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Sample records for adobe systems incorporated

  1. Evaluation of Adobe[R] Presenter as a Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Adobe[R] Presenter software provides educators with a tool to create narrated distance learning presentations. This article describes Adobe[R] Presenter's many features and explains which most strongly affect learning. Six Adobe[R] Presenter trainings were presented to 62 volunteers preparing to provide information at a public outreach event. One…

  2. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  3. Incorporating inertia into multiagent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, W. C.; Chau, H. F.

    2006-03-01

    We consider a model that demonstrates the crucial role of inertia and stickiness in multiagent systems, based on the minority game. The inertia of an agent is introduced into the game model by allowing agents to apply hypothesis testing when choosing their best strategies, thereby reducing their reactivity toward changes in the environment. We find by extensive numerical simulations that our game shows a remarkable improvement of global cooperation throughout the whole phase space. In other words, the maladaptation behavior due to over-reaction of agents is removed. These agents are also shown to be advantageous over the standard ones, which are sometimes too sensitive to attain a fair success rate. We also calculate analytically the minimum amount of inertia needed to achieve the above improvement. Our calculation is consistent with the numerical simulation results. Finally, we review some related works in the field that show similar behaviors and compare them to our work.

  4. Shock Compression of Simulated Adobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, C. H.; Church, P. D.; Gould, P. J.; Stewart, B.; Jardine, A. P.

    2015-06-01

    A series of plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the shock response of a simulant for adobe, a traditional form of building material widely used around the world. Air dried bricks were sourced from the London brick company, dry machined and impacted at a range of velocities in a single stage gas gun. The shock Hugoniot was determined (Us = 2.26up + 0.33) as well as release information. The material was found to behave in a manner which was similar to that of loose sand and considerably less stiff than a weak porous sandstone. The effect of any cementing of the grains was examined by shocking powdered samples contained within a cell arrangement. The research was funded by DSTL through a WSTC contract.

  5. Preservation of adobe buildings. Study of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velosa, A.; Rocha, F.; Costa, C.; Varum, H.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe buildings are common in the central region of Portugal due to the lack of natural stone in the surrounding area. This type of construction technique lasted until the 20th Century, at which time cementitious materials, with faster hardening and greater structural capacity substituted traditional materials and techniques. Currently, a significant percentage of these buildings is vacant and many are degraded and in need of conservation actions. Adobes from central Portugal are distinctive as they are lightly coloured and made from air lime and quarry sand. Although some adobes were manufactured locally, most were produced almost 'industrially' and sold to nearby regions. In order to preserve this heritage, conservation actions must be undertaken. So as to ensure the adequacy of these actions and compatibility between original materials and new ones, a thorough study of adobe compostion is mandatory. The current study is an initial step in the characterization of earth based construction materials from central Portugal. Adobe samples were collected from residential buildings in two different locations. The determination of the composition of adobe blocks encompassed the determination of the binder fraction and of their chemical composition and also the particle size analysis of the aggregate. For this purpose FRX analysis, acid dissolution and dry sieving were performed. Methylene blue test was also executed in order to determine the clay fraction. Additionally, the mineral composition of powder samples and oriented samples was performed using XRD analysis in order to determine the clay minerals present in the blocks. As adobe blocks are extremely prone to the action of water the Geelong test was undertaken in order to provide information in terms of durability. It was concluded that air lime was generally used in adobe compositions. However, the clay content varies in adobes from different regions, providing distinct durability characteristics to these materials.

  6. Valve system incorporating single failure protection logic

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Rodger; Timmerman, Walter J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A valve system incorporating single failure protective logic. The system consists of a valve combination or composite valve which allows actuation or de-actuation of a device such as a hydraulic cylinder or other mechanism, integral with or separate from the valve assembly, by means of three independent input signals combined in a function commonly known as two-out-of-three logic. Using the input signals as independent and redundant actuation/de-actuation signals, a single signal failure, or failure of the corresponding valve or valve set, will neither prevent the desired action, nor cause the undesired action of the mechanism.

  7. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    SciTech Connect

    Lundie, P. |; McLeod, N.

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  8. Radiation collimator and systems incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Norman, Daren R.; Yoon, Woo Y.; Jones, James L.; Haskell, Kevin J.; Bennett, Brion D.; Tschaggeny, Charles W.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-09-13

    A collimator including a housing having disposed therein a shield element surrounding a converter core in which a photon beam is generated from electrons emanating from a linear accelerator. A beam channeler longitudinally adjacent the shield element has a beam aperture therethrough coaxially aligned with, and of the same diameter as, an exit bore of the converter core. A larger entry bore in the converter core is coaxial with, and longitudinally separated from, the exit bore thereof. Systems incorporating the collimator are also disclosed.

  9. Collecting response times using Amazon Mechanical Turk and Adobe Flash.

    PubMed

    Simcox, Travis; Fiez, Julie A

    2014-03-01

    Crowdsourcing systems like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) allow data to be collected from a large sample of people in a short amount of time. This use has garnered considerable interest from behavioral scientists. So far, most experiments conducted on AMT have focused on survey-type instruments because of difficulties inherent in running many experimental paradigms over the Internet. This study investigated the viability of presenting stimuli and collecting response times using Adobe Flash to run ActionScript 3 code in conjunction with AMT. First, the timing properties of Adobe Flash were investigated using a phototransistor and two desktop computers running under several conditions mimicking those that may be present in research using AMT. This experiment revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the timing capabilities of this method. Next, a flanker task and a lexical decision task implemented in Adobe Flash were administered to participants recruited with AMT. The expected effects in these tasks were replicated. Power analyses were conducted to describe the number of participants needed to replicate these effects. A questionnaire was used to investigate previously undescribed computer use habits of 100 participants on AMT. We conclude that a Flash program in conjunction with AMT can be successfully used for running many experimental paradigms that rely on response times, although experimenters must understand the limitations of the method.

  10. Digital Imaging: An Adobe Photoshop Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces digital imaging, an Adobe Photoshop course at Shrewsbury High School in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. Students are able to earn art credits to graduate by successfully completing the course. Digital imaging must cover art criteria as well as technical skills. The course begins with tutorials created by the instructor and other…

  11. Apparatus for forming adobe bricks and drilling wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnamon, H. D.

    1985-02-12

    An improved apparatus for the continuous and relatively labor-free fabrication of adobe bricks and the forcing of well casings into the earth. With regard to forming adobe bricks, a rotating table carries the bricks being processed from one station to the next and a novel means for applying unusually high forming pressures permits immediate forming and ejection of the bricks from the forms while at the same time producing adobe bricks of improved quality and hardness characteristics.

  12. Vector Graphics for Web Lectures: Experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterl, Markus; Mertens, Robert; Vornberger, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe vector graphics for web lectures, focusing on the experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents experiences made during the development and everyday use of two versions of the lecture-recording system virtPresenter. The first of these versions is based on…

  13. DigitalGlobe(TM) Incorporated Corporate and System Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomassie, Brett

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a system update of Quickbird, the world's highest resolution commercial imaging satellite, operated by DigitalGlobe (TM) Incorporated. A satellite comparison of Quickbird, WorldView-60, and WorldView-110 is also presented.

  14. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3)) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3) were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  15. Residential Mercury Contamination in Adobe Brick Homes in Huancavelica, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB.; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m3) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production. PMID:24040399

  16. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3)) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3) were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production. PMID:24040399

  17. Incorporating Student Performance Measures into Teacher Evaluation Systems. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Jennifer L.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Many existing teacher evaluation and reward systems do not capture variation in teachers' ability to improve student performance on standardized tests. Improved access to longitudinal data systems that link teachers to students facilitates the development of systems that incorporate student achievement gains into teacher evaluations. However, two…

  18. Teaching Taekwondo in Physical Education: Incorporating the Color Belt System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Hannon, James C.; Banks, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Taekwondo is an excellent lifetime physical activity that provides both physical and mental benefits to its participants. The color belt system may be creatively used in physical education to encourage improvement in all learning domains. This article provides information on incorporating the color belt system into physical education, and provides…

  19. Physico-mechanical characterization of adobe bricks from Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, I.; Illampas, R.; Charmpis, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe bricks have been used in the construction of buildings for thousands of years. In our days, adobe masonry is no longer a prevailing form of construction. However, a great number of earthen buildings still survives in most regions of the world and constitutes an essential part of the international architectural and cultural heritage. Furthermore, efforts are currently being made to reintroduce adobes as an environmentally-friendly building material to contemporary architecture within the context of sustainable development. Despite the long-term use of adobes and their importance for the society, our knowledge of many aspects of this material is still rather limited. As a result, there are many ongoing research initiatives worldwide aiming to investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of adobe bricks and related durability problems. In this paper, we present our work (which is funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation Project EΠIXEIPHΣEIΣ/ΠPOION/0609/41, the Republic of Cyprus and the European Regional Development Fund) on the physico-mechanical characterization of adobes from Cyprus. In the absence of standardized procedures for most of the tests carried out, testing methodologies that either refer to other types of masonry materials and/or are encountered in the literature are adopted. The results show that adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in the X-ray diffraction analyses patterns. The average capillary water absorption coefficient of the test specimens rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1/2 (when measured against a saturated sponge surface), while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. Extensive experimental data on the material's mechanical behaviour show that adobes' response to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average value of compressive strength depends greatly on the form of specimen examined (cube, cylinder, prism) and the failure criterion

  20. Characterization, reproduction and optimization of traditional adobe bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Eftychiou, Marina; Costi de Castrillo, Maria; Illampas, Rogiros

    2013-04-01

    Adobe bricks were first introduced 10-12,000 years ago. Extensive use of the material throughout the centuries has led to strong local traditions of building with earth and has established adobe masonry as an important feature of the international architectural heritage. Today, despite no longer being a prevalent building material, adobes are still in use, since a number of earthen structures survive worldwide. Furthermore, the simplicity, low cost and almost negligible embodied energy associated with the production of adobes, as well as their good thermal and acoustic properties, render them an attractive option for use in contemporary sustainable construction. Therefore, several ongoing research projects internationally investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of traditional adobe bricks and the design/production of optimized adobes, with improved characteristics, for use in contemporary architecture. Here, we present ongoing research on adobe bricks carried out in the framework of the project E& IXEIPH EI / POION/0609/41, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus, through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. Our work focuses on the characterization of traditional adobes, their reproduction and optimization in the laboratory to produce materials with improved physicomechanical properties. Results up-to-date show that traditional adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in relevant X-ray diffraction analyses. The average capillary water absorption coefficient (measured against a saturated sponge surface) of samples collected from market suppliers rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1 -2, while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. The response of traditional adobes to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average compressive strength recorded depends on the form of test specimen (cube, cylinder, prism). Samples with aspect

  1. [Incorporation and adaptation of the postmodern belief system].

    PubMed

    Garzón Pérez, Adela

    2012-01-01

    Every society develops a particular system of beliefs that summarizes its vision of socio-political organization, culture and interpersonal relationships. Each of these three basic dimensions has different forms, depending on the spatial and temporal context of societies. The belief system of the service societies is characterized by a democratic vision of social and political organization, rejection of radical social changes and high levels of interpersonal trust. This paper empirically examines the incorporation and adaptation of the postmodern belief system in a sample of university students. The participants belong to a country that is slowly integrating into the service societies. We used a scale of postmodernity to analyze the incorporation of the postmodern belief system. The results indicate that there is a peculiar combination of the three basic dimensions of the postmodern belief system, where the postmodern conceptions of culture and social relationships have lower acceptance.

  2. [Use of Adobe Photoshop software in medical criminology].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, S A; Demidov, I V

    2000-01-01

    Describes the method of comparative analysis of various objects in practical medical criminology and making of high-quality photographs with the use of Adobe Photoshop software. Options of the software needed for expert evaluations are enumerated.

  3. 20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, stood on the site later occupied by the Stroud Building. The Salt River Herald, Phoenix's first newspaper, was founded in 1878; in 1879, it became the Phoenix Herald. Prior to 1879, the adobe building served as the office for a stagecoach line operating between Maricopa and Prescott via Phoenix. Credit PPL. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. How to optimize radiological images captured from digital cameras, using the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 program.

    PubMed

    Chalazonitis, A N; Koumarianos, D; Tzovara, J; Chronopoulos, P

    2003-06-01

    Over the past decade, the technology that permits images to be digitized and the reduction in the cost of digital equipment allows quick digital transfer of any conventional radiological film. Images then can be transferred to a personal computer, and several software programs are available that can manipulate their digital appearance. In this article, the fundamentals of digital imaging are discussed, as well as the wide variety of optional adjustments that the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) program can offer to present radiological images with satisfactory digital imaging quality.

  5. Incorporating Hydroepidemiology into the Epidemia Malaria Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Merkord, C. L.; Henebry, G. M.; Senay, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning of the timing and locations of malaria epidemics can facilitate the targeting of resources for prevention and emergency response. In response to this need, we are developing the Epidemic Prognosis Incorporating Disease and Environmental Monitoring for Integrated Assessment (EPIDEMIA) computer system. EPIDEMIA incorporates software for capturing, processing, and integrating environmental and epidemiological data from multiple sources; data assimilation techniques that continually update models and forecasts; and a web-based interface that makes the resulting information available to public health decision makers. The system will enable forecasts that incorporate lagged responses to environmental risk factors as well as information about recent trends in malaria cases. Because the egg, larval, and pupal stages of mosquito development occur in aquatic habitats, information about the spatial and temporal distributions of stagnant water bodies is critical for modeling malaria risk. Potential sources of hydrological data include satellite-derived rainfall estimates, evapotranspiration (ET) calculated using a simplified surface energy balance model, and estimates of soil moisture and fractional water cover from passive microwave radiometry. We used partial least squares regression to analyze and visualize seasonal patterns of these variables in relation to malaria cases using data from 49 districts in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Seasonal patterns of rainfall were strongly associated with the incidence and seasonality of malaria across the region, and model fit was improved by the addition of remotely-sensed ET and soil moisture variables. The results highlight the importance of remotely-sensed hydrological data for modeling malaria risk in this region and emphasize the value of an ensemble approach that utilizes multiple sources of information about precipitation and land surface wetness. These variables will be incorporated into the forecasting models at

  6. Systems study of transport aircraft incorporating advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.

    1982-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the potential benefits of utilizing advanced aluminum alloys in commercial transport aircraft and to define the effort necessary to develop fully the alloys to a viable commercial production capability. The comprehensive investigation (1) established realistic advanced aluminum alloy property goals to maximize aircraft systems effectiveness (2) identified performance and economic benefits of incorporating the advanced alloy in future advanced technology commercial aircraft designs (3) provided a recommended plan for development and integration of the alloys into commercial aircraft production (4) provided an indication of the timing and investigation required by the metal producing industry to support the projected market and (5) evaluate application of advanced aluminum alloys to other aerospace and transit systems as a secondary objective. The results of the investigation provided a roadmap and identified key issues requiring attention in an advanced aluminum alloy and applications technology development program.

  7. Incorporating Geoethics in Introductory Earth System Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The integrative nature of Earth System Science courses provides extensive opportunities to introduce students to geoethical inquiry focused on globally significant societal issues. Geoscience education has traditionally lagged in its efforts to increase student awareness of the significance of geologic knowledge to understanding and responsibly confronting causes and possible solutions for emergent, newly emerging, and future problems of anthropogenic cause and consequence. Developing an understanding of the human impact on the earth system requires early (lower division) and for geoscience majors, repeated (upper division) curricular emphasis on the interactions of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and pedosphere across space and through time. Capturing the interest of university students in globally relevant earth system issues and their ethical dimensions while first learning about the earth system is an important initial step in bringing geoethical deliberation and awareness to the next generation of geoscientists. Development of a new introductory Earth System Science course replacing a traditional introductory Physical Geology course at Montana State University has involved abandonment of concept-based content organization in favor of a place-based approach incorporating examination of the complex interactions of earth system components and emergent issues and dilemmas deriving from the unique component interactions that characterize each locale. Thirteen different place-based week-long modules (using web- and classroom-based instruction) were developed to ensure cumulative broad coverage across the earth geographically and earth system components conceptually. Each place-based instructional module contains content of societal relevance requiring synthesis, critical evaluation, and reflection by students. Examples include making linkages between deforestation driven by economics and increased seismicity in Haiti, agriculture and development

  8. Shale-oil-recovery systems incorporating ore beneficiation. Final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.; Peterson, C.R.; Ring, T.A.

    1982-10-01

    This study analyzed the recovery of oil from oil shale by use of proposed systems which incorporate beneficiation of the shale ore (that is concentration of the kerogen before the oil-recovery step). The objective was to identify systems which could be more attractive than conventional surface retorting of ore. No experimental work was carried out. The systems analyzed consisted of beneficiation methods which could increase kerogen concentrations by at least four-fold. Potentially attractive low-enrichment methods such as density separation were not examined. The technical alternatives considered were bounded by the secondary crusher as input and raw shale oil as output. A sequence of ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting concentrate is not attractive for Western shales compared to conventional ore retorting; transporting the concentrate to another location for retorting reduces air emissions in the ore region but cost reduction is questionable. The high capital and energy cost s results largely from the ball milling step which is very inefficient. Major improvements in comminution seem achievable through research and such improvements, plus confirmation of other assumptions, could make high-enrichment beneficiation competitive with conventional processing. 27 figures, 23 tables.

  9. Technical report on semiautomatic segmentation using the Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk; Hwang, Sung Bae; Lee, Yong Sook; Har, Dong-Hwan

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to enable users to semiautomatically segment the anatomical structures in magnetic resonance images (MRIs), computerized tomographs (CTs), and other medical images on a personal computer. The segmented images are used for making 3D images, which are helpful to medical education and research. To achieve this purpose, the following trials were performed. The entire body of a volunteer was scanned to make 557 MRIs. On Adobe Photoshop, contours of 19 anatomical structures in the MRIs were semiautomatically drawn using MAGNETIC LASSO TOOL and manually corrected using either LASSO TOOL or DIRECT SELECTION TOOL to make 557 segmented images. In a similar manner, 13 anatomical structures in 8,590 anatomical images were segmented. Proper segmentation was verified by making 3D images from the segmented images. Semiautomatic segmentation using Adobe Photoshop is expected to be widely used for segmentation of anatomical structures in various medical images.

  10. Techniques on semiautomatic segmentation using the Adobe Photoshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to enable anybody to semiautomatically segment the anatomical structures in the MRIs, CTs, and other medical images on the personal computer. The segmented images are used for making three-dimensional images, which are helpful in medical education and research. To achieve this purpose, the following trials were performed. The entire body of a volunteer was MR scanned to make 557 MRIs, which were transferred to a personal computer. On Adobe Photoshop, contours of 19 anatomical structures in the MRIs were semiautomatically drawn using MAGNETIC LASSO TOOL; successively, manually corrected using either LASSO TOOL or DIRECT SELECTION TOOL to make 557 segmented images. In a likewise manner, 11 anatomical structures in the 8,500 anatomcial images were segmented. Also, 12 brain and 10 heart anatomical structures in anatomical images were segmented. Proper segmentation was verified by making and examining the coronal, sagittal, and three-dimensional images from the segmented images. During semiautomatic segmentation on Adobe Photoshop, suitable algorithm could be used, the extent of automatization could be regulated, convenient user interface could be used, and software bugs rarely occurred. The techniques of semiautomatic segmentation using Adobe Photoshop are expected to be widely used for segmentation of the anatomical structures in various medical images.

  11. DICOM to print, 35-mm slides, web, and video projector: tutorial using Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Jud W

    2002-10-01

    Preparing images for publication has dealt with film and the photographic process. With picture archiving and communications systems, many departments will no longer produce film. This will change how images are produced for publication. DICOM, the file format for radiographic images, has to be converted and then prepared for traditional publication, 35-mm slides, the newest techniques of video projection, and the World Wide Web. Tagged image file format is the common format for traditional print publication, whereas joint photographic expert group is the current file format for the World Wide Web. Each medium has specific requirements that can be met with a common image-editing program such as Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). High-resolution images are required for print, a process that requires interpolation. However, the Internet requires images with a small file size for rapid transmission. The resolution of each output differs and the image resolution must be optimized to match the output of the publishing medium.

  12. Adobe acrobat: an alternative electronic teaching file construction methodology independent of HTML restrictions.

    PubMed

    Katzman, G L

    2001-03-01

    The goal of the project was to create a method by which an in-house digital teaching file could be constructed that was simple, inexpensive, independent of hypertext markup language (HTML) restrictions, and appears identical on multiple platforms. To accomplish this, Microsoft PowerPoint and Adobe Acrobat were used in succession to assemble digital teaching files in the Acrobat portable document file format. They were then verified to appear identically on computers running Windows, Macintosh Operating Systems (OS), and the Silicon Graphics Unix-based OS as either a free-standing file using Acrobat Reader software or from within a browser window using the Acrobat browser plug-in. This latter display method yields a file viewed through a browser window, yet remains independent of underlying HTML restrictions, which may confer an advantage over simple HTML teaching file construction. Thus, a hybrid of HTML-distributed Adobe Acrobat generated WWW documents may be a viable alternative for digital teaching file construction and distribution.

  13. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  14. Adobe Flash as a medium for online experimentation: a test of reaction time measurement capabilities.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2007-08-01

    Adobe Flash can be used to run complex psychological experiments over the Web. We examined the reliability of using Flash to measure reaction times (RTs) using a simple binary-choice task implemented both in Flash and in a Linux-based system known to record RTs with millisecond accuracy. Twenty-four participants were tested in the laboratory using both implementations; they also completed the Flash version on computers of their own choice outside the lab. RTs from the trials run on Flash outside the lab were approximately 20 msec slower than those from trials run on Flash in the lab, which in turn were approximately 10 msec slower than RTs from the trials run on the Linux-based system (baseline condition). RT SDs were similar in all conditions, suggesting that although Flash may overestimate RTs slightly, it does not appear to add significant noise to the data recorded.

  15. Incorporating Systems Thinking in Traditional Geoscience Curriculum: A Laboratory Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, R.; Cook, G. W.; McNeal, K.

    2014-12-01

    The role of systems thinking in understanding climate change has gained credence over the years. A key concept of systems thinking, namely, stock and flow, deals with the accumulation of any stock in a system over time, such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Several studies have shown that people find it difficult to comprehend the dynamics of such a system. In this study, we design a laboratory module for an introductory earth science course aimed at improving students' understanding of stock-flow concepts. We have structured the laboratory exercise after Bloom's taxonomic principles to include comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Additionally, we have blended metacognition and self-correction by asking the students to reflect on their learning and by providing cues that enable them to rectify and learn from their own mistakes. We will discuss learning gains for the class, the efficacy of using such scaffolding for laboratory modules and the role of systems thinking in understanding climate change.

  16. Radioactive waste tank ventilation system incorporating tritium control

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a ventilation system for radioactive waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The unique design of the system is aimed at cost-effective control of tritiated water vapor. The system includes recirculation ventilation and cooling for each tank in the facility and a central exhaust air clean-up train that includes a low-temperature vapor condenser and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME). A one-seventh scale pilot plant was built and tested to verify predicted performance of the low-temperature tritium removal system. Tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the removal of condensable vapor and soluble and insoluble aerosols and to estimate the operating life of the mist eliminator. Definitive design of the ventilation system relied heavily on the test data. The unique design features of the ventilation system will result in far less release of tritium to the atmosphere than from conventional high-volume dilution systems and will greatly reduce operating costs. NESHAPs and TAPs NOC applications have been approved, and field construction is nearly complete. Start-up is scheduled for late 1996. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Incorporating Academic Standards in Instructional Systems Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Charles Xiaoxue

    Almost every state is "imposing" academic standards. Helping students to meet those standards is a key task for teachers and school administrators, as well as instructional systems designers. Thus, instructional designers in the K-12 environments are facing the challenge of using appropriately and effectively academic standards in their…

  18. Incorporating Grasslands into Cropping Systems: What are the Keys?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American agriculture in the 20th century has been shaped by social/political, economic, environmental and technological drivers. During this time, American agricultural systems became increasingly specialized and input driven resulting in agricultural production being dominated by ‘commodity crop p...

  19. Asian Rhinoplasty: Preoperative Simulation and Planning Using Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Nguyen, Anh H

    2015-11-01

    A rhinoplasty in Asians differs from a rhinoplasty performed in patients of other ethnicities. Surgeons should understand the concept of Asian beauty, the nasal anatomy of Asians, and common problems encountered while operating on the Asian nose. With this understanding, surgeons can set appropriate goals, choose proper operative procedures, and provide an outcome that satisfies patients. In this article the authors define the concept of an Asian rhinoplasty-a paradigm shift from the traditional on-top augmentation rhinoplasty to a structurally integrated augmentation rhinoplasty-and provide a step-by-step procedure for the use of Adobe Photoshop as a preoperative program to simulate the expected surgical outcome for patients and to develop a preoperative plan for surgeons.

  20. Optical design of automotive headlight system incorporating digital micromirror device.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chuan-Cheng; Fang, Yi-Chin; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Hsueh, Bo-Ren; Wang, Shuan-Fu; Wu, Bo-Wen; Lai, Wei-Chi; Chen, Yi-Liang

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, the popular adaptive front-lighting automobile headlight system has become a main emphasis of research that manufacturers will continue to focus great efforts on in the future. In this research we propose a new integral optical design for an automotive headlight system with an advanced light-emitting diode and digital micromirror device (DMD). Traditionally, automobile headlights have all been designed as a low beam light module, whereas the high beam light module still requires using accessory lamps. In anticipation of this new concept of integral optical design, we have researched and designed a single optical system with high and low beam capabilities. To switch on and off the beams, a DMD is typically used. Because DMDs have the capability of redirecting incident light into a specific angle, they also determine the shape of the high or low light beam in order to match the standard of headlight illumination. With collocation of the multicurvature reflection lens design, a DMD can control the light energy distribution and thereby reinforce the resolution of the light beam.

  1. Incorporation of nondestructive evaluation in Pontis Bridge Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadavi, Ahmad

    1998-03-01

    The highway system in the United States includes nearly 577,000 bridges, the majority of which were built during two major bridge building periods -- just before World War II (1930s) and in the first two decades of the Cold War (1950s and 1960s). Given the age and increased usage of these bridges over the years, many now require substantial maintenance to satisfy their desired level of service. The complex task of allocating scarce funds for the repair, maintenance, and rehabilitation of this large number of bridges led to the development of several optimization studies and two major bridge management system, namely BRIDGIT and Pontis. Pontis has emerged as the system of choice for all states in the Nation. At this time over 40 highway agencies continue to license, evaluate and implement the current AASHTOWARE Program, Pontis V. 3.2. However, all data currently required by Pontis to assess the structural stability and resulting suggestions for repair and maintenance of bridges are based on visual inspection and judgement. Consequently, all suggestions are based on that visual inspection. This paper discusses development of a plan for how non-destructive evaluation (NDE) data can be used to provide more information than visual inspection.

  2. Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sbar, Neil L.

    2001-03-30

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

  3. Building code challenging the ethics behind adobe architecture in North Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Şahali, Öznem

    2015-04-01

    Adobe masonry is part of the vernacular architecture of Cyprus. Thus, it is possible to use this technology in a meaningful way on the island. On the other hand, although adobe architecture is more sustainable in comparison to other building technologies, the use of it is diminishing in North Cyprus. The application of Turkish building code in the north of the island has created complications in respect of the use of adobe masonry, because this building code demands that reinforced concrete vertical tie-beams are used together with adobe masonry. The use of reinforced concrete elements together with adobe masonry causes problems in relation to the climatic response of the building as well as causing other technical and aesthetic problems. This situation makes the design of adobe masonry complicated and various types of ethical problems also emerge. The objective of this article is to analyse the ethical problems which arise as a consequence of the restrictive character of the building code, by analysing two case studies and conducting an interview with an architect who was involved with the use of adobe masonry in North Cyprus. According to the results of this article there are ethical problems at various levels in the design of both case studies. These problems are connected to the responsibilities of architects in respect of the social benefit, material production, aesthetics and affordability of the architecture as well as presenting distrustful behaviour where the obligations of architects to their clients is concerned.

  4. Adobe photoshop quantification (PSQ) rather than point-counting: A rapid and precise method for quantifying rock textural data and porosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Bo; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Zhe; Shi, Kaibo; Wu, Shuanglin

    2014-08-01

    Commonly used petrological quantification methods are visual estimation, counting, and image analyses. However, in this article, an Adobe Photoshop-based analyzing method (PSQ) is recommended for quantifying the rock textural data and porosities. Adobe Photoshop system provides versatile abilities in selecting an area of interest and the pixel number of a selection could be read and used to calculate its area percentage. Therefore, Adobe Photoshop could be used to rapidly quantify textural components, such as content of grains, cements, and porosities including total porosities and different genetic type porosities. This method was named as Adobe Photoshop Quantification (PSQ). The workflow of the PSQ method was introduced with the oolitic dolomite samples from the Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China, for example. And the method was tested by comparing with the Folk's and Shvetsov's "standard" diagrams. In both cases, there is a close agreement between the "standard" percentages and those determined by the PSQ method with really small counting errors and operator errors, small standard deviations and high confidence levels. The porosities quantified by PSQ were evaluated against those determined by the whole rock helium gas expansion method to test the specimen errors. Results have shown that the porosities quantified by the PSQ are well correlated to the porosities determined by the conventional helium gas expansion method. Generally small discrepancies (mostly ranging from -3% to 3%) are caused by microporosities which would cause systematic underestimation of 2% and/or by macroporosities causing underestimation or overestimation in different cases. Adobe Photoshop could be used to quantify rock textural components and porosities. This method has been tested to be precise and accurate. It is time saving compared with usual methods.

  5. Cell-free unnatural amino acid incorporation with alternative energy systems and linear expression templates.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prashanta; Smith, Mark Thomas; Bundy, Bradley Charles

    2014-01-25

    Site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids (uAAs) during protein synthesis expands the proteomic code through the addition of unique residue chemistry. This field provides a unique tool to improve pharmacokinetics, cancer treatments, vaccine development, proteomics and protein engineering. The limited ability to predict the characteristics of proteins with uAA-incorporation creates a need for a low-cost system with the potential for rapid screening. Escherichia coli-based cell-free protein synthesis is a compelling platform for uAA incorporation due to the open and accessible nature of the reaction environment. However, typical cell-free systems can be expensive due to the high cost of energizing reagents. By employing alternative energy sources, we reduce the cost of uAA-incorporation in CFPS by 55%. While alternative energy systems reduce cost, the time investment to develop gene libraries can remain cumbersome. Cell-free systems allow the direct use of PCR products known as linear expression templates, thus alleviating tedious plasmid library preparations steps. We report the specific costs of CFPS with uAA incorporation, demonstrate that LETs are suitable expression templates with uAA-incorporation, and consider the substantial reduction in labor intensity using LET-based expression for CFPS uAA incorporation.

  6. Systems engineering and the user: Incorporation of user requirements into the SE process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naugle, John E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is organized into four parts. In the Gestation Phase, I describe the process of starting a new mission and establishing its rough boundaries. Next I show how the scientific experiments are selected. Then we enter the Preliminary Design Phase, where we incorporate the scientist's instruments into the systems engineering process. Finally, I show how the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) assures NASA management and the scientists that the scientific requirements have been incorporated into the systems engineering process to everyone's satisfaction.

  7. 76 FR 32203 - FDIC Systemic Resolution Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... available to anyone with the following systems requirements: http://www.vodium.com/home/sysreq.html . Adobe Flash Player is required to view these presentations. The latest version of Adobe Flash Player can be downloaded at:...

  8. Adequacy assessment of composite generation and transmission systems incorporating wind energy conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi

    development as it permits correlated wind farms to be incorporated in large practical system studies without requiring excessive increases in computer solution time. The procedures described in this thesis for creating monthly and seasonal wind farm models should prove useful in situations where time period models are required to incorporate scheduled maintenance of generation and transmission facilities. There is growing interest in combining deterministic considerations with probabilistic assessment in order to evaluate the quantitative system risk and conduct bulk power system planning. A relatively new approach that incorporates deterministic and probabilistic considerations in a single risk assessment framework has been designated as the joint deterministic-probabilistic approach. The research work described in this thesis illustrates that the joint deterministic-probabilistic approach can be effectively used to integrate wind power in bulk electric system planning. The studies described in this thesis show that the application of the joint deterministic-probabilistic method provides more stringent results for a system with wind power than the traditional deterministic N-1 method because the joint deterministic-probabilistic technique is driven by the deterministic N-1 criterion with an added probabilistic perspective which recognizes the power output characteristics of a wind turbine generator.

  9. Health with equality: a proposal for the incorporation of the gender perspective in health care systems.

    PubMed

    Panisello, Maria Luisa; Pastor, Inma

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the incorporation of the gender perspective in health care-related policies. Based on the recommendations of international organizations, the importance of the incorporation of the gender concept in the health field is analyzed, in order to design health policies that seeking to redress existing inequalities by virtue of sex/gender. This paper presents an analysis of the published guidelines in order to facilitate the incorporation of the gender perspective in health care systems. The article concludes with a proposal of gender-sensitive health indicators that can ensure the gender perspective in health care policies.

  10. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  11. Influence of geological features (geochemistry and mineralogy) of soil wich constitutes adobes in their durability - Huambo, Angola.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Isabel; Pedro, Elsa; Varum, Humberto; Mirão, José; Pinho, António

    2014-05-01

    After long years of war, great efforts have been made for the socio-economic development of Angola, mainly in the construction industry. Among the construction techniques, the Adobe is the most used in the province of Huambo, especially by low-income families, which constitute the majority. This technique was established as a historical heritage in the culture of that population. The Huambo province is located in the central region of Angola (Central Plateau) and is bounded on the northeast and east by the province of Bié, on the south and southern by province of Huila, and on the west by the province of Benguela and on the northwest by the province of Kwanza Sul. Has an area of 35,771 km2 and approximately 2,301,524 inhabitants, which corresponds to 58 inhabitants per km2 (Government of the Province of Huambo, 2006). The buildings in this province, particularly in rural areas, were deeply marked by war. Given the current scenario of development of the country and considering the possibility of integrate systems and traditional building materials, that respect the environment and fit harmoniously into its natural habitat, one of the alternative options in the actual construction, undergoes resume old solutions and traditional materials such as adobe construction.It is in this context that this project is part of a scientific research in order to permit the improvement and optimization of these traditional solutions, responding to current demands for social, economic and environmental sustainability. The adobe is a building element with potential degradation by water. Due to the climate, subtropical, hot and humid, and geomorphology of the province, about 1000 to 2000 meters of altitude and an extensive river system, these buildings can be vulnerable and present early degradation, exacerbated by lack of knowledge of the properties of geomaterials used and techniques that allow their stabilization and conservation. This paper aims to study the influence of

  12. IDEA system--a new computer-based expert system for incorporation monitoring.

    PubMed

    Doerfel, H

    2007-01-01

    Recently, at the Karlsruhe Research Centre, a computer-based expert system, Internal Dose Equivalent Assessment System (IDEA System), has been developed for assisting dosimetrists in applying the relevant recommendations and guidelines for internal dosimetry. The expert system gives guidance to the user with respect to: (a) planning of monitoring, (b) performing routine and special monitoring, and (c) evaluation of primary monitoring results. The evaluation is done according to the IDEA System guidelines (Doerfel, H. et al., General guidelines for the estimation of committed effective dose from incorporation monitoring data. Research Report FZKA 7243, Research Center Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (2006). ISSN 0947-8260.) in a three-stage procedure according to the expected level of exposure. At the first level the evaluation is performed with default or site-specific parameter values, at the second level case-specific parameter values are applied and at the third level a special evaluation is performed with individual adjustment of model parameter values. With these well-defined procedures the expert system follows the aim, in which all recommendations and guidelines are applied properly and the results in terms of committed effective and organ doses are close to the best estimate. PMID:17827136

  13. GrinLine identification using digital imaging and Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Susan A; Brumit, Paula C; Schrader, Bruce A; Senn, David R

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to outline a method by which an antemortem photograph of a victim can be critically compared with a postmortem photograph in an effort to facilitate the identification process. Ten subjects, between 27 and 55 years old provided historical pictures of themselves exhibiting a broad smile showing anterior teeth to some extent (a grin). These photos were termed "antemortem" for the purpose of the study. A digital camera was used to take a current photo of each subject's grin. These photos represented the "postmortem" images. A single subject's "postmortem" photo set was randomly selected to be the "unknown victim." These combined data of the unknown and the 10 antemortem subjects were digitally stored and, using Adobe Photoshop software, the images were sized and oriented for comparative analysis. The goal was to devise a technique that could facilitate the accurate determination of which "antemortem" subject was the "unknown." The generation of antemortem digital overlays of the teeth visible in a grin and the comparison of those overlays to the images of the postmortem dentition is the foundation of the technique. The comparisons made using the GrinLine Identification Technique may assist medical examiners and coroners in making identifications or exclusions.

  14. 75 FR 2823 - Incorporating Employee Compensation Criteria Into the Risk Assessment System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 327 RIN 3064-AD56 Incorporating Employee Compensation Criteria Into the Risk... criteria into the risk-based assessment system. The FDIC does not seek to limit the amount which employees... criteria upon which to base adjustments to the risk-based assessment system in order to correctly price...

  15. Numeral-Incorporating Roots in Numeral Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Two Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Mariana; Massone, Maria Ignacia; Fernandez-Viader, Maria del Pilar; Makotrinsky, Alejandro; Pulgarin, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    Numeral-incorporating roots in the numeral systems of Argentine Sign Language (LSA) and Catalan Sign Language (LSC), as well as the main features of the number systems of both languages, are described and compared. Informants discussed the use of numerals and roots in both languages (in most cases in natural contexts). Ten informants took part in…

  16. The effectiveness of incorporating a real-time oculometer system in a commercial flight training program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. H.; Coates, G. D.; Kirby, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness on pilot and trainee performance and scanning behavior of incorporating a real time oculometer system in a commerical flight training program was assessed. Trainees received simulator training in pairs requiring the trainees to alternate the order of training within a session. The 'third day phenomenon' of performance decrement was investigated, including the role of order of training on performance.

  17. The Challenge of Multiple Perspectives: Multiple Solution Tasks for Students Incorporating Diverse Tools and Representation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of multiple solution tasks (MST) incorporating multiple learning tools and representation systems (MTRS) in encouraging each student to develop multiple perspectives on the learning concepts under study and creativity of thought. Specifically, two types of MST were used, namely tasks that allowed and demanded…

  18. Incorporation of phase-change materials into a ground thermal energy storage system: Theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, Y.; Korin, E.

    1996-09-01

    An investigation of a ground thermal energy storage system, which includes storage units containing phase-change materials (PCM), is presented. This study is related to a large-diameter helical heat exchanger, which is placed vertically in the ground. The PCM storage units under consideration have a cylindrical shell shape and are located inside and/or outside the helix. A modified numerical scheme for the solution of heat transfer in the ground, in the PCM units, and within the heat exchanger pipe, is presented. The theoretical results show that the thermal diffusivity of the PCM dominates the thermal performance of the system. Incorporation of PCM storage units containing paraffin wax results in a reduction of the thermal efficiency in comparison with a system not containing these units. However, incorporation of PCM having the same thermal diffusivity as of the soil results in a significant improvement of the thermal performance.

  19. Optimized plasmid systems for the incorporation of multiple different unnatural amino acids by evolved orthogonal ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Christoph; Hahn, Liljan E; Neumann, Heinz

    2014-08-18

    Incorporation of multiple different unnatural amino acids into the same polypeptide remains a significant challenge. Orthogonal ribosomes, which are evolvable as they direct the translation of a single dedicated orthogonal mRNA, can provide an avenue to produce such polypeptides routinely. Recent advances in engineering orthogonal ribosomes have created a prototype system to enable genetically encoded introduction of two different functional groups, albeit with limited efficiency. Here, we systematically investigated the limiting factors of this system by using assays to measure the levels and activities of individual components; we identified Methanosarcina barkeri PylRS as a limiting factor for protein yield. Balancing the expression levels of individual components significantly improved growth rate and protein yield. This optimization of the system is likely to increase the scope of evolved orthogonal ribosome-mediated incorporation of multiple different unnatural amino acids.

  20. Dynamic modelling of a double-pendulum gantry crane system incorporating payload

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, R. M. T. Raja; Ahmad, M. A.; Ramli, M. S.; Ishak, R.; Zawawi, M. A.

    2011-06-20

    The natural sway of crane payloads is detrimental to safe and efficient operation. Under certain conditions, the problem is complicated when the payloads create a double pendulum effect. This paper presents dynamic modelling of a double-pendulum gantry crane system based on closed-form equations of motion. The Lagrangian method is used to derive the dynamic model of the system. A dynamic model of the system incorporating payload is developed and the effects of payload on the response of the system are discussed. Extensive results that validate the theoretical derivation are presented in the time and frequency domains.

  1. Dynamic Modelling of a Double-Pendulum Gantry Crane System Incorporating Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R. M. T. Raja; Ahmad, M. A.; Ramli, M. S.; Ishak, R.; Zawawi, M. A.

    2011-06-01

    The natural sway of crane payloads is detrimental to safe and efficient operation. Under certain conditions, the problem is complicated when the payloads create a double pendulum effect. This paper presents dynamic modelling of a double-pendulum gantry crane system based on closed-form equations of motion. The Lagrangian method is used to derive the dynamic model of the system. A dynamic model of the system incorporating payload is developed and the effects of payload on the response of the system are discussed. Extensive results that validate the theoretical derivation are presented in the time and frequency domains.

  2. A novel sunscreen system based on tocopherol acetate incorporated into solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wissing, S A; Müller, R H

    2001-08-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have been introduced as a novel carrier system for drugs and cosmetics. It has been found that SLN possess characteristics of physical UV-blockers on their own, thus offering the possibility of developing a more effective sunscreen system with reduced side-effects. Incorporation of the chemical sunscreen tocopherol acetate into SLN prevents chemical degradation and increases the UV-blocking capacity. Aqueous SLN dispersions were produced and incorporated into gels, followed by particle size examination, stability testing upon storage and thermoanalytical examination. Investigation of the UV-blocking capacity using different in vitro techniques revealed that the SLN dispersions produced in this study are at least twice as effective as their reference emulsions (conventional emulsions with identical lipid content). Placebo SLN even show greater UV-blocking efficacy than emulsions containing tocopherol acetate as the molecular sunscreen. Incorporation of tocopherol acetate into SLN leads to an overadditive UV-blocking effect. Furthermore, film formation of SLN on the skin and occlusivity were examined. The obtained data show that incorporation of tocopherol acetate into SLN leads to an improved sunscreen and skin care formulation.

  3. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems.

  4. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems. PMID:27421976

  5. Temperature Stability and Bioadhesive Properties of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Incorporated Hydroxypropylcellulose Polymer Matrix Systems

    PubMed Central

    Repka, Michael A.; Munjal, Manish; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Ross, Samir A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the bioadhesive profiles of hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) polymer matrices as a function of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content. In addition, the effect of processing temperature on the stability of THC and its extent of degradation to cannabinol (CBN) was investigated. A hot-melt cast molding method was used to prepare HPC polymer matrix systems incorporated with THC at 0, 4, 8, and 16 percent. Bioadhesive measurements including peak adhesive force, area under the curve, and elongation at adhesive failure were recorded utilizing the TA.XT2i Texture Analyzer™. Data obtained from these tests at various contact time intervals suggested that the incorporation of THC led to an increase in the bioadhesive strength of the HPC polymer matrices. To determine the stability of THC and the resulting CBN content in the matrices, three different processing temperatures were utilized (120, 160, and 200°C). Post-production High Performance Liquid Chromotography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the processed systems contained at least 94% of THC and the relative percent formation of CBN was 0.5% at 120°C and 0.4% at 160°C compared to 1.6% at 200°C. These findings indicate that the cannabinoid may be a plausible candidate for incorporation into systems utilizing hot-melt extrusion techniques for the development of an effective mucoadhesive transmucosal matrix system for delivery of THC. PMID:16455601

  6. Presentation and response timing accuracy in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Web-based research is becoming ubiquitous in the behavioral sciences, facilitated by convenient, readily available participant pools and relatively straightforward ways of running experiments: most recently, through the development of the HTML5 standard. Although in most studies participants give untimed responses, there is a growing interest in being able to record response times online. Existing data on the accuracy and cross-machine variability of online timing measures are limited, and generally they have compared behavioral data gathered on the Web with similar data gathered in the lab. For this article, we took a more direct approach, examining two ways of running experiments online-Adobe Flash and HTML5 with CSS3 and JavaScript-across 19 different computer systems. We used specialist hardware to measure stimulus display durations and to generate precise response times to visual stimuli in order to assess measurement accuracy, examining effects of duration, browser, and system-to-system variability (such as across different Windows versions), as well as effects of processing power and graphics capability. We found that (a) Flash and JavaScript's presentation and response time measurement accuracy are similar; (b) within-system variability is generally small, even in low-powered machines under high load; (c) the variability of measured response times across systems is somewhat larger; and (d) browser type and system hardware appear to have relatively small effects on measured response times. Modeling of the effects of this technical variability suggests that for most within- and between-subjects experiments, Flash and JavaScript can both be used to accurately detect differences in response times across conditions. Concerns are, however, noted about using some correlational or longitudinal designs online.

  7. Presentation and response timing accuracy in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Web-based research is becoming ubiquitous in the behavioral sciences, facilitated by convenient, readily available participant pools and relatively straightforward ways of running experiments: most recently, through the development of the HTML5 standard. Although in most studies participants give untimed responses, there is a growing interest in being able to record response times online. Existing data on the accuracy and cross-machine variability of online timing measures are limited, and generally they have compared behavioral data gathered on the Web with similar data gathered in the lab. For this article, we took a more direct approach, examining two ways of running experiments online-Adobe Flash and HTML5 with CSS3 and JavaScript-across 19 different computer systems. We used specialist hardware to measure stimulus display durations and to generate precise response times to visual stimuli in order to assess measurement accuracy, examining effects of duration, browser, and system-to-system variability (such as across different Windows versions), as well as effects of processing power and graphics capability. We found that (a) Flash and JavaScript's presentation and response time measurement accuracy are similar; (b) within-system variability is generally small, even in low-powered machines under high load; (c) the variability of measured response times across systems is somewhat larger; and (d) browser type and system hardware appear to have relatively small effects on measured response times. Modeling of the effects of this technical variability suggests that for most within- and between-subjects experiments, Flash and JavaScript can both be used to accurately detect differences in response times across conditions. Concerns are, however, noted about using some correlational or longitudinal designs online. PMID:24903687

  8. Antimicrobial activity of lactoperoxidase system incorporated into cross-linked alginate films.

    PubMed

    Yener, Fatih Y G; Korel, Figen; Yemenicioğlu, Ahmet

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial effect of lactoperoxidase (LPS) incorporated alginate films was investigated on Escherichia coli (NRRL B-3008), Listeria innocua (NRRL B-33314), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (NRRL B-253) in presence of different concentrations of H(2)O(2) (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mM) and KSCN (1, 2, and 4 mM). The incorporation of 70 nmol ABTS/min/cm(2) LPS into alginate films gave 0.66 to 0.85 nmol ABTS/min/cm(2) enzyme activity at 0.2 to 0.8 mM H(2)O(2) concentration range. The antimicrobial activity of LPS system on target bacteria changed according to the concentrations of KSCN and H(2)O(2). The growth of all tested bacteria was prevented for a 6-h period by applying LPS system in presence of 0.4 or 0.8 mM H(2)O(2) and 4 mM KSCN. At 0.8 mM H(2)O(2) and 4 mM KSCN, the LPS system also inhibited growth of L. innocua and P. fluorescens for a 24-h incubation period, whereas E. coli growth could not be inhibited for 24 h under these conditions. At 0.2 mM H(2)O(2) and 1 to 4 mM KSCN, a considerable inhibitory effect was obtained only on P. fluorescens. The decreasing order of the resistance of studied bacteria to LPS system is as follows: E. coli, L. innocua, and P. fluorescens. The developed antimicrobial system has a good potential for use in meat, poultry, and seafood since alginate coatings are already used in these products. Further studies are needed to test the LPS incorporated edible films in real food systems.

