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Sample records for adohcy hydrolase inhibitors

  1. Inhibitory activity of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors against human cytomegalovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Snoeck, R; Andrei, G; Neyts, J; Schols, D; Cools, M; Balzarini, J; De Clercq, E

    1993-07-01

    Various acyclic and carbocyclic adenosine analogues, which are apparently targeted at the S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase have been reported to inhibit the replication of a number of pox-, rhabdo-, paramyxo-, arena-, and reoviruses. Here we show that this activity spectrum extends to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Of the compounds tested, neplanocin A, 3-deazaneplanocin A, 6'-C-methylneplanocin A and 5'-noraristeromycin were found to be the most potent inhibitors of HCMV replication in vitro. Their 50% inhibitory concentration ranged from 0.05 to 1.35 micrograms/ml. In general, the anti-HCMV activity of the adenosine analogues correlated well with their affinity (Ki) for AdoHcy hydrolase, suggesting that AdoHcy hydrolase may be considered as a target enzyme for anti-HCMV agents. For four compounds (3-deazaneplanocin A, 6'-C-methylneplanocin A (isomers I and II) and 3-deazaadenosine), anti-HCMV potency was greater than could be expected solely from their interaction with AdoHcy hydrolase, suggesting that these compounds may be functioning by an additional mechanism. PMID:8215298

  2. Carbocyclic adenosine analogues as S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors and antiviral agents: recent advances.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, E

    1998-01-01

    Various carbocyclic analogues of adenosine, including aristeromycin (carbocyclic adenosine), carbocyclic 3-deazaadenosine, neplanocin A, 3-deazaneplanocin A, the 5'-nor derivatives of aristeromycin, carbocylic 3-deazaadenosine, neplanocin A and 3-deazaneplanocin A, and the 2-halo (i.e., 2-fluoro) and 6'-R-alkyl (i.e., 6'-R-methyl) derivatives of neplanocin A have been recognized as potent inhibitors of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase. This enzyme plays a key role in methylation reactions depending on S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) as methyl donor. AdoHcy hydrolase inhibitors have been shown to exert broad-spectrum antiviral activity against pox-, paramyxo-, rhabdo-, filo-, bunya-, arena-, and reoviruses. They also interfere with the replication of human immunodeficiency virus through inhibition of the Tat transactivation process. PMID:9708366

  3. John Montgomery's legacy: carbocyclic adenosine analogues as SAH hydrolase inhibitors with broad-spectrum antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy, SAH) hydrolase was recognized as a pharmacological target for antiviral agents (J. A. Montgomery et al., J. Med. Chem. 25:626-629, 1982), an increasing number of adenosine, acyclic adenosine, and carbocyclic adenosine analogues have been described as potent SAH hydrolase inhibitors endowed with broad-spectrum antiviral activity. The antiviral activity spectrum of the SAH hydrolase inhibitors include pox-, rhabdo-, filo-, arena-, paramyxo-, reo-, and retroviruses. Among the most potent SAH hydrolase inhibitors and antiviral agents rank carbocyclic 3-deazaadenosine (C-c3 Ado), neplanocin A, 3-deazaneplanocin A, the 5'-nor derivatives of carbocyclic adenosine (C-Ado, aristeromycin), and the 2-halo (i.e., 2-fluoro) and 6'-R-alkyl (i.e., 6'-R-methyl) derivatives of neplanocin A. These compounds are particularly active against poxviruses (i.e., vaccinia virus), and rhabdoviruses (i.e., vesicular stomatitis virus). The in vivo efficacy of C-c3 Ado and 3-deazaneplanocin A has been established in mouse models for vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and Ebola virus. SAH hydrolase inhibitors such as C-c3Ado and 3-deazaneplanocin A should in thefirst place be considered for therapeutic (or prophylactic) use against poxvirus infections, including smallpox, and hemorrhagic fever virus infections such as Ebola. PMID:16438025

  4. Orally Bioavailable Potent Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung Hee; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Liu, Jun-Yan; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    A series of N,N′-disubstituted ureas having a conformationally restricted cis- or trans-1,4-cyclohexane α to the urea were prepared and tested as soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors. This series of compounds showed low nanomolar to picomolar activities against recombinant human sEH. Both isomers showed similar potencies, but the trans isomers were more metabolically stable in human hepatic microsomes. Furthermore, these new potent inhibitors show a greater metabolic stability in vivo than previously described sEH inhibitors. We demonstrated that trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid 13g (t-AUCB, IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.05 nM) had excellent oral bioavailability (98%, n = 2) and blood area under the curve in dogs and was effective in vivo to treat hypotension in lipopolysaccharide challenged murine models. PMID:17616115

  5. Peptidyl-urea based inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We prepared a series of amino acid derived cyclohexyl and adamantyl ureas and tested them as inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase, and obtained very potent compounds (K(I)=15nM) that are >10-fold more soluble than previously described sEH inhibitors. While our lead compound 2 showed low...

  6. Potent Urea and Carbamate Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisseau, Christophe; Goodrow, Marvin H.; Dowdy, Deanna; Zheng, Jiang; Greene, Jessica F.; Sanborn, James R.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    1999-08-01

    The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a significant role in the biosynthesis of inflammation mediators as well as xenobiotic transformations. Herein, we report the discovery of substituted ureas and carbamates as potent inhibitors of sEH. Some of these selective, competitive tightbinding inhibitors with nanomolar Ki values interacted stoichiometrically with the homogenous recombinant murine and human sEHs. These inhibitors enhance cytotoxicity of trans-stilbene oxide, which is active as the epoxide, but reduce cytotoxicity of leukotoxin, which is activated by epoxide hydrolase to its toxic diol. They also reduce toxicity of leukotoxin in vivo in mice and prevent symptoms suggestive of acute respiratory distress syndrome. These potent inhibitors may be valuable tools for testing hypotheses of involvement of diol and epoxide lipids in chemical mediation in vitro or in vivo systems.

  7. Effect of Bile Salt Hydrolase Inhibitors on a Bile Salt Hydrolase from Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Negga, Rekek; Zeng, Ximin; Smith, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Bile salt hydrolase (BSH), a widely distributed function of the gut microbiota, has a profound impact on host lipid metabolism and energy harvest. Recent studies suggest that BSH inhibitors are promising alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) for enhanced animal growth performance and food safety. Using a high-purity BSH from Lactobacillus salivarius strain, we have identified a panel of BSH inhibitors. However, it is still unknown if these inhibitors also effectively inhibit the function of the BSH enzymes from other bacterial species with different sequence and substrate spectrum. In this study, we performed bioinformatics analysis and determined the inhibitory effect of identified BSH inhibitors on a BSH from L. acidophilus. Although the L. acidophilus BSH is phylogenetically distant from the L. salivarius BSH, sequence analysis and structure modeling indicated the two BSH enzymes contain conserved, catalytically important amino residues and domain. His-tagged recombinant BSH from L. acidophilus was further purified and used to determine inhibitory effect of specific compounds. Previously identified BSH inhibitors also exhibited potent inhibitory effects on the L. acidophilus BSH. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the BSH from L. salivarius is an ideal candidate for screening BSH inhibitors, the promising alternatives to AGP for enhanced feed efficiency, growth performance and profitability of food animals. PMID:25526498

  8. Sulfonyl fluoride inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Alapafuja, Shakiru O; Nikas, Spyros P; Bharathan, Indu T; Shukla, Vidyanand G; Nasr, Mahmoud L; Bowman, Anna L; Zvonok, Nikolai; Li, Jing; Shi, Xiaomeng; Engen, John R; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2012-11-26

    Sulfonyl fluorides are known to inhibit esterases. Early work from our laboratory has identified hexadecyl sulfonylfluoride (AM374) as a potent in vitro and in vivo inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). We now report on later generation sulfonyl fluoride analogs that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of FAAH. Using recombinant rat and human FAAH, we show that 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)pentanesulfonyl fluoride (AM3506) has similar inhibitory activity for both the rat and the human enzyme, while rapid dilution assays and mass spectrometry analysis suggest that the compound is a covalent modifier for FAAH and inhibits its action in an irreversible manner. Our SAR results are highlighted by molecular docking of key analogs. PMID:23083016

  9. Discovery of enantioselectivity of urea inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Manoj; Pillaiyar, Thanigaimalai; Boggu, PullaReddy; Venkateswararao, Eeda; Jalani, Hitesh B; Kim, Nam-Doo; Lee, Seul Ki; Jeon, Jang Su; Kim, Sang Kyum; Jung, Sang-Hun

    2016-07-19

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyzes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in the metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid and has been considered as an important therapeutic target for chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and inflammation. Although many urea derivatives are known as sEH inhibitors, the enantioselectivity of the inhibitors is not highlighted in spite of the stereoselective hydrolysis of EETs by sEH. In an effort to explore the importance of enantioselectivity in the urea scaffold, a series of enantiomers with the stereocenter adjacent to the urea nitrogen atom were prepared. The selectivity of enantiomers of 1-(α-alkyl-α-phenylmethyl)-3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureas showed wide range differences up to 125 fold with the low IC50 value up to 13 nM. The S-configuration with planar phenyl and small alkyl groups at α-position is crucial for the activity and selectivity. However, restriction of the free rotation of two α-groups with indan-1-yl or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl moiety abolishes the selectivity between the enantiomers, despite the increase in activity up to 13 nM. The hydrophilic group like sulfonamido group at para position of 3-phenylpropyl motif of 1-(α-alkyl-α-phenylmethyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)urea improves the activity as well as enantiomeric selectivity. All these ureas are proved to be specific inhibitor of sEH without inhibition against mEH. PMID:27092411

  10. Rapid development of a potent photo-triggered inhibitor of the serine hydrolase RBBP9.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodan; Dix, Melissa; Speers, Anna E; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Zuhl, Andrea M; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Kodadek, Thomas J

    2012-09-24

    The serine hydrolases constitute a large class of enzymes that play important roles in physiology. There is great interest in the development of potent and selective pharmacological inhibitors of these proteins. Traditional active-site inhibitors often have limited selectivity within this superfamily and are tedious and expensive to discover. Using the serine hydrolase RBBP9 as a model target, we designed a rapid and relatively inexpensive route to highly selective peptoid-based inhibitors that can be activated by visible light. This technology provides rapid access to photo-activated tool compounds capable of selectively blocking the function of particular serine hydrolases. PMID:22907802

  11. Rapid Development of a Potent Photo-Triggered Inhibitor of the Serine Hydrolase RBBP9

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaodan; Dix, Melissa; Speers, Anna E.; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Zuhl, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    The serine hydrolases constitute a large class of enzymes that play important roles in physiology. There is great interest in the development of potent and selective pharmacological inhibitors to these proteins. Traditional active site inhibitors often have limited selectivity within this superfamily and are tedious and expensive to discover. Using the serine hydrolase RBBP9 as a model target, we report here a rapid and relatively inexpensive route to highly selective peptoid-based inhibitors that can be activated with visible light. This technology provides rapid access to photo-activated tool compounds capable of selectively blocking the function of particular serine hydrolases. PMID:22907802

  12. Click-generated triazole ureas as ultrapotent in vivo-active serine hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Adibekian, Alexander; Martin, Brent R; Wang, Chu; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Niessen, Sherry; Hoover, Heather; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2011-07-01

    Serine hydrolases are a diverse enzyme class representing ∼1% of all human proteins. The biological functions of most serine hydrolases remain poorly characterized owing to a lack of selective inhibitors to probe their activity in living systems. Here we show that a substantial number of serine hydrolases can be irreversibly inactivated by 1,2,3-triazole ureas, which show negligible cross-reactivity with other protein classes. Rapid lead optimization by click chemistry-enabled synthesis and competitive activity-based profiling identified 1,2,3-triazole ureas that selectively inhibit enzymes from diverse branches of the serine hydrolase class, including peptidases (acyl-peptide hydrolase, or APEH), lipases (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase-2, or PAFAH2) and uncharacterized hydrolases (α,β-hydrolase-11, or ABHD11), with exceptional potency in cells (sub-nanomolar) and mice (<1 mg kg(-1)). We show that APEH inhibition leads to accumulation of N-acetylated proteins and promotes proliferation in T cells. These data indicate 1,2,3-triazole ureas are a pharmacologically privileged chemotype for serine hydrolase inhibition, combining broad activity across the serine hydrolase class with tunable selectivity for individual enzymes. PMID:21572424

  13. Evaluation of NHS Carbamates as a Potent and Selective Class of Endocannabinoid Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a principal metabolic enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing the endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Selective inhibitors of MAGL offer valuable probes to further understand the enzyme’s function in biological systems and may lead to drugs for treating a variety of diseases, including psychiatric disorders, neuroinflammation, and pain. N-Hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) carbamates have recently been identified as a promising class of serine hydrolase inhibitors that shows minimal cross-reactivity with other proteins in the proteome. Here, we explore NHS carbamates more broadly and demonstrate their potential as inhibitors of endocannabinoid hydrolases and additional enzymes from the serine hydrolase class. We extensively characterize an NHS carbamate 1a (MJN110) as a potent, selective, and in-vivo-active MAGL inhibitor. Finally, we demonstrate that MJN110 alleviates mechanical allodynia in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy, marking NHS carbamates as a promising class of MAGL inhibitors. PMID:23731016

  14. Discovery of Triterpenoids as Reversible Inhibitors of α/β-hydrolase Domain Containing 12 (ABHD12)

    PubMed Central

    Parkkari, Teija; Haavikko, Raisa; Laitinen, Tuomo; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Rytilahti, Roosa; Vaara, Miia; Lehtonen, Marko; Alakurtti, Sami; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Nevalainen, Tapio; Savinainen, Juha R.; Laitinen, Jarmo T.

    2014-01-01

    Background α/β-hydrolase domain containing (ABHD)12 is a recently discovered serine hydrolase that acts in vivo as a lysophospholipase for lysophosphatidylserine. Dysfunctional ABHD12 has been linked to the rare neurodegenerative disorder called PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinosis pigmentosa, cataract). In vitro, ABHD12 has been implicated in the metabolism of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Further studies on ABHD12 function are hampered as no selective inhibitor have been identified to date. In contrast to the situation with the other endocannabinoid hydrolases, ABHD12 has remained a challenging target for inhibitor development as no crystal structures are available to facilitate drug design. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the unexpected discovery that certain triterpene-based structures inhibit human ABHD12 hydrolase activity in a reversible manner, the best compounds showing submicromolar potency. Based on structure activity relationship (SAR) data collected for 68 natural and synthetic triterpenoid structures, a pharmacophore model has been constructed. A pentacyclic triterpene backbone with carboxyl group at position 17, small hydrophobic substituent at the position 4, hydrogen bond donor or acceptor at position 3 accompanied with four axial methyl substituents was found crucial for ABHD12 inhibitor activity. Although the triterpenoids typically may have multiple protein targets, we witnessed unprecedented selectivity for ABHD12 among the metabolic serine hydrolases, as activity-based protein profiling of mouse brain membrane proteome indicated that the representative ABHD12 inhibitors did not inhibit other serine hydrolases, nor did they target cannabinoid receptors. Conclusions/Significance We have identified reversibly-acting triterpene-based inhibitors that show remarkable selectivity for ABHD12 over other metabolic serine hydrolases. Based on SAR data, we have constructed the first pharmacophore

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF METABOLICALLY STABLE INHIBITORS OF MAMMALIAN MICROSOMAL EPOXIDE HYDROLASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) plays a significant role in the metabolism of xenobiotics such as polyaromatic toxicants. Additionally, polymorphism studies have underlined a potential role of this enzyme in relation to a number of diseases, such as emphysema, spontaneous abortion, eclampsia ...

