterogeneity in the Solar System because it comprises seven stable isotopes that were synthesized by three different nucleosynthetic processes (s-, r-, and p-processes), all of which contributed material to the Solar System. There is also potential contribution to 135Ba from short-lived radioisotope 135Cs, conclusive evidence for which is yet to be reported. Four Allende (CV3) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAI 1, CAI 2, CAI 4, CAI 5) and one Allende dark inclusion (DI) were analyzed for Ba isotope variability. Two CAIs (CAI 2 and CAI 5) display 135Ba excesses that are not accompanied by 137Ba anomalies. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 1 displays a 135Ba excess that is possibly coupled with a 137Ba excess, and the remaining refractory inclusions (CAI 2 and DI) have terrestrial Ba isotope compositions. These Ba isotope data are presented in conjunction with published whole rock Ba isotope data from individual Allende CAIs. The enrichment in 135Ba and absence of coupled 137Ba excesses in CAI 2 and CAI 5 is interpreted to indicate that the anomalies are not purely nucleosynthetic in origin but also contain contributions (16-48 ppm) from the decay of short-lived 135Cs. The majority of Allende CAIs studied to date may also have similar contributions from 135Cs on the basis of higher than expected 135Ba excesses if the Ba isotope anomalies were purely nucleosynthetic in origin. The 135Ba anomalies appear not to be coupled with superchondritic Cs/Ba, which may imply that the contribution to 135Ba did not occur via in situ decay of live 135Cs. However, it is feasible that the CAIs had a superchondritic Cs/Ba during decay of 135Cs, but Cs was subsequently removed from the system during aqueous alteration on the parent body

  17. Schottky solar cells based on CsSnI3 thin-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Jian J.; Ren, Yuhang; Yu, Chonglong; Shum, Kai

    2012-08-01

    We describe a Schottky solar cell based on the perovskite semiconductor CsSnI3 thin-film. The cell consists of a simple layer structure of indium-tin-oxide/CsSnI3/Au/Ti on glass substrate. The measured power conversion efficiency is 0.9%, which is limited by the series and shunt resistance. The influence of light intensity on open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current supports the Schottky solar cell model. Additionally, the spectrally resolved short-circuit current was measured, confirming the unintentionally doped CsSnI3 is of p-type characteristics. The CsSnI3 thin-film was synthesized by alternately depositing layers of SnCl2 and CsI on glass substrate followed by a thermal annealing process.

  18. Temporal resolution limit estimation of x-ray streak cameras using a CsI photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiang; Gu, Li; Zong, Fangke; Zhang, Jingjin; Yang, Qinlao

    2015-08-28

    A Monte Carlo model is developed and implemented to calculate the characteristics of x-ray induced secondary electron (SE) emission from a CsI photocathode used in an x-ray streak camera. Time distributions of emitted SEs are investigated with an incident x-ray energy range from 1 to 30 keV and a CsI thickness range from 100 to 1000 nm. Simulation results indicate that SE time distribution curves have little dependence on the incident x-ray energy and CsI thickness. The calculated time dispersion within the CsI photocathode is about 70 fs, which should be the temporal resolution limit of x-ray streak cameras that use CsI as the photocathode material.

  19. 137Cs in soil and fallout around Zagreb (Croatia) at the time of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Šoštarić, Marko; Petrinec, Branko; Babić, Dinko

    2013-12-01

    This paper addresses the noticeable increase of 137Cs activity concentrations in soil and fallout in the area surrounding Zagreb (Croatia) that occurred at the time of the 2011 Fukushima accident. This topic is important for public health as 137Cs is highly toxic due to its long half-life of radioactive decay and chemical similarity to potassium. 137Cs concentrations in fallout were much greater than in soil, but remained present longer in the latter. While being detectable in our measurements, 137Cs did not spread through the food chain in amounts exceeding the maximum allowed level of radioactive food contamination. However, more thorough and consistent measurements need to be done in order to establish the precise activity trends of 137Cs in Zagreb soil and fallout.

  20. H2CS abundances and ortho-to-para ratios in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Brewer, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Several H2CS ortho and para transitions have been observed toward interstellar molecular clouds, including cold, dark clouds and star-forming regions. H2CS fractional abundances f(H2CS) about 1-2 10 to the -9th relative to molecular hydrogen toward TMC-1, Orion A, and NGC 7538, and about 5 10 to the -10th for L134N are derived. The H2CS ortho-to-para ratios in TMC-1 are about 1.8 toward the cyanopolyyne peak and the ammonia peak, which may indicate the thermalization of H2CS on 10 K grains. A ratio of about 3, the statistical value, for Orion (3N, 1E) and NGC 7538 is derived, while a value of about 2 for Orion (KL) is found.

  1. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration in marine sediments at Amvrakikos Gulf, western of Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, C; Patiris, D L; Fillis-Tsirakis, E; Kapsimalis, V; Pilakouta, M; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present work is the study of (137)Cs migration in sediment column taking into account the sedimentation rate in the Amvrakikos Gulf, at the western part of Greece. Marine core sediments were collected and the measurements were performed using the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry method. The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration, as part of anthropogenic marine radioactivity, provided averaged sedimentation rate by identifying the depths of activity concentrations due to the Chernobyl accident and the nuclear tests signals. Furthermore, (137)Cs measurements were reproduced using the proposed one-dimensional diffusion-advection model which provides mainly as an output, the sedimentation rate and the average diffusivity of (137)Cs in the sediment column. The proposed model estimates the temporal variation of (137)Cs activity concentration from 1987 (one year after the Chernobyl accident) till today (2014).

  2. [sup 137]Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.W. )

    1993-06-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread [sup 137]Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher [sup 137]Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue [sup 137]Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than [sup 137]Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the US sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of [sup 137]Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident.

  3. Latitudinal variation and residence time of (137)Cs in Indian coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Sartandel, S J; Jha, S K; Tripathi, R M

    2015-11-15

    Anthropogenic (137)Cs activity concentration, in surface sea water along the western and eastern coast of India has been estimated using the in-situ pre-concentration approach. Activity levels of (137)Cs ranges from 0.09-1.30Bqm(-3) with an overall mean of 0.69±0.29Bqm(-3). Latitudinal variation and higher depletion in activity concentration of (137)Cs at few locations were observed. Temporal change of (137)Cs in sea water along Indian coast unveils a lower effective half-life of 13.8±0.7y in comparison to Asia Pacific regional sea water. The results prevailed that the spatial distribution confers no fresh input of (137)Cs in Indian coastal region.

  4. Comparative study of (137)Cs distribution in broilers and pheasants and possibilities for protection.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Branislava M; Vitorović, Gordana; Vićentijević, Mihajlo; Vitorović, Duško; Pantelić, Gordana; Lazarević-Macanović, Mirjana

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate distribution of (137)Cs in leg and breast meat of broilers and pheasants following single alimentary contamination and administration of two protectors (AFCF and clinoptilolite). The birds were administered a single dose of (137)CsCl, with an activity of 750 Bq. Protectors were given via gastric tube or mixed in the forage pellets. AFCF given via gastric tube decreased the (137)Cs concentration by a factor of 7.8 in broilers leg meat and 7.4 in broilers breast meat. When AFCF was mixed in pellets, the (137)Cs concentration was 19.5 times lower in broilers leg meat and 22.1 times lower in broilers breast meat, than in the control group. In pheasants, AFCF administered via gastric tube decreased the (137)Cs concentration by a factor of 12.4 in leg meat and by a factor of 13.7 in breast meat, respectively. In group 4, where pheasants were administered AFCF mixed in pellets, the (137)Cs concentration was 3.7 times lower in leg and breast meat, than in the control group. For comparison, clinoptilolite administered via gastric tube decreased the (137)Cs concentration 1.8 times in broilers leg meat and 2.0 times in breast meat, compared to the control group. In pheasants, (137)Cs concentration was 2.9 times lower in leg meat and 2.6 times lower in breast meat. Clinoptilolite mixed in the feed had relatively low efficiency of protection in broilers ((137)Cs concentration was 1.4 times lower in leg meat and 1.6 lower in breast meat). A similar trend was observed in pheasants ((137)Cs concentration was 1.6 lower in leg and breast meat).

  5. Spatial pattern of 137Cs in soils in a mixed deciduous forest in Fukushima, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, M.; Yamada, T.; Takahara, T.; Okuda, T.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of 137Cs contamination was studied in a forest floor of Fukushima region, c.a. 40 km NW of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) focusing on downwards flow from forest canopy via stemflow and throughfall which play major role in determining spatial contamination of 137Cs after the FNDP accident. Setting a study plot (400 m2) in a secondary mixed deciduous forest, dominated by Quercus crispula and Abies firma in canopy layer in August and November 2014, we sampled the souk from surface to 5 cm in depth of soils and measured 137Cs in every 2 m grids and at tree stem bases. The total estimated activity of 137Cs in soil within the study plot was approximately 210 kBq/m2, but showed large spatial heterogeneity showing 30 times of difference between the lowest and highest activities. The activity decreased with increasing distances from tree stem bases. High activity around tree stem bases was presumably due to the stemflow containing 137Cs seeped into soil only around tree stem bases that raised radioactivity in soil locally in the areas. Relatively low activity away from trees (outside canopies) may be due to small effects of stemflow and throughfall. Activity of 137Cs around bases of deciduous broadleaf trees increased with increasing the tree size. Because larger trees have higher potentials to capture larger amount of 137Cs on the tree surface, cumulative activity of 137Cs included in stemflow may increase with increasing the tree size. However evergreen coniferous tree species (Abies firma) did not show such a pattern relating to the tree size. The difference is assumed to be affected by phenological characteristics as the accident happened in winter and deciduous broadleaf trees did not have leaves and 137Cs deposited on tree bodies, while evergreen coniferous tree had leaves and 137Cs was intercepted by the canopies.

  6. Long-term transport and dispersion of 137Cs released into ocean off Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chang; Qiao, Fangli; Wang, Guansuo; Xia, Changshui; Jung, KyungTae

    2014-05-01

    In the following days after the Fukushima nuclear accident which happened in 11th March 2011, significant amounts of radioactive materials (131I, 134Cs and 137Cs) had been leaking into the terrestrial and marine environments. The radionuclides model was used to study the distribution of the 137Cs in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean released from the Fukushima accident. The simulation on the distribution of 137Cs agrees well with the the observed profiles in the 9th November 2011, which proved the validaty of the model. In the first year of our model run, the 137Cs is carried eastward by the Kuroshio and its extension, spreading southward and northword meanwhile. Four or five years after the accident, the 137Cs reaches the US coast with the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean; its concentration is no higher than 3 Bq/m3. Ten years after the accident, all the North Pacific Ocean is labeled with the 137Cs from the Fukushima. The concentration is less than 1 Bq/m3 at that time. Thirty years after the accident, the concentration of 137Cs in both the Pacific and the Indian Ocean is below 0.1 Bq/m3. Since the spreading path of 137Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident is just the migration route of the Pacific tuna, a kind of fish inhabit the western and eastern North Pacific, it may cause radioactive contamination to the fish. In the offshore seas of China, the 137Cs from Fukushima nuclear accident is very low (<0.2 Bq/m3) .

  7. Temporal variation of 137Cs water column inventory in the North Pacific since the 1960s.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, M; Hirose, K

    2003-01-01

    The temporal variation of water column inventories of 137Cs in the North Pacific since the 1960s was examined based on the analysis of the 137Cs profiles in HAM database. 137Cs in seawater in the North Pacific have originated mainly from global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, which occurred in the early 1960s. In the 1960s, both the meridional distribution of 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific and that of fallout on land stations showed mid-latitude maximum. The region with higher deposition at land stations, however, was more northern than the latitudes where the 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific showed a maximum. The difference of the latitude where maximum 137Cs deposition/inventory was observed reflects the difference of the geographical distribution of the precipitation amount in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans followed by the different warm current systems in each ocean. A good positive relation between 137Cs inventory and annual precipitation amount was discovered in the ocean stations at the middle latitude in the North Pacific. The horizontal distribution of 137Cs inventories at the middle latitudes in the North Pacific is characterized as west-high and east-low in the early 1960s, which was basically controlled by the distribution of annual precipitation amount. Eastward advection, then, modified it to be less difference in 1966-1967 after the highest deposition periods in 1963-1965. In the 1970s and 1980s, increases of the 137Cs inventory at the lower latitude of 10-20 deg. N are found. Surface and subsurface southward transports are considered as the source of this increasing 137Cs inventory.

  8. Multiphase complete exchange on Paragon, SP2 and CS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.

    1995-01-01

    The overhead of interprocessor communication is a major factor in limiting the performance of parallel computer systems. The complete exchange is the severest communication pattern in that it requires each processor to send a distinct message to every other processor. This pattern is at the heart of many important parallel applications. On hypercubes, multiphase complete exchange has been developed and shown to provide optimal performance over varying message sizes. Most commercial multicomputer systems do not have a hypercube interconnect. However, they use special purpose hardware and dedicated communication processors to achieve very high performance communication and can be made to emulate the hypercube quite well. Multiphase complete exchange has been implemented on three contemporary parallel architectures: the Intel Paragon, IBM SP2 and Meiko CS-2. The essential features of these machines are described and their basic interprocessor communication overheads are discussed. The performance of multiphase complete exchange is evaluated on each machine. It is shown that the theoretical ideas developed for hypercubes are also applicable in practice to these machines and that multiphase complete exchange can lead to major savings in execution time over traditional solutions.

  9. An ammonium sulfate sensitive chitinase from Streptomyces sp. CS501.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Choi, Yun Hee; Pradeep, G C; Yoo, Jin Cheol

    2014-12-01

    A chitinase from Streptomyces sp. CS501 was isolated from the Korean soil sample, purified by single-step chromatography, and biochemically characterized. The extracellular chitinase (Ch501) was purified to 4.60 fold with yield of 28.74 % using Sepharose Cl-6B column. The molecular mass of Ch501 was approximately 43 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE and zymography. The enzyme (Ch501) was found to be stable over a broad pH range (5.0-10.0) and temperature (up to 50 °C), and have an optimum temperature of 60 °C. N-terminal sequence of Ch501 was AAYDDAAAAA. Intriguingly, Ch501 was highly sensitive to ammonium sulfate but it's completely suppressed activity was recovered after desalting out. TLC analysis of Ch501 showed the production of N-acetyl D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and Diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc)2, as a principal hydrolyzed product. Ch501 shows antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and Aspergillus brasiliensis, which can be used for the biological control of fungus. As has been simple in purification, stable in a broad range of pH, ability to produce oligosaccharides, and antifungal activity showed that Ch501 has potential applications in industries as for chitooligosaccharides production used as prebiotics and/or for the biological control of plant pathogens in agriculture.

  10. DOSE TO CURIE DETERMINATION FOR CONTAINERS WITH MEASURABLE CS-137

    SciTech Connect

    RATHBUN LA; ANDERSON JD; SWAN RJ

    2010-12-03

    The Next Generation Retrieval (NGR) project will retrieve suspect transuranic (TRU) waste containers from Trenches 17 and 27 in the 218-E-12B (12B) burial ground. The trenches were in operation from May 1970 through October 1972. A portion of the retrieved containers that will require shipment to and acceptance at a treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facility and the containers will be either remote-handled (RH) and/or contact-handled (CH). The method discussed in this document will be used for the RH and some of the CH containers to determine the radionuclide inventory. Waste disposition (shipment and TSD acceptance) requires that the radioactive content be characterized for each container. Source-term estimates using high resolution, shielded, gamma-ray scan assay techniques cannot be performed on a number of RH and other containers with high dose rates from {sup 137}Cs-{sup 137m}Ba. This document provides the method to quantify the radioactive inventory of fission product gamma emitters within the containers based on the surface dose rate measurements taken in the field with hand-held survey instruments.

  11. Analyzing Feshbach resonances: A Li6-Cs133 case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, R.; Repp, M.; Ulmanis, J.; Kuhnle, E. D.; Weidemüller, M.; Tiecke, T. G.; Greene, Chris H.; Ruzic, Brandon P.; Bohn, John L.; Tiemann, E.

    2014-07-01

    We provide a comprehensive comparison of a coupled channel calculation, the asymptotic bound-state model (ABM), and the multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT). Quantitative results for 6Li-133Csare presented and compared to previously measured 6Li-133CsFeshbach resonances (FRs) [Repp et al., Phys. Rev. A 87, 010701(R) (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.010701]. We demonstrate how the accuracy of the ABM can be stepwise improved by including magnetic dipole-dipole interactions and coupling to a nondominant virtual state. We present a MQDT calculation, where magnetic dipole-dipole and second-order spin-orbit interactions are included. A frame transformation formalism is introduced, which allows the assignment of measured FRs with only three parameters. All three models achieve a total rms error of <1G on the observed FRs. We critically compare the different models in view of the accuracy for the description of FRs and the required input parameters for the calculations.

  12. a Study of HCO+ and CS in Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Jessica L.; Ziurys, L. M.; Woolf, N. J.

    2011-06-01

    Millimeter-wave observations have been conducted towards a sample of planetary nebulae (PNe) using the 12-meter and Sub-millimeter telescopes of the Arizona Radio Observatory. HCO+ was observed in the J=3-2 transition at 1 mm and the J=1-0 transition at 3 mm. CS was observed in the J=5-4, J=3-2, and J=2-1 transitions at 1, 2, and 3 mm, respectively. Both molecules have been detected in NGC 6537 (Red Spider Nebula), K4-47, and M2-48, as well as NGC 6720 (Ring Nebula) and NGC 6853 (Dumbbell Nebula), which are both over 7,000 years old. Although a number of molecular line surveys of circumstellar envelopes have been done and one conducted towards a very young PNe, the molecular content of planetary nebulae is not well characterized. It was previously thought that the high ultraviolet radiation field of the central star would destroy any molecules leftover from the circumstellar envelope; however, molecules clearly exist well into the PNe stage. These data are currently being analyzed and molecular abundances being determined, which will be compared to those seen in diffuse interstellar material. The implications of these observations will be discussed in relation to the molecular content of diffuse clouds and the origins of the diffuse interstellar bands.

  13. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  14. Elimination of Potential Electrical Stress During EMC (CS01) Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Kenneth P.; Whittlesey, Albert C.; Vorperian, Vatche

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews possible ways to eliminate electrical stress during Electromagneticic Compatibility (EMC) testing. The presentation reviews tests that have had problems due to electrical stress. On December 5, 1995 Cassini Radar instrument failed a functional test in preparation for EMC conducted susceptibility (CSO 1 ) testing. The instrument power supply did not turn on as required, and failure occurred prior to injection of CS test stimulus. A investigation of the failure was conducted. A PSPICE simulation of Cassini Radar 30V line using the EMC test setup was performed; the result of the simulation was an oscillation on the 30V input of the power supply. In another case: on December 28, 1999 an oscillation occurred on the input power line of the SlRTF Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) while preparing to perform CSOI testing, Resulted in damage to flight hardware. Subsequent to failure, JPL provided GSFC history and corrective action from Cassini Radar CSOI test failure GSFC implemented the same corrective action as JPL, except that the value of the resistor connected across the isolation transformer primary winding is 2.5 ohms instead of 50 ohms. Three recommendations are made: (1) Make EMC test community aware of the problem and potential solutions by presenting papers at major environmental test conferences (2) Include warnings and safeguards in EMC test requirements and procedures (3) Try to convince EMC test equipment suppliers to design a CSOl test fixture similar to fixture shown in the diagram

  15. Effects of radiocesium inventory on (137)Cs concentrations in river waters of Fukushima, Japan, under base-flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Shinya; Ueda, Shinji; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the behavior of nuclear accident-derived (137)Cs in river water under base-flow conditions, concentrations of dissolved and particulate (137)Cs were measured at 16 sampling points in seven rivers of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, in 2012 and 2013. The concentration of dissolved (137)Cs was significantly correlated with the mean (137)Cs inventory in the catchment area above each sampling point in both sampling years. These results suggest that the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs under base-flow conditions is primarily determined by the (137)Cs inventory of the catchment area above the sampling point. However, the concentration of particulate (137)Cs did not show a clear relationship with either the mean (137)Cs inventory or the dissolved (137)Cs concentration, thus indicating that particulate and dissolved forms do not effectively interact in rivers. To evaluate the contribution of the (137)Cs inventory within catchment areas, we analyzed relations between the (137)Cs concentration and the mean (137)Cs inventory over the area within certain flow path lengths that were traced along the river and slope above the sampling point. Coefficients of determination for dissolved (137)Cs concentrations were highest for the longest flow path, i.e., the whole catchment area, and lower for shorter flow paths. Coefficients of determination for particulate (137)Cs concentrations were only moderately high for the shortest flow path in 2012, whereas the values were quite low for all flow paths in 2013. These results suggest that dissolved (137)Cs can originate from a larger area of the catchment even under base-flow conditions; however, particulate (137)Cs did not show such behavior. The results also show that under base-flow conditions, dissolved and particulate (137)Cs behave independently during their transport from river catchments to the ocean.