  9. Systemic Administration of Platelets Incorporating Inactivated Sendai Virus Eradicates Melanoma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Tomoyuki; Tung, Li Yu; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2014-01-01

    Tumor microenvironments include a number of fibrin clots due to the microbleeding caused by cancer cell invasion into blood vessels, which suggests the potential utility of a platelet vector for systemic cancer treatment. We previously reported that inactivated Sendai virus (hemagglutinating virus of Japan; HVJ) envelope (HVJ-E) activates anti-tumor immunity and induces cancer cell-selective apoptosis. The hemagglutination activity that blocks the systemic administration of HVJ-E was dramatically attenuated by incorporation into platelets. Platelets incorporating HVJ-E (PH complex) were then injected into the tail veins of B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice. The PH complex primarily accumulated in tumor tissues and caused the significant accumulation of various immune cells in the tumor bed. Injections of the PH complex to the melanoma-bearing mouse significantly reduced the tumor size, and the tumor growth was ultimately arrested. Secretion of the chemokine regulated upon activation normal T-expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES) was upregulated following PH stimulation. The RANTES-depletion in melanoma-bearing mice significantly attenuated the cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and led to a dramatic abrogation of the mouse melanoma suppression induced by the PH complex. Thus, a platelet vector incorporating viral particles, a Trojan horse for cancer treatment, will provide a new approach for cancer therapy using oncolytic viruses. PMID:25023327

  10. Oximetry system performance assessment with POM (acetal) phantoms incorporating hemoglobin calibration standards and customized saturation levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyounguk; Singh, Karam; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Pfefer, T. J.; Chen, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Standardized approaches for performance assessment of biophotonic devices have the potential to facilitate system development and intercomparison, clinical trial standardization, recalibration, manufacturing quality control and quality assurance during clinical use. Evaluation of devices based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for detection of hemoglobin (Hb) content and oxygenation have often involved tissue-simulating phantoms incorporating artificial dyes or flow systems. Towards the development of simple, effective techniques for objective, quantitative evaluation of basic NIRS system performance, we have developed and evaluated two test methods. These methods are based on cuvette inserts in solid turbid phantoms for measuring commercially-available Hb oximetry standards and custom-formulated oxy/deoxy-Hb solutions. Both approaches incorporate solid acetal, or polyoxymethylene (POM), as a tissue-simulating matrix material. First, inverse-adding-doubling (IAD) based on measurements with a spectrophotometer and an integrating sphere was used to measure POM optical properties and their stability over time. Second, two fiberopticprobe- based NIRS systems were used to measure concentration change of oxy- and deoxy-Hb in standard Hb solutions and customized Hb solutions by adding yeast. Differences in system performance were likely due to differences in light source outputs and fiberoptic probe design. Our preliminary results indicate that simple phantom-based approaches based on commercially available polymers and inclusions containing Hb standards, or controlled oxygenation levels may be useful for benchtop assessment of NIRS device quality for a variety of biophotonic devices.

  11. Staying on Top of Your Game and Scoring Big with Adobe Presenter Multimedia Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koury, Regina; Francis, Marcia J.; Gray, Catherine J.; Jardine, Spencer J.; Guo, Ruiling

    2010-01-01

    In order to reach distance students in times of financial uncertainty, librarians must be creative. While much has been written about Camtasia, Captivate and Jing tutorial software, Adobe Presenter, a Microsoft PowerPoint plug-in, has not been discussed. This article describes how our library team created multimedia tutorial projects at Idaho…

  12. Using Adobe Connect to Deliver Online Library Instruction to the RN to BSN Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a look at how one academic health sciences librarian brought mediated literature searching to the distance RN to BSN nursing students. It takes a look at why Adobe Connect was the webinar software that was selected to deliver online instruction to the students. The article explains how students participated in a pre-class survey…

  13. Phosphatic Permian rocks of the Adobe Range, Nevada, and their environment of deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketner, Keith Brindley

    1979-01-01

    Permian sedimentary rocks in the Adobe range, northern Nevada, are phosphatic, and although the particles of phosphate are relatively more disseminated, they closely resemble the rocks of the Phosphoria Formation. In the northern Adobe Range, where the entire Permian sequence is approximately correlative with the Phosphoria Formation, it is 200 m thick and averages 1.7 percent P2O5 . In the southern Adobe Range, the Permian sequence is more than 1,700 m thick, and the upper half which is roughly correlative with the Phosphoria Formation averages more than 2 percent P2O5. Some thin beds in rocks of Permian age contain more than 20 percent P2O5. Phosphatic rocks of the Adobe Range were deposited in shallow water among islands in the western part of the epicontinental Phosphoria sea. The continental margin and the open ocean lay far to the west. At the same time, the Phosphoria Formation was being deposited in the eastern and central parts of the Phosphoria sea. Theories based on the work of Kasakov done in 1937 relating phosphate deposition directly to sites of upwelling oceanic waters are questioned. Nondeposition of diluent materials such as detritus and carbonate is probably of more importance in producing phosphate in economic concentrations than is geographic position with respect to upwelling waters.

  14. Enriching Learning for First Year Chemistry Students: Introduction of Adobe Connect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Lye, Peter; Greatrex, Ben; Taylor, Michelle; Stupans, Ieva

    2013-01-01

    The study of chemistry is central within science and other associated degrees. At the University of New England in Armidale academics need to provide chemistry teaching in both a distance and the traditional on-campus mode within science and other degrees. This study explores the contribution that the adoption of Adobe Connect technology can make…

  15. Building on Tradition: The Art of Adobe and the Revival of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Amanda; Swan, Susan

    2001-01-01

    A New Mexico foundation helps primarily Hispanic and American Indian communities restore adobe churches by supplying technical assistance and matching grants. Community leadership of the projects enhances volunteer commitment. The projects build community cohesiveness and pride, maintain local culture, foster intergenerational relations, teach…

  16. Using Adobe Flash Animations of Electron Transport Chain to Teach and Learn Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash…

  17. Using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones for psychological research: Reaction time measurement reliability and interdevice variability.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2008-11-01

    Mobile telephones have significant potential for use in psychological research, possessing unique characteristics-not least their ubiquity--that may make them useful tools for psychologists. We examined whether it is possible to measure reaction times (RTs) accurately using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones. We ran simple and choice RT experiments on two widely available mobile phones, a Nokia 6110 Navigator and a Sony Ericsson W810i, using a wireless application protocol (WAP) connection to access the Internet from the devices. RTs were compared within subjects with those obtained using a Linux-based millisecond-accurate measurement system. Results show that measured RTs were significantly longer on mobile devices, and that overall RTs and distribution of RTs varied across devices.

  18. Technological incorporation in the Unified Health System (SUS): the problem and ensuing challenges.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2014-12-01

    Technological incorporation is a central topic among the concerns regarding health care systems. This paper discusses the role of technology dynamics in health systems' cost increases, suggesting two different approaches - a 'pragmatic-economic' approach and a 'rational-defensive' approach - as guidelines to explain the reasons for this centrality. The paper shows how judicialization results from this situation and discusses two doctrinal views - 'reserve for contingencies' and 'rational use' - as the views that usually guide the debates in the courts and among health policy makers. The paper suggests that the attitude currently prevalent in the Brazilian judiciary system can prejudice the principle of equity by improperly evaluating the principle of integrality. We present a brief genealogy of HTA and a timeline of HTA in Brazil. We also discuss the relevance and the impact of Law 12401/2011, which regulates the principle of integrality in the Unified Health System (SUS) and propose three challenges to the development of HTA actions aiming at technology incorporation in Brazil. Finally, we discuss the entry and the role of private health insurance companies, emphasizing changes in the scenario and in their position. PMID:25388198

  19. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 binding and incorporation in PLGA microsphere delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Schrier, J A; DeLuca, P P

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the binding capacity and kinetics, and total incorporation of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in microspheres made from hydrophilic and hydrophobic poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Polymers were characterized by molecular weight, polydispersity, and acid number. Microspheres were produced via a water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion system and characterized for bulk density, size, specific surface area, and porosity. Protein concentrations were determined by reversed phase HPLC. Protein was loaded by soaking microspheres in a buffered solution, pH 4.5, of rhBMP-2, decanting excess liquid, and vacuum drying the wetted particles. Total loading and binding were determined by comparing protein concentration remaining to non-microsphere containing samples. Polymer acid number was the dominant polymer feature affecting the binding. Higher acid values correlated with increased rhBMP-2 binding. The amount of non-bound incorporated rhBMP-2 linearly correlated with the concentration of protein used in binding. High rhBMP-2 concentrations inhibit binding to PLGA microspheres. Binding was also inhibited by increased lactide content in the PLGA polymer. The polymer characteristics controlling rhBMP-2 binding to PLGA microspheres are acid value foremost followed by molecular weight and lactide/glycolide ratio. The total amount of rhBMP-2 incorporated depends on the bound amount and on the amount of free protein present.

  20. Development of a novel surgical support instrument and virtual system incorporating new tactile sensor technology.

    PubMed

    Omata, Sadao; Murayama, Yoshinobu; Constantinou, Christos E

    2004-01-01

    Surgical practice would be significantly enhanced with robotic systems incorporating tactile sensors. Current tactile sensor technology consists mainly of strain gauge elements having a limited bandwidth. A novel tactile sensor system, has been developed using a piezoelectric transducer(PZT), to simulate the properties of the human hand for use as a surgical support instrument and a palpation probe. Visualization of tactile information as an audio signal is provided, representing tissue properties in terms of an amplitude and frequency modulated signal. Representative data measured from pig brain, lung, pancreas, tongue and liver show that the changes in frequency corresponds to tissues stiffness and contact pressure. The technology developed in this new surgical support system has potential applications in virtual systems or robotic tele-medical care.

  1. Incorporation of inorganic material in anoxic/aerobic-activated sludge system mixed liquor.

    PubMed

    Wentzel, M C; Ubisi, M F; Lakay, M T; Ekama, G A

    2002-12-01

    In the bioreactor of the nitrification denitrification (ND)-activated sludge system, the mixed liquor is made up of organic and inorganic materials. In the current design procedures and simulation models, the influent wastewater characteristics and biological processes that influence the bioreactor mixed liquor organic solids (as volatile suspended solids, VSS, or COD) are explicitly included. However, the mixed liquor total suspended solids (TSS, i.e. organic + inorganic solids) are calculated simply from empirical ratios of VSS/TSS. The TSS concentration is fundamental in the design of secondary settling tanks and waste activated sludge disposal. Clearly, the empirical approach to obtaining an estimate for TSS is not satisfactory within the framework of a fundamentally based model. Accordingly, the incorporation of the inorganic material present in the influent wastewater into ND-activated sludge system mixed liquor was investigated. From an experimental investigation into the distribution of inorganics in the influent, mixed liquor and effluent of a laboratory-scale ND-activated sludge system, it was concluded inter alia that (i) of the total inorganic solids in the influent, only a small fraction (2.8-7.5%) is incorporated into the mixed liquor, (ii) most of the inorganics in the influent (mean 88%) and effluent (mean 98.5%) are in the dissolved form, the balance being particulate, and (iii) the influent and effluent inorganic dissolved solids concentrations are closely equal (mean effluent to influent ratio 100%). Further, a number of models were developed to quantify the mixed liquor inorganic, and, hence, total solids. From an evaluation of these models against the experimental data, it would appear that the best approach to model the incorporation of inorganics into the activated sludge mixed liquor is to follow the concepts and principles used to develop the existing models for organic materials. With this approach, reasonably close correlation between

  2. Sampling of air streams and incorporation of samples in the Microtox{trademark} toxicity testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinheinz, G.T.; St. John, W.P.

    1997-10-01

    A study was conducted to develop a rapid and reliable method for the collection and incorporation of biofiltration air samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Microtox toxicity testing system. To date, no method exists for this type of assay. A constant stream of VOCs was generated by air stripping compounds from a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Samples were collected on coconut charcoal ORBO tubes and the VOCs extracted with methylene chloride. The compounds extracted were then solvent exchanged into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under gaseous nitrogen. The resulting DMSO extract was directly incorporated into the Microtox toxicity testing system. In order to determine the efficiency of the solvent exchange, the VOCs in the DMSO extract were then extracted into hexane and subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID). It was determined that all but the most volatile VOCs could be effectively transferred from the ORBO tubes to DMSO for Microtox testing. Potential trace amounts of residual methylene chloride in the DMSO extracts showed no adverse effects in the Microtox system when compared to control samples.

  3. Incorporating system latency associated with real-time target tracking radiotherapy in the dose prediction step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, Teboh; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Shi, Chengyu; Papanikolaou, Nikos

    2010-05-01

    System latency introduces geometric errors in the course of real-time target tracking radiotherapy. This effect can be minimized, for example by the use of predictive filters, but cannot be completely avoided. In this work, we present a convolution technique that can incorporate the effect as part of the treatment planning process. The method can be applied independently or in conjunction with the predictive filters to compensate for residual latency effects. The implementation was performed on TrackBeam (Initia Ltd, Israel), a prototype real-time target tracking system assembled and evaluated at our Cancer Institute. For the experimental system settings examined, a Gaussian distribution attributable to the TrackBeam latency was derived with σ = 3.7 mm. The TrackBeam latency, expressed as an average response time, was deduced to be 172 ms. Phantom investigations were further performed to verify the convolution technique. In addition, patient studies involving 4DCT volumes of previously treated lung cancer patients were performed to incorporate the latency effect in the dose prediction step. This also enabled us to effectively quantify the dosimetric and radiobiological impact of the TrackBeam and other higher latency effects on the clinical outcome of a real-time target tracking delivery.

  4. Incorporating MRI structural information into bioluminescence tomography: system, heterogeneous reconstruction and in vivo quantification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Chen, Duofang; Liang, Jimin; Xue, Huadan; Lei, Jing; Wang, Qin; Chen, Dongmei; Meng, Ming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Combining two or more imaging modalities to provide complementary information has become commonplace in clinical practice and in preclinical and basic biomedical research. By incorporating the structural information provided by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the ill poseness nature of bioluminescence tomography (BLT) can be reduced significantly, thus improve the accuracies of reconstruction and in vivo quantification. In this paper, we present a small animal imaging system combining multi-view and multi-spectral BLT with MRI. The independent MRI-compatible optical device is placed at the end of the clinical MRI scanner. The small animal is transferred between the light tight chamber of the optical device and the animal coil of MRI via a guide rail during the experiment. After the optical imaging and MRI scanning procedures are finished, the optical images are mapped onto the MRI surface by interactive registration between boundary of optical images and silhouette of MRI. Then, incorporating the MRI structural information, a heterogeneous reconstruction algorithm based on finite element method (FEM) with L 1 normalization is used to reconstruct the position, power and region of the light source. In order to validate the feasibility of the system, we conducted experiments of nude mice model implanted with artificial light source and quantitative analysis of tumor inoculation model with MDA-231-GFP-luc. Preliminary results suggest the feasibility and effectiveness of the prototype system. PMID:24940545

  5. Inhibition of growth in solid solution-aqueous solution systems by non-incorporating impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, Carlos M.

    2011-03-01

    Crystal growth inhibition by non-incorporating impurities has been described and quantified since 1958 by the so-called step pinning model by Cabrera and Vermilyea [1]. In the original model, as well as in its recent improvements by Weaver et al. in 2006 and 2007 [2,3], only the inhibition by the adsorption of impurities on crystal surfaces with fixed compositions is considered. However, most of the crystals found in nature are solid solutions with more or less wide chemical variability. Therefore, in order to provide more realistic models of crystal growth inhibition in natural systems, it is fundamental to study in detail the inhibition of surfaces of solid solutions by non-incorporating impurities. In this paper, the Cabrera-Vermilyea model has been generalised for the case of growth inhibition in solid solution-aqueous solution (SS-AS) systems. This generalisation was made by considering that supersaturation and the physicochemical properties of the solid solutions are functions of the solid composition. The main implication of the model is that a progressive inhibition of growth of a solid solution by increasing the concentration of an adsorbed impurity results in compositional changes on the growing surfaces.

  6. Freeing Space for NASA: Incorporating a Lossless Compression Algorithm into NASA's FOSS System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiechtner, Kaitlyn; Parker, Allen

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Fiber Optic Strain Sensing (FOSS) system can gather and store up to 1,536,000 bytes (1.46 megabytes) per second. Since the FOSS system typically acquires hours - or even days - of data, the system can gather hundreds of gigabytes of data for a given test event. To store such large quantities of data more effectively, NASA is modifying a Lempel-Ziv-Oberhumer (LZO) lossless data compression program to compress data as it is being acquired in real time. After proving that the algorithm is capable of compressing the data from the FOSS system, the LZO program will be modified and incorporated into the FOSS system. Implementing an LZO compression algorithm will instantly free up memory space without compromising any data obtained. With the availability of memory space, the FOSS system can be used more efficiently on test specimens, such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that can be in flight for days. By integrating the compression algorithm, the FOSS system can continue gathering data, even on longer flights.

  7. Incorporating grazing into an eco-hydrologic model: Simulating coupled human and natural systems in rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, J. J.; Liu, M.; Tague, C.; Choate, J. S.; Evans, R. D.; Johnson, K. A.; Adam, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Rangelands provide an opportunity to investigate the coupled feedbacks between human activities and natural ecosystems. These areas comprise at least one-third of the Earth's surface and provide ecological support for birds, insects, wildlife and agricultural animals including grazing lands for livestock. Capturing the interactions among water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles within the context of regional scale patterns of climate and management is important to understand interactions, responses, and feedbacks between rangeland systems and humans, as well as provide relevant information to stakeholders and policymakers. The overarching objective of this research is to understand the full consequences, intended and unintended, of human activities and climate over time in rangelands by incorporating dynamics related to rangeland management into an eco-hydrologic model that also incorporates biogeochemical and soil processes. Here we evaluate our model over ungrazed and grazed sites for different rangeland ecosystems. The Regional Hydro-ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) is a process-based, watershed-scale model that couples water with carbon and nitrogen cycles. Climate, soil, vegetation, and management effects within the watershed are represented in a nested landscape hierarchy to account for heterogeneity and the lateral movement of water and nutrients. We incorporated a daily time-series of plant biomass loss from rangeland to represent grazing. The TRY Plant Trait Database was used to parameterize genera of shrubs and grasses in different rangeland types, such as tallgrass prairie, Intermountain West cold desert, and shortgrass steppe. In addition, other model parameters captured the reallocation of carbon and nutrients after grass defoliation. Initial simulations were conducted at the Curlew Valley site in northern Utah, a former International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Desert Biome site. We found that grasses were most sensitive to model parameters affecting

  8. EAM-based multiband OFDM systems incorporating PAPR reduction and SSII cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengfei; Shi, Hu; Chen, Xue

    2016-04-01

    Multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) subcarrier allocation is a good scheme to fully utilize the available bandwidth under the restriction of dispersion- and chirp-induced power fading in electro-absorption modulator (EAM)-based intensity-modulation-direct-detection (IMDD) OFDM system. In this paper, a modified Tone Reservation (TR) technique combined with subcarrier interleaving is proposed to reduce high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) while minimizing the penalty of subcarrier-to-subcarrier intermixing interference. In the experiment, by incorporating of these two techniques, the receiver sensitivity is improved by about 1.8 dB when a 20 Gbps OFDM signal transmitted along 100 km long single mode fiber in an EAM-based multiband IMDD-OFDM system.

  9. Bulk electric system reliability evaluation incorporating wind power and demand side management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dange

    correlations and the interactive effects of wind power and load forecast uncertainty on system reliability are examined. The concept of the security cost associated with operating in the marginal state in the well-being framework is incorporated in the economic analyses associated with system expansion planning including wind power and load forecast uncertainty. Overall reliability cost/worth analyses including security cost concepts are applied to select an optimal wind power injection strategy in a bulk electric system. The effects of the various demand side management measures on system reliability are illustrated using the system, load point, and well-being indices, and the reliability index probability distributions. The reliability effects of demand side management procedures in a bulk electric system including wind power and load forecast uncertainty considerations are also investigated. The system reliability effects due to specific demand side management programs are quantified and examined in terms of their reliability benefits.

  10. Is It Worth the Effort? The Impact of Incorporating Synchronous Lectures into an Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joann S.; McCracken, Fawn E.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores student achievement, sense of social community, and sense of learning community (Rovai, 2002) in two sections of an online course taught concurrently by the same instructor. One section was delivered in a fully asynchronous format; the other incorporated weekly synchronous lectures using an Adobe Connect environment. Students…

  11. Incorporating operational flexibility into electric generation planning Impacts and methods for system design and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmintier, Bryan S.

    This dissertation demonstrates how flexibility in hourly electricity operations can impact long-term planning and analysis for future power systems, particularly those with substantial variable renewables (e.g., wind) or strict carbon policies. Operational flexibility describes a power system's ability to respond to predictable and unexpected changes in generation or demand. Planning and policy models have traditionally not directly captured the technical operating constraints that determine operational flexibility. However, as demonstrated in this dissertation, this capability becomes increasingly important with the greater flexibility required by significant renewables (>= 20%) and the decreased flexibility inherent in some low-carbon generation technologies. Incorporating flexibility can significantly change optimal generation and energy mixes, lower system costs, improve policy impact estimates, and enable system designs capable of meeting strict regulatory targets. Methodologically, this work presents a new clustered formulation that tractably combines a range of normally distinct power system models, from hourly unit-commitment operations to long-term generation planning. This formulation groups similar generators into clusters to reduce problem size, while still retaining the individual unit constraints required to accurately capture operating reserves and other flexibility drivers. In comparisons against traditional unit commitment formulations, errors were generally less than 1% while run times decreased by several orders of magnitude (e.g., 5000x). Extensive numerical simulations, using a realistic Texas-based power system show that ignoring flexibility can underestimate carbon emissions by 50% or result in significant load and wind shedding to meet environmental regulations. Contributions of this dissertation include: 1. Demonstrating that operational flexibility can have an important impact on power system planning, and describing when and how these

  12. Image editing with Adobe Photoshop 6.0.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Ronald D; Postel, Gregory C

    2002-01-01

    The authors introduce Photoshop 6.0 for radiologists and demonstrate basic techniques of editing gray-scale cross-sectional images intended for publication and for incorporation into computerized presentations. For basic editing of gray-scale cross-sectional images, the Tools palette and the History/Actions palette pair should be displayed. The History palette may be used to undo a step or series of steps. The Actions palette is a menu of user-defined macros that save time by automating an action or series of actions. Converting an image to 8-bit gray scale is the first editing function. Cropping is the next action. Both decrease file size. Use of the smallest file size necessary for the purpose at hand is recommended. Final file size for gray-scale cross-sectional neuroradiologic images (8-bit, single-layer TIFF [tagged image file format] at 300 pixels per inch) intended for publication varies from about 700 Kbytes to 3 Mbytes. Final file size for incorporation into computerized presentations is about 10-100 Kbytes (8-bit, single-layer, gray-scale, high-quality JPEG [Joint Photographic Experts Group]), depending on source and intended use. Editing and annotating images before they are inserted into presentation software is highly recommended, both for convenience and flexibility. Radiologists should find that image editing can be carried out very rapidly once the basic steps are learned and automated.

  13. Sulfisoxazole/cyclodextrin inclusion complex incorporated in electrospun hydroxypropyl cellulose nanofibers as drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Aytac, Zeynep; Sen, Huseyin Sener; Durgun, Engin; Uyar, Tamer

    2015-04-01

    Herein, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) inclusion complex (IC) of a hydrophobic drug, sulfisoxazole (SFS) was incorporated in hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) nanofibers (HPC/SFS/HPβCD-IC-NF) via electrospinning. SFS/HPβCD-IC was characterized by DSC to investigate the formation of inclusion complex and the stoichiometry of the complex was determined by Job's plot. Modeling studies were also performed on SFS/HPβCD-IC using ab initio technique. SEM images depicted the defect free uniform fibers and confirmed the incorporation of SFS/HPβCD-IC in nanofibers did not alter the fiber morphology. XRD analyses showed amorphous distribution of SFS/HPβCD-IC in the fiber mat. Release studies were performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results suggest higher amount of SFS released from HPC/SFS/HPβCD-IC-NF when compared to free SFS containing HPC nanofibers (HPC/SFS-NF). This was attributed to the increased solubility of SFS by inclusion complexation. Sandwich configurations were prepared by placing HPC/SFS/HPβCD-IC-NF between electrospun PCL nanofibrous mat (PCL-HPC/SFS/HPβCD-IC-NF). Consequently, PCL-HPC/SFS/HPβCD-IC-NF exhibited slower release of SFS as compared with HPC/SFS/HPβCD-IC-NF. This study may provide more efficient future strategies for developing delivery systems of hydrophobic drugs. PMID:25769282

  14. Real-time data system: Incorporating new technology in mission critical environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.; Heindel, Troy A.

    1990-01-01

    If the Space Station Freedom is to remain viable over its 30-year life span, it must be able to incorporate new information systems technologies. These technologies are necessary to enhance mission effectiveness and to enable new NASA missions, such as supporting the Lunar-Mars Initiative. Hi-definition television (HDTV), neural nets, model-based reasoning, advanced languages, CPU designs, and computer networking standards are areas which have been forecasted to make major strides in the next 30 years. A major challenge to NASA is to bring these technologies online without compromising mission safety. In past programs, NASA managers have been understandably reluctant to rely on new technologies for mission critical activities until they are proven in noncritical areas. NASA must develop strategies to allow inflight confidence building and migration of technologies into the trusted tool base. NASA has successfully met this challenge and developed a winning strategy in the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center. This facility, which is clearly among NASA's most critical, is based on 1970's mainframe architecture. Changes to the mainframe are very expensive due to the extensive testing required to prove that changes do not have unanticipated impact on critical processes. Systematic improvement efforts in this facility have been delayed due to this 'risk to change.' In the real-time data system (RTDS) we have introduced a network of engineering computer workstations which run in parallel to the mainframe system. These workstations are located next to flight controller operating positions in mission control and, in some cases, the display units are mounted in the traditional mainframe consoles. This system incorporates several major improvements over the mainframe consoles including automated fault detection by real-time expert systems and color graphic animated schematics of subsystems driven by real-time telemetry. The workstations have the capability of recording

  15. Van earthquakes (23 October 2011 and 9 November 2011) and performance of masonry and adobe structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güney, D.

    2012-11-01

    Earthquakes, which are unavoidable natural phenomena in Turkey, have often produced economic and social disaster. The latest destructive earthquakes happened in Van city. Van, Turkey, earthquakes with M = 7.2 occurred on 23 October 2011 at 13:41 (local time), whose epicenter was about 16 km north of Van (Tabanlı village) and M = 5.6 on 9 November 2011 epicentered near the town of Edremit south of Van in eastern Turkey and caused the loss of life and heavy damages. Both earthquakes killed 644 people and 2608 people were injured. Approximately 4000 buildings collapsed or were seriously damaged. The majority of the damaged structures were seismically insufficient, unreinforced masonry and adobe buildings in rural areas. In this paper, site surveys of the damaged masonry and adobe buildings are presented and the reasons for the caused damages are discussed in detail.

  16. Reduction in burst release of PLGA microparticles by incorporation into cubic phase-forming systems.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abid Riaz; Dashevsky, Andrei; Bodmeier, Roland

    2008-11-01

    A high initial burst release of an phosphorothioate oligonucleotide drug from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles prepared by the w/o/w solvent extraction/evaporation was reduced by incorporating the microparticles into the following glycerol monooleate (GMO) formulations: 1) pure molten GMO, 2) preformed cubic phase (GMO+water) or 3) low viscosity in situ cubic phase-forming formulations (GMO+water+cosolvent). The in situ cubic phase-forming formulations had a low viscosity in contrast to the first two formulations resulting in good dispersability of the microparticles and good syringability/injectability. Upon contact with an aqueous phase, a highly viscous cubic phase formed immediately entrapping the microparticles. A low initial burst and a continuous extended release over several weeks was obtained with all investigated formulations. The drug release profile could be well controlled by the cosolvent composition with the in situ systems.

  17. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-04-01

    Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg)-contaminated urban areas in the world. Exposure is amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. The objectives of this study were to compare two Hg-leaching procedures, and their application as risk-assessment screening tools in Hg-contaminated adobe brick homes in Huancavelica. The purpose was to evaluate potential health implications, particularly for children, after ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. Hg was measured in adobe brick and dirt floor samples from 60 households by total Hg extraction, simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction, and sequential selective extraction (SSE), which provides more detailed data but is resource-intensive. Most of the Hg present in samples was relatively insoluble, although in some households soluble Hg species were present at concentrations that may be of concern after ingestion. A strong correlation was identified between results from simulated GF extraction of adobe bricks and dirt floors and the more soluble fractions of Hg from SSE. Simulated GF extraction data were combined with ingestion and body mass characteristics for small children to compare potential risk of ingestion of Hg-contaminated soil with current health standards. Simulated GF extraction can be used as a risk assessment screening tool for effective allocation of time and resources to households that have measurable concentrations of bioaccessible Hg. Combining simulated GF extraction data with health standards enables intervention strategies targeted at households with the greatest potential health threat from ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles.

  18. SAI (Systems Applications, Incorporated) airshed model operations manuals. Volume 2: Systems manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, J.; Hayes, S. R.; Myers, T. C.; Whitney, D. C.

    1985-04-01

    The SAI Airshed Model System is described fro a programmer's point of view. Included are discussions of all subroutines and how they fit together, run-time core allocation techniques, internal methods of segment handling using secondary storage, and detailed definitions of the structure of each file in the ystem. This manual also includes suggestions for implementing the programs on different computers. The SAI Airshed Model System consists of 17 programs that communicate with each other through 17; data files; both the programs and files are described in detail in this manual. An overview briefly describing the programs used to perform each of the five system functions is presented. Guidelines for implementing the programs, detailed descriptions of the programs by function, including hierarchical subroutine tables and short module descriptions, and detailed file structure definitions for each file in the system are given.

  19. Multi-sensory surgical support system incorporating, tactile, visual and auditory perception modalities.

    PubMed

    Omata, Sadao; Murayama, Yoshinobu; Constantinou, Christos E

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of novel broad band sensory modalities, integrating tactile technology, with visual and auditory signals into the evolution of the next generation of surgical robotic is likely to significantly enhance their utility and safety. In this paper considerations are made of a system, where tactile information together with visual and audio feedback are integrated into a multisensory surgical support platform. The tactile sensor system uses a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) system to evaluate the haptic properties of tissues. The spatial position of the sensor is tracked by a video camera, visualizing the location of the marker. Tactile information is additionally converted to an audio signal, to represent tissue properties in terms of a frequency/amplitude modulated signal. Representative data were obtained from biological tissues demonstrating that the technology developed has potential applications in virtual systems or robotic tele-medical care. In view of these technical developments, consideration is made as to whether visual audio and tactile modalities act as independent sources of information.

  20. High-Density Cell Systems Incorporating Polymer Microspheres as Microenvironmental Regulators in Engineered Cartilage Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Solorio, Loran D.; Vieregge, Eran L.; Dhami, Chirag D.

    2013-01-01

    To address the significant clinical need for tissue-engineered therapies for the repair and regeneration of articular cartilage, many systems have recently been developed using bioactive polymer microspheres as regulators of the chondrogenic microenvironment within high-density cell cultures. In this review, we highlight various densely cellular systems utilizing polymer microspheres as three-dimensional (3D) structural elements within developing engineered cartilage tissue, carriers for cell expansion and delivery, vehicles for spatiotemporally controlled growth factor delivery, and directors of cell behavior via regulation of cell–biomaterial interactions. The diverse systems described herein represent a shift from the more traditional tissue engineering approach of combining cells and growth factors within a biomaterial scaffold, to the design of modular systems that rely on the assembly of cells and bioactive polymer microspheres as building blocks to guide the creation of articular cartilage. Cell-based assembly of 3D microsphere-incorporated structures represents a promising avenue for the future of tissue engineering. PMID:23126333

  1. The effectiveness of incorporating a real-time oculometer system in a commercial flight training program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. H.; Coates, G. D.; Kirby, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of incroporating a real-time oculometer system into a Boeing 737 commercial flight training program was studied. The study combined a specialized oculometer system with sophisticated video equipment that would allow instructor pilots (IPs) to monitor pilot and copilot trainees' instrument scan behavior in real-time, and provide each trainee with video tapes of his/her instrument scanning behavior for each training session. The IPs' performance ratings and trainees' self-ratings were compared to the performance ratings by IPs and trainees in a control group. The results indicate no difference in IP ratings or trainees' self-ratings for the control and experimental groups. The results indicated that the major beneficial role of a real-time oculometer system for pilots and copilots having a significant amount of flight experience would be for problem solving or refinement of instrument scanning behavior rather than a general instructional scheme. It is suggested that this line of research be continued with the incorporation of objective data (e.g., state of the aircraft data), measures of cost effectiveness and with trainees having less flight experience.

  2. Release kinetics of acyclovir from a suspension of acyclovir incorporated in a cubic phase delivery system.

    PubMed

    Helledi, L S; Schubert, L

    2001-11-01

    Acyclovir is a widely used agent in the treatment of herpes virus infections of the skin, but owing to its poor physicochemical properties in terms of bioavailability and suboptimal formulations, the treatment is far from optimal. The liquid crystalline cubic phase system has been reported to act as a bioadhesive drug delivery system. In the present study, acyclovir was suspended in a cubic phase of glycerol monooleate (GMO) and water 65%:35% w/w, and the phase behavior and release kinetics were examined. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements demonstrated that the cubic phase containing 1%-10% (w/w) acyclovir retains its phase condition in the temperature range investigated (20 degrees C-70 degrees C). Acyclovir can be incorporated in high amounts (approximately 40% w/w) without causing phase transition, as is shown in polarized light. This is probably because of its low solubility (approximately 0.11% w/w) in the cubic phase. The release characteristics of acyclovir incorporated as a suspension (1%-5% w/w) into a cubic phase were investigated using Franz diffusion cells. Acyclovir was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug was readily released from the system, and the release increased with the initial drug load concentration. About 25%-50% was released after 24 h. The release is dependent on the square root of time, and the kinetics can be described by the Higuchi theory. The rate-limiting step in the release process is most likely diffusion. The suggested theory is further supported by identical release data obtained for micronized and nonmicronized acyclovir. The fluxes for 1% and 5% w/w were 380 and 900 microg/h(1/2), respectively. Comparison of the release rates of acyclovir delivered from a cubic phase and from the commercial product, Zovir cream, showed the rate to be six times faster from the cubic phase. The results indicate that the cubic phase is a promising drug delivery system for

  3. 42 CFR 425.504 - Incorporating reporting requirements related to the Physician Quality Reporting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE SHARED SAVINGS PROGRAM Quality Performance Standards and Reporting § 425.504 Incorporating reporting...

  4. Numerical investigation of high temperature heat pipe incorporated in thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, Mahboobe; Qiu, Songgang; Tiari, Saeed

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, a new type of high temperature heat pipe is investigated which can be incorporated in the thermal energy storage for concentrated solar power systems. A detailed two dimensional axisymmetric numerical procedure is developed to analyze the steady state thermal-hydrodynamic characteristics of the heat pipe. The model accounts for conduction in the wall and wick regions as well as compressible flow in vapor chambers. The geometrical features, working fluid type, wick structure and operational temperature of the heat pipe are adjusted satisfying the heat transport limitations. The proposed numerical model agrees well with available experimental data. The effects of evaporator heat input and vapor core radius on the vapor velocity and pressure fields, vapor and wall temperature distributions as well as heat pipe thermal resistance are studied. The results revealed that the thermal resistance increases with the increase of heat input while decreases with the increase of radius, however, there exists a certain radius which further increase over would not affect the thermal resistance significantly.

  5. Incorporation and characterization of biological molecules in droplet-interface bilayer networks for novel active systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarles, Stephen A.; Ghanbari Bavarsad, Pegah; Leo, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    Biological molecules including phospholipids and proteins offer scientists and engineers a diverse selection of materials to develop new types of active materials and smart systems based on ion conduction. The inherent energy-coupling abilities of these components create novel kinds of transduction elements. Networks formed from droplet-interface bilayers (DIB) are a promising construct for creating cell mimics that allow for the assembly and study of these active biological molecules. The current-voltage relationship of symmetric, "lipid-in" dropletinterface bilayers are characterized using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). "Lipid-in" diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) droplet-interface bilayers have specific resistances of nearly 10MΩ•cm2 and rupture at applied potentials greater than 300mV, indicating the "lipid-in" approach produces higher quality interfacial membranes than created using the original "lipid-out" method. The incorporation of phospholipids into the droplet interior allows for faster monolayer formation but does not inhibit the selfinsertion of transmembrane proteins into bilayer interfaces that separate adjacent droplets. Alamethicin proteins inserted into single and multi-DIB networks produce a voltage-dependent membrane conductance and current measurements on bilayers containing this type of protein exhibit a reversible, 3-4 order-of-magnitude conductance increase upon application of voltage.

  6. Burst-mode-operated, sub-nanosecond fiber MOPA system incorporating direct seed-packet shaping.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Hao; Kong, Wei; Shu, Rong

    2016-09-01

    We report a novel burst-mode-operated sub-nanosecond fiber Master Oscillator, Power Amplifier (MOPA) system incorporating direct seed-packet shaping without external modulators. A fast digital-to-analog converter with 1 Gsps sampling rate and 16 bit resolution was developed to control the pulse amplitudes and sequences of a distributed feedback semiconductor seed laser to realize packet-shaped burst mode operation. Optical pulses with durations as short as 700 ps and peak power as high as 1 W can be generated from the seed by applying proper reverse voltages after positive electrical pulses to the laser driver to cancel the residual charges at its gate electrode. The average power of the laser can be amplified to nearly 40 W with FWHM spectral linewidth of ~0.12 nm after three stages of polarization maintaining fiber amplifiers. Different packet shapes including ramp-off, Gaussian, square and double rectangle can be produced from the fiber MOPA by finely pre-shaping the seed pulse bursts. It is believed that such a laser has provided a cost-effective solution to the generation of pulse bursts with arbitrary packet shapes for different practical applications including material micromachining and nonlinear frequency conversion. PMID:27607699

  7. DEEPEN: A negation detection system for clinical text incorporating dependency relation into NegEx.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Krishnan, Anand; Sohn, Sunghwan; Roch, Alexandra M; Schmidt, Heidi; Kesterson, Joe; Beesley, Chris; Dexter, Paul; Max Schmidt, C; Liu, Hongfang; Palakal, Mathew

    2015-04-01

    In Electronic Health Records (EHRs), much of valuable information regarding patients' conditions is embedded in free text format. Natural language processing (NLP) techniques have been developed to extract clinical information from free text. One challenge faced in clinical NLP is that the meaning of clinical entities is heavily affected by modifiers such as negation. A negation detection algorithm, NegEx, applies a simplistic approach that has been shown to be powerful in clinical NLP. However, due to the failure to consider the contextual relationship between words within a sentence, NegEx fails to correctly capture the negation status of concepts in complex sentences. Incorrect negation assignment could cause inaccurate diagnosis of patients' condition or contaminated study cohorts. We developed a negation algorithm called DEEPEN to decrease NegEx's false positives by taking into account the dependency relationship between negation words and concepts within a sentence using Stanford dependency parser. The system was developed and tested using EHR data from Indiana University (IU) and it was further evaluated on Mayo Clinic dataset to assess its generalizability. The evaluation results demonstrate DEEPEN, which incorporates dependency parsing into NegEx, can reduce the number of incorrect negation assignment for patients with positive findings, and therefore improve the identification of patients with the target clinical findings in EHRs.

  8. New directions in capacity building: incorporating cultural competence into the interactive systems framework.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Henry; Van Orden, Onna; Jordan, Lisa; Portnoy, Galina A; Welsh, Elena; Betkowski, Jennifer; Charles, Jade Wolfman; DiClemente, Carlo C

    2012-12-01

    The UMBC Psychology Department's Center for Community Collaboration (CCC) provides training and support for capacity building to promote substance abuse and mental health treatment as well as adherence improvement in community agencies funded through the Ryan White Act serving persons living with HIV/AIDS. This article describes an approach to dissemination of Evidence Based Practices (EBPs) for these services that uses the Interactive Systems Framework (ISF) and incorporates a collaborative process involving trainer cultural competence, along with a comprehensive assessment of organizational needs, culture, and climate that culminates in tailored training and ongoing collaboration. This article provides: (1) an overview of the CCC's expanded ISF for the effective dissemination of two EBPs-motivational interviewing and the stages of change perspective; (2) an examination of the role of trainer cultural competence within the ISF framework, particularly attending to organizational culture and climate; and (3) case examples to demonstrate this approach for both general and innovation-specific capacity building in two community based organizations.

  9. Lidar-Incorporated Traffic Sign Detection from Video Log Images of Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Fan, J.; Huang, Y.; Chen, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping System (MMS) simultaneously collects the Lidar points and video log images in a scenario with the laser profiler and digital camera. Besides the textural details of video log images, it also captures the 3D geometric shape of point cloud. It is widely used to survey the street view and roadside transportation infrastructure, such as traffic sign, guardrail, etc., in many transportation agencies. Although many literature on traffic sign detection are available, they only focus on either Lidar or imagery data of traffic sign. Based on the well-calibrated extrinsic parameters of MMS, 3D Lidar points are, the first time, incorporated into 2D video log images to enhance the detection of traffic sign both physically and visually. Based on the local elevation, the 3D pavement area is first located. Within a certain distance and height of the pavement, points of the overhead and roadside traffic signs can be obtained according to the setup specification of traffic signs in different transportation agencies. The 3D candidate planes of traffic signs are then fitted using the RANSAC plane-fitting of those points. By projecting the candidate planes onto the image, Regions of Interest (ROIs) of traffic signs are found physically with the geometric constraints between laser profiling and camera imaging. The Random forest learning of the visual color and shape features of traffic signs is adopted to validate the sign ROIs from the video log images. The sequential occurrence of a traffic sign among consecutive video log images are defined by the geometric constraint of the imaging geometry and GPS movement. Candidate ROIs are predicted in this temporal context to double-check the salient traffic sign among video log images. The proposed algorithm is tested on a diverse set of scenarios on the interstate highway G-4 near Beijing, China under varying lighting conditions and occlusions. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm enhances the rate of detecting

  10. Novel vaginal controlled-delivery systems incorporating coprecipitates of nonoxynol-9.

    PubMed

    Digenis, G A; Nosek, D; Mohammadi, F; Darwazeh, N B; Anwar, H S; Zavos, P M

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate Nonoxynol-9 (N-9) into a solid coprecipitate form which can be used in preparing pharmaceutically attractive and nonirritating vaginal controlled-release delivery systems (DDSs) such as gelatin capsules (HGC) and tablets. N-9 was coprecipitated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with or without iodine to produce solid powders which were incorporated into either (a) bilayer tablet DDSs which possess a fast- (outer) and slow- (inner core) releasing compartment, and (b) HGC DDSs (named Triad HGC) composed of fast- (outer), intermediate- (granules), and slow- (pellets) releasing compartments. The rates of release of iodine and/or [14C]N-9 from the two DDSs were studied in vitro in phosphate buffer at pH 5.0, in human seminal plasma and in vivo after intravaginal administration in rabbits. In all of the above-described release studies, the DDSs were shown to release their N-9 or iodine content rapidly, reaching spermicidal levels within 3 min. This was further substantiated by experiments in which the DDSs were introduced in whole human semen containing live spermatozoa. Complete spermicidal kill was obtained in less than 1 min and in less than 3 min from the bilayer tablet and the Triad HGC, respectively. Furthermore, the release of N-9 from the two DDSs was shown to continue for at least 4 hr in buffers (pH 5.0), human seminal fluid, and after intravaginal administration in rabbits. The resulting powder from the coprecipitation of N-9 and PVP (K-30) can be appropriately formulated into a controlled-released HGC or bilayer tablet to produce vaginal controlled-release DDSs which are nonirritating and have the potential to become effective spermicidal products. PMID:10434288

  11. Dynamic modeling of the servovalves incorporated in the servo hydraulic system of the 70-meter DSN antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartos, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    As the pointing accuracy and service life requirements of the DSN 70 meter antenna increase, it is necessary to gain a more complete understanding of the servo hydraulic system in order to improve system designs to meet the new requirements. A mathematical model is developed for the servovalve incorporated into the hydraulic system of the 70 meter antenna and uses experimental data to verify the validity of the model and to identify the model parameters.

  12. A proposed combination radiant/convection system for an Arizona residence

    SciTech Connect

    Scheatzle, D.G.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes a proposed environmental control system to be demonstrated in a single-family detached residence in Arizona. The home is to be built of heavy mass (adobe) construction and will incorporate radiant surfaces in both the ceiling and the floor supplied by a hydronic source. A convective system will provide peak-load capability, replacement ventilation, and dehumidification control. A control system will be developed that is based on operative temperature. Sensors will monitor surface and temperatures, ambient air temperature, and indoor humidity. It is anticipated that the proposed system will provide a more stable comfort at a lower operating cost.

  13. Differential effects of opiates on the incorporation of [14C] thiamine in the central nervous system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Misra, A L; Vadlamani, N L; Pontani, R B

    1977-03-15

    Opiate agonist (morphine), pure antagonist (naloxone), mixed agonist-antagonist (nalorphine) and analgesically inactive enantiomorph (dextrorphan) produced differential stereoselective effects on the incorporation of [14C] thiamine in the central nervous system of the rats. The possible role of thiamine in opiate effects and its implications are discussed. PMID:858372

  14. Evolution from safety management system (SMS) to HSE MS: Incorporating health aspects into the HSE management system

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, G. de

    1996-12-31

    There is increasing recognition within the E&P industry that protection and promotion of the health of people at work is more than taking care of individual health. It is an organizational issue which can be managed using the same principles as for safety and environment. The synergy`s with safety and environmental management provide the link with the management system. However line managers need to under the critical Health issues: what are they are they relevant? How do we manage them? what are the standards? What are the management tools to be used? How do we monitor performance? What is the role of the line? What is the role of the health advisers? What training and competencies are needed for health management? What are the benefits? These questions have to be clarified before acceptance can be achieved for full integration of Health aspects into the HSE Management System. Health Risk Assessment was developed as a tool for systematic identification and assessment of health hazards and risks. It specifies the need for and type of controls and recovery measures, which can subsequently be incorporated in HSE Management System and HSE Cases. Our experience to date indicates that Health can successfully be integrated in HSE Management Systems and HSE Cases by using the same principles as developed for Safety Management Systems and Safety Cases. There are still many problems which need to be addressed but the methodology used appears to be sound and will eventually enhance line management understanding of the health management aspects relevant to the E&P Industry.

  15. Attitude towards the incorporation of the selective collection of biowaste in a municipal solid waste management system. A case study.