  16. Carbocyclic pyrimidine nucleosides as inhibitors of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Sylvester L; Bakke, Brian A; Sadler, Joshua M; Sunkara, Naresh K; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L

    2006-12-01

    The design, synthesis, and unexpected inhibitory activity against S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) hydrolase (SAHase, EC 3.3.1.1) for a series of truncated carbocyclic pyrimidine nucleoside analogues is presented. Of the four nucleosides obtained, 10 was found to be active with a Ki value of 5.0 microM against SAHase. PMID:16904326

  17. Acylpeptide hydrolase: inhibitors and some active site residues of the human enzyme.

    PubMed

    Scaloni, A; Jones, W M; Barra, D; Pospischil, M; Sassa, S; Popowicz, A; Manning, L R; Schneewind, O; Manning, J M

    1992-02-25

    Acylpeptide hydrolase may be involved in N-terminal deacetylation of nascent polypeptide chains and of bioactive peptides. The activity of this enzyme from human erythrocytes is sensitive to anions such as chloride, nitrate, and fluoride. Furthermore, blocked amino acids act as competitive inhibitors of the enzyme. Acetyl leucine chloromethyl ketone has been employed to identify one active site residue as His-707. Diisopropylfluorophosphate has been used to identify a second active site residue as Ser-587. Chemical modification studies with a water-soluble carbodiimide implicate a carboxyl group in catalytic activity. These results and the sequence around these active site residues, especially near Ser-587, suggest that acylpeptide hydrolase contains a catalytic triad. The presence of a cysteine residue in the vicinity of the active site is suggested by the inactivation of the enzyme by sulfhydryl-modifying agents and also by a low amount of modification by the peptide chloromethyl ketone inhibitor. Ebelactone A, an inhibitor of the formyl aminopeptidase, the bacterial counterpart of eukaryotic acylpeptide hydrolase, was found to be an effective inhibitor of this enzyme. These findings suggest that acylpeptidase hydrolase is a member of a family of enzymes with extremely diverse functions. PMID:1740429

  18. Pyrazole phenylcyclohexylcarbamates as inhibitors of human fatty acid amide hydrolases (FAAH).

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Mojgan; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Ruggiero, Emanuela; Saponaro, Giulia; Baraldi, Stefania; Romagnoli, Romeo; Martinelli, Adriano; Tuccinardi, Tiziano

    2015-06-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors have gained attention as potential therapeutic targets in the management of neuropathic pain. Here, we report a series of pyrazole phenylcyclohexylcarbamate derivatives standing on the known carbamoyl FAAH inhibitor URB597. Structural modifications led to the recognition of compound 22 that inhibited human recombinant FAAH (hrFAAH) in the low nanomolar range (IC50 = 11 nM). The most active compounds of this series showed significant selectivity toward monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) enzyme. In addition, molecular modeling and reversibility behavior of the new class of FAAH inhibitors are presented in this article. PMID:26002335

  19. In Silico Investigation of Flavonoids as Potential Trypanosomal Nucleoside Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Christina Hung Hung; Fatima, Ayesha; Gaurav, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis is endemic to 37 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by two related species of Trypanosoma brucei. Current therapies suffer from resistance and public accessibility of expensive medicines. Finding safer and effective therapies of natural origin is being extensively explored worldwide. Pentamidine is the only available therapy for inhibiting the P2 adenosine transporter involved in the purine salvage pathway of the trypanosomatids. The objective of the present study is to use computational studies for the investigation of the probable trypanocidal mechanism of flavonoids. Docking experiments were carried out on eight flavonoids of varying level of hydroxylation, namely, flavone, 5-hydroxyflavone, 7-hydroxyflavone, chrysin, apigenin, kaempferol, fisetin, and quercetin. Using AutoDock 4.2, these compounds were tested for their affinity towards inosine-adenosine-guanosine nucleoside hydrolase and the inosine-guanosine nucleoside hydrolase, the major enzymes of the purine salvage pathway. Our results showed that all of the eight tested flavonoids showed high affinities for both hydrolases (lowest free binding energy ranging from −10.23 to −7.14 kcal/mol). These compounds, especially the hydroxylated derivatives, could be further studied as potential inhibitors of the nucleoside hydrolases. PMID:26640486

  20. Click-generated triazole ureas as ultrapotent, in vivo-active serine hydrolase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Adibekian, Alexander; Martin, Brent R.; Wang, Chu; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Niessen, Sherry; Hoover, Heather; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2011-01-01

    Serine hydrolases (SHs) are a diverse enzyme class representing > 1% of all human proteins. The biological functions for most SHs remain poorly characterized due to a lack of selective inhibitors to probe their activity in living systems. Here, we show that a substantial number of SHs can be irreversibly inactivated by 1,2,3-triazole ureas, which exhibit negligible cross-reactivity with other protein classes. Rapid lead optimization by click chemistry-enabled synthesis and competitive activity-based profiling identified 1,2,3-triazole ureas that selectively inhibit enzymes from diverse branches of the SH superfamily, including peptidases (acyl-peptide hydrolase or APEH), lipases (platelet-activating factor acetylhyrolase-2 or PAFAH2), and uncharacterized hydrolases (α, β-hydrolase 11 or ABHD11), with exceptional potency in cells (sub-nM) and mice (< 1 mg/kg). We show that APEH inhibition leads to accumulation of N-acetylated proteins and promotes proliferation in T-cells. These data designate 1,2,3-triazole ureas as a pharmacologically privileged chemotype for SH inhibition that shows broad activity across the SH class coupled with tunable selectivity for individual enzymes. PMID:21572424

  1. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase and Monoacylglycerol Lipase: New Targets for Future Antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis and analogs of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol have been used for therapeutic purposes, but their therapeutic use remains limited because of various adverse effects. Endogenous cannabinoids have been discovered, and dysregulation of endocannabinoid signaling is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, endocannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) have become new therapeutic targets in the treatment of MDD. Several FAAH or MAGL inhibitors are reported to have no cannabimimetic side effects and, therefore, are new potential therapeutic options for patients with MDD who are resistant to first-line antidepressants (selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors). In this review, we focus on the possible relationships between MDD and the endocannabinoid system as well as the inhibitors' therapeutic potential. MAGL inhibitors may reduce inflammatory responses through activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2. In the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, repeated FAAH inhibitor administration may be beneficial for reducing circulating glucocorticoid levels. Both FAAH and MAGL inhibitors may contribute to dopaminergic system regulation. Recently, several new inhibitors have been developed with strong potency and selectivity. FAAH inhibitor, MAGL inhibitor, or dual blocker use would be promising new treatments for MDD. Further pre-clinical studies and clinical trials using these inhibitors are warranted. PMID:26630956

  2. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase and Monoacylglycerol Lipase: New Targets for Future Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis and analogs of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol have been used for therapeutic purposes, but their therapeutic use remains limited because of various adverse effects. Endogenous cannabinoids have been discovered, and dysregulation of endocannabinoid signaling is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, endocannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) have become new therapeutic targets in the treatment of MDD. Several FAAH or MAGL inhibitors are reported to have no cannabimimetic side effects and, therefore, are new potential therapeutic options for patients with MDD who are resistant to first-line antidepressants (selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors). In this review, we focus on the possible relationships between MDD and the endocannabinoid system as well as the inhibitors’ therapeutic potential. MAGL inhibitors may reduce inflammatory responses through activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2. In the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, repeated FAAH inhibitor administration may be beneficial for reducing circulating glucocorticoid levels. Both FAAH and MAGL inhibitors may contribute to dopaminergic system regulation. Recently, several new inhibitors have been developed with strong potency and selectivity. FAAH inhibitor, MAGL inhibitor, or dual blocker use would be promising new treatments for MDD. Further pre-clinical studies and clinical trials using these inhibitors are warranted. PMID:26630956

  3. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of piperidine-derived non-urea soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Pecic, Stevan; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Newcomer, Marcia E.; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Rinderspacher, Alison; Deng, Shi-Xian

    2013-09-27

    A series of potent amide non-urea inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is disclosed. The inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase leads to elevated levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), and thus inhibitors of sEH represent one of a novel approach to the development of vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory drugs. Structure–activities studies guided optimization of a lead compound, identified through high-throughput screening, gave rise to sub-nanomolar inhibitors of human sEH with stability in human liver microsomal assay suitable for preclinical development.

  4. Characterization of tunable piperidine and piperazine carbamates as inhibitors of endocannabinoid hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jonathan Z.; Jin, Xin; Adibekian, Alexander; Li, Weiwei; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are two enzymes from the serine hydrolase superfamily that degrade the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide, respectively. We have recently discovered that MAGL and FAAH are both inhibited by carbamates bearing an N-piperidine/piperazine group. Piperidine/piperazine carbamates show excellent in vivo activity, raising brain endocannabinoid levels and producing CB1-dependent behavioral effects in mice, suggesting that they represent a promising class of inhibitors for studying the endogenous functions of MAGL and FAAH. Herein, we disclose a full account of the syntheses, structure-activity relationships, and inhibitory activities of piperidine/piperazine carbamates against members of the serine hydrolase family. These scaffolds can be tuned for MAGL-selective or dual MAGL-FAAH inhibition by the attachment of an appropriately substituted bisarylcarbinol or aryloxybenzyl moiety, respectively, on the piperidine/piperazine ring. Modifications to the piperidine/piperazine ring ablated inhibitory activity, suggesting a strict requirement for a six-member ring to maintain potency. PMID:20099888

  5. The Molecular Structure of Epoxide Hydrolase B From And Its Complex With Urea-Based Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Biswal, B.K.; Morisseau, C.; Garen, G.; Cherney, M.M.; Garen, C.; Niu, C.; Hammock, B.D.; James, M.N.G.

    2009-05-11

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the intracellular pathogen that infects macrophages primarily, is the causative agent of the infectious disease tuberculosis in humans. The Mtb genome encodes at least six epoxide hydrolases (EHs A to F). EHs convert epoxides to trans-dihydrodiols and have roles in drug metabolism as well as in the processing of signaling molecules. Herein, we report the crystal structures of unbound Mtb EHB and Mtb EHB bound to a potent, low-nanomolar (IC(50) approximately 19 nM) urea-based inhibitor at 2.1 and 2.4 A resolution, respectively. The enzyme is a homodimer; each monomer adopts the classical alpha/beta hydrolase fold that composes the catalytic domain; there is a cap domain that regulates access to the active site. The catalytic triad, comprising Asp104, His333 and Asp302, protrudes from the catalytic domain into the substrate binding cavity between the two domains. The urea portion of the inhibitor is bound in the catalytic cavity, mimicking, in part, the substrate binding; the two urea nitrogen atoms donate hydrogen bonds to the nucleophilic carboxylate of Asp104, and the carbonyl oxygen of the urea moiety receives hydrogen bonds from the phenolic oxygen atoms of Tyr164 and Tyr272. The phenolic oxygen groups of these two residues provide electrophilic assistance during the epoxide hydrolytic cleavage. Upon inhibitor binding, the binding-site residues undergo subtle structural rearrangement. In particular, the side chain of Ile137 exhibits a rotation of around 120 degrees about its C(alpha)-C(beta) bond in order to accommodate the inhibitor. These findings have not only shed light on the enzyme mechanism but also have opened a path for the development of potent inhibitors with good pharmacokinetic profiles against all Mtb EHs of the alpha/beta type.

  6. Discovery and molecular basis of potent noncovalent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)

    PubMed Central

    Min, Xiaoshan; Thibault, Stephen T.; Porter, Amy C.; Gustin, Darin J.; Carlson, Timothy J.; Xu, Haoda; Lindstrom, Michelle; Xu, Guifen; Uyeda, Craig; Ma, Zhihua; Li, Yihong; Kayser, Frank; Walker, Nigel P. C.; Wang, Zhulun

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an amidase-signature family member, is an integral membrane enzyme that degrades lipid amides including the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide and the sleep-inducing molecule oleamide. Both genetic knock out and pharmacological administration of FAAH inhibitors in rodent models result in analgesic, anxiolytic, and antiinflammatory phenotypes. Targeting FAAH activity, therefore, presents a promising new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain and other neurological-related or inflammatory disorders. Nearly all FAAH inhibitors known to date attain their binding potency through a reversible or irreversible covalent modification of the nucleophile Ser241 in the unusual Ser-Ser-Lys catalytic triad. Here, we report the discovery and mechanism of action of a series of ketobenzimidazoles as unique and potent noncovalent FAAH inhibitors. Compound 2, a representative of these ketobenzimidazoles, was designed from a series of ureas that were identified from high-throughput screening. While urea compound 1 is characterized as an irreversible covalent inhibitor, the cocrystal structure of FAAH complexed with compound 2 reveals that these ketobenzimidazoles, though containing a carbonyl moiety, do not covalently modify Ser241. These inhibitors achieve potent inhibition of FAAH activity primarily from shape complementarity to the active site and through numerous hydrophobic interactions. These noncovalent compounds exhibit excellent selectivity and good pharmacokinetic properties. The discovery of this distinctive class of inhibitors opens a new avenue for modulating FAAH activity through nonmechanism-based inhibition. PMID:21502526

  7. Structure–Activity Relationships of α-Keto Oxazole Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Hardouin, Christophe; Kelso, Michael J.; Romero, F. Anthony; Rayl, Thomas J.; Leung, Donmienne; Hwang, Inkyu; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Boger, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study of the structure–activity relationships (SAR) of 2b (OL-135), a potent inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is detailed targeting the C2 acyl side chain. A series of aryl replacements or substituents for the terminal phenyl group provided effective inhibitors (e.g., 5c, aryl = 1-napthyl, Ki = 2.6 nM) with 5hh (aryl = 3-Cl-Ph, Ki = 900 pM) being 5-fold more potent than 2b. Conformationally-restricted C2 side chains were examined and many provided exceptionally potent inhibitors of which 11j (ethylbiphenyl side chain) was established to be a 750 pM inhibitor. A systematic series of heteroatoms (O, NMe, S), electron-withdrawing groups (SO, SO2), and amides positioned within and hydroxyl substitutions on the linking side chain were investigated which typically led to a loss in potency. The most tolerant positions provided effective inhibitors (12p, 6-position S, Ki = 3 nM or 13d, 2-position OH, Ki = 8 nM) comparable in potency to 2b. Proteomic-wide screening of selected inhibitors from the systematic series of >100 candidates prepared revealed that they are selective for FAAH over all other mammalian serine proteases. PMID:17559203

  8. The cytotoxic activity of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor is inhibited by leukotriene A4 hydrolase and metallopeptidase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Menard, A; Papini, E; Mock, M; Montecucco, C

    1996-01-01

    The lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis is central to the pathogenesis of anthrax. Its mechanism of action is still unknown. Recently, on the basis of sequence similarities, we suggested that lethal factor might act similarly to leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4), a bifunctional enzyme also endowed with a metallopeptidase activity. Here we show that some inhibitors of the LTA4 hydrolase and metallopeptidase activities of LTA4 hydrolase also affect the cytotoxicity of the anthrax lethal factor on macrophage cell lines, without interfering with the ability of the lethal factor to enter cells. These results support the proposal that anthrax lethal factor might display in the cytosol of intoxicated cells a peptidase activity similar to that of LTA4 hydrolase. PMID:8973585

  9. Oxime esters as selective, covalent inhibitors of the serine hydrolase retinoblastoma-binding protein 9 (RBBP9).

    PubMed

    Bachovchin, Daniel A; Wolfe, Monique R; Masuda, Kim; Brown, Steven J; Spicer, Timothy P; Fernandez-Vega, Virneliz; Chase, Peter; Hodder, Peter S; Rosen, Hugh; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2010-04-01

    We recently described a fluorescence polarization platform for competitive activity-based protein profiling (fluopol-ABPP) that enables high-throughput inhibitor screening for enzymes with poorly characterized biochemical activity. Here, we report the discovery of a class of oxime ester inhibitors for the unannotated serine hydrolase RBBP9 from a full-deck (200,000+ compound) fluopol-ABPP screen conducted in collaboration with the Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network (MLSCN). We show that these compounds covalently inhibit RBBP9 by modifying enzyme's active site serine nucleophile and, based on competitive ABPP in cell and tissue proteomes, are selective for RBBP9 relative to other mammalian serine hydrolases. PMID:20207142

  10. Discovery of Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase Inhibitors Using Metabolomics Biased Fragment Crystallography†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel fragment library termed fragments of life (FOL) for structure-based drug discovery. The FOL library includes natural small molecules of life, derivatives thereof, and biaryl protein architecture mimetics. The choice of fragments facilitates the interrogation of protein active sites, allosteric binding sites, and protein−protein interaction surfaces for fragment binding. We screened the FOL library against leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) by X-ray crystallography. A diverse set of fragments including derivatives of resveratrol, nicotinamide, and indole were identified as efficient ligands for LTA4H. These fragments were elaborated in a small number of synthetic cycles into potent inhibitors of LTA4H representing multiple novel chemotypes for modulating leukotriene biosynthesis. Analysis of the fragment-bound structures also showed that the fragments comprehensively recapitulated key chemical features and binding modes of several reported LTA4H inhibitors. PMID:19618939

  11. Design and Synthesis of Activity-Based Probes and Inhibitors for Bleomycin Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Wouter A; Segal, Ehud; Child, Matthew A; Byzia, Anna; Drąg, Marcin; Bogyo, Matthew

    2015-08-20

    Bleomycin hydrolase (BLMH) is a neutral cysteine aminopeptidase that has been ascribed roles in many physiological and pathological processes, yet its primary biological function remains enigmatic. In this work, we describe the results of screening of a library of fluorogenic substrates to identify non-natural amino acids that are optimally recognized by BLMH. This screen identified several substrates with kcat/KM values that are substantially improved over the previously reported fluorogenic substrates for this enzyme. The substrate sequences were used to design activity-based probes that showed potent labeling of recombinant BLMH as well as endogenously expressed BLMH in cell extracts, and in intact cells. Importantly, we identify potent BLMH inhibitors that are able to fully inhibit endogenous BLMH activity in intact cells. These probes and inhibitors will be valuable new reagents to study BLMH function in cellular and animal models of human diseases where BLMH is likely to be involved. PMID:26256478

  12. Discovery of Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase Inhibitors Using Metabolomics Biased Fragment Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, D.; Mamat, B; Magnusson, O; Christensen, J; Haraldsson, M; Mishra, R; Pease, B; Hansen, E; Singh, J; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel fragment library termed fragments of life (FOL) for structure-based drug discovery. The FOL library includes natural small molecules of life, derivatives thereof, and biaryl protein architecture mimetics. The choice of fragments facilitates the interrogation of protein active sites, allosteric binding sites, and protein-protein interaction surfaces for fragment binding. We screened the FOL library against leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) by X-ray crystallography. A diverse set of fragments including derivatives of resveratrol, nicotinamide, and indole were identified as efficient ligands for LTA4H. These fragments were elaborated in a small number of synthetic cycles into potent inhibitors of LTA4H representing multiple novel chemotypes for modulating leukotriene biosynthesis. Analysis of the fragment-bound structures also showed that the fragments comprehensively recapitulated key chemical features and binding modes of several reported LTA4H inhibitors.