  16. 137Cs vertical migration in a deciduous forest soil following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko

    2014-02-01

    The large amount of (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor because of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident represents a major potential long-term source for mobile (137)Cs. To investigate (137)Cs mobility in forest soils, we investigated the vertical migration of (137)Cs through seepage water, using a lysimetric method. The study was conducted in a deciduous forest soil over a period spanning 2 month to 2 y after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Our observations demonstrated that the major part of (137)Cs in the litter layer moved into the mineral soil within one year after the accident. On the other hand, the topsoil prevented migration of (137)Cs, and only 2% of (137)Cs in the leachate from litter and humus layer penetrated below a 10 cm depth. The annual migration below a 10 cm depth accounted for 0.1% of the total (137)Cs inventory. Therefore, the migration of (137)Cs by seepage water comprised only a very small part of the total (137)Cs inventory in the mineral soil, which was undetectable from the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in the soil profile. In the present and immediate future, most of the (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor will probably remain in the topsoil successively, although a small but certain amount of bioavailable (137)Cs exists in forest surface soil.

  17. Fallout volume and litter type affect (137)Cs concentration difference in litter between forest and stream environments.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Negishi, Junjiro N

    2016-11-01

    It is important to understand the changes in the (137)Cs concentration in litter through leaching when considering that (137)Cs is transferred from basal food resources to animals in forested streams. We found that the difference of (137)Cs activity concentration in litter between forest and stream was associated with both litter type and (137)Cs fallout volume around Fukushima, Japan. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in the litter of evergreen conifers tended to be greater than those in the litter of broad-leaved deciduous trees because of the absence of deciduous leaves during the fallout period in March 2011. Moreover, (137)Cs activity concentrations in forest litter were greater with respect to the (137)Cs fallout volume. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in stream litter were much lower than those in forest litter when those in forest litter were higher. The (137)Cs leaching patterns indicated that the differences in (137)Cs activity concentration between forest and stream litter could change with changes in both fallout volume and litter type. Because litter is an important basal food resource in the food webs of both forests and streams, the (137)Cs concentration gradient reflects to possible (137)Cs transfer from lower to higher trophic animals. Our findings will improve our understanding of the spatial heterogeneity and variability of (137)Cs concentrations in animals resident to the contaminated landscape.

  18. [Effects of natural zeolite-clinoptilollite on processes of removal of Cs-137 from the rat body].

    PubMed

    Krasnopërova, A P; Lonin, A Iu

    1999-01-01

    The selectivity of natural and synthetic zeolites to 137Cs in experiments in vitro has been investigated. The influence of natural zeolite-clinoptilolite on the dynamics of withdrawal of 137Cs from rats' organism was estimated.

  19. Oxygen and magnesium abundance in the ultra-metal-poor giants CS 22949-037 and CS 29498-043: Challenges in models of atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israelian, G.; Shchukina, N.; Rebolo, R.; Basri, G.; González Hernández, J. I.; Kajino, T.

    2004-06-01

    We report the results of a non-LTE Fe, O and Mg abundance analysis of the carbon-nitrogen-rich ultra-metal-poor giants CS 29498-043 and CS 22949-037. The abundance of oxygen has been derived from measurements of the oxygen triplet at 7771-5 Å in high resolution spectra obtained with KeckI/HIRES and the forbidden line [O I] 6300 Å detected in the TNG/SARG spectra of CS 29498-043. Detailed non-LTE analysis of Fe lines has provided reliable stellar parameters which, however, do not resolve the oxygen abundance conflict as derived from the O I 7771-5 Å triplet and the [O I] 6300 Å forbidden lines. We obtained the following oxygen abundance: for CS 22949-037 [O/Fe] = 3.13, 1.95; and for CS 29498-043; [O/Fe] = 3.02, 2.49, based on the O I 7771-5 Å triplet and the [O I] 6300 Å forbidden line, respectively. A similar conflict appears to exist between the forbidden resonance line Mg C I 4571 Å and several subordinate lines, such as Mg I 5172 and 5183 Å. Our analysis demonstrates the failure of standard plane-parallel atmosphere models to describe the physical conditions in the line-forming regions of these ultra-metal-poor giants.

  20. Separation of CsCl from a Ternary CsCl-LiCl-KCl Salt via a Melt Crystallization Technique for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael Simpson

    2013-02-01

    A parametric study has been conducted to identify the effects of several parameters on the separation of CsCl from molten LiCl-KCl salt via a melt crystallization process. A reverse vertical Bridgman technique was used to grow the salt crystals. The investigated parameters were: (1) the advancement rate, (2) the crucible lid configuration, (3) the amount of salt mixture, (4) the initial composition of CsCl, and (5) the temperature difference between the high and low furnace zones. From each grown crystal, samples were taken axially and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show that CsCl concentrations at the top of the crystals were low and increased to a maximum at the bottom of the salt. Salt (LiCl-KCl) recycle percentages for the experiments ranged from 50% to 75% and the CsCl composition in the waste salt was low. To increase the recycle percentage and the concentration of CsCl in the waste form, the possibility of using multiple crystallization stages was explored to further optimize the process. Results show that multiple crystallization stages are practical and the optimal experimental conditions should be operated at 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and temperature difference of 200 °C for a total of five crystallization stages. Under these conditions, up to 88% of the salt can be recycled.

  1. First experiments with Cs doped Mo as surface converter for negative hydrogen ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Schiesko, L. Hopf, C.; Höschen, T.; Meisl, G.; Encke, O.; Heinemann, B.; Fantz, U.; Cartry, G.; Amsalem, P.; Achkasov, K.

    2015-08-21

    A study was conducted on the properties of molybdenum implanted with caesium as an approach to reduce the Cs consumption of negative hydrogen ion sources based on evaporated Cs. The depth profiles of the implanted Cs were simulated by SDTrimSP and experimentally determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling. In particular, one year after implantation, the depth profiles showed no signs of Cs diffusion into the molybdenum, suggesting long term stability of the implanted Cs atoms. The H{sup −} surface generation mechanisms on the implanted samples in hydrogen plasma were investigated, and the stability of the H{sup −} yield during four hours low power hydrogen plasma discharges was demonstrated. An estimation of the work function reduction (−0.8 eV) by the Cs implantation was performed, and a comparison of the relative negative ion yields between the implanted samples and highly oriented pyrolitic graphite showed that the Cs doped Mo negative ion yield was larger.

  2. Performance Study of K2CsSb Photocathode inside a DC High Voltage Gun

    SciTech Connect

    T. Rao, J. Smedley, J.M. Grames, R. Mammei, J.L. McCarter, M. Poelker, R. Suleiman

    2011-03-01

    In the past decade, there has been considerable interest in the generation of tens of mA average current in a photoinjector. Until recently, GaAs:Cs cathodes and K2CsSb cathodes have been tested successfully in DC and RF injectors respectively for this application. Our goal is to test the GaAs:Cs in RF injector and the K2CsSb cathode in the DC gun in order to widen our choices. Since the multialkali cathode is a compound with uniform stochiometry over its entire thickness, we anticipate that the life time issues seen in GaAs:Cs due surface damage by ion bombardment would be minimized with this material. Hence successful operation of the K2CsSb cathode in DC gun could lead to a relatively robust electron source capable of delivering ampere level currents. In order to test the performance of K2CsSb cathode in a DC gun, we have designed and built a load lock system that would allow the fabrication of the cathode at BNL and its testing at JLab. In this paper, we will present the design of the load-lock system, cathode fabrication, and the cathode performance in the preparation chamber and in the DC gun.

  3. The Sorting Receptor SorCS1 Regulates Trafficking of Neurexin and AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Savas, Jeffrey N.; Ribeiro, Luís F.; Wierda, Keimpe D.; Wright, Rebecca; DeNardo, Laura A.; Rice, Heather C.; Chamma, Ingrid; Wang, Yi-Zhi; Zemla, Roland; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Vennekens, Kristel M.; O'Sullivan, Matthew L.; Antonios, Joseph K.; Hall, Elizabeth A.; Thoumine, Olivier; Attie, Alan D.; Ghosh, Anirvan; Yates, John R.; de Wit, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The formation, function, and plasticity of synapses require dynamic changes in synaptic receptor composition. Here we identify the sorting receptor SorCS1 as a key regulator of synaptic receptor trafficking. Four independent proteomic analyses identify the synaptic adhesion molecule neurexin and the AMPA glutamate receptor (AMPAR) as major proteins sorted by SorCS1. SorCS1 localizes to early and recycling endosomes and regulates neurexin and AMPAR surface trafficking. Surface proteome analysis of SorCS1-deficient neurons shows decreased surface levels of these, and additional, receptors. Quantitative in vivo analysis of SorCS1 knockout synaptic proteomes identifies SorCS1 as a global trafficking regulator and reveals decreased levels of receptors regulating adhesion and neurotransmission, including neurexins and AMPARs. Consequently, glutamatergic transmission at SorCS1–deficient synapses is reduced due to impaired AMPAR surface expression. SORCS1 mutations have been associated with autism and Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that perturbed receptor trafficking contributes to defects in synaptic composition and function underlying synaptopathies. PMID:26291160

  4. Expression and functional significance of alternatively spliced CS1 fibronectin in rheumatoid arthritis microvasculature.

    PubMed Central

    Elices, M J; Tsai, V; Strahl, D; Goel, A S; Tollefson, V; Arrhenius, T; Wayner, E A; Gaeta, F C; Fikes, J D; Firestein, G S

    1994-01-01

    Expression of fibronectin (FN) isoforms containing CS1, a 25-amino acid sequence present within the alternatively spliced IIICS region of FN, has been analyzed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium. Unexpectedly, CS1-containing FN variants were exclusively found on endothelium but not extracellular matrix (ECM) of RA synovium. Lumenal expression of CS1 on RA endothelial cells, as observed by electron microscopy, correlated with inflammation in RA, since normal synovium expressed little CS1 without appreciable decrease in ECM FN. CS1 expression on human endothelial cells was further shown by FN mRNA analyses. In adhesion assays on frozen RA synovial sections, T lymphoblastoid cells expressing functionally activated alpha 4 beta 1 integrin specifically attached to the intravascular surface of RA endothelium. Binding was abrogated by both anti-alpha 4 integrin and CS1 peptides. Our observations suggest direct involvement of CS1-containing FN in recruitment of alpha 4 beta 1-expressing mononuclear leukocytes in synovitis, and provide basis for therapeutic intervention in RA. Images PMID:8282813

  5. Micelle and microemulsion properties of cesium di-dodecyl-dimethylsulfosuccinate, Cs-AOT

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, E.Y.; Nostro, P.L.; Capuzzi, G.; Baglioni, P.

    1999-09-28

    Cesium di-2-ethylsulfosuccinate (Cs-AOT) micelles in aqueous solutions and Cs-AOT/water/n-decane microemulsions were investigated, at 22 {plus{underscore}minus} 0.1 C, by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The critical micelle concentration of Cs-AOT is {approximately}2mM, comparable to that of Na-AOT. However, their solution properties and micellar structures were found to be very different. The solubility of Na-AOT in water is approximately 1 wt %, and the micelles grow from spherical (at a concentration of about 0.1 wt %) to oblate objects with eccentricity equal to about 0.8 (at a concentration of 1 wt %), whereas Cs-AOT is largely soluble in water, over 30 wt %, and its micelles are disklike at 1 wt %. As the surfactant concentration increases, micelles may go through an L{sub 3} region, and enter the lamellar phase. Cs-AOT/water/n-decane microemulsions, with a [water]/[Cs-AOT] = 29.1, form isotropic L{sub 2} phases only at very low Cs-AOT + ater volume fractions (below 0.0165), whereas Na-AOT has a large L{sub 2} region. These differences are probably due to the degree of charge condensation near the AOT polar headgroups. A theoretical description is needed to better understand this behavior.

  6. Activities and geochronology of (137)Cs in lake sediments resulting from sediment resuspension.

    PubMed

    Matisoff, Gerald

    2017-02-01

    In lakes with a large surface area to watershed ratio (137)Cs delivery is primarily by direct atmospheric fallout to the lake surface, where its activity in the sediments has been used to estimate the exposure to organisms and sediment mass deposition rates. Comparison of (137)Cs in the historical atmospheric fallout record with (137)Cs activity profiles in sediment cores reveals that although the general features of a maxima in the fallout deposition can be matched to activity peaks in the core, the general shape of the (137)Cs profile is not an exact replica of the fallout history. Instead, the sediment reflects post-depositional processes such as resuspension, bioturbation, partitioning of (137)Cs between the sediment solids and the pore fluids, and molecular diffusion of (137)Cs through the pore fluids. Presented here is a model that couples these processes to a system time averaging (STA) model that accounts for the time history of (137)Cs fallout and the particle residence time in the water column or in the 'active' surface sediment subject to resuspension. Sediment profiles are examined by comparing reasonable ranges of each of the coefficients of each of these major processes and by applying the model to cores collected from two large, shallow lakes, Lake Erie (USA/Canada) and Lake Winnipeg (Canada). The results indicate that the STA model with molecular diffusion and sediment resuspension best describes the data from these large, shallow lakes.

  7. Novel triple neurokinin receptor antagonist CS-003 inhibits respiratory disease models in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Sakiko; Nosaka, Emi; Kuraya, Takako; Yamashita, Makoto; Morimoto, Kiyoshi

    2008-10-31

    Neurokinins are known to induce neurogenic inflammation related to respiratory diseases. The effects of CS-003 ([1-{2-[(2R)-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)morpholin-2-yl]ethyl}spiro[benzo[c]thiophene-1(3H),4'-piperidine]-(2S)-oxide hydrochloride]), a novel triple neurokinin receptor antagonist, on several respiratory disease models were evaluated in guinea pigs. As we have already shown that CS-003 is intravenously effective, we first determined if CS-003 was orally effective. CS-003 dose-dependently inhibited substance P-induced tracheal vascular hyperpermeability, neurokinin A- and neurokinin B-induced bronchoconstriction with ID(50) values of 3.6, 1.3 and 0.89 mg/kg (p.o.), respectively. CS-003 (10 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited the number of coughs induced by capsaicin aerosol (P<0.01) and the antitussive effect was comparable to that of codeine. CS-003 (10 mg/kg, p.o.) also inhibited airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine chloride in ovalbumin-induced asthma models (P<0.01), a milder one and a severer one. On the other hand, montelukast (10 mg/kg, p.o.), a leukotriene receptor antagonist, significantly inhibited the hyperresponsiveness only in the milder model (P<0.05). In an ovalbumin-induced rhinitis model, oral administration of CS-003 inhibited nasal blockade in a dose-dependent manner and the inhibitory effect was comparable to that of dexamethasone (10 mg/kg, p.o.). CS-003 (i.v.) also dose-dependently inhibited cigarette smoke-induced bronchoconstriction, tracheal vascular hyperpermeability and mucus secretion. These data show that CS-003, a potent orally active triple neurokinin receptor antagonist, may be useful for the treatment of respiratory diseases associated with neurokinins, such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cough.

  8. Repeated Activation of a CS-US-Contingency Memory Results in Sustained Conditioned Responding

    PubMed Central

    Joos, Els; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Individuals seem to differ in conditionability, i.e., the ease by which the contingent presentation of two stimuli will lead to a conditioned response. In contemporary learning theory, individual differences in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders are, among others, explained by individual differences in temperamental variables (Mineka and Zinbarg, 2006). One such individual difference variable is how people process a learning experience when the conditioning stimuli are no longer present. Repeatedly thinking about the conditioning experience, as in worry or rumination, might prolong the initial (fear) reactions and as such, might leave certain individuals more vulnerable to developing an anxiety disorder. However, in human conditioning research, relatively little attention has been devoted to the processing of a memory trace after its initial acquisition, despite its potential influences on subsequent performance. Post-acquisition processing can be induced by mental reiteration of a conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US)-contingency. Using a human conditioned suppression paradigm, we investigated the effect of repeated activations of a CS-US-contingency memory on the level of conditioned responding at a later test. Results of three experiments showed more sustained responding to a “rehearsed” CS+ as compared to a “non-rehearsed” CS+. Moreover, the second experiment showed no effect of rehearsal when only the CS was rehearsed instead of the CS-US-contingency. The third experiment demonstrated that mental CS-US-rehearsal has the same effect regardless of whether it was cued by the CS and a verbal reference to the US or by a neutral signal, making the rehearsal “purely mental.” In sum, it was demonstrated that post-acquisition activation of a CS-US-contingency memory can impact conditioned responding, underlining the importance of post-acquisition processes in conditioning. This might indicate that individuals who are more prone

  9. Repeated Activation of a CS-US-Contingency Memory Results in Sustained Conditioned Responding.

    PubMed

    Joos, Els; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Individuals seem to differ in conditionability, i.e., the ease by which the contingent presentation of two stimuli will lead to a conditioned response. In contemporary learning theory, individual differences in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders are, among others, explained by individual differences in temperamental variables (Mineka and Zinbarg, 2006). One such individual difference variable is how people process a learning experience when the conditioning stimuli are no longer present. Repeatedly thinking about the conditioning experience, as in worry or rumination, might prolong the initial (fear) reactions and as such, might leave certain individuals more vulnerable to developing an anxiety disorder. However, in human conditioning research, relatively little attention has been devoted to the processing of a memory trace after its initial acquisition, despite its potential influences on subsequent performance. Post-acquisition processing can be induced by mental reiteration of a conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US)-contingency. Using a human conditioned suppression paradigm, we investigated the effect of repeated activations of a CS-US-contingency memory on the level of conditioned responding at a later test. Results of three experiments showed more sustained responding to a "rehearsed" CS+ as compared to a "non-rehearsed" CS+. Moreover, the second experiment showed no effect of rehearsal when only the CS was rehearsed instead of the CS-US-contingency. The third experiment demonstrated that mental CS-US-rehearsal has the same effect regardless of whether it was cued by the CS and a verbal reference to the US or by a neutral signal, making the rehearsal "purely mental." In sum, it was demonstrated that post-acquisition activation of a CS-US-contingency memory can impact conditioned responding, underlining the importance of post-acquisition processes in conditioning. This might indicate that individuals who are more prone to mentally

  10. An E5 transition in the 137Cs decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, K.; McCutchan, E. A.; Zhu, S.; Lister, C. J.; Merchan, E.; Shearman, R.

    2013-10-01

    The beta decay of 137Cs is mainly to the Jπ = 11/2- 661.66 keV isomeric excited state in 137Ba and is usually followed by emission of a single gamma ray as the nucleus relaxes to the Jπ = 3/2+ ground state. It is a well-known standard γ-ray calibration reference. There is only one intermediate state, with Jπ = 1/2+ at 283.50 keV. The γ-ray decay branch to this level has never been observed. The transition must be of E5 or M6 multipolarity. The phase space limitation hinders this decay and a ~10-8 branch can be anticipated from the few known E5 decay matrix elements. The use of the Gammasphere detector array at Argonne National Lab allows a search for these rare events by selection of an optimal detector opening angle for coincidences, chosen to minimize the effects of Compton cross-scattering in the array. In this manner the E5 cascade transition was observed and the branching ratio measured. Rigorous E5 transitions are only known in four other cases to date, so this measurement adds significantly to the body of knowledge surrounding E5 matrix elements. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Grant No. DE-FG02-94ER40848 and Contracts No. DE-AC02-98CH10946 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  11. Thermal effects in Cs DPAL and alkali cell window damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, B. V.; Rotondaro, M. D.; Shaffer, M. K.; Knize, R. J.

    2016-10-01

    Experiments on power scaling of Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPALs) revealed some limiting parasitic effects such as alkali cell windows and gain medium contamination and damage, output power degradation in time and others causing lasing efficiency decrease or even stop lasing1 . These problems can be connected with thermal effects, ionization, chemical interactions between the gain medium components and alkali cells materials. Study of all these and, possibly, other limiting effects and ways to mitigate them is very important for high power DPAL development. In this talk we present results of our experiments on temperature measurements in the gain medium of operating Cs DPAL at different pump power levels in the range from lasing threshold to the levels causing damage of the alkali cell windows. For precise contactless in situ temperature measurements, we used an interferometric technique, developed in our lab2 . In these experiments we demonstrated that damage of the lasing alkali cell starts in the bulk with thermal breakdown of the hydrocarbon buffer gas. The degradation processes start at definite critical temperatures of the gain medium, different for each mixture of buffer gas. At this critical temperature, the hydrocarbon and the excited alkali metal begin to react producing the characteristic black soot and, possibly, some other chemical compounds, which both harm the laser performance and significantly increase the harmful heat deposition within the laser medium. This soot, being highly absorptive, is catastrophically heated to very high temperatures that visually observed as bulk burning. This process quickly spreads to the cell windows and causes their damage. As a result, the whole cell is also contaminated with products of chemical reactions.

  12. Possible octupole deformation in Cs and Ba nuclei from their differential radii

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, R.K.; Jain, A.K.; Jain, K.