    PubMed

    Bernad-Beltrán, D; Simó, A; Bovea, M D

    2014-12-01

    European waste legislation has been encouraging for years the incorporation of selective collection systems for the biowaste fraction. European countries are therefore incorporating it into their current municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems. However, this incorporation involves changes in the current waste management habits of households. In this paper, the attitude of the public towards the incorporation of selective collection of biowaste into an existing MSWM system in a Spanish municipality is analysed. A semi-structured telephone interview was used to obtain information regarding aspects such as: level of participation in current waste collection systems, willingness to participate in selective collection of biowaste, reasons and barriers that affect participation, willingness to pay for the incorporation of the selective collection of biowaste and the socioeconomic characteristics of citizens who are willing to participate and pay for selective collection of biowaste. The results showed that approximately 81% of the respondents were willing to participate in selective collection of biowaste. This percentage would increase until 89% if the Town Council provided specific waste bins and bags, since the main barrier to participate in the new selective collection system is the need to use specific waste bin and bags for the separation of biowaste. A logit response model was applied to estimate the average willingness to pay, obtaining an estimated mean of 7.5% on top of the current waste management annual tax. The relationship of willingness to participate and willingness to pay for the implementation of this new selective collection with the socioeconomic variables (age, gender, size of the household, work, education and income) was analysed. Chi-square independence tests and binary logistic regression was used for willingness to participate, not being obtained any significant relationship. Chi-square independence tests, ordinal logistic regression and

  16. Cooling and welding history of the Bishop Tuff in Adobe Valley and Chidago Canyon, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Michael F.; Wang, Yunpeng

    2005-04-01

    A numerical model for cooling and welding of ash-flow tuffs was developed to obtain a quantitative understanding of the welding compaction that occurs during the cooling of ash-flow sheets and to evaluate the relative effects of emplacement temperature, thickness, and emplacement histories on compaction zonation (density profiles) of large ash-flow sheets. This model includes a set of two-phase, compressible Navier-Stokes equations for the transport of mass, momentum, and energy for a variable density volatile outfluxing through a porous media (ash-flow tuff). With this model we calculated theoretical compaction profiles (density vs. elevation) to match actual data measured in sections of Bishop Tuff. Compaction profiles from the Adobe basin indicate that there were 3 periods of non-deposition (5, 10, and 40 days) separating 4 distinct rapidly emplaced packets (REP) of pyroclastic flow deposition. In contrast, the 3 periods of quiescence (400, 20, and 800 days) between the 4 REPs in Chidago Canyon were considerably longer. These data constrain models of eruption for the Bishop Tuff by implying an eruption cycle that lasted longer than 3 years. The average calculated deposition temperatures for all 4 REPs in the Adobe basin are fairly uniform at 667±33 °C. In Chidago Canyon two of the REPs had a higher deposition temperature (˜660 °C) than the other two (534 °C).

  17. Striking antitumor activity of a methinium system with incorporated quinoxaline unit obtained by spontaneous cyclization.

    PubMed

    Bříza, T; Králová, J; Dolenský, B; Rimpelová, S; Kejík, Z; Ruml, T; Hajdúch, M; Džubák, P; Mikula, I; Martásek, P; Poučková, P; Král, V

    2015-03-01

    A novel pentamethinium salt was synthesized with an unforeseen expanded conjugated quinoxaline unit directly incorporated into a pentamethinium chain. The compound exhibited high fluorescence intensity, selective mitochondrial localization, high cytotoxicity, and selectivity toward malignant cell lines, and resulted in remarkable in vivo suppression of tumor growth in mice.

  18. 76 FR 75887 - SEDASYS Computer-Assisted Personalized Sedation System; Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Incorporated's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ..., 2011, is cancelled. This meeting was announced in the Federal Register of November 21, 2011 (76 FR.... (See 76 FR 15321, March 21, 2011.) In the Federal Register of November 21, 2011, FDA announced that...; Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Incorporated's Petition for Review of the Food and Drug Administration's Denial...

  19. Attitude towards the incorporation of the selective collection of biowaste in a municipal solid waste management system. A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bernad-Beltrán, D.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Attitude towards incorporating biowaste selective collection is analysed. • Willingness to participate and to pay in biowaste selective collection is obtained. • Socioeconomic aspects affecting WtParticipate and WtPay are identified. - Abstract: European waste legislation has been encouraging for years the incorporation of selective collection systems for the biowaste fraction. European countries are therefore incorporating it into their current municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems. However, this incorporation involves changes in the current waste management habits of households. In this paper, the attitude of the public towards the incorporation of selective collection of biowaste into an existing MSWM system in a Spanish municipality is analysed. A semi-structured telephone interview was used to obtain information regarding aspects such as: level of participation in current waste collection systems, willingness to participate in selective collection of biowaste, reasons and barriers that affect participation, willingness to pay for the incorporation of the selective collection of biowaste and the socioeconomic characteristics of citizens who are willing to participate and pay for selective collection of biowaste. The results showed that approximately 81% of the respondents were willing to participate in selective collection of biowaste. This percentage would increase until 89% if the Town Council provided specific waste bins and bags, since the main barrier to participate in the new selective collection system is the need to use specific waste bin and bags for the separation of biowaste. A logit response model was applied to estimate the average willingness to pay, obtaining an estimated mean of 7.5% on top of the current waste management annual tax. The relationship of willingness to participate and willingness to pay for the implementation of this new selective collection with the socioeconomic variables (age, gender, size of the

  20. The design and development of a long-term fall detection system incorporated into a custom vest for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Alan K; van de Ven, Pepijn W J; Chaya, Amy E; OLaighin, Gearóid M; Nelson, John

    2008-01-01

    A fall detection system and algorithm, incorporated into a custom designed garment has been developed. The developed fall detection system uses a tri-axial accelerometer, microcontroller, battery and Bluetooth module. This sensor is attached to a custom designed vest, designed to be worn by the elderly person under clothing. The fall detection algorithm was developed and incorporates both impact and posture detection capability. The vest and fall algorithm was tested on young healthy subjects performing normal activities of daily living (ADL) and falls onto crash mats, while wearing the best and sensor. Results show that falls can de distinguished from normal activities with a sensitivity >90% and a specificity of >99%, from a total data set of 264 falls and 165 normal ADL. By incorporating the fall-detection sensor into a custom designed garment it is anticipated that greater compliance when wearing a fall-detection system can be achieved and will help reduce the incidence of the long-lie, when falls occur in the elderly population. However further long-term testing using elderly subjects is required to validate the systems performance.

  1. Development of a wireless intra-ocular pressure monitoring system for incorporation into a therapeutic glaucoma drainage implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakaday, Tarun; Plunkett, Malcolm; McInnes, Steven; Li, Jim S. Jimmy; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Craig, Jamie E.

    2008-12-01

    Glaucoma is a common cause of blindness. Wireless, continuous monitoring of intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important, unsolved goal in managing glaucoma. An IOP monitoring system incorporated into a glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) overcomes the design complexity associated with incorporating a similar system in a more confined space within the eye. The device consists of a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based capacitive pressure sensor integrated with an inductor printed directly onto a polyimide printed circuit board (PCB). The device is designed to be incorporated onto the external plate of a therapeutic GDI. The resonance frequency changes as a function of IOP, and is tracked remotely using a spectrum analyzer. A theoretical model for the reader antenna was developed to enable maximal inductive coupling with the IOP sensor implant. Pressure chamber tests indicate that the sensor implant has adequate sensitivity in the IOP range with excellent reproducibility over time. Additionally, we show that sensor sensitivity does not change significantly after encapsulation with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to protect the device from fluid environment. In vitro experiments showed that the signal measured wirelessly through sheep corneal and scleral tissue was adequate indicating potential for using the system in human subjects.

  2. Adobe InDesign vs. QuarkXPress and PageMaker: The Best of Both Worlds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the newly released Adobe InDesign software, finding that while it brings new life into desktop publishing, it is not yet a "must buy" for publications advisers. Compares specific features that are relevant for student publications, including: character, paragraph, drop caps, define styles, page setup, text wrap, defining and using…

  3. Stability and Hopf bifurcation in a diffusive predator-prey system incorporating a prey refuge.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaoyuan; Wei, Junjie

    2013-08-01

    A diffusive predator-prey model with Holling type II functional response and the no-flux boundary condition incorporating a constant prey refuge is considered. Globally asymptotically stability of the positive equilibrium is obtained. Regarding the constant number of prey refuge m as a bifurcation parameter, by analyzing the distribution of the eigenvalues, the existence of Hopf bifurcation is given. Employing the center manifold theory and normal form method, an algorithm for determining the properties of the Hopf bifurcation is derived. Some numerical simulations for illustrating the analysis results are carried out.

  4. CRM Systems with Social Networking Capabilities: The Value of Incorporating a CRM 2.0 System in Sales/Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xin; Dugan, Riley; Sojka, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of a customer relationship management (CRM) 2.0 system can provide both a valuable pedagogical tool and a needed skill set in a marketing and sales curriculum. A CRM 2.0 system incorporated in the sales and marketing curriculum can help manage relationships between students, practitioners, and faculty while teaching students a…

  5. Nanoscale zero-valent iron incorporated with nanomagnetic diatomite for catalytic degradation of methylene blue in heterogeneous Fenton system.

    PubMed

    Zha, Yiming; Zhou, Ziqing; He, Haibo; Wang, Tianlin; Luo, Liqiang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) incorporated with nanomagnetic diatomite (DE) composite material was prepared for catalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in heterogeneous Fenton system. The material was constructed by two facile steps: Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were supported on DE by chemical co-precipitation method, after which nZVI was incorporated into magnetic DE by liquid-phase chemical reduction strategy. The as-prepared catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, magnetic properties measurement and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm measurement. The novel nZVI@Fe3O4-diatomite nanocomposites showed a distinct catalytic activity and a desirable effect for degradation of MB. MB could be completely decolorized within 8 min and the removal efficiency of total organic carbon could reach to 90% after reaction for 1 h. PMID:27232419

  6. An Approach to Building a Learning Management System that Emphasizes on Incorporating Individualized Dissemination with Intelligent Tutoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sreya

    2016-06-01

    This article proposes a new six-model architecture for an intelligent tutoring system to be incorporated in a learning management system with domain-independence feature and individualized dissemination. The present six model architecture aims to simulate a human tutor. Some recent extensions of using intelligent tutoring system (ITS) explores learning management systems to behave as a real teacher during a teaching-learning process, by taking care of, mainly, the dynamic response system. However, the present paper argues that to mimic a human teacher it needs not only the dynamic response but also the incorporation of the teacher's dynamic review of students' performance and keeping track of their current level of understanding. Here, the term individualization has been used to refer to tailor making of contents and its dissemination fitting to the individual needs and capabilities of learners who is taking a course online and is subjected to teaching in absentia. This paper describes how the individual models of the proposed architecture achieves the features of ITS.

  7. [Incorporation of an intercultural approach in the Peruvian health care system: the vertical birth method].

    PubMed

    Nureña, César R

    2009-10-01

    Peru has a large indigenous population (40% of the total), made of 72 distinct groups. These peoples are at a great disadvantage compared to the mestizos and other groups that are more closely connected with the dominant culture. The political and economic inequality and inequities are particularly stark with regard to health conditions. National policy and plans have not considered the indigenous peoples' values and identity, nor their right to self-determination and control of their land and resources, and even less so, their health knowledge and practices, inasmuch western 'modern medicine' has been imposed upon them by the dominant culture. Since 1992, as a result of international forums and academia, as well as a growing movement in Peru to acknowledge the value of cultural diversity and the rights of indigenous peoples, Government proposals, initiatives, and programs were undertaken to incorporate and empower cultural contributions and traditional practices in a way that would not only benefit the indigenous, but also enrich, through various intercultural venues, the stock of cultural traditions and ethnic roots of the greater Peruvian society. This article explores specifically how these intercultural strategies have been rolled out in health care to institutionalize the vertical birth method in rural, predominantly indigenous, communities, and endeavors to assess the decrease in maternal mortality, as well as the difficulties encountered, and mostly overcome, by expressing multiculturalism in the health field. PMID:20107687

  8. Challenges of incorporating gene expression data to predict HCC prognosis in the age of systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yan; Cao, Guang-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The recurrence of HCC after curative treatments is currently a major hurdle. Identification of subsets of patients with distinct prognosis provides an opportunity to tailor therapeutic approaches as well as to select the patients with specific sub-phenotypes for targeted therapy. Thus, the development of gene expression profiles to improve the prediction of HCC prognosis is important for HCC management. Although several gene signatures have been evaluated for the prediction of HCC prognosis, there is no consensus on the predictive power of these signatures. Using systematic approaches to evaluate these signatures and combine them with clinicopathologic information may provide more accurate prediction of HCC prognosis. Recently, Villanueva et al[13] developed a composite prognostic model incorporating gene expression patterns in both tumor and adjacent tissues to predict HCC recurrence. In this commentary, we summarize the current progress in using gene signatures to predict HCC prognosis, and discuss the importance, existing issues and future research directions in this field. PMID:22912544

  9. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 5. Science Applications, Incorporated system requirements definition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report sets forth the system requirements for a Solar Controlled-Environment Agriculture System (SCEAS) Project. In the report a conceptual baseline system description for an engineering test facility is given. This baseline system employs a fluid roof/roof filter in combination with a large storage tank and a ground water heat exchanger in order to provide cooling and heating as needed. Desalination is accomplished by pretreatment followed by reverse osmosis. Energy is provided by means of photovoltaics and wind machines in conjunction with storage batteries. Site and climatic data needed in the design process are given. System performance specifications and integrated system design criteria are set forth. Detailed subsystem design criteria are presented and appropriate references documented.

  10. The Nano-X Linear Accelerator: A Compact and Economical Cancer Radiotherapy System Incorporating Patient Rotation.

    PubMed

    Eslick, Enid M; Keall, Paul J

    2015-10-01

    Rapid technological improvements in radiotherapy delivery results in improved outcomes to patients, yet current commercial systems with these technologies on board are costly. The aim of this study was to develop a state-of-the-art cancer radiotherapy system that is economical and space efficient fitting with current world demands. The Nano-X system is a compact design that is light weight combining a patient rotation system with a vertical 6 MV fixed beam. In this paper, we present the Nano-X system design configuration, an estimate of the system dimensions and its potential impact on shielding cost reductions. We provide an assessment of implementing such a radiotherapy system clinically, its advantages and disadvantages compared to a compact conventional gantry rotating linac. The Nano-X system has several differentiating features from current radiotherapy systems, it is [1] compact and therefore can fit into small vaults, [2] light weight, and [3] engineering efficient, i.e., it rotates a relatively light component and the main treatment delivery components are not under rotation (e.g., DMLCs). All these features can have an impact on reducing the costs of the system. In terms of shielding requirements, leakage radiation was found to be the dominant contributor to the Nano-X vault and as such no primary shielding was necessary. For a low leakage design, the Nano-X vault footprint and concrete volume required is 17 m2 and 35 m3 respectively, compared to 54 m2 and 102 m3 for a conventional compact linac vault, resulting in decreased costs in shielding. Key issues to be investigated in future work are the possible patient comfort concerns associated with the patient rotation system, as well as the magnitude of deformation and subsequent adaptation requirements.

  11. The Effect of Incorporating Good Learners' Ratings in e-Learning Content-Based Recommender System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghauth, Khairil Imran; Abdullah, Nor Aniza

    2011-01-01

    One of the anticipated challenges of today's e-learning is to solve the problem of recommending from a large number of learning materials. In this study, we introduce a novel architecture for an e-learning recommender system. More specifically, this paper comprises the following phases i) to propose an e-learning recommender system based on…

  12. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 6. Science Applications, Incorporated system analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the systems analysis task for the conceptual design of a commercial size, solar powered, controlled environment agriculture system. The baseline greenhouse system consists of a 5-hectare growing facility utilizing an innovative fluid roof filter concept to provide temperature and humidity control. Fresh water for the system is produced by means of a reverse osmosis desalination unit and energy is provided by means of a solar photovoltaic array in conjunction with storage batteries and a power conditioning unit. The greenhouse environment is controlled via circulation of brackish groundwater in a closed system, which permits water recovery during dehumidification as well as CO/sub 2/ enrichment for increased crop productivity.

  13. Concepts for design of an energy management system incorporating dispersed storage and generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkham, H.; Koerner, T.; Nightingale, D.

    1981-04-01

    New forms of generation based on renewable resources must be managed as part of existing power systems in order to be utilized with maximum effectiveness. Many of these generators are by their very nature dispersed or small, so that they will be connected to the distribution part of the power system. This situation poses new questions of control and protection, and the intermittent nature of some of the energy sources poses problems of scheduling and dispatch. Under the assumption that the general objectives of energy management will remain unchanged, the impact of dispersed storage and generation on some of the specific functions of power system control and its hardware are discussed.

  14. Concepts for design of an energy management system incorporating dispersed storage and generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, H.; Koerner, T.; Nightingale, D.

    1981-01-01

    New forms of generation based on renewable resources must be managed as part of existing power systems in order to be utilized with maximum effectiveness. Many of these generators are by their very nature dispersed or small, so that they will be connected to the distribution part of the power system. This situation poses new questions of control and protection, and the intermittent nature of some of the energy sources poses problems of scheduling and dispatch. Under the assumption that the general objectives of energy management will remain unchanged, the impact of dispersed storage and generation on some of the specific functions of power system control and its hardware are discussed.

  15. Experiences with a comprehensive hospital information system that incorporates image management capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayhoff, Ruth E.; Maloney, Daniel L.; Kuzmak, Peter M.; Shepard, Barclay M.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs has undertaken a project to integrate image management functionality within its hospital information system. One of the goals of this integrated image system is to provide high-quality image data from cardiology, pulmonary and gastrointestinal endoscopy, pathology, radiology, hematology, and nuclear medicine to clinicians throughout the hospital. Images are presented to clinicians on high-resolution workstations simultaneously with associated text data. This DHCP Integrated Imaging System is currently being installed and tested at the Washington DC VA Medical Center. Initial use has revealed a number of expected as well as unanticipated benefits for patient care and medical teaching.

  16. Passive transdermal systems whitepaper incorporating current chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) development principles.

    PubMed

    Van Buskirk, Glenn A; Arsulowicz, Daniel; Basu, Prabir; Block, Lawrence; Cai, Bing; Cleary, Gary W; Ghosh, Tapash; González, Mario A; Kanios, David; Marques, Margareth; Noonan, Patrick K; Ocheltree, Terrance; Schwarz, Peter; Shah, Vinod; Spencer, Thomas S; Tavares, Lino; Ulman, Katherine; Uppoor, Rajendra; Yeoh, Thean

    2012-03-01

    In this whitepaper, the Manufacturing Technical Committee (MTC) of the Product Quality Research Institute has updated the 1997 Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems Scale-Up and Post Approval Change workshop report findings to add important new product development and control principles. Important topics reviewed include ICH harmonization, quality by design, process analytical technologies, product and process validation, improvements to control of critical excipients, and discussion of Food and Drug Administration's Guidance on Residual Drug in Transdermal and Related Drug Delivery Systems as well as current thinking and trends on in vitro-in vivo correlation considerations for transdermal systems. PMID:22215291

  17. Incorporating a Language/Action Design Perspective into a Computer-Based Psychiatric Alerting System

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, R.A.; Bronzino, J.D.; Goethe, J.W.; Hartmann-Voss, K.

    1989-01-01

    User acceptance of a computer system depends on a number of factors, including broad social and professional concerns regarding the system's impact on the work environment. This observation is especially true of medical decision-support systems, which are aimed at end users who have traditionally resisted innovations which they perceive as intrusive or as a challenge to traditional clinical judgment. The design of useful and acceptable medical decision-support systems requires that special attention be paid human/computer interaction issues. This paper describes how a design perspective based on an analysis of the conversational patterns operative within the clinic can be used to address a broad range of issues that have traditionally impeded the acceptability of clinical decision aides.

  18. Microbial Community Evolution as Evidenced by Isotopic Incorporation into Phospholipid Fatty Acids in a Model Aquifer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, L.; Mailloux, B. J.; Kujawinski, E. B.

    2004-12-01

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) of biomarkers such as phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) has been used successfully to identify active microbial communities in a variety of environments. We are interested in extending this approach to examine the evolution of microbial communities over time. We tested this capability within the context of a larger experiment examining the role of microbes in mediating transformations of organic matter within an aquifer system. A laboratory flow-through column experiment was conducted with sediment collected from a pristine, shallow, coastal plain aquifer. The groundwater medium was amended with low levels of an isotopically labeled substrate, 13C-acetate, for approximately one month and then with non-labeled acetate for one month. PLFAs were extracted from sediments prior to and after labeled-acetate addition. In addition, PLFAs were isolated from effluent samples during selected time points within the two-month experiment. Incorporation of the 13C label into the PLFAs was monitored using isotope-ratio GC/MS. Because some PLFAs can be used to infer the presence of specific microbial groups, we used the relative concentration of different PLFAs and the timing and degree of isotopic incorporation (or loss) to examine the progression of different microbial communities within our model system. This powerful method can be used to untangle the complex interactions within microbial systems and can be extended to a variety of ecosystems.

  19. Development and evaluation of gastroretentive raft forming systems incorporating curcumin-Eudragit® EPO solid dispersions for gastric ulcer treatment.

    PubMed

    Kerdsakundee, Nattha; Mahattanadul, Sirima; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn

    2015-08-01

    Novel raft forming systems incorporating curcumin-Eudragit® EPO solid dispersions were developed to prolong the gastric residence time and provide for a controlled release therapy of curcumin to treat gastric ulcers. The solid dispersions of curcumin with Eudragit® EPO were prepared by the solvent evaporation method at various ratios to improve the solubility and the dissolution of curcumin. The optimum weight ratio of 1:5 for curcumin to Eudragit® EPO was used to incorporate into the raft forming systems. The raft forming formulations were composed of curcumin-Eudragit® EPO solid dispersions, sodium alginate as a gelling polymer and calcium carbonate for generating divalent Ca(2+) ions and carbon dioxide to form a floating raft. All formulations formed a gelled raft in 1min and sustained buoyancy on the 0.1N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) surface with a 60-85% release of curcumin within 8h. The curative effect on the acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer in rats was determined. The curcumin raft forming formulations at 40mg/kg once daily showed a superior curative effect on the gastric ulcer in terms of the ulcer index and healing index than the standard antisecretory agent: lansoprazole (1mg/kg, twice daily) and a curcumin suspension (40mg/kg, twice daily). These studies demonstrated that the new raft forming systems containing curcumin solid dispersions are promising carriers for a stomach-specific delivery of poorly soluble lipophilic compounds.

  20. Study for incorporating time-synchronized approach control into the CH-47/VALT digital navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, W. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques for obtaining time synchronized (4D) approach control in the VALT research helicopter is described. Various 4D concepts and their compatibility with the existing VALT digital computer navigation and guidance system hardware and software are examined. Modifications to various techniques were investigated in order to take advantage of the unique operating characteristics of the helicopter in the terminal area. A 4D system is proposed, combining the direct to maneuver with the existing VALT curved path generation capability.

  1. A Modeling Framework to Incorporate Effects of Infrastructure in Sociohydrological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneepeerakul, R.

    2014-12-01

    In studying coupled natural-human systems, most modeling efforts focus on humans and the natural resources. In reality, however, humans rarely interact with these resources directly; the relationships between humans and resources are mediated by infrastructures. In sociohydrological systems, these include, for example, dams and irrigation canals. These infrastructures have important characteristics such as threshold behavior and a separate entity/organization tasked with maintaining them. These characteristics influence social dynamics within the system, which in turn determines the state of infrastructure and water usage, thereby exerting feedbacks onto the hydrological processes. Infrastructure is thus a necessary ingredient for modeling co-evolution of human and water in sociohydrological systems. A conceptual framework to address this gap has been proposed by Anderies, Janssen, and Ostrom (2004). Here we develop a model to operationalize the framework and report some preliminary results. Simple in its setup, the model highlights the structure of the social dilemmas and how it affects the system's sustainability. The model also offers a platform to explore how the system's sustainability may respond to external shocks from globalization and global climate change.

  2. Incorporating Vibration Test Results for the Advanced Stirling Convertor into the System Dynamic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meer, David W.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. As part of the extended operation testing of this power system, the Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC) at NASA GRC undergo a vibration test sequence intended to simulate the vibration history that an ASC would experience when used in an ASRG for a space mission. During these tests, a data system collects several performance-related parameters from the convertor under test for health monitoring and analysis. Recently, an additional sensor recorded the slip table position during vibration testing to qualification level. The System Dynamic Model (SDM) integrates Stirling cycle thermodynamics, heat flow, mechanical mass, spring, damper systems, and electrical characteristics of the linear alternator and controller. This Paper presents a comparison of the performance of the ASC when exposed to vibration to that predicted by the SDM when exposed to the same vibration.

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids incorporated colloidal systems for the delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Jun; Park, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Young; Jeong, Jae Young; Lee, Song Yi; Yoon, In-Soo; Kang, Wie-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2016-04-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fish oil-enriched colloidal systems were developed for the oral delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) extract (ext). By constructing a pseudo-ternary phase diagram, the composition of oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion (ME) systems based on ω-3 (oil), Labrasol (surfactant), and water was determined. AGN ext was dissolved into the ME system and d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was added to the ME formulation in order to enhance the mucosal absorption of the pharmacologically active ingredients in the AGN ext. The droplet size of AGN-loaded MEs was 205-277 nm and their morphology was spherical. The release of major components of AGN, decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), from ME formulations in pH 1.2 and 6.8 buffers was significantly greater (P<0.05) than that from the AGN suspension group. The pharmacokinetic properties of AGN-loaded MEs in rats were evaluated by measuring decursinol (DOH) concentrations in plasma after oral administration. TPGS-included ME (F2) resulted in significantly greater (P<0.05) systemic exposure of DOH than that with ME without TPGS (F1), AGN ext+TPGS, and AGN in suspension. Severe toxicity of F1 and F2 on the intestinal epithelium was not observed by histological staining. The colloidal carriers described herein are promising delivery systems for oral administration of AGN ext.

  4. Incorporation of the Data Acquisition System with a Small Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Stephen; James, R. W.; Page, E. L.; Zuniga, J.; Schlank, C.; Lopez, M.; Sherman, J.; Stutzman, B. S.

    2012-10-01

    At the Coast Guard Academy Plasma Lab (CGAPL), a small Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX) is being developed to utilize the reputed high densities (10^13 cm-3 and higher) at low pressure (.01 T) [1], in high temperature and density diagnostic development for future laboratory investigations. With first plasmas at hand, HPX is constructing triple and mach particle probes, magnetic probes, and a single point Thompson Scattering system for HPX plasma property investigations. A 32-channel National Instruments Data Acquisition (DAQ) Board capable of sampling at 12 bits of precision at 2 MS/s and running multiple simultaneous experiments is currently under construction. This DAQ System with integrated storage and GUI's will gather and digitize plasma data from the associated diagnostics for further analysis. Progress on the current implementation of the DAQ system will be reported.

  5. A cell counting/sorting system incorporated with a microfabricated flow cytometer chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sung-Yi; Hsiung, Suz-Kai; Hung, Yung-Ching; Chang, Chen-Min; Liao, Teh-Lu; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2006-07-01

    Flow cytometry is a popular technique for counting and sorting individual cells. This study presents and demonstrates a new cell counting/sorting system integrated with several essential components including a micromachined flow cytometer chip device, an optical detection system and a data analysis and control system to achieve the functions of cell sample injection, optical signal detection and cell collection. By using MEMS technology, we have integrated several microfluidic components such as micro pneumatic pumps/valves onto a polymer-based chip device. Three pneumatic micropumps are used to provide the hydrodynamic driving force for both sample and sheath flows such that hydrodynamic flow focusing can be achieved, and a micro flow switch device comprising three pneumatic microvalves located downstream of the micro sample flow channel is used for cell collection. Cell samples of human lung cancer cells labelled with commercially available fluorescent dyes have been detected and collected successfully utilizing the developed device. The real-time image of dye-labelled cell samples being excited and detected can be monitored and observed through the LCD panel by a custom designed CCD/APD holder and moving stage. Finally, micro flow switch devices were used to successfully sort the cells into the desired outlet channel, and the counting results of the specific cell samples were monitored through the counting panel. The current study focuses on the setup of the overall system. The proposed flow cytometer system has several advantages such as portability, low cost and easy operation process. The size of the system is 37 cm × 16 cm × 18 cm and the weight is 3.5 kg. The error rate of counting and sorting was 1.5% and 2%, respectively. The sorting frequency of the microvalve device is calculated to be 120 cells min-1. The developed microfluidic chip device could be a promising tool for cell-based application fields such as profiling, counting and sorting.

  6. Prosthetics socket that incorporates an air splint system focusing on dynamic interface pressure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The interface pressure between the residual limb and prosthetic socket has a significant effect on an amputee’s satisfaction and comfort. This paper presents the design and performance of a new prosthetic socket that uses an air splint system. Methods The air splint prosthetic socket system was implemented by combining the air splint with a pressure sensor that the transhumeral user controls through the use of a microcontroller. The modular construction of the system developed allows the FSR pressure sensors that are placed inside the air splint socket to determine the required size and fitting for the socket used. Fifteen transhumeral amputees participated in the study. Results The subject’s dynamic pressure on the socket that’s applied while wearing the air splint systems was recorded using F-socket transducers and microcontroller analysis. The values collected by the F-socket sensor for the air splint prosthetic socket system were determined accordingly by comparing the dynamic pressure applied using statically socket. The pressure volume of the air splint fluctuated and was recorded at an average of 38 kPa (2.5) to 41 kPa (1.3) over three hours. Conclusion The air splint socket might reduce the pressure within the interface of residual limb. This is particularly important during the daily life activities and may reduce the pain and discomfort at the residual limb in comparison to the static socket. The potential development of an auto-adjusted socket that uses an air splint system as the prosthetic socket will be of interest to researchers involved in rehabilitation engineering, prosthetics and orthotics. PMID:25085005

  7. [Incorporation of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP) in food legislation].

    PubMed

    Castellanos Rey, Liliana C; Villamil Jiménez, Luis C; Romero Prada, Jaime R

    2004-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP), recommended by different international organizations as the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Office of Epizootics (OIE) and the International Convention for Vegetables Protection (ICPV) amongst others, contributes to ensuring the innocuity of food along the agro-alimentary chain and requires of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for its implementation, GMP's which are legislated in most countries. Since 1997, Colombia has set rules and legislation for application of HACCP system in agreement with international standards. This paper discusses the potential and difficulties of the legislation enforcement and suggests some policy implications towards food safety.

  8. [Some bioengineering and hygienic aspects of incorporating sodium light illuminators into space life support systems].

    PubMed

    Grishin, Iu I; Kalinin, Iu T; Karpov, A M

    1999-01-01

    Some bioengineering aspects of utilizating high-pressure sodium lamps (HPSL) in space plant growth chambers are reviewed. Comparative feasibility analysis of various lighting systems currently used in plant industry, and investigation of HPSL limitations and advantages allow the conclusion about their good prospect as a component of future plant growth facilities aboard long-term space bioengineering life support systems. High appraisal is given to the design of a board prototype of the DnaTSf-70 sodium lamp. Associated sanitary-hygienic regulations developed, HPSL are liable to be also used to lighten the spacecraft interior.

  9. Incorporation of Electrical Systems Models Into an Existing Thermodynamic Cycle Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeh, Josh

    2003-01-01

    Integration of entire system includes: Fuel cells, motors, propulsors, thermal/power management, compressors, etc. Use of existing, pre-developed NPSS capabilities includes: 1) Optimization tools; 2) Gas turbine models for hybrid systems; 3) Increased interplay between subsystems; 4) Off-design modeling capabilities; 5) Altitude effects; and 6) Existing transient modeling architecture. Other factors inclde: 1) Easier transfer between users and groups of users; 2) General aerospace industry acceptance and familiarity; and 3) Flexible analysis tool that can also be used for ground power applications.

  10. Assessing the Efficacy of Incorporating Game Dynamics in a Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Raymond D.; Matta, Vic; MacIvor, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to see if gamification of a Learning Management System (LMS) would increase a number of desirable outcomes: student interest, motivation, satisfaction, student learning and perception of pedagogical affect. These constructs were measured in a survey, except for learning, which was measured by grades. Gamification of the…

  11. 42 CFR 425.504 - Incorporating reporting requirements related to the Physician Quality Reporting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... under their ACO participant TIN as a group practice under the Physician Quality Reporting System Group... participant TIN, on behalf of its ACO supplier/provider participants who are eligible professionals, will... Physician Fee Schedule for that TIN. (4) ACO participant TINs and individual ACO providers/suppliers who...

  12. Incorporating CLIPS into a personal-computer-based Intelligent Tutoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Stephen J.

    1990-01-01

    A large number of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS's) have been built since they were first proposed in the early 1970's. Research conducted on the use of the best of these systems has demonstrated their effectiveness in tutoring in selected domains. Computer Sciences Corporation, Applied Technology Division, Houston Operations has been tasked by the Spacecraft Software Division at NASA/Johnson Space Center (NASA/JSC) to develop a number of lTS's in a variety of domains and on many different platforms. This paper will address issues facing the development of an ITS on a personal computer using the CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) language. For an ITS to be widely accepted, not only must it be effective, flexible, and very responsive, it must also be capable of functioning on readily available computers. There are many issues to consider when using CLIPS to develop an ITS on a personal computer. Some of these issues are the following: when to use CLIPS and when to use a procedural language such as C, how to maximize speed and minimize memory usage, and how to decrease the time required to load your rule base once you are ready to deliver the system. Based on experiences in developing the CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System (CLIPSITS) on an IBM PC clone and an intelligent Physics Tutor on a Macintosh 2, this paper reports results on how to address some of these issues. It also suggests approaches for maintaining a powerful learning environment while delivering robust performance within the speed and memory constraints of the personal computer.

  13. Montmorillonite-alginate nanocomposite as a drug delivery system--incorporation and in vitro release of irinotecan.

    PubMed

    Iliescu, Ruxandra Irina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Ghitulica, Cristina Daniela; Voicu, Georgeta; Ficai, Anton; Hoteteu, Mihai

    2014-03-25

    The scope of the present study was the preparation and characterization of irinotecan nanocomposite beads based on montmorillonite (Mt) and sodium alginate (AL) as drug carriers. After irinotecan (I) incorporation into Mt, the resulting hybrid was compounded with alginate, and I-Mt-AL nanocomposite beads were obtained by ionotropic gelation technique. The structure and surface morphology of the hybrid and composite materials were established by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Irinotecan incorporation efficiency in Mt and in alginate beads was determined both by UV-vis spectroscopy and thermal analysis and was found to be high. The hybrid and composite materials were tested in vitro in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4, at 37 °C) in order to establish if upon administering the beads at the site of a resected colorectal tumor, the delivery of the drug is sustained and can represent an alternative to the existing systemic chemotherapy. The in vitro drug release test results clearly suggested that Mt, and Mt along with AL were able to control the release of irinotecan by making it sustained, without any burst effect, and by reducing the released amount and the release rate. The nanocomposite beads may be a promising drug delivery system in chemotherapy. PMID:23998956

  14. Wind Energy Management System Integration Project Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-09-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation) and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. In order to improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively, by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter unique

  15. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community.

  16. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community. PMID:27100004

  17. Analysis of Factors for Incorporating User Preferences in Air Traffic Management: A system Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Kapil S.; Gutierrez-Nolasco, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of factors that impact user flight schedules during air traffic congestion. In pre-departure flight planning, users file one route per flight, which often leads to increased delays, inefficient airspace utilization, and exclusion of user flight preferences. In this paper, first the idea of filing alternate routes and providing priorities on each of those routes is introduced. Then, the impact of varying planning interval and system imposed departure delay increment is discussed. The metrics of total delay and equity are used for analyzing the impact of these factors on increased traffic and on different users. The results are shown for four cases, with and without the optional routes and priority assignments. Results demonstrate that adding priorities to optional routes further improves system performance compared to filing one route per flight and using first-come first-served scheme. It was also observed that a two-hour planning interval with a five-minute system imposed departure delay increment results in highest delay reduction. The trend holds for a scenario with increased traffic.

  18. Microbial control of insect pests in temperate orchard systems: potential for incorporation into IPM.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Shapiro-Ilan, David I

    2008-01-01

    Because of their selectivity and safety, microbial control agents (MCAs) appear to be ready-made components of integrated pest management (IPM) systems that do not pose a threat to applicators or the environment and allow other natural enemies to function. Control of several orchard pest insects using MCAs, including viruses, Bacillus thuringiensis, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), have been demonstrated in apple, pear, stone fruits, citrus, and several nut crops. B. thuringiensis is the most used MCA for control of lepidopteran orchard pests. Significant use of EPNs in citrus for control of root weevils is also reported. The granulovirus of codling moth is used increasingly in apple and pear by organic growers, with interest also shown by conventional growers. Although some success has been achieved, in most orchard systems MCAs account for a relatively small proportion of the pest control tactics employed, and in some systems they are not used at all. Research toward improving MCA efficacy and economic competitiveness is required to enhance the role of MCAs in IPM.

  19. The surface cracking behavior in air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system incorporating interface roughness effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. X.; Fan, X. L.; Wang, T. J.

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this work is to understand the effect of interface roughness on the strain energy release rate and surface cracking behavior in air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system. This is achieved by a parameter investigation of the interfacial shapes, in which the extended finite element method (XFEM) and periodic boundary condition are used. Predictions for the stress field and driving force of multiple surface cracks in the film/substrate system are presented. It is seen that the interface roughness has significant effects on the strain energy release rate, the interfacial stress distribution, and the crack propagation patterns. One can see the completely different distributions of stress and strain energy release rate in the regions of convex and concave asperities of the substrate. Variation of the interface asperity is responsible for the oscillatory characteristics of strain energy release rate, which can cause the local arrest of surface cracks. It is concluded that artificially created rough interface can enhance the durability of film/substrate system with multiple cracks.

  20. Fuel-Cell Power Systems Incorporating Mg-Based H2 Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew; Narayan, Sri R.

    2009-01-01

    Two hydrogen generators based on reactions involving magnesium and steam have been proposed as means for generating the fuel (hydrogen gas) for such fuel-cell power systems as those to be used in the drive systems of advanced motor vehicles. The hydrogen generators would make it unnecessary to rely on any of the hydrogen storage systems developed thus far that are, variously, too expensive, too heavy, too bulky, and/or too unsafe to be practical. The two proposed hydrogen generators are denoted basic and advanced, respectively. In the basic hydrogen generator (see figure), steam at a temperature greater than or equals 330 C would be fed into a reactor charged with magnesium, wherein hydrogen would be released in the exothermic reaction Mg + H2O yields MgO + H2. The steam would be made in a flash boiler. To initiate the reaction, the boiler could be heated electrically by energy borrowed from a storage battery that would be recharged during normal operation of the associated fuel-cell subsystem. Once the reaction was underway, heat from the reaction would be fed to the boiler. If the boiler were made an integral part of the hydrogen-generator reactor vessel, then the problem of transfer of heat from the reactor to the boiler would be greatly simplified. A pump would be used to feed water from a storage tank to the boiler.

  1. Evaluation of chronic periapical lesions by digital subtraction radiography by using Adobe Photoshop CS: a technical report.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabiola B; Gonçalves, Marcelo; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a new technique by using Adobe Photoshop CS (San Jose, CA) image-analysis software to evaluate the radiographic changes of chronic periapical lesions after root canal treatment by digital subtraction radiography. Thirteen upper anterior human teeth with pulp necrosis and radiographic image of chronic periapical lesion were endodontically treated and radiographed 0, 2, 4, and 6 months after root canal treatment by using a film holder. The radiographic films were automatically developed and digitized. The radiographic images taken 0, 2, 4, and 6 months after root canal therapy were submitted to digital subtraction in pairs (0 and 2 months, 2 and 4 months, and 4 and 6 months) choosing "image," "calculation," "subtract," and "new document" tools from Adobe Photoshop CS image-analysis software toolbar. The resulting images showed areas of periapical healing in all cases. According to this methodology, the healing or expansion of periapical lesions can be evaluated by means of digital subtraction radiography by using Adobe Photoshop CS software.

  2. Radon and thoron levels, their spatial and seasonal variations in adobe dwellings - a case study at the great Hungarian plain.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba; Horváth, Ákos; Holm, Óskar; Kocsy, Gábor; Csige, István; Szabó, Péter; Homoki, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Radon and thoron isotopes are responsible for approximately half of the average annual effective dose to humans. Although the half-life of thoron is short, it can potentially enter indoor air from adobe walls. Adobe was a traditional construction material in the Great Hungarian Plain. Its major raw materials are the alluvial sediments of the area. Here, seasonal radon and thoron activity concentrations were measured in 53 adobe dwellings in 7 settlements by pairs of etched track detectors. The results show that the annual average radon and thoron activity concentrations are elevated in these dwellings and that the proportions with values higher than 300 Bq m(-3) are 14-17 and 29-32% for radon and thoron, respectively. The calculated radon inhalation dose is significantly higher than the world average value, exceeding 10 mSv y(-1) in 7% of the dwellings of this study. Thoron also can be a significant contributor to the inhalation dose with about 30% in the total inhalation dose. The changes of weather conditions seem to be more relevant in the variation of measurement results than the differences in the local sedimentary geology. Still, the highest values were detected on clay. Through the year, radon follows the average temperature changes and is affected by the ventilation, whereas thoron rather seems to follow the amount of precipitation.

  3. Wind Energy Management System EMS Integration Project: Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-01-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind and solar power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation), and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind/solar forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. To improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter

  4. Methods and apparatus of suppressing tube waves within a bore hole and seismic surveying systems incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Haefner, Daryl

    2005-12-13

    Methods and apparatus for attenuating waves in a bore hole, and seismic surveying systems incorporating the same. In one embodiment, an attenuating device includes a soft compliant bladder coupled to a pressurized gas source. A pressure regulating system reduces the pressure of the gas from the gas source prior to entering the bladder and operates in conjunction with the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in a bore hole to maintain the pressure of the bladder at a specified pressure relative to the surrounding bore hole pressure. Once the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid exceeds that of the gas source, bore hole fluid may be admitted into a vessel of the gas source to further compress and displace the gas contained therein. In another embodiment, a water-reactive material may be used to provide gas to the bladder wherein the amount of gas generated by the water-reactive material may depend on the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid.

  5. Methods and apparatus of suppressing tube waves within a bore hole and seismic surveying systems incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Haefner, Daryl

    2004-08-17

    Methods and apparatus for attenuating waves in a bore hole, and seismic surveying systems incorporating the same. In one embodiment, an attenuating device includes a soft compliant bladder coupled to a pressurized gas source. A pressure regulating system reduces the pressure of the gas from the gas source prior to entering the bladder and operates in conjunction with the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in a bore hole to maintain the pressure of the bladder at a specified pressure relative to the surrounding bore hole pressure. Once the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid exceeds that of the gas source, bore hole fluid may be admitted into a vessel of the gas source to further compress and displace the gas contained therein. In another embodiment, a water-reactive material may be used to provide gas to the bladder wherein the amount of gas generated by the water-reactive material may depend on the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid.

  6. Incorporating rapid neocortical learning of new schema-consistent information into complementary learning systems theory.

    PubMed

    McClelland, James L

    2013-11-01

    The complementary learning systems theory of the roles of hippocampus and neocortex (McClelland, McNaughton, & O'Reilly, 1995) holds that the rapid integration of arbitrary new information into neocortical structures is avoided to prevent catastrophic interference with structured knowledge representations stored in synaptic connections among neocortical neurons. Recent studies (Tse et al., 2007, 2011) showed that neocortical circuits can rapidly acquire new associations that are consistent with prior knowledge. The findings challenge the complementary learning systems theory as previously presented. However, new simulations extending those reported in McClelland et al. (1995) show that new information that is consistent with knowledge previously acquired by a putatively cortexlike artificial neural network can be learned rapidly and without interfering with existing knowledge; it is when inconsistent new knowledge is acquired quickly that catastrophic interference ensues. Several important features of the findings of Tse et al. (2007, 2011) are captured in these simulations, indicating that the neural network model used in McClelland et al. has characteristics in common with neocortical learning mechanisms. An additional simulation generalizes beyond the network model previously used, showing how the rate of change of cortical connections can depend on prior knowledge in an arguably more biologically plausible network architecture. In sum, the findings of Tse et al. are fully consistent with the idea that hippocampus and neocortex are complementary learning systems. Taken together, these findings and the simulations reported here advance our knowledge by bringing out the role of consistency of new experience with existing knowledge and demonstrating that the rate of change of connections in real and artificial neural networks can be strongly prior-knowledge dependent.

  7. Development of Rapid Seismic Monitoring Procedures for Incorporation into the Caribbean Tsunami Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerfano, V. A.; von Hillebrandt, C. G.; Mendoza, C.

    2007-05-01

    "Middle America", the geographic area between North and South America, including the Caribbean, has been a site of great plate tectonic activity in the most recent 35 million years. The region continues to be highly geologically active today as the Caribbean tectonic plate advances to the east, interacting with the North American and South American plates. Type examples of many of the salient features of plate tectonics-subduction zones, deep trenches, transform faults, pull-apart basins, subduction-to-strike-slip transitions, subduction-related volcanism, and volcano-free subduction zones-exist in a relatively small geographical area. The circum-Caribbean region has a documented history of destructive earthquakes and large damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of Virgin Islands in 1867 and Mona Passage in 1918. These tsunamis have been triggered by large earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor. Tsunami waves originating in the prominent fault system around the Caribbean are considered to pose a near-field hazard because they can reach populated coastal areas within a few minutes after the earthquake. Because of this situation, the need to establish a system of rapid notification for tsunami alerting in the Caribbean has been recognized by emergency management agencies and the scientific community. In the wake of the December 26, 2004 devastating earthquake and tsunami in Indonesia, attention has been focused worldwide on the establishment of local and regional tsunami warning systems. The objective of the monitoring component of the Caribbean tsunami warning system under development in the Puerto Rico Seismic Network since 2000 is to detect, inform and confirm as rapidly and accurately as possible potential tsunamigenic events. In this presentation, we will describe the application of waveform analysis procedures for the rapid identification of shallow earthquake source parameters (geometry and size) in the Caribbean using

  8. [Perinatal Information System. Incorporation latency and impact on perinatal clinical registry].

    PubMed

    Simini, F; Fernández, A; Sosa, C; Díaz Rossello, J L

    2001-10-01

    The Perinatal Information System (SIP) is a clinical record, local management and quality assurance software standard in Latin America and the Caribbean. The time to implement SIP in a Maternity Hospital is evaluated as well as the effect of statistics on perinatal health indicators in subsequent years. In the sample of 20 Maternity Hospitals (5 Countries, 40% Private and 60% Public) 85% had a reliable information system by the third year of use of SIP. 15% of hospitals still had problems at that time that were already clear during the second year, a time corrective measures can still be taken. The evaluation of the impact of yearly reports shows that 58% of recommendations were fulfilled, specially those regarding the complete filling-in of clinical records (62%) and to a lesser extent variables that reflect clinical practices and organization of services (52%). The conclusion is that Maternity Hospitals in Latin America and the Caribbean have the capacity to adopt a complex tool of computerized clinical records for quality assurance of perinatal care and monitoring of health indicators.

  9. [Perinatal Information System. Incorporation latency and impact on perinatal clinical registry].

    PubMed

    Simini, F; Fernández, A; Sosa, C; Díaz Rossello, J L

    2001-10-01

    The Perinatal Information System (SIP) is a clinical record, local management and quality assurance software standard in Latin America and the Caribbean. The time to implement SIP in a Maternity Hospital is evaluated as well as the effect of statistics on perinatal health indicators in subsequent years. In the sample of 20 Maternity Hospitals (5 Countries, 40% Private and 60% Public) 85% had a reliable information system by the third year of use of SIP. 15% of hospitals still had problems at that time that were already clear during the second year, a time corrective measures can still be taken. The evaluation of the impact of yearly reports shows that 58% of recommendations were fulfilled, specially those regarding the complete filling-in of clinical records (62%) and to a lesser extent variables that reflect clinical practices and organization of services (52%). The conclusion is that Maternity Hospitals in Latin America and the Caribbean have the capacity to adopt a complex tool of computerized clinical records for quality assurance of perinatal care and monitoring of health indicators. PMID:11816526

  10. Autonomous mine detection system (AMDS) incorporating SFCW GPR and CWMD sensors for discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Douglas O.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Johnson, Kevin L.; Trishaun, Marquette

    2010-04-01

    Landmines have been laid in conflicts around the world and continue to maim or kill civilians and soldiers. Metal detectors (MD) have been used successfully to detect mines, but have difficulty detecting mines with little or no metal content. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems have successfully been used to supply detection capabilities where metal detectors fail. Handheld devices using such sensors have historically been used in battle but they can put the user at high risk under direct fire from the enemy while exposed during some operations. We describe a robotic, explosive hazard, anti-personnel/anti-tank mine detection system featuring dual-sensor GPR/MD capability for enhanced mine detection and for removing the soldier from the mine field. The MD is a broadband electromagnetic induction sensor to help discriminate between buried landmines and metal clutter. The sensor operates in the frequency domain and collects data at 21 logarithmically spaced frequencies from 300 Hz to 90 kHz. The GPR is a broadband stepped frequency continuous wave (SFCW) sensor operating from 700 MHz to 4 GHz in 10 MHz steps. The GPR employs an array of low cross section inverted V-dipoles swept over the scene. The GPR data will also support 3D synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to aid in user target verification.