  13. Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors confer anti-invasive and antimetastatic effects on lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Katrin; Ramer, Robert; Dithmer, Sophie; Ivanov, Igor; Merkord, Jutta; Hinz, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation has been suggested as tool for activation of endogenous tumor defense. One of these strategies lies in blockade of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) which catalyzes the degradation of endocannabinoids (anandamide [AEA], 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]) and endocannabinoid-like substances (N-oleoylethanolamine [OEA], N-palmitoylethanolamine [PEA]). This study addressed the impact of two FAAH inhibitors (arachidonoyl serotonin [AA-5HT], URB597) on A549 lung cancer cell metastasis and invasion. LC-MS analyses revealed increased levels of FAAH substrates (AEA, 2-AG, OEA, PEA) in cells incubated with either FAAH inhibitor. In athymic nude mice FAAH inhibitors were shown to elicit a dose-dependent antimetastatic action yielding a 67% and 62% inhibition of metastatic lung nodules following repeated administration of 15 mg/kg AA-5HT and 5 mg/kg URB597, respectively. In vitro, a concentration-dependent anti-invasive action of either FAAH inhibitor was demonstrated, accompanied with upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). Using siRNA approaches, a causal link between the TIMP-1-upregulating and anti-invasive action of FAAH inhibitors was confirmed. Moreover, knockdown of FAAH by siRNA was shown to confer decreased cancer cell invasiveness and increased TIMP-1 expression. Inhibitor experiments point toward a role of CB2 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in conferring anti-invasive effects of FAAH inhibitors and FAAH siRNA. Finally, antimetastatic and anti-invasive effects were confirmed for all FAAH substrates with AEA and OEA causing a TIMP-1-dependent anti-invasive action. Collectively, the present study provides first-time proof for an antimetastatic action of FAAH inhibitors. As mechanism of its anti-invasive properties an upregulation of TIMP-1 was identified. PMID:26930716

  14. Characterization of a Serine Hydrolase Targeted by Acyl-protein Thioesterase Inhibitors in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Louise E.; Rusch, Marion; Adibekian, Alexander; Bullen, Hayley E.; Graindorge, Arnault; Freymond, Céline; Rottmann, Matthias; Braun-Breton, Catherine; Baumeister, Stefan; Porfetye, Arthur T.; Vetter, Ingrid R.; Hedberg, Christian; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, cysteine palmitoylation is an important reversible modification that impacts protein targeting, folding, stability, and interactions with partners. Evidence suggests that protein palmitoylation contributes to key biological processes in Apicomplexa with the recent palmitome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum reporting over 400 substrates that are modified with palmitate by a broad range of protein S-acyl transferases. Dynamic palmitoylation cycles require the action of an acyl-protein thioesterase (APT) that cleaves palmitate from substrates and conveys reversibility to this posttranslational modification. In this work, we identified candidates for APT activity in Toxoplasma gondii. Treatment of parasites with low micromolar concentrations of β-lactone- or triazole urea-based inhibitors that target human APT1 showed varied detrimental effects at multiple steps of the parasite lytic cycle. The use of an activity-based probe in combination with these inhibitors revealed the existence of several serine hydrolases that are targeted by APT1 inhibitors. The active serine hydrolase, TgASH1, identified as the homologue closest to human APT1 and APT2, was characterized further. Biochemical analysis of TgASH1 indicated that this enzyme cleaves substrates with a specificity similar to APTs, and homology modeling points toward an APT-like enzyme. TgASH1 is dispensable for parasite survival, which indicates that the severe effects observed with the β-lactone inhibitors are caused by the inhibition of non-TgASH1 targets. Other ASH candidates for APT activity were functionally characterized, and one of them was found to be resistant to gene disruption due to the potential essential nature of the protein. PMID:23913689

  15. Rational Design of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Seiya; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Niu, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D; Madden, Dean R; Morisseau, Christophe

    2016-05-26

    The virulence factor cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is the founding member of a distinct class of epoxide hydrolases (EHs) that triggers the catalysis-dependent degradation of the CFTR. We describe here the development of a series of potent and selective Cif inhibitors by structure-based drug design. Initial screening revealed 1a (KB2115), a thyroid hormone analog, as a lead compound with low micromolar potency. Structural requirements for potency were systematically probed, and interactions between Cif and 1a were characterized by X-ray crystallography. On the basis of these data, new compounds were designed to yield additional hydrogen bonding with residues of the Cif active site. From this effort, three compounds were identified that are 10-fold more potent toward Cif than our first-generation inhibitors and have no detectable thyroid hormone-like activity. These inhibitors will be useful tools to study the pathological role of Cif and have the potential for clinical application. PMID:27120257

  16. Effect of soluble epoxide hydrolase polymorphism on substrate and inhibitor selectivity and dimer formation[S

    PubMed Central

    Morisseau, Christophe; Wecksler, Aaron T.; Deng, Catherine; Dong, Hua; Yang, Jun; Lee, Kin Sing S.; Kodani, Sean D.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Epoxy FAs (EpFAs) are important lipid mediators that are mainly metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Thus, sEH inhibition is a promising therapeutic target to treat numerous ailments. Several sEH polymorphisms result in amino acid substitutions and alter enzyme activity. K55R and R287Q are associated with inflammatory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. R287Q seems to affect sEH activity through reducing formation of a catalytically active dimer. Thus, understanding how these SNPs affect the selectivity of sEH for substrates and inhibitors is of potential clinical importance. We investigated the selectivity of four sEH SNPs toward a series of EpFAs and inhibitors. We found that the SNPs alter the catalytic activity of the enzyme but do not alter the relative substrate and inhibitor selectivity. We also determined their dimer/monomer constants (KD/M). The WT sEH formed a very tight dimer, with a KD/M in the low picomolar range. Only R287Q resulted in a large change of the KD/M. However, human tissue concentrations of sEH suggest that it is always in its dimer form independently of the SNP. These results suggest that the different biologies associated with K55R and R287Q are not explained by alteration in dimer formation or substrate selectivity. PMID:24771868

  17. Discovery of bile salt hydrolase inhibitors using an efficient high-throughput screening system.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katie; Zeng, Ximin; Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of restricting the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in animal production necessitates the need to develop valid alternatives to maintain productivity and sustainability of food animals. Previous studies suggest inhibition of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization, is a promising approach to promote animal growth performance. To achieve the long term goal of developing novel alternatives to AGPs, in this study, a rapid and convenient high-throughput screening (HTS) system was developed and successfully used for identification of BSH inhibitors. With the aid of a high-purity BSH from a chicken Lactobacillus salivarius strain, we optimized various screening conditions (e.g. BSH concentration, reaction buffer pH, incubation temperature and length, substrate type and concentration) and establish a precipitation-based screening approach to identify BSH inhibitors using 96-well or 384-well microplates. A pilot HTS was performed using a small compound library comprised of 2,240 biologically active and structurally diverse compounds. Among the 107 hits, several promising and potent BSH inhibitors (e.g. riboflavin and phenethyl caffeate) were selected and validated by standard BSH activity assay. Interestingly, the HTS also identified a panel of antibiotics as BSH inhibitor; in particular, various tetracycline antibiotics and roxarsone, the widely used AGP, have been demonstrated to display potent inhibitory effect on BSH. Together, this study developed an efficient HTS system and identified several BSH inhibitors with potential as alternatives to AGP. In addition, the findings from this study also suggest a new mode of action of AGP for promoting animal growth. PMID:24454844

  18. Discovery of Bile Salt Hydrolase Inhibitors Using an Efficient High-Throughput Screening System

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katie; Zeng, Ximin; Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of restricting the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in animal production necessitates the need to develop valid alternatives to maintain productivity and sustainability of food animals. Previous studies suggest inhibition of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization, is a promising approach to promote animal growth performance. To achieve the long term goal of developing novel alternatives to AGPs, in this study, a rapid and convenient high-throughput screening (HTS) system was developed and successfully used for identification of BSH inhibitors. With the aid of a high-purity BSH from a chicken Lactobacillus salivarius strain, we optimized various screening conditions (e.g. BSH concentration, reaction buffer pH, incubation temperature and length, substrate type and concentration) and establish a precipitation-based screening approach to identify BSH inhibitors using 96-well or 384-well microplates. A pilot HTS was performed using a small compound library comprised of 2,240 biologically active and structurally diverse compounds. Among the 107 hits, several promising and potent BSH inhibitors (e.g. riboflavin and phenethyl caffeate) were selected and validated by standard BSH activity assay. Interestingly, the HTS also identified a panel of antibiotics as BSH inhibitor; in particular, various tetracycline antibiotics and roxarsone, the widely used AGP, have been demonstrated to display potent inhibitory effect on BSH. Together, this study developed an efficient HTS system and identified several BSH inhibitors with potential as alternatives to AGP. In addition, the findings from this study also suggest a new mode of action of AGP for promoting animal growth. PMID:24454844

  19. Ingestion of the epoxide hydrolase inhibitor AUDA modulates immune responses of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus during blood feeding.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Kamita, Shizuo G; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-09-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that play roles in metabolizing xenobiotic epoxides from the environment, and in regulating lipid signaling molecules, such as juvenile hormones in insects and epoxy fatty acids in mammals. In this study we fed mosquitoes with an epoxide hydrolase inhibitor AUDA during artificial blood feeding, and we found the inhibitor increased the concentration of epoxy fatty acids in the midgut of female mosquitoes. We also observed ingestion of AUDA triggered early expression of defensin A, cecropin A and cecropin B2 at 6 h after blood feeding. The expression of cecropin B1 and gambicin were not changed more than two fold compared to controls. The changes in gene expression were transient possibly because more than 99% of the inhibitor was metabolized or excreted at 42 h after being ingested. The ingestion of AUDA also affected the growth of bacteria colonizing in the midgut, but did not affect mosquito longevity, fecundity and fertility in our laboratory conditions. When spiked into the blood, EpOMEs and DiHOMEs were as effective as the inhibitor AUDA in reducing the bacterial load in the midgut, while EETs rescued the effects of AUDA. Our data suggest that epoxy fatty acids from host blood are immune response regulators metabolized by epoxide hydrolases in the midgut of female mosquitoes, inhibition of which causes transient changes in immune responses, and affects growth of microbes in the midgut. PMID:27369469

  20. Oxime esters as selective, covalent inhibitors of the serine hydrolase retinoblastoma-binding protein 9 (RBBP9)

    PubMed Central

    Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Wolfe, Monique R.; Masuda, Kim; Brown, Steven J.; Spicer, Timothy P.; Fernandez-Vega, Virneliz; Chase, Peter; Hodder, Peter S.; Rosen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    We recently described a fluorescence polarization platform for competitive activity-based protein profiling (fluopol-ABPP) that enables high-throughput inhibitor screening for enzymes with poorly characterized biochemical activity. Here, we report the discovery of a class of oxime ester inhibitors for the unannotated serine hydrolase RBBP9 from a full-deck (200,000+ compound) fluopol-ABPP screen conducted in collaboration with the Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network (MLSCN). We show that these compounds covalently inhibit RBBP9 by modifying the enzyme’s active site serine nucleophile and, based on competitive ABPP in cell and tissue proteomes, are selective for RBBP9 relative to other mammalian serine hydrolases. PMID:20207142

  1. Effects of a Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu-Qing; Ma, Yong-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is suggested as a vital pharmacologic target for inflammation. In this study, we determined whether a sEH inhibitor, AUDA, exerts lung protection in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in mice. Methods Male BALB/c mice were randomized to receive AUDA or vehicle intraperitoneal injection 4 h after LPS or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) intratracheal instillation. Samples were harvested 24 h post LPS or PBS administration. Results AUDA administration decreased the pulmonary levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Improvement of oxygenation and lung edema were observed in AUDA treated group. AUDA significantly inhibited sEH activity, and elevated epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) levels in lung tissues. Moreover, LPS induced the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB was markedly dampened in AUDA treated group. Conclusion Administration of AUDA after the onset of LPS-induced ALI increased pulmonary levels of EETs, and ameliorated lung injury. sEH is a potential pharmacologic target for ALI. PMID:27490848

  2. Anti-Ulcer Efficacy of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor TPPU on Diclofenac-Induced Intestinal Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Wan, Debin; Yang, Jun; Trindade da Silva, Carlos A.; Morisseau, Christophe; Kodani, Sean D.; Yang, Guang-Yu; Inceoglu, Bora

    2016-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole (OME) reduce the severity of gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) but can also increase the chance of dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that preventive use of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (sEHI) such as TPPU can decrease NSAID-induced ulcers by increasing anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Dose- [10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, by mouth (PO)] and time-dependent (6 and 18 hours) ulcerative effects of diclofenac sodium (DCF, an NSAID) were studied in the small intestine of Swiss Webster mice. Dose-dependent effects of TPPU (0.001–0.1 mg/kg per day for 7 days, in drinking water) were evaluated in DCF-induced intestinal toxicity and compared with OME (20 mg/kg, PO). In addition, the effect of treatment was studied on levels of Hb in blood, EETs in plasma, inflammatory markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) in intestinal tissue homogenates, and tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum. DCF dose dependently induced ulcers that were associated with both a significant (P < 0.05) loss of Hb and an increase in the level of MPO and TNF-α, with severity of ulceration highest at 18 hours. Pretreatment with TPPU dose dependently prevented ulcer formation by DCF, increased the levels of epoxy fatty acids, including EETs, and TPPU’s efficacy was comparable to OME. TPPU significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the effect of DCF on the level of Hb, MPO, and TNF-α. Thus sEHI might be useful in the management of NSAID-induced ulcers. PMID:26989141

  3. Anti-Ulcer Efficacy of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor TPPU on Diclofenac-Induced Intestinal Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Wan, Debin; Yang, Jun; Trindade da Silva, Carlos A; Morisseau, Christophe; Kodani, Sean D; Yang, Guang-Yu; Inceoglu, Bora; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole (OME) reduce the severity of gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) but can also increase the chance of dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that preventive use of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (sEHI) such as TPPU can decrease NSAID-induced ulcers by increasing anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Dose- [10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, by mouth (PO)] and time-dependent (6 and 18 hours) ulcerative effects of diclofenac sodium (DCF, an NSAID) were studied in the small intestine of Swiss Webster mice. Dose-dependent effects of TPPU (0.001-0.1 mg/kg per day for 7 days, in drinking water) were evaluated in DCF-induced intestinal toxicity and compared with OME (20 mg/kg, PO). In addition, the effect of treatment was studied on levels of Hb in blood, EETs in plasma, inflammatory markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) in intestinal tissue homogenates, and tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum. DCF dose dependently induced ulcers that were associated with both a significant (P < 0.05) loss of Hb and an increase in the level of MPO and TNF-α, with severity of ulceration highest at 18 hours. Pretreatment with TPPU dose dependently prevented ulcer formation by DCF, increased the levels of epoxy fatty acids, including EETs, and TPPU's efficacy was comparable to OME. TPPU significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the effect of DCF on the level of Hb, MPO, and TNF-α Thus sEHI might be useful in the management of NSAID-induced ulcers. PMID:26989141

  4. Stable EET urea agonist and soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor regulate rat pulmonary arteries through TRPCs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Wang, Ruifang; Li, Jing; Rao, Jingjing; Li, Weiyang; Falck, John R; Manthati, Vijay L; Medhora, Meetha; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Zhu, Daling

    2011-05-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), cytochrome P450-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid, have been reported to increase intracellular calcium concentration in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). As EETs are labile, we synthesized a new stable urea EET analog with agonist and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor properties. We refer to this analog, 12-(3-hexylureido)dodec-8-enoic acid, as 8-HUDE. Measuring tension of vascular rings, intracellular calcium signaling by confocal laser scanning microscopy and gene expression by reverse-transcription-PCR and western blots, we examined the effects of 8-HUDE on pulmonary vascular tone and calcium signaling in rat pulmonary artery (PA) SMCs (PASMCs). 8-HUDE increased the tension of rat PAs to 145% baseline, whereas it had no effect on the tension of mesenteric arteries (MAs). The 8-HUDE-induced increase in vascular tone was abolished by removal of extracellular Ca(2+) or by pretreatment with either La(3+) or SKF96365, which are inhibitors of canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs). Furthermore, 8-HUDE-evoked increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in PASMCs could be blunted by inhibition of TRPC with SKF96365, removal of extracellular calcium or depletion of intracellular calcium stores with caffeine, cyclopiazonic acid or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, but not by the voltage-activated calcium channel blocker nifedipine. In addition to immediate effects on calcium signaling, 8-HUDE upregulated the expression of TRPC1 and TRPC6 at both mRNA and protein levels in rat PASMCs, whereas it suppressed the expression of sEH. Our observations suggest that 8-HUDE increases PA vascular tone through increased release of calcium from intracellular stores, enhanced [Ca(2+)](i) influx in PASMCs through store-operated Ca(2+) channels and modulated the expression of TRPC and sEH proteins in a proconstrictive manner. PMID:21307870

  5. 1,3-Disubstituted and 1,3,3-trisubstituted adamantyl-ureas with isoxazole as soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Burmistrov, Vladimir; Morisseau, Christophe; Danilov, Dmitry; Harris, Todd R; Dalinger, Igor; Vatsadze, Irina; Shkineva, Tatiana; Butov, Gennady M; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-12-01

    Adamantyl ureas are good soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors; however they have limited solubility and rapid metabolism, thus limiting their usefulness in some therapeutic indications. Herein, we test the hypothesis that nodal substitution on the adamantane will help solubilize and stabilize the compounds. A series of compounds containing adamantane derivatives and isoxazole functional groups were developed. Overall, the presence of methyl on the nodal positions of adamantane yields higher water solubility than previously reported urea-based sEH inhibitors while maintaining high inhibition potency. However, it did not improve microsomal stability. PMID:26520661

  6. Urea and amide-based inhibitors of the juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta: Sphingidae).

    PubMed

    Severson, Tonya F; Goodrow, Marvin H; Morisseau, Christophe; Dowdy, Deanna L; Hammock, Bruce D

    2002-12-01

    A new class of inhibitors of juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) of Manduca sexta and further in vitro characterization of the enzyme are reported. The compounds are based on urea and amide pharmacophores that were previously demonstrated as effective inhibitors of mammalian soluble and microsomal epoxide hydrolases. The best inhibitors against JHEH activity so far within this class are N-[(Z)-9-octadecenyl]-N'-propylurea and N-hexadecyl-N'-propylurea, which inhibited hydrolysis of a surrogate substrate (t-DPPO) with an IC(50) around 90 nM. The importance of substitution number and type was investigated and results indicated that N, N'-disubstitution with asymmetric alkyl groups was favored. Potencies of pharmacophores decreased as follows: amide>urea>carbamate>carbodiimide>thiourea and thiocarbamate for N, N'-disubstituted compounds with symmetric substituents, and urea>amide>carbamate for compounds with asymmetric N, N'-substituents. JHEH hydrolyzes t-DPPO with a K(m) of 65.6 microM and a V(max) of 59 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) and has a substantially lower K(m) of 3.6 microM and higher V(max) of 322 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for JH III. Although none of these compounds were potent inhibitors of hydrolysis of JH III by JHEH, they are the first leads toward inhibitors of JHEH that are not potentially subject to metabolism through epoxide degradation. PMID:12429126