    1988-12-01

    The odd-even staggering of the differential radii of Fr and Ra and the Cs and Ba nuclei is compared. This staggering is inverted in the region of known octupole deformation in the Fr and Ra nuclei. The normal staggering is eliminated in the Cs nuclei and attenuated in the Ba nuclei for neutron numbers 85--88. This fact is used to suggest the possible existence of octupole deformation and its neutron number range in the Cs and Ba nuclear ground states.

  13. ICP-MS measurement of diffusion coefficients of Cs in NBG-18 graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, L. M.; Brockman, J. D.; Robertson, J. D.; Loyalka, S. K.

    2015-11-01

    Graphite is used in the HGTR/VHTR as moderator and it also functions as a barrier to fission product release. Therefore, an elucidation of transport of fission products in reactor-grade graphite is required. We have measured diffusion coefficients of Cs in graphite NBG-18 using the release method, wherein we infused spheres of NBG-18 with Cs and measured the release rates in the temperature range of 1090-1395 K. We have obtained: These seem to be the first reported values of Cs diffusion coefficients in NBG-18. The values are lower than those reported for other graphites in the literature.

  14. Antiferromagnetic resonance in the Mott insulator fcc-Cs3C60.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuta; Shibasaki, Seiji; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Kambe, Takashi

    2013-09-11

    The magnetic ground state of the fcc phase of the Mott insulator Cs3C60 was studied using a low-temperature electron spin resonance technique, and antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) below 1.57 K was directly observed at ambient pressure. The AFMR modes for the fcc phase of Cs3C60 were investigated using a conventional two-sublattice model with uniaxial anisotropy, and the spin-flop field was determined to be 4.7 kOe at 1.57 K. The static magnetic exchange interactions and anisotropy field for fcc-Cs3C60 were also estimated.

  15. Nuclear structure of the odd-odd N=85 neutron-rich nucleus {sup 140}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S. H.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Hwang, J. K.; Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Daniel, A. V.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Zhu, S. J.; Ma, W. C.

    2010-03-15

    High-spin excited states in the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 140}Cs were re-investigated from the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf with the Gammasphere detector array. Seven new transitions at low and moderate spin and 13 at high spin were observed in {sup 140}Cs and the level scheme of {sup 140}Cs was extended to 3794 keV with a new sideband. Spins and parities were assigned to levels based on angular correlation measurements and the systematics in the N=85 isotones.

  16. Temperature gain correction for CsI(Tl) detection systems based on digital pulse shape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J.; Fiori, E.; Isaak, J.; Löher, B.; Savran, D.; Vencelj, M.; Wamers, F.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we propose a pulse shape based method for monitoring the interior temperature of a CsI(Tl) crystal in order to correct the temperature dependence in the energy calibration of the corresponding detector system. The gain dependence on temperature of the CsI(Tl) detector was measured using both, a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and an avalanche photodiode (APD) readout photosensor. The analysis shows that the gain shifts due to temperature variations can be corrected to a precision of better than 1% with both the PMT and the APD, well below the CsI(Tl) intrinsic energy resolution for ~1 MeV γ-rays.

  17. Evaluation of the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice based on the K nutritional status of shoots.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takashi; Hotsuki, Tomoe; Fujiwara, Toru; Mimura, Tetsuro; Matsuzaki, Akio

    2014-01-01

    The radioactive cesium ((134,137)Cs) concentration in brown rice is correlated with that in the straw/husk. The distribution of (134,137)Cs, resembles that of potassium (K), a homologous element of Cs, in the rice plant body. The relative isotopic abundance of (40)K is 0.0117 %; thus, 1 g K contains 30.4 Bq ⁴⁰K, and the mass of 4,000 Bq (40)K is 0.0154 g, indicating that the K concentration can be calculated from (40)K concentration. We examined if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice can be estimated from (40)K concentrations in straw, and especially might be predicted from the (40)K:(134,137)Cs ratio in straw. We determined the concentrations of (40)K and radioactive Cs in straw and brown rice, and found a strong correlated-equation (y = 72.922 x(-0.759); r = 0.907) between the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice and the ⁴⁰K:(134,137)Cs ratio in straw. The estimated-radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice can be as much as double, depending on the K nutritional status changing the ⁴⁰K:(134,137)Cs ratio in straw. We herein propose a nutritional diagnosis that radioactive Cs concentrations in brown rice can be predicted from the ⁴⁰K:(134,137)Cs ratio in shoots.

  18. Evaluative Conditioning Can Be Modulated by Memory of the CS-US Pairings at the Time of Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gast, Anne; De Houwer, Jan; De Schryver, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) is the valence change of a (typically neutral) stimulus (CS) that is due to the previous pairing with another (typically valent) stimulus (US). It has been repeatedly shown that EC effects are stronger or existent only if participants know which US was paired with which CS. Knowledge of the CS-US pairings is usually…

  19. Migration of the FDNPP-derived (134)Cs and (137)Cs along with (226)Ra and (228)Ra concentrations across the northwestern North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Shirotani, Y; Nagao, S; Kofuji, H; Volkov, Y N; Nishioka, J

    2016-10-01

    We examined lateral distributions of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (226)Ra, and (228)Ra in the surface seawaters around the Kuril Islands and the Kamchatka Peninsula in the northwestern North Pacific Ocean during June 2014. The sampling area included three water current areas, the Oyashio Current, the current from the Okhotsk Sea, and the coastal current along the east Kamchatka Peninsula. (226)Ra and (228)Ra distributions differed along the three currents. Low levels of (134)Cs were detected in the surface waters of the Oyashio Current (0.09-0.35 mBq/L), but it was <∼0.1 mBq/L at the surface along the other two currents. This indicates that the distribution of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP)-derived radiocesium in surface waters off the Kamchatka and along the Kuril Islands is predominantly governed by the Oyashio current system.

  20. Nearly Monodisperse Insulator Cs4PbX6 (X = Cl, Br, I) Nanocrystals, Their Mixed Halide Compositions, and Their Transformation into CsPbX3 Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Akkerman, Quinten A; Park, Sungwook; Radicchi, Eros; Nunzi, Francesca; Mosconi, Edoardo; De Angelis, Filippo; Brescia, Rosaria; Rastogi, Prachi; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato

    2017-03-08

    We have developed a colloidal synthesis of nearly monodisperse nanocrystals of pure Cs4PbX6 (X = Cl, Br, I) and their mixed halide compositions with sizes ranging from 9 to 37 nm. The optical absorption spectra of these nanocrystals display a sharp, high energy peak due to transitions between states localized in individual PbX6(4-) octahedra. These spectral features are insensitive to the size of the particles and in agreement with the features of the corresponding bulk materials. Samples with mixed halide composition exhibit absorption bands that are intermediate in spectral position between those of the pure halide compounds. Furthermore, the absorption bands of intermediate compositions broaden due to the different possible combinations of halide coordination around the Pb(2+) ions. Both observations are supportive of the fact that the [PbX6](4-) octahedra are electronically decoupled in these systems. Because of the large band gap of Cs4PbX6 (>3.2 eV), no excitonic emission in the visible range was observed. The Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals can be converted into green fluorescent CsPbBr3 nanocrystals by their reaction with an excess of PbBr2 with preservation of size and size distributions. The insertion of PbX2 into Cs4PbX6 provides a means of accessing CsPbX3 nanocrystals in a wide variety of sizes, shapes, and compositions, an important aspect for the development of precisely tuned perovskite nanocrystal inks.

  1. Microdosimetric analysis confirms similar biological effectiveness of external exposure to gamma-rays and internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Manabe, Kentaro; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The risk of internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I is of great public concern after the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE, defined herein as effectiveness of internal exposure relative to the external exposure to γ-rays) is occasionally believed to be much greater than unity due to insufficient discussions on the difference of their microdosimetric profiles. We therefore performed a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation in ideally aligned cell systems to calculate the probability densities of absorbed doses in subcellular and intranuclear scales for internal exposures to electrons emitted from 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I, as well as the external exposure to 662 keV photons. The RBE due to the inhomogeneous radioactive isotope (RI) distribution in subcellular structures and the high ionization density around the particle trajectories was then derived from the calculated microdosimetric probability density. The RBE for the bystander effect was also estimated from the probability density, considering its non-linear dose response. The RBE due to the high ionization density and that for the bystander effect were very close to 1, because the microdosimetric probability densities were nearly identical between the internal exposures and the external exposure from the 662 keV photons. On the other hand, the RBE due to the RI inhomogeneity largely depended on the intranuclear RI concentration and cell size, but their maximum possible RBE was only 1.04 even under conservative assumptions. Thus, it can be concluded from the microdosimetric viewpoint that the risk from internal exposures to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I should be nearly equivalent to that of external exposure to γ-rays at the same absorbed dose level, as suggested in the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  2. Nearly Monodisperse Insulator Cs4PbX6 (X = Cl, Br, I) Nanocrystals, Their Mixed Halide Compositions, and Their Transformation into CsPbX3 Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a colloidal synthesis of nearly monodisperse nanocrystals of pure Cs4PbX6 (X = Cl, Br, I) and their mixed halide compositions with sizes ranging from 9 to 37 nm. The optical absorption spectra of these nanocrystals display a sharp, high energy peak due to transitions between states localized in individual PbX64– octahedra. These spectral features are insensitive to the size of the particles and in agreement with the features of the corresponding bulk materials. Samples with mixed halide composition exhibit absorption bands that are intermediate in spectral position between those of the pure halide compounds. Furthermore, the absorption bands of intermediate compositions broaden due to the different possible combinations of halide coordination around the Pb2+ ions. Both observations are supportive of the fact that the [PbX6]4– octahedra are electronically decoupled in these systems. Because of the large band gap of Cs4PbX6 (>3.2 eV), no excitonic emission in the visible range was observed. The Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals can be converted into green fluorescent CsPbBr3 nanocrystals by their reaction with an excess of PbBr2 with preservation of size and size distributions. The insertion of PbX2 into Cs4PbX6 provides a means of accessing CsPbX3 nanocrystals in a wide variety of sizes, shapes, and compositions, an important aspect for the development of precisely tuned perovskite nanocrystal inks. PMID:28196323

  3. Accumulation of potassium, rubidium and caesium (133Cs and 137Cs in various fractions of soil and fungi in a Swedish forest.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Taylor, A F S; Rosén, K; Johanson, K J

    2010-05-15

    Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) was widely deposited over large areas of forest in Sweden as a result of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and many people in Sweden eat wild fungi and game obtained from these contaminated forests. In terms of radioisotope accumulation in the food chain, it is well known that fungal sporocarps efficiently accumulate radiocaesium ((137)Cs), as well as the alkali metals potassium (K), rubidium (Rb) and caesium (Cs). The fungi then enhance uptake of these elements into host plants. This study compared the accumulation of these three alkali metals in bulk soil, rhizosphere, soil-root interface, fungal mycelium and sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi in a Swedish forest. The soil-root interface was found to be distinctly enriched in K and Rb compared with the bulk soil. Potassium concentrations increased in the order: bulk soilCs, so the uptake of (137)Cs could be prevented by providing additional Rb or K at contaminated sites. The levels of K, Rb, and Cs found in sporocarps were at least one order of magnitude higher than those in fungal mycelium. These results provide new insights into the use of transfer factors or concentration ratios. The final step, the transfer of alkali metals from fungal mycelium to sporocarps, raised some specific questions about possible mechanisms.

  4. Fluorescence Blinking and Photoactivation of All-Inorganic Perovskite Nanocrystals CsPbBr3 and CsPbBr2I.

    PubMed

    Seth, Sudipta; Mondal, Navendu; Patra, Satyajit; Samanta, Anunay

    2016-01-21

    Study of the emission behavior of all-inorganic perovskite nanocrystals CsPbBr3 and CsPbBr2I as a function of the excitation power employing fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and conventional techniques reveals fluorescence blinking in the microsecond time scale and photoinduced emission enhancement. The observation provides insight into the radiative and nonradiative deactivation pathways of these promising substances. Because both blinking and photoactivation processes are intimately linked to the charge separation efficiency and dynamics of the nanocrystals, these key findings are likely to be helpful in realizing the true potential of these substances in photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications.

  5. The Material Properties of CsSnBr3 and CsBr:Sn-1% and Their Potential as Scintillator Detector Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    to be in the 4+ state. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 45. The SnO XANES shows the shift of the Sn in CsSnBr3... SnO +2, SnO2 4+ were used to perform this analysis due to their known oxidation states. The analysis shows the Sn within the CsBr:Sn-1% to be in a 4...character- ized truth samples are available. Along with SnO2 and SnO powder samples, an Sn powder sample was also used. The Sn was used as a practice

  6. 22. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: COOLING WATER PUMPS (WESTINGHOUSE C.S. INDUCTION MOTORS), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: COOLING WATER PUMPS (WESTINGHOUSE C.S. INDUCTION MOTORS), 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  7. CS2SAT: THE CONTROL SYSTEMS CYBER SECURITY SELF-ASSESSMENT TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    Kathleen A. Lee

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division has developed the Control System Cyber Security Self-Assessment Tool (CS2SAT) that provides users with a systematic and repeatable approach for assessing the cyber-security posture of their industrial control system networks. The CS2SAT was developed by cyber security experts from Department of Energy National Laboratories and with assistance from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The CS2SAT is a desktop software tool that guides users through a step-by-step process to collect facility-specific control system information and then makes appropriate recommendations for improving the system’s cyber-security posture. The CS2SAT provides recommendations from a database of industry available cyber-security practices, which have been adapted specifically for application to industry control system networks and components. Each recommendation is linked to a set of actions that can be applied to remediate-specific security vulnerabilities.

  8. Immune response in diarrheal patients and asymptomatic carrier with CS6-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection.

    PubMed

    Puiprom, Orapim; Chantaroj, Siriporn; Matsuda, Shigeaki; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya; Taniguchi, Tooru

    2012-11-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the major causes of diarrhea in children and travelers in developing countries. ETEC colonization factors (CFs) are virulence determinants considered as protective antigens and major targets for vaccine development against ETEC infections. One of the most prevalent CFs, coli surface antigen 6 (CS6), a non-fimbrial polymeric protein consisting of two major subunits, CssA and CssB, is produced by approximately 25-35% of ETEC worldwide. We could isolate only CS6-producing ETEC strains from two diarrheal patients and one asymptomatic carrier, but we could not detect CssA- or CssB-specific antibodies in the feces and blood of two patients convalescing from natural ETEC infection and of an asymptomatic carrier using western blotting. Therefore, in order to protect against infection with CS6-producing ETEC, protective levels of CS6 immunity should be incorporated in any future vaccines against ETEC.

  9. Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs by pike Esox lucius in the Yenisei River.

    PubMed

    Zotina, T A; Trofimova, E A; Dementyev, D V; Bolsunovsky, A Ya

    2016-05-01

    Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs in the muscles and bodies of the pike Esox lucius (aged two to seven years) inhabiting a section of the Yenisei River polluted with artificial radionuclides has been studied. The content of (137)Cs in muscles varied from 0.5 to 7.0 Bq/kg of fresh weight. The maximum content of the radionuclide has been found in juveniles. The content of (137)Cs in pike muscles and body decreased considerably with age. The high content of (137)Cs in the muscles of juveniles is probably a consequence of their higher intensity of feeding as compared to older individuals, which is due to the intense growth of juveniles.

  10. Near-Earth Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at CS3-Palmer Divide Station: 2016 October-December

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2017-04-01

    Lightcurves for 33 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies-Palmer Divide Station (CS3-PDS) from 2016 October through December were analyzed for rotation period and signs of satellites or tumbling.

  11. Impact of precursor purity on optical properties and radiation detection of CsI:Tl scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saengkaew, Phannee; Sanorpim, Sakuntam; Jitpukdee, Manit; Cheewajaroen, Kulthawat; Yenchai, Chadet; Thong-aram, Decho; Yordsri, Visittapong; Thanachayanont, Chanchana; Nuntawong, Noppadon

    2016-08-01

    Cesium iodide doped with thallium (CsI:Tl) crystals was grown to develop the gamma-ray detectors by using low-cost raw materials. Effect of impurities on optical properties and radiation detection performance was investigated. By a modified homemade Bridgman-Stockbarger technique, CsI:Tl samples were grown in two levels of CsI and TlI reactant materials, i.e., having as a very high purity of 99.999 % and a high purity of 99.9 %. XRD measurements indicate CsI:Tl crystals having a good quality with a dominant (110) plane. Having a cubic structure, a lattice constant of CsI crystals of 0.4574 nm and a crystallite size of 43.539 nm were obtained. From the lower-purity raw materials, calcite was found in an orange crystal with a lattice constant of 0.4560 nm and a crystallite size of 43.089 nm. By PL measurements, the optical properties of the CsI:Tl crystals were analyzed. ~540-nm-wavelength PL peak was observed from the colorless high-purity crystal, and ~600-nm-wavelength PL peak was observed from the orange crystal. The brighter PL emission was obtained from the orange crystals suggesting impurities. CsI:Tl surface morphology by SEM exhibited a smooth surface with some parallel crystal facets. For electrical properties of high-quality CsI:Tl crystals, the electrical resistances were 230 ± 16 MΩ in cross-sectional direction and 714 ± 136 MΩ in vertical direction with respect to more homogeneous crystal quality in cross-sectional direction than that in vertical direction. TEM measurement was applied to evaluate the microstructure of colorless CsI:Tl crystal with different patterns of a cubic structure. Both CsI:Tl crystals show good efficiencies and good resolutions. Maintaining the same electronic conditions and amplifications, the colorless CsI:Tl scintillators represented a higher detection efficiency at 122 keV of Co-57 of 78.4 % and the energy resolution of 23.3 % compared to the detection efficiency of 75.9 % and the energy resolution of 34.6 % of the orange

  12. The calculation of some gamma shielding parameters for semiconductor CsPbBr3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oto, Berna; Gulebaglan, Sinem Erden; Kanberoglu, Gulsah Saydan

    2017-02-01

    Recently, researchers produced perovskites structures used in optoelectronic devices as substrates, sensors. CsPbBr3 crystal is found in the cubic perovskite structure and its space group is Pm-3m. CsPbBr3 is a developing material for detection of X- and γ-ray radiations and the knowledge of the attenuation parameters of CsPbBr3 crystal is important. In this study, some photon shielding parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μρ), effective atomic number (Zeff) and electron density (Nel) have been investigated for CsPbBr3 compound. The theoretical values of μρ have been calculated in the energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV using WinXCom computer code and these values have been used in order to calculate the values of Zeff and Nel in the same energy range.

  13. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the COS and CS2 emissions from temperature forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Steudler, Paul A.

    1989-11-01

    The net fluxes of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and CS2 to the atmosphere from nitrogen amended and unamended deciduous and coniferous forest soils were measured during the spring of 1986. It was found that emissions of these gases from acidic forest soils were substantially increased after nitrogen fertilization. The total (COS + CS2) emissions were increased by nearly a factor of three in the hardwood stand and were more than doubled in the pine stand. Furthermore, vegetation type appeared to have an influence on which was the dominant sulfur gas released from the forest soils. The added nitrogen caused a dramatic increase in COS emissions from the hardwood stand (a factor of 3 increase), while CS2 emissions from this site were not affected. The opposite response was observed in the pine stand; that is, the nitrogen fertilization had no effect on COS emissions, but did stimulate CS2 emissions (a factor of more than 9 increase).

  14. Evaluation of the Stratus CS fluorometer for the determination of plasma myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Couck, P; Claeys, R; Vanderstraeten, E; Gorus, F K

    2005-01-01

    Circulating myoglobin is recognized as an early and sensitive marker of acute coronary diseases. Long turnaround time of myoglobin assays jeopardize their clinical utility. We evaluated the analytical performance of the Stratus CS fluorometric enzyme immunoassay based on dendrimer technology, and claimed to achieve a fast and reliable determination of plasma myoglobin concentrations. Precision complied with the recommended analytical performance criteria. Method comparison and recovery experiments indicated, that despite good between-method correlations, the Stratus CS method overestimated myoglobin concentrations in comparison with values obtained on Cobas Integra 400 and BN A. However, since the manufacturers' cut-off for elevated plasma myoglobin levels was higher for Stratus CS than for other techniques, few discrepant results were observed between methods. Elevated levels of hemoglobin, triglycerides and rheumatoid factors did not interfere in the Stratus CS method but hyperbilirubinemia caused a positive difference.

  15. High pressure infrared spectroscopy study on C60∗CS2 solvates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Mingrun; Zhou, Miao; Yao, Mingguang; Ge, Peng; Chen, Shuanglong; Yang, Xigui; Liu, Ran; Liu, Bo; Cui, Tian; Sundqvist, Bertil; Liu, Bingbing

    2017-02-01

    High pressure IR study has been carried out on C60∗CS2 solvates up to 34.8 GPa. It is found that the intercalated CS2 molecules significantly affect the transformations of C60 molecules under pressure. As a probe, the intercalated CS2 molecules can well detect the orientational ordering transition and deformation of C60 molecules under pressure. The chemical stability of CS2 molecules under pressure is also dramatically enhanced due to the spacial shielding effet from C60 molecules around in the solvated crystal. These results provide new insight into the effect of interactions between intercalants and fullerenes on the transformations in fullerene solvates under pressure.