  11. Incorporating energy planning into health systems planning. Technical Assistance Memo-68

    SciTech Connect

    Brinckerhoff, P.

    1980-10-01

    Although energy contingency planning is not presently a Federal priority, Health Systems Agencies (HSAs) should anticipate and plan for the potentially devastating effects of energy shortages. Considerations include travel to and from health services and facilities when gasoline costs are high and gasoline is rationed; growing independence from traditional primary and acute care and awareness of preventive medicine; potential effects on the mental health of Americans, and maintenance of home services. Planners should advise that new facilities be located within convenient distance to other community services. Planners should consult other government and health-related entities interested in energy conservation or which may be seriously affected by a shortage. Energy-related goals and objectives should be included in the health systems plan (HSP) and every community should have an energy contingency plan. The HSA can put energy efficiency criteria and standards in the HSP for each type of service, can help hospitals and nursing homes evaluate and improve energy efficiency, and can use the media and numerous consumer and provider groups to raise the public's awareness of the topic. If HSAs can become energy advocates, they may stand a better chance of continuing as viable, useful, and productive entities.

  12. Nanoparticles incorporated in bilaminated films: a smart drug delivery system for oral formulations.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fuying; He, Chunbai; Yin, Lichen; Qian, Feng; He, Miao; Tang, Cui; Yin, Chunhua

    2007-09-01

    A novel smart drug delivery system (NP-Film) consisting of carboxylation chitosan-grafted nanoparticles (CCGNs) and bilaminated films, which were composed of the mucoadhesive chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid hydrogel layer and the hydrophobic ethylcellulose layer, was developed for oral delivery of protein drugs. NP-Film was characterized by electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, and the results showed that the solid, spherical nanoparticles dispersed evenly in the porous structures of films. The properties of nanoparticles and films were investigated. The mucoadhesive force, CCGNs released from the NP-Film, and the toxicity of NP-Film were also evaluated. Results showed that the nanoparticles could reversibly open the tight junction of the intestine and inhibit trypsin activity. The release behavior of the nanoparticles from the NP-Film exhibited pH sensitivity. The drug delivery system possessed high mucoadhesive force and low intestinal toxicity. Therefore, the NP-Film would be a promising delivery carrier for protein drugs via oral administration.

  13. Using Adobe Flash animations of electron transport chain to teach and learn biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the electron transport chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the electron transport chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching.

  14. Using Adobe Flash animations of electron transport chain to teach and learn biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the electron transport chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the electron transport chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching. PMID:25846233

  15. Approximate world models: Incorporating qualitative and linguistic information into vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pinhanez, C.S.; Bobick, A.F.

    1996-12-31

    Approximate world models are coarse descriptions of the elements of a scene, and are intended to be used in the selection and control of vision routines in a vision system. In this paper we present a control architecture in which the approximate models represent the complex relationships among the objects in the world, allowing the vision routines to be situation or context specific. Moreover, because of their reduced accuracy requirements, approximate world models can employ qualitative information such as those provided by linguistic descriptions of the scene. The concept is demonstrated in the development of automatic cameras for a TV studio-SmartCams. Results are shown where SmartCams use vision processing of real imagery and information written in the script of a TV show to achieve TV-quality framing.

  16. Closed-form analytical solutions incorporating pumping and tidal effects in various coastal aquifer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaoyue; Li, Hailong; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei

    2014-07-01

    Pumping wells are common in coastal aquifers affected by tides. Here we present analytical solutions of groundwater table or head variations during a constant rate pumping from a single, fully-penetrating well in coastal aquifer systems comprising an unconfined aquifer, a confined aquifer and semi-permeable layer between them. The unconfined aquifer terminates at the coastline (or river bank) and the other two layers extend under tidal water (sea or tidal river) for a certain distance L. Analytical solutions are derived for 11 reasonable combinations of different situations of the L-value (zero, finite, and infinite), of the middle layer's permeability (semi-permeable and impermeable), of the boundary condition at the aquifer's submarine terminal (Dirichlet describing direct connection with seawater and no-flow describing the existence of an impermeable capping), and of the tidal water body (sea and tidal river). Solutions are discussed with application examples in fitting field observations and parameter estimations.

  17. Incorporating Stakeholder Decision Support Needs into an Integrated Regional Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Jennie S.; Moss, Richard H.; Runci, Paul J.; Anderson, K. L.; Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2012-03-21

    A new modeling effort exploring the opportunities, constraints, and interactions between mitigation and adaptation at regional scale is utilizing stakeholder engagement in an innovative approach to guide model development and demonstration, including uncertainty characterization, to effectively inform regional decision making. This project, the integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM), employs structured stakeholder interactions and literature reviews to identify the most relevant adaptation and mitigation alternatives and decision criteria for each regional application of the framework. The information is used to identify important model capabilities and to provide a focus for numerical experiments. This paper presents the stakeholder research results from the first iRESM pilot region. The pilot region includes the Great Lakes Basin in the Midwest portion of the United States as well as other contiguous states. This geographic area (14 states in total) permits cohesive modeling of hydrologic systems while also providing gradients in climate, demography, land cover/land use, and energy supply and demand. The results from the stakeholder research indicate that iRESM should prioritize addressing adaptation alternatives in the water resources, urban infrastructure, and agriculture sectors, such as water conservation, expanded water quality monitoring, altered reservoir releases, lowered water intakes, urban infrastructure upgrades, increased electric power reserves in urban areas, and land use management/crop selection changes. Regarding mitigation alternatives, the stakeholder research shows a need for iRESM to focus on policies affecting the penetration of renewable energy technologies, and the costs and effectiveness of energy efficiency, bioenergy production, wind energy, and carbon capture and sequestration.

  18. Structural FE model updating of cavity systems incorporating vibro-acoustic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehete, D. V.; Modak, S. V.; Gupta, K.

    2015-01-01

    Finite element model updating techniques are used to update the finite element model of a structure in order to improve its correlation with the experimental dynamic test data. These techniques are well developed and extensively studied for the case of purely structural dynamic systems. However, the cavities encountered in automotive, aerospace and other transportation applications represent a class of structures in which an elastic structure encloses an acoustic medium. In such systems the dynamic characteristics of the structure are influenced by the acoustic loading due to the acoustic response in the cavity. The existing structural FE model updating approaches assume the structure to be under in-vacuo condition and hence if used for updating cavity structural FE models would not allow taking into account the effect of acoustic loading on the structural dynamic characteristics. This may adversely affect the effectiveness of updating in yielding an accurate updated FE model. This paper addresses the above issue and presents a structural FE model updating method, called 'coupled inverse eigen-sensitivity method', which takes into account the acoustic loading on the structure. The method uses the experimentally identified coupled modal data on the structure as the reference data. A numerical case study of a 3D rectangular cavity backed by a flexible plate is presented to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach to obtain an accurate structural FE model. Updating is also carried out using the existing (uncoupled) inverse eigen-sensitivity method to study the influence of acoustic loading on the updating process and to study the accuracy with which the updating parameters are identified. The results obtained are also compared with those obtained by the proposed coupled inverse eigen-sensitivity method.

  19. Breeding objectives for pigs in Kenya. II: economic values incorporating risks in different smallholder production systems.

    PubMed

    Mbuthia, Jackson Mwenda; Rewe, Thomas Odiwuor; Kahi, Alexander Kigunzu

    2015-02-01

    This study estimated economic values for production traits (dressing percentage (DP), %; live weight for growers (LWg), kg; live weight for sows (LWs), kg) and functional traits (feed intake for growers (FEEDg), feed intake for sow (FEEDs), preweaning survival rate (PrSR), %; postweaning survival (PoSR), %; sow survival rate (SoSR), %, total number of piglets born (TNB) and farrowing interval (FI), days) under different smallholder pig production systems in Kenya. Economic values were estimated considering two production circumstances: fixed-herd and fixed-feed. Under the fixed-herd scenario, economic values were estimated assuming a situation where the herd cannot be increased due to other constraints apart from feed resources. The fixed-feed input scenario assumed that the herd size is restricted by limitation of feed resources available. In addition to the tradition profit model, a risk-rated bio-economic model was used to derive risk-rated economic values. This model accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and variance of input and output prices. Positive economic values obtained for traits DP, LWg, LWs, PoSR, PrSR, SoSR and TNB indicate that targeting them in improvement would positively impact profitability in pig breeding programmes. Under the fixed-feed basis, the risk-rated economic values for DP, LWg, LWs and SoSR were similar to those obtained under the fixed-herd situation. Accounting for risks in the EVs did not yield errors greater than ±50 % in all the production systems and basis of evaluation meaning there would be relatively little effect on the real genetic gain of a selection index. Therefore, both traditional and risk-rated models can be satisfactorily used to predict profitability in pig breeding programmes.

  20. Incorporating level set methods in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for land-surface process modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullar, D.

    2005-08-01

    Land-surface processes include a broad class of models that operate at a landscape scale. Current modelling approaches tend to be specialised towards one type of process, yet it is the interaction of processes that is increasing seen as important to obtain a more integrated approach to land management. This paper presents a technique and a tool that may be applied generically to landscape processes. The technique tracks moving interfaces across landscapes for processes such as water flow, biochemical diffusion, and plant dispersal. Its theoretical development applies a Lagrangian approach to motion over a Eulerian grid space by tracking quantities across a landscape as an evolving front. An algorithm for this technique, called level set method, is implemented in a geographical information system (GIS). It fits with a field data model in GIS and is implemented as operators in map algebra. The paper describes an implementation of the level set methods in a map algebra programming language, called MapScript, and gives example program scripts for applications in ecology and hydrology.

  1. Impact of bromide on halogen incorporation into organic moieties in chlorinated drinking water treatment and distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, J; Allard, S; Gruchlik, Y; McDonald, S; Joll, C A; Heitz, A

    2016-01-15

    The impact of elevated bromide concentrations (399 to 750 μg/L) on the formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs), namely trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), in two drinking water systems was investigated. Bromine was the main halogen incorporated into all of the DBP classes and into organic carbon, even though chlorine was present in large excess to maintain a disinfectant residual. Due to the higher reactivity of bromine compared to chlorine, brominated DBPs were rapidly formed, followed by a slower increase in chlorinated DBPs. Higher bromine substitution and incorporation factors for individual DBP classes were observed for the chlorinated water from the groundwater source (lower concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), which contained a higher concentration of bromide, than for the surface water source (higher DOC). The molar distribution of adsorbable organic bromine to chlorine (AOBr/AOCl) for AOX in the groundwater distribution system was 1.5:1 and almost 1:1 for the surface water system. The measured (regulated) DBPs only accounted for 16 to 33% of the total organic halogen, demonstrating that AOX measurements are essential to provide a full understanding of the formation of halogenated DBPs in drinking waters. In addition, the study demonstrated that a significant proportion (up to 94%) of the bromide in source waters can be converted AOBr. An evaluation of AOBr and AOCl through a second groundwater treatment plant that uses conventional treatment processes for DOC removal produced 70% of AOX as AOBr, with 69% of the initial source water bromide converted to AOBr. Exposure to organobromine compounds is suspected to result in greater adverse health consequences than their chlorinated analogues. Therefore, this study highlights the need for improved methods to selectively reduce the bromide content in source waters.

  2. Early-stage hypogene karstification in a mountain hydrologic system: A coupled thermohydrochemical model incorporating buoyant convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, A.; Rajaram, H.; Viswanathan, H.

    2013-09-01

    The early stage of hypogene karstification is investigated using a coupled thermohydrochemical model of a mountain hydrologic system, in which water enters along a water table and descends to significant depth (˜1 km) before ascending through a central high-permeability fracture. The model incorporates reactive alteration driven by dissolution/precipitation of limestone in a carbonic acid system, due to both temperature- and pressure-dependent solubility, and kinetics. Simulations were carried out for homogeneous and heterogeneous initial fracture aperture fields, using the FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer) code. Initially, retrograde solubility is the dominant mechanism of fracture aperture growth. As the fracture transmissivity increases, a critical Rayleigh number value is exceeded at some stage. Buoyant convection is then initiated and controls the evolution of the system thereafter. For an initially homogeneous fracture aperture field, deep well-organized buoyant convection rolls form. For initially heterogeneous aperture fields, preferential flow suppresses large buoyant convection rolls, although a large number of smaller rolls form. Even after the onset of buoyant convection, dissolution in the fracture is sustained along upward flow paths by retrograde solubility and by additional "mixing corrosion" effects closer to the surface. Aperture growth patterns in the fracture are very different from those observed in simulations of epigenic karst systems, and retain imprints of both buoyant convection and preferential flow. Both retrograde solubility and buoyant convection contribute to these differences. The paper demonstrates the potential value of coupled models as tools for understanding the evolution and behavior of hypogene karst systems.

  3. Incorporating texture features in a computer-aided breast lesion diagnosis system for automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haixia; Tan, Tao; van Zelst, Jan; Mann, Ritse; Karssemeijer, Nico; Platel, Bram

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We investigated the benefits of incorporating texture features into an existing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for classifying benign and malignant lesions in automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound images. The existing system takes into account 11 different features, describing different lesion properties; however, it does not include texture features. In this work, we expand the system by including texture features based on local binary patterns, gray level co-occurrence matrices, and Gabor filters computed from each lesion to be diagnosed. To deal with the resulting large number of features, we proposed a combination of feature-oriented classifiers combining each group of texture features into a single likelihood, resulting in three additional features used for the final classification. The classification was performed using support vector machine classifiers, and the evaluation was done with 10-fold cross validation on a dataset containing 424 lesions (239 benign and 185 malignant lesions). We compared the classification performance of the CAD system with and without texture features. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased from 0.90 to 0.91 after adding texture features (p<0.001). PMID:26158036

  4. Design of a high-performance telepresence system incorporating an active vision system for enhanced visual perception of remote environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretlove, John R. G.; Asbery, Richard

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes the design, development and implementation of a telepresence system for hazardous environment applications. Its primary feature is a high performance active stereo vision system slaved to the motion of the operators head. To simulate the presence of an operator in a remote, hazardous environment, it is necessary to provide sufficient visual information about the remote environment. The operator must be able to interact with the environment so that he can carry out manipulative tasks. To achieve an enhanced sense of visual perception we have developed a tightly integrated pan and tilt stereo vision system with a head-mounted display. The motion of the operators head is monitored by a six DOF sensor which provides the demand signals to servocontrol the active vision system. The system we have developed is a compact yet high performance system employing mechatronic principles to deliver a system that can be mounted on a small mobile platform. We have also developed an open architecture controller to implement the dynamic, active vision system which exhibits dynamic performance characteristics of the human head-eye system so as to form a natural and intuitive interface. A series of tests have been conducted to establish the system latency and to explore the effectiveness of remote 3D human perception, particularly with regard to manipulation tasks and navigation. The results of these tests are presented.

  5. A screen-printed, amperometric biosensor array incorporated into a novel automated system for the simultaneous determination of organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Crew, A; Lonsdale, D; Byrd, N; Pittson, R; Hart, J P

    2011-02-15

    Organophosphate pesticides present serious risks to human and environmental health. A rapid reliable, economical and portable analytical system will be of great benefit in the detection and prevention of contamination. A biosensor array based on six acetylcholinesterase enzymes for use in a novel automated instrument incorporating a neural network program is described. Electrochemical analysis was carried out using chronoamperometry and the measurement was taken 10s after applying a potential of 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The total analysis time for the complete assay was less than 6 min. The array was used to produce calibration data with six organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in the concentration range of 10(-5) M to 10(-9) M to train a neural network. The output of the neural network was subsequently evaluated using different sample matrices. There were no detrimental matrix effects observed from water, phosphate buffer, food or vegetable extracts. Furthermore, the sensor system was not detrimentally affected by the contents of water samples taken from each stage of the water treatment process. The biosensor system successfully identified and quantified all samples where an OP was present in water, food and vegetable extracts containing different OPs. There were no false positives or false negatives observed during the evaluation of the analytical system. The biosensor arrays and automated instrument were evaluated in situ in field experiments where the instrument was successfully applied to the analysis of a range of environmental samples. It is envisaged that the analytical system could provide a rapid detection system for the early warning of contamination in water and food.

  6. Incorporating fault tolerance in distributed agent based systems by simulating bio-computing model of stress pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Arvind K.

    2006-05-01

    Bio-computing model of 'Distributed Multiple Intelligent Agents Systems' (BDMIAS) models agents as genes, a cooperating group of agents as operons - commonly regulated groups of genes, and the complex task as a set of interacting pathways such that the pathways involve multiple cooperating operons. The agents (or groups of agents) interact with each other using message passing and pattern based bindings that may reconfigure agent's function temporarily. In this paper, a technique has been described for incorporating fault tolerance in BDMIAS. The scheme is based upon simulating BDMIAS, exploiting the modeling of biological stress pathways, integration of fault avoidance, and distributed fault recovery of the crashed agents. Stress pathways are latent pathways in biological system that gets triggered very quickly, regulate the complex biological system by temporarily regulating or inactivating the undesirable pathways, and are essential to avoid catastrophic failures. Pattern based interaction between messages and agents allow multiple agents to react concurrently in response to single condition change represented by a message broadcast. The fault avoidance exploits the integration of the intelligent processing rate control using message based loop feedback and temporary reconfiguration that alters the data flow between functional modules within an agent, and may alter. The fault recovery exploits the concept of semi passive shadow agents - one on the local machine and other on the remote machine, dynamic polling of machines, logically time stamped messages to avoid message losses, and distributed archiving of volatile part of agent state on distributed machines. Various algorithms have been described.

  7. Enhanced anticancer potency using an acid-responsive ZnO-incorporated liposomal drug-delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Nirmalya; Ahmad, Rafiq; Ko, Hyun Ah; Khang, Gilson; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2015-02-01

    The development of stimuli-responsive nanocarriers is becoming important in chemotherapy. Liposomes, with an appropriate triggering mechanism, can efficiently deliver their encapsulated cargo in a controlled manner. We explored the use of acid-sensitive zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZNPs) as modulators of the responsive properties of liposomes. Nanocomplexes formed by the incorporation of ZNPs in liposomes (ZNP-liposomes) were designed to demonstrate the pH-responsive release of a drug (daunorubicin) without premature drug leakage and with the maintenance of the relevant therapeutic concentrations. The nanocomplexes were spherical in shape with a narrow size distribution and showed a high drug-encapsulating efficiency. Under acidic conditions, the ZNP-liposome nanocomplexes released the loaded drug more rapidly than bare liposomes. Using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and an MTT assay, we demonstrated that these nanocomplexes were readily taken up by cancer cells, resulting in significantly enhanced cytotoxicity. On exposure to the acidic conditions inside cancer cells, the ZNPs rapidly decomposed, releasing the entrapped drug molecules from the ZNP-liposome nanocomplexes, producing widespread cytotoxic effects. The incorporated ZNPs were multimodal in that they not only resulted in a pH-responsive drug-delivery system, but they also had a synergistic chemo-photodynamic anticancer action. This design provides a significant step towards the development of multimodal liposome structures.The development of stimuli-responsive nanocarriers is becoming important in chemotherapy. Liposomes, with an appropriate triggering mechanism, can efficiently deliver their encapsulated cargo in a controlled manner. We explored the use of acid-sensitive zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZNPs) as modulators of the responsive properties of liposomes. Nanocomplexes formed by the incorporation of ZNPs in liposomes (ZNP-liposomes) were designed to demonstrate the pH-responsive release of a drug

  8. Integrated membrane systems incorporating coagulation, activated carbon and ultrafiltration for the removal of toxic cyanobacterial metabolites from Anabaena circinalis.

    PubMed

    Dixon, M B; Richard, Y; Ho, L; Chow, C W K; O'Neill, B K; Newcombe, G

    2011-01-01

    The use of integrated membrane systems (a train of treatment processes incorporating one or more membranes) is increasing globally as the technology is very effective for the production of high quality drinking water. In this investigation a laboratory scale integrated membrane system (IMS) featuring coagulation, powdered activated carbon (PAC) and ultrafiltration (UF) was investigated for the removal of an Australian strain of the cyanobacteria Anabaena circinalis and the cyanotoxin it produced. Three coagulants were compared, aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH), aluminium sulphate (alum) and an engineered aluminium coagulant referred to as high performance aluminium chlorohydrate (HPAC). PAC (Acticarb PS1000) was tested to determine adsorption of extracellular saxitoxin. Removal of A. circinalis cells was 100% by UF alone and the removal of cells prior to the membrane by coagulation reduced fouling attributed to algogenic organic material. Alum was the least efficient coagulant for removal of cells while ACH and HPAC were similar. Saxitoxin removal reached a maximum of 80% using ACH and PAC. The UF-IMS was challenged using a natural bloom of A. circinalis that occurred in the Myponga Reservoir in South Australia. PMID:21508543

  9. Residue-specific Incorporation of Noncanonical Amino Acids into Model Proteins Using an Escherichia coli Cell-free Transcription-translation System.

    PubMed

    Worst, Emanuel G; Exner, Matthias P; De Simone, Alessandro; Schenkelberger, Marc; Noireaux, Vincent; Budisa, Nediljko; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-08-01

    The canonical set of amino acids leads to an exceptionally wide range of protein functionality. Nevertheless, the set of residues still imposes limitations on potential protein applications. The incorporation of noncanonical amino acids can enlarge this scope. There are two complementary approaches for the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids. For site-specific incorporation, in addition to the endogenous canonical translational machineries, an orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase-tRNA pair must be provided that does not interact with the canonical ones. Consequently, a codon that is not assigned to a canonical amino acid, usually a stop codon, is also required. This genetic code expansion enables the incorporation of a noncanonical amino acid at a single, given site within the protein. The here presented work describes residue-specific incorporation where the genetic code is reassigned within the endogenous translational system. The translation machinery accepts the noncanonical amino acid as a surrogate to incorporate it at canonically prescribed locations, i.e., all occurrences of a canonical amino acid in the protein are replaced by the noncanonical one. The incorporation of noncanonical amino acids can change the protein structure, causing considerably modified physical and chemical properties. Noncanonical amino acid analogs often act as cell growth inhibitors for expression hosts since they modify endogenous proteins, limiting in vivo protein production. In vivo incorporation of toxic noncanonical amino acids into proteins remains particularly challenging. Here, a cell-free approach for a complete replacement of L-arginine by the noncanonical amino acid L-canavanine is presented. It circumvents the inherent difficulties of in vivo expression. Additionally, a protocol to prepare target proteins for mass spectral analysis is included. It is shown that L-lysine can be replaced by L-hydroxy-lysine, albeit with lower efficiency. In principle, any

  10. Test and evaluation of Fern Engineering Company, Incorporated, solar heating and hot water system. [structural design criteria and system effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Tests, test results, examination and evaluation by Underwriters Laboratory, Inc., of a single family solar heating and hot water system consisting of collector, storage, control, transport, and data acquisition are presented. The structural characteristics of the solar flat plate collectors were evaluated according to snow and wind loads indicated in various building codes to determine their suitability for use both Michigan and Pennsylvania where prototype systems were installed. The flame spread classification of the thermal insulation is discussed and the fire tests conducted on components are described. The operation and dielectrics withstand tests of the energy transport module indicate the module is capable of rated air delivery. Tests of the control panel indicate the relay coil temperatures exceed the temperature limits allowed for the insulating materials involved.

  11. Saffron and beetroot extracts encapsulated in maltodextrin, gum Arabic, modified starch and chitosan: Incorporation in a chewing gum system.

    PubMed

    Chranioti, Charikleia; Nikoloudaki, Aspasia; Tzia, Constantina

    2015-08-20

    Maltodextrin (MD-21DE), gum Arabic (GA), gum Arabic-modified starch (GA-MS), modified starch-chitosan (MS-CH) and modified starch-maltodextrin-chitosan (MS-MD-CH) were used as agents for beetroot and saffron coloring-extracts microencapsulation by freeze drying. The produced powders were evaluated in terms of coloring strength (E) during storage at 40°C for 10 weeks and a first-order kinetic was applied. Color parameters (L(*), a(*), b(*), C(*) and ΔE(*)) and water sorption behavior was also studied. Moreover, incorporation of the powders in a chewing gum model system was conducted. The type of encapsulating agent significantly (P<0.05) affected the studied parameters with the order of protection in both extracts being as follows: MD>GA>GA-MS>MS-CH>MS-MD-CH. The water sorption study revealed that MD and GA kept their structural integrity up to water activities of 0.66 and 0.82, respectively. The chewing gum samples produced with coloring extracts encapsulated in GA-MS showed the greatest a(*)(for beetroot) and b(*) (for saffron) values indicating a better protection. PMID:25965482

  12. Saffron and beetroot extracts encapsulated in maltodextrin, gum Arabic, modified starch and chitosan: Incorporation in a chewing gum system.

    PubMed

    Chranioti, Charikleia; Nikoloudaki, Aspasia; Tzia, Constantina

    2015-08-20

    Maltodextrin (MD-21DE), gum Arabic (GA), gum Arabic-modified starch (GA-MS), modified starch-chitosan (MS-CH) and modified starch-maltodextrin-chitosan (MS-MD-CH) were used as agents for beetroot and saffron coloring-extracts microencapsulation by freeze drying. The produced powders were evaluated in terms of coloring strength (E) during storage at 40°C for 10 weeks and a first-order kinetic was applied. Color parameters (L(*), a(*), b(*), C(*) and ΔE(*)) and water sorption behavior was also studied. Moreover, incorporation of the powders in a chewing gum model system was conducted. The type of encapsulating agent significantly (P<0.05) affected the studied parameters with the order of protection in both extracts being as follows: MD>GA>GA-MS>MS-CH>MS-MD-CH. The water sorption study revealed that MD and GA kept their structural integrity up to water activities of 0.66 and 0.82, respectively. The chewing gum samples produced with coloring extracts encapsulated in GA-MS showed the greatest a(*)(for beetroot) and b(*) (for saffron) values indicating a better protection.

  13. Incorporation of Water-Oxidation Catalysts into Photoinduced Electron Transfer Systems: Toward Solar Fuel Generation via Artificial Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagnini, Michael Thomas

    mechanisms and probing highly-reactive intermediates, and it also establishes a basis in systems design for photodriving catalytic processes. Covalent dye-catalyst assemblies have been gaining recognition as a useful motif for incorporation into dye-sensitized photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water-splitting cells, and the PMI-Ir catalyst unit is well-poised, both in the energetics and kinetics of its electron transfer properties, to improve upon current solar-driven fuel-forming devices.

  14. Heteroatom incorporation effect in σ- and π-electron systems: the sEDA(II) and pEDA(II) descriptors.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Andrzej; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz

    2012-03-16

    The effect of heteroatom or heteroatomic group incorporation into unsaturated five- and six-membered cyclic systems was studied by means of DFT/B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ calculations. Two descriptors of the incorporation effect, sEDA(II) and pEDA(II), reflecting the influence of the incorporated atom or group on the population of the σ and π valence electrons, were constructed on the basis of natural bond orbital analysis. The sEDA(II) and pEDA(II) descriptors were shown to be linearly independent; the former correlated very well with electronegativity scales, whereas the latter correlated with NICS(1)(ZZ) and HOMA(CC) aromaticity indices. The two descriptors seem to be universal tools for analyzing different chemical and physicochemical effects occurring in unsaturated heterocyclic systems.

  15. Predicting Secretory Proteins of Malaria Parasite by Incorporating Sequence Evolution Information into Pseudo Amino Acid Composition via Grey System Model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Zhong; Fang, Jian-An; Xiao, Xuan; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2012-01-01

    The malaria disease has become a cause of poverty and a major hindrance to economic development. The culprit of the disease is the parasite, which secretes an array of proteins within the host erythrocyte to facilitate its own survival. Accordingly, the secretory proteins of malaria parasite have become a logical target for drug design against malaria. Unfortunately, with the increasing resistance to the drugs thus developed, the situation has become more complicated. To cope with the drug resistance problem, one strategy is to timely identify the secreted proteins by malaria parasite, which can serve as potential drug targets. However, it is both expensive and time-consuming to identify the secretory proteins of malaria parasite by experiments alone. To expedite the process for developing effective drugs against malaria, a computational predictor called “iSMP-Grey” was developed that can be used to identify the secretory proteins of malaria parasite based on the protein sequence information alone. During the prediction process a protein sample was formulated with a 60D (dimensional) feature vector formed by incorporating the sequence evolution information into the general form of PseAAC (pseudo amino acid composition) via a grey system model, which is particularly useful for solving complicated problems that are lack of sufficient information or need to process uncertain information. It was observed by the jackknife test that iSMP-Grey achieved an overall success rate of 94.8%, remarkably higher than those by the existing predictors in this area. As a user-friendly web-server, iSMP-Grey is freely accessible to the public at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iSMP-Grey. Moreover, for the convenience of most experimental scientists, a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematical equations involved in this paper. PMID:23189138

  16. Predicting secretory proteins of malaria parasite by incorporating sequence evolution information into pseudo amino acid composition via grey system model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Zhong; Fang, Jian-An; Xiao, Xuan; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2012-01-01

    The malaria disease has become a cause of poverty and a major hindrance to economic development. The culprit of the disease is the parasite, which secretes an array of proteins within the host erythrocyte to facilitate its own survival. Accordingly, the secretory proteins of malaria parasite have become a logical target for drug design against malaria. Unfortunately, with the increasing resistance to the drugs thus developed, the situation has become more complicated. To cope with the drug resistance problem, one strategy is to timely identify the secreted proteins by malaria parasite, which can serve as potential drug targets. However, it is both expensive and time-consuming to identify the secretory proteins of malaria parasite by experiments alone. To expedite the process for developing effective drugs against malaria, a computational predictor called "iSMP-Grey" was developed that can be used to identify the secretory proteins of malaria parasite based on the protein sequence information alone. During the prediction process a protein sample was formulated with a 60D (dimensional) feature vector formed by incorporating the sequence evolution information into the general form of PseAAC (pseudo amino acid composition) via a grey system model, which is particularly useful for solving complicated problems that are lack of sufficient information or need to process uncertain information. It was observed by the jackknife test that iSMP-Grey achieved an overall success rate of 94.8%, remarkably higher than those by the existing predictors in this area. As a user-friendly web-server, iSMP-Grey is freely accessible to the public at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iSMP-Grey. Moreover, for the convenience of most experimental scientists, a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematical equations involved in this paper.

  17. Incorporating Climate Change Effects into Next-Generation Coastal Inundation Decision Support Systems: An Integrated and Community-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Y.; Davis, J. R.; Paramygin, V. A.; LaRow, T.; Chassignet, E.; Stefanova, L. B.; Lu, J.; Xie, L.; Montalvo, S.; Liu, J.; Liu, B.

    2012-12-01

    75% of the world population lives within 100 km from the coastline. Coastal communities are subject to increasing coastal inundation risk due to the combined effects of hurricane-induced storm surge, tsunami, climate change, and sea level rise. This study is developing the next generation decision support systems (DSS) for storm surge and coastal inundation by incorporating the climate change impacts on hurricanes and sea level rise (SLR) along the Florida and North Carolina coast. Using a new methodology (instead of the "bath tub" approach) enhanced by the Institute for Sustainable Coastal Environment and Infrastructure (InSCEI) at University of Florida (UF), highly accurate and efficient coastal inundation maps (Base Flood Elevations and Surge Atlas) are being produced for current climate conditions. Atmospheric and climate scientists at Florida State University (FSU) and North Carolina State University (NCSU) are using global (FSU/COAPS) and regional (WRF) atmospheric models to estimate the range in hurricane activities during 2020-2040 and 2080-2100, using projected SSTs from the IPCC CMIP5 climate scenarios as lower boundary conditions. SLR experts at NCSU and FSU are analyzing historical sea level data and conducting numerical modeling to estimate the SLR at the coastal boundaries for the same IPCC scenarios. UF and NCSU are using the hurricane ensembles and the SLR scenarios provided by FSU and NCSU as input to storm surge and inundation models (CH3D-SSMS and CMAEPS, respectively) to produce high resolution inundation maps which include climate change effects. These future-climate coastal inundation maps will be much more accurate than the current ones and greatly improve the stakeholders' ability to mitigate coastal inundation risk throughout the U.S. and the world. These inundation maps for current and future climates will be communicated to a wide spectrum of stakeholders for feedback and further improvement. A national workshop will be held in January

  18. The Imputed Valuation and Adjusted Tax Base Concept: A System to Incorporate in Lieu of Property Tax Revenues in Definition of Wealth for Equalization Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard L.; Torgeson, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Outlines how the state of North Dakota is developing a system for incorporating the revenue from the coal and petroleum industries into the tax base for local school support as part of an equalization plan for supporting basic services during a depressed economic period. (MD)

  19. The Effects of Incorporation into the World-System on Ethnic Persistence: The American Conquest of the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Thomas D.

    The varying results of incorporation on the survival of groups such as bands, tribes, chiefdoms and mercantile states can be explained by applying the historical process to the American conquest of the Southwest. The American Southwest (the region covered by Arizona, New Mexico, parts of Texas, California, Utah, Nevada, and Colorado) was occupied…

  20. Using built-in functions of Adobe Acrobat Pro DC to help the selection process in systematic reviews of randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Nur, Selin; Adams, Clive E; Brailsford, David F

    2016-02-18

    This letter describes a simple way of using Adobe Acrobat Pro DC to help select and auto-extract data from Portable Document Format (PDFs) of randomised trials in order to assist swift early selection of trials for a systematic review.

  1. Economic assessment and pathogenic bacteria inhibition of bovine hide presoaking solutions formulated with enzymes that can remove adobe-type manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presoaking formulations that have recently been developed are effective in removing the damaging adobe type bovine manure and eco-friendly because the ingredients used are recycled and required only a quarter of the amount of biocide and surfactant that the industry is commonly using. The goal ...

  2. Bacterial Production and Growth Rate Estimation from [3H]Thymidine Incorporation for Attached and Free-Living Bacteria in Aquatic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Iriberri, Juan; Unanue, Marian; Ayo, Begoña; Barcina, Isabel; Egea, Luis

    1990-01-01

    Production and specific growth rates of attached and free-living bacteria were estimated in an oligotrophic marine system, La Salvaje Beach, Vizcaya, Spain, and in a freshwater system having a higher nutrient concentration, Butron River, Vizcaya, Spain. Production was calculated from [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation by estimating specific conversion factors (cells or micrograms of C produced per mole of thymidine incorporated) for attached and free-living bacteria, respectively, in each system. Conversion factors were not statistically different between attached and free-living bacteria: 6.812 × 1011 and 8.678 × 1011 μg of C mol−1 for free-living and attached bacteria in the freshwater system, and 1.276 × 1011 and 1.354 × 1011 μg of C mol−1 for free-living and attached bacteria in the marine system. Therefore, use of a unique conversion factor for the mixed bacterial population is well founded. However, conversion factors were higher in the freshwater system than in the marine system. This could be due to the different trophic conditions of the two systems. Free-living bacteria contributed the most to production in the two systems (85% in the marine system and 67% in the freshwater system) because of their greater contribution to total biomass. Specific growth rates calculated from production data and biomass data were similar for attached and free-living bacteria. PMID:16348123

  3. Bacterial production and growth rate estimation from ( sup 3 H)thymidine incorporation for attached and free-living bacteria in aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Iriberri, J.; Unanue, M.; Ayo, B.; Barcina, I., Egea, L. )

    1990-02-01

    Production and specific growth rates of attached and free-living bacteria were estimated in an oligotrophic marine system, La Salvaje Beach, Vizcaya, Spain, and in a freshwater system having a higher nutrient concentration, Butron River, Vizcaya, Spain. Production was calculated from (methyl-{sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation by estimating specific conversion factors (cells or micrograms of C produced per mole of thymidine incorporated) for attached and free-living bacteria, respectively, in each system. Conversion factors were not statistically different between attached and free-living bacteria: 6.812 {times} 10{sup 11} and 8.678 {times} 10{sup 11} {mu}g of C mol{sup {minus}1} for free-living and attached bacteria in the freshwater system, and 1.276 {times} 10{sup 11} and 1.354 {times} 10{sup 11} {mu}g of C mol{sup {minus}1} for free-living and attached bacteria in the marine system. Therefore, use of a unique conversion factor for the mixed bacterial population is well founded. However, conversion factors were higher in the freshwater system than in the marine system. This could be due to the different tropic conditions of the two systems. Free-living bacteria contributed the most to production in the two systems (85% in the marine system and 67% in the freshwater system) because of their greater contribution to total biomass. Specific growth rates calculated from production data and biomass data were similar for attached and free-living bacteria.

  4. Long-term incorporation of manure with chemical fertilizers reduced total nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yinghua; Xu, Minggang; Gao, Suduan; Liu, Hua; Huang, Shaomin; Wang, Boren

    2016-01-01

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization are essential for sustainable agriculture. Quantifying the contribution of various fertilization regimes to soil N storage and loss has been lacking in a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Based on data collected from field experiments at three typical agricultural zones in China, soil N dynamics and N changes in soil profile (0-100 cm) were examined during 1990-2009 under chemical fertilization, manure incorporation with fertilizer, and fertilizer with straw return treatments. We employed a mass balance approach to estimate the N loss to the environment after taking into account soil N change. Results showed a significant increase in soil N storage under manure incorporation treatments, accompanied with the lowest N loss (ave.20-24% of total N input) compared to all other treatments (ave.35-63%). Both soil N distribution and mass balance data suggested higher leaching risk from chemical fertilization in acidic soil of southern China with higher precipitation than the other two sites. This research concludes that manure incorporation with chemical fertilizer not only can achieve high N use efficiency and improve soil fertility, but also leads to the lowest total N loss or damage to the environment. PMID:27650801

  5. Long-term incorporation of manure with chemical fertilizers reduced total nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yinghua; Xu, Minggang; Gao, Suduan; Liu, Hua; Huang, Shaomin; Wang, Boren

    2016-09-01

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization are essential for sustainable agriculture. Quantifying the contribution of various fertilization regimes to soil N storage and loss has been lacking in a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Based on data collected from field experiments at three typical agricultural zones in China, soil N dynamics and N changes in soil profile (0–100 cm) were examined during 1990–2009 under chemical fertilization, manure incorporation with fertilizer, and fertilizer with straw return treatments. We employed a mass balance approach to estimate the N loss to the environment after taking into account soil N change. Results showed a significant increase in soil N storage under manure incorporation treatments, accompanied with the lowest N loss (ave.20–24% of total N input) compared to all other treatments (ave.35–63%). Both soil N distribution and mass balance data suggested higher leaching risk from chemical fertilization in acidic soil of southern China with higher precipitation than the other two sites. This research concludes that manure incorporation with chemical fertilizer not only can achieve high N use efficiency and improve soil fertility, but also leads to the lowest total N loss or damage to the environment.

  6. Long-term incorporation of manure with chemical fertilizers reduced total nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yinghua; Xu, Minggang; Gao, Suduan; Liu, Hua; Huang, Shaomin; Wang, Boren

    2016-01-01

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization are essential for sustainable agriculture. Quantifying the contribution of various fertilization regimes to soil N storage and loss has been lacking in a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Based on data collected from field experiments at three typical agricultural zones in China, soil N dynamics and N changes in soil profile (0–100 cm) were examined during 1990–2009 under chemical fertilization, manure incorporation with fertilizer, and fertilizer with straw return treatments. We employed a mass balance approach to estimate the N loss to the environment after taking into account soil N change. Results showed a significant increase in soil N storage under manure incorporation treatments, accompanied with the lowest N loss (ave.20–24% of total N input) compared to all other treatments (ave.35–63%). Both soil N distribution and mass balance data suggested higher leaching risk from chemical fertilization in acidic soil of southern China with higher precipitation than the other two sites. This research concludes that manure incorporation with chemical fertilizer not only can achieve high N use efficiency and improve soil fertility, but also leads to the lowest total N loss or damage to the environment. PMID:27650801

  7. Incorporation of hydrogen atoms from deuterated water and stereospecifically deuterium-labeled nicotin amide nucleotides into fatty acids with the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthetase system.

    PubMed

    Saito, K; Kawaguchi, A; Okuda, S; Seyama, Y; Yamakawa, T

    1980-05-28

    The mechanism of hydrogen incorporation into fatty acids was investigated with intact Escherichia coli cells, a crude enzyme preparation and purified reductases of fatty acid synthetase system. The distributions of deuterium atoms incorporated into fatty acids from 2H2O and stereospecifically deuterium-labeled NADPH or NADH were determined by mass spectrometry. When E. coli was grown in 2H2O, almost every hydrogen atom of cellular fatty acids was incorporated from the medium. When fatty acids were synthesized from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH in the presence of a crude enzyme preparation of either E. coli or Bacillus subtilis, almost every hydrogen atom was also incorporated from the medium. In contrast to these results, purified beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier reductase directly transferred the HB hydrogen of NADPH to beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein, and purified enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase also transferred the HB hydrogen of NADPH and NADH directly to enoyl acyl carrier protein. In the crude enzyme preparation of E. coli, we found high activities which exchanged the HB hydrogen of NADPH with the deuterium of 2h2o. the conflicting results of the origin of hydrogen atoms of fatty acids mentioned above are explained by the presence of enzymes, which catalyzed the rapid exchange of NADPH with the deterium of 2H2O prior to the reaction of fatty acid synthetase. PMID:6990992

  8. Incorporation of a subacute test with zebra fish into a hierarchical system for evaluating the effect of toxicants in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, A.H.; Allard, A.S.; Fischer, S.; Malmberg, M.; Viktor, T. )

    1990-08-01

    Single-species laboratory tests were used to assess the acute toxicity of halogenated phenolic compounds. No single test system was most sensitive to all of the compounds examined, substantial variations in the sensitivity of the various organisms were noted, and there was no correlation between the toxicities assayed with different test systems. The zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) embryo/larvae system was used to examine subacute effects using two of the compounds, and a protocol was developed with 6 weeks preexposure to the toxicant. Preexposure decreased the lowest observable effect concentration by a factor of about 4, and the effect was completely reversible during a 6-week postexposure period in the absence of the toxicant. An enclosed system for carrying out the zebra fish embryo/larvae test was developed and evaluated with three neutral volatile compounds: the median survival time and the frequency of occurrence of deformation were examined as end points. The effect of pH on toxicity was evaluated in buffered media for four of the test systems: toxicity increased markedly at the lower pH values, and it could be shown that the ionized forms of the phenols were not the only contributors to toxicity. It is proposed that the zebra fish system incorporating preexposure could be incorporated into a hierarchical system using a range of organisms for assessing acute toxicity in single species under laboratory conditions and multicomponent systems simulating natural ecosystems.

  9. Effect of Pb incorporation on the crystalline structure and crystallization kinetics of Ge 1-xSe 2Pb x system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, A.

    2005-10-01

    New identification cards for the crystalline structure of the Ge 1-xSe 2Pb x system ( x=0, 0.2 and 0.6) have been presented using CRYSFIRE computer program. X-ray powder diffraction technique was used to obtain the experimental patterns. Transformation of structure symmetry from monoclinic with x=0 and 0.2 to triclinic with x=0.6 has been detected. The corresponding lattice parameters, number of atoms per unit cell and the unit cell size have been calculated. Measurements of the hydrostatic density and Vicker micro-hardness have been carried out. Calculation of the variation of the number of constraints/atom and the average coordination number with x reveals a decrease of lattice cross-linking with the incorporation of lead. Study of the crystallization Kinetics using differential scanning calorimeter shows that the incorporation of Pb to the GeSe 2 renders the crystallization process to be more difficult.

  10. An amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system for the incorporation of non-canonical amino acid analogs into proteins.

    PubMed

    Singh-Blom, Amrita; Hughes, Randall A; Ellington, Andrew D

    2014-05-20

    Residue-specific incorporation of non-canonical amino acids into proteins is usually performed in vivo using amino acid auxotrophic strains and replacing the natural amino acid with an unnatural amino acid analog. Herein, we present an efficient amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system that can be used to study residue-specific replacement of a natural amino acid by an unnatural amino acid analog. This system combines a simple methodology and high protein expression titers with a high-efficiency analog substitution into a target protein. To demonstrate the productivity and efficacy of a cell-free synthesis system for residue-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids in vitro, we use this system to show that 5-fluorotryptophan and 6-fluorotryptophan substituted streptavidin retain the ability to bind biotin despite protein-wide replacement of a natural amino acid for the amino acid analog. We envisage this amino acid depleted cell-free synthesis system being an economical and convenient format for the high-throughput screening of a myriad of amino acid analogs with a variety of protein targets for the study and functional characterization of proteins substituted with unnatural amino acids when compared to the currently employed in vivo methodologies.

  11. On the detection of adobe buried archaeological structures using multiscale remote sensing techniques : Piramide Naranja in Cahuachi (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.; Lasaponara, R.; Orefici, G.

    2009-04-01

    The detection of buried adobe structures is a crucial issue for the remote sensing (ground, aerial and satellite) applied to archaeology for the widespread of sun-dried earth as building material in several ancient civilizations in Central and Southern America, Middle East and North Africa. Moreover it is complex, due to the subtle contrast existing between the archaeological features and the surrounding, especially in arid setting, as in the case of the well know Nazca Ceremonial Centre of Cahuachi, located in the desert of Nazca (Southern Peru) . During the last two decades of excavations adobe monuments dating back from the 6th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D have been highlighted by the Centro de Estudios Arqueológicos Precolombinos (CEAP), an italian-peruvian mission directed by Giuseppe Orefici. Actually, the archaeologists are excavating and restoring the core of the Ceremonial centre where is located a great pyramid (kown as Gran Piramide). Beginning from 2007 the two institutes of CNR, IMAA and IBAM, have been involved by CEAP, in order to provide a scientific and technological support for the archaeological research. Therefore, a multi-scale approach based on the integration of aerial and satellite remote sensing with geophysical techniques was employed in order to provide data useful for archaeological excavations. The abstract refers to the last investigations performed on a mound, known as "Piramide Naranja", during the 2008. The processing of an aerial imagery time series and two QuickBird satellite images acquired in 2002 and 2005, allowed for identifying some features related to shallow and buried structures. Such features were verified by means of geophysical prospections, performed by using the magnetometric method which observed changes in the magnetic field within the first few metres beneath the subsurface detecting buried walls and anomalies linked to ceramic deposits referable to possible tombs. Finally, the integration of all data

  12. Incorporating autoregulatory mechanisms of the cardiovascular system in three-dimensional finite element models of arterial blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Jansen, K E; Taylor, C A

    2010-07-01

    The cardiovascular system is a closed-loop system in which billions of vessels interact with each other, and it enables the control of the systemic arterial pressure and varying organ flow through autoregulatory mechanisms. In this study, we describe the development of mathematical models of autoregulatory mechanisms for systemic arterial pressure and coronary flow and discuss the connection of these models to a hybrid numerical/analytic closed-loop model of the cardiovascular system. The closed-loop model consists of two lumped parameter heart models representing the left and right sides of the heart, a three-dimensional finite element model of the aorta with coronary arteries, three-element Windkessel models and lumped parameter coronary vascular models that represent the systemic circulation, and a three-element Windkessel model to approximate the pulmonary circulation. Using the connection between the systemic arterial pressure and coronary flow regulation systems, and the hybrid closed-loop model, we studied how the heart, coronary vascular beds, and arterial system respond to physiologic changes during light exercise and showed that these models can realistically simulate temporal behaviors of the heart, coronary vascular beds, and arterial system during exercise of healthy subjects. These models can be used to study temporal changes occurring in the heart, coronary vascular beds, and arterial system during cardiovascular intervention or changes in physiological states.