  7. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor Attenuates Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Bratt, Jennifer; Franzi, Lisa; Liu, Jun-Yan; Zhang, Guodong; Zeki, Amir A.; Vogel, Christoph F. A.; Williams, Keisha; Dong, Hua; Lin, Yanping; Hwang, Sung Hee; Kenyon, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Control of airway inflammation is critical in asthma treatment. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has recently been demonstrated as a novel therapeutic target for treating inflammation, including lung inflammation. We hypothesized that pharmacological inhibition of sEH can modulate the inflammatory response in a murine ovalbumin (OVA) model of asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized and exposed to OVA over 6 weeks. A sEH inhibitor (sEHI) was administered for 2 weeks. Respiratory system compliance, resistance, and forced exhaled nitric oxide were measured. Lung lavage cell counts were performed, and selected cytokines and chemokines in the lung lavage fluid were measured. A LC/MS/MS method was used to measure 87 regulatory lipids mediators in plasma, lung tissue homogenates, and lung lavage fluid. The pharmacological inhibition of sEH increased concentrations of the antiinflammatory epoxy eicosatrienoic acids and simultaneously decreased the concentrations of the proinflammatory dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids and dihydroxyoctadecenoic acids. All monitored inflammatory markers, including FeNO levels, and total cell and eosinophil numbers in the lung lavage of OVA-exposed mice were reduced by sEHI. The type 2 T helper cell (Th2) cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) and chemokines (Eotaxin and RANTES) were dramatically reduced after sEHI administration. Resistance and dynamic lung compliance were also improved by sEHI. We demonstrated that sEHI administration attenuates allergic airway inflammation and airway responsiveness in a murine model. sEHI may have potential as a novel therapeutic strategy for allergic asthma. PMID:24922186

  8. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor attenuates inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Bratt, Jennifer; Franzi, Lisa; Liu, Jun-Yan; Zhang, Guodong; Zeki, Amir A; Vogel, Christoph F A; Williams, Keisha; Dong, Hua; Lin, Yanping; Hwang, Sung Hee; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    Control of airway inflammation is critical in asthma treatment. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has recently been demonstrated as a novel therapeutic target for treating inflammation, including lung inflammation. We hypothesized that pharmacological inhibition of sEH can modulate the inflammatory response in a murine ovalbumin (OVA) model of asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized and exposed to OVA over 6 weeks. A sEH inhibitor (sEHI) was administered for 2 weeks. Respiratory system compliance, resistance, and forced exhaled nitric oxide were measured. Lung lavage cell counts were performed, and selected cytokines and chemokines in the lung lavage fluid were measured. A LC/MS/MS method was used to measure 87 regulatory lipids mediators in plasma, lung tissue homogenates, and lung lavage fluid. The pharmacological inhibition of sEH increased concentrations of the antiinflammatory epoxy eicosatrienoic acids and simultaneously decreased the concentrations of the proinflammatory dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids and dihydroxyoctadecenoic acids. All monitored inflammatory markers, including FeNO levels, and total cell and eosinophil numbers in the lung lavage of OVA-exposed mice were reduced by sEHI. The type 2 T helper cell (Th2) cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) and chemokines (Eotaxin and RANTES) were dramatically reduced after sEHI administration. Resistance and dynamic lung compliance were also improved by sEHI. We demonstrated that sEHI administration attenuates allergic airway inflammation and airway responsiveness in a murine model. sEHI may have potential as a novel therapeutic strategy for allergic asthma. PMID:24922186

  9. ADMINISTRATION OF A SUBSTITUTED ADAMANTLY-UREA INHIBITOR OF THE SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE PROTECTS THE KIDNEY FROM DAMAGE IN HYPERTENSIVE GOTO-KAKIZAKI RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hypertension and type II diabetes are co-morbid diseases that lead to the development of nephropathy. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors are reported to provide protection from renal injury. We hypothesized that the sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid (AUDA) protects ...

  10. DZNep, inhibitor of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, down-regulates expression of SETDB1 H3K9me3 HMTase in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Kyung; Kim, Keun-Cheol

    2013-09-01

    3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), an epigenetic anticancer drug, leads to the indirect suppression of S-adenosyl methionine-dependent cellular methylations by inhibiting S-adenosyl homocystein (AdoHcy) hydrolase. Although it is well known that DZNep targets the degradation of EZH2 protein, H3K27me3 HMTase, there are still uncertainties about the regulation of other types of HMTases during cell death. In this study, we describe that SETDB1 gene expression was regulated by DZNep treatment in human lung cancer cells. We confirm that DZNep induced growth inhibition and increased the dead cell population of lung cancer cells. DZNep treatment affected histone methylations, including H3K27me3 and H3K9me3, but not H3K4me3. Reduced levels of H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 were related with the decreased EZH2 and SETDB1 proteins. Real time PCR analysis showed that SETDB1 gene expression was decreased by DZNep treatment, but no effect was observed for EZH2 gene expression. We cloned the promoter region of SETDB1 and SUV39H1 genes, and performed luciferase assays. The promoter activity of SETDB1 gene was down regulated by DZNep treatment, whereas no effect on SUV39H1 promoter activity was observed. In conclusion, we suggest that DZNep regulates not only on H3K27me3 HMTase EZH2, but also H3K9 HMTase SETDB1 gene expression at the transcription level, implicating that the mechanism of action of DZNep targets multiple HMTases during the death of lung cancer cells. PMID:23933322

  11. Physical Nature of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Interactions with Its Inhibitors: Testing a Simple Nonempirical Scoring Model.

    PubMed

    Giedroyć-Piasecka, Wiktoria; Dyguda-Kazimierowicz, Edyta; Beker, Wiktor; Mor, Marco; Lodola, Alessio; Sokalski, W Andrzej

    2014-12-26

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme responsible for the deactivating hydrolysis of fatty acid ethanolamide neuromodulators. FAAH inhibitors have gained considerable interest due to their possible application in the treatment of anxiety, inflammation, and pain. In the context of inhibitor design, the availability of reliable computational tools for predicting binding affinity is still a challenging task, and it is now well understood that empirical scoring functions have several limitations that in principle could be overcome by quantum mechanics. Herein, systematic ab initio analyses of FAAH interactions with a series of inhibitors belonging to the class of the N-alkylcarbamic acid aryl esters have been performed. In contrast to our earlier studies of other classes of enzyme-inhibitor complexes, reasonable correlation with experimental results required us to consider correlation effects along with electrostatic term. Therefore, the simplest comprehensive nonempirical model allowing for qualitative predictions of binding affinities for FAAH ligands consists of electrostatic multipole and second-order dispersion terms. Such a model has been validated against the relative stabilities of the benchmark S66 set of biomolecular complexes. As it does not involve parameters fitted to experimentally derived data, this model offers a unique opportunity for generally applicable inhibitor design and virtual screening. PMID:25420234

  12. Soluble epoxide hydrolase expression in a porcine model of arteriovenous graft stenosis and anti-inflammatory effects of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, William G.; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Cheung, Alfred K.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic arteriovenous (AV) grafts, placed between an artery and vein, are used for hemodialysis but often fail due to stenosis, typically at the vein-graft anastomosis. This study recorded T lymphocyte and macrophage accumulation at the vein-graft anastomosis, suggesting a role for inflammation in stenosis development. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), products of cytochrome P-450 epoxidation of arachidonic acid, have vasculoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects including inhibition of platelet activation, cell migration, and adhesion. EETs are hydrolyzed by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to less active diols. The effects of a specific inhibitor of sEH (sEHI) on cytokine release from human monocytes and mouse bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMMΦ) from wild-type (WT) and sEH knockout (KO) animals were investigated. Expression of sEH protein increased over time at the anastomosis as evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Pre-exposure of adherent human monocytes to sEHI (5 μM) significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α and enhanced the EET-to-diol ratio. Release of MCP-1 from WT BMMΦ was significantly inhibited but release from sEH KO BMMΦ was not attenuated indicating the specificity of the sEHI. In contrast, sEHI did not inhibit the release of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 or interleukin-6. Nuclear translocation of NF-κB, as assessed by immunocytochemical staining, was not decreased with sEHI in monocytes, but the phosphorylation of JNK was completely abrogated, suggesting this pathway is the target of sEHI effects in monocytes. These results suggest that sEHI may be useful for inhibition of inflammation and subsequently stenosis in AV grafts. PMID:22621785

  13. Binding and Inactivation Mechanism of a Humanized Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase by [alpha]-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitors Revealed from Cocrystal Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; DeMartino, Jessica K.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Boger, Dale L.; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2010-08-17

    The cocrystal X-ray structures of two isomeric {alpha}-ketooxazole inhibitors (1 (OL-135) and 2) bound to fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), a key enzymatic regulator of endocannabinoid signaling, are disclosed. The active site catalytic Ser241 is covalently bound to the inhibitors electrophilic carbonyl groups, providing the first structures of FAAH bound to an inhibitor as a deprotonated hemiketal mimicking the enzymatic tetrahedral intermediate. The work also offers a detailed view of the oxyanion hole and an exceptional 'in-action' depiction of the unusual Ser-Ser-Lys catalytic triad. These structures capture the first picture of inhibitors that span the active site into the cytosolic port providing new insights that help to explain FAAH's interaction with substrate leaving groups and their role in modulating inhibitor potency and selectivity. The role for the activating central heterocycle is clearly defined and distinguished from that observed in prior applications with serine proteases, reconciling the large electronic effect of attached substituents found unique to this class of inhibitors with FAAH. Additional striking active site flexibility is seen upon binding of the inhibitors, providing insights into the existence of a now well-defined membrane access channel with the disappearance of a spatially independent portion of the acyl chain-binding pocket. Finally, comparison of the structures of OL-135 (1) and its isomer 2 indicates that they bind identically to FAAH, albeit with reversed orientations of the central activating heterocycle, revealing that the terminal 2-pyridyl substituent and the acyl chain phenyl group provide key anchoring interactions and confirming the distinguishing role of the activating oxazole.

  14. S-Adenosyl-Homocysteine Is a Weakly Bound Inhibitor for a Flaviviral Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Zhou, Bing; Brecher, Matthew; Banavali, Nilesh; Jones, Susan A.; Li, Zhong; Zhang, Jing; Nag, Dilip; Kramer, Laura D.; Ghosh, Arun K.; Li, Hongmin

    2013-01-01

    The methyltransferase enzyme (MTase), which catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet) to viral RNA, and generates S-adenosyl-homocysteine (AdoHcy) as a by-product, is essential for the life cycle of many significant human pathogen flaviviruses. Here we investigated inhibition of the flavivirus MTase by several AdoHcy-derivatives. Unexpectedly we found that AdoHcy itself barely inhibits the flavivirus MTase activities, even at high concentrations. AdoHcy was also shown to not inhibit virus growth in cell-culture. Binding studies confirmed that AdoHcy has a much lower binding affinity for the MTase than either the AdoMet co-factor, or the natural AdoMet analog inhibitor sinefungin (SIN). While AdoMet is a positively charged molecule, SIN is similar to AdoHcy in being uncharged, and only has an additional amine group that can make extra electrostatic contacts with the MTase. Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann Sovation Area analysis on AdoHcy and SIN binding to the MTase suggests that the stronger binding of SIN may not be directly due to interactions of this amine group, but due to distributed differences in SIN binding resulting from its presence. The results suggest that better MTase inhibitors could be designed by using SIN as a scaffold rather than AdoHcy. PMID:24130807

  15. X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of α-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitors Bound to a Humanized Variant of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; Ezzili, Cyrine; Kimball, F. Scott; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Boger, Dale L.

    2009-01-01

    Three cocrystal X-ray structures of the α-ketoheterocycle inhibitors 3–5 bound to a humanized variant of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are disclosed and comparatively discussed alongside those of 1 (OL-135) and its isomer 2. These five X-ray structures systematically probe each of the three active site regions key to substrate or inhibitor binding: (1) the conformationally mobile acyl chain-binding pocket and membrane access channel responsible for fatty acid amide substrate and inhibitor acyl chain binding, (2) the atypical active site catalytic residues and surrounding oxyanion hole that covalently binds the core of the α-ketoheterocycle inhibitors captured as deprotonated hemiketals mimicking the tetrahedral intermediate of the enzyme catalyzed reaction, and (3) the cytosolic port and its uniquely important imbedded ordered water molecules and a newly identified anion binding site. The detailed analysis of their key active site interactions and their implications on the interpretation of the available structure–activity relationships are discussed providing important insights for future design. PMID:19924997

  16. X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of [alpha]-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitors Bound to a Humanized Variant of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; Ezzili, Cyrine; Kimball, F.Scott; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Boger, Dale L.

    2010-11-03

    Three cocrystal X-ray structures of the {alpha}-ketoheterocycle inhibitors 3-5 bound to a humanized variant of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are disclosed and comparatively discussed alongside those of 1 (OL-135) and its isomer 2. These five X-ray structures systematically probe each of the three active site regions key to substrate or inhibitor binding: (1) the conformationally mobile acyl chain-binding pocket and membrane access channel responsible for fatty acid amide substrate and inhibitor acyl chain binding, (2) the atypical active site catalytic residues and surrounding oxyanion hole that covalently binds the core of the {alpha}-ketoheterocycle inhibitors captured as deprotonated hemiketals mimicking the tetrahedral intermediate of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction, and (3) the cytosolic port and its uniquely important imbedded ordered water molecules and a newly identified anion binding site. The detailed analysis of their key active site interactions and their implications on the interpretation of the available structure-activity relationships are discussed providing important insights for future design.

  17. Comparative molecular field analysis and molecular dynamics studies of α/β hydrolase domain containing 6 (ABHD6) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Patel, Jayendra Z; Laitinen, Tuomo; Parkkari, Teija; Adams, Yahaya; Nevalainen, Tapio J; Poso, Antti

    2015-10-01

    The endocannabinoid system remains an attractive molecular target for pharmacological intervention due to its roles in the central nervous system in learning, thinking, emotional function, regulation of food intake or pain sensation, as well as in the peripheral nervous system, where it modulates the action of cardiovascular, immune, metabolic or reproductive function. α/β hydrolase domain containing 6 (ABHD6)--an enzyme forming part of the endocannabinoid system--is a newly discovered post-genomic protein acting as a 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) serine hydrolase. We have recently reported a series of 1,2,5-thiadiazole carbamates as potent and selective ABHD6 inhibitors. Here, we present comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and molecular dynamics studies of these compounds. First, we performed a homology modeling study of ABHD6 based on the assumption that the catalytic triad of ABHD6 comprises Ser148-His306-Asp 278 and the oxyanion hole is formed by Met149 and Phe80. A total of 42 compounds was docked to the homology model using the Glide module from the Schrödinger suite of software and the selected docking poses were used for CoMFA alignment. A model with the following statistics was obtained: R(2) = 0.98, Q(2) = 0.55. In order to study the molecular interactions of the inhibitors with ABHD6 in detail, molecular dynamics was performed with the Desmond program. It was found that, during the simulations, the hydrogen bond between the inhibitor carbonyl group and the main chain of Phe80 is weakened, whereas a new hydrogen bond with the side chain of Ser148 is formed, facilitating the possible formation of a covalent bond. Graphical Abstract Left-right: Docking pose of 1 in the binding pocket of α/β hydrolase domain containing 6 (ABHD6) selected for molecular alignment; CoMFA steric and electrostatic contour fields; changes in potential energy of the complex during simulations for the complex of 6 and ABHD6. PMID:26350245

  18. The Structure of MurNAc 6-Phosphate Hydrolase (MurQ) from Haemophilus influenzae with Bound Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Timin; Hazra, Saugata; Tanner, Martin E.; Blanchard, John S.

    2014-01-01

    The breakdown and recycling of peptidoglycan, an essential polymeric cell structure, occurs in a number of bacterial species. A key enzyme in the recycling pathway of one of the components of the peptidoglycan layer, N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc), is MurNAc 6-phosphate hydrolase (MurQ). This enzyme catalyzes the cofactor-independent cleavage of a relatively non-labile ether bond and presents an interesting target for mechanistic studies. Open-chain product and substrate analogs were synthesized and tested as competitive inhibitors (Kis values of 1.1 +/− 0.3 mM and 0.23 +/− 0.02 mM, respectively) of the MurNAc 6P hydrolase from Escherichia coli (MurQ-EC). To identify the roles of active site residues important for catalysis, the substrate analog was co-crystallized with the MurNAc 6P hydrolase from Haemophilus influenzae (MurQ-HI) that was amenable to crystallographic studies. The co-crystal structure of MurQ-HI with the substrate analog showed that Glu89 was located in close proximity to both the carbon at the C2 position and the oxygen at the C3 position of the bound inhibitor, and that no other potential acid/base residue that could act as an active site acid/base was located in the vicinity. The conserved residues Glu120 and Lys239 were found within hydrogen-bonding distance of the C5 hydroxyl group and C6 phosphate group, suggesting that they play a role in substrate binding and ring-opening. Combining these results with previous biochemical data, a one base mechanism of action where Glu89 functions to both deprotonate at the C2 position and assist in the departure of the lactyl ether at the C3 position is proposed. This same residue would serve to deprotonate the incoming water and reprotonate the enolate in the second half of the catalytic cycle. PMID:24251551

  19. Potent and Selective α-Ketoheterocycle-Based Inhibitors of the Anandamide and Oleamide Catabolizing Enzyme, Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Romero, F. Anthony; Du, Wu; Hwang, Inkyu; Rayl, Thomas J.; Kimball, F. Scott; Leung, Donmienne; Hoover, Heather S.; Apodaca, Richard L.; Breitenbucher, J. Guy; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Boger, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    A study of the structure–activity relationships (SAR) of 2f (OL-135), a potent inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is detailed targeting the 5-position of the oxazole. Examination of a series of substituted benzene derivatives (12–14) revealed that the optimal position for substitution was the meta-position with selected members approaching or exceeding the potency of 2f. Concurrent with these studies, the effect of substitution on the pyridine ring of 2f was also examined. A series of small, non-aromatic C5-substituents was also explored and revealed that the Ki follows a well-defined correlation with the Hammett σp constant (ρ = 3.01, R2 = 0.91) in which electron-withdrawing substituents enhance potency leading to inhibitors with Ki’s as low as 400 pM (20n). Proteomic-wide screening of the inhibitors revealed that most are exquisitely selective for FAAH over all other mammalian proteases reversing the 100-fold preference of 20a (C5 substituent = H) for the enzyme TGH. PMID:17279740