  16. Photoemission study of the Cs$z.urule;GaP(110) interface at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassé, Th.; Paggel, J.; Neuhold, G.; Theis, W.; Horn, K.

    1994-04-01

    The formation of the Cs⧸GaP(110) interface at low temperature has been studied using core and valence level photoemission. It is found that a nonmetallic first adsorption layer is followed by a transition to a metallic film. Valence level spectra show that Cs induces a new peak above the valence band maximum, which from the appearance of the core level spectra is assigned to adsorbate-substrate charge transfer. At higher coverages an intermediate species is identified on the basis of Cs 5p core level spectra. The metallic layer of Cs is characterised by metallic surface and bulk core level emission, the occurrence of plasmon satellites, and the emergence of a metallic Fermi edge. The relative separation of the different Cs core level line contributions are analysed through a Born-Haber cycle and qualitative arguments based on final state screening.

  17. Comparison of the soluble products from radiolysis and photolysis of CS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, F.; Heymann, D.

    2001-05-01

    Soluble products from the radiolysis of CS2 with gamma variable rays from 60Co, include elemental sulfur and CmSn compounds. These compounds were essentially the same as those that had already been reported for the UV photolysis of CS2. The amount of sulfur formed was proportional to the irradiation dose. The radiolysis also formed a dark colored, insoluble polymer in amounts proportional to the irradiation dose. The soluble CmSn molecules found in this work were most likely due to `aborted polymerization'. Radiolysis and photolysis of CS2 may contribute important C-S compounds for the cosmochemistry of circumstellar and interstellar media as well as of comets and atmospheres of the giant planets.

  18. High spatial resolution observations of 137Cs in northern Britain and Ireland from airborne geophysical survey.

    PubMed

    Scheib, Cathy; Beamish, David

    2010-09-01

    This study reports the (137)Cs data derived from three regional and national scale High Resolution Airborne Resource and Environmental Surveys (HiRES) in northern Britain and Ireland. The detailed spatial resolution, combined with the large areas these surveys collectively cover, gives insight into large-scale deposition patterns and possible subsequent re-distribution of (137)Cs on a level that was previously not possible. The largest survey area considered covers the whole of Northern Ireland. All three data sets display some clustering of higher (137)Cs activities on high ground together with regional scale NNW-SSE and NW-SE banding features. We interpret these as representing a series of rainfall interceptions of the repeated passage of the Chernobyl plume. Our observations, obtained at 200 m flight line intervals, appear to provide significant detail in relation to existing knowledge of large scale along-wind deposition of (137)Cs.

  19. Inventory and vertical migration of ¹³⁷Cs in Spanish mainland soils.

    PubMed

    Legarda, F; Romero, L M; Herranz, M; Barrera, M; Idoeta, R; Valiño, F; Olondo, C; Caro, A

    2011-06-01

    In this study the total activity of (137)Cs deposited per unit area over the Spanish peninsular territory was analysed using a 150 × 150 km(2) mesh grid, with samples taken from 29 points. The deposited activities ranged between 251 and 6074 Bq/m(2). A linear relationship was obtained between these values and the mean annual rainfall at each sampling point which allowed a map to be drawn, using GIS software, which shows the distribution of total deposited (137)Cs activity across the Spanish mainland. At twelve of these sampling points the vertical migration profile of (137)Cs was obtained. These profiles are separated into two groups with different behaviour, one of which includes clay and loam soils and the other containing sandy soils. For both groups of profiles the parameters of the convective-diffusive model, which describes the vertical migration of (137)Cs in the soil, v (apparent convection velocity) and D (apparent diffusion coefficient) were calculated.

  20. A comparison of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in localized evergreen and deciduous plant species

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    A vegetation study at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES) near Glen Rose, Texas was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The CPSES is a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by Texas Utilities Electric of Dallas, Texas. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requires the CPSES to routinely sample broadleaf vegetation in place of milk samples. Few commercial dairies exist in the vicinity. Broadleaf tree species are scarce because the climate and local limestone geology have produced a dry rolling hill topography. An evergreen juniper is the dominant tree species. Few broadleaves during the winter season have hindered year-round sampling. This study compares the environmental {sup 137}Cs concentrations between broadleaf and evergreen foliage at CPSES. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations from each vegetation location were also compared to the foliage {sup 137}Cs concentrations. The study`s objective was to determine if the deciduous and evergreen vegetation {sup 137}Cs concentrations are statistically the same.

  1. Long-term retention of (137)Cs in three forest soil types with different soil properties.

    PubMed

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie; Pilátová, Helena; Rulík, Petr

    2016-07-01

    Current (137)Cs activity concentrations were studied at three localities in individual soil horizons of Stagnosol, Arenic Podzol and Haplic Cambisol soil units in soil blocks with dimensions of 20 × 20 × 40 cm situated below pine canopies (n = 3) and spruce canopies (n = 3), and below small canopy gaps, at least 15 × 15 m in area (n = 3 + 3), which have probably endured since 1986. The main zone of (137)Cs accumulation in all the localities was found to be in the organic horizons (H and F). No significant transport and accumulation of (137)Cs into illuvial soil horizons (Bm, Bs or Bhs, Bv and Bv/IIC) was found. The estimated current total (137)Cs activity concentrations in the soil blocks 40 cm in depth were only slightly higher below the coniferous canopy than they were below nearby canopy gaps. The inventory of (137)Cs in the soils was found to be in accordance with the estimated (137)Cs inputs from the Chernobyl fallout and from global fallout. The low amounts of (137)Cs found accumulated in the aboveground biomass (mosses, grasses, needles) did not substantially bias the studied radiocaesium balance in the soils. The vertical migration rate of (137)Cs in soils (cm/year) had a tendency to be higher below canopies than below canopy gaps and below pine canopies than below spruce canopies. We expected the current (137)Cs activity concentrations in the individual soil horizons to be related to the studied soil parameters: pH (H2O), pH (CaCl2), content of organic matter and mineral portion and portion of humic and fulvic acid contents (Q4/6). However, this was not confirmed. Similarly, we observed a weak tendency toward higher (137)Cs activity in soils below the canopy than in soils below canopy gaps. The available gaps used in our study may have been too small, and they may have been affected by an accumulation of litter and humus containing (137)Cs from the surrounding plots situated below neighbouring canopies.

  2. Behavior of 60Co and 134Cs in a Canadian Shield lake over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Bird, G A; Schwartz, W J; Motycka, M; Rosentreter, J

    1998-04-08

    Radionuclides were added to the anoxic hypolimnion of a Canadian Shield lake to simulate the nuclear fuel waste disposal scenario where radionuclides might enter the bottom waters of a lake. The radionuclides remained in the hypolimnion until lake mixing at autumn turnover after which 60Co was rapidly lost and 134Cs was slowly lost from the water. Only 0.4% of the 60Co and 0.6% of the 134Cs remained in the water at year 5. Highest concentrations occurred in periphyton and filter feeders, Holopedium gibberum and clams (Anodonata grandis grandis). From maximum annual concentrations in clam tissues, it was estimated that the availability of 60Co for uptake had a half-time (t1/2) of 835 days in the lake, whereas that for 134Cs was 780 days. Loss rate coefficients, k, for the radionuclides from taxa ranged from 0.0008 to 0.0043 day-1 (t1/2 = 161-866 days) for 60Co and from 0.0009 to 0.005 day-1 (t1/2 = 139-770 days) for 134Cs. Cobalt-60 concentrations in forage fish were low, whereas 134Cs concentrations increased over the first year or two, then slowly declined. On the basis of k values measured for forage fish, the biological half-time of 134Cs in forage fish ranged from 428 to 630 days. Maximum 134Cs concentrations in forage fish were higher following hypolimnetic addition than epilimnetic addition. Relatively high 134Cs concentrations in periphyton at year 5 point to the importance of benthic pathways in the recycling of contaminants to higher trophic levels. The presence of 134Cs in biota 5 years after the addition, long after concentrations were no longer detectable in surface waters, is evidence of the persistence of Cs in aquatic systems. The k values (or t1/2 values) for the loss of 60Co and 134Cs from water and their uptake and loss from biota can be used to establish parameter values for assessment models. The results demonstrate that assessment models should account for the release of radionuclides from sediment and their subsequent recycling in the food

  3. Entrapping of exohedral metallofullerenes in carbon nanotubes: (CsC60)n@SWNT nano-peapods.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-Yun; Sato, Yuta; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Okazaki, Toshiya; Kishi, Naoki; Sugai, Toshiki; Bandow, Shunji; Iijima, Sumio; Shinohara, Hisanori

    2005-12-28

    Exohedral C60-based metallofullerenes, CsC60, have been synthesized and successfully encapsulated into single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in high yield by reducing C60 molecules into anions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images and in situ electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) indicate that Cs atoms and C60 molecules align within SWNTs as CsC60 exohedral metallofullerenes, and that the formal charge state of encaged CsC60 is expressed as Cs+1C60-1. The present peapods with the exohedral metallofullerenes provide a new insight and the possibility to fine-tune the electronic and transport properties of carbon nanotubes.

  4. AFCF and clinoptilolite use in reduction of (137)Cs deposition in several days' contaminated broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, B; Vitorovic, G; Vitorovic, D; Dakovic, A; Stojanovic, M

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the binding efficiency of AFCF and clinoptilolite, mixed to the feed and administered orally using gastric tube to chronically (137)Cs alimentary contaminated broiler chicks. Seventy-five male Hybro broiler chicks, between 35 and 47 days of age were divided into five groups (15 birds per group) reared in cages (five birds in a cage) and fed a standard diet. Every day during 13 days of the experimental period all chicks received orally 1 ml CsCl water solution with activity of 1310 Bq ml(-1)(137)Cs (gastric tube). Group 1 was the control group and received no binders. The experimental groups received the binders. Group 2 received 0.2 g of AFCF in the form of water solution (gastric tube); group 3 received 0.2% AFCF in the feed; group 4 received 2g clinoptilolite in the form of water suspension (gastric tube) and group 5 received 2% clinoptilolite in the feed. Five chicks from each group were sacrificed on days 4, 10 and 13 of the experimental period. Using gamma spectrometric methods specific activity of (137)Cs was determined in the samples of breast meat, liver and gizzard. The results obtained showed that administering binders to the chronically contaminated broiler chicks significantly (p<0.01) reduced (137)Cs transfer and deposition in breast meat, liver and gizzard. Decreasing deposition of (137)Cs in breast meat and internal organs increased with time of contamination and binders' administration. With AFCF as a cesium binder, on day 13 of measuring the (137)Cs activity in breast meat was 80-83% lower than that in the control group, 89% in liver and 83-84% in gizzard. Natural clinoptilolite demonstrated lower binding efficiency. On day 13 of measuring the (137)Cs activity in breast meat was 53-69% lower than that in the control group, 67-60% in liver and 59-71% in gizzard.

  5. CS-10 Verification Survey at Former McClellan AFB, Sacramento, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-26

    assessment/verification survey from 20-22 Feb 2013 at site CS- 10 on former McClellan AFB, CA. Radium -226 was the sole radionuclide of concern. Cabrera...Aerospace Medicine (USAFSAM), former McClellan AFB, radium -226, verification survey, final status survey, independent radiological assessment 16...independent radiological assessment/verification survey from 20-22 Feb 2013 at site CS-10 on former McClellan AFB, CA. Radium -226 (Ra-226) was the sole

  6. TLR and NKG2D Signaling Pathways Mediate CS-Induced Pulmonary Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Wortham, Brian W.; Eppert, Bryan L.; Flury, Jennifer L.; Morgado Garcia, Sara; Borchers, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) can have deleterious effects on lung epithelial cells including cell death and the initiation of inflammatory responses. CS-induced cell injury can elaborate cell surface signals and cellular byproducts that stimulate immune system surveillance. Our previous work has shown that the expression of ligands for the cytotoxic lymphocyte activating receptor NKG2D is enhanced in patients with COPD and that the induction of these ligands in a mouse model can replicate COPD pathologies. Here, we extend these findings to demonstrate a role for the NKG2D receptor in CS-induced pathophysiology and provide evidence linking nucleic acid-sensing endosomal toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling to COPD pathology through NKG2D activation. Specifically, we show that mice deficient in NKG2D exhibit attenuated pulmonary inflammation and airspace enlargement in a model of CS-induced emphysema. Additionally, we show that CS exposure induces the release of free nucleic acids in the bronchoalveolar lavage and that direct exposure of mouse lung epithelial cells to cigarette smoke extract similarly induces functional nucleic acids as assessed by TLR3, 7, and 9 reporter cell lines. We demonstrate that exposure of mouse lung epithelial cells to TLR ligands stimulates the surface expression of RAET1, a ligand for NKG2D, and that mice deficient in TLR3/7/9 receptor signaling do not exhibit CS-induced NK cell hyperresponsiveness and airspace enlargement. The findings indicate that CS-induced airway injury stimulates TLR signaling by endogenous nucleic acids leading to elevated NKG2D ligand expression. Activation of these pathways plays a major role in the altered NK cell function, pulmonary inflammation and remodeling related to long-term CS exposure. PMID:24130907

  7. Systematical Investigations of Cs - 137 Concentration in Soils in Bansko - Razlog Region

    SciTech Connect

    Kostov, L. K.; Mladenov, Ml. I.; Protochristov, Ch. N.; Stoyanov, Ch. P.; Kobilarov, R. G.; Kostova, L. G.

    2007-04-23

    Systematical investigations of Cs-137 concentration in soil in Bansko - Razlog region have been performed for the first time on a total area of about 40 km2. By means of high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy the radio-nuclide content of soil samples has been determined. The Cs-137 deposition density following the Chernobyl accident has been estimated and compared with results obtained in other countries. The additional dose rate caused by this fallout has been estimated, too.

  8. Plutonium and 137Cs in surface water of the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Aoyama, M; Fukasawa, M; Kim, C S; Komura, K; Povinec, P P; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2007-08-01

    The present plutonium and 137Cs concentrations in South Pacific Ocean surface waters were determined. The water samples were collected in the South Pacific mid-latitude region (32.5 degrees S) during the BEAGLE expedition conducted in 2003-04 by JAMSTEC. 239,240Pu concentrations in surface seawater of the South Pacific were in the range of 0.5 to 4.1 mBq m(-3), whereas 137Cs concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.7 Bq m(-3). The observed 239,240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in the South Pacific were almost of the same level as those in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. The surface 239,240Pu in the South Pacific subtropical gyre showed larger spatial variations than 137Cs, as it may be affected by physical and biogeochemical processes. The 239,240Pu/137Cs activity ratios, which reflect biogeochemical processes in seawater, were generally smaller than that observed in global fallout, except for the most eastern station. The 239,240Pu/137Cs ratios in the South Pacific tend to be higher than that in the North Pacific. The relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters such as salinity and nutrients were examined. The 137Cs concentrations in the western South Pacific (the Tasman Sea) and the eastern South Pacific were negatively correlated with the phosphate concentration, whereas there is no correlation between the 137Cs and nutrients concentrations in the South Pacific subtropical gyre. The mutual relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters are important for better understanding of transport processes of anthropogenic radionuclides and their fate in the South Pacific.

  9. Potential energy surface and rovibrational energy levels of the H2-CS van der Waals complex.

    PubMed

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Marinakis, Sarantos

    2012-12-21

    Owing to its large dipole, astrophysicists use carbon monosulfide (CS) as a tracer of molecular gas in the interstellar medium, often in regions where H(2) is the most abundant collider. Predictions of the rovibrational energy levels of the weakly bound complex CS-H(2) (not yet observed) and also of rate coefficients for rotational transitions of CS in collision with H(2) should help to interpret the observed spectra. This paper deals with the first goal, i.e., the calculation of the rovibrational energy levels. A new four-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface for the H(2)-CS complex is presented. Ab initio potential energy calculations were carried out at the coupled-cluster level with single and double excitations and a perturbative treatment of triple excitations, using a quadruple-zeta basis set and midbond functions. The potential energy surface was obtained by an analytic fit of the ab initio data. The equilibrium structure of the H(2)-CS complex is found to be linear with the carbon pointing toward H(2) at the intermolecular separation of 8.6 a(o). The corresponding well depth is -173 cm(-1). The potential was used to calculate the rovibrational energy levels of the para-H(2)-CS and ortho-H(2)-CS complexes. The present work provides the first theoretical predictions of these levels. The calculated dissociation energies are found to be 35.9 cm(-1) and 49.9 cm(-1), respectively, for the para and ortho complexes. The second virial coefficient for the H(2)-CS pair has also been calculated for a large range of temperature. These results could be used to assign future experimental spectra and to check the accuracy of the potential energy surface.

  10. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CS-023 (RO4908463), a novel parenteral carbapenem.

    PubMed

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Abe, Tomomi; Inoue, Harumi; Takenouchi, Takashi; Kitayama, Akiko; Yoshida, Tatsuhiko; Masuda, Nobuhisa; Sugihara, Chika; Kakuta, Masayo; Nakagawa, Miyuki; Shibayama, Takahiro; Matsushita, Yoko; Hirota, Takashi; Ohya, Satoshi; Utsui, Yukio; Fukuoka, Takashi; Kuwahara, Syogo

    2005-08-01

    CS-023 (RO4908463, formerly R-115685) is a novel 1beta-methylcarbapenem with 5-substituted pyrrolidin-3-ylthio groups, including an amidine moiety at the C-2 position. Its antibacterial activity was tested against 1,214 clinical isolates of 32 species and was compared with those of imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ampicillin, amikacin, and levofloxacin. CS-023 exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and -negative aerobes and anaerobes, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP), beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CS-023 showed the most potent activity among the compounds tested against P. aeruginosa and MRSA, with MICs at which 90% of isolates tested were inhibited of 4 microg/ml and 8 microg/ml, respectively. CS-023 was stable against hydrolysis by the beta-lactamases from Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris. CS-023 also showed potent activity against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. The in vivo efficacy of CS-023 was evaluated with a murine systemic infection model induced by 13 strains of gram-positive and -negative pathogens and a lung infection model induced by 2 strains of PRSP (serotypes 6 and 19). Against the systemic infections with PRSP, MRSA, and P. aeruginosa and the lung infections, the efficacy of CS-023 was comparable to those of imipenem/cilastatin and vancomycin (tested against lung infections only) and superior to those of meropenem, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime (tested against P. aeruginosa infections only). These results suggest that CS-023 has potential for the treatment of nosocomial bacterial infections by gram-positive and -negative pathogens, including MRSA and P. aeruginosa.

  11. Triple-Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry with a High-Efficiency Sample Introduction System for Ultratrace Determination of (135)Cs and (137)Cs in Environmental Samples at Femtogram Levels.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Cao, Liguo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-09-06

    High yield fission products, (135)Cs and (137)Cs, have entered the environment as a result of anthropogenic nuclear activities. Analytical methods for ultratrace measurement of (135)Cs and (137)Cs are required for environmental geochemical and nuclear forensics studies. Here we report a highly sensitive method combining a desolvation sample introduction system (APEX-Q) with triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (AEPX-ICPMS/MS) for the determination of (135)Cs and (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratio at femtogram levels. Using this system, we introduced only selected ions into the collision/reaction cell to react with N2O, significantly reducing the isobaric interferences ((135)Ba(+) and (137)Ba(+)) and polyatomic interferences ((95,97)Mo(40)Ar(+), (119)Sn(16)O(+), and (121)Sb(16)O(+)). Compared to the instrument setup of ICPMS/MS, the APEX-ICPMS/MS enables a 10-fold sensitivity increase. In addition, an effective chemical separation scheme consisting of ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) Cs-selective adsorption and two-stage ion-exchange chromatographic separation was developed to remove major matrix and interfering elements from environmental samples (10-40 g). This separation method showed high decontamination factors (10(4)-10(7)) for major matrix elements (Al, Ca, K, Mg, Na, and Si) and interfering elements (Ba, Mo, Sb, and Sn). The high sensitivity of APEX-ICPMS/MS and the effective removal sample matrix allowed reliable analysis of (135)Cs and (137)Cs with extremely low detection limits (0.002 pg mL(-1), corresponding to 0.006 Bq mL(-1) (137)Cs). The accuracy and applicability of the APEX-ICPMS/MS method was validated by analysis of seven standard reference materials (soils, sediment, and plants). For the first time, ultratrace determination of (135)Cs and (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratio at global fallout source environmental samples was achieved with the ICPMS technique.

  12. Models of molecular cloud cores. II - Multitransition study of CS-34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundy, L. G.; Evans, N. J., II; Snell, R. L.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Bally, J.