  13. Discriminating factors affecting incorporation: comparison of the fate of Eu3+-Cm3+ in the Sr carbonate-sulfate system.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Kiel; Chagneau, Aurélie; Schmidt, Moritz; Claret, Francis; Schäfer, Thorsten; Stumpf, Thorsten

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the effect of ligand strength, symmetry, and coordination number on solid solution formation of trivalent actinides and lanthanides in carbonate and sulfate minerals. This is of particular importance in radionuclide migration where trivalent actinides such as Pu, Am, and Cm are responsible for the majority of radiotoxicity after 1000 years. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study trace concentrations of the dopant ion after interaction with the mineral phase. This study expands on previous work with aragonite and gypsum where it was found that aragonite incorporates Eu(3+) and Cm(3+) while only surface sorption is observed in gypsum. This study uses isostructural minerals strontianite (SrCO(3)) and celestite (SrSO(4)) to decouple the effect of structure from that due to the anion. It is demonstrated that while distribution coefficients can predict the amount of dopant ion associated with the mineral phase, they do not have any correlation with solid solution formation. This substitution mechanism is most likely dictated by the symmetry of the site being substituted and the electronic structure of the dopant atom.

  14. Incorporating ecology and social system into formal hypotheses to guide field studies of color vision in primates.

    PubMed

    Bunce, John A

    2015-05-01

    The X-linked gene polymorphism responsible for the variable color vision of most Neotropical monkeys and some lemurs is thought to be maintained by balancing selection, such that trichromats have an advantage over dichromats for some ecologically important task(s). However, evidence for such an advantage in wild primate populations is equivocal. The purpose of this study is to refine a hypothesis for a trichromat advantage by tailoring it to the ecology of territorial primates with female natal dispersal, such that dispersing trichromatic females have a foraging and, by extension, survival advantage over dichromats. I then examine the most practical way to test this hypothesis using field data. Indirect evidence in support of the hypothesis may take the form of differences in genotype frequencies among life stages and differences in disperser food item encounter rates. A deterministic evolutionary matrix population model and a stochastic model of food patch encounter rates are constructed to investigate the magnitude of such differences and the likelihood of statistical detection using field data. Results suggest that, although the sampling effort required to detect the hypothesized genotype frequency differences is impractical, a field study of reasonable scope may be able to detect differences in disperser foraging rates. This study demonstrates the utility of incorporating socioecological details into formal hypotheses during the planning stages of field studies of primate color vision. PMID:25690845

  15. High-power white LED-based system incorporating a CCD Offner imaging spectrometer for real-time fluorescence qPCR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaruri, Sami D.

    2014-12-01

    An optical system for qPCR fluorescence measurements which incorporates high-power white LEDs, PMMA plastic lenses and an Offner multichannel (imaging) CCD-based spectrometer has been developed and validated. The optical system can detect twenty reaction vessels in an asynchronous manner and up to seven different fluorescent dyes (7 plex) at 1 nM dye concentrations in each of the reaction vessels. Furthermore, PCR curves obtained using the optical measurement system for a genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) template containing HEX and Texas Red fluorescent probes (fluorophores) are discussed. The spectral resolution, dynamic range and repeatability of the measurement system are < 15 nm, > 3 decades and < 1% CV, respectively.

  16. Incorporating a Systems Approach into Civil and Environmental Engineering Curricula: Effect on Course Redesign, and Student and Faculty Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Nancy J.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Dewoolkar, Mandar M.; Neumann, Maureen D.; Lathem, Sandra; Sadek, Adel

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the changes made during our department level reform (DLR) process (Grant Title: "A Systems Approach for Civil and Environmental Engineering Education: Integrating Systems Thinking, Inquiry-Based Learning and Catamount Community Service-Learning Projects") and some of the effects of these changes on…

  17. Incorporating Indigenous Knowledge Systems into Agricultural and Extension Education Programs: A Study of the Perceptions of Extension Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajasekaran, B.; Martin, Robert A.

    Dissemination of technologies to increase agricultural production using the conventional transfer of technology system has often failed to consider the natural environment, indigenous knowledge systems, and resource endowments around which resource-poor farmers normally operate. A sample of 96 agricultural extension professionals in 2 districts in…

  18. Electrical Resistivity Tomographies on the detection of adobe buried archaeological structures in Piramide Sur in Cahuachi (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, L.; Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.; Lasaponara, R.; Orefici, G.

    2012-04-01

    During the last two decades of excavations, adobe pyramids dating back from the 6th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D have been unearthed in the ancient Ceremonial Centre of Cahuachi near Nasca (Peru) by an Italian-Peruvian mission directed by Giuseppe Orefici. One of the archaeological sectors, called sector A, has been almost excavated and restored. To complete sector A only a terraced mound named "Piramide Sur" needs to be excavated. In order to provide useful information on the presence of buried structures and platforms as well on the geological stratigraphy a multi-scale approach based on the integration of satellite remote sensing with geophysical techniques was employed. Such investigations were carried out by the Italian mission ITACA, funded by the Italian Ministry Affairs and composed of researchers of two institutes of CNR (IMAA and IBAM), which provides a scientific support for archaeological research, since 2007. In particular, the subsurface features were investigated by Geoelectrical prospecting, performed by using a georesistivimeter for tomography which observe the resistivity value along sections. Several tomographies were carried out to investigate the shallow and deep structure of the pyramid both along the main flank at Nord and on the top. Finally, the integration of all data acquired by the different remote sensing techniques allowed for spatially characterizing the archaeological features, thus providing important information for the planning of the next archaeological campaign.

  19. Support system design incorporating carbon/epoxy tension straps for a four tesla, one meter bore, MRI magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, L.C.; Boulios, K.; Hartwig, K.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Texas Accelerator Center (TAC) constructed a four tesla, one meter bore, MRI magnet. Graphite/epoxy tension straps with thermal intercepts at 77 K and 20 K were used for a safe, efficient, and cost effective support system. Sixteen straps were used to support the 10,400 kg cold mass. TAC used a superferric concept to restrict the fringe field. With proper alignment the attractive forces between the magnet and iron are designed to cancel. Therefore, easy adjustment for proper positioning of the magnet, and strength to withstand the magnetic forces due to any misalignment are requirements of the support system. Since the MRI magnet was shipped by truck, the support system had to withstand dynamic loads. The design conduction heat load to the cold mass is 0.05 W. Details of the support system are presented.

  20. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Merkel, Timothy C; Baker, Richard W.

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  1. Effect of Protein Incorporation on the Nanostructure of the Bicontinuous Microemulsion Phase of Winsor-III Systems: A Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes, Douglas G.; Gomez del Rio, Javier A.; Ye, Ran; Urban, Volker S.; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M.

    2015-01-20

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis using the Teubner₋Strey model has been employed to evaluate the effect of protein incorporation into the middle, bicontinuous microemulsion (BμE) phase of Winsor-III (WIII) systems formed by an aerosol-OT (AOT)/alkyl ethoxylate mixed surfactant system to understand better the extraction of proteins into and out of BμEs and to study the effect of proteins on a system that serves as a biomimetic analog of cell membranes. Under conditions of high salinity, the incorporation of positively charged proteins cytochrome c, lysozyme, and α-chymotrypsin, near their solubilization limit in the BμEs promoted the release of water and oilmore » from the BμEs, a decrease in the quasi-periodic repeat distance (d), an increase in ordering (a decrease in the amphiphilicity factor, fa) for the surfactant monolayers, and a decrease in the surface area per surfactant headgroup, suggesting that the proteins affected the self-assembly of components in the BμE phase and produced Debye shielding of AOTs sulfonate headgroup. For WIII systems possessing lower salinity, cytochrome c reduced the efficiency of surfactant in the BμE phase, noted by increases in d and fa, suggesting that the enzyme and AOT underwent ion pairing. We find that the results of this study demonstrate the importance of ionic strength to modulate proteinsurfactant interactions, which in turn will control the release of proteins encapsulated in the BμEs, relevant to WIII-based protein extraction and controlled release from BμE delivery systems, and demonstrate the utility of BμEs as a model system to understand the effect of proteins on biomembranes.« less

  2. Effect of Protein Incorporation on the Nanostructure of the Bicontinuous Microemulsion Phase of Winsor-III Systems: A Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Douglas G.; Gomez del Rio, Javier A.; Ye, Ran; Urban, Volker S.; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M.

    2015-01-20

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis using the Teubner₋Strey model has been employed to evaluate the effect of protein incorporation into the middle, bicontinuous microemulsion (BμE) phase of Winsor-III (WIII) systems formed by an aerosol-OT (AOT)/alkyl ethoxylate mixed surfactant system to understand better the extraction of proteins into and out of BμEs and to study the effect of proteins on a system that serves as a biomimetic analog of cell membranes. Under conditions of high salinity, the incorporation of positively charged proteins cytochrome c, lysozyme, and α-chymotrypsin, near their solubilization limit in the BμEs promoted the release of water and oil from the BμEs, a decrease in the quasi-periodic repeat distance (d), an increase in ordering (a decrease in the amphiphilicity factor, fa) for the surfactant monolayers, and a decrease in the surface area per surfactant headgroup, suggesting that the proteins affected the self-assembly of components in the BμE phase and produced Debye shielding of AOTs sulfonate headgroup. For WIII systems possessing lower salinity, cytochrome c reduced the efficiency of surfactant in the BμE phase, noted by increases in d and fa, suggesting that the enzyme and AOT underwent ion pairing. We find that the results of this study demonstrate the importance of ionic strength to modulate proteinsurfactant interactions, which in turn will control the release of proteins encapsulated in the BμEs, relevant to WIII-based protein extraction and controlled release from BμE delivery systems, and demonstrate the utility of BμEs as a model system to understand the effect of proteins on biomembranes.

  3. Web-based, mobile-device friendly, self-report survey system incorporating avatars and gaming console techniques

    PubMed Central

    Savel, Craig; Mierzwa, Stan; Gorbach, Pamina; Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Meyer, Kristin; Souidi, Samir; Interventions, AIDS

    2014-01-01

    We describe building an avatar-based self-report data collection tool to be used for a specific HIV prevention research project that is evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of this novel approach to collect self-reported data among youth. We discuss the gathering of requirements, the process of building a prototype of the envisioned system, and the lessons learned during the development of the solution. Specific knowledge is shared regarding technical experience with software development technologies and possible avenues for changes that could be considered if such a self-report survey system is used again. Examples of other gaming and avatar technology systems are included to provide further background. PMID:25422726

  4. Web-based, mobile-device friendly, self-report survey system incorporating avatars and gaming console techniques.

    PubMed

    Savel, Craig; Mierzwa, Stan; Gorbach, Pamina; Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Meyer, Kristin; Souidi, Samir; Interventions, Aids

    2014-01-01

    We describe building an avatar-based self-report data collection tool to be used for a specific HIV prevention research project that is evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of this novel approach to collect self-reported data among youth. We discuss the gathering of requirements, the process of building a prototype of the envisioned system, and the lessons learned during the development of the solution. Specific knowledge is shared regarding technical experience with software development technologies and possible avenues for changes that could be considered if such a self-report survey system is used again. Examples of other gaming and avatar technology systems are included to provide further background. PMID:25422726

  5. [The challenge for healthcare systems in the XXI century: how to incorporate the focus of social determinants in healthcare?].

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2015-10-20

    During the 20th century, a series of reflections on the role of biomedicine and social factors in the concept of health and disease processes served as a necessary prelude to the conceptual and empirical development of what later became known as the social determinants of health. In relation to this perspective, the question arises: What is the role of modern health systems from the perspective of the social determinants of health? This article presents an alternative view of the role of health systems from the focus of the social determinants of health, raising its importance and influence on the structural level, while addressing its implications as an intermediary determinant of health inequalities.

  6. Moving to Outcomes: Approaches to Incorporating Child Assessments into State Early Childhood Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have shown that higher-quality early care and education (ECE) predicts positive developmental gains for the children who experience it. However, much ECE in the United States is not of sufficiently high quality to produce these benefits. Quality rating and improvement systems (QRISs) attempt to improve practice and care quality in ECE…

  7. Long-term manure incorporation with chemical fertilizers reduced environmental nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization in intensive farming systems are essential for sustainable agriculture and food security around the world. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of various fertilization...

  8. Development of a constructed wetland water treatment system for selenium removal: incorporation of an algal treatment component.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jung-Chen; Suárez, María C; Yang, Soo In; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Terry, Norman

    2013-09-17

    On the basis of the fact that algae have the ability to volatilize substantial quantities of selenium (Se), we investigated the concept of including an algal pretreatment unit into a constructed wetland system for the removal of Se from river water entering the Salton Sea. Of six different algal strains tested, the most effective in terms of Se volatilization and Se removal from the water column was a Chlorella vulgaris strain (designated Cv). Cv removed 96% of Se (supplied as selenate) from the microcosm water column within 72 h, with up to 61% being removed by volatilization to the atmosphere. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the major forms of Se likely to be accumulated in an algal-wetland system are selenomethionine, a precursor of volatile Se formation, and elemental Se. Our results suggest that the inclusion of an algal pretreatment unit within a constructed wetland water treatment system should not only enhance the efficiency of Se removal but also significantly reduce the risk of the buildup of ecotoxic forms of Se by promoting the biological volatilization of Se. PMID:23947942

  9. Incorporation of Passive Safety Systems in the Generation-IV Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR)

    SciTech Connect

    Modro, S. Michael; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Fisher, James; Weaver, Kevan

    2002-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Nexant Inc. and the Oregon State University (OSU) developed an innovative Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) concept. The MASLWR is a small, modular, safe, and economic natural circulation light water reactor developed with the primary goal of producing electric power, but with the flexibility to be used for water desalination or district heating with deployment in a variety of locations. The MASLWR was developed, by design, to be a safe and economic reactor concept that can be deployed in the near term by utilizing current experience and capabilities of the industry. The key features of the MASLWR concept are the extreme simplicity of the design and its passive safety systems. This paper provides an overview of safety analyses performed for the MASLWR concept and explores potential for the increase in passive safety via the implementation of new features. The results of these safety studies demonstrate that the reactor core will be provided with a stable cooling source adequate to remove decay heat without significant cladding heatup under all credible scenarios. The response of the system to accident conditions is a controlled depressurization, whereby most of the primary system blowdown occurs via the submerged ADS blowdown pathway. (authors)

  10. Changes in Occupational Radiation Exposures after Incorporation of a Real-time Dosimetry System in the Interventional Radiology Suite.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Sashi; Weir, Lori; Dowling, Dawn; Medich, David C

    2016-08-01

    A statistical pilot study was retrospectively performed to analyze potential changes in occupational radiation exposures to Interventional Radiology (IR) staff at Lawrence General Hospital after implementation of the i2 Active Radiation Dosimetry System (Unfors RaySafe Inc, 6045 Cochran Road Cleveland, OH 44139-3302). In this study, the monthly OSL dosimetry records obtained during the eight-month period prior to i2 implementation were normalized to the number of procedures performed during each month and statistically compared to the normalized dosimetry records obtained for the 8-mo period after i2 implementation. The resulting statistics included calculation of the mean and standard deviation of the dose equivalences per procedure and included appropriate hypothesis tests to assess for statistically valid differences between the pre and post i2 study periods. Hypothesis testing was performed on three groups of staff present during an IR procedure: The first group included all members of the IR staff, the second group consisted of the IR radiologists, and the third group consisted of the IR technician staff. After implementing the i2 active dosimetry system, participating members of the Lawrence General IR staff had a reduction in the average dose equivalence per procedure of 43.1% ± 16.7% (p = 0.04). Similarly, Lawrence General IR radiologists had a 65.8% ± 33.6% (p=0.01) reduction while the technologists had a 45.0% ± 14.4% (p=0.03) reduction. PMID:27356166

  11. Gulf of Mexico foraminiferal size data and its incorporation into a paleoecologic zonation using the Paleoecologic Expert System (PALEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, J.M.; Becker, R.C.; Lee, T.D.

    1996-09-01

    Foraminiferal size data are presented from over 400 bottom samples from the Gulf of Mexico. Of the 74 common species investigated, 25 exhibit an increase in maximum size with increasing water depth. Qualitative terms such as small and large are assigned numerical values, corresponding to bathymetric zones. Quantifying size increases the number of key paleoecologic indicators available for interpretation. This is especially helpful for zonations based on species upper depth limits. These key indicators were combined with our existing paleoecologic understanding to formulate consistent paleoecologic rules. These rules form the foundation of the Paleoecologic Expert System (PALEX), a PC-based program. PALEX applies these expert rules to well data to rapidly produce a consistent paleoecologic interpretation. Interpretations can be displayed on a sample by sample basis, or averaged using a predetermined filter. Distribution of the key paleoecologic indicators within each sample can be plotted, and confidence levels assigned to the interpretation. Plotted alongside fossil abundance/diversity curves and integrated with electric log and seismic data, these interpretations can help identify sequence stratigraphic boundaries and system tracts. Examples from Green Canyon, Garden Banks, High Island, and Eugene Island are presented.

  12. Changes in Occupational Radiation Exposures after Incorporation of a Real-time Dosimetry System in the Interventional Radiology Suite.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Sashi; Weir, Lori; Dowling, Dawn; Medich, David C

    2016-08-01

    A statistical pilot study was retrospectively performed to analyze potential changes in occupational radiation exposures to Interventional Radiology (IR) staff at Lawrence General Hospital after implementation of the i2 Active Radiation Dosimetry System (Unfors RaySafe Inc, 6045 Cochran Road Cleveland, OH 44139-3302). In this study, the monthly OSL dosimetry records obtained during the eight-month period prior to i2 implementation were normalized to the number of procedures performed during each month and statistically compared to the normalized dosimetry records obtained for the 8-mo period after i2 implementation. The resulting statistics included calculation of the mean and standard deviation of the dose equivalences per procedure and included appropriate hypothesis tests to assess for statistically valid differences between the pre and post i2 study periods. Hypothesis testing was performed on three groups of staff present during an IR procedure: The first group included all members of the IR staff, the second group consisted of the IR radiologists, and the third group consisted of the IR technician staff. After implementing the i2 active dosimetry system, participating members of the Lawrence General IR staff had a reduction in the average dose equivalence per procedure of 43.1% ± 16.7% (p = 0.04). Similarly, Lawrence General IR radiologists had a 65.8% ± 33.6% (p=0.01) reduction while the technologists had a 45.0% ± 14.4% (p=0.03) reduction.

  13. DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER INCORPORATING FEEDBACK

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R. Jr.

    1958-10-21

    An improved distributed amplifier system employing feedback for stabilization is presented. In accordance with the disclosed invention, a signal to be amplified is applled to one end of a suitable terminated grid transmission line. At intervals along the transmission line, the signal is fed to stable, resistance-capacitance coupled amplifiers incorporating feedback loops therein. The output current from each amplifier is passed through an additional tube to minimize the electrostatic capacitance between the tube elements of the last stage of the amplifier, and fed to appropriate points on an output transmission line, similar to the grid line, but terminated at the opposite (input) end. The output taken from the unterminated end of the plate transmission line is proportional to the input voltage impressed upon the grid line.

  14. A mathematical model for the interpretation of nuclear bomb test derived 14C incorporation in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Samuel; Frisén, Jonas; Spalding, Kirsty L.

    2010-04-01

    Human tissues continually replace dying cells with newborn cells. However, the rate of renewal varies by orders of magnitudes between blood cells, which are renewed every day and neurons, for which renewal is non-existent or limited to specific regions of the brain. Between those extreme are many tissues that turnover on a time scale of years, although no direct measurements have been done. We present here a mathematical method to estimate cell turnover in slowly renewing biological systems. Age distribution of DNA can be estimated from the integration of radiocarbon derived from nuclear bomb-testing during the cold war (1955-1963). For slowly renewing tissues, this method provides a better estimate of the average age of the tissue than direct estimates from the bomb-curve. Moreover, death, birth and turnover rates can be estimated. We highlight this method with data from human fat cells.

  15. Lipid envelope-type nanoparticle incorporating a multifunctional peptide for systemic siRNA delivery to the pulmonary endothelium.

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, Kenji; Akita, Hidetaka; Ishitsuka, Taichi; Matsumoto, Yu; Nomoto, Takahiro; Furukawa, Ryo; El-Sayed, Ayman; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Yamada, Yuma; Kataoka, Kazunori; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2013-09-24

    A system that permits the delivery of cargoes to the lung endothelium would be extraordinarily useful in terms of curing a wide variety of lung-related diseases. This study describes the development of a multifunctional envelope-type nanodevice (MEND) that targets the lung endothelium, delivers its encapsulated siRNA to the cytoplasm, and eradicates lung metastasis. The key to the success can be attributed to the presence of a surface-modified GALA peptide that has dual functions: targeting the sialic acid-terminated sugar chains on the pulmonary endothelium and subsequently delivering the encapsulated cargoes to the cytosol via endosomal membrane fusion, analogous to the influenza virus. The active targeting of MENDs without the formation of large aggregates was verified by intravital real-time confocal laser scanning microscopy in living lung tissue. The GALA-modified MEND is a promising carrier that opens a new generation of therapeutic approaches for satisfying unmet medical needs in curing lung diseases.

  16. Development of a New Analog Test System Capable of Modeling Tectonic Deformation Incorporating the Effects of Pore Fluid Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Nakajima, H.; Takeda, M.; Aung, T. T.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding and predicting the tectonic deformation within geologic strata has been a very important research subject in many fields such as structural geology and petroleum geology. In recent years, such research has also become a fundamental necessity for the assessment of active fault migration, site selection for geological disposal of radioactive nuclear waste and exploration for methane hydrate. Although analog modeling techniques have played an important role in the elucidation of the tectonic deformation mechanisms, traditional approaches have typically used dry materials and ignored the effects of pore fluid pressure. In order for analog models to properly depict the tectonic deformation of the targeted, large-prototype system within a small laboratory-scale configuration, physical properties of the models, including geometry, force, and time, must be correctly scaled. Model materials representing brittle rock behavior require an internal friction identical to the prototype rock and virtually zero cohesion. Granular materials such as sand, glass beads, or steel beads of dry condition have been preferably used for this reason in addition to their availability and ease of handling. Modeling protocols for dry granular materials have been well established but such model tests cannot account for the pore fluid effects. Although the concept of effective stress has long been recognized and the role of pore-fluid pressure in tectonic deformation processes is evident, there have been few analog model studies that consider the effects of pore fluid movement. Some new applications require a thorough understanding of the coupled deformation and fluid flow processes within the strata. Taking the field of waste management as an example, deep geological disposal of radioactive waste has been thought to be an appropriate methodology for the safe isolation of the wastes from the human environment until the toxicity of the wastes decays to non-hazardous levels. For the

  17. Efficacy of Cinnamaldehyde Against Enteric Viruses and Its Activity After Incorporation Into Biodegradable Multilayer Systems of Interest in Food Packaging.

    PubMed

    Fabra, M J; Castro-Mayorga, J L; Randazzo, W; Lagarón, J M; López-Rubio, A; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

    2016-06-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CNMA), an organic compound that gives cinnamon its flavor and odor, was investigated for its virucidal activity on norovirus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Initially, different concentrations of CNMA (0.1, 0.5 and 1 %) were individually mixed with each virus at titers of ca. 6-7 log10 TCID50/ml and incubated 2 h at 4 and 37 °C. CNMA was effective in reducing the titers of norovirus surrogates in a dose-dependent manner after 2 h at 37 °C, while HAV titers were reduced by 1 log10 after treatment with 1 % of CNMA. When incubation time was extended, HAV titers were reduced by 3.4 and 2.7 log10 after overnight incubation at 37 °C with 1 and 0.5 % of CNMA, respectively. Moreover, this paper analyzed, for the first time, the antiviral activity of adding an active electrospun interlayer based on zein and CNMA to a polyhydroxybutyrate packaging material (PHB) in a multilayer form. Biodegradable multilayer systems prepared with 2.60 mg/cm(2) (~9.7 %) of CNMA completely inactivated FCV according to ISO 22196:2011, while MNV titers were reduced by 2.75 log10. When the developed multilayer films were evaluated after one month of preparation or at 25 °C, the antiviral activity was reduced as compared to freshly prepared multilayer films evaluated at 37 °C. The results show the excellent potential of this system for food contact applications as well as for active packaging technologies in order to maintain or extend food quality and safety.

  18. Efficacy of Cinnamaldehyde Against Enteric Viruses and Its Activity After Incorporation Into Biodegradable Multilayer Systems of Interest in Food Packaging.

    PubMed

    Fabra, M J; Castro-Mayorga, J L; Randazzo, W; Lagarón, J M; López-Rubio, A; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

    2016-06-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CNMA), an organic compound that gives cinnamon its flavor and odor, was investigated for its virucidal activity on norovirus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Initially, different concentrations of CNMA (0.1, 0.5 and 1 %) were individually mixed with each virus at titers of ca. 6-7 log10 TCID50/ml and incubated 2 h at 4 and 37 °C. CNMA was effective in reducing the titers of norovirus surrogates in a dose-dependent manner after 2 h at 37 °C, while HAV titers were reduced by 1 log10 after treatment with 1 % of CNMA. When incubation time was extended, HAV titers were reduced by 3.4 and 2.7 log10 after overnight incubation at 37 °C with 1 and 0.5 % of CNMA, respectively. Moreover, this paper analyzed, for the first time, the antiviral activity of adding an active electrospun interlayer based on zein and CNMA to a polyhydroxybutyrate packaging material (PHB) in a multilayer form. Biodegradable multilayer systems prepared with 2.60 mg/cm(2) (~9.7 %) of CNMA completely inactivated FCV according to ISO 22196:2011, while MNV titers were reduced by 2.75 log10. When the developed multilayer films were evaluated after one month of preparation or at 25 °C, the antiviral activity was reduced as compared to freshly prepared multilayer films evaluated at 37 °C. The results show the excellent potential of this system for food contact applications as well as for active packaging technologies in order to maintain or extend food quality and safety. PMID:27008344

  19. Incorporation of Student-Centered, Practical Applications of Geographic Information Systems to Raise Awareness and Generate Solutions for Local Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilsley, N. A.; Love, C. A.; Minster, J. B. H.

    2014-12-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer a plethora of applications for numerous fields, from geological sciences to urban planning. Therefore, developing a practical GIS curriculum for students from a diverse selection of majors can be challenging, especially since time constraints presented by the course term limit the number of projects that can cater to each student's academic focus. However, open ended assignments that allow students the freedom to personalize their projects present an opportunity to teach the universal functionality of GIS, as well as stimulate curiosity of students from all backgrounds by allowing them to tailor a project to their personal interests. During an introductory GIS course at the University of California, San Diego, projects prompted students to utilize ArcGIS in ways of their choice that raised awareness of local environmental issues, as well as encouraged students to incorporate environmentally sustainable practices into their lives. In view of the frequently stated interest of students to enter careers where they can use their newly learned GIS skills, the educational platform of choice is ESRI's ArcGIS, but the choice of platform remains flexible. As GIS resources become more accessible with the development of programs such as OpenGIS and OpenStreetMap, the potential for GIS to effectively communicate environmental issues to the public is growing fast. Incorporating these environmental issues into a curriculum not only allows students to personalize their education, but also raises awareness of such problems and provides students with the ability to communicate those issues using GIS.

  20. USAF bioenvironmental noise data handbook. Volume 172: Hush-noise suppressor (Aero Systems Engineering, Incorporated) far-field noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. A.; Rau, T. H.; Jones, C.

    1982-07-01

    The hush-house noise suppressor was made by Aero Systems Engineering of Texas, Inc. for acoustical suppression of various AF fighter/trainer aircraft during ground runup operations. This report provides measured and extrapolated data defining the bioacoustic environments produced by several aircraft/engines operating in the hush-house suppressor for various engine power configurations. Far-field data measured at 20 locations are normalized to standard meteorological conditions and extrapolated from 75-8000 meters to derive sets of equal-value contours for seven acoustic measures as function of angle and distance from the source. Refer to Volume 1 of this handbook, 'USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbook, Vol 1: Organization, Content and Application,' AMRL-TR-75(1) 1975, for discussion of the objective and design of the handbook, the types of data presented, measurement procedures, instrumentation, data processing, definitions of quantities, symbols, equations, applications, limitations, etc. Data are presented for the following aircraft/engines operating in the hush-house noise suppressor: F-4, F-15, F-16, F-105, F-106, F-111F and T-38 aircraft and the TF41-A-1, J79-GE-15, F100-PW-100, J75-P19, J-75-P-17 and TF30-P-100 engines.

  1. Reduction of magnetic damping and isotropic coercivity and increase of saturation magnetization in Rh-incorporated CoIr system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, H. S.; He, S. K.; Chung, H. J.; Zhang, M. S.; Cher, Kelvin; Low, Melvin; Zhou, T. J.; Yang, Y.; Wong, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    Replacing Ir with Rh in a CoIr system possessing negative uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K u ) substantially reduces its magnetic damping and coercivity by more than half while retaining its high negative K u . Moreover, a higher saturation magnetization (M s ) and more isotropic coercivity are achieved. Such material development makes it particularly suitable for use as the soft underlayer (SUL) of magnetic recording media for reducing noise, and as the oscillation layer of a spin-torque oscillator (STO) for achieving higher oscillation frequency, larger AC magnetic field and lower driving current, which can be readily integrated with the current recording head for microwave-assisted magnetic recording. Finally, we recommend a composite free layer by coupling CoIr with a spin polarizer (Co or Co/Cu/Co) for the enhancement of the spin-polarization rate and, therefore, the improvement of STO efficiency. These could pave the way for CoIr-based materials to be implemented in devices requiring a negative Ku with low damping and high ‘softness’, such as oscillators.

  2. Incorporating human activities into an earth system model of the Northeastern United States: socio-hydrology at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, B.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Miara, A.; Stewart, R.; Wollheim, W. M.; Lu, X.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Ehsani, N.; Shikhmacheva, K.; Yang, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Northeastern United States is one of the most urbanized regions of the world and its 70 million residents will be challenged by climate change as well as competing demands for land and water through the remainder of the 21st Century. The strategic management decisions made in the next few years will have major impacts on the region's future water resources, but planners have had limited quantitative information to support their decision-making. We have developed a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM), which allows for the testing of future scenarios of climate change, land use change and infrastructure management to better understand their implications for the region's water resources and ecosystem services. Human features of the water cycle - including thermoelectric power plants, wastewater treatment plants interbasin transfers and changes in impervious cover with different patterns of urban development - are explicitly represented in our modeling. We are currently engaged in a novel, participatory scenario design process with regional stakeholders to ensure the policy relevancy of our modeling experiments. The NE-RESM hydrologic modeling domain. Figure by Stanley Glidden and Rob Stewart

  3. Load and stability measurements on a soft-inplane rotor system incorporating elastomeric lead-lag dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted of the dynamic response and inplane stability associated with a new soft-inplane helicopter rotor. The unique feature of this rotor was the use of an internal elastomeric damper to restrain the blade inplane motion about the lead-lag hinge. The properties of the elastomer were selected to provide both a nominal first inplane frequency ratio of 0.65 and sufficient damping to eliminate the need for additional external damping sources to prevent ground resonance on a typical fuselage structure. For this investigation a 1/5-scale aeroelastic model was used to represent the rotor. The four-blade model had a diameter of 3.05 m (10 ft) and a solidity of 0.103. The first out-of-plane frequency ratio was 1.06. The model was tested in hover and in forward flight up to an advance ratio of 0.45. At each forward speed the rotor lift was varied up to simulated maneuver conditions. The measured rotor loads and response were within acceptable limits, and no adverse response qualities were observed. Moderate out-of-plane hub moments were measured, even for zero lift, to indicate the beneficial control power available for this design. Blade inplane stability testing indicated that the rotor system damping remained at moderate levels throughout the operating envelope.

  4. Recent Progresses in Incorporating Human Land-Water Management into Global Land Surface Models Toward Their Integration into Earth System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-01-01

    The global water cycle has been profoundly affected by human land-water management. As the changes in the water cycle on land can affect the functioning of a wide range of biophysical and biogeochemical processes of the Earth system, it is essential to represent human land-water management in Earth system models (ESMs). During the recent past, noteworthy progress has been made in large-scale modeling of human impacts on the water cycle but sufficient advancements have not yet been made in integrating the newly developed schemes into ESMs. This study reviews the progresses made in incorporating human factors in large-scale hydrological models and their integration into ESMs. The study focuses primarily on the recent advancements and existing challenges in incorporating human impacts in global land surface models (LSMs) as a way forward to the development of ESMs with humans as integral components, but a brief review of global hydrological models (GHMs) is also provided. The study begins with the general overview of human impacts on the water cycle. Then, the algorithms currently employed to represent irrigation, reservoir operation, and groundwater pumping are discussed. Next, methodological deficiencies in current modeling approaches and existing challenges are identified. Furthermore, light is shed on the sources of uncertainties associated with model parameterizations, grid resolution, and datasets used for forcing and validation. Finally, representing human land-water management in LSMs is highlighted as an important research direction toward developing integrated models using ESM frameworks for the holistic study of human-water interactions within the Earths system.

  5. Development and testing of a genetic marker-based pedigree reconstruction system 'PR-genie' incorporating size-class data.

    PubMed

    Cope, Robert C; Lanyon, Janet M; Seddon, Jennifer M; Pollett, Philip K

    2014-07-01

    For wildlife populations, it is often difficult to determine biological parameters that indicate breeding patterns and population mixing, but knowledge of these parameters is essential for effective management. A pedigree encodes the relationship between individuals and can provide insight into the dynamics of a population over its recent history. Here, we present a method for the reconstruction of pedigrees for wild populations of animals that live long enough to breed multiple times over their lifetime and that have complex or unknown generational structures. Reconstruction was based on microsatellite genotype data along with ancillary biological information: sex and observed body size class as an indicator of relative age of individuals within the population. Using body size-class data to infer relative age has not been considered previously in wildlife genealogy and provides a marked improvement in accuracy of pedigree reconstruction. Body size-class data are particularly useful for wild populations because it is much easier to collect noninvasively than absolute age data. This new pedigree reconstruction system, PR-genie, performs reconstruction using maximum likelihood with optimization driven by the cross-entropy method. We demonstrated pedigree reconstruction performance on simulated populations (comparing reconstructed pedigrees to known true pedigrees) over a wide range of population parameters and under assortative and intergenerational mating schema. Reconstruction accuracy increased with the presence of size-class data and as the amount and quality of genetic data increased. We provide recommendations as to the amount and quality of data necessary to provide insight into detailed familial relationships in a wildlife population using this pedigree reconstruction technique. PMID:24373173

  6. Impact evaluation of a refrigeration control system installed at Vitamilk Dairy, Incorporated under the Energy $avings Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Dixon, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    This impact evaluation of a refrigeration control system (RCS) recently installed at Vitamilk Dairy, Inc. (Vitamilk) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The RCS installation at Vitamilk uses microcomputer- based controls to automate refrigeration equipment previously controlled manually. This impact evaluation assessed how much electricity is being saved at Vitamilk as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. On a unit savings basis, this project will save 9.7 kWh/tonne (8-8 kWh/ton) of milk and ice cream produced, based on the product mix for June 1992 through May 1993, representing a 28% reduction in energy consumption. The project was installed in 1992 for a total cost of $129,330, and Vitamilk received payment of $62,974 from Bonneville in 1993 for the acquisition of energy savings. The real levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville is 8.5 mills/kWh (in 1993 dollars) over the project`s assumed 15-year life, and the real levelized cost to the region is 17.9 mills/kWh (in 1993 dollars), not including transmission and distribution effects. Based on the expected project installation costs and energy savings benefits, the RCS would not have been implemented by Vitamilk without the E$P acquisition payment. The expected acquisition payment reduced the estimated payback period from 7.0 to 2.8 years. Although Vitamilk would generally require an energy conservation project to have a payback period of two years or less, the slightly longer payback period was accepted in this case.

  7. Development and testing of a genetic marker-based pedigree reconstruction system 'PR-genie' incorporating size-class data.

    PubMed

    Cope, Robert C; Lanyon, Janet M; Seddon, Jennifer M; Pollett, Philip K

    2014-07-01

    For wildlife populations, it is often difficult to determine biological parameters that indicate breeding patterns and population mixing, but knowledge of these parameters is essential for effective management. A pedigree encodes the relationship between individuals and can provide insight into the dynamics of a population over its recent history. Here, we present a method for the reconstruction of pedigrees for wild populations of animals that live long enough to breed multiple times over their lifetime and that have complex or unknown generational structures. Reconstruction was based on microsatellite genotype data along with ancillary biological information: sex and observed body size class as an indicator of relative age of individuals within the population. Using body size-class data to infer relative age has not been considered previously in wildlife genealogy and provides a marked improvement in accuracy of pedigree reconstruction. Body size-class data are particularly useful for wild populations because it is much easier to collect noninvasively than absolute age data. This new pedigree reconstruction system, PR-genie, performs reconstruction using maximum likelihood with optimization driven by the cross-entropy method. We demonstrated pedigree reconstruction performance on simulated populations (comparing reconstructed pedigrees to known true pedigrees) over a wide range of population parameters and under assortative and intergenerational mating schema. Reconstruction accuracy increased with the presence of size-class data and as the amount and quality of genetic data increased. We provide recommendations as to the amount and quality of data necessary to provide insight into detailed familial relationships in a wildlife population using this pedigree reconstruction technique.

  8. Effective DQE (eDQE) for monoscopic and stereoscopic chest radiography imaging systems with the incorporation of anatomical noise

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, Sarah J.; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Samei, Ehsan

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Stereoscopic chest biplane correlation imaging (stereo/BCI) has been proposed as an alternative modality to single view chest x-ray (CXR). The metrics effective modulation transfer function (eMTF), effective normalized noise power spectrum (eNNPS), and effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) have been proposed as clinically relevant metrics for assessing clinical system performance taking into consideration the magnification and scatter effects. This study compared the metrics eMTF, eNNPS, eDQE, and detectability index for stereo/BCI and single view CXR under isodose conditions at two magnifications for two anthropomorphic phantoms of differing sizes.Methods: Measurements for the eMTF were taken for two phantom sizes with an opaque edge test device using established techniques. The eNNPS was measured at two isodose conditions for two phantoms using established techniques. The scatter was measured for two phantoms using an established beam stop method. All measurements were also taken at two different magnifications with two phantoms. A geometrical phantom was used for comparison with prior results for CXR although the results for an anatomy free phantom are not expected to vary for BCI.Results: Stereo/BCI resulted in improved metrics compared to single view CXR. Results indicated that magnification can potentially improve the detection performance primarily due to the air gap which reduced scatter by ∼20%. For both phantoms, at isodose, eDQE(0) for stereo/BCI was ∼100 times higher than that for CXR. Magnification at isodose improved eDQE(0) by ∼10 times for stereo/BCI. Increasing the dose did not improve eDQE. The detectability index for stereo/BCI was ∼100 times better than single view CXR for all conditions. The detectability index was also not improved with increased dose.Conclusions: The findings indicate that stereo/BCI with magnification may improve detectability of subtle lung nodules compared to single view CXR. Results were improved

  9. Incorporation of a Helical Tube Heat Transfer Model in the MARS Thermal Hydraulic Systems Analysis Code for the T/H Analyses of the SMART Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Young Jin Lee; Bub Dong Chung; Jong Chull Jo; Hho Jung Kim; Un Chul Lee

    2004-07-01

    SMART is a medium sized integral type advanced pressurized water reactor currently under development at KAERI. The steam generators of SMART are designed with helically coiled tubes and these are designed to produce superheated steam. The helical shape of the tubes can induce strong centrifugal effect on the secondary coolant as it flows inside the tubes. The presence of centrifugal effect is expected to enhance the formation of cross-sectional circulation flows within the tubes that will increase the overall heat transfer. Furthermore, the centrifugal effect is expected to enhance the moisture separation and thus make it easier to produce superheated steam. MARS is a best-estimate thermal-hydraulic systems analysis code with multi-phase, multi-dimensional analysis capability. The MARS code was produced by restructuring and merging the RELAP5 and the COBRA-TF codes. However, MARS as well as most other best-estimate systems analysis codes in current use lack the detailed models needed to describe the thermal hydraulics of helically coiled tubes. In this study, the heat transfer characteristics and relevant correlations for both the tube and shell sides of helical tubes have been investigated, and the appropriate models have been incorporated into the MARS code. The newly incorporated helical tube heat transfer package is available to the MARS users via selection of the appropriate option in the input. A performance analysis on the steam generator of SMART under full power operation was carried out using the modified MARS code. The results of the analysis indicate that there is a significant improvement in the code predictability. (authors)

  10. Multi-tiered system of support incorporating the R.E.N.E.W. process and its relationship to perception of school safety and office discipline referrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, Molly M.

    This study examined the relationship between the fidelity of multi-tier school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS) and staff perception of school safety and office discipline referrals. This research provided a case study on multi-tier supports and interventions, and the RENEW person-centered planning process in an alternative special education center following the implementation of a multi-tier SWPBIS model. Pennsylvania is one of several states looking to adopt an effective Tier III behavioral tool. The research described the results of an analysis of implementation fidelity on a multi-tiered school-wide positive behavior support model developed at a special education center operated by a public school system entity. This research explored the fidelity of SWPBIS implementation; analyzed the relationship of SWPBIS to school climate as measured by staff perceptions and reduction of office discipline referrals (ODR); explored tier III supports incorporating a process Rehabilitation and Empowerment, Natural Supports, Education and Work (RENEW); and investigated the potential sustainability of the RENEW process as a multi-tier system of support. This study investigated staff perceptions on integrated supports between schools and communities and identified the degree of relationship to school risk factors, school protective factors, and office discipline referrals following the building of cooperative partnerships between Systems of Care and Local Education Agencies.

  11. Selenium incorporation using recombinant techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, Helen

    2010-04-01

    An overview of techniques for recombinant incorporation of selenium and subsequent purification and crystallization of the resulting labelled protein. Using selenomethionine to phase macromolecular structures is common practice in structure determination, along with the use of selenocysteine. Selenium is consequently the most commonly used heavy atom for MAD. In addition to the well established recombinant techniques for the incorporation of selenium in prokaryal expression systems, there have been recent advances in selenium labelling in eukaryal expression, which will be discussed. Tips and things to consider for the purification and crystallization of seleno-labelled proteins are also included.

  12. Effectiveness of attract-and-kill systems using methyl eugenol incorporated with neonicotinoid insecticides against the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yi-Yuan; Hou, Roger F

    2008-04-01

    Laboratory bioassays and field trials were conducted to evaluate an "attract-and-kill" system using methyl eugenol (ME) with neonicotinoid insecticides against male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In laboratory bioassays, mortality of male flies resulting from the conventional toxicant, naled was 98.3-100% at 24 through 72 h after treatment, whereas the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and acetamiprid caused only approximately 60-80% at 24 through 72 h after treatment. In the assays of residual effect, naled was persistent up to 96 wk, whereas imidacloprid or acetamiprid was persistent up to 150 wk, resulting in 38.9 or 61.2% male mortality, respectively. Imidacloprid, in particular, caused a delayed lethal effect on flies. In another experiment, male mortality within 28 wk from clothianidin, another neonicotinoid insecticide, was approximately 80% after exposure for 24 h, suggesting a delayed lethal effect similar to those treated with imidacloprid, and mortality was up to 91.8%, if observed, 72 h after treatment. In field trials, attractiveness was similar between ME alone and ME incorporated with naled or neonicotinoids, indicating that addition of these insecticides to ME in traps is not repellent to B. dorsalis males. Using an improved wick-typed trap with longer attractiveness for simulating field application, addition of imidacloprid or acetamiprid maintained 40.1 or 64.3% male mortality, respectively, when assayed once every 2 wk from traps placed in orchards for 42 wk without changing the poison, whereas incorporation with naled resulted in as high as 98.1% after 34 wk and approximately 80% at 42 wk, indicating that persistence is increased compared with sugarcane fiberboard blocks for carrying poison attractants. This study also suggests that neonicotinoid insecticides could be used as an alternative for broad-spectrum insecticides as toxicants in fly traps. PMID:18459398

  13. Manure incorporation reduces environmental nitrogen loss while sustaining crop productivity in the subtropical wheat-maize rotation system: A comprehensive study of nitrogen cycling and balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minghua; Zhu, Bo; Butterbach-Bahl, klaus; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Balancing nitrogen (N) budgets of agricultural systems is essential for sustaining yields at lower environmental costs. The knowledge, however, of total N budgets of agricultural systems including all N fluxes is still rare in the literature. Here, we applied a combination of monitoring in situ N fluxes and field 15N tracer and 15N isotope dilution techniques to investigate the effects of different N fertilizers (control, synthetic fertilizer, 60% synthetic fertilizer N plus 40% pig manure N, pig manure only applied at the same N rate 280 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1) on N pools, cycling processes, fluxes and total N balances in a subtropical wheat-maize rotation system of China. Nitrate leaching and NH3 volatilization were main hydrological and gaseous N loss pathways, respectively. The warm and wet maize season was associated with significantly larger environmental N losses than the cooler and drier wheat season. The field 15N tracing experiment showed that the wheat system had high N retention capacity (˜50% of 15N application) but with short residence time. I.e. 90% of soil residual 15N labelled fertilizer in the wheat system were utilized by plants or lost to the environment in the subsequent maize season. Our annual total N balances of the different treatments revealed that combined synthetic and organic fertilization or manure only maintained the same level of yields and led to significantly lower N losses and higher N retention, even though larger NH3 volatilization losses were caused by manure incorporation. Thus, our study suggests that a combination of synthetic and organic N fertilizers is suitable for sustaining agricultural productivity while reducing environmental N losses through fostering interactions between the soil C and N cycle.

  14. Manure incorporation reduces environmental nitrogen loss while sustaining crop productivity in the subtropical wheat-maize rotation system: A comprehensive study of nitrogen cycling and balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minghua; Zhu, Bo; Butterbach-Bahl, klaus; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Balancing nitrogen (N) budgets of agricultural systems is essential for sustaining yields at lower environmental costs. The knowledge, however, of total N budgets of agricultural systems including all N fluxes is still rare in the literature. Here, we applied a combination of monitoring in situ N fluxes and field 15N tracer and 15N isotope dilution techniques to investigate the effects of different N fertilizers (control, synthetic fertilizer, 60% synthetic fertilizer N plus 40% pig manure N, pig manure only applied at the same N rate 280 kg N ha-1 yr-1) on N pools, cycling processes, fluxes and total N balances in a subtropical wheat-maize rotation system of China. Nitrate leaching and NH3 volatilization were main hydrological and gaseous N loss pathways, respectively. The warm and wet maize season was associated with significantly larger environmental N losses than the cooler and drier wheat season. The field 15N tracing experiment showed that the wheat system had high N retention capacity (˜50% of 15N application) but with short residence time. I.e. 90% of soil residual 15N labelled fertilizer in the wheat system were utilized by plants or lost to the environment in the subsequent maize season. Our annual total N balances of the different treatments revealed that combined synthetic and organic fertilization or manure only maintained the same level of yields and led to significantly lower N losses and higher N retention, even though larger NH3 volatilization losses were caused by manure incorporation. Thus, our study suggests that a combination of synthetic and organic N fertilizers is suitable for sustaining agricultural productivity while reducing environmental N losses through fostering interactions between the soil C and N cycle.

  15. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  16. Incorporating Web 2.0 Technologies from an Organizational Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, R.