  20. The macamide N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide is a time-dependent fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Almukadi, Haifa; Wu, Hui; Böhlke, Mark; Kelley, Charles J; Maher, Timothy J; Pino-Figueroa, Alejandro

    2013-10-01

    The Peruvian plant Lepidium meyenii (Maca) has been shown to possess neuroprotective activity both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have also demonstrated the activity of the pentane extract and its macamides, the most representative lipophilic constituents of Maca, in the endocannabinoid system as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors. One of the most active macamides, N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide, was studied to determine its mechanism of interaction with FAAH and whether it has inhibitory activity on mono-acyl glycerol lipase (MAGL), the second enzyme responsible for endocannabinoid degradation. Macamide concentrations from 1 to 100 μM were tested using FAAH and MAGL inhibitor assay methods and showed no effect on MAGL. Tests with other conditions were performed in order to characterize the inhibitory mechanism of FAAH inhibition. N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide displayed significant time-dependent and dose-dependent FAAH inhibitory activity. The mechanism of inhibition was most likely irreversible or slowly reversible. These results suggest the potential application of macamides isolated from Maca as FAAH inhibitors, as they might act on the central nervous system to provide analgesic, anti-inflammatory, or neuroprotective effects, by modulating the release of neurotransmitters. PMID:23853040

  1. In vitro and in vivo metabolism of N-adamantyl substituted urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Yan; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Morisseau, Christophe; Lango, Jozsef; Hwang, Sung Hee; Watanabe, Takaho; Kim, In-Hae; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-12-15

    N,N'-disubstituted urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors are promising therapeutics for hypertension, inflammation, and pain in multiple animal models. The drug absorption and pharmacological efficacy of these inhibitors have been reported extensively. However, the drug metabolism of these inhibitors is not well described. Here we reported the metabolic profile and associated biochemical studies of an N-adamantyl urea-based sEH inhibitor 1-adamantan-1-yl-3-(5-(2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethoxy)pentyl)urea (AEPU) in vitro and in vivo. The metabolites of AEPU were identified by interpretation of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and/or NMR. In vitro, AEPU had three major positions for phase I metabolism including oxidations on the adamantyl moiety, urea nitrogen atoms, and cleavage of the polyethylene glycol chain. In a rodent model, the metabolites from the hydroxylation on the adamantyl group and nitrogen atom were existed in blood while the metabolites from cleavage of polyethylene glycol chain were not found in urine. The major metabolite found in rodent urine was 3-(3-adamantyl-ureido)-propanoic acid, a presumably from cleavage and oxidation of the polyethylene glycol moiety. All the metabolites found were active but less potent than AEPU at inhibiting human sEH. Furthermore, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 was found to be a major enzyme mediating AEPU metabolism. In conclusion, the metabolism of AEPU resulted from oxidation by CYP could be shared with other N-adamantyl-urea-based compounds. These findings suggest possible therapeutic roles for AEPU and new strategies for drug design in this series of possible drugs. PMID:26494425

  2. Synthesis and QSAR of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitors: Modulation at the N-Portion of Biphenyl-3-yl Alkylcarbamates

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Marco; Lodola, Alessio; Rivara, Silvia; Vacondio, Federica; Duranti, Andrea; Tontini, Andrea; Sanchini, Silvano; Piersanti, Giovanni; Clapper, Jason R.; King, Alvin R.; Tarzia, Giorgio; Piomelli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Alkylcarbamic acid biphenyl-3-yl esters are a class of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors that comprises cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3′-carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl ester (URB597), a compound with analgesic, anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like properties in rat and mouse models. Here, we extended the structure-activity relationships (SARs) for this class of compounds by replacing the cyclohexyl ring of the parent compound cyclohexylcarbamic acid biphenyl-3-yl ester (URB524) (IC50, for FAAH = 63 nM) with a selected set of substituents of different size, shape, flexibility and lipophilicity. Docking experiments and Linear Interaction Energy (LIE) calculations indicated that the N-terminal group of O-arylcarbamates fits within the lipophilic region of the substrate-binding site, mimicking the arachidonoyl chain of anandamide. Significant potency improvements were observed for the β-naphthylmethyl derivative 4q (IC50 = 5.3 nM) and its 3′-carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl ester 4z (URB880, IC50 = 0.63 nM), indicating that shape complementarity and hydrogen bonds are crucial to obtain highly potent inhibitors. PMID:18507372

  3. Effects of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibitors in Non-Human Primate Models of Nicotine Reward and Relapse.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Panlilio, Leigh V; Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Redhi, Godfrey H; Auber, Alessia; Secci, Maria E; Mascia, Paola; Bandiera, Tiziano; Armirotti, Andrea; Bertorelli, Rosalia; Chefer, Svetlana I; Barnes, Chanel; Yasar, Sevil; Piomelli, Daniele; Goldberg, Steven R

    2015-08-01

    Inhibition of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) counteracts reward-related effects of nicotine in rats, but it has not been tested for this purpose in non-human primates. Therefore, we studied the effects of the first- and second-generation O-arylcarbamate-based FAAH inhibitors, URB597 (cyclohexyl carbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-3-yl ester) and URB694 (6-hydroxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl-cyclohexylcarbamate), in squirrel monkeys. Both FAAH inhibitors: (1) blocked FAAH activity in brain and liver, increasing levels of endogenous ligands for cannabinoid and α-type peroxisome proliferator-activated (PPAR-α) receptors; (2) shifted nicotine self-administration dose-response functions in a manner consistent with reduced nicotine reward; (3) blocked reinstatement of nicotine seeking induced by reexposure to either nicotine priming or nicotine-associated cues; and (4) had no effect on cocaine or food self-administration. The effects of FAAH inhibition on nicotine self-administration and nicotine priming-induced reinstatement were reversed by the PPAR-α antagonist, MK886. Unlike URB597, which was not self-administered by monkeys in an earlier study, URB694 was self-administered at a moderate rate. URB694 self-administration was blocked by pretreatment with an antagonist for either PPAR-α (MK886) or cannabinoid CB1 receptors (rimonabant). In additional experiments in rats, URB694 was devoid of THC-like or nicotine-like interoceptive effects under drug-discrimination procedures, and neither of the FAAH inhibitors induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell--consistent with their lack of robust reinforcing effects in monkeys. Overall, both URB597 and URB694 show promise for the initialization and maintenance of smoking cessation because of their ability to block the rewarding effects of nicotine and prevent nicotine priming-induced and cue-induced reinstatement. PMID:25754762

  4. Effects of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibitors in Non-Human Primate Models of Nicotine Reward and Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Justinova, Zuzana; Panlilio, Leigh V; Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Redhi, Godfrey H; Auber, Alessia; Secci, Maria E; Mascia, Paola; Bandiera, Tiziano; Armirotti, Andrea; Bertorelli, Rosalia; Chefer, Svetlana I; Barnes, Chanel; Yasar, Sevil; Piomelli, Daniele; Goldberg, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) counteracts reward-related effects of nicotine in rats, but it has not been tested for this purpose in non-human primates. Therefore, we studied the effects of the first- and second-generation O-arylcarbamate-based FAAH inhibitors, URB597 (cyclohexyl carbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-3-yl ester) and URB694 (6-hydroxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl-cyclohexylcarbamate), in squirrel monkeys. Both FAAH inhibitors: (1) blocked FAAH activity in brain and liver, increasing levels of endogenous ligands for cannabinoid and α-type peroxisome proliferator-activated (PPAR-α) receptors; (2) shifted nicotine self-administration dose–response functions in a manner consistent with reduced nicotine reward; (3) blocked reinstatement of nicotine seeking induced by reexposure to either nicotine priming or nicotine-associated cues; and (4) had no effect on cocaine or food self-administration. The effects of FAAH inhibition on nicotine self-administration and nicotine priming-induced reinstatement were reversed by the PPAR-α antagonist, MK886. Unlike URB597, which was not self-administered by monkeys in an earlier study, URB694 was self-administered at a moderate rate. URB694 self-administration was blocked by pretreatment with an antagonist for either PPAR-α (MK886) or cannabinoid CB1 receptors (rimonabant). In additional experiments in rats, URB694 was devoid of THC-like or nicotine-like interoceptive effects under drug-discrimination procedures, and neither of the FAAH inhibitors induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell—consistent with their lack of robust reinforcing effects in monkeys. Overall, both URB597 and URB694 show promise for the initialization and maintenance of smoking cessation because of their ability to block the rewarding effects of nicotine and prevent nicotine priming-induced and cue-induced reinstatement. PMID:25754762

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Oesophagostomum dentatum (Nematoda) during Larval Transition, and the Effects of Hydrolase Inhibitors on Development

    PubMed Central

    Ondrovics, Martina; Silbermayr, Katja; Mitreva, Makedonka; Young, Neil D.; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Gasser, Robin B.; Joachim, Anja

    2013-01-01

    In this study, in vitro drug testing was combined with proteomic and bioinformatic analyses to identify and characterize proteins involved in larval development of Oesophagostomum dentatum, an economically important parasitic nematode. Four hydrolase inhibitors ο-phenanthroline, sodium fluoride, iodoacetamide and 1,2-epoxy-3-(pnitrophenoxy)-propane (EPNP) significantly inhibited (≥90%) larval development. Comparison of the proteomic profiles of the development-inhibited larvae with those of uninhibited control larvae using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and subsequent MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis identified a down-regulation of 12 proteins inferred to be involved in various larval developmental processes, including post-embryonic development and growth. Furthermore, three proteins (i.e. intermediate filament protein B, tropomyosin and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase) inferred to be involved in the moulting process were down-regulated in moulting- and development-inhibited O. dentatum larvae. This first proteomic map of O. dentatum larvae provides insights in the protein profile of larval development in this parasitic nematode, and significantly improves our understanding of the fundamental biology of its development. The results and the approach used might assist in developing new interventions against parasitic nematodes by blocking or disrupting their key biological pathways. PMID:23717515

  6. Optimization of the Central Heterocycle of α-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Garfunkle, Joie; Ezzili, Cyrine; Rayl, Thomas J.; Hochstatter, Dustin G.; Hwang, Inkyu; Boger, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and evaluation of a refined series of α-ketoheterocycles based on the oxazole 2 (OL-135) incorporating systematic changes in the central heterocycle bearing a key set of added substituents are described. The nature of the central heterocycle, even within the systematic and minor perturbations explored herein, significantly influenced the inhibitor activity: 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,2,4-oxadiazoles 9 > tetrazoles, the isomeric 1,2,4-oxadiazoles 10, 1,3,4-thiadiazoles > oxazoles including 2 > 1,2-diazines > thiazoles > 1,3,4-triazoles. Most evident in these trends is the observation that introduction of an additional heteroatom at position 4 (oxazole numbering, N > O > CH) substantially increases activity that may be attributed to a reduced destabilizing steric interaction at the FAAH active site. Added heterocycle substituents displaying well defined trends may be utilized to enhance the inhibitor potency and, more significantly, to enhance the inhibitor selectivity. These trends, exemplified herein, emerge from both enhancements in the FAAH activity and simultaneous disruption of binding affinity for competitive off-target enzymes. PMID:18630870

  7. S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase deficiency: A second patient, the younger brother of the index patient, and outcomes during therapy

    PubMed Central

    Barić, I.; Ćuk, M.; Fumić, K.; Vugrek, O.; Allen, R. H.; Glenn, B.; Maradin, M.; Pažanin, L.; Pogribny, I.; Radoš, M.; Sarnavka, V.; Schulze, A.; Stabler, S.; Wagner, C.; Zeisel, S. H.; Mudd, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary S-Adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase deficiency has been proven in a human only once, in a recently described Croatian boy. Here we report the clinical course and biochemical abnormalities of the younger brother of this proband. This younger brother has the same two mutations in the gene encoding AdoHcy hydrolase, and has been monitored since birth. We report, as well, outcomes during therapy for both patients. The information obtained suggests that the disease starts in utero and is characterized primarily by neuromuscular symptomatology (hypotonia, sluggishness, psychomotor delay, absent tendon reflexes, delayed myelination). The laboratory abnormalities are markedly increased creatine kinase and elevated aminotransferases, as well as specific amino acid aberrations that pinpoint the aetiology. The latter include, most importantly, markedly elevated plasma AdoHcy. Plasma S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is also elevated, as is methionine (although the hypermethioninaemia may be absent or nonsignificant in the first weeks of life). The disease seems to be at least to some extent treatable, as shown by improved myelination and psychomotor development during dietary methionine restriction and supplementation with creatine and phosphatidylcholine. PMID:16435181

  8. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of O-biphenyl-3-yl carbamates as peripherally restricted fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Duranti, Andrea; Melzig, Laurin; Fiorelli, Claudio; Ruda, Gian Filippo; Colombano, Giampiero; Mestichelli, Paola; Sanchini, Silvano; Tontini, Andrea; Mor, Marco; Bandiera, Tiziano; Scarpelli, Rita; Tarzia, Giorgio; Piomelli, Daniele

    2013-07-25

    The peripherally restricted fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB937 (3, cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-6-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl ester) is extruded from the brain and spinal cord by the Abcg2 efflux transporter. Despite its inability to enter the central nervous system (CNS), 3 exerts profound antinociceptive effects in mice and rats, which result from the inhibition of FAAH in peripheral tissues and the consequent enhancement of anandamide signaling at CB1 cannabinoid receptors localized on sensory nerve endings. In the present study, we examined the structure-activity relationships (SAR) for the biphenyl region of compound 3, focusing on the carbamoyl and hydroxyl groups in the distal and proximal phenyl rings. Our SAR studies generated a new series of peripherally restricted FAAH inhibitors and identified compound 35 (cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-5-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl ester) as the most potent brain-impermeant FAAH inhibitor disclosed to date. PMID:23822179

  9. ω-Imidazolyl- and ω-Tetrazolylalkylcarbamates as Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase: Biological Activity and in vitro Metabolic Stability.

    PubMed

    Terwege, Tobias; Hanekamp, Walburga; Garzinsky, David; König, Simone; Koch, Oliver; Lehr, Matthias

    2016-02-17

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a serine hydrolase that terminates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of endocannabinoids such as anandamide. Herein, structure-activity relationship studies on a new series of aryl N-(ω-imidazolyl- and ω-tetrazolylalkyl)carbamate inhibitors of FAAH were investigated. As one result, a pronounced increase in inhibitory potency was observed if a phenyl residue attached to the carbamate oxygen atom was replaced by a pyridin-3-yl moiety. The most active compounds exhibited IC50 values in the low nanomolar range. In addition, investigations on the metabolic properties of these inhibitors were performed. In rat liver homogenate and in porcine plasma, the extent of their degradation was shown to be strongly dependent on the kind of aryl residue bound to the carbamate as well as on the length and type of the alkyl spacer connecting the carbamate group with the heterocyclic system. With the aid of esterase inhibitors it was shown that in porcine plasma, carboxylesterase-like enzymes and paraoxonase are involved in carbamate cleavage. Moreover, it was found that highly active pyridin-3-yl carbamates reacted with albumin, which led to covalent albumin adducts. PMID:26732805

  10. Crystal Structure of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Bound to the Carbamate Inhibitor URB597: Discovery of a Deacylating Water Molecule and Insight into Enzyme Inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Mileni, Mauro; Kamtekar, Satwik; Wood, David C.; Benson, Timothy E.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2010-08-12

    The endocannabinoid system regulates a wide range of physiological processes including pain, inflammation, and cognitive/emotional states. URB597 is one of the best characterized covalent inhibitors of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Here, we report the structure of the FAAH-URB597 complex at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. The structure provides insights into mechanistic details of enzyme inactivation and experimental evidence of a previously uncharacterized active site water molecule that likely is involved in substrate deacylation. This water molecule is part of an extensive hydrogen-bonding network and is coordinated indirectly to residues lining the cytosolic port of the enzyme. In order to corroborate our hypothesis concerning the role of this water molecule in FAAH's catalytic mechanism, we determined the structure of FAAH conjugated to a urea-based inhibitor, PF-3845, to a higher resolution (2.4 {angstrom}) than previously reported. The higher-resolution structure confirms the presence of the water molecule in a virtually identical location in the active site. Examination of the structures of serine hydrolases that are non-homologous to FAAH, such as elastase, trypsin, or chymotrypsin, shows a similarly positioned hydrolytic water molecule and suggests a functional convergence between the amidase signature enzymes and serine proteases.

  11. Effects of the Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibitor URB597 on Pain-Stimulated and Pain-Depressed Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kwilasz, Andrew J.; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Poklis, Justin L.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Negus, S. Stevens

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor (CBR) agonists produce antinociception in conventional preclinical assays of pain-stimulated behavior but are not effective in preclinical assays of pain-depressed behavior. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors increase physiological levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), which may confer improved efficacy and/or safety relative to direct CBR agonists. To further evaluate FAAH inhibitors as candidate analgesics, this study assessed effects of the FAAH inhibitor URB597 in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior in male Sprague Dawley rats. Intraperitoneal injection of dilute lactic acid served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a stretching response or depress positively reinforced operant behavior (intracranial self-stimulation; ICSS), and URB597 was tested 1 and 4 h after administration. Consistent with FAAH inhibitor effects in other assays of pain-stimulated behavior, URB597 (1–10 mg/kg IP) produced dose-related and CB1R-mediated decreases in acid-stimulated stretching. Conversely, in the assay of acid-depressed ICSS, URB597 produced a delayed, partial and non-CBR-mediated antinociceptive effect. The antinociceptive dose of URB597 (10 mg/kg) increased plasma and brain AEA levels. These results suggest that URB597 produces antinociception in these models of “pain stimulated” and “pain depressed” behavior, but with different rates of onset and differential involvement of CBRs. PMID:24583930

  12. Structure-property relationships of a class of carbamate-based Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors: chemical and biological stability

    PubMed Central

    Vacondio, Federica; Silva, Claudia; Lodola, Alessio; Fioni, Alessandro; Rivara, Silvia; Duranti, Andrea; Tontini, Andrea; Sanchini, Silvano; Clapper, Jason; Piomelli, Daniele; Tarzia, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Cyclohexylcarbamic acid aryl esters are a class of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors, which includes the reference compound URB597. The reactivity of their carbamate fragment is involved in pharmacological activity and may affect pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties. We conducted in vitro stability experiments in chemical and biological environments to investigate the structure-stability relationships in this class of compounds. The results show that electrophilicity of the carbamate influences its chemical stability, as suggested by the relation between the rate constant of alkaline hydrolysis (log kpH9) and the energy of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). Introduction of small, electron donor substituents at conjugated positions of the O-aryl moiety increased overall hydrolytic stability of the carbamate group without affecting FAAH inhibitory potency, whereas peripheral nonconjugated hydrophilic groups, which favor FAAH recognition, helped reducing oxidative metabolism in the liver. PMID:19554599

  13. Structure-activity relationship studies on 1-heteroaryl-3-phenoxypropan-2-ones acting as inhibitors of cytosolic phospholipase A2α and fatty acid amide hydrolase: replacement of the activated ketone group by other serine traps.