    1986-07-01

    The dense cores embedded in the M17, S140 and NGC 2024 molecular clouds are mapped in the J = 5-4, J = 3-2, and J = 2-1 transitions of CS-34, and these lines are found to be a factor of 3-4 weaker, and 25 percent narrower, than the CS lines mapped in these cores by Snell et al. (1984). The data are well fitted by spherical LGV models for the excitation, and the excellent correlation between the CS-34 and CS column densities corroborates the absence of a systematic increase in the gas density with decreasing core radius found by Snell et al. Though the CS/CS-34 column density ratio is 9-17, rather than the terrestrial value of 22.5, the column density relationship is linear. The data support of a clump model in which the column density distribution in the core is determined by the volume filling factor of clumps with high, fairly uniform gas density, and it is suggested that the dense gas in the data represents the dominant component of the core gas.

  13. Measurements of the ground-state polarizabilities of Cs, Rb, and K using atom interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoire, Maxwell D.; Hromada, Ivan; Holmgren, William F.; Trubko, Raisa; Cronin, Alexander D.

    2015-11-01

    We measured the ground-state static electric-dipole polarizabilities of Cs, Rb, and K atoms using a three-nanograting Mach-Zehnder atom beam interferometer. Our measurements provide benchmark tests for atomic structure calculations and thus test the underlying theory used to interpret atomic parity-nonconservation experiments. We measured αCs=4 π ɛ0×59.39 (9 ) Å3,αRb=4 π ɛ0×47.39 (8 ) Å3 , and αK=4 π ɛ0×42.93 (7 ) Å3 . In atomic units, these measurements are αCs=401.2 (7 ) ,αRb=320.1 (6 ) , and αK=290.0 (5 ) . We report ratios of polarizabilities αCs/αRb=1.2532 (10 ) ,αCs/αK=1.3834 (9 ) , and αRb/αK=1.1040 (9 ) with smaller fractional uncertainty because the systematic errors for individual measurements are largely correlated. Since Cs atom beams have short de Broglie wavelengths, we developed measurement methods that do not require resolved atom diffraction. Specifically, we used phase choppers to measure atomic beam velocity distributions, and we used electric field gradients to give the atom interference pattern a phase shift that depends on atomic polarizability.

  14. Rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS).

    PubMed

    Baker, Nancy A; Cook, James R; Redfern, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, and the concurrent validity of an observational instrument, the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS), which assesses stereotypical postures and movements associated with computer keyboard use. Three trained raters independently rated the video clips of 45 computer keyboard users to ascertain inter-rater reliability, and then re-rated a sub-sample of 15 video clips to ascertain intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing the ratings obtained using the K-PeCS to scores developed from a 3D motion analysis system. The overall K-PeCS had excellent reliability [inter-rater: intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC)=.90; intra-rater: ICC=.92]. Most individual items on the K-PeCS had from good to excellent reliability, although six items fell below ICC=.75. Those K-PeCS items that were assessed for concurrent validity compared favorably to the motion analysis data for all but two items. These results suggest that most items on the K-PeCS can be used to reliably document computer keyboarding style.

  15. A Hybrid Metaheuristic DE/CS Algorithm for UCAV Three-Dimension Path Planning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gaige; Guo, Lihong; Duan, Hong; Wang, Heqi; Liu, Luo; Shao, Mingzhen

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimension path planning for uninhabited combat air vehicle (UCAV) is a complicated high-dimension optimization problem, which primarily centralizes on optimizing the flight route considering the different kinds of constrains under complicated battle field environments. A new hybrid metaheuristic differential evolution (DE) and cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed to solve the UCAV three-dimension path planning problem. DE is applied to optimize the process of selecting cuckoos of the improved CS model during the process of cuckoo updating in nest. The cuckoos can act as an agent in searching the optimal UCAV path. And then, the UCAV can find the safe path by connecting the chosen nodes of the coordinates while avoiding the threat areas and costing minimum fuel. This new approach can accelerate the global convergence speed while preserving the strong robustness of the basic CS. The realization procedure for this hybrid metaheuristic approach DE/CS is also presented. In order to make the optimized UCAV path more feasible, the B-Spline curve is adopted for smoothing the path. To prove the performance of this proposed hybrid metaheuristic method, it is compared with basic CS algorithm. The experiment shows that the proposed approach is more effective and feasible in UCAV three-dimension path planning than the basic CS model. PMID:23193383

  16. Performance Enhancement of Organic Thin-Film Transistors Using Bathophenanthroline:Cs Electron Injection Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myunghwan; Kim, Jeongsoo; Son, Heegeun; Jang, Ji-Hyang; Yi, Moonsuk

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we fabricated an organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) with a bathophenanthroline (Bphen):Cs electron injection layer between an organic semiconductor (C60) and a metal electrode. We compared the electrical characteristics of OTFTs with and without Bphen:Cs insertion layer which depend on the insertion layer thickness. We found that the Bphen:Cs layer inserted between the active layer (C60) and the metal electrode played an important role in improving the electrical characteristics of the devices. When the OTFT with 5-Å-thick Bphen:Cs was compared with that without Bphen:Cs, the mobility and the output current were determined to increase from 0.029 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 4.32×10-7 A to 0.127 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 1.67×10-6 A, respectively. This improvement was attributed to the reduction in contact resistance between C60 and the Al electrode layer when a Bphen:Cs electron injection layer of optimum thickness was applied.

  17. Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hafiz, Moustafa Abdel; Maurice, Vincent; Chutani, Ravinder; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe; Boudot, Rodolphe; Guérandel, Stéphane; Clercq, Emeric de

    2015-05-14

    We report the realization and characterization using coherent population trapping (CPT) spectroscopy of an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-coated centimeter-scale Cs vapor cell. The dual-structure of the resonance lineshape, with presence of a narrow structure line at the top of a Doppler-broadened structure, is clearly observed. The linewidth of the narrow resonance is compared to the linewidth of an evacuated Cs cell and of a buffer gas Cs cell of similar size. The Cs-OTS adsorption energy is measured to be (0.42 ± 0.03) eV, leading to a clock frequency shift rate of 2.7 × 10{sup −9}/K in fractional unit. A hyperfine population lifetime, T{sub 1}, and a microwave coherence lifetime, T{sub 2}, of 1.6 and 0.5 ms are reported, corresponding to about 37 and 12 useful bounces, respectively. Atomic-motion induced Ramsey narrowing of dark resonances is observed in Cs-OTS cells by reducing the optical beam diameter. Ramsey CPT fringes are detected using a pulsed CPT interrogation scheme. Potential applications of the Cs-OTS cell to the development of a vapor cell atomic clock are discussed.

  18. Immobilization of Cs and Sr in aluminosilicate matrices derived from natural zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelletti, Piergiulio; Rapisardo, Gianmarco; de Gennaro, Bruno; Colella, Abner; Langella, Alessio; Graziano, Sossio Fabio; Bish, David Lee; de Gennaro, Maurizio

    2011-07-01

    Three Italian zeolitized volcanoclastic deposits with predominant phillipsite, chabazite or clinoptilolite were selected to investigate their attitude to form ceramized products of the Cs- and Sr-enriched forms and to evaluate the effectiveness of immobilization by means of leaching tests. The mineralogical evolution was carefully followed after thermal treatments at increasing temperatures (800 °C up to 1100 °C) which led to the crystallization of prevailing pollucite for Cs-exchanged phillipsite and chabazite and of a Sr-feldspar (about 35 wt.%) along with cristobalite and amorphous matter for all Sr-exchanged zeolites. Cs-enriched clinoptilolite at the same temperature was almost totally amorphous. Leaching tests confirm the substantial immobilization of the polluting cations in the ceramized materials with slight higher values only for the Cs-enriched clinoptilolite, mostly amorphous. Finally, calorimetric tests account for a hydrolysis process widely decreasing after thermal treatments at 1100 °C for phillipsite and chabazite, both Cs- and Sr-enriched, substantially similar for Sr-enriched clinoptilolite and definitely increased in the prevailing amorphous Cs-enriched clinoptilolite.

  19. Polarized emission from CsPbX3 perovskite quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Wu, Dan; Dong, Di; Chen, Wei; Hao, Junjie; Qin, Jing; Xu, Bing; Wang, Kai; Sun, Xiaowei

    2016-06-01

    Compared to organic/inorganic hybrid perovskites, full inorganic perovskite quantum dots (QDs) exhibit higher stability. In this study, full inorganic CsPbX3 (X = Br, I and mixed halide systems Br/I) perovskite QDs have been synthesized and interestingly, these QDs showed highly polarized photoluminescence which is systematically studied for the first time. Furthermore, the polarization of CsPbI3 was as high as 0.36 in hexane and 0.40 as a film. The CsPbX3 perovskite QDs with high polarization properties indicate that they possess great potential for application in new generation displays with wide colour gamut and low power consumption.Compared to organic/inorganic hybrid perovskites, full inorganic perovskite quantum dots (QDs) exhibit higher stability. In this study, full inorganic CsPbX3 (X = Br, I and mixed halide systems Br/I) perovskite QDs have been synthesized and interestingly, these QDs showed highly polarized photoluminescence which is systematically studied for the first time. Furthermore, the polarization of CsPbI3 was as high as 0.36 in hexane and 0.40 as a film. The CsPbX3 perovskite QDs with high polarization properties indicate that they possess great potential for application in new generation displays with wide colour gamut and low power consumption. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01915c

  20. 137Cs distribution among annual rings of different tree species contaminated after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Soukhova, N V; Fesenko, S V; Klein, D; Spiridonov, S I; Sanzharova, N I; Badot, P M

    2003-01-01

    The distributions of 137Cs among annual rings of Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula at four experimental sites located in the most contaminated areas in the Russian territory after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 were studied. Trees of different ages were sampled from four forest sites with different tree compositions and soil properties. The data analysis shows that 137Cs is very mobile in wood and the 1986 rings do not show the highest contamination. The difference between pine and birch in the pattern of radial 137Cs distribution can be satisfactorily explained by the difference in radial ray composition. 137Cs radial distribution in the wood can be described as the sum of two exponential functions for both species. The function parameters are height, age and species dependent. The distribution of 137Cs in birch wood reveals much more pronounced dependence on site characteristics and/or the age of trees than pines. The data obtained can be used to assess 137Cs content in wood.

  1. Structural and electronic studies of metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs-C72

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yongqiang; Wang, Taishan; Wu, Jingyi; Feng, Lai; Xiang, Junfeng; Ma, Yihan; Zhang, Zhuxia; Jiang, Li; Shu, Chunying; Wang, Chunru

    2013-07-01

    We present a metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72, whose structure has been baffling for many years. A motional endohedral Sc2C2 cluster, special molecule geometry and electronic structure were found in Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72. The paramagnetic Sc2C2@Cs-C72 anion radical was successfully prepared by a chemical reduction method and hyperfine couplings in the ESR spectrum were observed.We present a metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72, whose structure has been baffling for many years. A motional endohedral Sc2C2 cluster, special molecule geometry and electronic structure were found in Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72. The paramagnetic Sc2C2@Cs-C72 anion radical was successfully prepared by a chemical reduction method and hyperfine couplings in the ESR spectrum were observed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, HPLC chromatogram, and DFT calculations. CCDC 917712. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01739g

  2. Sediment and (137)Cs behaviors in the Ogaki Dam Reservoir during a heavy rainfall event.

    PubMed

    Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akihiro; Yokuda, Satoru Thomas; Onishi, Yasuo

    2014-11-01

    We performed a simulation of sediment and (137)Cs behaviors in the Ogaki Dam Reservoir, one of the main irrigation reservoirs in the Fukushima prefecture, Japan, during a heavy rainfall event occurred in 2013. The one-dimensional river and reservoir simulation scheme TODAM, Time-dependent One-dimensional Degradation and Migration, was applied for calculating the time dependent migration of sediment and (137)Cs in dissolved and sediment-sorbed forms in the reservoir. Continuous observational data achieved in the upper rivers were used as the input boundary conditions for the simulation. The simulation results were compared with the continuous data achieved in the lower river and we confirmed the predicted values of sediment and (137)Cs in sediment-sorbed form at the exit of reservoir satisfactorily reproduced the observational data. We also performed sediment and (137)Cs behavioral simulation by changing the water level of the reservoir, because such a dam operation could control the quantities of sediment and (137)Cs discharge from and/or deposition in the reservoir. The simulation clarified that the reservoir played an important role to delay and buffer the movement of radioactive cesium in heavy rainfall events and the buffer effect of the reservoir depended on particle sizes of suspended sediment and the water level. It was also understood that silt deposition was the main source of the bed contamination (except for the initial fallout impact), while clay was the main carrier of (137)Cs to the lower river at a later stage of rainfall events.

  3. Distributions of (137)Cs and (210)Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Aleksiayenak, Yu V; Frontasyeva, M V; Florek, M; Sykora, I; Holy, K; Masarik, J; Brestakova, L; Jeskovsky, M; Steinnes, E; Faanhof, A; Ramatlhape, K I

    2013-03-01

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for (137)Cs and (210)Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of (137)Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). "Hot spots" were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of (137)Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of (137)Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the (210)Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of (210)Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from (210)Pb and (137)Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high (137)Cs exposure in the latter country.

  4. A clay permeable reactive barrier to remove Cs-137 from groundwater: Column experiments.

    PubMed

    De Pourcq, K; Ayora, C; García-Gutiérrez, M; Missana, T; Carrera, J

    2015-11-01

    Clay minerals are reputed sorbents for Cs-137 and can be used as a low-permeability material to prevent groundwater flow. Therefore, clay barriers are employed to seal Cs-137 polluted areas and nuclear waste repositories. This work is motivated by cases where groundwater flow cannot be impeded. A permeable and reactive barrier to retain Cs-137 was tested. The trapping mechanism is based on the sorption of cesium on illite-containing clay. The permeability of the reactive material is provided by mixing clay on a matrix of wood shavings. Column tests combined with reactive transport modeling were performed to check both reactivity and permeability. Hydraulic conductivity of the mixture (10(-4) m/s) was sufficient to ensure an adequate hydraulic performance of an eventual barrier excavated in most aquifers. A number of column experiments confirmed Cs retention under different flow rates and inflow solutions. A 1D reactive transport model based on a cation-exchange mechanism was built. It was calibrated with batch experiments for high concentrations of NH4+ and K+ (the main competitors of Cs in the exchange positions). The model predicted satisfactorily the results of the column experiments. Once validated, it was used to investigate the performance and duration of a 2 m thick barrier under different scenarios (flow, clay content, Cs-137 and K concentration).

  5. [137Cs profile distribution character and its implication for soil erosion on Karst slopes of northwest Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Feng, Teng; Chen, Hong-song; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Yun-peng; Wang, Ke-lin

    2011-03-01

    This paper studied the profile distribution characters of 137Cs and soil organic carbon (SOC) on the Karst slopes and in the fissures in typical peak-cluster depression in Northwest Guangxi, aimed to approach the applicability of 137Cs method on Karst slopes and the implication of 37Cs for the characteristics of slope soil erosion. In all test profiles, there was a significant correlation between 137Cs and SOC, indicating that both of them might have the same loss pathway. On the slopes under secondary forests, 137Cs mainly existed within the depth 0-24 cm. On the upper middle and middle slope sites, 137Cs had an exponential decrease with depth, indicating no or slight surface erosion; while on the foot slope site, the distribution pattern of 137Cs indicated severer erosion. On the slopes with cultivated lands, 137Cs distributed uniformly within the plough layer. In the upper middle and middle slopes profiles, 137Cs mainly existed in the depth around 15 cm and far less than the background value, indicating severe soil erosion; while in foot slope profiles, 137Cs was aggraded to the depth 45 cm. A discontinuous distribution of 137Cs in the profiles was detected on the foot slopes under secondary forests, on the upper middle and foot slopes of cultivated lands, and in the fissures, indicating that the soil particles on Karst slopes had a trend of losing with rainwater to the underground, but the loss quantity was negligible, compared with surface erosion.

  6. Factors controlling the spatiotemporal variation of (137)Cs in seabed sediment off the Fukushima coast: implications from numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Misumi, Kazuhiro; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Aoyama, Michio; Kobayashi, Takuya; Hirose, Katsumi

    2014-10-01

    We used numerical simulations to investigate major controls on spatiotemporal variations of (137)Cs activities in seabed sediments off the Fukushima coast during the first year after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The numerical model we used includes (137)Cs transfer between bottom water and sediment by adsorption and desorption, and radioactive decay. The model successfully reproduced major features of the observed spatiotemporal variations of (137)Cs activities in sediments. The spatial pattern of (137)Cs in sediments, which mainly reflected the history of (137)Cs activities in bottom water overlying the sediments and the sediment particle size distribution, became established during the first several months after the accident. The simulated temporal persistence of the (137)Cs activity in the sediments was due to adsorption of (137)Cs onto the sediment mineral fraction having a long desorption timescale of (137)Cs. The simulated total (137)Cs inventory in sediments integrated over the offshore area, where most of the monitoring stations were located, was on the order of 10(13) Bq; this value is consistent with a previous estimate based on observed data. Taking into account (137)Cs activities in sediments in both the coastal area and in the vicinity of the power plant, the simulated total inventory of (137)Cs in sediments off the Fukushima coast increased to a value on the order of 10(14) Bq.

  7. Electronic structure, photoemission spectra, and vacuum-ultraviolet optical spectra of CsPbCl3 and CsPbBr3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich, K.; Schäfer, W.; Schreiber, M.; Söchtig, J.; Trendel, G.; Treusch, J.; Grandke, T.; Stolz, H. J.

    1981-11-01

    Optical spectra of CsPbCl3 and CsPbBr3 have been measured in the range from 2 to 10 eV and have been combined with ultraviolet-photoemission-spectroscopy (UPS)-measurements at 21.1 and 40.8 eV. A quantitative band calculation is presented, which takes into account anion-anion interaction as well as electronic states of the Cs+ ion. The prominent features of earlier band models and measurements are reestablished through our measurements and calculations, namely that the valence band consists of anionic p functions and Pb 6s functions, the lowest conduction band being Pb 6p type, and the lowest gap occuring at the R point of the Brillouin zone. Inclusion of a further (Cs 6s-type) conduction band, however, is necessary to bring the calculated joint density of states into agreement with vacuum-ultraviolet optical spectra. The calculated densities of states of the valence bands are in quantitative agreement with those deduced from our UPS measurements.

  8. Photon Reabsorption in Mixed CsPbCl3:CsPbI3 Perovskite Nanocrystal Films for Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Cesium lead halide nanocrystals, CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), exhibit photoluminescence quantum efficiencies approaching 100% without the core–shell structures usually used in conventional semiconductor nanocrystals. These high photoluminescence efficiencies make these crystals ideal candidates for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, because of the large surface area to volume ratio, halogen exchange between perovskite nanocrystals of different compositions occurs rapidly, which is one of the limiting factors for white-light applications requiring a mixture of different crystal compositions to achieve a broad emission spectrum. Here, we use mixtures of chloride and iodide CsPbX3 (X = Cl, I) perovskite nanocrystals where anion exchange is significantly reduced. We investigate samples containing mixtures of perovskite nanocrystals with different compositions and study the resulting optical and electrical interactions. We report excitation transfer from CsPbCl3 to CsPbI3 in solution and within a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix via photon reabsorption, which also occurs in electrically excited crystals in bulk heterojunction LEDs. PMID:28316756

  9. Theoretical and experimental characterization of promising new scintillators: Eu2+ doped CsCaCl3 and CsCaI3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Mohit; Zhuravleva, M.; Melcher, C. L.

    2013-05-01

    An integrated approach was used to characterize Eu2+ doped CsCaCl3 and CsCaI3 crystals theoretically and experimentally. The temperature dependence of photoluminescence excitation, emission, and decay time was studied to better understand the energy transport and migration mechanism in these materials. The broadening and redshift of emission with increasing temperature was explained for both crystals by simultaneous quenching of emission and interaction of emission states with lattice vibration. The unusual increase of photoluminescence decay time with increasing temperature was ascribed to the presence of states with a lowered radiative rate slightly above the emitting states. The electronic and optical properties were also calculated theoretically with the help of Density functional theory in order to explain the Eu2+ emission properties in these crystals. The calculation explains the better scintillation light output and proportionality in CsCaI3. The promising cross-luminescent efficiency of these materials is also explained with the help of electronic band structure and dispersion of the partial density of the states of constituent atoms. Despite structural anisotropy, the calculated optical properties of CsCaI3 are nearly isotropic, and therefore the synthesis of optically transparent polycrystalline ceramics may be possible.

  10. Expression of a Cs(+)-resistant guard cell K+ channel confers Cs(+)-resistant, light-induced stomatal opening in transgenic arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Ichida, A M; Pei, Z M; Baizabal-Aguirre, V M; Turner, K J; Schroeder, J I

    1997-01-01

    Inward-rectifying K+ (K+in) channels in the guard cell plasma membrane have been suggested to function as a major pathway for K+ influx into guard cells during stomatal opening. When K+in channels were blocked with external Cs+ in wild-type Arabidopsis guard cells, light-induced stomatal opening was reduced. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated that expressed a mutant of the guard cell K+in channel, KAT1, which shows enhanced resistance to the Cs+ block. Stomata in these transgenic lines opened in the presence of external Cs+. Patch-clamp experiments with transgenic guard cells showed that inward K+(in) currents were blocked less by Cs+ than were K+ currents in controls. These data provide direct evidence that KAT1 functions as a plasma membrane K+ channel in vivo and that K+in channels constitute an important mechanism for light-induced stomatal opening. In addition, biophysical properties of K+in channels in guard cells indicate that components in addition to KAT1 may contribute to the formation of K+in channels in vivo. PMID:9368418

  11. 137Cs in recent tsunami deposits - a potential tracer of selective tsunami sediment entrainment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiske, M.; Bahlburg, H.; Suckow, A.