    2009-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) provides support for the organization, facilitation, and dissemination of online educational and scientific materials and information to a wide range of stakeholders. ARCUS is currently weaving the fabric of Web 2.0 technologies—web development featuring interactive information sharing and user-centered design—into its structure, both as a tool for information management and for educational outreach. The importance of planning, developing, and maintaining a cohesive online platform in order to integrate data storage and dissemination will be discussed in this presentation, as well as some specific open source technologies and tools currently available, including: ○ Content Management: Any system set up to manage the content of web sites and services. Drupal is a content management system, built in a modular fashion allowing for a powerful set of features including, but not limited to weblogs, forums, event calendars, polling, and more. ○ Faceted Search: Combined with full text indexing, faceted searching allows site visitors to locate information quickly and then provides a set of 'filters' with which to narrow the search results. Apache Solr is a search server with a web-services like API (Application programming interface) that has built in support for faceted searching. ○ Semantic Web: The semantic web refers to the ongoing evolution of the World Wide Web as it begins to incorporate semantic components, which aid in processing requests. OpenCalais is a web service that uses natural language processing, along with other methods, in order to extract meaningful 'tags' from your content. This metadata can then be used to connect people, places, and things throughout your website, enriching the surfing experience for the end user. ○ Web Widgets: A web widget is a portable 'piece of code' that can be embedded easily into web pages by an end user. Timeline is a widget developed as part of the

  17. Incorporating high-pressure electroosmotic pump and a nano-flow gradient generator into a miniaturized liquid chromatographic system for peptide analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Apeng; Lynch, Kyle B; Wang, Xiaochun; Lu, Joann J; Gu, Congying; Liu, Shaorong

    2014-09-24

    We integrate a high-pressure electroosmotic pump (EOP), a nanoflow gradient generator, and a capillary column into a miniaturized liquid chromatographic system that can be directly coupled with a mass spectrometer for proteomic analysis. We have recently developed a low-cost high-pressure EOP capable of generating pressure of tens of thousands psi, ideal for uses in miniaturized HPLC. The pump worked smoothly when it was used for isocratic elutions. When it was used for gradient elutions, generating reproducible gradient profiles was challenging; because the pump rate fluctuated when the pump was used to pump high-content organic solvents. This presents an issue for separating proteins/peptides since high-content organic solvents are often utilized. In this work, we solve this problem by incorporating our high-pressure EOP with a nano-flow gradient generator so that the EOP needs only to pump an aqueous solution. With this combination, we develop a capillary-based nano-HPLC system capable of performing nano-flow gradient elution; the pump rate is stable, and the gradient profiles are reproducible and can be conveniently tuned. To demonstrate its utility, we couple it with either a UV absorbance detector or a mass spectrometer for peptide separations.

  18. The Effect of Air Density on Sand Transport Structures and the Adobe Abrasion Profile: A Field Wind-Tunnel Experiment Over a Wide Range of Altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qingjie; Qu, Jianjun; Dong, Zhibao; Zu, Ruiping; Zhang, Kecun; Wang, Hongtao; Xie, Shengbo

    2013-11-01

    Aeolian sand transport results from interactions between the surface and the airflow above. Air density strongly constrains airflow characteristics and the resulting flow of sand, and therefore should not be neglected in sand transport models. In the present study, we quantify the influence of air density on the sand flow structure, sand transport rate, adobe abrasion profiles, and abrasion rate using a portable wind-tunnel in the field. For a given wind speed, the flow's ability to transport sand decreases at low air density, so total sand transport decreases, but the saltation height increases. Thus, the damage to human structures increases compared with what occurs at lower altitudes. The adobe abrasion rate by the cloud of blowing sand decreases exponentially with increasing height above the surface, while the wind erosion and dust emission intensity both increase with increasing air density. Long-term feedback processes between air density and wind erosion suggest that the development of low-altitude areas due to long-term deflation plays a key role in dust emission, and will have a profound significance for surface Aeolian processes and geomorphology.

  19. 75 FR 60820 - United States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Statement, 61 FR 28891, 28894 (W.D.Mo. May 28, 1996). The Court entered an agreed-upon Final Judgment... thereto; 2. Contracts with consultants or recipients of consulting services, auditors, outsourcing...

  20. Effect of ultraviolet radiation exposure on room-temperature hydrogen sensitivity of nanocrystalline doped tin oxide sensor incorporated into microelectromechanical systems device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Satyajit; Agrawal, Rajnikant; Cho, Hyoung J.; Seal, Sudipta; Ludwig, Lawrence; Parish, Clyde

    2005-03-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure on the room-temperature hydrogen (H2) sensitivity of nanocrystalline indium oxide (In2O3)-doped tin oxide (SnO2) thin-film gas sensor is investigated in this article. The present sensor is incorporated into microelectromechanical systems device using sol-gel dip-coating technique. The present sensor exhibits a very high sensitivity, as high as 65 000-110 000, at room temperature, for 900ppm of H2 under the dynamic test condition without UV exposure. The H2 sensitivity is, however, observed to reduce to 200 under UV radiation, which is contrary to the literature data, where an enhanced room-temperature gas sensitivity has been reported under UV radiation. The observed phenomenon is attributed to the reduced surface coverage by the chemisorbed oxygen ions under UV radiation, which is in consonance with the prediction of the constitutive equation, proposed recently by the authors, for the gas sensitivity of nanocrystalline semiconductor oxide thin-film sensors.

  1. Effect of ultraviolet radiation exposure on room-temperature hydrogen sensitivity of nanocrystalline doped tin oxide sensor incorporated into microelectromechanical systems device

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Satyajit; Agrawal, Rajnikant; Cho, Hyoung J.; Seal, Sudipta; Ludwig, Lawrence; Parish, Clyde

    2005-03-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure on the room-temperature hydrogen (H{sub 2}) sensitivity of nanocrystalline indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3})-doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin-film gas sensor is investigated in this article. The present sensor is incorporated into microelectromechanical systems device using sol-gel dip-coating technique. The present sensor exhibits a very high sensitivity, as high as 65 000-110 000, at room temperature, for 900 ppm of H{sub 2} under the dynamic test condition without UV exposure. The H{sub 2} sensitivity is, however, observed to reduce to 200 under UV radiation, which is contrary to the literature data, where an enhanced room-temperature gas sensitivity has been reported under UV radiation. The observed phenomenon is attributed to the reduced surface coverage by the chemisorbed oxygen ions under UV radiation, which is in consonance with the prediction of the constitutive equation, proposed recently by the authors, for the gas sensitivity of nanocrystalline semiconductor oxide thin-film sensors.

  2. Development of a 24-locus multiplex system to incorporate the core loci in the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) and the European Standard Set (ESS).

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Shen, Hongying; Tian, Huaizhou; Jin, Ping; Jiang, Xianhua

    2014-01-01

    The 24-locus multiplex system allows co-amplification and fluorescent detection of 24 loci (23 STR loci and Amelogenin), including STR loci in the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) and the ESS (European Standard Set) as well as five additional loci (D2S1338, D6S1043, D19S433, Penta D and Penta E) commonly used in commercial kits. It facilitates data sharing and minimizes adventitious matches within national or between international DNA databases. Additionally, the system can amplify directly from blood and buccal samples spotted on filter paper and swabs and reduce the cycling time to less than one hour and a half. Primers, internal size standard, allelic ladders and matrix standard set were designed and created in-house with a design strategy to work in this multiplex. Developmental validation experiments followed the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) and the Chinese National Standard (GA/T815-2009) guidelines. The system was evaluated by species specificity, sensitivity, stability, precision and accuracy, case-type samples, population, mixture and PCR-based studies. The results demonstrate that the 24-locus multiplex system is a robust and reliable identification assay as required for forensic DNA typing and databasing.

  3. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  4. Optimisation of a system for the co-translational incorporation of a keto amino acid and its application to a tumour-specific Anticalin.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Andreas J; Poxleitner, Gabriele; Dauner, Martin; Skerra, Arne

    2015-12-01

    The bioorthogonal keto group has attracted interest for the site-specific chemical conjugation of recombinant proteins under mild conditions, e.g. with aminooxy-functionalised fluorescent probes, radiometal chelates, toxins or polymers. However, the cotranslational incorporation of the corresponding non-canonical amino acid p-acetyl-L-phenylalanine (Apa) into proteins expressed in Escherichia coli by means of amber suppression using a previously described system with a mutated tRNA and an engineered tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from Methanococcus jannaschii shows limited efficiency and considerable promiscuity towards endogenous amino acids. Employing a one-plasmid system that encodes all three components required for selection, i.e. the modified aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS), the cognate amber suppressor tRNA and the enhanced green fluorescent protein equipped with an amber stop codon and serving as reporter, we have generated an Apa-specific aaRS&tRNA pair with considerably improved efficiency (17-fold increased expression) and also fidelity (6-fold). To this end, both the aaRS and the tRNA were subjected to doped random mutagenesis and selection in altogether four evolutionary cycles using fluorescence-activated bacterial cell sorting as well as automated screening of microcultures. The resulting aaRS&tRNA pair was applied to the functionalisation of an Anticalin with specificity towards oncofetal fibronectin by introducing a keto group at a permissible site for subsequent conjugation with a fluorescent dye, thus allowing visualisation of this tumour target under the microscope.

  5. Immunocytochemical studies reveal novel neural structures in nemertean pilidium larvae and provide evidence for incorporation of larval components into the juvenile nervous system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Nemertea is one of the least studied lophotrochozoan phyla concerning neurogenesis. The sparse data available do not unambiguously allow for answering questions with respect to the neural groundplan of the phylum or the fate of larval neural structures during metamorphosis. In order to contribute to this issue, we studied neurotransmitter distribution during development of the pilidiophoran Lineus albocinctus Verrill, 1900. Results Two serotonin-like immunoreactive (lir) neurons are present in the anterior part of the apical plate. They send numerous processes into the four lobes of the pilidium larva, where they form a complex subepithelial nerve net. All four larval lobes are underlain by a marginal neurite bundle, which is associated with numerous serotonin-lir monociliated perikarya. A serotonin-lir oral nerve ring encircles the stomach sphincter and is associated with few serotonin-lir conical cells. Two suboral neurites descend from the oral nerve ring and merge with the marginal neurite bundle. The oral nerve ring and the suboral neurites contain the mollusk-specific VD1/RPD2 α-neuropeptide. The lateral lobes of the larva have three and the anterior and the posterior lobes two VD1/RPD2-lir marginal neurite bundles. The lobar FMRFamide-lir plexus of Lineus albocinctus is much more complex than previously described for any pilidium larva. It includes a circumesophageal neurite that descends along each side of the larval esophagus and together with the inner marginal neurite bundle gives rise to the lobar plexus of the lateral lobes. An outer FMRFamide-lir marginal neurite bundle with numerous associated FMRFamide-lir marginal sensory cells surrounds all four lobes. FMRFamide-lir structures are absent in the larval apical region. The oral nerve ring and the two suboral serotonin-lir neurites are incorporated into the juvenile nervous system. Conclusion Our study confirms the presence of serotonin-lir components in the apical region of the pilidium

  6. Global Monitoring RSEM System for Crop Production by Incorporating Satellite-based Photosynthesis Rates and Anomaly Data of Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, D.; Sakuma, H.

    2014-12-01

    The first author has been developing RSEM crop-monitoring system using satellite-based assessment of photosynthesis, incorporating meteorological conditions. Crop production comprises of several stages and plural mechanisms based on leaf photosynthesis, surface energy balance, and the maturing of grains after fixation of CO2, along with water exchange through soil vegetation-atmosphere transfer. Grain production in prime countries appears to be randomly perturbed regionally and globally. Weather for crop plants reflects turbulent phenomena of convective and advection flows in atmosphere and surface boundary layer. It has been difficult for scientists to simulate and forecast weather correctly for sufficiently long terms to crop harvesting. However, severely poor harvests related to continental events must originate from a consistent mechanism of abnormal energetic flow in the atmosphere through both land and oceans. It should be remembered that oceans have more than 100 times of energy storage compared to atmosphere and ocean currents represent gigantic energy flows, strongly affecting climate. Anomalies of Sea Surface Temperature (SST), globally known as El Niño, Indian Ocean dipole, and Atlantic Niño etc., affect the seasonal climate on a continental scale. The authors aim to combine monitoring and seasonal forecasting, considering such mechanisms through land-ocean biosphere transfer. The present system produces assessments for all continents, specifically monitoring agricultural fields of main crops. Historical regions of poor and good harvests are compared with distributions of SST anomalies, which are provided by NASA GSFC. Those comparisons fairly suggest that the Worst harvest in 1993 and the Best in 1994 relate to the offshore distribution of low temperature anomalies and high gaps in ocean surface temperatures. However, high-temperature anomalies supported good harvests because of sufficient solar radiation for photosynthesis, and poor harvests because

  7. Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics of a B-29 Airplane with a Booster Incorporated in the Elevator Control System to Provide Various Stick-Force and Control-Rate Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, Charles W.; Talmage, Donald B.; Whitten, James B.

    1948-01-01

    The longitudinal stability and control characteristics of a B-29 airplane have been measured with a booster incorporated in the elevator control system. Tests were made to determine the effects on the handling qualities of the test airplane of variations in pilots control-force gradients as well as the effects of variations in the maximum rate of control motion supplied by the booster system.

  8. Incorporating uncertainty into mercury-offset decisions with a probabilistic network for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit holders: an interim report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This interim report describes an alternative approach for evaluating the efficacy of using mercury (Hg) offsets to improve water quality. Hg-offset programs may allow dischargers facing higher-pollution control costs to meet their regulatory obligations by making more cost effective pollutant-reduction decisions. Efficient Hg management requires methods to translate that science and economics into a regulatory decision framework. This report documents the work in progress by the U.S. Geological Surveys Western Geographic Science Center in collaboration with Stanford University toward developing this decision framework to help managers, regulators, and other stakeholders decide whether offsets can cost effectively meet the Hg total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements in the Sacramento River watershed. Two key approaches being considered are: (1) a probabilistic approach that explicitly incorporates scientific uncertainty, cost information, and value judgments; and (2) a quantitative approach that captures uncertainty in testing the feasibility of Hg offsets. Current fate and transport-process models commonly attempt to predict chemical transformations and transport pathways deterministically. However, the physical, chemical, and biologic processes controlling the fate and transport of Hg in aquatic environments are complex and poorly understood. Deterministic models of Hg environmental behavior contain large uncertainties, reflecting this lack of understanding. The uncertainty in these underlying physical processes may produce similarly large uncertainties in the decisionmaking process. However, decisions about control strategies are still being made despite the large uncertainties in current Hg loadings, the relations between total Hg (HgT) loading and methylmercury (MeHg) formation, and the relations between control efforts and Hg content in fish. The research presented here focuses on an alternative analytical approach to the current use of safety factors and

  9. 75 FR 36374 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 33608) a notice of an altered system of records to revise the system of records notice for the Investigative Files of the Inspector General (18-10-01), 68 FR 38154... Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF), on...

  10. 48 CFR 2852.102-270 - Incorporation in full text.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporation in full text... 2852.102-270 Incorporation in full text. JAR provisions or clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and contracts in full text....

  11. 48 CFR 1952.102-2 - Incorporation in full text.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Incorporation in full text... Clauses 1952.102-2 Incorporation in full text. All IAAR provisions and clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and/or contracts in full text....

  12. 48 CFR 2852.102-270 - Incorporation in full text.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporation in full text... 2852.102-270 Incorporation in full text. JAR provisions or clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and contracts in full text....

  13. 48 CFR 1952.102-2 - Incorporation in full text.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporation in full text... Clauses 1952.102-2 Incorporation in full text. All IAAR provisions and clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and/or contracts in full text....

  14. 48 CFR 1952.102-2 - Incorporation in full text.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporation in full text... Clauses 1952.102-2 Incorporation in full text. All IAAR provisions and clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and/or contracts in full text....

  15. 48 CFR 1952.102-2 - Incorporation in full text.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporation in full text... Clauses 1952.102-2 Incorporation in full text. All IAAR provisions and clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and/or contracts in full text....

  16. 48 CFR 2852.102-270 - Incorporation in full text.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporation in full text... 2852.102-270 Incorporation in full text. JAR provisions or clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and contracts in full text....

  17. 48 CFR 2852.102-270 - Incorporation in full text.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Incorporation in full text... 2852.102-270 Incorporation in full text. JAR provisions or clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and contracts in full text....

  18. 48 CFR 2852.102-270 - Incorporation in full text.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporation in full text... 2852.102-270 Incorporation in full text. JAR provisions or clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and contracts in full text....

  19. 48 CFR 1952.102-2 - Incorporation in full text.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporation in full text... Clauses 1952.102-2 Incorporation in full text. All IAAR provisions and clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and/or contracts in full text....

  20. 43 CFR 34.7 - Incorporation by operation of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporation by operation of law. 34.7... OPPORTUNITY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.7 Incorporation by operation of law. (a) The Equal Opportunity Clause shall be deemed incorporated into...

  1. 43 CFR 34.7 - Incorporation by operation of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporation by operation of law. 34.7... OPPORTUNITY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.7 Incorporation by operation of law. (a) The Equal Opportunity Clause shall be deemed incorporated into...

  2. 43 CFR 34.7 - Incorporation by operation of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Incorporation by operation of law. 34.7... OPPORTUNITY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.7 Incorporation by operation of law. (a) The Equal Opportunity Clause shall be deemed incorporated into...

  3. 43 CFR 34.7 - Incorporation by operation of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporation by operation of law. 34.7... OPPORTUNITY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.7 Incorporation by operation of law. (a) The Equal Opportunity Clause shall be deemed incorporated into...

  4. Denitrification incorporating microporous membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Reising, A.R.; Schroeder, E.D.

    1996-07-01

    A microbial system for removal of nitrate from drinking water in which the denitrification reactions are physically separated from the water being treated by a microporous membrane was studied. The experimental system was composed of two equal-volume cells separated by a 0.02 {mu}m pore size polytetrafluoroethylene membrane. No pressure difference existed across the membrane, and nitrate ions were transported through the membrane by diffusion. Results of experiments with biofilm denitrification and suspended-culture systems are presented. Deoxygenation by N{sub 2} stripping and by SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}2} produced equivalent results. Removal rates with the suspended culture systems were greater than those with biofilms. Effective membrane diffusivities calculated for suspended-culture systems were approximately the same as for sterile systems, indicating that resistance to transport was not changed by the addition of the suspended microbial culture. The methanol requirement observed in the experiments was 1.4 g total organic carbon (TOC) per g NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N removed. Removal rates followed first-order pseudotransport controlled models for both the biofilm and suspended-culture systems. A prototype continuous-flow system is presented.

  5. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

  6. A low energy, bio-secure, 'hybrid' recirculation system incorporating air lift pumps for water circulation, aeration, and CO2 degassing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ‘Hybrid’ recirculating aquaculture system design utilizes elements of both a ‘Centralized’ design concept with a single water treatment system for a number of fish tanks and the ‘Modular’ design concept which employs a individual treatment system for each fish culture tank. The ‘Hybrid’ recirculat...

  7. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  8. A reduced-dimensionality quantum model which incorporates the full-dimensional energy of the system: Application to the vibrational predissociation of Cl2-Ne2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceotto, M.; García-Vela, A.

    2001-08-01

    A reduced-dimensionality quantum model is proposed which incorporates the zero-point energy of the neglected modes in a systematic, natural way. In this model the reduced-dimensionality Hamiltonian is obtained by averaging the exact Hamiltonian over the dependence of the full-dimensional initial state of the neglected modes. The reduced Hamiltonian conserves all the terms of the full Hamiltonian, providing a more flexible description of the couplings between the modes considered explicitly in the model. The model is applied to simulate the vibrational predissociation dynamics of Cl2-Ne2, considering the three stretching modes of the complex. The results are compared to experimental data and to previous calculations using a reduced-dimensionality quantum model and a full-dimensional quantum-classical approach. The Cl2-Ne2 resonance lifetimes obtained agree only qualitatively with the experimental and previously calculated ones. By contrast, the present model predicts more correctly than previous calculations the behavior of the Cl2 fragment vibrational distributions observed experimentally. The applicability of the model is discussed and further refinements are suggested.

  9. Incorporating PACER into an Inclusive Basketball Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Carlos M.; Cohen, Rona; Hersman, Bethany L.; Barrett, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Cooperative learning is an instructional method designed to teach students to work together in small, structured, heterogeneous teams to achieve a common goal. The Performer and Coach Earn Rewards (PACER) system is a new way to incorporate cooperative learning in the gymnasium. It consists of six components that help teachers to introduce new…

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TEHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION AGENTS IN DRINKING WATER, KINETICO INCORPORATED PALL/KINETICO PUREFECTA™ DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM (POU)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Purefecta™ was tested for removal of bacteria and viruses at NSF International's Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory. Kinetico submitted 10 units for testing, which were split into two groups of five. One group received 25 days of conditioning prior to challeng...

  11. Herbicidal effects of soil-incorporated wheat.

    PubMed

    Mathiassen, Solvejg K; Kudsk, Per; Mogensen, Betty B

    2006-02-22

    The hydroxamic acid 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) and the benzoxazolinones benzoxazolin-2-one (BOA) and 6-methoxybenzoxazolin-2-one (MBOA) have been identified as important allelochemicals in wheat. This study examines the possibility of exploiting the allelopathic properties of wheat as a weed control strategy by cultivating wheat as a precrop and incorporating plant residues into the soil before the next crop is sown. Different wheat varieties were cultivated in field plots during two seasons in both conventional and organic farming systems. Plants were sampled at various growth stages, and their contents of DIMBOA, MBOA, and BOA were determined by chemical analyses. The wheat samples were incorporated into soil, and the effect on germination and growth of 12 different weed species was examined in pot experiments under controlled conditions. In some cases significant effects were obtained, but the results were inconsistent and the effects were not correlated to the content of DIMBOA, MBOA, and BOA in the incorporated wheat plants. ED50 doses of the pure compounds were estimated in dose-response experiments in Petri dishes, and these turned out to be much higher than the predicted maximum concentrations of DIMBOA, MBOA, and BOA in the soil water following incorporation. The study shows that a prerequisite for exploiting the incorporation of wheat residues as a weed control strategy is the development of wheat varieties with an increased content of allelochemicals.

  12. 48 CFR 52.252-2 - Clauses Incorporated by Reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clauses Incorporated by Reference. 52.252-2 Section 52.252-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.252-2 Clauses Incorporated...

  13. 48 CFR 1352.102 - Incorporating provisions and clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporating provisions and clauses. 1352.102 Section 1352.102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Instructions for Using Provisions and Clauses 1352.102 Incorporating provisions...

  14. 48 CFR 52.252-2 - Clauses Incorporated by Reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clauses Incorporated by Reference. 52.252-2 Section 52.252-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.252-2 Clauses Incorporated...

  15. 48 CFR 1352.102 - Incorporating provisions and clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporating provisions and clauses. 1352.102 Section 1352.102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Instructions for Using Provisions and Clauses 1352.102 Incorporating provisions...

  16. 48 CFR 852.102 - Incorporating provisions and clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporating provisions and clauses. 852.102 Section 852.102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Instructions for Using Provisions and Clauses 852.102 Incorporating...

  17. 48 CFR 852.102 - Incorporating provisions and clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporating provisions and clauses. 852.102 Section 852.102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Instructions for Using Provisions and Clauses 852.102 Incorporating...

  18. 48 CFR 52.252-2 - Clauses Incorporated by Reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clauses Incorporated by Reference. 52.252-2 Section 52.252-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.252-2 Clauses Incorporated...

  19. Exploring Teaching Programming Online through Web Conferencing System: The Lens of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakiroglu, Ünal; Kokoç, Mehmet; Kol, Elvan; Turan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand activities and behaviors of learners and instructor in an online programming course. Adobe Connect web conferencing system was used as a delivery platform. A total of fifty-six sophomore students attending a computer education and instructional technology program (online) participated in this…

  20. Face Recognition Incorporating Ancillary Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Ki; Toh, Kar-Ann; Lee, Sangyoun

    2007-12-01

    Due to vast variations of extrinsic and intrinsic imaging conditions, face recognition remained to be a challenging computer vision problem even today. This is particularly true when the passive imaging approach is considered for robust applications. To advance existing recognition systems for face, numerous techniques and methods have been proposed to overcome the almost inevitable performance degradation due to external factors such as pose, expression, occlusion, and illumination. In particular, the recent part-based method has provided noticeable room for verification performance improvement based on the localized features which have good tolerance to variation of external conditions. The part-based method, however, does not really stretch the performance without incorporation of global information from the holistic method. In view of the need to fuse the local information and the global information in an adaptive manner for reliable recognition, in this paper we investigate whether such external factors can be explicitly estimated and be used to boost the verification performance during fusion of the holistic and part-based methods. Our empirical evaluations show noticeable performance improvement adopting the proposed method.

  1. Physicochemical characterization of surfactant incorporating vesicles that incorporate colloidal magnetite.

    PubMed

    de Melo Barbosa, Raquel; Luna Finkler, Christine L; Bentley, Maria Vitória L B; Santana, Maria Helena A

    2013-03-01

    Drug administration through the transdermal route has optimized for the comfort of patients and easy application. However, the main limitation of transdermal drug delivery is the impermeability of the human skin. Recent advances on improvement of drug transport through the skin include elastic liposomes as a penetration enhancer. Entrapment of ferrofluids in the core of liposomes produces magnetoliposomes, which can be driven by a high-gradient magnetic field. The association of both strategies could enhance the penetration of elastic liposomes. This work relies on the preparation and characterization of elastic-magnetic liposomes designed to permeate through the skin. The incorporation of colloidal magnetite and the elastic component, octaethylene glycol laurate (PEG-8-L), in the structure of liposomes were evaluated. The capability of the elastic magnetoliposomes for permeation through nanopores of two stacked polycarbonate membranes was compared to conventional and elastic liposomes. Magnetite incorporation was dependent on vesicle diameter and size distribution as well as PEG-8-L incorporation into liposomes, demonstrating the capability of the fluid bilayer to accommodate the surfactant without disruption. On the contrary, PEG-8-L incorporation into magnetoliposomes promoted a decrease of average diameter and a lower PEG-8-L incorporation percentage as a result of reduction on the fluidity of the bilayer imparted by iron incorporation into the lipid structure. Elastic liposomes demonstrated an enhancement of the deformation capability, as compared with conventional liposomes. Conventional and elastic magnetoliposomes presented a reduced capability for deformation and permeation. PMID:23363304

  2. Incorporation of a rough ocean surface and semi-infinite water body in multiple scattering computations of polarized light in an atmosphere-ocean system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhary, Jacek; Travis, Larry D.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    1995-01-01

    The use of accurate space-born polarimetric measurements to retrieve tropospheric aerosol characteristics is a promising remote sensing tool, but also imposes strong requirements on the atmosphere-ocean model in terms of its adequacy and on computational techniques in terms of their accuracy and efficiency. The present work is concerned with computing the reflection matrix of an atmosphere-ocean system within this context. We use the Ambartsumyan non- linear integral equation to obtain the reflection matrix for a semi-infinite homogeneous ocean body containing hydrosols. The reflection and transmission matrices of a statistically rough ocean surface are obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined ocean body and ocean surface are obtained employing the adding method. We use the Fourier decomposition of the scattering matrices and separation of the first-order scattering to substantially reduce the computational burden. An atmospheric model containing aerosols and molecules is computed and added on the top of the ocean system using the adding/doubling method. We report preliminary computational data and discuss the variation of the degree of linear polarization of singly and multiply scattered radiation as a function of scattering geometry, surface roughness, and aerosol and molecular optical depth.

  3. Incorporation of a rough ocean surface and semi-infinite water body in multiple scattering computations of polarized light in an atmosphere-ocean system

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhary, J. |; Travis, L.D.; Lacis, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    The use of accurate space-born polarimetric measurements to retrieve tropospheric aerosol characteristics is a promising remote sensing tool, but also imposes strong requirements on the atmosphere-ocean model in terms of its adequacy and on computational techniques in terms of their accuracy and efficiency. The present work is concerned with computing the reflection matrix of an atmosphere-ocean system within this context. The authors use the Ambartsumyan non-linear integral equation to obtain the reflection matrix for a semi-infinite homogeneous ocean body containing hydrosols. The reflection and transmission matrices of a statistically rough ocean surface are obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined ocean body and ocean surface are obtained employing the adding method. They use the Fourier decomposition of the scattering matrices and separation of the first-order scattering to substantially reduce the computational burden. An atmosphere model containing aerosols and molecules is computed and added on the top of the ocean system using the adding/doubling method. They report preliminary computational data and discuss the variation of the degree of linear polarization of singly and multiply scattered radiation as a function of scattering geometry, surface roughness, and aerosol and molecular optical depth.

  4. Techno-economic analysis for incorporating a liquid-liquid extraction system to remove acetic acid into a proposed commercial scale biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Mitigating the effect of fermentation inhibitors in bioethanol plants can have a great positive impact on the economy of this industry. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using ethyl acetate is able to remove fermentation inhibitors-chiefly, acetic acid-from an aqueous solution used to produce bioethanol. The fermentation broth resulting from LLE has higher performance for ethanol yield and its production rate. Previous techno-economic analyses focused on second-generation biofuel production did not address the impact of removing the fermentation inhibitors on the economic performance of the biorefinery. A comprehensive analysis of applying a separation system to mitigate the fermentation inhibition effect and to provide an analysis on the economic impact of removal of acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate on the overall revenue of the biorefinery is necessary. This study examines the pros and cons associated with implementing LLE column along with the solvent recovery system into a commercial scale bioethanol plant. Using details from the NREL-developed model of corn stover biorefinery, the capital costs associated with the equipment and the operating cost for the use of solvent were estimated and the results were compared with the profit gain due to higher ethanol production. Results indicate that the additional capital will add 1% to the total capital and manufacturing cost will increase by 5.9%. The benefit arises from the higher ethanol production rate and yield as a consequence of inhibitor extraction and results in a $0.35 per gallon reduction in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:971-977, 2016.

  5. Doxorubicin-Incorporated Nanotherapeutic Delivery System Based on Gelatin-Coated Gold Nanoparticles: Formulation, Drug Release, and Multimodal Imaging of Cellular Internalization.

    PubMed

    Suarasan, Sorina; Focsan, Monica; Potara, Monica; Soritau, Olga; Florea, Adrian; Maniu, Dana; Astilean, Simion

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we developed a new pH- and temperature-responsive nanochemotherapeutic system based on Doxorubicin (DOX) noncovalently bound to biosynthesized gelatin-coated gold nanoparticles (DOX-AuNPs@gelatin). The real-time release profile of DOX was evaluated at different pH values (7.4, 5.3, and 4.6) and temperatures (22-45 °C) in aqueous solutions, and its therapeutic performance was examined in vitro against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. TEM, dark-field scattering, and wide-field fluorescence microscopy indicated the effective uptake of nanochemotherapeutics with the subsequent release and progressive accumulation of DOX in cell nuclei. MTT assays clearly showed the effectiveness of the treatment by inhibiting the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells for a loaded drug concentration of 5 μg/mL. The most informative data about the dynamic release and localization were provided by scanning confocal microscopy using time-resolved fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) techniques. In particular, fluorescence-lifetime imaging (FLIM) recorded under 485 nm pulsed diode laser excitation revealed the bimodal distribution of DOX in cells. The shorter fluorescence lifetime of DOX localized in nuclei (1.52 ns) than in the cytoplasm (2.4 ns) is consistent with the cytotoxic mechanism induced by DOX-DNA intercalation. Remarkably, the few DOX molecules captured between nanoparticles ("electromagnetic hotspots") after most drug is released act as SERS reporters for the localization of plasmonic nanocarriers in MCF-7 cells. The high drug loading capacity and effective drug release under pH control combined with the advantage of multimodal visualization inside cells clearly indicate the high potential of our DOX-AuNPs@gelatin delivery system for implementation in nanomedicine.

  6. Techno-economic analysis for incorporating a liquid-liquid extraction system to remove acetic acid into a proposed commercial scale biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Mitigating the effect of fermentation inhibitors in bioethanol plants can have a great positive impact on the economy of this industry. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using ethyl acetate is able to remove fermentation inhibitors-chiefly, acetic acid-from an aqueous solution used to produce bioethanol. The fermentation broth resulting from LLE has higher performance for ethanol yield and its production rate. Previous techno-economic analyses focused on second-generation biofuel production did not address the impact of removing the fermentation inhibitors on the economic performance of the biorefinery. A comprehensive analysis of applying a separation system to mitigate the fermentation inhibition effect and to provide an analysis on the economic impact of removal of acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate on the overall revenue of the biorefinery is necessary. This study examines the pros and cons associated with implementing LLE column along with the solvent recovery system into a commercial scale bioethanol plant. Using details from the NREL-developed model of corn stover biorefinery, the capital costs associated with the equipment and the operating cost for the use of solvent were estimated and the results were compared with the profit gain due to higher ethanol production. Results indicate that the additional capital will add 1% to the total capital and manufacturing cost will increase by 5.9%. The benefit arises from the higher ethanol production rate and yield as a consequence of inhibitor extraction and results in a $0.35 per gallon reduction in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:971-977, 2016. PMID:27390294

  7. Doxorubicin-Incorporated Nanotherapeutic Delivery System Based on Gelatin-Coated Gold Nanoparticles: Formulation, Drug Release, and Multimodal Imaging of Cellular Internalization.

    PubMed

    Suarasan, Sorina; Focsan, Monica; Potara, Monica; Soritau, Olga; Florea, Adrian; Maniu, Dana; Astilean, Simion

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we developed a new pH- and temperature-responsive nanochemotherapeutic system based on Doxorubicin (DOX) noncovalently bound to biosynthesized gelatin-coated gold nanoparticles (DOX-AuNPs@gelatin). The real-time release profile of DOX was evaluated at different pH values (7.4, 5.3, and 4.6) and temperatures (22-45 °C) in aqueous solutions, and its therapeutic performance was examined in vitro against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. TEM, dark-field scattering, and wide-field fluorescence microscopy indicated the effective uptake of nanochemotherapeutics with the subsequent release and progressive accumulation of DOX in cell nuclei. MTT assays clearly showed the effectiveness of the treatment by inhibiting the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells for a loaded drug concentration of 5 μg/mL. The most informative data about the dynamic release and localization were provided by scanning confocal microscopy using time-resolved fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) techniques. In particular, fluorescence-lifetime imaging (FLIM) recorded under 485 nm pulsed diode laser excitation revealed the bimodal distribution of DOX in cells. The shorter fluorescence lifetime of DOX localized in nuclei (1.52 ns) than in the cytoplasm (2.4 ns) is consistent with the cytotoxic mechanism induced by DOX-DNA intercalation. Remarkably, the few DOX molecules captured between nanoparticles ("electromagnetic hotspots") after most drug is released act as SERS reporters for the localization of plasmonic nanocarriers in MCF-7 cells. The high drug loading capacity and effective drug release under pH control combined with the advantage of multimodal visualization inside cells clearly indicate the high potential of our DOX-AuNPs@gelatin delivery system for implementation in nanomedicine. PMID:27537061

  8. Stakeholder views on the incorporation of traditional birth attendants into the formal health systems of low-and middle-income countries: a qualitative analysis of the HIFA2015 and CHILD2015 email discussion forums

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health workforce shortages are key obstacles to the achievement of the health-related Millennium Development Goals. Task shifting is seen as a way to improve access to pregnancy and childbirth care. However, the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) within task shifting initiatives remains contested. The objective of this study was to explore stakeholder views and justifications regarding the incorporation of TBAs into formal health systems. Methods Data were drawn from messages submitted to the HIFA2015 and CHILD2015 email discussion forums. The forums focus on the healthcare information needs of frontline health workers and citizens in low - and middle-income countries, and how these needs can be met, and also include discussion of diverse aspects of health systems. Messages about TBAs submitted between 2007-2011 were analysed thematically. Results We identified 658 messages about TBAs from a total of 193 participants. Most participants supported the incorporation of trained TBAs into primary care systems to some degree, although their justifications for doing so varied. Participant viewpoints were influenced by the degree to which TBA involvement was seen as a long-term or short-term solution and by the tasks undertaken by TBAs. Conclusions Many forum members indicated that they were supportive of trained TBAs being involved in the provision of pregnancy care. Members noted that TBAs were already frequently used by women and that alternative options were lacking. However, a substantial minority regarded doing so as a threat to the quality and equity of healthcare. The extent of TBA involvement needs to be context-specific and should be based on evidence on effectiveness as well as evidence on need, acceptability and feasibility. PMID:24674648

  9. Characterization of dynamic thermal control schemes and heat transfer pathways for incorporating variable emissivity electrochromic materials into a space suit heat rejection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massina, Christopher James

    The feasibility of conducting long duration human spaceflight missions is largely dependent on the provision of consumables such as oxygen, water, and food. In addition to meeting crew metabolic needs, water sublimation has long served as the primary heat rejection mechanism in space suits during extravehicular activity (EVA). During a single eight hour EVA, approximately 3.6 kg (8 lbm) of water is lost from the current suit. Reducing the amount of expended water during EVA is a long standing goal of space suit life support systems designers; but to date, no alternate thermal control mechanism has demonstrated the ability to completely eliminate the loss. One proposed concept is to convert the majority of a space suit's surface area into a radiator such that the local environment can be used as a radiative thermal sink for rejecting heat without mass loss. Due to natural variations in both internal (metabolic) loads and external (environmental) sink temperatures, radiative transport must be actively modulated in order to maintain an acceptable thermal balance. Here, variable emissivity electrochromic devices are examined as the primary mechanism for enabling variable heat rejection. This dissertation focuses on theoretical and empirical evaluations performed to determine the feasibility of using a full suit, variable emissivity radiator architecture for space suit thermal control. Operational envelopes are described that show where a given environment and/or metabolic load combination may or may not be supported by the evaluated thermal architecture. Key integration considerations and guidelines include determining allowable thermal environments, defining skin-to-radiator heat transfer properties, and evaluating required electrochromic performance properties. Analysis also considered the impacts of dynamic environmental changes and the architecture's extensibility to EVA on the Martian surface. At the conclusion of this work, the full suit, variable emissivity

  10. The integration of physiologically-targeted skin care in the management of atopic dermatitis: focus on the use of a cleanser and moisturizer system incorporating a ceramide precursor, filaggrin degradation products, and specific "skin-barrier-friendly" excipients.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Kircik, Leon H

    2013-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) may be considered the "poster disease" for exemplifying the significance of abnormalities of the epidermal barrier that occur predominantly within the stratum corneum (SC) and upper epidermis. Specifically, impairments of the SC permeability barrier, antimicrobial barrier, and immunologic barrier contribute markedly to the fundamental pathophysiology of AD. The multiple clinical sequelae associated with epidermal barrier impairments inherent to AD include dry skin, pruritus, increased skin sensitivity to irritants and allergens, eczematous skin changes, staphylococcal skin and anterior nares colonization, and increase in some cutaneous infections (ie, molluscum contagiosum). This article addresses the pathophysiology of AD with clinically relevant correlations, and discusses the scientific basis of a specially designed cleanser and moisturizer system that incorporates ceramide technology and filaggrin degradation products along with other "barrier-friendly" excipients.

  11. Aerial Population Estimates of Wild Horses (Equus caballus) in the Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas Using an Integrated Simultaneous Double-Count and Sightability Bias Correction Technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lubow, Bruce C.; Ransom, Jason I.

    2007-01-01

    An aerial survey technique combining simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction methodologies was used to estimate the population of wild horses inhabiting Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas, Wyoming. Based on 5 surveys over 4 years, we conclude that the technique produced estimates consistent with the known number of horses removed between surveys and an annual population growth rate of 16.2 percent per year. Therefore, evidence from this series of surveys supports the validity of this survey method. Our results also indicate that the ability of aerial observers to see horse groups is very strongly dependent on skill of the individual observer, size of the horse group, and vegetation cover. It is also more modestly dependent on the ruggedness of the terrain and the position of the sun relative to the observer. We further conclude that censuses, or uncorrected raw counts, are inadequate estimates of population size for this herd. Such uncorrected counts were all undercounts in our trials, and varied in magnitude from year to year and observer to observer. As of April 2007, we estimate that the population of the Adobe Town /Salt Wells Creek complex is 906 horses with a 95 percent confidence interval ranging from 857 to 981 horses.

  12. 30 CFR 250.1904 - Documents incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1904 Documents incorporated by reference. The effect of... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Documents incorporated by reference. 250.1904 Section 250.1904 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1904 - Documents incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1904 Documents incorporated by reference. The effect... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Documents incorporated by reference. 250.1904 Section 250.1904 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND...

  14. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  15. Incorporating OASIS into the Visiting Nurses Association.

    PubMed

    Clark, L L

    1998-01-01

    Beginning in 1994, the Visiting Nurses Association, Western Pennsylvania, began to investigate incorporating an outcome measurement system within its organization for the purposes of marketing quality results, benchmarking achievements, and defining quality of care for both internal and external review groups. In the fall of 1995, this agency was accepted into the Outcome Based Quality Improvement (OBQI) Demonstration Project, also known as the Medicare Quality Assurance Project, which the Health Care Financing Administration has funded for the purpose of measuring clinical and utilization outcomes in the home care arena. This article reviews the processes the agency used to develop and incorporate the entire OBQI process into its systems, including the incorporation of the Outcome Assessment Information Set (OASIS). The OASIS is a set of outcome measurement questions developed by Dr. Peter Shaughnessy at the Center for Health Policy Research in Denver. The process also includes training of staff and development of forms, point-of-care software with a vendor, and plans of action for improving outcomes that have been quantified through OBQI efforts.

  16. Incorporating Political Socialization Theory into Baccalaureate Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra Godman

    1996-01-01

    Nurses must incorporate a political component into their professional role identity to meet the future challenges of the health care system. Political socialization theory can assist faculty in adding a political thread to the curriculum. (SK)

  17. 45 CFR 170.599 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Permanent Certification Program for HIT § 170.599 Incorporation... Operating Product Certification Systems (First Edition), 1996, IBR approved for § 170.503. (3)...

  18. Incorporating Plant Hydraulics Into Phenological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoy, P.; Mackay, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation phenology is well studied in systems where temperature is the primary driver of change, such as temperate and boreal ecosystems. In order to accurately model phenology in water-limited systems it is necessary to consider the role of water stress on mediating phenology. While it is possible to use proxies for water stress, such as vapor pressure deficit (VPD), it is preferable to have a more direct link to the effects of water stress on plant physiology. One possible approach is to incorporate the physiological responses of plants to water stress into phenological models. The goal of this study is to examine the use of plant hydraulics to help predict phenology instead of using only meteorological variables. We used an ecosystem process model that incorporates plant hydraulics, the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES), in order to model plant phenology based on hydraulic stress. Phenology submodels implemented within TREES included both those driven purely from environmental variables as well those modulated by plant hydraulics. Results showed that the use of plant hydraulics to predict phenology, instead of using VPD as a proxy of plant water stress, performed favorably in comparison to models driven by meteorological variables alone. The need for better representation of moisture stress on phenology was particularly apparent in water-limited systems and the inclusion of plant hydraulics into phenology models improved the predictions in these systems.

  19. Incorporation of copper into lysyl oxidase.

    PubMed

    Kosonen, T; Uriu-Hare, J Y; Clegg, M S; Keen, C L; Rucker, R B

    1997-10-01

    Lysyl oxidase is a copper-dependent enzyme involved in extracellular processing of collagens and elastin. Although it is known that copper is essential for the functional activity of the enzyme, there is little information on the incorporation of copper. In the present study we examined the insertion of copper into lysyl oxidase using 67Cu in cell-free transcription/translation assays and in normal skin fibroblast culture systems. When a full-length lysyl oxidase cDNA was used as a template for transcription/translation reactions in vitro, unprocessed prolysyl oxidase appeared to bind copper. To examine further the post-translational incorporation of copper into lysyl oxidase, confluent skin fibroblasts were incubated with inhibitors of protein synthesis (cycloheximide, 10 microg/ml), glycosylation (tunicamycin, 10 microg/ml), protein secretion (brefeldin A, 10 microg/ml) and prolysyl oxidase processing (procollagen C-peptidase inhibitor, 2.5 microg/ml) together with 300 microCi of carrier-free 67Cu. It was observed that protein synthesis was a prerequisite for copper incorporation, but inhibition of glycosylation by tunicamycin did not affect the secretion of 67Cu as lysyl oxidase. Brefeldin A inhibited the secretion of 67Ci-labelled lysyl oxidase by 46%, but the intracellular incorporation of copper into lysyl oxidase was not affected. In addition, the inhibition of the extracellular proteolytic processing of prolysyl oxidase to lysyl oxidase had minimal effects on the secretion of protein-bound 67Cu. Our results indicate that, similar to caeruloplasmin processing [Sato and Gitlin (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 5128-5134], copper is inserted into prolysyl oxidase independently of glycosylation. PMID:9355764

  20. Controlled release of an extract of Calendula officinalis flowers from a system based on the incorporation of gelatin-collagen microparticles into collagen I scaffolds: design and in vitro performance.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Ronald A; Millán, Diana; Suesca, Edward; Sosnik, Alejandro; Fontanilla, Marta R

    2015-06-01

    Aiming to develop biological skin dresses with improved performance in the treatment of skin wounds, acellular collagen I scaffolds were modified with polymeric microparticles and the subsequent loading of a hydroglycolic extract of Calendula officinalis flowers. Microparticles made of gelatin-collagen were produced by a water-in-oil emulsion/cross-linking method. Thereafter, these microparticles were mixed with collagen suspensions at three increasing concentrations and the resulting mixtures lyophilized to make microparticle-loaded porous collagen scaffolds. Resistance to enzymatic degradation, ability to associate with the C. officinalis extract, and the extract release profile of the three gelatin-collagen microparticle-scaffold prototypes were assessed in vitro and compared to collagen scaffolds without microparticles used as control. Data indicated that the incorporation of gelatin-collagen microparticles increased the resistance of the scaffolds to in vitro enzymatic degradation, as well as their association with the C. officinalis flower extract. In addition, a sharp decrease in cytotoxicity, as well as more prolonged release of the extract, was attained. Overall results support the potential of these systems to develop innovative dermal substitutes with improved features. Furthermore, the gelatin-collagen mixture represents a low-cost and scalable alternative with high clinical transferability, especially appealing in developing countries. PMID:25787728

  1. Controlled release of an extract of Calendula officinalis flowers from a system based on the incorporation of gelatin-collagen microparticles into collagen I scaffolds: design and in vitro performance.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Ronald A; Millán, Diana; Suesca, Edward; Sosnik, Alejandro; Fontanilla, Marta R

    2015-06-01

    Aiming to develop biological skin dresses with improved performance in the treatment of skin wounds, acellular collagen I scaffolds were modified with polymeric microparticles and the subsequent loading of a hydroglycolic extract of Calendula officinalis flowers. Microparticles made of gelatin-collagen were produced by a water-in-oil emulsion/cross-linking method. Thereafter, these microparticles were mixed with collagen suspensions at three increasing concentrations and the resulting mixtures lyophilized to make microparticle-loaded porous collagen scaffolds. Resistance to enzymatic degradation, ability to associate with the C. officinalis extract, and the extract release profile of the three gelatin-collagen microparticle-scaffold prototypes were assessed in vitro and compared to collagen scaffolds without microparticles used as control. Data indicated that the incorporation of gelatin-collagen microparticles increased the resistance of the scaffolds to in vitro enzymatic degradation, as well as their association with the C. officinalis flower extract. In addition, a sharp decrease in cytotoxicity, as well as more prolonged release of the extract, was attained. Overall results support the potential of these systems to develop innovative dermal substitutes with improved features. Furthermore, the gelatin-collagen mixture represents a low-cost and scalable alternative with high clinical transferability, especially appealing in developing countries.

  2. Carbazole incorporated ratiometric chemosensor for Zn2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helal, Aasif; Kim, Hong-Seok

    2013-03-01

    An electron donating carbazole incorporated thiazole (3) based Zn2+ selective intrinsic chemosensor has been synthesized and investigated. It was found that electron donating substituents such as methyl and carbazole on chemosensor (1) produce remarkable red shift in emission upon complexation with Zn2+. The sensor shows a selective fluorescence response with Zn2+ over biologically relevant cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+) and biologically non-relevant cations (Cd2+, In3+ and Ga3+) in an aqueous ethanol system. It also produce an enhancement in the quantum yield and a longer emission wavelength shift on Zn2+ binding with the potential of a ratiometric assay.