    PubMed

    Sundermann, Tom; Hanekamp, Walburga; Lehr, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are serine hydrolases. cPLA2α is involved in the generation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, FAAH terminates the anti-inflammatory effects of endocannabinoids. Therefore, inhibitors of these enzymes may represent new drug candidates for the treatment of inflammation. We have reported that certain 1-heteroarylpropan-2-ones are potent inhibitors of cPLA2α and FAAH. The serine reactive ketone group of these compounds, which is crucial for enzyme inhibition, is readily metabolized resulting in inactive alcohol derivatives. In order to obtain metabolically more stable inhibitors, we replaced this moiety by α-ketoheterocyle, cyanamide and nitrile serine traps. Investigations on activity and metabolic stability of these substances revealed that in all cases an increased metabolic stability was accompanied by a loss of inhibitory potency against cPLA2α and FAAH, respectively. PMID:26153239

  14. Fluoride-Mediated Capture of a Noncovalent Bound State of a Reversible Covalent Enzyme Inhibitor: X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of an Exceptionally Potent α-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitor of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; Ezzili, Cyrine; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Boger, Dale L.

    2011-01-01

    Two cocrystal X-ray structures of the exceptionally potent α-ketoheterocycle inhibitor 1 (Ki = 290 pM) bound to a humanized variant of rat fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are disclosed, representing noncovalently and covalently bound states of the same inhibitor with the enzyme. Key to securing the structure of the noncovalently bound state of the inhibitor was the inclusion of fluoride ion in the crystallization conditions that is proposed to bind the oxyanion hole precluding inhibitor covalent adduct formation with stabilization of the tetrahedral hemiketal. This permitted the opportunity to detect important noncovalent interactions stabilizing the binding of the inhibitor within the FAAH active site independent of the covalent reaction. Remarkably, noncovalently bound 1 in the presence of fluoride appears to capture the active site in the same “in action” state with the three catalytic residues Ser241–Ser217–Lys142 occupying essentially identical positions observed in the covalently bound structure of 1, suggesting that this technique of introducing fluoride may have important applications in structural studies beyond inhibiting substrate or inhibitor oxyanion hole binding. Key insights to emerge from the studies include the observations that noncovalently bound 1 binds in its ketone (not gem diol) form, that the terminal phenyl group in the acyl side chain of the inhibitor serves as the key anchoring interaction overriding the intricate polar interactions in the cytosolic port, and that the role of the central activating heterocycle is dominated by its intrinsic electron-withdrawing properties. These two structures are also briefly compared with five X-ray structures of α-ketoheterocycle-based inhibitors bound to FAAH recently disclosed. PMID:21355555

  15. Fluoride-Mediated Capture of a Noncovalent Bound State of a Reversible Covalent Enzyme Inhibitor: X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of an Exceptionally Potent [alpha]-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitor of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; Ezzili, Cyrine; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Boger, Dale L.

    2011-11-02

    Two cocrystal X-ray structures of the exceptionally potent {alpha}-ketoheterocycle inhibitor 1 (K{sub i} = 290 pM) bound to a humanized variant of rat fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are disclosed, representing noncovalently and covalently bound states of the same inhibitor with the enzyme. Key to securing the structure of the noncovalently bound state of the inhibitor was the inclusion of fluoride ion in the crystallization conditions that is proposed to bind the oxyanion hole precluding inhibitor covalent adduct formation with stabilization of the tetrahedral hemiketal. This permitted the opportunity to detect important noncovalent interactions stabilizing the binding of the inhibitor within the FAAH active site independent of the covalent reaction. Remarkably, noncovalently bound 1 in the presence of fluoride appears to capture the active site in the same 'in action' state with the three catalytic residues Ser241-Ser217-Lys142 occupying essentially identical positions observed in the covalently bound structure of 1, suggesting that this technique of introducing fluoride may have important applications in structural studies beyond inhibiting substrate or inhibitor oxyanion hole binding. Key insights to emerge from the studies include the observations that noncovalently bound 1 binds in its ketone (not gem diol) form, that the terminal phenyl group in the acyl side chain of the inhibitor serves as the key anchoring interaction overriding the intricate polar interactions in the cytosolic port, and that the role of the central activating heterocycle is dominated by its intrinsic electron-withdrawing properties. These two structures are also briefly compared with five X-ray structures of {alpha}-ketoheterocycle-based inhibitors bound to FAAH recently disclosed.

  16. Bioactive lipid profiling reveals drug target engagement of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor in a murine model of tobacco smoke exposure

    PubMed Central

    Nording, Malin L.; Yang, Jun; Hoang, Laura; Zamora, Vanessa; Uyeminami, Dale; Espiritu, Imelda; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Luria, Ayala

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory process underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be caused by tobacco smoke (TS) exposure. Previous studies show that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) possess promising anti-inflammatory properties, therefore stabilization of EETs and other fatty acid epoxides through inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) was investigated in mouse models of acute and sub-chronic inflammation caused by TS exposure. During the entire TS exposure, the potent sEH inhibitor 1-(1-methylsulfonyl-piperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-urea (TUPS) was given via drinking water. To assess drug target engagement of TUPS, a tandem mass spectrometry method was used for bioactive lipid profiling of a broad range of fatty acid metabolites, including EETs, and their corresponding diols (DHETs) derived from arachidonic acid, as well as epoxides and diols derived from other fatty acids. Several, but not all, plasma epoxide/diol ratios increased in mice treated with sEH inhibitor, compared to non-treated mice suggesting a wider role for sEH involving more fatty acid precursors besides arachidonic acid. This study supports qualitative use of epoxide/diol ratios explored by bioactive lipid profiling to indicate drug target engagement in mouse models of TS exposure relevant to COPD, which may have ramifications for future therapeutic interventions of sEH. PMID:27076918

  17. Potent Natural Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitors from Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon: Synthesis, Quantification, and Measurement of Biological Activities In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Seiya; Morisseau, Christophe; Inceoglu, Bora; Kamita, Shizuo G.; De Nicola, Gina R.; Nyegue, Maximilienne; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    We describe here three urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors from the root of the plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana. The concentration of these ureas in the root was quantified by LC-MS/MS, showing that 1, 3-bis (4-methoxybenzyl) urea (MMU) is the most abundant (42.3 μg/g dry root weight). All of the ureas were chemically synthesized, and their inhibitory activity toward recombinant human and recombinant rat sEH was measured. The most potent compound, MMU, showed an IC50 of 92 nM via fluorescent assay and a Ki of 54 nM via radioactivity-based assay on human sEH. MMU effectively reduced inflammatory pain in a rat nociceptive pain assay. These compounds are among the most potent sEH inhibitors derived from natural sources. Moreover, inhibition of sEH by these compounds may mechanistically explain some of the therapeutic effects of P. brazzeana. PMID:25659109

  18. Anandamide transport is independent of fatty-acid amide hydrolase activity and is blocked by the hydrolysis-resistant inhibitor AM1172

    PubMed Central

    Fegley, D.; Kathuria, S.; Mercier, R.; Li, C.; Goutopoulos, A.; Makriyannis, A.; Piomelli, D.

    2004-01-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide is removed from the synaptic space by a high-affinity transport system present in neurons and astrocytes, which is inhibited by N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-arachidonamide (AM404). After internalization, anandamide is hydrolyzed by fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an intracellular membrane-bound enzyme that also cleaves AM404. Based on kinetic evidence, it has recently been suggested that anandamide internalization may be mediated by passive diffusion driven by FAAH activity. To test this possibility, in the present study, we have investigated anandamide internalization in wild-type and FAAH-deficient (FAAH–/–) mice. Cortical neurons from either mouse strain internalized [3H]anandamide through a similar mechanism, i.e., via a rapid temperature-sensitive and saturable process, which was blocked by AM404. Moreover, systemic administration of AM404 to either wild-type or FAAH–/– mice enhanced the hypothermic effects of exogenous anandamide, a response that was prevented by the CB1 cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (SR141716A). The results indicate that anandamide internalization in mouse brain neurons is independent of FAAH activity. In further support of this conclusion, the compound N-(5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z eicosatetraenyl)-4-hydroxybenzamide (AM1172) blocked [3H]anandamide internalization in rodent cortical neurons and human astrocytoma cells without acting as a FAAH substrate or inhibitor. AM1172 may serve as a prototype for novel anandamide transport inhibitors with increased metabolic stability. PMID:15138300

  19. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase enhances the anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin and 5-lipoxygenase activation protein inhibitor in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Yan; Yang, Jun; Inceoglu, Bora; Qiu, Hong; Ulu, Arzu; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Hammock, Bruce D

    2010-03-15

    Inflammation is a multi-staged process whose expansive phase is thought to be driven by acutely released arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), or soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is known to be anti-inflammatory. Inhibition of sEH stabilizes the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) products epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Here we used a non-selective COX inhibitor aspirin, a 5-lipoxygenase activation protein (FLAP) inhibitor MK886, and a sEH inhibitor t-AUCB to selectively modulate the branches of AA metabolism in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged murine model. We used metabolomic profiling to simultaneously monitor representative AA metabolites of each branch. In addition to the significant crosstalk among branches of the AA cascade during selective modulation of COX, LOX, or sEH, we demonstrated that co-administration of t-AUCB enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin or MK886, which was evidenced by the observations that co-administration resulted in favorable eicosanoid profiles and better control of LPS-mediated hypotension as well as hepatic protein expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX. Targeted disruption of the sEH gene displayed a parallel profile to that produced by t-AUCB. These observations demonstrate a significant level of crosstalk among the three major branches of the AA cascade and that they are not simply parallel pathways. These data illustrate that inhibition of sEH by both pharmacological intervention and gene knockout enhances the anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin and MK886, suggesting the possibility of modulating multiple branches to achieve better therapeutic effects. PMID:19896470

  20. Structural characterization and high throughput screening of inhibitors of PvdQ, an NTN hydrolase involved in pyoverdine synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Eric J.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a variety of virulence factors including pyoverdine, a non-ribosomally produced peptide siderophore. The maturation pathway of the pyoverdine peptide is complex and provides a unique target for inhibition. Within the pyoverdine biosynthetic cluster is a periplasmic hydrolase, PvdQ, that is required for pyoverdine production. However, the precise role of PvdQ in the maturation pathway has not been biochemically characterized. We demonstrate herein that the initial module of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase PvdL adds a myristate moiety to the pyoverdine precursor. We extracted this acylated precursor, called PVDIq, from a pvdQ mutant strain and show that the PvdQ enzyme removes the fatty acid catalyzing one of the final steps in pyoverdine maturation. Incubation of PVDIq with crystals of PvdQ allowed us to capture the acylated enzyme and confirm through structural studies the chemical composition of the incorporated acyl chain. Finally, because inhibition of siderophore synthesis has been identified as a potential antibiotic strategy, we developed a high throughput screening assay and tested a small chemical library for compounds that inhibit PvdQ activity. Two compounds that block PvdQ have been identified and their binding within the fatty acid binding pocket structurally characterized. PMID:21892836

  1. Cardioprotective effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB694, in a rodent model of trait anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Carnevali, Luca; Vacondio, Federica; Rossi, Stefano; Macchi, Emilio; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Neumann, Inga D.; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In humans, chronic anxiety represents an independent risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Here we evaluate in male Wistar rats bred for high (HAB) and low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior, as well as non-selected (NAB) animals, the relationship between trait anxiety and cardiac electrical instability and investigate whether pharmacological augmentation of endocannabinoid anandamide-mediated signaling exerts anxiolytic-like and cardioprotective effects. HAB rats displayed (i) a higher incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by isoproterenol, and (ii) a larger spatial dispersion of ventricular refractoriness assessed by means of an epicardial mapping protocol. In HAB rats, acute pharmacological inhibition of the anandamide-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), with URB694 (0.3 mg/kg), (i) decreased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, (ii) increased anandamide levels in the heart, (iii) reduced isoproterenol-induced occurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and (iv) corrected alterations of ventricular refractoriness. The anti-arrhythmic effect of URB694 was prevented by pharmacological blockade of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1), but not of the CB2, receptor. These findings suggest that URB694 exerts anxiolytic-like and cardioprotective effects in HAB rats, the latter via anandamide-mediated activation of CB1 receptors. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH might be a viable pharmacological strategy for the treatment of anxiety-related cardiac dysfunction. PMID:26656183

  2. The 5-substituted piperazine as a novel secondary pharmacophore greatly improving the physical properties of urea-based inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Yi; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D; Long, Ya-Qiu

    2006-10-01

    The inhibition of the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a promising new therapy in the treatment of hypertention and inflammation. The problems of limited water solubility and high melting points commonly displayed by the active 1,3-disubstituted ureas prevent the further development of potent urea-based sEH inhibitors. Therefore, a new class of potent inhibitors of sEH were designed and synthesized by the introduction of a polar constrained piperazino group in the right side of adasmantyl urea to increase the water solubility. A facile and general synthesis was established to prepare a series of 1-adamantan-1-yl-3-(2-piperazin-2-yl-ethyl)-ureas (1a-d) with various 5-substitutions on the 2-piperazino ring, which will advance the SAR study by the efficient making of structurally diverse analogs. The effect of the 5-substitution on the activity and the water solubility was examined. The best potency was exhibited by the 5-benzyl-substituted-piperazine-containing urea with an IC50 value of 1.37 microM against human sEH and good water solubility (S=7.46 mg/mL) and low melting point, in which the 5-substituted piperazine serves as a favorable secondary pharmacophore and a water-solubility enhancing group. Our present work provides a promising new template for the design of orally available therapeutic agents for the disorders that can be addressed by changing the in vivo concentration of the chemical mediators that contain an epoxide. PMID:16784862

  3. Characterisation of (R)-2-(2-Fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)-N-(3-Methylpyridin-2-yl)Propanamide as a Dual Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase: Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Karlsson, Jessica; Deplano, Alessandro; Hashemian, Sanaz; Svensson, Mona; Fredriksson Sundbom, Marcus; Congiu, Cenzo; Onnis, Valentina; Fowler, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased endocannabinoid tonus by dual-action fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and substrate selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors is a promising approach for pain-relief. One such compound with this profile is 2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)-N-(3-methylpyridin-2-yl)propanamide (Flu-AM1). These activities are shown by Flu-AM1 racemate, but it is not known whether its two single enantiomers behave differently, as is the case towards COX-2 for the parent flurbiprofen enantiomers. Further, the effects of the compound upon COX-2-derived lipids in intact cells are not known. Methodology/Principal Findings COX inhibition was determined using an oxygraphic method with arachidonic acid and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) as substrates. FAAH was assayed in mouse brain homogenates using anandamide (AEA) as substrate. Lipidomic analysis was conducted in unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide + interferon γ- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Both enantiomers inhibited COX-2 in a substrate-selective and time-dependent manner, with IC50 values in the absence of a preincubation phase of: (R)-Flu-AM1, COX-1 (arachidonic acid) 6 μM; COX-2 (arachidonic acid) 20 μM; COX-2 (2-AG) 1 μM; (S)-Flu-AM1, COX-1 (arachidonic acid) 3 μM; COX-2 (arachidonic acid) 10 μM; COX-2 (2-AG) 0.7 μM. The compounds showed no enantiomeric selectivity in their FAAH inhibitory properties. (R)-Flu-AM1 (10 μM) greatly inhibited the production of prostaglandin D2 and E2 in both unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide + interferon γ- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Levels of 2-AG were not affected either by (R)-Flu-AM1 or by 10 μM flurbiprofen, either alone or in combination with the FAAH inhibitor URB597 (1 μM). Conclusions/Significance Both enantiomers of Flu-AM1 are more potent inhibitors of 2-AG compared to arachidonic acid oxygenation by COX-2. Inhibition of COX in lipopolysaccharide + interferon γ- stimulated RAW 264.7 cells is insufficient to affect 2-AG levels despite the

  4. Antidepressant-like activity and cardioprotective effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB694 in socially stressed Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, Luca; Vacondio, Federica; Rossi, Stefano; Callegari, Sergio; Macchi, Emilio; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    In humans, depression is often triggered by prolonged exposure to psychosocial stressors and is often associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. Mounting evidence suggests a role for endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of both emotional behavior and cardiovascular function. Here, we examined cardiac activity in a rodent model of social stress-induced depression and investigated whether pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which terminates signaling of the endocannabinoid anandamide, exerts antidepressant-like and cardioprotective effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to five weeks of repeated social stress or control procedure. Starting from the third week, they received daily administration of the selective FAAH inhibitor URB694 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Cardiac electrical activity was recorded by radiotelemetry. Repeated social stress triggered biological and behavioral changes that mirror symptoms of human depression, such as (i) reductions in body weight gain and sucrose solution preference, (ii) hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and (iii) increased immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, stressed rats showed (i) alterations in heart rate daily rhythm and cardiac autonomic neural regulation, (ii) a larger incidence of spontaneous arrhythmias, and (iii) signs of cardiac hypertrophy. Daily treatment with URB694 (i) increased central and peripheral anandamide levels, (ii) corrected stress-induced alterations of biological and behavioral parameters, and (iii) protected the heart against the adverse effects of social stress. Repeated social stress in Wistar Kyoto rats reproduces aspects of human depression/cardiovascular comorbidity. Pharmacological enhancement of anandamide signaling might be a promising strategy for the treatment of these comorbid conditions. PMID:26391492

  5. The fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor PF-3845 promotes neuronal survival, attenuates inflammation and improves functional recovery in mice with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Tchantchou, Flaubert; Tucker, Laura B.; Fu, Amanda H.; Bluett, Rebecca J.; McCabe, Joseph T.; Patel, Sachin; Zhang, Yumin

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death in young adults in the United States, but there is still no effective agent for treatment. N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) is a major endocannabinoid in the brain. Its increase after brain injury is believed to be protective. However, the compensatory role of AEA is transient due to its rapid hydrolysis by the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Thus, inhibition of FAAH can boost the endogenous levels of AEA and prolong its protective effect. Using a TBI mouse model, we found that post-injury chronic treatment with PF3845, a selective and potent FAAH inhibitor, reversed TBI-induced impairments in fine motor movement, hippocampus dependent working memory and anxiety-like behavior. Treatment with PF3845 inactivated FAAH activity and enhanced the AEA levels in the brain. It reduced neurodegeneration in the dentate gyrus, and up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Hsp70/72 in both cortex and hippocampus. PF3845 also suppressed the increased production of amyloid precursor protein, prevented dendritic loss and restored the levels of synaptophysin in the ipsilateral dentate gyrus. Furthermore, PF3845 suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 and enhanced the expression of arginase-1 post-TBI, suggesting a shift of microglia/macrophages from M1 to M2 phenotype. The effects of PF3845 on TBI-induced behavioral deficits and neurodegeneration were mediated by activation of cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptors and might be attributable to the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT. These results suggest that selective inhibition of FAAH is likely to be beneficial for TBI treatment. PMID:24937045

  6. Twisting of glycosidic bonds by hydrolases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patterns of scissile bond twisting have been found in crystal structures of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that are complexed with substrates and inhibitors. To estimate the increased potential energy in the substrates that results from this twisting, we have plotted torsion angles for the scissile bond...