    2012-12-01

    The tsunami of 27 February, 2010 affected a 600 km long stretch of the central Chilean coastline. We documented the tsunami deposits 4 months after the event in 2010 and two years later in 2012. The broad coastal plain at La Trinchera was inundated ca. 430 m inland and up to 8 m above sea level. A ca. 10 cm thick layer of tsunami sand was deposited on top of marsh sediments. A comparison of this layer in 2010 and 2012 reveals a change in the relative mineral composition and related grain size. In 2010 the layer consisted of 90-93% heavy minerals, 1-4% quartz, 2-3% organics and 1-3% feldspar. In 2012 the relative abundances changed to 63-76% heavy minerals, 10-12% quartz, 16-20% organics and 5-7% feldspar, as a result of the erosion of parts of the finer grained heavy minerals. Furthermore, the thickness decreased to ca. 8 cm. The concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs was recorded using high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. Especially in the northern hemisphere, 137Cs is a tracer for radioactive fallout emitted mainly during nuclear tests in the 1950s to 1960s, peaking around 1963, or nuclear bombing and accidents. In contrast, Cs-concentrations in the southern hemisphere are about four times lower (<1 Bq/kg). Generally, the Cs-signal in terrestrial sediments is higher compared to marine deposits due to Cs-dilution in sea water. For recent (younger than ca. 60 years) onshore tsunami sediments, a mixed Cs-signal is expected because a tsunami can entrain sediments from different depositional environments and different stratigraphic age levels. At La Trinchera, gamma-spectrometry revealed a 137Cs-content of 0.5 Bq/kg for the lower ca. 5 cm of the tsunami layer. The 137Cs-concentration of the upper 5 cm was below the detection limit of 0.1 Bq/kg. Even though the tsunami layer appears to be structureless, the Cs-content may help to distinguish between two distinctive depositional units within the layer. We suggest that the lower part represents reworked

  12. Tira Sujanpur: An Adobe of Katoch Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shree, Venu; Sharma, Puneet

    2015-06-01

    Image of any ancient settlement can be interpreted through a continuous study of its Historical and Architectural developments. The best way to map this image is to analyze and explore old monuments, palaces and religious places of that city. This work is an attempt to showcase the glorious era of Art and Architecture which flourished during Katoch dynasty in north Himalayan region of India during 18th century. Being one of the most known examples of Katoch Dynasty Tira Sujanpur has been documented in detail in this paper. This documentation covers the detail study of relationship between townscape and public places. Architecture style of Katoch Dynasty, Splendid along the cluster of the buildings, Temples and palaces has also been giving due consideration in the paper.

  13. Source Fingerprinting in Adobe PDF Files

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    todo.com/tools/peepdf-pdf-analysis-tool [22] G. Delugré and F. Raynal, “ Origami - Sogeti ESEC lab,” Sogeti, 24 May 2011. [Online]. Available: http://esec...lab.sogeti.com/pages/ Origami 39 [23] D. Stevens, “Quickpost: About the physical and logical structure of PDF files | Didier Stevens,” 9

  14. Numerical Simulation Of Cratering Effects In Adobe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    test data of shock velocity and particle velocity for those materials. The data labeled “ Sesame ”, found within CTH sesame tables, was processed...a function of solid density, the “ Sesame ” and “Marsh” data were plotted as pressure versus density shown in Figure 5. 10 Equation 22

  15. Reassessment of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, and (134)Cs in the Coast off Japan Derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Castrillejo, Maxi; Casacuberta, Núria; Breier, Crystaline F; Pike, Steven M; Masqué, Pere; Buesseler, Ken O

    2016-01-05

    The years following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident, the distribution of (90)Sr in seawater in the coast off Japan has received limited attention. However, (90)Sr is a major contaminant in waters accumulated within the nuclear facility and in the storage tanks. Seawater samples collected off the FDNPP in September 2013 showed radioactive levels significantly higher than pre-Fukushima levels within 6 km off the FDNPP. These samples, with up to 8.9 ± 0.4 Bq·m(-3) for (90)Sr, 124 ± 3 Bq·m(-3) for (137)Cs, and 54 ± 1 Bq·m(-3) for (134)Cs, appear to be influenced by ongoing releases from the FDNPP, with a characteristic (137)Cs/(90)Sr activity ratio of 3.5 ± 0.2. Beach surface water and groundwater collected in Sendai Bay had (137)Cs concentrations of up to 43 ± 1 Bq·m(-3), while (90)Sr was close to pre-Fukushima levels (1-2 Bq·m(-3)). These samples appear to be influenced by freshwater inputs carrying a (137)Cs/(90)Sr activity ratio closer to that of the FDNPP fallout deposited on land in the spring of 2011. Ongoing inputs of (90)Sr from FDNPP releases would be on the order of 2.3-8.5 GBq·d(-1) in September 2013, likely exceeding river inputs by 2-3 orders of magnitude. These results strongly suggest that a continuous surveillance of artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean is still required.

  16. Oxygen glucose deprivation causes mitochondrial dysfunction in cultivated rat hippocampal slices: protective effects of CsA, its immunosuppressive congener [D-Ser](8)CsA, the novel non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin derivative Cs9, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK 801.

    PubMed

    Trumbeckaite, Sonata; Gizatullina, Zemfira; Arandarcikaite, Odeta; Röhnert, Peter; Vielhaber, Stefan; Malesevic, Miroslav; Fischer, Gunter; Seppet, Enn; Striggow, Frank; Gellerich, Frank Norbert

    2013-09-01

    We have introduced a sensitive method for studying oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced mitochondrial alterations in homogenates of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (slices) by high-resolution respirometry. Using this approach, we tested the neuroprotective potential of the novel non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin (CsA) derivative Cs9 in comparison with CsA, the immunosuppressive CsA analog [D-Ser](8)CsA, and MK 801, a N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. OGD/reperfusion reduced the glutamate/malate dependent (and protein-related) state 3 respiration to 30% of its value under control conditions. All of the above drugs reversed this effect, with an increase to >88% of the value for control slices not exposed to OGD. We conclude that Cs9, [D-Ser](8)CsA, and MK 801, despite their different modes of action, protect mitochondria from OGD-induced damage.

  17. Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The toxicity of intravenously administered {sup 137}CsCl in the beagle dog was investigated as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. The intravenous route of exposure was chosen for simplicity and accuracy because it was known that after intravenous injection, inhalation or ingestion, internally deposited {sup 137}CsCl is rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the body, exposing the whole body to {beta}-particle and {gamma} radiations. Fifty-four dogs were injected intravenously with {sup 137}Cs to provide one group of six dogs with mean initial body burdens of 141 MBq {sup 137}Cs/kg body mass and four groups of 12 dogs each with mean initial body burdens of 104, 72, 52 and 36 MBq {sup 137}Cs/kg. Twelve dogs were injected with isotonic saline as study controls. Because the number of study controls dogs was small, data from an additional 49 control dogs from other studies at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute that were performed over a similar span of years were also used. There was a significant, dose-dependent decrease in survival of the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs. Eleven {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs, including all six in the highest initial body burden group, died within 81 days after injection, primarily due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia. An additional 25 dogs had transient hematological dyscrasia but survived for long times. All {sup 137}Cs-injected male dogs had marked damage to the germinal epithelium of the testicular seminiferous tubules with azoospermia in the long-term survivors. benign and malignant neoplasms occurred in a variety of organs in {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs, rather than in a single target organ. When individual organs were considered, the incidence of malignant neoplasms was increased in the liver and in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs. 34 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of factors influencing accumulation of stable Sr and Cs in lake and coastal fish.

    PubMed

    Konovalenko, L; Bradshaw, C; Andersson, E; Lindqvist, D; Kautsky, U

    2016-08-01

    As a result of nuclear accidents and weapons tests, the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 are common contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Concentration ratios (CR) based on concentrations of stable Cs and Sr in biota and media are used for the estimation of transfer of their radioisotopes for radiation dose calculations in environmental and human safety assessments. Available element-specific CRs vary by over an order of magnitude for similar organisms, thus affecting the dose estimates proportionally. The variation could be reduced if they were based on a better understanding of the influence of the underlying data and how that affects accumulation and potential biomagnification of stable Cs and Sr in aquatic organisms. For fish, relationships have been identified between water concentrations of K and CR of Cs-137, and between water concentrations of Ca and CR of Sr-90. This has not been confirmed for stable Cs and Sr in European waters. In this study, we analysed an existing dataset for stable Cs and Sr, as well as K and Ca, in four Swedish lakes and three Baltic Sea coastal areas, in order to understand the behaviour of these elements and their radioisotopes in these ecosystems. We found significant seasonal variations in the water concentrations of Cs, Sr, K and Ca, and in electrical conductivity (EC), especially in the lakes. CR values based on measurements taken at single or few time points may, therefore, be inaccurate or introduce unnecessarily large variation into risk assessments. Instead, we recommend incorporating information about the underlying variation in water concentrations into the CR calculations, for example by using the variation of the mean. The inverse relationships between fish CR(Cs)-[K]water and fish CR(Sr)-[Ca]water, confirmed that stable Cs and Sr follow the same trends as their radioisotopes. Thus, they can be used as proxies when radioisotope data are lacking. EC was also strongly correlated with K and Ca concentrations in the water and

  19. Temporal variations of 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations and the 137Cs/90Sr activity ratio in marine brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria longissima, collected in coastal areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takami; Fujimoto, Ken; Kasai, Hiromi; Yamada, Haruya; Nishiuchi, Kou

    2010-05-01

    The anthropogenic radionuclides, 90Sr and 137Cs, were measured in two marine algal species, wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) and edible kelp (Laminaria longissima), collected in four coastal areas of Japan during 1998-2008. Although 90Sr and 137Cs could be detected at all sampling sites, the concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were at low levels and those in some samples were below the detection limit. These low concentrations and the small variation of both concentrations and the 137Cs/90Sr activity ratio indicate that the source of 90Sr and 137Cs detected in this study originated from the global fallout deposition following atmospheric nuclear-bomb tests in the past. There were no significant differences in both concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in wakame seaweed among three sampling sites. Although wakame seaweed is extensively distributed in southern and central Japan, it does not occur in northern areas and so edible kelp was monitored. The concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in edible kelp were significantly different from those in wakame seaweed in some sampling sites. These differences could be due to the difference in the concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in the surrounding seawater or the difference in species. The combined data with data from the previous report and the preexisting database showed that wakame seaweed incorporated 137Cs through a different pathway from that of 90Sr. The combined data also suggested that wakame seaweed responded differently to the source of 137Cs.

  20. Assessment of 137Cs and 90Sr Fluxes in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, Gennady; Usiagina, Irina; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Ilin, Gennadii

    2014-05-01

    On the basis of published and own data the annual balance of radionuclide income/outcome was assessed for 137Cs and 90Sr in the Barents Sea for the period from 1950s to the presnt. The scheme of the isotope balance calculation in the Barents Sea included the following processes:atmospheric fallout; river run-off; liquid radioactive wastes releases, income from the Norwegian and the White Seas; outflow to the adjacent areas through the Novaya Zemlya straits and the transects Svalbard-Franz Josef Land and Franz Josef Land-Novaya Zemlya; radioactive decay. According to the multiyear dynamics, the inflow of 137Cs and 90Sr to the Barents Sea was significantly preconditioned by currents from the Norwegian Sea. Three peaks of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope concentrations were registered for the surface waters on the western border of the Barents Sea. The first one was observed in the mid-1960s and was conditioned by testing of nuclear weapons. The increase of isotope concentrations in 1975 and 1980 was preconditioned by the discharge of atomic waste by the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Nowadays, after the sewage disposal plant was built, the annual discharge of nuclear waste from Sellafield plant is low. The Norwegian Sea was a major source of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope income into the Barents Sea for the period of 1960-2014. Currently, the transborder transfer of 90Sr and 137Cs from the Norwegian Sea into the Barents Sea constitutes about 99% of income for each element. Atmospheric precipitation had a major impact in the 1950-1960s after the testing of the nuclear weapons, and in 1986 after the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. In 1963, the atmospheric precipitation of 137Cs reached 1050 TBq; and that of 90Sr, 630 TBq. In 1986, a significant amount of 137Cs inflow (up to 1010 TBq/year) was registered. The 137Cs isotope income exceeded the 90Sr income in the 1960s-1980s, and equal amounts penetrated into the Barents Sea from the Norwegian Sea in the 1990s. Before

  1. Reactive transport modeling for Cs retention: from batch to field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pourcq, K.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.; García-Gutiérrez, M.; Missana, T.; Mingarro, M.

    2012-04-01

    A Permeable Reactive Barrier has been designed to treat 137Cs polluted groundwater. In order to check both reactivity and permeability, laboratory batch and column tests combined with reactive transport modeling have been performed. The trapping mechanism is based on the sorption of cesium mainly on illite-containing clays. Batch experiments were conducted to obtain the partition coefficients (Kd) of different clay samples in solutions with different potassium concentration. A clear correlation of Kd values with potassium content was observed. The results were modeled with a cation-exchange model. The permeability of the reactive material is provided by the dispersion of the clay on a matrix of wooden shavings. Constant head tests allowed obtaining permeability values. Several column experiments with different flow rates were conducted to confirm the 137Cs retention under different conditions. A blind 1D reactive transport model based on the cation-exchange model was able to predict reasonably well the results of column experiments. The reactive transport model, validated with the column experiments, was used to investigate the performance and duration of 1m thick barrier under different scenarios (flow, clay proportion, 137Cs and K concentration). As expected, the sensitivity tests proved that the retention capacity of dissolved 137Cs in groundwater depends linearly on the amount of clay used in the filling material. As well, the operation time increases linearly when decreasing the flow rate. Finally, the concentration of potassium in inflow water has a remarkable and non-linear influence in the retention of 137Cs. Very high concentrations of potassium are the greatest threat and can lead to the unfeasibility of a permeable reactive barrier. Due to the Cs-K competition, the barrier is comparatively more efficient to treat high concentrations of 137Cs. Up to now, preliminary results from a field scale experiment have confirmed the reactivity and permeability

  2. Structure determination and optical properties of CsSm(PO{sub 3}){sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Hassen, N.; Ferhi, M. Horchani-Naifer, K.; Férid, M.

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Projection of the CsSm(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} structure viewing along the a axis. - Highlights: • Single crystal of a new polyphosphate CsSm(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} has been synthesized. • The obtained compound has been characterized by several techniques. • The crystal structure of CsSm(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} has been resolved. • Spectroscopic properties of Sm{sup 3+} in CsSm(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} have been performed. - Abstract: A new alkali metal-rare earth polyphosphate CsSm(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} has been synthesized by flux method. The obtained compound has been characterized by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman scattering spectroscopies. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n with the following unit-cell parameters: a = 10.382(2), b = 8.978(6), c = 11.205(4) Å, β = 106.398(3)° and Z = 4. The structure of CsSm(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} is an infinite three-dimensional framework made up of double spiral (PO{sub 3}){sub n} chains linked with neighboring SmO{sub 8} and CsO{sub 11} polyhedra. Spectroscopic properties of Sm{sup 3+} in this new compound including excitation, emission, and kinetic measurement have been performed. The emission spectrum shows four transitions characteristics of Sm{sup 3+} in the orange–red region by excitation wavelength at 400 nm. The decay time curve of {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transition has been also registered and fitted to a single exponential function.

  3. Effects of chronic 137Cs ingestion on barrier properties of jejunal epithelium in rats.

    PubMed

    Dublineau, I; Grison, S; Grandcolas, L; Baudelin, C; Paquet, F; Voisin, P; Aigueperse, J; Gourmelon, P

    2007-05-15

    Environmental contamination by 137Cs is of particular public health interest because of the various sources of fallout originating from nuclear weapons, radiological source disruptions, and the Chernobyl disaster. This dispersion may lead to a chronic ecosystem contamination and subsequent ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to thus determine the impact of a chronic ingestion of low-dose 137Cs on small intestine functions in rats. The animals received 150 Bq per day in drinking water over 3 mo. At these environmental doses, 137Cs contamination did not modify the crypt and villus architecture. In addition, epithelial integrity was maintained following the chronic ingestion of 137Cs, as demonstrated by histological analyses (no breakdown of the surface mucosa) and electrical transepithelial parameters (no change in potential difference and tissue conductance). Furthermore, cesium contamination seemed to induce contradictory effects on the apoptosis pathway, with an increase in the gene expression of Fas/FasL and a decrease in the apoptotic cell number present in intestinal mucosa. No marked inflammation was observed following chronic ingestion of 137Cs, as indicated by neutrophil infiltration and gene expression of cytokines and chemokines. Results indicated no imbalance in the Th1/Th2 response induced by cesium at low doses. Finally, evaluation of the functionality of the jejunal epithelium in rats contaminated chronically with 137Cs did not demonstrate changes in the maximal response to carbachol, nor in the cholinergic sensitivity of rat jejunal epithelium. In conclusion, this study shows that chronic ingestion of 137Cs over 3 mo at postaccidental doses exerts few biological effects on the epithelium of rat jejunum with regard to morphology, inflammation status, apoptosis/proliferation processes, and secretory functions.

  4. Production and reactions of triplet CS: Matrix infrared and ultraviolet spectra of C{sub 2}S{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, R.B.; Hannachi, Y.; Andrews, L.

    1992-07-29

    Matrix infrared and visible-ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy and ab initio electronic structure calculations have been used to characterize the reaction products from a Tesla coil Ar/CS{sub 2} discharge. The discharge is an excellent source of CS, which reacts with other molecules to form the major C{sub 3}S{sub 2} product and the transient C{sub 2}S{sub 2} species. The spectra of discharged mixed isotopic samples Ar/{sup 12}CS{sub 2}/{sub 13}CS{sub 2} and Ar/C{sup 32}S{sub 2} exhibit triplet patterns in the CS antisymmetric stretching region, which unambiguously identifies the new C{sub 2}S{sub 2} molecule with two equivalent CS subgroups. The magnitudes of the {sup 12,13}C and {sup 32,34}S isotopic shifts further characterize the diatomic CS subgroup nature of C{sub 2}S{sub 2}. Another product contains two equivalent CS subgroups interacting with inequivalent S atom(s). The formation of C{sub 2}S{sub 2}({sup 3}{Sigma}) from the simple CS{sub 2} discharge requires triplet CS. Evidence was also obtained for other transient cumulene species. 32 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Cloning the PvP5CS gene from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and its expression patterns under abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Bao; Wang, Shu-Min; Jing, Rui-Lian; Mao, Xin-Guo

    2009-01-01

    A full-length cDNA denominated PvP5CS for Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of proline, was cloned from common bean using a candidate gene approach. PvP5CS contains an open reading frame encoding a 716 amino acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that PvP5CS shares 95.1% homology in nucleotide sequence and 93.2% identity in amino acid sequence with the mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia) P5CS. The expression patterns of PvP5CS in common bean treated with drought, cold (4 degrees C), and salt (200 mM NaCl) stresses were examined using real-time quantitative PCR. These abiotic stresses caused significant up-regulation of the expression of PvP5CS in leaves. The PvP5CS mRNA transcript increased to 2.5 times the control level after 4d drought stress. A rapid up-regulation of PvP5CS, to about 16.3 times the control at 2h post-treatment was observed under salt stress. A significant increase in PvP5CS expression (11.7-fold) was detected after 2h of cold stress. The peaks of proline accumulation appeared at 8d for drought, 24h for cold and 9h for salt stress, somewhat later than the peaks of PvP5CS expression. These results suggest that PvP5CS was a stress-inducible gene regulating the accumulation of proline in plants subjected to stress. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed that the PvP5CS protein was present in the nucleus and at the plasmalemma.