  3. Uranium incorporation into amorphous silica.

    PubMed

    Massey, Michael S; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S; Nelson, Joey M; Fendorf, Scott; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    High concentrations of uranium are commonly observed in naturally occurring amorphous silica (including opal) deposits, suggesting that incorporation of U into amorphous silica may represent a natural attenuation mechanism and promising strategy for U remediation. However, the stability of uranium in opaline silicates, determined in part by the binding mechanism for U, is an important factor in its long-term fate. U may bind directly to the opaline silicate matrix, or to materials such as iron (hydr)oxides that are subsequently occluded within the opal. Here, we examine the coordination environment of U within opaline silica to elucidate incorporation mechanisms. Precipitates (with and without ferrihydrite inclusions) were synthesized from U-bearing sodium metasilicate solutions, buffered at pH ∼ 5.6. Natural and synthetic solids were analyzed with X-ray absorption spectroscopy and a suite of other techniques. In synthetic amorphous silica, U was coordinated by silicate in a double corner-sharing coordination geometry (Si at ∼ 3.8-3.9 Å) and a small amount of uranyl and silicate in a bidentate, mononuclear (edge-sharing) coordination (Si at ∼ 3.1-3.2 Å, U at ∼ 3.8-3.9 Å). In iron-bearing synthetic solids, U was adsorbed to iron (hydr)oxide, but the coordination environment also contained silicate in both edge-sharing and corner-sharing coordination. Uranium local coordination in synthetic solids is similar to that of natural U-bearing opals that retain U for millions of years. The stability and extent of U incorporation into opaline and amorphous silica represents a long-term repository for U that may provide an alternative strategy for remediation of U contamination. PMID:24984107

  4. Final Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-07ER64470 [“Incorporation of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) into the Community Climate System Model (CCSM): Evaluation and Climate Applications”

    SciTech Connect

    Chassignet, Eric P

    2013-03-18

    The primary goal of the project entitled “Incorporation of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) into the Community Climate System Model (CCSM): Evaluation and Climate Applications” was to systematically investigate the performance of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) as an alternative oceanic component of the NCAR’s Community Climate System Model (CCSM). We have configured two versions of the fully coupled CCSM3/HYCOM: one with a medium resolution (T42) Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) and the other with higher resolution (T85). We have performed a comprehensive analysis of the 400-year fully coupled CCSM3/HYCOM simulations and compared the results with those from CCSM3/POP and with climatological observations, and also we have performed tuning of critical model parameters, including Smagorinsky viscosity, isopycnal diffusivity, and background vertical diffusivity. The analysis shows that most oceanic features are well represented in the CCSM3/HYCOM. The coupled CCSM3/HYCOM (T42) has been integrated for 400 years, and the results have been archived and transferred to the High Performance Computer in the Florida State Univesity. In the last year, we have made comprehensive diagnostics of the long-term simulations by the comparison with the original CCSM3/POP simulation and with the observations. To gain some understanding of the model biases, the mean climate and modes of climate variability of the two models are compared with observations. The examination includes the Northern and Southern Annular Modes (NAM and SAM), the Pacific-North-American (PNA) pattern, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and the main Southern Ocean SST mode. We also compared the performance of ENSO simulation in the coupled models. This report summarizes the main findings from the comparison of long-term CCSM3/HYCOM and CCSM3/POP simulations.

  5. Incorporating Spirituality in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Kathleen S; Hay, Jennifer L; Lubetkin, Erica I

    2016-06-01

    Addressing cultural competency in health care involves recognizing the diverse characteristics of the patient population and understanding how they impact patient care. Spirituality is an aspect of cultural identity that has become increasingly recognized for its potential to impact health behaviors and healthcare decision-making. We consider the complex relationship between spirituality and health, exploring the role of spirituality in primary care, and consider the inclusion of spirituality in existing models of health promotion. We discuss the feasibility of incorporating spirituality into clinical practice, offering suggestions for physicians. PMID:26832335

  6. Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same

    DOEpatents

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  7. Radiation shielding materials and containers incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound ("PYRUC") shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  8. Incorporating LCA tools in integrated simulation environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Vineeta; Papamichael, Konstantinos; Bourassa, Norman; Loffeld, John J.

    2001-02-01

    In this paper we address the issue of building data schema evolution in integrated simulation environments, as seen from the perspective of incorporating LCA tools within these environments. First we describe the key features of an integrated simulation environment designed for expandability, focusing on (a) the mechanism for the expansion of the integrated environment, and (b) its overall system architecture that allows processes and data to be added to the system without modifications or restructuring of existing code. We then focus on how the data schema allows the inclusion and maintenance of specialized construction objects bearing LCA data. Finally, we discuss various integration issues that arise from modeling capabilities and idiosyncrasies of individual simulation and analysis tools.

  9. Incorporation of Xenon in magmas at depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, C.; Sanloup, C.; Bureau, H.; Schmidt, B.; Konopkova, Z.; Raepsaet, C.

    2014-12-01

    Incorporation of volatile elements in magmas is enhanced at high pressure. The dissolved volatiles affect in turn the physical and chemical properties of silicate melts. Understanding volatiles incorporation in magmas and their effect on the melt's structure can be approached by in situ characterizations such as X-ray diffraction or Raman spectroscopy.Here, we focus on Xenon (Xe) in order to constrain its past and modern geochemical cycles. Indeed the 129I/129Xe extinct isotopic system is used to constrain planetary and atmosphere formation models. Moreover, some studies propose that Xe is currently recycled from the atmosphere to the mantle.To study the solubility of Xe in silicate melts, we have performed in situ X-ray diffraction experiments on the synchrotron beam line P02 in PetraIII (DESY, Hamburg). Experiments were carried out using resistive heating diamond-anvil cells up to 7 GPa and 1300°C. Two compositions have been studied: a hydrous haplogranite (HPG) reference and a hydrous HPG doped with Xe. This composition is a magma analogue that is extremely well documented by petrological studies. Xenon can be identified on the radial distribution functions obtained by processing the x-ray diffraction data. Solubility mechanisms of Xe in silicate melts at depth will be discussed.

  10. Incorporating intelligence into structured radiology reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Charles E.

    2014-03-01

    The new standard for radiology reporting templates being developed through the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) and DICOM organizations defines the storage and exchange of reporting templates as Hypertext Markup Language version 5 (HTML5) documents. The use of HTML5 enables the incorporation of "dynamic HTML," in which documents can be altered in response to their content. HTML5 documents can employ JavaScript, the HTML Document Object Model (DOM), and external web services to create intelligent reporting templates. Several reporting templates were created to demonstrate the use of scripts to perform in-template calculations and decision support. For example, a template for adrenal CT was created to compute contrast washout percentage from input values of precontrast, dynamic postcontrast, and delayed adrenal nodule attenuation values; the washout value can used to classify an adrenal nodule as a benign cortical adenoma. Dynamic templates were developed to compute volumes and apply diagnostic criteria, such as those for determination of internal carotid artery stenosis. Although reporting systems need not use a web browser to render the templates or their contents, the use of JavaScript creates innumerable opportunities to construct highly sophisticated HTML5 reporting templates. This report demonstrates the ability to incorporate dynamic content to enhance the use of radiology reporting templates.

  11. Incorporating Geospatial Technology into Teacher Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sproles, E. A.; Songer, L.

    2009-12-01

    The need for students to think spatially and use geospatial technologies is becoming more critical as these tools and concepts are increasingly incorporated into a broad range of occupations and academic disciplines. Geospatial Teaching Across the Curriculum (Geo-STAC) is a collaborative program that provides high school teachers with mentored professional development workshops in geospatial thought and technology. The seminars, led by community college faculty, give high school teachers the ability to incorporate geospatial technology into coursework across the curriculum — in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) and non-STEM disciplines. Students participating in the hands-on lessons gain experience in web-based and desktop Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The goals of the workshop are for teachers to: (1) understand the importance of geospatial thinking; (2) learn how to employ geospatial thinking in each discipline; (3) learn about geospatial technologies; (4) develop a Web-based GIS lesson; and, (5) implement a Web-based GIS lesson. Additionally, Geo-STAC works with high school students so that they: (1) understand the importance of geospatial technologies and careers in future job markets; (2) learn how to use Web-based GIS to solve problems; and, (3) visit the community college GIS lab and experience using desktop GIS. Geo-STAC actively disseminates this collaborative model to colleges to community colleges and high schools across the country.

  12. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  13. 49 CFR 572.190 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Register approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.190 Section 572.190... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.190 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials are...

  14. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30....30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that... Federal Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference. For materials subject to...

  15. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5... Barrier § 587.5 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials...

  16. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30....30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that... Federal Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference. For materials subject to...

  17. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30....30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that... Federal Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference. For materials subject to...

  18. 49 CFR 572.190 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Register approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.190 Section 572.190... Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.190 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials are...

  19. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5... Barrier § 587.5 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials...

  20. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5... Barrier § 587.5 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials...

  1. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5... Barrier § 587.5 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials...

  2. 49 CFR 572.190 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Register approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.190 Section 572.190... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.190 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials are...

  3. 49 CFR 572.190 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Register approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.190 Section 572.190... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.190 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials are...

  4. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30....30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that... Federal Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference. For materials subject to...

  5. 49 CFR 572.190 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Register approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.190 Section 572.190... Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.190 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials are...

  6. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30....30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that... Federal Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference. For materials subject to...

  7. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5... Barrier § 587.5 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials...

  8. Incorporation of RAM techniques into simulation modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.C. Jr.; Haire, M.J.; Schryver, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    This work concludes that reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analytical techniques can be incorporated into computer network simulation modeling to yield an important new analytical tool. This paper describes the incorporation of failure and repair information into network simulation to build a stochastic computer model represents the RAM Performance of two vehicles being developed for the US Army: The Advanced Field Artillery System (AFAS) and the Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (FARV). The AFAS is the US Army`s next generation self-propelled cannon artillery system. The FARV is a resupply vehicle for the AFAS. Both vehicles utilize automation technologies to improve the operational performance of the vehicles and reduce manpower. The network simulation model used in this work is task based. The model programmed in this application requirements a typical battle mission and the failures and repairs that occur during that battle. Each task that the FARV performs--upload, travel to the AFAS, refuel, perform tactical/survivability moves, return to logistic resupply, etc.--is modeled. Such a model reproduces a model reproduces operational phenomena (e.g., failures and repairs) that are likely to occur in actual performance. Simulation tasks are modeled as discrete chronological steps; after the completion of each task decisions are programmed that determine the next path to be followed. The result is a complex logic diagram or network. The network simulation model is developed within a hierarchy of vehicle systems, subsystems, and equipment and includes failure management subnetworks. RAM information and other performance measures are collected which have impact on design requirements. Design changes are evaluated through ``what if`` questions, sensitivity studies, and battle scenario changes.

  9. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  10. Adaptable, Personalised E-Learning Incorporating Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Sophie E.; Bacon, Elizabeth; Dastbaz, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how learning styles and theories are currently used within personalised adaptable e-learning adaptive systems. This paper then aims to describe the e-learning platform iLearn and how this platform is designed to incorporate learning styles as part of the personalisation offered by the system.…

  11. 48 CFR 52.102 - Incorporating provisions and clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporating provisions and clauses. 52.102 Section 52.102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Instructions for Using Provisions and Clauses 52.102...

  12. 48 CFR 52.102 - Incorporating provisions and clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporating provisions and clauses. 52.102 Section 52.102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Instructions for Using Provisions and Clauses 52.102...

  13. 45 CFR 170.599 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ONC HIT Certification Program § 170.599 Incorporation by... GUIDE 65:1996—General Requirements for Bodies Operating Product Certification Systems (First Edition... Product Certification Systems (First Edition), 1996, “ISO/IEC Guide 65,” IBR approved for § 170.503....

  14. Creating clinical trial designs that incorporate clinical outcome assessments.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Mark R; Rubinstein, Lawrence; Lesser, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    Clinical outcome assessments (COAs) are increasingly being used in determining the efficacy of new treatment regimens. This was typified in the recent use of a symptom-based instrument combined with an organ-based measure of response for the approval of ruxolitinib in myelofibrosis. There are challenges in incorporating these COAs into clinical trials, including designating the level of priority, incorporating these measures into a combined or composite endpoint, and dealing with issues related to compliance and interpretation of results accounting for missing data. This article describes the results of a recent panel discussion that attempted to address these issues and provide guidance to the incorporation of COAs into clinical trials, including novel statistical designs, so that the testing of new treatments in patients with cancers of the central nervous system can incorporate these important clinical endpoints. PMID:26989129

  15. Optofluidics incorporating actively controlled micro- and nano-particles

    PubMed Central

    Kayani, Aminuddin A.; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Ward, Stephanie A.; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2012-01-01

    The advent of optofluidic systems incorporating suspended particles has resulted in the emergence of novel applications. Such systems operate based on the fact that suspended particles can be manipulated using well-appointed active forces, and their motions, locations and local concentrations can be controlled. These forces can be exerted on both individual and clusters of particles. Having the capability to manipulate suspended particles gives users the ability for tuning the physical and, to some extent, the chemical properties of the suspension media, which addresses the needs of various advanced optofluidic systems. Additionally, the incorporation of particles results in the realization of novel optofluidic solutions used for creating optical components and sensing platforms. In this review, we present different types of active forces that are used for particle manipulations and the resulting optofluidic systems incorporating them. These systems include optical components, optofluidic detection and analysis platforms, plasmonics and Raman systems, thermal and energy related systems, and platforms specifically incorporating biological particles. We conclude the review with a discussion of future perspectives, which are expected to further advance this rapidly growing field. PMID:23864925

  16. Incorporating compliant elastomers for jumping locomotion in microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerratt, Aaron P.; Bergbreiter, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Small insects and other animals use a multitude of materials to realize specific functions, including locomotion. This paper demonstrates application of the first microfabrication process to incorporate high aspect ratio compliant elastomer structures in-plane with traditional silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). By incorporating these new materials, compact energy storage systems based on elastomer springs for small jumping robots have been demonstrated. Results include a 4 mm×4 mm jumping mechanism that has reached heights of 32 cm, × 80 its own height, and an on-chip actuated mechanism that has been used to propel a 1.4 mg projectile over 7 cm.

  17. Incorporation of the dopamine D2L receptor and bacteriorhodopsin within bicontinuous cubic lipid phases. 2. Relevance to in meso crystallization of integral membrane proteins in novel lipid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, Charlotte E.; Darmanin, Connie; Sagnella, Sharon M.; Mulet, Xavier; Greaves, Tamar L.; Varghese, Joseph N.; Drummond, Calum J.

    2014-09-24

    The dopamine D2 long (D2L) receptor and bacteriorhodopsin (bR), which are integral membraneproteins, have been incorporated within bicontinuous cubic mesophases formed by the lipids anandamide and H-farnesoyl monoethanolamide, which have been specifically investigated by us for use as in mesocrystallization media. We show that the incorporated membraneprotein affects the structure of the cubic phases with the particular effect observed dependent on the geometry of the underlying cubic phase. The results are complementary to those obtained in Part 1 of this series, where we demonstrated that the structural effects observed depend on the structure of the membraneprotein. Importantly protein concentrations commonly used for crystallization can destroy the cubic phase matrix, particularly where there is a large discrepancy between the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic spans of the membraneprotein, and the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domain sizes of the cubic phase.

  18. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    Through continued advancement in computational resources, development that was previously done by trial and error production is now performed through computer simulation. These virtual physical representations have the potential to provide accurate and valid modeling results and are being used in many different technical fields. Risk assessment now has the opportunity to use 3D simulation to improve analysis results and insights, especially for external event analysis. By using simulations, the modeler only has to determine the likelihood of an event without having to also predict the results of that event. The 3D simulation automatically determines not only the outcome of the event, but when those failures occur. How can we effectively incorporate 3D simulation into traditional PRA? Most PRA plant modeling is made up of components with different failure modes, probabilities, and rates. Typically, these components are grouped into various systems and then are modeled together (in different combinations) as a “system” with logic structures to form fault trees. Applicable fault trees are combined through scenarios, typically represented by event tree models. Though this method gives us failure results for a given model, it has limitations when it comes to time-based dependencies or dependencies that are coupled to physical processes which may themselves be space- or time-dependent. Since, failures from a 3D simulation are naturally time related, they should be used in that manner. In our simulation approach, traditional static models are converted into an equivalent state diagram representation with start states, probabilistic driven movements between states and terminal states. As the state model is run repeatedly, it converges to the same results as the PRA model in cases where time-related factors are not important. In cases where timing considerations are important (e.g., when events are dependent upon each other), then the simulation approach will typically

  19. Incorporating Brokers within Collaboration Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekar, A.; Moore, R.; de Torcy, A.

    2013-12-01

    A collaboration environment, such as the integrated Rule Oriented Data System (iRODS - http://irods.diceresearch.org), provides interoperability mechanisms for accessing storage systems, authentication systems, messaging systems, information catalogs, networks, and policy engines from a wide variety of clients. The interoperability mechanisms function as brokers, translating actions requested by clients to the protocol required by a specific technology. The iRODS data grid is used to enable collaborative research within hydrology, seismology, earth science, climate, oceanography, plant biology, astronomy, physics, and genomics disciplines. Although each domain has unique resources, data formats, semantics, and protocols, the iRODS system provides a generic framework that is capable of managing collaborative research initiatives that span multiple disciplines. Each interoperability mechanism (broker) is linked to a name space that enables unified access across the heterogeneous systems. The collaboration environment provides not only support for brokers, but also support for virtualization of name spaces for users, files, collections, storage systems, metadata, and policies. The broker enables access to data or information in a remote system using the appropriate protocol, while the collaboration environment provides a uniform naming convention for accessing and manipulating each object. Within the NSF DataNet Federation Consortium project (http://www.datafed.org), three basic types of interoperability mechanisms have been identified and applied: 1) drivers for managing manipulation at the remote resource (such as data subsetting), 2) micro-services that execute the protocol required by the remote resource, and 3) policies for controlling the execution. For example, drivers have been written for manipulating NetCDF and HDF formatted files within THREDDS servers. Micro-services have been written that manage interactions with the CUAHSI data repository, the Data

  20. In vitro incorporation of LNA nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Veedu, Rakesh N; Vester, Birte; Wengel, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    An LNA modified nucleoside triphosphate 1 was synthesized in order to investigate its potential to act as substrate for DNA strand synthesis by polymerases. Primer extension assays for the incorporation experiments revealed that Phusion High Fidelity DNA polymerase is an efficient enzyme for incorporation of the LNA nucleotide and for extending strand to full length. It was also observed that pfu DNA polymerase could incorporate the LNA nucleotide but it failed to extend the strand to a full length product. PMID:18058567

  1. Incorporating national priorities into the curriculum.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Deborah Y

    2012-01-01

    There are many aspects of care that need an overhaul to function safely, efficiently, and effectively. There needs to be a new culture in health care that focuses on safety and quality, and it will take many shareholders working together to make this possible. The National Priorities Partnership is a group of 28 national organizations from across the health care spectrum collaborating to change the health care delivery system. The Partners acknowledged four challenges individuals face in the current U.S. system: harm, disparity, disease burden, and waste. To meet these challenges and improve performance, the Partners identified six priorities: patient and family engagement, population health, safety, care coordination, palliative and end-of-life care, and overuse (National Priorities Partnership). It is hopeful that when put into practice, these essentials will have a significant impact on improving health care. It comes down to creating a culture of safety and quality. This culture should start during entry-level education for health care providers, such as nursing schools. The priorities and goals provide a framework that can be incorporated into the curriculum so future nurses are aware of the issues and challenges in health care today. Each challenge needs evidence-based strategies for achieving the desired results. It is time to create a culture of safety and quality in health care.

  2. 43 CFR 34.7 - Incorporation by operation of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporation by operation of law. 34.7 Section 34.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM §...

  3. Computerized Teachers' Praise: Incorporating Teachers' Images and Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yi-Cheng

    This paper provides an idea of how to improve computer-assisted instruction effectiveness by incorporating teachers' images and voices into computers. Efforts to increase students' motivations by improving computer-assisted instruction feedback systems through the use of arcade-style video games and animation have proven to be ineffective and…

  4. 40 CFR 63.841 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... October 7, 1997, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as... Federal Register. Revisions to “Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice” (22nd ed.) are... the new information. (1) Chapter 3, “Local Exhaust Hoods” and Chapter 5, “Exhaust System...

  5. Incorporation of metal related materials into electrically neutral polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; Taylor, L. T.

    1981-01-01

    Developments in the field of metal-containing polymers are reviewed with emphasis on neutral polymers incorporating dissolved metal salts, metal complexes, organometallic compounds, and metals. Polymer systems discussed include: polyamides, polyimides, polyalcohols, polyesters, polyacetylene, polyethylene, and polysiloxane. Most of the studies focus on the modification of polymer properties such as adhesive properties, thermal behavior, electrical conductivity, polymer flammability, and mechanical properties.

  6. 46 CFR 76.01-2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, the Coast Guard... Association (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471, 617-770-3000, http://nfpa.org. (1) NFPA 13-1996, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems (“NFPA 13”), incorporation by...

  7. 46 CFR 76.01-2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, the Coast Guard... Association (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471, 617-770-3000, http://nfpa.org. (1) NFPA 13-1996, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems (“NFPA 13”), incorporation by...

  8. Site-specific incorporation of a fluorescent terphenyl unnatural amino acid.

    PubMed

    Lampkowski, Jessica S; Uthappa, Diya M; Young, Douglas D

    2015-11-15

    The site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins has a wide range of biological implications. Of particular interest is the incorporation of fluorescent probes as a mechanism to track protein function, transport, and folding. Thus, the development of a novel system for the incorporation of new fluorescent unnatural amino acids has significant utility. Specifically, we have elucidated an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase capable of recognizing a terphenyl UAA derivative, and charging a cognate tRNA with this amino acid for protein incorporation. Moreover, we have successfully incorporated this fluorescent UAA into GFP at several key residues, demonstrating a novel means to modulate fluorescence within the protein.

  9. Constraints on Noun Incorporation in Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khym, Hangyoo

    1997-01-01

    A study of the noun incorporation phenomenon in Korean suggests that noun incorporation occurs at D-structure and obeys the Head Movement Constraint syntactically, and the Theme-Only Constraint semantically. First, the structure of "sunrise"-type words is identified, showing that before derivation through nominalization of the affix "-i,"…

  10. 10 CFR 218.31 - Incorporated procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incorporated procedures. 218.31 Section 218.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.31 Incorporated procedures. The following subparts of part 205 of this chapter are, as appropriate, hereby made applicable...

  11. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51....187; (x) Drawing No. 175-6000, Pelvis Assembly, incorporated by reference in §§ 572.181 and...

  12. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51....187; (x) Drawing No. 175-6000, Pelvis Assembly, incorporated by reference in §§ 572.181 and...

  13. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51....187; (x) Drawing No. 175-6000, Pelvis Assembly, incorporated by reference in §§ 572.181 and...

  14. Incorporating Sociology into Community Service Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.; Farley, Matthew; Chee, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Sociologists and instructors who teach about community service share an affinity for understanding and addressing social problems. While many studies have demonstrated the benefits of incorporating community service into sociology courses, we examine the benefits of incorporating sociological content into community service classes. The authors…

  15. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40... Percentile Male § 572.40 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings, specifications, manual, and computer... by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this regulation. The Director of the...

  16. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40... Percentile Male § 572.40 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings, specifications, manual, and computer... by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this regulation. The Director of the...

  17. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40... Percentile Male § 572.40 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings, specifications, manual, and computer... by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this regulation. The Director of the...

  18. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40... Percentile Male § 572.40 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings, specifications, manual, and computer... by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this regulation. The Director of the...

  19. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40... Percentile Male § 572.40 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings, specifications, manual, and computer... by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this regulation. The Director of the...

  20. Incorporation of anti-inflammatory agent into mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues Braz, Wilson; Lamec Rocha, Natállia; de Faria, Emerson H.; Silva, Márcio L. A. e.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Tavares, Denise C.; Furtado, Ricardo Andrade; Rocha, Lucas A.; Nassar, Eduardo J.

    2016-09-01

    The unique properties of macroporous, mesoporous, and microporous systems, including their ability to accommodate molecules of different sizes inside their pores and to act as drug delivery systems, have been the object of extensive studies. In this work, mesoporous silica with hexagonal structure was obtained by template synthesis via the sol-gel process. The resulting material was used as support to accommodate the anti-inflammatory agent indomethacin. The alkaline route was used to prepare the mesoporous silica; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was employed as porogenic agent. The silica particles were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane alkoxide (APTES) by the sol-gel post-synthesis method. Indomethacin was incorporated into the silica functionalized with APTES and into non-functionalized silica. The resulting systems were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), specific area, infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analyses (TGA). XRD attested to formation of mesoporous silica with hexagonal structure. This structure remained after silica functionalization with APTES and incorporation of indomethacin. Typical infrared spectroscopy vibrations and organic material decomposition during TGA confirmed silica functionalization and drug incorporation. The specific surface area and pore volume of the functionalized material incorporated with indomethacin decreased as compared with the specific surface area and pore volume of the non-functionalized silica containing no drug, suggesting both the functionalizing agent and the drug were present in the silica. Cytotoxicity tests conducted on normal fibroblasts (GM0479A) cells attested that the silica matrix containing indomethacin was less toxic than the free drug.

  1. Incorporation of anti-inflammatory agent into mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues Braz, Wilson; Lamec Rocha, Natállia; de Faria, Emerson H.; Silva, Márcio L. A. e.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Tavares, Denise C.; Furtado, Ricardo Andrade; Rocha, Lucas A.; Nassar, Eduardo J.

    2016-09-01

    The unique properties of macroporous, mesoporous, and microporous systems, including their ability to accommodate molecules of different sizes inside their pores and to act as drug delivery systems, have been the object of extensive studies. In this work, mesoporous silica with hexagonal structure was obtained by template synthesis via the sol–gel process. The resulting material was used as support to accommodate the anti-inflammatory agent indomethacin. The alkaline route was used to prepare the mesoporous silica; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was employed as porogenic agent. The silica particles were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane alkoxide (APTES) by the sol–gel post-synthesis method. Indomethacin was incorporated into the silica functionalized with APTES and into non-functionalized silica. The resulting systems were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), specific area, infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analyses (TGA). XRD attested to formation of mesoporous silica with hexagonal structure. This structure remained after silica functionalization with APTES and incorporation of indomethacin. Typical infrared spectroscopy vibrations and organic material decomposition during TGA confirmed silica functionalization and drug incorporation. The specific surface area and pore volume of the functionalized material incorporated with indomethacin decreased as compared with the specific surface area and pore volume of the non-functionalized silica containing no drug, suggesting both the functionalizing agent and the drug were present in the silica. Cytotoxicity tests conducted on normal fibroblasts (GM0479A) cells attested that the silica matrix containing indomethacin was less toxic than the free drug.

  2. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  3. Incorporation of polydiacetylene sensors into commercial polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Jennifer Susan

    Polydiacetylenes (PDAs) exhibit a chromatic response to solvents, temperature, strain and other environmental perturbations. When formed in a solid-state polymerization, the backbone of the polymer is planar and continuous pi-overlap is observed. However, when the PDA backbone is distorted by an outside force the extended conjugation is interrupted and an optical shift from blue to red is observed. By exploiting the PDAs properties within polymer systems, smart fibers and films have been created that enhance the original intention of the host. Under this umbrella, a strain sensitive polydiacetylene-polyurethane blend was created using 3 and 4-butoxycarbonylmethylurethane PDA and a medical grade polyurethane, TecoflexRTM. Additionally, a temperature sensitive material has been developed with the renewable resource polymer, polylactic acid (PLA) blended with 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA). Finally, PCDA has been incorporated into sodium alginate to be used as environmentally responsive fibers. To match the aqueous solubility of the alginate, the PCDA was forced into a micellular structure through heating and probe sonication. After crystallization and polymerization, the water-soluble micelles were combined with the sodium alginate and wet-spun into calcium alginate "smart" fibers. The visual colorimetric detection (blue to red) was monitored optically and quantitatively by absorbance and Raman spectroscopy.

  4. Kemp Echo Lattices Incorporating Hair Cell Nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellami, Louiza

    In this thesis we develop a two-part model of the inner ear that can be used to simulate Kemp echoes, in their impulse response, and from which a characterization of the cochlea can be made. To accomplish this task, in the first part, we propose a linear digital scattering model of the cochlea, based on the well known unidimensional transmission line model into which we incorporate nonuniform and loss properties. The lattice structure of the digital scattering model is obtained by rephrasing the model equations in terms of incident and reflected waves. A spectral estimation method, which treats the system as an ARMA filter with a minimum phase transfer function of unknown degree, is used to estimate the transfer function of the cochlea. This method utilizes the theory of positive real and bounded real functions and Richard's theorem on the concept of degree reduction to determine both the degree and the predictor coefficients of the filter. The scattering model is then realized, using a new synthesis technique, from the overall transfer function and the zeros of transmission, as a cascade of real lossless lattice filters of degree two, closed on a load section. To change the nature of the sections from lossless to lossy, a new method, based on the properties of the proposed lattice structure and the damping parameter of the cochlea, was developed to distribute the load factor among the sections. Each lattice filter is described by a transfer scattering matrix whose entries are functions of the mechanical and geometrical parameters of the cochlea. The proposed synthesis method leads to a systematic estimation of the parameters of the cochlea. In the second part, we introduce a nonlinear bidirectional mechano-electrical model of a hair cell, estimate its components from experimental data, analyze its behavior, simulate it, and compare the results with experimental findings. We than propose a schematic procedure to realize a nonlinear model of the cochlea by

  5. Incorporating Student Activities into Climate Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, H.; Kelly, K.; Klein, D.; Cadavid, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Under a NASA grant, Mathematical and Geospatial Pathways to Climate Change Education, students at California State University, Northridge integrated Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, satellite data technologies, and climate modelling into the study of global climate change under a Pathway for studying the Mathematics of Climate Change (PMCC). The PMCC, which is an interdisciplinary option within the BS in Applied Mathematical Sciences, consists of courses offered by the departments of Mathematics, Physics, and Geography and is designed to prepare students for careers and Ph.D. programs in technical fields relevant to global climate change. Under this option students are exposed to the science, mathematics, and applications of climate change science through a variety of methods including hands-on experience with computer modeling and image processing software. In the Geography component of the program, ESRI's ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine mapping, spatial analysis and image processing software were used to explore NASA satellite data to examine the earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere in areas that are affected by climate change or affect climate. These technology tools were incorporated into climate change and remote sensing courses to enhance students' knowledge and understanding of climate change through hands-on application of image processing techniques to NASA data. Several sets of exercises were developed with specific learning objectives in mind. These were (1) to increase student understanding of climate change and climate change processes; (2) to develop student skills in understanding, downloading and processing satellite data; (3) to teach remote sensing technology and GIS through applications to climate change; (4) to expose students to climate data and methods they can apply to solve real world problems and incorporate in future research projects. In the Math and Physics components of the course, students learned about

  6. Incorporating Spatial Ability Instruction in Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Sue E.; Goodman, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a picture of the learning environment that is created for the preservice mathematics teacher and how development of spatial abilities can be incorporated into courses for these students. (Contains 3 figures.)

  7. 49 CFR 572.80 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be obtained from Rowley-Scher... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.80 Section 572.80... Incorporated materials. The drawings and specifications referred to in § 572.81(a) that are not set forth...

  8. 49 CFR 572.80 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be obtained from Rowley-Scher... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.80 Section 572.80... Incorporated materials. The drawings and specifications referred to in § 572.81(a) that are not set forth...

  9. 49 CFR 572.80 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be obtained from Rowley-Scher... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.80 Section 572.80... Incorporated materials. The drawings and specifications referred to in § 572.81(a) that are not set forth...

  10. 49 CFR 572.80 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be obtained from Rowley-Scher... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.80 Section 572.80... Incorporated materials. The drawings and specifications referred to in § 572.81(a) that are not set forth...

  11. 49 CFR 572.80 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be obtained from Rowley-Scher... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.80 Section 572.80... Incorporated materials. The drawings and specifications referred to in § 572.81(a) that are not set forth...

  12. Incorporation of tryptophan analogues into the lantibiotic nisin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Shao, Jinfeng; Li, Qian; van Heel, Auke J; de Vries, Marcel P; Broos, Jaap; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-05-01

    Lantibiotics are posttranslationally modified peptides with efficient inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to the original modifications, incorporation of non-canonical amino acids can render new properties and functions to lantibiotics. Nisin is the most studied lantibiotic and contains no tryptophan residues. In this study, a system was constructed to incorporate tryptophan analogues into nisin, which included the modification machinery (NisBTC) and the overexpression of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS). Tryptophan and three different tryptophan analogues (5-fluoroTrp (5FW), 5-hydroxyTrp (5HW) and 5-methylTrp (5MeW)) were successfully incorporated at four different positions of nisin (I1W, I4W, M17W and V32W). The incorporation efficiency of tryptophan analogues into mutants I1W, M17W and V32W was over 97 %, while the mutant I4W showed relatively low incorporation efficiency (69-93 %). The variants with 5FW showed relatively higher production yield, while 5MeW-containing variants showed the lowest yield. The dehydration efficiency of serines or threonines was affected by the tryptophan mutants of I4W and V32W. The affinity of the peptides for the cation-ion exchange and reverse phase chromatography columns was significantly reduced when 5HW was incorporated. The antimicrobial activity of IIW and its 5FW analogue both decreased two times compared to that of nisin, while that of its 5HW analogue decreased four times. The 5FW analogue of I4W also showed two times decreased activity than nisin. However, the mutant M17W and its 5HW analogue both showed 32 times reduced activity relative to that of nisin.

  13. Incorporation of Nicotine into Silicone Coatings for Marine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, Sandy Tuyet

    PDMS-based marine coatings presently used are limited by their inability to mitigate microfouling which limits their application to high speed vessels. PDMS coatings are favored when viable, due to their foul release properties of macrofouling organisms. Natural products have been investigated for antifouling properties for potential use in these marine antifouling coatings but few have incorporated natural products into coatings or coating systems. The purpose of the research was to establish the corrosion inhibiting properties of nicotine and to incorporate nicotine, a biodegradable and readily available natural product, into a PDMS coating to demonstrate the use of a natural product in a coating for marine applications. The corrosion inhibiting properties of nicotine was examined using potentiodynamic polarization scans, material characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, quartz crystal microbalance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Nicotine was determined to be an anodic corrosion inhibitor for mild steel immersed in simulated seawater with the ability to precipitate a protective calcium carbonate film. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to evaluate the performance of the developed nicotine incorporated coatings on mild steel immersed in simulated seawater over 21 days of immersion. The coatings with 2 wt.% of nicotine incorporated in the coating with a ratio of 1:30 of additional platinum catalyst to nicotine exhibited the best performance for intact coatings. This coating had the most favorable balance of the amount of nicotine and platinum catalyst of all the coatings evaluated. Overall, all nicotine incorporated coatings had a performance improvement when compared to the control PDMS coating. Of the nicotine incorporated coatings that were tested with an artificial pin-hole defect, the 2PDMS coating also exhibited the best performance with significant

  14. Low-cost sustainable wall construction system

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-07-01

    Houses with no wall cavities, such as those made of adobe, stone, brick, or block, have poor thermal properties but are rarely insulated because of the cost and difficulty of providing wall insulation. A simple, low-cost technique using loose-fill indigenous materials has been demonstrated for the construction of highly insulated walls or the retrofit of existing walls in such buildings. Locally available pumice, in sandbags stacked along the exterior wall of an adobe house in New Mexico, added a thermal resistance (R) of 16 F{sm{underscore}bullet}ft{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}h/Btu (2.8 m{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}K/W). The total cost of the sandbag insulation wall retrofit was $3.76 per square foot ($40.50/m{sup 2}). Computer simulations of the adobe house using DOE 2.1E show savings of $275 per year, corresponding to 50% reduction in heating energy consumption. The savings-to-investment ratio ranges from 1.1 to 3.2, so the cost of conserved energy is lower than the price of propane, natural gas and electric heat, making the system cost-effective. Prototype stand-alone walls were also constructed using fly ash and sawdust blown into continuous polypropylene tubing, which was folded between corner posts as it was filled to form the shape of the wall. Other materials could also be used. The inexpensive technique solves the problem of insulating solid-wall hours and constructing new houses without specialized equipment and skills, thereby saving energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving comfort for people in many countries. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has filed patent applications on this technology, which is part of a DOE initiative on sustainable building envelope materials and systems.

  15. SHORT-TERM N215-INCORPORATION BY AZOTOBACTER1

    PubMed Central

    Bulen, W. A.; LeComte, J. R.; Bales, H. E.

    1963-01-01

    Bulen, W. A. (Charles F. Kettering Research Laboratory, Yellow Springs, Ohio), J. R. LeComte, and H. E. Bales. Short-term N215-incorporation by Azotobacter. J. Bacteriol. 85:666–670. 1963.—Short-term N215-incorporation measurements were used to determine which of the growth requirements were necessary for nitrogen fixation by Azotobacter agilis (A. vinelandii). Normal cells required neither added iron nor molybdenum, but a marked stimulation by Na+ and a minor stimulation by Mg2+ were observed. The Na+ stimulation was not accompanied by an increase in O2 uptake. A lag period preceded the response of molybdenum-deficient cells to added Mo. In systems employing 10 and 20% O2 with 10% N215 in the gas phase, O2 appeared to be both required and inhibitory. These observations may be helpful in attempts to fractionate cell-free nitrogen-fixing systems from this aerobe. PMID:14042947

  16. Incorporating User Preferences Within an Optimal Traffic Flow Management Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, Joseph Lucio; Sheth, Kapil S.; Guiterrez-Nolasco, Sebastian Armardo

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of future decision support tools for Traffic Flow Management in the National Airspace System will depend on two major factors: computational burden and collaboration. Previous research has focused separately on these two aspects without consideration of their interaction. In this paper, their explicit combination is examined. It is shown that when user preferences are incorporated with an optimal approach to scheduling, runtime is not adversely affected. A benefit-cost ratio is used to measure the influence of user preferences on an optimal solution. This metric shows user preferences can be accommodated without inordinately, negatively affecting the overall system delay. Specifically, incorporating user preferences will increase delays proportionally to increased user satisfaction.

  17. Incorporating CCSDS telemetry standards and philosophy on Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, John C.; Elson, Anne B.

    1995-01-01

    The Cassini project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is implementing a spacecraft telemetry system based on the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packet telemetry standards. Resolving the CCSDS concepts with a Ground Data System designed to handle time-division-multiplexed telemetry and also handling constraints unique to a deep-space planetary spacecraft (such as fixed downlink opportunities, small downlink rates and requirements for on-board data storage) have resulted in spacecraft and ground system design challenges. Solving these design challenges involved adapting and extending the CCSDS telemetry standards as well as changes to the spacecraft and ground system designs. The resulting spacecraft/ground system design is an example of how new ideas and philosophies can be incorporated into existing systems and design approaches without requiring significant rework. In addition, it shows that the CCSDS telemetry standards can be successfully applied to deep-space planetary spacecraft.

  18. 48 CFR 52.102 - Incorporating provisions and clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incorporated by reference to the maximum practical extent, rather than being incorporated in full text, even if... provide the full text of any provision or clause incorporated by reference. (c) Agency approved provisions... subpart 52.3 to be incorporated by reference, need not be incorporated in full text, provided...

  19. 48 CFR 52.102 - Incorporating provisions and clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... incorporated by reference to the maximum practical extent, rather than being incorporated in full text, even if... provide the full text of any provision or clause incorporated by reference. (c) Agency approved provisions... subpart 52.3 to be incorporated by reference, need not be incorporated in full text, provided...

  20. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  1. Incorporating the Aesthetic Dimension into Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, R. Scott; Wolfe, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study that was undertaken to discover not only the belief and intent behind the everyday opportunities that four exemplary teachers offered their high performing students but what activities they incorporated into their everyday lessons in an attempt to make sense of how aesthetic experiences may enhance learning. The…

  2. Incorporating Feminism into Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mookyong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The author describes how rehabilitation counselor educators can incorporate the feminist perspective in teaching rehabilitation counselors-in-training by exploring history, core values, and training methods of feminism. Method: Based on a literature review, the author compares philosophy and concepts of rehabilitation counseling and…

  3. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at the Department of Transportation, Docket.... 175-6000 Pelvis Assembly; (xi) Drawing No. 175-7000-1, Leg Assembly—left; (xii) Drawing No. 175-7000-2...; (x) Drawing No. 175-6000, Pelvis Assembly, incorporated by reference in §§ 572.181 and 572.188;...

  4. Experience with an ICD incorporating biventricular pacing.

    PubMed

    Kühlkamp, V; Dörnberger, V; Rüb, N; Eigenberger, B; Kettering, K; Bosch, R; Mewis, C

    2003-04-01

    Biventricular pacing for cardiac resynchronization is a promising therapy for symptomatic improvement in selected patients with underlying severe congestive heart failure. ICD treatment has been shown to prolong life in patients with life threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias, but it does not improve quality of life. This review discusses current experience with ICD's incorporating biventricular pacing.

  5. Incorporating Engineering Design Challenges into STEM Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Householder, Daniel L., Ed.; Hailey, Christine E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Successful strategies for incorporating engineering design challenges into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in American high schools are presented in this paper. The developers have taken the position that engineering design experiences should be an important component of the high school education of all American…

  6. Incorporating Mobile Learning into Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To introduce and present techniques for incorporating mobile learning into athletic training education. Background: The matriculation of digital natives into college has stimulated the identification and development of new teaching and learning strategies. Electronic learning (e-learning), including the use of learning management…

  7. Incorporating the Internet into Traditional Library Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Tony; King, Monica

    2000-01-01

    Presents a template for teaching traditional library research and one for incorporating the Web. Highlights include the differences between directories and search engines; devising search strategies; creating search terms; how to choose search engines; evaluating online resources; helpful Web sites; and how to read URLs to evaluate a Web site's…

  8. Incorporating Social Media in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMeans, April

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating social media into the classroom will provide a positive, upbeat learning environment that students are engaged in on a regular basis. In doing this, educators will be ensuring discussion, collaboration, critical thinking, and creativity amongst their students. Social media is a knowledgeable topic for our students, and it is an…

  9. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-19

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  10. Design of Schools to Incorporate Fallout Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folley, Milo D.

    Means are suggested by which a school district may incorporate low-cost fallout protection in a school construction program, through construction of an underground shelter beneath the concrete slab foundation. Ways of controlling distribution and filtering air are discussed. The author also suggests consideration of a completely underground…

  11. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Liljedahl, Gregory N.; Moffat, Bruce K.

    1981-01-01

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  12. The Incorporation and Abjection of Official Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearl, Benjamin Kelsey

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, the author analyzes two theoretical perspectives--incorporation and abjection--that inform official knowledge generally and high school American history textbooks specifically. While contemporary textbooks increasingly depict the experiences of historically marginalized groups such as women, African Americans, Latinos, American…

  13. Tira Sujanpur: An Adobe of Katoch Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shree, Venu; Sharma, Puneet

    2015-06-01

    Image of any ancient settlement can be interpreted through a continuous study of its Historical and Architectural developments. The best way to map this image is to analyze and explore old monuments, palaces and religious places of that city. This work is an attempt to showcase the glorious era of Art and Architecture which flourished during Katoch dynasty in north Himalayan region of India during 18th century. Being one of the most known examples of Katoch Dynasty Tira Sujanpur has been documented in detail in this paper. This documentation covers the detail study of relationship between townscape and public places. Architecture style of Katoch Dynasty, Splendid along the cluster of the buildings, Temples and palaces has also been giving due consideration in the paper.

  14. Kennedy Space Center's Partnership with Graftel Incorporated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Carol Anne

    2010-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has recently partnered with Graftel Incorporated under an exclusive license agreement for the manufacture and sale of the Smart Current Signature Sensor. The Smart Current Signature Sensor and software were designed and developed to be utilized on any application using solenoid valves. The system monitors the electrical and mechanical health of solenoids by comparing the electrical current profile of each solenoid actuation to a typical current profile and reporting deviation from its learned behavior. The objective of this partnership with Graftel is for them to develop the technology into a hand-held testing device for their customer base in the Nuclear Power Industry. The device will be used to perform diagnostic testing on electromechanical valves used in Nuclear Power plants. Initially, Graftel plans to have working units within the first year of license in order to show customers and allow them to put purchase requests into their next year's budget. The subject technology under discussion was commercialized by the Kennedy Space Center Technology Programs and Partnerships Office, which patented the technology and licensed it to Graftel, Inc., a company providing support, instrumentation, and calibration services to the nuclear community and private sector for over 10 years. For the nuclear power industry, Graftel designs, manufacturers, and calibrates a full line of testing instrumentation. Grafters smart sensors have been in use in the United States since 1993 and have proved to decrease set-up time and test durations. The project was funded by Non-Destructive Engineering, and it is felt that this technology will have more emphasis on future vehicles. Graftel plans to market the Current Signature Sensor to the Electric Utility industry. Graftel currently supplies product and services to the Nuclear Power Industry in the United States as well as internationally. Product and services sold are used in non-destructive testing for

  15. Generating expansion model incorporating compact DC power flow equations

    SciTech Connect

    Nderitu, D.G.; Sparrow, F.T.; Yu, Z.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a compact method of incorporating the spatial dimension into the generation expansion problem. Compact DC power flow equations are used to provide real-power flow coordination equations. Using these equations the marginal contribution of a generator to th total system loss is formulated as a function of that generator`s output. Incorporating these flow equations directly into the MIP formulation of the generator expansion problem results in a model that captures a generator`s true net marginal cost, one that includes both the cost of generation and the cost of transport. This method contrasts with other methods that iterate between a generator expansion model and an optimal power flow model. The proposed model is very compact and has very good convergence performance. A case study with data from Kenya is used to provide a practical application to the model.

  16. A new incorporation mechanism for trivalent actinides into bioapatite: a TRLFS and EXAFS study.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Kiel; Handley-Sidhu, Stephanie; Dardenne, Kathy; Renshaw, Joanna; Macaskie, Lynne; Walther, Clemens; Stumpf, Thorsten

    2012-02-28

    One of the most toxic byproducts of nuclear power and weapons production is the transuranics, which have a high radiotoxicity and long biological half-life due to their tendency to accumulate in the skeletal system. This accumulation is inhomogeneous and has been associated with the chemical properties and structure of the bone material rather than its location or function. This suggests a chemical driving force to incorporation and requires an atomic scale mechanistic understanding of the incorporation process. Here we propose a new incorporation mechanism for trivalent actinides and lanthanides into synthetic and biologically produced hydroxyapatite. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure have been used to demonstrate that trivalent actinides and lanthanides incorporate into the amorphous grain boundaries of apatite. This incorporation site can be used to explain patterns in uptake and distribution of radionuclides in the mammalian skeletal system. PMID:22313032

  17. A new incorporation mechanism for trivalent actinides into bioapatite: a TRLFS and EXAFS study.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Kiel; Handley-Sidhu, Stephanie; Dardenne, Kathy; Renshaw, Joanna; Macaskie, Lynne; Walther, Clemens; Stumpf, Thorsten

    2012-02-28

    One of the most toxic byproducts of nuclear power and weapons production is the transuranics, which have a high radiotoxicity and long biological half-life due to their tendency to accumulate in the skeletal system. This accumulation is inhomogeneous and has been associated with the chemical properties and structure of the bone material rather than its location or function. This suggests a chemical driving force to incorporation and requires an atomic scale mechanistic understanding of the incorporation process. Here we propose a new incorporation mechanism for trivalent actinides and lanthanides into synthetic and biologically produced hydroxyapatite. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure have been used to demonstrate that trivalent actinides and lanthanides incorporate into the amorphous grain boundaries of apatite. This incorporation site can be used to explain patterns in uptake and distribution of radionuclides in the mammalian skeletal system.

  18. 14 CFR 253.5 - Notice of incorporated terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contract, passengers may inspect the full text of each term incorporated by reference at the carrier's... service the full text of each such incorporated term; (b) The incorporated terms may include...

  19. 14 CFR 253.5 - Notice of incorporated terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contract, passengers may inspect the full text of each term incorporated by reference at the carrier's... service the full text of each such incorporated term; (b) The incorporated terms may include...

  20. 14 CFR 253.5 - Notice of incorporated terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contract, passengers may inspect the full text of each term incorporated by reference at the carrier's... service the full text of each such incorporated term; (b) The incorporated terms may include...