  7. The pharmacological landscape and therapeutic potential of serine hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Bachovchin, Daniel A; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2012-01-01

    Serine hydrolases perform crucial roles in many biological processes, and several of these enzymes are targets of approved drugs for indications such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and infectious diseases. Despite this, most of the human serine hydrolases (of which there are more than 200) remain poorly characterized with respect to their physiological substrates and functions, and the vast majority lack selective, in vivo-active inhibitors. Here, we review the current state of pharmacology for mammalian serine hydrolases, including marketed drugs, compounds that are under clinical investigation and selective inhibitors emerging from academic probe development efforts. We also highlight recent methodological advances that have accelerated the rate of inhibitor discovery and optimization for serine hydrolases, which we anticipate will aid in their biological characterization and, in some cases, therapeutic validation. PMID:22212679

  8. The Pharmacological Landscape and Therapeutic Potential of Serine Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2013-01-01

    Serine hydrolases play critical roles in many biological processes, and several are targets of approved drugs for indications such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and infectious disease. Despite this, most of the 200+ human serine hydrolases remain poorly characterized with respect to their physiological substrates and functions, and the vast majority lack selective, in vivo-active inhibitors. Here, we review the current state of pharmacology for mammalian serine hydrolases, including marketed drugs, compounds under clinical investigation, and selective inhibitors emerging from academic probe development efforts. We also highlight recent methodological advances that have accelerated the rate of inhibitor discovery and optimization for serine hydrolases, which we anticipate will aid in their biological characterization and, in some cases, therapeutic validation. PMID:22212679

  9. Bacterial Expression and HTS Assessment of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Klingler, Franca-Maria; Wolf, Markus; Wittmann, Sandra; Gribbon, Philip; Proschak, Ewgenij

    2016-08-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme that possesses an epoxide hydrolase and lipid phosphatase activity (sEH-P) at two distinct catalytic domains. While the physiological role of the epoxide hydrolase domain is well understood, the consequences of the phosphatase activity remain unclear. Herein we describe the bacterial expression of the recombinant N-terminal domain of sEH-P and the development of a high-throughput screening protocol using a sensitive and commercially available substrate fluorescein diphosphate. The usability of the assay system was demonstrated and novel inhibitors of sEH-P were identified. PMID:27009944

  10. Inhibition of mutant KrasG12D-initiated murine pancreatic carcinoma growth by a dual c-Raf and soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor t-CUPM.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jie; Hwang, Sung Hee; Li, Haonan; Yang, Yihe; Yang, Jun; Wecksler, Aaron T; Liu, Jun-Yan; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-02-28

    Mutant Kras and chronic pancreatitis are the most common pathological events involved in human pancreatic cancer. It has been demonstrated that c-Raf is responsible for transmitting signals from mutant Ras to its downstream signals including MEK-ERK and for initiating carcinogenesis. The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a pro-inflammatory enzyme, generally inactivates anti-inflammatory and anti-pain epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Herein, we have synthesized a novel compound of trans-4-{4-[3-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methylamide (t-CUPM) via modifying the central phenyl ring of sorafenib and confirmed its dual inhibition of sEH and c-Raf by recombinant kinase activity assay. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that oral dosing of t-CUPM resulted in higher blood levels than that of sorafenib throughout the complete time course (48 h). The effect of t-CUPM on the inhibition of mutant Kras(G12D)-initiated murine pancreatic cancer cell growth was determined using the mouse pancreatic carcinoma cell model obtained from LSL-Kras(G12D)/Pdx1-Cre mice and showed that t-CUPM significantly inhibited this murine pancreatic carcinoma cell growth both in vitro and in mice in vivo. Inhibition of mutant Kras-transmitted phosphorylations of cRAF/MEK/ERK was demonstrated in these pancreatic cancer cells using Western blot assay and immunohistochemical approach. Modulation of oxylipin profile, particularly increased EETs/DHET ratio by sEH inhibition, was observed in mice treated with t-CUPM. These results indicate that t-CUPM is a highly potential agent to treat pancreatic cancer via simultaneously targeting c-Raf and sEH. PMID:26683769

  11. Oral treatment of rodents with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor 1-(1-propanoylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]urea (TPPU): Resulting drug levels and modulation of oxylipin pattern.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Annika I; Herbers, Jan; Willenberg, Ina; Chen, Rongjun; Hwang, Sung Hee; Greite, Robert; Morisseau, Christophe; Gueler, Faikah; Hammock, Bruce D; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2015-09-01

    Epoxides from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are potent lipid mediators. In vivo stabilization of these epoxides by blockade of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) leads to anti-inflammatory, analgesic and normotensive effects. Therefore, sEH inhibitors (sEHi) are a promising new class of drugs. Herein, we characterized pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic properties of a commercially available potent sEHi 1-(1-propanoylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]urea (TPPU). Cell culture studies suggest its high absorption and metabolic stability. Following administration in drinking water to rats (0.2, 1, and 5mg TPPU/L with 0.2% PEG400), TPPU's blood concentration increased dose dependently within the treatment period to reach an almost steady state after 8 days. TPPU was found in all the tissues tested. The linoleic epoxide/diol ratios in most tissues were dose dependently increased, indicating significant sEH inhibition. Overall, administration of TPPU with the drinking water led to systemic distribution as well as high drug levels and thus makes chronic sEH inhibition studies possible. PMID:26117215

  12. Cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 and fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 may protect against cognitive impairment in rats of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via PI3K/AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Su, Shao-Hua; Wang, Yue-Qing; Wu, Yi-Fang; Wang, Da-Peng; Lin, Qi; Hai, Jian

    2016-10-15

    The present study further investigated the protective effects of cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (URB) on chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH)-induced cognitive impairment in rats. Spatial learning and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze and by measuring Long-term potentiation. The expression of microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP)-2, growth-associated protein-43 (GAP)-43, synaptophysin, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), FAAH, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D(NAPE-PLD) and monoacyl glycerol lipase (MGL) as well as phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway molecules and downstream targets including AKT, phosphorylated (p-)AKT, cyclic AMP response element- binding protein (CREB), p-CREB, Bcl-2-associated death protein (BAD), p-BAD, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, p-GSK-3β, forkhead box protein (FOXO) 3A and p-FOXO3A was determined by western blotting. WIN and URB treatment improved learning and memory performance, effects that were abolished by co-administration of the PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, WIN and URB reversed the decreases in MAP-2 and synaptophysin expression resulting from CCH, and stimulated BDNF and CB1 expression as well as CREB, FOXO3A, GSK-3β, and BAD phosphorylation, confirming that WIN and URB mediate neuroprotection by preventing neuronal apoptosis and improving cognition via PI3K/AKT signaling. These findings suggest that WIN and URB are promising agents for therapeutic management of CCH. PMID:27424778

  13. Buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis, induces expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase and markers of cellular hypertrophy in a rat cardiomyoblast cell line: roles of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, Ghada; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggests that upregulation of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is associated with the development of myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. However, the upregulation mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we treated H9C2 cells with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) to explore whether oxidative stress upregulates sEH gene expression and to identify the molecular and cellular mechanisms behind this upregulatory response. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were used to measure mRNA and protein expression, respectively. We demonstrated that BSO significantly upregulated sEH at mRNA levels in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, leading to a significant increase in the cellular hypertrophic markers, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Furthermore, BSO significantly increased the cytosolic phosphorylated IκB-α and translocation of NF-κB p50 subunits, as measured by Western blot analysis. This level of translocation was paralleled by an increase in the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB P50 subunits. Moreover, our results demonstrated that pretreatment with the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC significantly inhibited BSO-mediated induction of sEH and cellular hypertrophic marker gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were transiently phosphorylated by BSO treatment. To understand further the role of MAPKs pathway in BSO-mediated induction of sEH mRNA, we examined the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-JunN-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK. Indeed, treatment with the MEK/ERK signal transduction inhibitor, PD98059, partially blocked the activation of IκB-α and translocation of NF-κB p50 subunits induced by BSO. Moreover, pretreatment with MEK/ERK signal transduction inhibitors, PD98059 and U0126, significantly inhibited BSO-mediated induction of sEH and cellular hypertrophic marker gene expression

  14. Early postnatal treatment with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 prevents prenatal dexamethasone and postnatal high saturated fat diet induced programmed hypertension in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Chen; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Lin, Yu-Ju; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Tsai, Ching-Chou; Huang, Li-Tung; Tain, You-Lin

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure, postnatal high-fat (HF) intake, and arachidonic acid pathway are closely related to hypertension. We tested whether a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) therapy can rescue programmed hypertension in the DEX+HF two-hit model. Four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were studied: control, DEX+HF, AUDA, and 15dPGJ2. Dexamethasone (0.1mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally administered to pregnant rats from gestational day 16-22. Male offspring received high-fat diet (D12331, Research Diets) from weaning to 4 months of age. In AUDA group, mother rats received 25mg/L in drinking water during lactation. In the 15dPGJ2 group, male offspring received 15dPGJ2 1.5mg/kg BW by subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week after birth. We found postnatal HF diet aggravated prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension, which was similarly prevented by early treatment with AUDA or 15dPGJ2. The beneficial effects of AUDA and 15d-PGJ2 therapy include inhibition of SEH, increases of renal angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) protein levels, and restoration of nitric oxide bioavailability. Better understanding of the impact of arachidonic acid pathway in the two-hit model will help prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to corticosteroids and postnatal HF intake. PMID:27210044

  15. Inhibition of Chronic Pancreatitis and Murine Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia by a Dual Inhibitor of c-RAF and Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in LSL-KrasG12D/Pdx-1-Cre Mice

    PubMed Central

    LIAO, JIE; HWANG, SUNG HEE; LI, HAONAN; LIU, JUN-YAN; HAMMOCK, BRUCE D.; YANG, GUANG-YU

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and chronic pancreatitis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis. In the process of long-standing chronic inflammation, aberrant metabolites of arachidonic acid play a crucial role in promoting carcinogenesis, in which the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), as a pro-inflammatory enzyme, generally inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Herein, we determined the effect of our newly-synthesized novel compound trans-4-{4-[3-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methylamide (t-CUPM), a dual inhibitor of sEH and RAF1 proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (c-RAF), on inhibiting the development of pancreatitis and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPanIN) in LSL-KrasG12D/Pdx1-Cre mice. The results showed that t-CUPM significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis, as measured by the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The progression of low-grade mPanIN I to high-grade mPanIN II/III was significantly suppressed. Inhibition of mutant Kras-transmitted phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase’s kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases was demonstrated in pancreatic tissues by western blots. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that t-CUPM treatment significantly reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis facor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as vascular adhesion molecule-1, and the levels of Sonic hedgehog and Gli transcription factor (Hedgehog pathway). Analysis of the eicosanoid profile revealed a significant increase of the EETs/dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids ratio, which further confirmed sEH inhibition by t-CUPM. These results indicate that simultaneous inhibition of sEH and c-RAF by t-CUPM is important in preventing chronic pancreatitis and carcinogenesis

  16. Inhibition of Chronic Pancreatitis and Murine Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia by a Dual Inhibitor of c-RAF and Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in LSL-KrasG¹²D/Pdx-1-Cre Mice.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jie; Hwang, Sung Hee; Li, Haonan; Liu, Jun-Yan; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and chronic pancreatitis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis. In the process of long-standing chronic inflammation, aberrant metabolites of arachidonic acid play a crucial role in promoting carcinogenesis, in which the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), as a pro-inflammatory enzyme, generally inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Herein, we determined the effect of our newly-synthesized novel compound trans-4-{4-[3-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methylamide (t-CUPM), a dual inhibitor of sEH and RAF1 proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (c-RAF), on inhibiting the development of pancreatitis and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPanIN) in LSL-Kras(G12D)/Pdx1-Cre mice. The results showed that t-CUPM significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis, as measured by the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The progression of low-grade mPanIN I to high-grade mPanIN II/III was significantly suppressed. Inhibition of mutant Kras-transmitted phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase's kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases was demonstrated in pancreatic tissues by western blots. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that t-CUPM treatment significantly reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis facor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as vascular adhesion molecule-1, and the levels of Sonic hedgehog and Gli transcription factor (Hedgehog pathway). Analysis of the eicosanoid profile revealed a significant increase of the EETs/dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids ratio, which further confirmed sEH inhibition by t-CUPM. These results indicate that simultaneous inhibition of sEH and c-RAF by t-CUPM is important in preventing chronic pancreatitis and carcinogenesis

  17. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2013-02-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  18. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOEpatents

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2011-04-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  19. Structural and functional attributes of malaria parasite diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arvind; Yogavel, Manickam; Sharma, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Malaria symptoms are driven by periodic multiplication cycles of Plasmodium parasites in human red blood corpuscles (RBCs). Malaria infection still accounts for ~600,000 annual deaths, and hence discovery of both new drug targets and drugs remains vital. In the present study, we have investigated the malaria parasite enzyme diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase that regulates levels of signalling molecules like Ap4A by hydrolyzing them to ATP and AMP. We have tracked the spatial distribution of parasitic Ap4A hydrolase in infected RBCs, and reveal its unusual localization on the infected RBC membrane in subpopulation of infected cells. Interestingly, enzyme activity assays reveal an interaction between Ap4A hydrolase and the parasite growth inhibitor suramin. We also present a high resolution crystal structure of Ap4A hydrolase in apo- and sulphate- bound state, where the sulphate resides in the enzyme active site by mimicking the phosphate of substrates like Ap4A. The unexpected infected erythrocyte localization of the parasitic Ap4A hydrolase hints at a possible role of this enzyme in purinerigic signaling. In addition, atomic structure of Ap4A hydrolase provides insights for selective drug targeting. PMID:26829485

  20. Structural and functional attributes of malaria parasite diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arvind; Yogavel, Manickam; Sharma, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Malaria symptoms are driven by periodic multiplication cycles of Plasmodium parasites in human red blood corpuscles (RBCs). Malaria infection still accounts for ~600,000 annual deaths, and hence discovery of both new drug targets and drugs remains vital. In the present study, we have investigated the malaria parasite enzyme diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase that regulates levels of signalling molecules like Ap4A by hydrolyzing them to ATP and AMP. We have tracked the spatial distribution of parasitic Ap4A hydrolase in infected RBCs, and reveal its unusual localization on the infected RBC membrane in subpopulation of infected cells. Interestingly, enzyme activity assays reveal an interaction between Ap4A hydrolase and the parasite growth inhibitor suramin. We also present a high resolution crystal structure of Ap4A hydrolase in apo- and sulphate- bound state, where the sulphate resides in the enzyme active site by mimicking the phosphate of substrates like Ap4A. The unexpected infected erythrocyte localization of the parasitic Ap4A hydrolase hints at a possible role of this enzyme in purinerigic signaling. In addition, atomic structure of Ap4A hydrolase provides insights for selective drug targeting. PMID:26829485

  1. Competitive Activity-Based Protein Profiling Identifies Aza-β-Lactams as a Versatile Chemotype for Serine Hydrolase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Zuhl, Andrea M.; Mohr, Justin T.; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Niessen, Sherry; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Berlin, Jacob M.; Dochnahl, Maximilian; López-Alberca, María P.; Fu, Gregory C.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2012-01-01

    Serine hydrolases are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in Nature. Most serine hydrolases lack selective inhibitors, which are needed for assigning functions to these enzymes. We recently discovered a set of aza-β-lactams (ABLs) that act as potent and selective inhibitors of the mammalian serine hydrolase protein-phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1). The ABLs inactivate PME-1 by covalent acylation of the enzyme’s serine nucleophile, suggesting that they could offer a general scaffold for serine hydrolase inhibitor discovery. Here, we have tested this hypothesis by screening ABLs more broadly against cell and tissue proteomes by competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), leading to the discovery of lead inhibitors for several serine hydrolases, including the uncharacterized enzyme alpha, beta-hydrolase-10 (ABHD10). ABPP-guided medicinal chemistry yielded a compound ABL303 that potently (IC50 value ~ 30 nM) and selectively inactivated ABHD10 in vitro and in living cells. A comparison of optimized inhibitors for PME-1 and ABHD10 indicates that modest structural changes that alter steric bulk can tailor the ABL to selectively react with distinct, sequence-unrelated serine hydrolases. Our findings, taken together, designate the ABL as a versatile reactive group for creating first-in-class serine hydrolase inhibitors. PMID:22400490