  6. Comparative expression analysis of senescence gene CsNAP and B-class floral development gene CsAP3 during different stages of flower development in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Wafai, Asrar H; Bukhari, Shoiab; Mokhdomi, Taseem A; Amin, Asif; Wani, Zubair; Hussaini, Amjad; Mir, Javid I; Qadri, Raies A

    2015-07-01

    Crocus sativus, a monocot triploid species belonging to the Iridaceae family, is cultivated for its red stigmatic lobes of the carpel that constitute saffron. Flower development has been extensively studied in different plants. Different floral developmental pathways have been deciphered in many plants. In Crocus sativus, flower is the most important part and understanding the pathway underlying the flower development can pave the way for new avenues to improve its productivity and quality. The combination of class A genes (including APETALA1; CsAP1 and APETALA2; CsAP2), class B genes (including APETALA3; CsAP3 and PISTILLATA; CsPI) and class C genes (including AGAMOUS; CsAG) that are active in each whorl, determines the identity of the organs that will later develop in that whorl. CsAP3 is a class B homeotic gene which promotes petal and stamen formation and has a very important role in flower development. It also activates other genes playing pivotal role in flower development. It has been earlier reported that CsAP3 gene has direct role in activation of CsNAP gene which promotes senescence in plants. Present work was focused on study of relative gene expression changes of CsAP3 and CsNAP gene during different stages of flower development. CsAP3 gene expression was found maximum during late-preanthesis stages of stigma development. Expression increases from stage 5 to stage 6 of flower development and then reduces again from stage 6 to stage 7. CsNAP gene had moderate expression during stage 3 to stage 4 transition and its expression increased abruptly from stage 6 to stage 7 of flower development. There is no direct concordance in the expression of CsAP3 and CsNAP gene expression in saffron. We may conclude that some other factor(s) may be responsible for initiation of CsNAP expression and CsAP3 gene may directly/indirectly be involved in regulating the factors responsible for CsNAP activation.

  7. Potential impact of prostate edema on the dosimetry of permanent seed implants using the new {sup 131}Cs (model CS-1) seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhe; Deng Jun; Roberts, Kenneth; Nath, Ravinder

    2006-04-15

    Our aim in this work was to study the potential dosimetric effect of prostate edema on the accuracy of conventional pre- and post-implant dosimetry for prostate seed implants using the newly introduced {sup 131}Cs seed, whose radioactive decay half-life ({approx}9.7 days) is directly comparable to the average edema resolution half-life ({approx}10 days) observed previously by Waterman et al. for {sup 125}I implants [Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 41, 1069-1077 (1998)]. A systematic calculation of the relative dosimetry effect of prostate edema on the {sup 131}Cs implant was performed by using an analytic solution obtained previously [Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 47, 1405-1419 (2000)]. It was found that conventional preimplant dosimetry always overestimates the true delivered dose as it ignores the temporary increase of the interseed distance caused by edema. The overestimation for {sup 131}Cs implants ranged from 1.2% (for a small edema with a magnitude of 10% and a half-life of 2 days) to approximately 45% (for larger degree edema with a magnitude of 100% and a half-life of 25 days). The magnitude of pre- and post-implant dosimetry error for {sup 131}Cs implants was found to be similar to that of {sup 103}Pd implants for typical edema characteristics (magnitude <100%, and half-life <25 days); both of which are worse compared to {sup 125}I implants. The preimplant dosimetry error for {sup 131}Cs implants cannot be compensated effectively without knowing the edema characteristics before the seed implantation. On the other hand, the error resulted from a conventional post-implant dosimetry can be minimized (to within {+-}6%) for {sup 131}Cs implants if the post-implant dosimetry is performed at 10{+-}2 days post seed implantation. This 'optimum' post-implant dosimetry time is shorter than those determined previously for the {sup 103}Pd and {sup 125}I implants at 16{+-}4 days and 6{+-}1 weeks, respectively.

  8. CsMAP34, a teleost MAP with dual role: A promoter of MASP-assisted complement activation and a regulator of immune cell activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mo-fei; Li, Jun; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    In teleost fish, the immune functions of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) associated protein (MAP) and MBL associated serine protease (MASP) are scarcely investigated. In the present study, we examined the biological properties both MAP (CsMAP34) and MASP (CsMASP1) molecules from tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). We found that CsMAP34 and CsMASP1 expressions occurred in nine different tissues and were upregulated by bacterial challenge. CsMAP34 protein was detected in blood, especially during bacterial infection. Recombinant CsMAP34 (rCsMAP34) bound C. semilaevis MBL (rCsBML) when the latter was activated by bacteria, while recombinant CsMASP1 (rCsMASP1) bound activated rCsBML only in the presence of rCsMAP34. rCsMAP34 stimulated the hemolytic and bactericidal activities of serum complement, whereas anti-CsMAP34 antibody blocked complement activities. Knockdown of CsMASP1 in C. semilaevis resulted in significant inhibition of complement activities. Furthermore, rCsMAP34 interacted directly with peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and enhanced the respiratory burst, acid phosphatase activity, chemotactic activity, and gene expression of PBL. These results indicate for the first time that a teleost MAP acts one hand as a regulator that promotes the lectin pathway of complement activation via its ability to recruit MBL to MASP, and other hand as a modulator of immune cell activity. PMID:28008939

  9. 137Cs re-sampling as a method for soil erosion assessment in Alpine grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bissig, Nicole; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Over the past decades, radioactive fallout 137Cs has been used as a tracer to provide information on soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, the method may produce relatively large uncertainties in Alpine grasslands. The latter difficulties are caused by a combination of (i) the heterogeneous distribution of atmospheric 137Cs Chernobyl fallout, (ii) the partly snow covered ground in Alpine areas during the fallout event in April 1986, which results in inhomogeneous 137Cs distribution during snow melt and (iii) uncertainties in finding undisturbed references sites in the geomorphological and anthropogenic highly active slopes of the Alps. To overcome these difficulties, our aim is to replace the classical 137Cs approach, where an undisturbed reference site is compared to erosional sites, with a re-sampling approach, where we re-sample sites which have already been measured for 137Cs inventories in the past. Thus, we use temporal instead of spatial reference. The study area is located in the Central Swiss Alps in the Urseren Valley. Potential erosional sites have been sampled in 2007 and re-sampled in 2012. Two different grassland types were investigated: hayfield (2 sites) and pasture without dwarf shrubs (3 sites). For each site, 4 to 9 sampling points have been defined, and at each point two soil samples have been collected. To reduce the random error, the two soil samples were bulked prior to gamma-analysis. 137Cs inventories of the two sampling years were calculated and used to assess recent soil erosion in the experimental sites. Our results show that within the 5 years measurable soil erosion and deposition processes have occurred within the sites, as indicated by the relevant difference between the 137Cs inventories of 2007 and 2012. 64% of the sites exhibit a decrease in 137Cs inventories, 20% of the sites an increase, and the remaining 16% no significant difference. In particular, hayfield sites have been affected by erosion processes, mostly due to

  10. Patterns of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in conjugated landscape systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, E.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of the study was to reveal spatial patterns of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in soils and plants of conjugated landscapes and to use 137Cs as a tracer for natural migration and accumulation processes in the environment. The studies were based on presumptions that: 1) the environment consisted of interrelated bio- and geochemical fields of hierarchical structure depending on the level and age of factors responsible for spatial distribution of chemical elements; 2)distribution of technogenic radionuclides in natural landscapes depended upon the location and type of the initial source and radionuclide involvement in natural pathways controlled by the state and mobility of the typomorphic elements and water migration. Case studies were undertaken in areas subjected to contamination after the Chernobyl accident and in the estuary zones of the Yenisey and Pechora rivers. First observations in the Chernobyl remote zone in 1987-1989 demonstrated relation between the dose rate, 137Cs, 134Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru, 125Sb in soil cover and the location of the measured plot in landscape toposequence. Later study of 137Cs and 90Sr concentration and speciation confirmed different patterns of their distribution dependent upon the radioisotope, soil features and vegetation cover corresponding to the local landscape and landuse structure. Certain patterns in distribution and migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils and local food chain were followed in private farms situated in different landscape position [1]. Detailed study of 137Cs activity in forested site with a pronounced relief 20 and 25 years after the Chernobyl accident showed its stable polycentric structure in soils, mosses and litter which was sensitive to meso- and micro-relief features [2]. Radionuclide contamination of the lower Yenisey and Pechora studied along meridian landscape transects proved both areas be subjected to global 137Cs pollution while the Yenisey floodplain received additional regional contamination

  11. Development of Composite Adsorbents for LLW Treatment and Their Adsorption Properties for Cs and Sr - 13127

    SciTech Connect

    Susa, Shunsuke; Mimura, Hitoshi; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Yasuo

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the composite adsorbents (KCoFC-NM (NM: natural mordenite), KCoFC-SG (SG: porous silica gel), AMP-SG and so on) were prepared by impregnation-precipitation methods. As for the distribution properties, the largest K{sub d,Cs} value of 3.8 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}/g was obtained for KCoFC-SG (Davi.) composite. KCoFC-SG (NH, MB5D) and T-KCFC also had relatively large K{sub d,Cs} values above 1.0 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}/g. The uptake rate of Cs{sup +} ions was examined by batch method. KCoFC-SG (NH, MB5D) and AMP-SG (Davi.) had relatively large uptake rate of Cs{sup +}, and the uptake attained equilibrium within 1 h. The maximum uptake capacity of Cs{sup +} ions was estimated to be above 0.5 mmol/g for KCoFC-NM and KCoFC-CP composites. KCoFC-X composite had a relatively large uptake capacity of Cs{sup +} ions (0.23 mmol/g > 0.17 mmol/g (T-KCFC)) and this composite also had a selectivity towards Sr{sup 2+} ions; KCoFC-X is effective adsorbent for both Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} ions. The largest value of K{sub d,Sr} was estimated to be 218 cm{sup 3}/g for titanic acid-PAN. Titanic acid-PAN had the largest uptake rate of Sr{sup 2+} ions, and the uptake attained equilibrium within 8 h. Adsorbability of other nuclides was further examined by batch method. All adsorbents had adsorbability for Rb{sup +} and RuNO{sup 3+} ions. KCoFC-SG (NH), KCoFC-CP and T-KCFC had higher selectivity towards Cs{sup +} than other adsorbents; these adsorbents had adsorbability to Cs{sup +} ions even in the presence of Ba{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} ions. The separation factor of K{sub d,Sr}/K{sub d,Ba} for titanic acid-PAN was about 1, indicating that the K{sub d,Sr} for titanic acid-PAN tends to decrease with Ba{sup 2+} concentration. As for the breakthrough properties, the largest 5 % breakpoint and 5 % breakthrough capacity of Cs{sup +} ions were estimated to be 47.1 cm{sup 3} and 0.07 mmol/g for the column of KCoFC-SG (NH), respectively. The order of 5 % breakthrough capacity

  12. Evaluation of Adsorption Properties for Cs and Sr Selective Adsorbents-13171

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, Tomonori; Wakabayashi, Syunya; Mimura, Hitoshi; Niibori, Yuichi; Kurosaki, Fumio; Matsukura, Minoru; Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Ishizaki, Eiji

    2013-07-01

    The development of effective treatment and disposal methods is very urgent and important subject. Tohoku University and UNION SHOWA have developed various selective adsorbents (zeolites, zeolite sheets and composites loaded with insoluble ferrocyanides) for the effective decontamination of radioactive Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} As for Cs{sup +} adsorption, CST, chabazite and insoluble ferrocyanides composites had relatively large distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) above 10{sup 3} cm{sup 3}/g and excellent adsorption kinetics in seawater. Even after high temperature calcination at 1,100 deg. C, cesium was still immobilized in the calcined products of Cs{sup +}-zeolites, suggesting high immobilization ability of zeolites for Cs{sup +}. As for Sr{sup 2+} adsorption, A and X zeolites had relatively large K{sub d} values around 10{sup 2} cm{sup 3}/g, and zeolite sheet (A zeolite) exhibited excellent adsorption kinetics in seawater. Considering the decontamination of radioactive Sr{sup 2+} in groundwater, the effects of Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} ions on the K{sub d} value of Sr{sup 2+} were further examined by batch method. The K{sub d} value of Sr{sup 2+} was almost independent of Mg{sup 2+} concentration up to 2,500 ppm, while gradually lowered in the presence of Ca{sup 2+} above 200 ppm, due to the differences in the ionic radius of hydrated ion. The Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} adsorption ability for KNiFC-A (composite of A zeolite loaded with insoluble ferrocyanides) was examined by batch method. Here the matrix of composite (A zeolite) and loaded ferrocyanides (KNiFC) have high selectivity towards Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +}, respectively. The K{sub d} values of Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} in seawater were estimated to be above 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 3} cm{sup 3}/g, respectively, indicating the effectiveness for the decontamination of both Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +}. The basic data on the Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} adsorption properties for selective adsorbents are effective for

  13. The effect of Cs-137 short-range spatial variability on soil after the Chernobyl disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, Vladimir; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Linnik, Vitaly

    2014-05-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of 1986, large areas of Russia were contaminated by 137Cs. Post-depositional redistribution of 137Cs fallout across the land surface resulting from mechanical, physical, chemical, and biological processes operating in the soil system and the grain size selectivity associated with soil erosion and sediment transport processes. Therefore of uppermost importance are data on evaluating 137Cs variability at short distances, obtained at the early period after the accident. Measurements of 137Cs deposit at the territory of Russia exposed to radioactive contamination were mainly conducted with the help of air-gamma survey, and were verified by soil sampling on test plots with size 10x10 m with control soil sampling using "envelope" method of fivefold soil sampling (1 sampling at the centre and 4 along the edges of the plot under study). Presented here are evaluation data of 137Cs contamination, obtained in the Bryansk, Yaroslav and Rostov regions in 1991. Test plots were selected at the distance of 50-100 m away from a road on matted areas with undisturbed soil structure. Test routes of sampling were made perpendicularly to directions crossing basic traces of radioactive contamination. Sampling measurements were carried out at Canberra and Ortec gamma spectrometers. Each of the 5 samples of the "envelope" was measured separately, soil mixing was not applied. 137Cs value for the Bryansk Region varied from 2,6 kBq/m2 to 2294 kBq/m2, at the territories of the Yaroslav and Rostov regions 137Cs value varied from 0,44 kBq/m2 to 5,1 kBq/m2 and 0,56 kBq/m2 to 22,2 kBq/m2, respectively. Statistical analysis of 137Cs deposit at different plots is a solid argumentation in favour of nonuniform distribution in various landscapes and at a different distance from the Chernobyl NPP. Such nonuniformity of 137Cs soil contamination in the limits of 10 m of the plot is most likely to be related to initial aerosol contamination nonuniformity at the moment of

  14. Bioconcentration of fallout sup 137 Cs by fungi and red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi)

    SciTech Connect

    Mihok, S.; Schwartz, B.; Wiewel, A.M. )

    1989-12-01

    Cesium-137 and 40K concentrations were measured in vegetation and in red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi) in southeastern Manitoba, Canada, following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Voles from wet coniferous habitats contained concentrations of {sup 137}Cs twenty- to fiftyfold higher than voles from deciduous habitats. Maximum {sup 137}Cs values were observed in autumn. Voles captured in a spruce bog at this time contained an average body burden of about 11 Bq. Concentrations in vegetation samples were similar to those found by other researchers. Overall, there was only minimal evidence of contamination attributable to Chernobyl in either vegetation or voles. The primary source of {sup 137}Cs in voles appeared to be dietary, particularly mushrooms that contained up to 74 Bq g-1 ash. Based on physiological constraints, mushrooms were the only plausible source of {sup 137}Cs in autumn diets. Elevated values at other times in coniferous areas may have been related to the consumption of epiphytic lichens. These findings suggest that fungi, or the animals that consume them, can serve as sensitive indicators of {sup 137}Cs contamination in the environment.

  15. Knockdown of Cs-Spook induces delayed larval molting in rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Muhammad Faisal; Li, Yao; Ge, Chang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Qiupu; Li, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Spook has essential roles in the biogenesis of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E). The function of spook in the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis remains unclear, prompting our hypothesis that it exerts actions similar to those reported for other insect species. Here we amplified the full-length transcript of spook (Cs-Spook) in SSB by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Cs-Spook has conserved P450 motifs such as Helix-C, Helix-I, Helix-K, and PERF motif (PxxFxPxRF). It was highly expressed in late instar larvae but less so in newly molted larvae. Cs-Spook was highly expressed in prothoracic glands. Cs-Spook was knocked down by dsRNA treatments. Compared with controls, the gene expression level was reduced to 9% at 24 h post injection (PI), 33% at 48 h PI, and 24% at 72 h PI. The ecdysteroid titer decreased significantly in the dsRNA-treated group (P < 0.05), resulting in delayed larval development. The delayed development in dsRNA-treatment group was rescued by treating with 20-E. Our work demonstrates that Cs-Spook participates in the biogenesis of 20-E and regulates the molt of SSB, as seen in other species.

  16. Flexible All-Inorganic Perovskite CsPbBr3 Nonvolatile Memory Device.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongjue; Lin, Qiqi; Zang, Zhigang; Wang, Ming; Wangyang, Peihua; Tang, Xiaosheng; Zhou, Miao; Hu, Wei

    2017-02-22

    All-inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, or I) is widely used in a variety of photoelectric devices such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, lasers, and photodetectors. However, studies to understand the flexible CsPbX3 electrical application are relatively scarce, mainly due to the limitations of the low-temperature fabricating process. In this study, all-inorganic perovskite CsPbBr3 films were successfully fabricated at 75 °C through a two-step method. The highly crystallized films were first employed as a resistive switching layer in the Al/CsPbBr3/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/PET structure for flexible nonvolatile memory application. The resistive switching operations and endurance performance demonstrated the as-prepared flexible resistive random access memory devices possess reproducible and reliable memory characteristics. Electrical reliability and mechanical stability of the nonvolatile device were further tested by the robust current-voltage curves under different bending angles and consecutive flexing cycles. Moreover, a model of the formation and rupture of filaments through the CsPbBr3 layer was proposed to explain the resistive switching effect. It is believed that this study will offer a new setting to understand and design all-inorganic perovskite materials for future stable flexible electronic devices.

  17. Monochromatic and electrochemically switchable electrochemiluminescence of perovskite CsPbBr3 nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Fang, Mingxiang; Zou, Guizheng; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Huaisheng

    2016-11-10

    Cubic-shaped perovskite CsPbBr3 nanocrystals (NCs) could be electrochemically injected with holes (or electrons) to produce several charged states under different oxidizing and reducing potentials, and then bring out electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of higher color purity than traditional ECL chemicals and metal chalcogenide NCs, in both annihilation and co-reactant routes. The difference of electrochemical gaps between varied hole and electron injecting potentials displayed little effect on the ECL spectrum and colour purity of CsPbBr3 NCs. All the excited states generated under different oxidizing and reducing potential couples in ECL of CsPbBr3 NCs were the same as those in photoluminescence, as all the ECL spectra were almost identical to the CsPbBr3 NCs' photoluminescence spectrum. Importantly, the ECL of CsPbBr3 NCs was electrochemically switchable and displayed an obvious "on/off" type feature by changing the sequence of hole injecting and electron injecting processes, as strong ECL could be obtained by injecting holes onto the electron injected NCs, while no or very weak ECL was obtained in the reversed way.

  18. Accuracy of post-bomb 137Cs and 14C in dating fluvial deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, L.L.; Webb, R.H.; Enzel, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of 137Cs and 14C for dating post-1950 alluvial deposits were evaluated for deposits from known floods on two rivers in Arizona. The presence of 137Cs reliably indicates that deposition occurred after intensive above-ground nuclear testing was initiated around 1950. There was a positive correlation between the measured level of 137Cs activity and the clay content of the sediments, although 137Cs was detected even in sandy flood sediments with low clay content. 137Cs is a valuable dating tool in arid environments where organic materials for 14C or tree-ring dating are scarce and observational records are limited. The 14C activity measured in different types of fine organic detritus yielded dates within 1 to 8 yr of a 1980 flood deposit, and the accuracy was species-dependent. However, undifferentiated mixtures of fine organic materials from several post-bomb deposits of various ages repeatedly yielded dates between 1958 and 1962, and detrital charcoal yielded a date range of 1676-1939. In semiarid environments, the residence time of most types of organic debris precludes accurate annual resolution of post-bomb 14C dates. ?? 1992.

  19. Orbital Orderings and Optical Conductivity in Cs2AgF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min-Ping; Qian, Yu-Min; Wang, Guang-Tao

    The Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion induced orbital order and optical-conductivity in Cs2AgF4 are investigated by first-principle calculations. Cs2AgF4 contains 4d9 Ag2+, similar to 3d9 Cu2+ of La2CuO4. Although Cs2AgF4 is an isoelectronic analogue of La2CuO4, their magnetisms are radically different: La2CuO4 is antiferromagnetism (AFM), while Cs2AgF4 is proposed to be ferromagnetism (FM) based on recent neutron scattering data. The great difference can be understood from the JT distortions in the AgF6 octahedron, which favors the formation of staggered orbital order of dz2-x2 and dz2-y2. Such orbital order favors FM state, according to Goodenough-Kanamori Rules. We find when the JT distortion is larger than 0.03, the ground state of Cs2AgF4 is AFM. This antiferromagnetism might induce superconductivity, just as La2CuO4. In order to confirm such orbital order of Ag, we present the calculated optical-conductivity, which could be examined by experiment.

  20. Vibrational properties of polymer and quenched CsC{60} phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvajol, J.-L.; Anglaret, E.; Chesnel, K.; Palpacuer, M.; Girard, A.; Moreac, A.; Ameline, J.-C.; Delugeard, Y.; Hennion, B.