  1. Ex Vivo Comparison of Mtwo and RaCe Rotary File Systems in Root Canal Deviation: One File Only versus the Conventional Method

    PubMed Central

    Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Nozari, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Cleaning and shaping of the root canal system is an important step in endodontic therapy. New instruments incorporate new preparation techniques that can improve the efficacy of cleaning and shaping. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of Mtwo and RaCe rotary file systems in straightening the canal curvature using only one file or the conventional method. Materials and Methods: Sixty mesial roots of extracted human mandibular molars were prepared by RaCe and Mtwo nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary files using the conventional and only one rotary file methods. The working length was 18 mm and the curvatures of the root canals were between 15–45°. By superimposing x-ray images before and after the instrumentation, deviation of the canals was assessed using Adobe Photoshop CS3 software. Preparation time was recorded. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: There were no significant differences between RaCe and Mtwo or between the two root canal preparation methods in root canal deviation in buccolingual and mesiodistal radiographs (P>0.05). Changes of root canal curvature in >35° subgroups were significantly more than in other subgroups with smaller canal curvatures. Preparation time was shorter in one file only technique. Conclusion: According to the results, the two rotary systems and the two root canal preparation methods had equal efficacy in straightening the canals; but the preparation time was shorter in one file only group. PMID:26877736

  2. Evaluation of a Korean Version of a Tool for Assessing the Incorporation of Human Factors into a Medication-Related Decision Support System: The I-MeDeSA

    PubMed Central

    Cho, I.; Han, H.; Phansalkar, S.; Bates, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective The Instrument for Evaluating Human-Factor Principles in Medication-Related Decision Support Alerts (I-MeDeSA) was developed recently in the US with a view towards improving considerations of human-factor principles when designing alerts for clinical decision support (CDS) systems. This study evaluated the generalizability of this tool, in cooperation with its authors, across cultures by applying it to a Korean system. We also examined opportunities to promote user acceptance of the system. Methods We developed a Korean version of the I-MeDeSA (K-I-MeDeSA) and used it to evaluate drug-drug interaction alerts in a large academic tertiary hospital in Seoul. We involved four reviewers (A, B, C, and D). Two (A and B) conducted the initial independent scoring, while the other two (C and D) performed a final review and assessed feedback from the initial reviewers. The obtained scores were compared with those from 13 previously reported CDS systems. The feedback was summarized qualitatively. Results The translation of the I-MeDeSA had excellent interrater agreement in terms of face validity (scale-level content validity index = 0.95). The system’s K-I-MeDeSA score was 10 out of 26, with a good agreement between reviewers (κ = 0.77), which showed a lack of human-factor considerations. The reviewers readily identified two of the nine principles that needed primary improvement: prioritization and text-based information. The reviewers also expressed difficulty judging the following four principles: alarm philosophy, visibility, color, and learnability and confusability. Conclusion The K-I-MeDeSA was semantically and operationally equivalent to the original tool. Only minor cultural problems were identified, leading the reviewers to suggest the need for clarification of certain words plus a more detailed description of the tool’s rationale and exemplars. Further evaluation is needed to empirically assess whether the implementation of changes in an

  3. The interRAI Acute Care instrument incorporated in an eHealth system for standardized and web-based geriatric assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the acute hospital setting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The interRAI Acute Care instrument is a multidimensional geriatric assessment system intended to determine a hospitalized older persons’ medical, psychosocial and functional capacity and needs. Its objective is to develop an overall plan for treatment and long-term follow-up based on a common set of standardized items that can be used in various care settings. A Belgian web-based software system (BelRAI-software) was developed to enable clinicians to interpret the output and to communicate the patients’ data across wards and care organizations. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the (dis)advantages of the implementation of the interRAI Acute Care instrument as a comprehensive geriatric assessment instrument in an acute hospital context. Methods In a cross-sectional multicenter study on four geriatric wards in three acute hospitals, trained clinical staff (nurses, occupational therapists, social workers, and geriatricians) assessed 410 inpatients in routine clinical practice. The BelRAI-system was evaluated by focus groups, observations, and questionnaires. The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats were mapped (SWOT-analysis) and validated by the participants. Results The primary strengths of the BelRAI-system were a structured overview of the patients’ condition early after admission and the promotion of multidisciplinary assessment. Our study was a first attempt to transfer standardized data between home care organizations, nursing homes and hospitals and a way to centralize medical, allied health professionals and nursing data. With the BelRAI-software, privacy of data is guaranteed. Weaknesses are the time-consuming character of the process and the overlap with other assessment instruments or (electronic) registration forms. There is room for improving the user-friendliness and the efficiency of the software, which needs hospital-specific adaptations. Opportunities are a timely and systematic problem detection and continuity of

  4. Training the Next Generation of Scientists: System Dynamics Modeling of Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) transmission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, P.; Hulse, A.; Harder, H. R.; Pierce, L. A.; Rizzo, D.; Hanley, J.; Orantes, L.; Stevens, L.; Justi, S.; Monroy, C.

    2015-12-01

    A computational simulation has been designed as an investigative case study by high school students to introduce system dynamics modeling into high school curriculum. This case study approach leads users through the forensics necessary to diagnose an unknown disease in a Central American village. This disease, Chagas, is endemic to 21 Latin American countries. The CDC estimates that of the 110 million people living in areas with the disease, 8 million are infected, with as many as 300,000 US cases. Chagas is caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, and is spread via blood feeding insect (vectors), that feed on vertebrates and live in crevasses in the walls and roofs of adobe homes. One-third of the infected people will develop chronic Chagas who are asymptomatic for years before their heart or GI tract become enlarged resulting in death. The case study has three parts. Students play the role of WHO field investigators and work collaboratively to: 1) use genetics to identify the host(s) and vector of the disease 2) use a STELLA™ SIR (Susceptible, Infected, Recovered) system dynamics model to study Chagas at the village scale and 3) develop management strategies. The simulations identify mitigation strategies known as Ecohealth Interventions (e.g., home improvements using local materials) to help stakeholders test and compare multiple optima. High school students collaborated with researchers from the University of Vermont, Loyola University and Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, working in labs, interviewing researchers, and incorporating mulitple field data as part of a NSF-funded multiyear grant. The model displays stable equilibria of hosts, vectors, and disease-states. Sensitivity analyses show measures of household condition and presence of vertebrates were significant leverage points, supporting other findings by the University research team. The village-scale model explores multiple solutions to disease mitigation for the purpose of producing

  5. Toxicity of sediment-incorporated drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.R.; Patrick, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The 24, 96, or 168-h LC50s of four used drilling fluids or barite incorporated into sediment were determined in toxicity tests with lancelets (Branchiostoma caribaeum), a benthic chordate. The number of lancelets that did not burrow into contaminated sediments was used to calculate EC50s at the same times that LC50s were determined. Observations of the burrowing behavior allowed quantitation of effects after 24-h exposures to each of the drilling fluids whereas lancelet mortality was sufficient to calculate 24-h LC50s for only one drilling fluid. Drilling fluids were less toxic to lancelets when incorporated into sediments than to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) or benthic invertebrate communities in water-column exposures.

  6. Incorporating Nonchemical Stressors Into Cumulative Risk Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Cynthia V.; Dourson, Michael L.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Mumtaz, Moiz M.; Price, Paul S.; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The role of nonchemical stressors in modulating the human health risk associated with chemical exposures is an area of increasing attention. On 9 March 2011, a workshop titled “Approaches for Incorporating Nonchemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment” took place during the 50th Anniversary Annual Society of Toxicology Meeting in Washington D.C. Objectives of the workshop included describing the current state of the science from various perspectives (i.e., regulatory, exposure, modeling, and risk assessment) and presenting expert opinions on currently available methods for incorporating nonchemical stressors into cumulative risk assessments. Herein, distinct frameworks for characterizing exposure to, joint effects of, and risk associated with chemical and nonchemical stressors are discussed. PMID:22345310

  7. Comparative Incorporation of PNA into DNA Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Ronnie O; Kong, Jing; Achim, Catalina; LaBean, Thomas H

    2015-09-23

    DNA has shown great promise as a building material for self-assembling nanoscale structures. To further develop the potential of this technology, more methods are needed for functionalizing DNA-based nanostructures to increase their chemical diversity. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) holds great promise for realizing this goal, as it conveniently allows for inclusion of both amino acids and peptides in nucleic acid-based structures. In this work, we explored incorporation of a positively charged PNA within DNA nanostructures. We investigated the efficiency of annealing a lysine-containing PNA probe with complementary, single-stranded DNA sequences within nanostructures, as well as the efficiency of duplex invasion and its dependence on salt concentration. Our results show that PNA allows for toehold-free strand displacement and that incorporation yield depends critically on binding site geometry. These results provide guidance for the design of PNA binding sites on nucleic acid nanostructures with an eye towards optimizing fabrication yield.

  8. Emissive sensors and devices incorporating these sensors

    DOEpatents

    Swager, Timothy M; Zhang, Shi-Wei

    2013-02-05

    The present invention generally relates to luminescent and/or optically absorbing compositions and/or precursors to those compositions, including solid films incorporating these compositions/precursors, exhibiting increased luminescent lifetimes, quantum yields, enhanced stabilities and/or amplified emissions. The present invention also relates to sensors and methods for sensing analytes through luminescent and/or optically absorbing properties of these compositions and/or precursors. Examples of analytes detectable by the invention include electrophiles, alkylating agents, thionyl halides, and phosphate ester groups including phosphoryl halides, cyanides and thioates such as those found in certain chemical warfare agents. The present invention additionally relates to devices and methods for amplifying emissions, such as those produced using the above-described compositions and/or precursors, by incorporating the composition and/or precursor within a polymer having an energy migration pathway. In some cases, the compositions and/or precursors thereof include a compound capable of undergoing a cyclization reaction.

  9. Benefits of oxygen incorporation in atomic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlqvist, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Atomic laminates such as MAX phases benefit from the addition of oxygen in many ways, from the formation of a protective oxide surface layer with self-healing capabilities when cracks form to the tuning of anisotropic conductivity. In this paper oxygen incorporation and vacancy formation in M 2AlC (M  =  Ti, V, Cr) MAX phases have been studied using first-principles calculations where the focus is on phase stability and electronic structure for different oxygen and/or vacancy configurations. Oxygen prefers different lattice sites depending on M-element and this can be correlated to the number of available non-bonding M d-electrons. In Ti2AlC, oxygen substitutes carbon while in Cr2AlC it is located interstitially within the Al-layer. I predict that oxygen incorporation in Ti2AlC stabilizes the material, which explains the experimentally observed 12.5 at% oxygen (x  =  0.5) in Ti2Al(C1‑x O x ). In addition, it is also possible to use oxygen to stabilize the hypothetical Zr2AlC and Hf2AlC. Hence, oxygen incorporation may be beneficial in many ways. Not only can it make a material more stable, but it also can act as a reservoir for internal self-healing with shorter diffusion paths.

  10. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J. )

    1990-08-15

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from ({sup 3}H)acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms.

  11. NASA Soil Moisture Data Products and Their Incorporation in DREAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Holland, Donald; Henderson, Vaneshette

    2005-01-01

    NASA provides soil moisture data products that include observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the Earth Observing System Aqua satellite, field measurements from the Soil Moisture Experiment campaigns, and model predictions from the Land Information System and the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System. Incorporation of the NASA soil moisture products in the Dust Regional Atmospheric Model is possible through use of the satellite observations of soil moisture to set initial conditions for the dust simulations. An additional comparison of satellite soil moisture observations with mesoscale atmospheric dynamics modeling is recommended. Such a comparison would validate the use of NASA soil moisture data in applications and support acceptance of satellite soil moisture data assimilation in weather and climate modeling.

  12. Incorporating Active Runway Crossings in Airport Departure Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Jung, Yoon C.

    2010-01-01

    A mixed integer linear program is presented for deterministically scheduling departure and ar rival aircraft at airport runways. This method addresses different schemes of managing the departure queuing area by treating it as first-in-first-out queues or as a simple par king area where any available aircraft can take-off ir respective of its relative sequence with others. In addition, this method explicitly considers separation criteria between successive aircraft and also incorporates an optional prioritization scheme using time windows. Multiple objectives pertaining to throughput and system delay are used independently. Results indicate improvement over a basic first-come-first-serve rule in both system delay and throughput. Minimizing system delay results in small deviations from optimal throughput, whereas minimizing throughput results in large deviations in system delay. Enhancements for computational efficiency are also presented in the form of reformulating certain constraints and defining additional inequalities for better bounds.

  13. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  14. Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids into Proteins Expressed in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Serfling, R; Coin, I

    2016-01-01

    The site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids (Uaas) via genetic code expansion provides a powerful method to introduce synthetic moieties into specific positions of a protein directly in the live cell. The technique, first developed in bacteria, is nowadays widely applicable in mammalian cells. In general, different Uaas are incorporated with different efficiency. By comparing the incorporation efficiency of several Uaas recently designed for bioorthogonal chemistry, we present here a facile dual-fluorescence assay to evaluate relative yields of Uaa incorporation. Several biological questions can be addressed using Uaas tools. In recent years, photo-cross-linking Uaas have been extensively applied to map ligand-binding sites on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We describe a simple and efficient two-plasmid system to incorporate a photoactivatable Uaa into a class B GPCR, and demonstrate cross-linking to its nonmodified natural ligand. PMID:27586329

  15. 46 CFR 61.03-1 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 61.03-1 Section 61.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Incorporation of Standards § 61.03-1 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain material is incorporated by reference into this part with...

  16. Composites of silica with immobilized cholinesterase incorporated into polymeric shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payentko, Victoriya; Matkovsky, Alexander; Matrunchik, Yulia

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic approaches for new nanocomposite materials with relatively high cholinesterase activity have been developed. The peculiarity of the formation of such systems is the introduction of cholinesterase into polymer with subsequent incorporation on the ready-made silica particles and into the polysiloxane matrixes during sol-gel synthesis. Evaluation of the cholinesterase activity has been fulfilled through the imitation of the acetylcholine chloride decomposition reaction. Values of activity for cholinesterase nanocomposites demonstrated in this work are higher than those for the native cholinesterase. The higher activity of cholinesterase contained in nanocomposites was found for those prepared using highly dispersed silica.

  17. Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.

    1990-03-01

    Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

  18. Incorporation of noble metals into aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Hair, Lucy M.; Sanner, Robert D.; Coronado, Paul R.

    1998-01-01

    Aerogels or xerogels containing atomically dispersed noble metals for applications such environmental remediation. New noble metal precursors, such as Pt--Si or Pd(Si--P).sub.2, have been created to bridge the incompatibility between noble metals and oxygen, followed by their incorporation into the aerogel or xerogel through sol-gel chemistry and processing. Applications include oxidation of hydrocarbons and reduction of nitrogen oxide species, complete oxidation of volatile organic carbon species, oxidative membranes for photocatalysis and partial oxidation for synthetic applications.

  19. Incorporating opponent models into adversary search

    SciTech Connect

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S.

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a generalized theoretical framework that allows incorporation of opponent models into adversary search. We present the M* algorithm, a generalization of minimax that uses an arbitrary opponent model to simulate the opponent`s search. The opponent model is a recursive structure consisting of the opponent`s evaluation function and its model of the player. We demonstrate experimentally the potential benefit of using an opponent model. Pruning in M* is impossible in the general case. We prove a sufficient condition for pruning and present the {alpha}{beta}* algorithm which returns the M* value of a tree while searching only necessary branches.

  20. Incorporation of radioactive wastes into styrenated polyester

    SciTech Connect

    Ikladious, N.E.; Ghattas, N.K.; Eskander, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Styrenated polyester (poly(oxydiethylene maleate)) is examined as a medium for immobilization of simulated spent-ion exchange resin used at Inshas Reactor (Egypt). Compressive strength and hardness values illustrated the stability of the final products towards radiation. TG, DTG, and DTA diagrams showed the thermal instability of the final waste form at about 375/sup 0/C. Leaching experiment on incorporated blocks of active resin labelled with /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, and /sup 106/Ru showed that the cumulative leaching rate for Ce is lower than those for Ru and Cs.

  1. Incorporation of Nanosensors into Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional sensors are too big and heavy for installation in space vehicles, including the Space Shuttle Orbiter as well as future manned and unmanned vehicles currently in the early design phase. Advances in nanotechnology have led to the availability of smaller and more accurate sensors. Multiple and redundant nanosensors can be used to conduct more accurate and comprehensive measurements in a space vehicle. Early planning can lead to the relatively easy incorporation of miniature sensors sharing power and communication lines, thus reducing the requirement for large amount of electrical and/or optical cabling.

  2. Incorporation of noble metals into aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Hair, L.M.; Sanner, R.D.; Coronado, P.R.

    1998-12-22

    Aerogels or xerogels containing atomically dispersed noble metals for applications such as environmental remediation are disclosed. New noble metal precursors, such as Pt--Si or Pd(Si--P){sub 2}, have been created to bridge the incompatibility between noble metals and oxygen, followed by their incorporation into the aerogel or xerogel through sol-gel chemistry and processing. Applications include oxidation of hydrocarbons and reduction of nitrogen oxide species, complete oxidation of volatile organic carbon species, oxidative membranes for photocatalysis and partial oxidation for synthetic applications.

  3. Incorporation of aluminum nanopowder into NTO.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. Y.; Kennedy, J. E.; Peterson, P. D.; Asay, B. W.

    2004-01-01

    Most insensitive high explosives have relatively low output and the user is forced to choose between enhancing operational safety and meeting ordnance performance requirements. The goals of this project are to investigate ways to incorporate Al nanopowder in NTO and to devise formulations that are insensitive and that exhibit high performance. In this paper, the novel method for the preparation of nanoNTO and its formulation with Al nanopowder will be presented, together with the characterization test results. Data from minisandwich velocity test on NTO and NTO/Al mix and the techniques used to verify the potential encapsulation of Al in NTO will also be presented.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A-Mediated Incorporation of Peptides: Effect of Peptide Modification on Incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Hansenová Maňásková, Silvie; Nazmi, Kamran; van ‘t Hof, Wim; van Belkum, Alex; Martin, Nathaniel I.; Bikker, Floris J.; van Wamel, Willem J. B.; Veerman, Enno C. I.

    2016-01-01

    The endogenous Staphylococcus aureus sortase A (SrtA) transpeptidase covalently anchors cell wall-anchored (CWA) proteins equipped with a specific recognition motif (LPXTG) into the peptidoglycan layer of the staphylococcal cell wall. Previous in situ experiments have shown that SrtA is also able to incorporate exogenous, fluorescently labelled, synthetic substrates equipped with the LPXTG motif (K(FITC)LPETG-amide) into the bacterial cell wall, albeit at high concentrations of 500 μM to 1 mM. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of substrate modification on the incorporation efficiency. This revealed that (i) by elongation of LPETG-amide with a sequence of positively charged amino acids, derived from the C-terminal domain of physiological SrtA substrates, the incorporation efficiency was increased by 20-fold at 10 μM, 100 μM and 250 μM; (ii) Substituting aspartic acid (E) for methionine increased the incorporation of the resulting K(FITC)LPMTG-amide approximately three times at all concentrations tested; (iii) conjugation of the lipid II binding antibiotic vancomycin to K(FITC)LPMTG-amide resulted in the same incorporation levels as K(FITC)LPETG-amide, but much more efficient at an impressive 500-fold lower substrate concentration. These newly developed synthetic substrates can potentially find broad applications in for example the in situ imaging of bacteria; the incorporation of antibody recruiting moieties; the targeted delivery and covalent incorporation of antimicrobial compounds into the bacterial cell wall. PMID:26799839

  5. Incorporation Of Air Into The Campanian Ignimbrite Pyroclastic Density Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ort, M. H.; Giordano, G.; Zanella, E.; Isaia, R.

    2015-12-01

    Knowing the temperature of emplacement of an ignimbrite can tell us how much cooling air it incorporated during eruption and transport. Currents that incorporate cool matter (air, water, cold clasts) cool more than those that do not. Lithic fragments record the maximum temperature they reached, up to their maximum unblocking temperature. Studies of large ignimbrites (e.g. Cerro Galan Ignimbrite) emplaced by dense currents show they do not cool very much, with emplacement temperatures often above 580 oC. Smaller currents, such as those from Vesuvius and Colima, lose significant heat in the eruption column, and then lose some, but less, heat as they travel laterally. The amount of atmosphere incorporated by large dilute currents is not known. The ~40 ka Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) erupted from the Campi Flegrei caldera near Naples, Italy, and extends to ~75 km from the caldera. The CI was emplaced from a density-stratified current with a dilute transport system and a denser depositional system that overtopped 1600-m-high ridges, with the depositional system re-forming on the far side. Modeling of dilute currents shows that they can pass over obstacles ~1.5 times their thickness without losing momentum, which implies the CI current was >1 km thick. Much of that dilute current was gas, but how much was atmospheric? Partial thermal demagnetization of lithic clasts allows the identification of the temperature of emplacement. We sampled lithic fragments from the CI in 13 locations from proximal to distal along several azimuths. The current passed over 30-35 km of sea to get to two sites. Partial thermal demagnetization of 10 specimens from each site show that they were heated and deposited above 580 oC, the unblocking temperature of magnetite, implying the temperature of emplacement was at or above this temperature. The CI is poor in lithic clasts (<1% in most places) and evidence of non-magmatic water in the outflow sheet is absent. We suggest the CI current was a large

  6. 78 FR 48048 - Student Assistance General Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... System (OES) permits documents to be submitted electronically in an Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF... the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe... provide a hard copy of the document. (6) Electronic documents must be formatted in Adobe Portable...

  7. Self-Incorporation of Coenzymes by Ribozymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, Ronald R.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1995-01-01

    RNA molecules that are assembled from the four standard nucleotides contain a limited number of chemical functional groups, a characteristic that is generally thought to restrict the potential for catalysis by ribozymes. Although polypeptides carry a wider range of functional groups, many contemporary protein-based enzymes employ coenzymes to augment their capabilities. The coenzymes possess additional chemical moieties that can participate directly in catalysis and thereby enhance catalytic function. In this work, we demonstrate a mechanism by which ribozymes can supplement their limited repertoire of functional groups through RNAcatalyzed incorporation of various coenzymes and coenzyme analogues. The group I ribozyme of Tetrahymena thermophila normally mediates a phosphoester transfer reaction that results in the covalent attachment of guanosine to the ribozyme. Here, a shortened version of the ribozyme is shown to catalyze the self-incorporation of coenzymes and coenzyme analogues, such as NAD+ and dephosphorylated CoA-SH. Similar ribozyme activities may have played an important role in the "RNA world," when RNA enzymes are thought to have maintained a complex metabolism in the absence of proteins and would have benefited from the inclusion of additional functional groups.

  8. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  9. Optoelectronic devices incorporating fluoropolymer compositions for protection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xuming; Chum, Pak-Wing S.; Howard, Kevin E.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Sumner, William C.; Wu, Shaofu

    2015-12-22

    The fluoropolymer compositions of the present invention generally incorporate ingredients comprising one or more fluoropolymers, an ultraviolet light protection component (hereinafter UV protection component), and optionally one or more additional ingredients if desired. The UV protection component includes a combination of at least one hindered tertiary amine (HTA) compound having a certain structure and a weight average molecular weight of at least 1000. This tertiary amine is used in combination with at least one organic, UV light absorbing compound (UVLA compound) having a weight average molecular weight greater than 500. When the HTA compound and the UVLA compound are selected according to principles of the present invention, the UV protection component provides fluoropolymer compositions with significantly improved weatherability characteristics for protecting underlying materials, features, structures, components, and/or the like. In particular, fluoropolymer compositions incorporating the UV protection component of the present invention have unexpectedly improved ability to resist blackening, coloration, or other de gradation that may be caused by UV exposure. As a consequence, devices protected by these compositions would be expected to have dramatically improved service life. The compositions have a wide range of uses but are particularly useful for forming protective layers in optoelectronic devices.

  10. Incorporated of tritiated water in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Sprous, D.G.; Fox, J.E.; Jackson, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Tritiated water {sup 3}H{sub 2}O is routinely discharged into the environment near nuclear power plants and reactors. The radioactive water is rapidly equilibriated with cell water in the aquatic life forms. The purpose of this study was to determine the uptake of the radioactive hydrogen into the various lipid classes. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been discharging tritiated water into White Oak Lake. Blue gill and mosquito fish from White Oak Lake were analyzed. An experimental fish tank with water having a specific activity of 1.2 {times} 10{sup 6} dpm of {sup 3}H/mL was set up. Mosquito fish were exposed to this level of radioactivity for thirty days. After this time the fish were lypolyzed an the lipids were extracted. The phospholipid fraction incorporated the greatest percentage of the radioactivity. Significant incorporation of activity was also seen in the triglyceride and cholesterol fractions. Phospholipids and cholesterol are important structural components of the cell, insuring persistence of the radioactivity in the organism. The long term effects are not known.

  11. Flexible ultrasonic transducers incorporating piezoelectric fibres.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Gerald; Gachagan, Anthony; Mackersie, John W; McCunnie, Thomas; Banks, Robert

    2009-09-01

    It is possible to produce a high-performance, flexible 1-3 connectivity piezoelectric ceramic composite with conventional methods but the process is difficult and time-consuming. Extensive finite element modeling was used to design a piezocomposite structure which incorporated randomly positioned piezoceramic fibers in a polymer matrix. Simple manufacturing techniques were developed which resulted in the production of large numbers of fully populated fiber composites that offered performance comparable with a conventional 1-3 piezocomposite. A modified process facilitated the production of efficient fiber piezocomposite elements separated by polymer channels which conformed to a highly flexible (13 mm radius of curvature), 2-D matrix array configuration. This arrangement has been termed a Composite Element Composite Array Transducer, or CECAT. These devices were evaluated in terms of their impedance spectra, pulse-echo response, and surface displacement characteristics. The random piezoceramic fiber arrangements showed comparable sensitivity and bandwidth to periodic devices while minimizing the parasitic interpillar modes associated with periodic structures. Investigations have indicated that CECAT arrays constructed with 250 microm diameter fibers can be operated at frequencies of up to 3 MHz and transducers incorporating 10 microm diameter fibers can extend the frequency range above 6 MHz. Conversely, improved low-frequency devices can be produced with taller pillars than possible with conventional manufacturing techniques. PMID:19812003

  12. Incorporation of the health care system in the west

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A reflection is made, from an interpretative perspective, on the historical evolution of health care in the West. It starts from the moment that this became a way to intervene the sick and an instrument for healing diseases, focusing on original documents and written sources which account for results of historical research, which range from XV century until today. To do this, it tries to understand the health care as an ideographic body of knowledge consisting of five pieces of a puzzle composed by: the state policy of hospitals accumulation implemented in Spain, the accumulation of medical practices in what is currently Germany, the hospital wards in England, the nosological rationality in France, and the US sanitizing machine; all these movements as producers of closely linked health care developments, that are nothing more than collective actions regulated by social norms around health. PMID:26600630

  13. Incorporation of the health care system in the west.

    PubMed

    Gomez Pineda, Floro Hermes

    2015-09-30

    A reflection is made, from an interpretative perspective, on the historical evolution of health care in the West. It starts from the moment that this became a way to intervene the sick and an instrument for healing diseases, focusing on original documents and written sources which account for results of historical research, which range from XV century until today. To do this, it tries to understand the health care as an ideographic body of knowledge consisting of five pieces of a puzzle composed by: the state policy of hospitals accumulation implemented in Spain, the accumulation of medical practices in what is currently Germany, the hospital wards in England, the nosological rationality in France, and the US sanitizing machine; all these movements as producers of closely linked health care developments, that are nothing more than collective actions regulated by social norms around health.

  14. Incorporating Pharmacy Scholarship to Management Responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Practice advancement demands innovation. Amidst professional change, pharmacy leaders have the opportunity to collaborate with colleagues to develop transformational ideas, implement these solutions, and share those successes with professionals around the state, country, and world. Scholarship, defined as contributing to the literature through publications, presentations, and other writings, is an ideal way to advance innovation within the profession. It is critical for pharmacy leaders to build scholarship into their professional workflow. Ensuring that successful projects are published or presented may translate into shared best practices. Many pharmacy leaders may find it difficult to participate in scholarship activities because of their busy schedules. This column serves to outline recommendations on how to effectively incorporate writing for publications, making presentations, and other scholarly work into the role of pharmacy leaders and managers. To reduce the barriers to scholarship, pharmacy leaders role can apply project management principles to their work and identify projects that otherwise would not be published and support their development.

  15. Solar cells incorporating light harvesting arrays

    DOEpatents

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Meyer, Gerald J.

    2002-01-01

    A solar cell incorporates a light harvesting array that comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: X.sup.1.paren open-st.X.sup.m+1).sub.m (I) wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2 ; and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  16. Solar cells incorporating light harvesting arrays

    DOEpatents

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Meyer, Gerald J.

    2003-07-22

    A solar cell incorporates a light harvesting array that comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: ##EQU1## wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2 ; and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  17. Incorporating Pharmacy Scholarship to Management Responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Practice advancement demands innovation. Amidst professional change, pharmacy leaders have the opportunity to collaborate with colleagues to develop transformational ideas, implement these solutions, and share those successes with professionals around the state, country, and world. Scholarship, defined as contributing to the literature through publications, presentations, and other writings, is an ideal way to advance innovation within the profession. It is critical for pharmacy leaders to build scholarship into their professional workflow. Ensuring that successful projects are published or presented may translate into shared best practices. Many pharmacy leaders may find it difficult to participate in scholarship activities because of their busy schedules. This column serves to outline recommendations on how to effectively incorporate writing for publications, making presentations, and other scholarly work into the role of pharmacy leaders and managers. To reduce the barriers to scholarship, pharmacy leaders role can apply project management principles to their work and identify projects that otherwise would not be published and support their development. PMID:26823623

  18. Incorporating Pharmacy Scholarship to Management Responsibilities

    PubMed Central

    Hertig, John B.; Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Practice advancement demands innovation. Amidst professional change, pharmacy leaders have the opportunity to collaborate with colleagues to develop transformational ideas, implement these solutions, and share those successes with professionals around the state, country, and world. Scholarship, defined as contributing to the literature through publications, presentations, and other writings, is an ideal way to advance innovation within the profession. It is critical for pharmacy leaders to build scholarship into their professional workflow. Ensuring that successful projects are published or presented may translate into shared best practices. Many pharmacy leaders may find it difficult to participate in scholarship activities because of their busy schedules. This column serves to outline recommendations on how to effectively incorporate writing for publications, making presentations, and other scholarly work into the role of pharmacy leaders and managers. To reduce the barriers to scholarship, pharmacy leaders role can apply project management principles to their work and identify projects that otherwise would not be published and support their development. PMID:26823623

  19. Jay Carter Enterprises, Incorporated steam engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (SCSE) selected an organic rankine cycle (ORC) engine driving a high speed permanent magnet alternator (PMA) as the baseline power conversion subsystem (PCS) design. The back-up conceptual PCS design is a steam engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The development of the automotive reciprocating simple rankine cycle steam engine and how an engine of similar design might be incorporated into the SCSE is discussed. A description of the third generation automotive engine is included along with some preliminary test data. Tests were conducted with the third generation engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The purpose of these tests is to further verify the effects of expander inlet temperature, input thermal power level, expansion ratio, and other parameters affecting engine performance to aid in the development of an SCSE PCS.

  20. Incorporating global components into ethics education.

    PubMed

    Wang, George; Thompson, Russell G

    2013-03-01

    Ethics is central to science and engineering. Young engineers need to be grounded in how corporate social responsibility principles can be applied to engineering organizations to better serve the broader community. This is crucial in times of climate change and ecological challenges where the vulnerable can be impacted by engineering activities. Taking a global perspective in ethics education will help ensure that scientists and engineers can make a more substantial contribution to development throughout the world. This paper presents the importance of incorporating the global and cross culture components in the ethic education. The authors bring up a question to educators on ethics education in science and engineering in the globalized world, and its importance, necessity, and impendency. The paper presents several methods for discussion that can be used to identify the differences in ethics standards and practices in different countries; enhance the student's knowledge of ethics in a global arena. PMID:21769592

  1. Incorporation of continuous student assessment into lectures in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myllymäki, S.

    2013-08-01

    A continuous student assessment system was incorporated into an advanced microelectronic course. This study investigated the relationship between the continuous assessment system based on home exams and individual student achievement. The perspective was based on the learning frameworks of the social constructivist theory. Six fourth-year engineering students participated in the study, which covered 13 lectures and 5 home exams. Feedback sessions concerning the particular exam were held after every exam. Correlations between the exams, the feedback, and individual student achievement were computed. The results indicated a positive correlation between continuous assessment and student achievement. Rather than being improved a lot, student achievement stabilised statistically at a higher level. Additionally, student's absence was very low (5%) despite the voluntary participation in the course. Continuous assessment realised with home exams induced two-way discussions between the teacher and the students. Unprompted, the students learned additional material and discussed it in the exam essays, confirming the principles of social constructivist theory.

  2. Incorporating permaculture and strategic management for sustainable ecological resource management.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Faiza; Lodhi, Suleman A; Khan, Safdar Shah; Sarwar, Farhana

    2016-09-01

    Utilization of natural assets to the best efficient level without changing natural balance has become a critical issue for researchers as awareness on climate change takes central position in global debate. Conventional sustainable resource management systems are based on neoclassical economic approach that ignores the nature's pattern and therefore are not actually capable of sustainable management of resources. Environmentalists are lately advocating incorporation of Permaculture as holistic approach based on ethics, equitable interaction with eco-systems to obtain sustainability. The paper integrates philosophy of permaculture with strategic management frameworks to develop a pragmatic tool for policy development. The policy design tool augments management tasks by integrating recording of natural assets, monitoring of key performance indicators and integration of sectorial policies in real time, bringing out policy as a truly live document. The tool enhances the edifice process, balancing short term viewpoints and long term development to secure renewability of natural resources. PMID:27155728

  3. Trajectory design strategies that incorporate invariant manifolds and swingby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, J. J.; Cooley, D. S.; Howell, K. C.; Folta, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    Libration point orbits serve as excellent platforms for scientific investigations involving the Sun as well as planetary environments. Trajectory design in support of such missions is increasingly challenging as more complex missions are envisioned in the next few decades. Software tools for trajectory design in this regime must be further developed to incorporate better understanding of the solution space and, thus, improve the efficiency and expand the capabilities of current approaches. Only recently applied to trajectory design, dynamical systems theory now offers new insights into the natural dynamics associated with the multi-body problem. The goal of this effort is the blending of analysis from dynamical systems theory with the well established NASA Goddard software program SWINGBY to enhance and expand the capabilities for mission design. Basic knowledge concerning the solution space is improved as well.

  4. Incorporating permaculture and strategic management for sustainable ecological resource management.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Faiza; Lodhi, Suleman A; Khan, Safdar Shah; Sarwar, Farhana

    2016-09-01

    Utilization of natural assets to the best efficient level without changing natural balance has become a critical issue for researchers as awareness on climate change takes central position in global debate. Conventional sustainable resource management systems are based on neoclassical economic approach that ignores the nature's pattern and therefore are not actually capable of sustainable management of resources. Environmentalists are lately advocating incorporation of Permaculture as holistic approach based on ethics, equitable interaction with eco-systems to obtain sustainability. The paper integrates philosophy of permaculture with strategic management frameworks to develop a pragmatic tool for policy development. The policy design tool augments management tasks by integrating recording of natural assets, monitoring of key performance indicators and integration of sectorial policies in real time, bringing out policy as a truly live document. The tool enhances the edifice process, balancing short term viewpoints and long term development to secure renewability of natural resources.

  5. Non-standard amino acid incorporation into proteins using Escherichia coli cell-free protein synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seok Hoon; Kwon, Yong-Chan; Jewett, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Incorporating non-standard amino acids (NSAAs) into proteins enables new chemical properties, new structures, and new functions. In recent years, improvements in cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems have opened the way to accurate and efficient incorporation of NSAAs into proteins. The driving force behind this development has been three-fold. First, a technical renaissance has enabled high-yielding (>1 g/L) and long-lasting (>10 h in batch operation) CFPS in systems derived from Escherichia coli. Second, the efficiency of orthogonal translation systems has improved. Third, the open nature of the CFPS platform has brought about an unprecedented level of control and freedom of design. Here, we review recent developments in CFPS platforms designed to precisely incorporate NSAAs. In the coming years, we anticipate that CFPS systems will impact efforts to elucidate structure/function relationships of proteins and to make biomaterials and sequence-defined biopolymers for medical and industrial applications.

  6. Incorporation of pollution prevention principles in environmental methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Lu, C.-S.; Peterson, D.P.; Silzer, J.

    1996-07-01

    The principles of pollution prevention (P2) have not been sufficiently incorporated into analytical methods. In this paper, we focus on the needs for and the benefits of incorporating the principles of P2 into environmental analytical methods.

  7. 30 CFR 250.198 - Documents incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reference according to 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (1) Incorporation by reference of a document is... Titration, Second Edition, December 2002; reaffirmed 2005; incorporated by reference at § 250.1202; (34)...

  8. 40 CFR 72.13 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.13 Incorporation by reference. The...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they existed on the date of approval,...

  9. 40 CFR 72.13 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.13 Incorporation by reference. The...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they existed on the date of approval,...

  10. 40 CFR 72.13 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.13 Incorporation by reference. The...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they existed on the date of approval,...

  11. 40 CFR 72.13 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.13 Incorporation by reference. The...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they existed on the date of approval,...

  12. 40 CFR 72.13 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.13 Incorporation by reference. The...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they existed on the date of approval,...

  13. 33 CFR 96.130 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporated by reference into this subpart under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) The material approved for incorporation...

  14. 40 CFR 76.4 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they existed on the date of approval...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.4 Incorporation by reference. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 76.4 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they existed on the date of approval...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.4 Incorporation by reference. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 76.4 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they existed on the date of approval...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.4 Incorporation by reference. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 76.4 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they existed on the date of approval...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.4 Incorporation by reference. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 76.4 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they existed on the date of approval...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.4 Incorporation by reference. (a)...

  19. 49 CFR 393.7 - Matter incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR...). (2) Front Fog Lamp, SAE J583, August 2004, incorporation by reference approved for § 393.24(b)....

  20. 7 CFR 1755.901 - Incorporation by Reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as... Other Passive Fiber Optic Components, approved May 1989, (“TIA/EIA Standard 455-3A”), incorporation...

  1. 7 CFR 1755.901 - Incorporation by Reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as... Other Passive Fiber Optic Components, approved May 1989, (“TIA/EIA Standard 455-3A”), incorporation...

  2. 7 CFR 1755.901 - Incorporation by Reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as... Other Passive Fiber Optic Components, approved May 1989, (“TIA/EIA Standard 455-3A”), incorporation...

  3. Probing actin incorporation into myofibrils using Asp11 and His73 actin mutants.

    PubMed

    Xia, D; Peng, B; Sesok, D A; Peng, I

    1993-01-01

    We used a cell free system Bouché et al.: J. Cell Biol. 107:587-596, 1988] to study the incorporation of actin into myofibrils. We used alpha-skeletal muscle actin and actins with substitutions of either His73 [Solomon and Rubenstein: J. Biol.Chem. 262:11382, 1987], or Asp11 [Solomon et al.: J. Biol. Chem. 263:19662, 1988]. Actins were translated in reticulocyte lysate and incubated with myofibrils. The incorporated wild type actin could be cross-linked into dimers using N,N'-1,4-phenylenebismaleimide (PBM), indicating that the incorporated actin is actually inserted into the thin filaments of the myofibril. The His73 mutants incorporated to the same extent as wild type actin and was also cross-linked with PBM. Although some of the Asp11 mutants co-assembled with carrier actin, only 1-3% of the Asp11 mutant actins incorporated after 2 min and did not increase after 2 hr. Roughly 17% of wild type actin incorporated after 2 min and 31% after 2 hr. ATP increased the release of wild type actin from myofibrils, but did not increase the release of Asp11 mutants. We suggest that (1) the incorporation of wild type and His73 mutant actins was due to a physiological process whereas association of Asp11 mutants with myofibrils was non-specific, (2) the incorporation of wild type actin involved a rapid initial phase, followed by a slower phase, and (3) since some of the Asp11 mutants can co-assemble with wild type actin, the ability to self-assemble was not sufficient for incorporation into myofibrils. Thus, incorporation probably includes interaction between actin and a thin filament associated protein. We also showed that incorporation occurred at actin concentrations which would cause disassembly of F-actin. Since the myofibrils did not show large scale disassembly but incorporated actin, filament stability and monomer incorporation are likely to be mediated by actin associated proteins of the myofibril. PMID:8287497

  4. Well-defined polymeric materials incorporating strong hydrogen bonding groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Kathleen E.

    The field of supramolecular chemistry has drastically grown in recent years, and in particular the development of new strongly hydrogen bonding groups has yielded numerous fundamental and practical advances allowing for the design of materials with unique combinations of macroscopic properties. For polymers whose properties typically are rather insensitive to temperature (other than e.g. when passing through the glass transition), the incorporation of hydrogen bonding groups into their structures can provide a new handle with which to tune their structural, mechanical, and thermal behavior. Limited fundamental studies exist, however, in which the combined effects of the polymer behavior and supramolecular interactions are characterized. In this work new chemistry has been developed to allow the synthesis of well-defined polymers containing quadruple hydrogen bonding groups which bind either through a complementary or self-complementary interaction. The MHB groups can be incorporated either at the chain end or along the backbone, and through simple blending a number of different architectures can be obtained. In the simplest case, two chemically distinct homopolymers with MHB groups attached at a single chain end were mixed to produce supramolecular copolymers analogous to traditional diblocks. The nature of the hydrogen bonding groups was found to be highly influential in determining the bulk microstructure. In analyzing the phase behavior of such blends, a new polymer system was discovered to display lower critical ordering behavior and its temperature dependent Flory-Huggins c parameter was measured. By randomly incorporating strongly self-complementary MHB groups as side chains rather than end groups, a new class of thermoplastic elastomers was developed which are unentangled and contain no glassy or crystalline domains, yet show dynamical properties in some ways typical of polymer networks. The study of ABA triblock copolymer-like architectures in which the MHB

  5. Enhanced spin orbit torques by oxygen incorporation in tungsten films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phung, Timothy; Demasius, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Weifeng; Hughes, Brian P.; Yang, See-Hun; Kellock, Andrew; Han, Wei; Pushp, Aakash; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    Spin orbit torques are generated by the conversion of charge to spin currents in non-magnetic materials. The origin of these torques is of considerable debate. One of the most interesting materials is metallic tungsten for which large spin orbit torques have been found in thin films that are stabilized in the A15 (β-phase) structure. Here we report, using spin transfer torque ferromagnetic resonance, large spin Hall angles of up to ~-0.5 by incorporating oxygen into tungsten films. Whilst the incorporation of oxygen into the tungsten leads to significant changes in its microstructure and electrical resistivity, the large spin Hall angles measured are found to be remarkably insensitive to the oxygen doping level (12-44%). This invariance of the spin Hall angle with the bulk W(O) properties for higher oxygen concentrations suggests that the spin orbit torques in this system may actually be partly interfacial in origin, and induced by scattering of the electrons at the W(O) |CoFeB interface rather than from the interior of the W(O) film. Our results show an intriguing novel path towards enhanced spin orbit torques.

  6. Incorporating computational resources in a cancer research program

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Nicholas T.; Jhuraney, Ankita; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological advances have transformed cancer genetics research. These advances have served as the basis for the generation of a number of richly annotated datasets relevant to the cancer geneticist. In addition, many of these technologies are now within reach of smaller laboratories to answer specific biological questions. Thus, one of the most pressing issues facing an experimental cancer biology research program in genetics is incorporating data from multiple sources to annotate, visualize, and analyze the system under study. Fortunately, there are several computational resources to aid in this process. However, a significant effort is required to adapt a molecular biology-based research program to take advantage of these datasets. Here, we discuss the lessons learned in our laboratory and share several recommendations to make this transition effectively. This article is not meant to be a comprehensive evaluation of all the available resources, but rather highlight those that we have incorporated into our laboratory and how to choose the most appropriate ones for your research program. PMID:25324189

  7. [The mechanisms of hydrogen incorporation in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, R.

    1993-01-28

    In earlier reports we have describe d our efforts to understand the mechanism of deuterium incorporation during the thermolysis of 1,2-diphenylethane and 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3,4-diphenylhexane under D[sub 2] gas in a glass vessel. We have reported that in both of these cases, there is substantial deuterium incorporation. A summary of our conclusions follows: Conclusions previously reported for the 1,2-diphenylethane (DPE) system. 1. Benzyl radicals produced in the thermolysis react mainly with DPE to extract a hydrogen atom and produce undeuterated toluene. 2. The 1,2-diphenylethyl radicals produced are mainly responsible for the reaction with D[sub 2] to give D atoms. 3. D atoms then react with aromatic rings to form adduct radicals which are, at least in part, reconverted to D-substituted aromatics in termination steps. 4.2-Phenylethyl radicals react in a less discriminating manner, 1/3 to 1/2 of the events probably involving direct reaction with D[sub 2]. 5. A reasonable match to major product distribution can be accomplished using a model consisting of the set of ten reactions.

  8. Parallel approach to incorporating face image information into dialogue processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fuji

    2000-10-01

    There are many kinds of so-called irregular expressions in natural dialogues. Even if the content of a conversation is the same in words, different meanings can be interpreted by a person's feeling or face expression. To have a good understanding of dialogues, it is required in a flexible dialogue processing system to infer the speaker's view properly. However, it is difficult to obtain the meaning of the speaker's sentences in various scenes using traditional methods. In this paper, a new approach for dialogue processing that incorporates information from the speaker's face is presented. We first divide conversation statements into several simple tasks. Second, we process each simple task using an independent processor. Third, we employ some speaker's face information to estimate the view of the speakers to solve ambiguities in dialogues. The approach presented in this paper can work efficiently, because independent processors run in parallel, writing partial results to a shared memory, incorporating partial results at appropriate points, and complementing each other. A parallel algorithm and a method for employing the face information in a dialogue machine translation will be discussed, and some results will be included in this paper.

  9. 49 CFR 572.130 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be... Female Crash Test Dummy (HIII-5F, Alpha Version)” (June 2002), incorporated by reference in “572.131, and... small adult female crash test dummy parts list, incorporated by reference in § 572.131; (2) A...

  10. 49 CFR 572.130 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be... Female Crash Test Dummy (HIII-5F, Alpha Version)” (June 2002), incorporated by reference in “572.131, and... small adult female crash test dummy parts list, incorporated by reference in § 572.131; (2) A...

  11. 49 CFR 384.107 - Matter incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Matter incorporated by reference. 384.107 Section... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM General § 384.107 Matter incorporated by reference. (a) Incorporation by reference. This part includes references to certain matter or materials. The text of...

  12. 7 CFR 1755.901 - Incorporation by Reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as... AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.901 Incorporation by Reference. (a) Incorporation by reference. The materials listed here...

  13. 49 CFR 393.7 - Matter incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Matter incorporated by reference. 393.7 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION General § 393.7 Matter incorporated by reference. (a)...

  14. 49 CFR 393.7 - Matter incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Matter incorporated by reference. 393.7 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION General § 393.7 Matter incorporated by reference. (a)...

  15. 49 CFR 393.7 - Matter incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Matter incorporated by reference. 393.7 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION General § 393.7 Matter incorporated by reference. (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 109.105 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 109.105 Section 109.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS General § 109.105 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain material is incorporated by...

  17. 46 CFR 109.105 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 109.105 Section 109.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS General § 109.105 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain material is incorporated by...

  18. 46 CFR 109.105 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 109.105 Section 109.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS General § 109.105 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain material is incorporated by...

  19. 46 CFR 109.105 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 109.105 Section 109.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS General § 109.105 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain material is incorporated by...

  20. 46 CFR 109.105 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 109.105 Section 109.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS General § 109.105 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain material is incorporated by...