    1998-06-01

    We report new results on the vibrational dynamics of polymer and quenched CSC{60} phases. Both the splitting and the structure of new activated lines of polymer CsC{60} are in agreement with the lowering of C{60} molecular symmetry from Ih to D{2h}. An inelastic neutron investigation on polymer and quenched CsC{60} is reported. It allows one to identify the vibrational signature of the low-temperature (T < 150 K) ordered monomer phase on quenched CsC{60}. Nous présentons un certain nombre de résultats originaux concernant la dynamique vibrationnelle de la phase polymère et des phases obtenues par trempe du CsC{60}. Les spectres infrarouge de la phase polymère sont interprétés dans le cadre d'un abaissement de la symétrie du monomère C{60} de Ih à D{2h}. Une étude par diffusion neutronique de la phase polymère et des phases obtenues par trempe a été réalisée. Elle a permis en particulier de déterminer la 'signature' vibrationnelle d'une phase ordonnée monomère à très basse température (T < 150 K) dans le CsC{60} trempé.

  1. Statistical analysis of content of Cs-137 in soils in Bansko-Razlog region

    SciTech Connect

    Kobilarov, R. G.

    2014-11-18

    Statistical analysis of the data set consisting of the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in soils in Bansko–Razlog region is carried out in order to establish the dependence of the deposition and the migration of {sup 137}Cs on the soil type. The descriptive statistics and the test of normality show that the data set have not normal distribution. Positively skewed distribution and possible outlying values of the activity of {sup 137}Cs in soils were observed. After reduction of the effects of outliers, the data set is divided into two parts, depending on the soil type. Test of normality of the two new data sets shows that they have a normal distribution. Ordinary kriging technique is used to characterize the spatial distribution of the activity of {sup 137}Cs over an area covering 40 km{sup 2} (whole Razlog valley). The result (a map of the spatial distribution of the activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs) can be used as a reference point for future studies on the assessment of radiological risk to the population and the erosion of soils in the study area.

  2. Bioaccumulation factor of {sup 137}Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-03-24

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  3. Leaching properties of Cs-134 from spent ion exchange resins solidified in cement-biochar matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laili, Zalina; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Yusof, Mohd Abd Wahab

    2016-11-01

    The leaching properties of Cs-134 from spent ion exchange resins solidified in cement-biochar matrix were investigated. The leaching test was conducted according to ANSI/ANS 16.1 method. The leachants used in this experiment were rainwater, groundwater and seawater. After each leach period, the activity of Cs-134 was measured using gamma spectrometry. Based on all the experimental data, the cumulative leach fraction and leachability index were calculated. The compressive strength test of the cement-biochar-spent resins matrices after 90 days of leaching test were also measured. The result showed that the release of Cs-134 from the cement-biochar-spent resins matrices in rainwater, groundwater and seawater were found lower than their control specimen (without biochar). The leachability indices of Cs-134 were found acceptable (i.e. 6) for solidified radioactive waste. It was also observed that the compressive strengths were increased after the leaching test. Thus, this study has shown that the presence of biochar in cement matrix may play a role in retained the Cs-134 in the waste form.

  4. The EDTA Amendment in Phytoextraction of (134)Cs From Soil by Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Roosmini, Dwina

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination with radiocaesium is a significant problem at any countries when a nuclear accident occurred. Recently, phytoextraction technique is developed to remediate the contaminated environment. However, the application is limited by the availability of the contaminant for root uptake. Therefore, a green house trial experiment of soil amendment with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been conducted to examine (134)Cs availability for root uptake. Two groups of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil. The soil in the first group was treated with EDTA amendment, while the other was not. Plant growth was observed gravimetrically and the (134)Cs concentration in soil as well as plants were determined using gamma spectrometry. The plant uptake capacity was determined as transfer factor (Fv), and the Fv values of 0.22 ± 0.0786 and 0.12 ± 0.039 were obtained for the soil treated with and without EDTA amendment, respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the plant cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil both with and without EDTA amendment was low. The EDTA amendment to the soil seems to enhance the (134)Cs availability for root uptake of Indian mustard and can still be considered to assist the field phytoremediation of contaminated soil.

  5. CS-MINER: A Tool for Association Mining in Binding-Database.

    PubMed

    Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Valadkhani, Abolfazl; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi

    2015-04-01

    This paper introduces the algorithms, implementation strategies, features, and applications of CS-MINER, a tool for visualization and analysis of drug-like chemical space. The CS-MINER is the abstract abbreviation for Chemical Space Miner and correlates the medicinal target space and chemical space, in a systematic way. The database in this software consists of a large collection of drug-like molecules. To prepare this database, a large number of molecules for 110 important biological targets were collected from Binding-DB. A total of 1497 physicochemical properties were calculated for each molecule. The CS-MINER uses the discriminant analysis techniques for tracing the collected data and finally separates the molecules based on their therapeutic targets and activities. The developed multivariate classifiers can be used for ligand-based virtual screening of more than 0.5 million random molecules of PubChem and ZINC databases. In order to validate the models, selected subspaces in CS-MINER were compared with DrugBank molecules. At the end of the analysis, the software provides an interactive environment for visualization of the selected chemical subspaces in the form of 2- and 3-dimensional plots. In general, CS-MINER is a tool for comparing the relative position of active biosimilar molecules in chemical space and is freely available at www.csminer.com.

  6. Removal of 137Cs from Dissolved Hanford Tank Saltcake by Treatment with IE-911

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M. ); Sinkov, Serguei I. ); Levitskaia, Tatiana G. )

    2003-04-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office plans to accelerate the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Testing new technology for the accelerated cleanup will require dissolved saltcake from single-shell tanks. However, the 137Cs will need to be removed from the saltcake to alleviate radiation hazards. A saltcake composite constructed from archived samples from Hanford Single Shell Tanks 241-S-101, 241-S-109, 241-S-110, 241-S-111, 241-U-106, and 241-U-109 was dissolved in water, adjusted to 5 M Na, and transferred from the 222-S building to the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL). At the RPL, the approximately 5.5 liters of solution was passed through a 0.2-micron polyethersulfone filter, collected, and homogenized. The filtered solution then was passed through an ion exchange column containing approximately 150 mL IONSIV IE-911, an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate available from UOP, at approximately 200 mL/hour in a continuous operation until all of the feed solution had been run through the column. An analysis of the 137Cs concentrations in the initial feed solution and combined column effluent indicates that> 99.999 percent of the Cs in the feed solution was removed by this operation. This report describes the Cs-depletion operations together with a partial analysis of the as-received solution and a more extensive characterization of the Cs-depleted solution.

  7. Rotational relaxation of CS by collision with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise

    2013-11-28

    Quantum mechanical investigation of the rotationally inelastic collisions of CS with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules is reported. The new global four-dimensional potential energy surface presented in our recent work is used. Close coupling scattering calculations are performed in the rigid rotor approximation for ortho- and para-H{sub 2} colliding with CS in the j = 0–15 rotational levels and for collision energies ranging from 10{sup −2} to 10{sup 3} cm{sup −1}. The cross sections and rate coefficients for selected rotational transitions of CS are compared with the ones previously reported for the collision of CS with He. The largest discrepancies are observed at low collision energy, below 1 cm{sup −1}. Above 10 cm{sup −1}, the approximation using the square root of the relative mass of the colliders to calculate the cross sections between a molecule and H{sub 2} from the data available with {sup 4}He is found to be a good qualitative approximation. The rate coefficients calculated with the electron gas model for the He-CS system show more discrepancy with our accurate results. However, scaling up these rates by a factor of 2 gives a qualitative agreement.

  8. Prussian Blue decorporation of {sup 137}Cs in beagles of different ages

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, D.R.; Lundgren, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    A 6-wk study was conducted using immature (4.7 mo), young adult (2.4 y), and aged (13.5 y) male beagles to determine the modifying effect of age on the effectiveness of Prussian Blue decorporation therapy for the removal of injected {sup 137}Cs. Whole-body clearance rates for injected {sup 137}Cs decreased with increasing age in the dogs. Treatment with Prussian Blue changed the ratio of fecal to urinary {sup 137}Cs excretion from 0.8 in untreated dogs to 2.2 in treated animals. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations in tissues of untreated and Prussian Blue-treated dogs at the end of the 6-wk study were similar, with the greatest concentrations in the skeletal muscle tissue, spleen, and kidneys. There was a lower concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the livers of the treated dogs. The reductions in the average total whole-body doses resulting from Prussian Blue treatment during the course of this study were 51% in the immature, 31% in the young adult, and 38% in the aged dogs. Because of the differences in the intake of Prussian Blue by the dogs in the different groups relative to their body weight, it is unclear as to the relative effectiveness of Prussian Blue in dogs of different ages. 33 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  9. CsPbBr3 nanocrystal saturable absorber for mode-locking ytterbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Hu, Zhiping; Li, Yue; Xu, Jianqiu; Tang, Xiaosheng; Tang, Yulong

    2016-06-01

    Cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) have been reported as efficient light-harvesting and light-emitting semiconductor materials, but their nonlinear optical properties have been seldom touched upon. In this paper, we prepare layered CsPbBr3 nanocrystal films and characterize their physical properties. Broadband linear absorption from ˜0.8 to over 2.2 μm and nonlinear optical absorption at the 1-μm wavelength region are measured. The CsPbBr3 saturable absorber (SA), manufactured by drop-casting of colloidal CsPbBr3 liquid solution on a gold mirror, shows modulation depth and saturation intensity of 13.1% and 10.7 MW/cm2, respectively. With this SA, mode-locking operation of a polarization-maintained ytterbium fiber laser produces single pulses with duration of ˜216 ps, maximum average output power of 10.5 mW, and the laser spectrum is centered at ˜1076 nm. This work shows that CsPbBr3 films can be efficient SA candidates for fiber lasers and also have great potential to become broadband linear and nonlinear optical materials for photonics and optoelectronics.

  10. Bioaccumulation factor of 137Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-03-01

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  11. Preparation and Antitumor Activity of CS5931, A Novel Polypeptide from Sea Squirt Ciona Savignyi

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoshuang; Xu, Huanli; Li, Bo; Wang, Feng; Chen, Xiaoliang; Kong, Dexin; Lin, Xiukun

    2016-01-01

    CS5931 is a novel anticancer agent isolated from the sea squirt Ciona savignyi. However, its content in the species is very low, and developing a novel approach for production of the polypeptide is promising. In the present study, we expressed and purified the polypeptide from E. coli, and the fermentation conditions were studied using response surface methodology. The yield of CS5931 was increased from 2.0 to 7.5 mg/L. The denaturing and renaturation conditions were also studied. Using the optimized renaturation condition, the anticancer activity of refolding CS5931 was increased significantly; the value of IC50 was decreased from 23.2 to 11.6 μM. In vivo study using xenograft nude mice bearing HCT116 cancer cells revealed that CS5931 was able to inhibit the growth of tumor significantly. The study provides a useful approach for obtaining enough amount of CS5931 for further study. This study is also important for developing the polypeptide as a novel anticancer agent. PMID:27007382

  12. Pressure induced structural transitions in KH, RbH, and CsH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, James; Baettig, Pio; Zurek, Eva

    2012-06-01

    The heavier alkali metal hydrides MH (M = K, Rb, Cs) undergo a series of pressure induced structural phase transitions: B1 (NaCl) → B2 (CsCl) → CrB. Experiments reveal that the latter occurs at 85 and 17.5 GPa for RbH and CsH, but it has not yet been observed for KH. Herein, evolutionary algorithms coupled with density functional theory calculations are employed to explore the potential energy surface of the aforementioned hydrides up to pressures of 300 GPa. The computations support previous theoretical work which predicts that KH will adopt the CrB structure when compressed. In addition, for KH and RbH we find configurations with Pnma and I41/amd symmetry that are thermodynamically competitive with the CrB structure at 300 GPa. Between 100-150 GPa, a Pnma structure which is analogous to a high-pressure form of CsI is found to be the most stable phase for the heaviest alkali hydride considered. At higher pressures a hitherto unknown CsH-P63/mmc arrangement becomes thermodynamically preferred up to at least 400 GPa. A detailed analysis of the geometric and electronic structures of the various phases is provided.

  13. [The optimization of the soil acidity of agrocenosis contaminated 137Cs and 90Sr: threshold parameters].

    PubMed

    Putiatin, Iu V; Seraia, T M

    2005-01-01

    During the field researches were determined the differences between agrochemical optimum of the acidity of the Sod-podzol loamy sand soil, which provides high productivity of the crops and the pH-value, which provides the minimal accumulation of 137Cs and of 90Sr by the biomass (the ecological optimum). On the average for the majority of the agricultural plants the minimal accumulations of 137Cs and of 90Sr are noticed under pHKCl 6.7, which is higher than agrochemical optimum on 0.7. The efficiency of liming under the discrimination of 137Cs and of 90Sr is much higher in soils with low values of pH. On the average, in crop rotation due to decreasing of the acidity in the soil from 4.9 to 5.9 pHKCl, the crop yield has grown on 9%, 137Cs contents has decreased on 16.7%, 90Sr--on 23.7%. The further decreasing of the soil acidity (from 5.9 to 6.8 pHKCl) was poorly effective: the productivity didn't change essentially. The transfer of 137Cs decreased on 8.9% and of 90Sr on 8.4%.

  14. Mobility of Na and Cs on montmorillonite surface under partially saturated conditions.

    PubMed

    Churakov, Sergey V

    2013-09-03

    Cs migration in soils at contaminated sites or in clay-rich backfill of waste disposal sites can take place under partially saturated conditions. To understand the molecular mechanism of Cs migration in partially saturated clays, Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations were applied to model adsorption of water films onto external surfaces of Cs and Na montmorillonites as function of partial water pressure. The surface complexation and diffusivity of Cs and Na at different partial water pressure was obtained by molecular dynamics simulations. The results suggest that ion mobility in adsorbed water films on external basal surfaces of clay is similar to that in the near-surface water of a saturated pore as far as the thickness of the adsorbed water film is more than two water layers. At lower partial water pressure (i.e., in thinner water films) the ion mobility dramatically decreases. In contrast, the average water mobility in thin water film is higher than in the water-saturated system due to enhanced mobility of water molecules close to vapor-film interface. The results of the simulations were applied to interpret recent laboratory measurements of tritiated water and Cs diffusivity in Callovo-Oxfordian Claystones under partially saturated conditions.

  15. Phase stability, electronic structure and phonons in CsGeI3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ling-Yi; Lambrecht, Walter

    Because Ge is smaller than Sn and Pb, CsGeI3 is promising to overcome the stability problems of the perovskite forms of CsSnI3 and CsPbI3 halides toward the denser yellow phase in which octahedra are edge as well as cornersharing in one dimensional chains. This phase has higher gaps and is unsuitable for photovoltaics. CsGeI3 and other trihalide germanates are found to exist in the cubic perovskite phase at high temperature but in a rhombohedral phase in which the Ge is displaced toward three of the halogen neighbors in its surrounding octahedron, accompanied by a rhombohedral distortion of the lattice vectors. We will present density functional total energy calculations and band structures obtained within the quasi-particle self-consistent GW method for both the cubic and rhombohedral phase of CsGeI3. For the latter, we find a gap of 1.6 eV in excellent agreement with recent experiments on its absorption edge. We will also present optical dielectric function and effective mass results for this material and discuss the trends for different types of distortions in halides depending on the chemical composition. The phonons at the Brillouin zone center are calculated and compared to experimental Raman spectra. NSF and DOE.

  16. Electronic structure of the CsPbBr3/polytriarylamine (PTAA) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, James; Kulbak, Michael; Zhao, Lianfeng; Rand, Barry P.; Cahen, David; Hodes, Gary; Kahn, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    The inorganic lead halide perovskite CsPbBr3 promises similar solar cell efficiency to its hybrid organic-inorganic counterpart CH3NH3PbBr3 but shows greater stability. Here, we exploit this stability for the study of band alignment between perovskites and carrier selective interlayers. Using ultraviolet, X-ray, and inverse photoemission spectroscopies, we measure the ionization energy and electron affinities of CsPbBr3 and the hole transport polymer polytriarylamine (PTAA). We find that undoped PTAA introduces a barrier to hole extraction of 0.2-0.5 eV, due to band bending in the PTAA and/or a dipole at the interface. p-doping the PTAA eliminates this barrier, raising PTAA's highest occupied molecular orbital to 0.2 eV above the CsPbBr3 valence band maximum and improving hole transport. However, IPES reveals the presence of states below the PTAA lowest unoccupied molecular level. If present at the CsPbBr3/PTAA interface, these states may limit the polymer's efficacy at blocking electrons in solar cells with wide band gap materials like CsPbBr3 and CH3NH3PbBr3.

  17. 137Cs dynamics in the forest of Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident in March 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, I.; Ohte, N.; Iseda, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Hirose, A.; Tanoi, K.

    2013-12-01

    The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the earthquake and Tsunami in March 11th 2011, caused large amount of radioactive Cesium (137Cs) emission into the environment. In the region of Fukushima Prefecture, forest dominates more than 70 % of the land area. River water from the forest area is used for food production and also for drinking water. Thus, it is important to understand the dynamics of 137Cs deposited in the forest to predict how the radioactive Cs diffuse and discharge from the forest catchments. We measured 137Cs concentration of the tree body, litter fall, throughfall, and stemflow, in order to clarify how 137Cs deposited on the above ground biomass of the forest are transported to the forest floor. We set forest site at the upstream part of Kami-Oguni River catchment, northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. Three plots (2 deciduous stands and 1 Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation stand) were set in the forest site. Quercus serrata and C. japonica, which are representative tree species, were chosen at each plot and concentration of 137Cs on the bark, sapwood and heartwood were measured every 2 m from the ground to tree top. From each plot, 137Cs concentration of leaf litter was measured among species. Water samples of throughfall and stemflow were filtered and 137Cs concentration in suspended matter was measured. 137Cs was deposited on the bark of Q. serrata at high concentration (9-18 kBq/kg) but there were no clear relationship between tree height and concentration. 137Cs concentration of the sapwood (41 Bq/kg) was relatively higher than that of the heartwood (5 Bq/kg). It was suggested that 137Cs may be absorbed from bark and/or root. The concentration of 137Cs deposited in leaf litter varied from non-detected level to above 30 kBq/kg. The concentration was higher at evergreen tree than deciduous tree. It is considered that the litter of evergreen tree was derived from leaves on the tree canopy at the time of the

  18. Modulation of electronic and optical properties in mixed halide perovskites CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziqi; Cui, Yu; Deng, Hui-Xiong; Huang, Le; Wei, Zhongming; Li, Jingbo

    2017-03-01

    The recent discovery of lead halide perovskites with band gaps in the visible presents important potential in the design of high efficient solar cells. CsPbCl3, CsPbBr3 and CsPbI3 are stable compounds within this new family of semiconductors. By performing the first-principles calculation, we explore the structural, electronic and optical properties of CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x) with various compositions of halide atoms. Structural stability is demonstrated with halide atoms distributing randomly at the halide atomic sites. CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x) exhibit the modulation of their band gaps by varying the halide composition. Our results also indicate that CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x) with different halide compositions are suitable to application to solar cells for the general features are well preserved. Good absorption to lights of different wavelengths has been obtained in these mixed halide perovskites.

  19. Luminescence and scintillation properties of Tl- and Ce-doped Cs2HfCl6 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, Keiichiro; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Koshimizu, Masanori; Nakauchi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Hironori; Yanagida, Takayuki; Asai, Keisuke

    2017-02-01

    The luminescence and scintillation properties of Tl- and Ce-doped Cs2HfCl6 crystals were investigated by photoluminescence and radioluminescence spectroscopy. In the photoluminescence spectra, emission bands of the activators were observed at 500 nm for Tl-doped Cs2HfCl6, and at 340 and 380 nm for Ce-doped Cs2HfCl6. The radioluminescence bands were observed at 405 and 430 nm for Tl- and Ce-doped Cs2HfCl6, respectively. Scintillation decay time constants for the Tl- and Ce-doped Cs2HfCl6 were smaller than those for the corresponding undoped crystals. Scintillation light yields for Tl- and Ce-doped Cs2HfCl6 were estimated to be 23,700 and 15,700 photons/MeV, respectively.

  20. Optical properties of Mn3+ ions in Cs2NaAlF6 and Cs2NaGaF6 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fonseca, R. J. M.; Sosman, L. P.; Camara, A. R.

    2017-02-01

    The optical properties of Mn3+ ions in the elpasolites Cs2NaGaF6 and Cs2NaAlF6 have been investigated by absorption spectroscopy at 4.2 K. The absorption spectra are dominated by the spin-allowed 5E → 5T2 transition and the transition between the two Jahn-Teller components of the 5E level. The crystal-field parameter Dq was determined and a low crystal-field situation was established for both Mn3+-doped fluorides. The Jahn-Teller stabilization energies of the 5E and 5T2 levels were calculated and the obtained values shown a strong Jahn-Teller splitting in the 5E ground state.