  2. Competitive activity-based protein profiling identifies aza-β-lactams as a versatile chemotype for serine hydrolase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zuhl, Andrea M; Mohr, Justin T; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Niessen, Sherry; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Berlin, Jacob M; Dochnahl, Maximilian; López-Alberca, María P; Fu, Gregory C; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2012-03-21

    Serine hydrolases are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in Nature. Most serine hydrolases lack selective inhibitors, which are valuable probes for assigning functions to these enzymes. We recently discovered a set of aza-β-lactams (ABLs) that act as potent and selective inhibitors of the mammalian serine hydrolase protein-phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1). The ABLs inactivate PME-1 by covalent acylation of the enzyme's serine nucleophile, suggesting that they could offer a general scaffold for serine hydrolase inhibitor discovery. Here, we have tested this hypothesis by screening ABLs more broadly against cell and tissue proteomes by competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), leading to the discovery of lead inhibitors for several serine hydrolases, including the uncharacterized enzyme α,β-hydrolase domain-containing 10 (ABHD10). ABPP-guided medicinal chemistry yielded a compound ABL303 that potently (IC(50) ≈ 30 nM) and selectively inactivated ABHD10 in vitro and in living cells. A comparison of optimized inhibitors for PME-1 and ABHD10 indicates that modest structural changes that alter steric bulk can tailor the ABL to selectively react with distinct, distantly related serine hydrolases. Our findings, taken together, designate the ABL as a versatile reactive group for creating first-in-class serine hydrolase inhibitors. PMID:22400490

  3. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Dimerization Is Required for Hydrolase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jonathan W.; Subrahmanyan, Rishi M.; Summers, Sol A.; Xiao, Xiangshu; Alkayed, Nabil J.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a key role in the metabolic conversion of the protective eicosanoid 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid to 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid. Accordingly, inhibition of sEH hydrolase activity has been shown to be beneficial in multiple models of cardiovascular diseases, thus identifying sEH as a valuable therapeutic target. Recently, a common human polymorphism (R287Q) was identified that reduces sEH hydrolase activity and is localized to the dimerization interface of the protein, suggesting a relationship between sEH dimerization and activity. To directly test the hypothesis that dimerization is essential for the proper function of sEH, we generated mutations within the sEH protein that would either disrupt or stabilize dimerization. We quantified the dimerization state of each mutant using a split firefly luciferase protein fragment-assisted complementation system. The hydrolase activity of each mutant was determined using a fluorescence-based substrate conversion assay. We found that mutations that disrupted dimerization also eliminated hydrolase enzymatic activity. In contrast, a mutation that stabilized dimerization restored hydrolase activity. Finally, we investigated the kinetics of sEH dimerization and found that the human R287Q polymorphism was metastable and capable of swapping dimer partners faster than the WT enzyme. These results indicate that dimerization is required for sEH hydrolase activity. Disrupting sEH dimerization may therefore serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for reducing sEH hydrolase activity. PMID:23362272

  4. Soluble epoxide hydrolase dimerization is required for hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jonathan W; Subrahmanyan, Rishi M; Summers, Sol A; Xiao, Xiangshu; Alkayed, Nabil J

    2013-03-15

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a key role in the metabolic conversion of the protective eicosanoid 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid to 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid. Accordingly, inhibition of sEH hydrolase activity has been shown to be beneficial in multiple models of cardiovascular diseases, thus identifying sEH as a valuable therapeutic target. Recently, a common human polymorphism (R287Q) was identified that reduces sEH hydrolase activity and is localized to the dimerization interface of the protein, suggesting a relationship between sEH dimerization and activity. To directly test the hypothesis that dimerization is essential for the proper function of sEH, we generated mutations within the sEH protein that would either disrupt or stabilize dimerization. We quantified the dimerization state of each mutant using a split firefly luciferase protein fragment-assisted complementation system. The hydrolase activity of each mutant was determined using a fluorescence-based substrate conversion assay. We found that mutations that disrupted dimerization also eliminated hydrolase enzymatic activity. In contrast, a mutation that stabilized dimerization restored hydrolase activity. Finally, we investigated the kinetics of sEH dimerization and found that the human R287Q polymorphism was metastable and capable of swapping dimer partners faster than the WT enzyme. These results indicate that dimerization is required for sEH hydrolase activity. Disrupting sEH dimerization may therefore serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for reducing sEH hydrolase activity. PMID:23362272

  5. Inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

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  6. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    van Heijenoort, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The review summarizes the abundant information on the 35 identified peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases of Escherichia coli classified into 12 distinct families, including mainly glycosidases, peptidases, and amidases. An attempt is also made to critically assess their functions in PG maturation, turnover, elongation, septation, and recycling as well as in cell autolysis. There is at least one hydrolytic activity for each bond linking PG components, and most hydrolase genes were identified. Few hydrolases appear to be individually essential. The crystal structures and reaction mechanisms of certain hydrolases having defined functions were investigated. However, our knowledge of the biochemical properties of most hydrolases still remains fragmentary, and that of their cellular functions remains elusive. Owing to redundancy, PG hydrolases far outnumber the enzymes of PG biosynthesis. The presence of the two sets of enzymes acting on the PG bonds raises the question of their functional correlations. It is difficult to understand why E. coli keeps such a large set of PG hydrolases. The subtle differences in substrate specificities between the isoenzymes of each family certainly reflect a variety of as-yet-unidentified physiological functions. Their study will be a far more difficult challenge than that of the steps of the PG biosynthesis pathway. PMID:22126997

  7. Immunoprotective responses of T helper type 1 stimulatory protein-S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Khare, P; Jaiswal, A K; Tripathi, C D P; Sundar, S; Dube, A

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that a patient in clinical remission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains immune to reinfection, which provides a rationale for the feasibility of a vaccine against this deadly disease. In earlier studies, observation of significant cellular responses in treated Leishmania patients as well as in hamsters against leishmanial antigens from different fractions led to its further proteomic characterization, wherein S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (AdoHcy) was identified as a helper type 1 (Th1) stimulatory protein. The present study includes immunological characterization of this protein, its cellular responses [lymphoproliferation, nitric oxide (NO) production and cytokine responses] in treated Leishmania-infected hamsters and patients as well as prophylactic efficacy against Leishmania challenge in hamsters and the immune responses generated thereof. Significantly higher cellular responses were noticed against recombinant L. donovani S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (rLdAdoHcy) compared to soluble L. donovani antigen in treated samples. Moreover, stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with rLdAdoHcy up-regulated the levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12 and down-regulated IL-10. Furthermore, vaccination with rLdAdoHcy generated perceptible delayed-type hypersensitivity response and exerted considerably good prophylactic efficacy (∼70% inhibition) against L. donovani challenge. The efficacy was confirmed by the increased expression levels of inducible NO synthase and Th1-type cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-12 and down-regulation of IL-4, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The results indicate the potentiality of rLdAdoHcy protein as a suitable vaccine candidate against VL. PMID:26898994

  8. Polyglycine hydrolases secreted by pathogenic fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogens are known to produce proteases that target host defense proteins. Here we describe polyglycine hydrolases, fungal proteases that selectively cleave glycine-glycine peptide bonds within the polyglycine interdomain linker of targeted plant defense chitinases. Polyglycine hydrolases were puri...

  9. Increases in Levels of Epoxyeicosatrienoic and Dihydroxyeicosatrienoic Acids (EETs and DHETs) in Liver and Heart in Vivo by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and in Hepatic EET:DHET Ratios by Cotreatment with TCDD and the Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor AUDA

    PubMed Central

    Diani-Moore, Silvia; Ma, Yuliang; Gross, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    The environmental toxin and carcinogen 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) binds and activates the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), inducing CYP1 family cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP1A2 and its avian ortholog CYP1A5 are highly active arachidonic acid epoxygenases. Epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid to four regioisomeric epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and selected monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). EETs can be further metabolized by epoxide hydrolases to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). As P450–arachidonic acid metabolites affect vasoregulation, responses to ischemia, inflammation, and metabolic disorders, identification of their production in vivo is needed to understand their contribution to biologic effects of TCDD and other AHR activators. Here we report use of an acetonitrile-based extraction procedure that markedly increased the yield of arachidonic acid products by lipidomic analysis over a standard solid-phase extraction protocol. We show that TCDD increased all four EETs (5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-), their corresponding DHETs, and 18- and 20-HETE in liver in vivo and increased 5,6-EET, the four DHETs, and 18-HETE in heart, in a chick embryo model. As the chick embryo heart lacks arachidonic acid–metabolizing activity, the latter findings suggest that arachidonic acid metabolites may travel from their site of production to a distal organ, i.e., heart. To determine if the TCDD–arachidonic acid–metabolite profile could be altered pharmacologically, chick embryos were treated with TCDD and the soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA). Cotreatment with AUDA increased hepatic EET-to-DHET ratios, indicating that the in vivo profile of P450–arachidonic acid metabolites can be modified for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:24311719

  10. Increases in levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs and DHETs) in liver and heart in vivo by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and in hepatic EET:DHET ratios by cotreatment with TCDD and the soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor AUDA.

    PubMed

    Diani-Moore, Silvia; Ma, Yuliang; Gross, Steven S; Rifkind, Arleen B

    2014-02-01

    The environmental toxin and carcinogen 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) binds and activates the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), inducing CYP1 family cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP1A2 and its avian ortholog CYP1A5 are highly active arachidonic acid epoxygenases. Epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid to four regioisomeric epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and selected monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). EETs can be further metabolized by epoxide hydrolases to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). As P450-arachidonic acid metabolites affect vasoregulation, responses to ischemia, inflammation, and metabolic disorders, identification of their production in vivo is needed to understand their contribution to biologic effects of TCDD and other AHR activators. Here we report use of an acetonitrile-based extraction procedure that markedly increased the yield of arachidonic acid products by lipidomic analysis over a standard solid-phase extraction protocol. We show that TCDD increased all four EETs (5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-), their corresponding DHETs, and 18- and 20-HETE in liver in vivo and increased 5,6-EET, the four DHETs, and 18-HETE in heart, in a chick embryo model. As the chick embryo heart lacks arachidonic acid-metabolizing activity, the latter findings suggest that arachidonic acid metabolites may travel from their site of production to a distal organ, i.e., heart. To determine if the TCDD-arachidonic acid-metabolite profile could be altered pharmacologically, chick embryos were treated with TCDD and the soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA). Cotreatment with AUDA increased hepatic EET-to-DHET ratios, indicating that the in vivo profile of P450-arachidonic acid metabolites can be modified for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:24311719

  11. Hierarchical classification of glycoside hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Naumoff, D G

    2011-06-01

    This review deals with structural and functional features of glycoside hydrolases, a widespread group of enzymes present in almost all living organisms. Their catalytic domains are grouped into 120 amino acid sequence-based families in the international classification of the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy database). At a higher hierarchical level some of these families are combined in 14 clans. Enzymes of the same clan have common evolutionary origin of their genes and share the most important functional characteristics such as composition of the active center, anomeric configuration of cleaved glycosidic bonds, and molecular mechanism of the catalyzed reaction (either inverting, or retaining). There are now extensive data in the literature concerning the relationship between glycoside hydrolase families belonging to different clans and/or included in none of them, as well as information on phylogenetic protein relationship within particular families. Summarizing these data allows us to propose a multilevel hierarchical classification of glycoside hydrolases and their homologs. It is shown that almost the whole variety of the enzyme catalytic domains can be brought into six main folds, large groups of proteins having the same three-dimensional structure and the supposed common evolutionary origin. PMID:21639842

  12. A novel activity of microsomal epoxide hydrolase: metabolism of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Nithipatikom, Kasem; Endsley, Michael P.; Pfeiffer, Adam W.; Falck, John R.; Campbell, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1, EC 3.3.2.9) is a highly abundant α/β-hydrolase enzyme that is known for its catalytical epoxide hydrolase activity. A wide range of EPHX1 functions have been demonstrated including xenobiotic metabolism; however, characterization of its endogenous substrates is limited. In this study, we present evidence that EPHX1 metabolizes the abundant endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to free arachidonic acid (AA) and glycerol. The EPHX1 metabolism of 2-AG was demonstrated using commercially available EPHX1 microsomes as well as PC-3 cells overexpressing EPHX1. Conversely, EPHX1 siRNA markedly reduced the EPHX1 expression and 2-AG metabolism in HepG2 cells and LNCaP cells. A selective EPHX1 inhibitor, 10-hydroxystearamide, inhibited 2-AG metabolism and hydrolysis of a well-known EPHX1 substrate, cis-stilbene oxide. Among the inhibitors studied, a serine hydrolase inhibitor, methoxy-arachidonyl fluorophosphate, was the most potent inhibitor of 2-AG metabolism by EPHX1 microsomes. These results demonstrate that 2-AG is an endogenous substrate for EPHX1, a potential role of EPHX1 in the endocannabinoid signaling and a new AA biosynthetic pathway. PMID:24958911

  13. Subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics in poultry feeds and their effects on weight gain, feed efficiency, and bacterial cholyltaurine hydrolase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Feighner, S D; Dashkevicz, M P

    1987-01-01

    A radiochemical method was developed to estimate cholyltaurine hydrolase potentials and rates of cholyltaurine hydrolysis in chicken intestinal homogenates. This method was used to monitor the effects of antibiotic feed additives on cholyltaurine hydrolase activity. Avoparcin, bacitracin methylenedisalisylic acid, efrotomycin, lincomycin, penicillin G procaine, and virginiamycin improved rate of weight gain and feed conversion of chicks and decreased cholyltaurine hydrolase activity in ileal homogenates relative to those of nonmedicated control birds. The results provided the first evidence that feeding selected antibiotics at subtherapeutic levels can affect bile acid-transforming enzymes in small-intestinal homogenates. The inverse relationship between growth performance and cholyltaurine hydrolase activity raises the possibility that specific inhibitors of this enzyme may promote weight gain and feed conversion in livestock and thereby reduce or eliminate the need for antibiotic feed additives. PMID:3566269

  14. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun Ping; Swain, Elisabeth; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I′, II, II′) were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, Km, Vmax) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 PMID:16652959

  15. Assays for the classification of two types of esterases: carboxylic ester hydrolases and phosphoric triester hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, Douglas D; Roe, R Michael

    2002-11-01

    Assays for the Classification of Two Types of Esterases: Carboxylic Ester Hydrolase and Phosphoric Triester Hydrolase (Douglas D. Anspaugh and Michael Roe, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina). This unit describes assays that quantitate two types of esterase the carboxylic ester hydrolases and the phosphoric triester hydrolases. Carboxylic ester hydrolases include the B-esterases, which are inhibited by organophosphorus compounds. Among the phosphoric triester hydrolases is aryldialkylphosphatase, which has been called A-esterase or paraoxonase due to its ability to oxidize paraoxon and other organophosphates. These assays are colorimetric and miniaturized for rapid simultaneous testing of multiple, small-volume samples in a microtiter plate format. There is also a discussion of the history of esterase nomenclature and the reasons why this large group of enzymes is so difficult to classify. PMID:20945297

  16. Epoxide hydrolase activities and epoxy fatty acids in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Mamatha, Dadala M.

    2015-01-01

    Culex mosquitoes have emerged as important model organisms for mosquito biology, and are disease vectors for multiple mosquito-borne pathogens, including West Nile virus. We characterized epoxide hydrolase activities in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, which suggested multiple forms of epoxide hydrolases were present. We found EH activities on epoxy eicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs and other eicosanoids are well-established lipid signaling molecules in vertebrates. We showed EETs can be synthesized in vitro from arachidonic acids by mosquito lysate, and EETs were also detected in vivo both in larvae and adult mosquitoes by LC-MS/MS. The EH activities on EETs can be induced by blood feeding, and the highest activity was observed in the midgut of female mosquitoes. The enzyme activities on EETs can be inhibited by urea-based inhibitors designed for mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases (sEH). The sEH inhibitors have been shown to play diverse biological roles in mammalian systems, and they can be useful tools to study the function of EETs in mosquitoes. Besides juvenile hormone metabolism and detoxification, insect epoxide hydrolases may also play a role in regulating lipid signaling molecules, such as EETs and other epoxy fatty acids, synthesized in vivo or obtained from blood feeding by female mosquitoes. PMID:25686802

  17. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Enhances Memory Acquisition through Activation of PPAR-alpha Nuclear Receptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB[subscript 1]-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain.…

  18. Hydrolase-catalyzed biotransformations in deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Gorke, Johnathan T; Srienc, Friedrich; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2008-03-14

    Hydrolases show good catalytic activity in deep eutectic solvents, despite the presence of urea, which can denature enzymes, or alcohols, which can interfere with hydrolase-catalyzed reactions. PMID:18309428

  19. Structure and function of polyglycine hydrolases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyglycine hydrolases (PGH)s are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave polyglycine linkers of targeted plant defense chitinases. Unlike typical endoproteases that cleave a specific peptide bond, these 640 amino acid glycoproteins selectively cleave one of multiple peptide bonds within polyglyci...

  20. PLANT FATTY ACID (ETHANOL) AMIDE HYDROLASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) plays a central role in modulating endogenous N-acylethanolamine (NAE) levels in vertebrates, and, in part, constitutes an “endocannabinoid” signaling pathway that regulates diverse physiological and behavioral processes in animals. Recently, an Arabidopsis FAAH hom...

  1. Dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase synergistically suppresses primary tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guodong; Panigrahy, Dipak; Hwang, Sung Hee; Yang, Jun; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Wettersten, Hiromi I.; Liu, Jun-Yan; Wang, Yanru; Ingham, Elizabeth S.; Tam, Sarah; Kieran, Mark W.; Weiss, Robert H.; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandins derived from the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) from the cytochrome P450/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway are important eicosanoids that regulate angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. COX-2 inhibitors, which block the formation of prostaglandins, suppress tumor growth, whereas sEH inhibitors, which increase endogenous EETs, stimulate primary tumor growth and metastasis. However, the functional interactions of these two pathways in cancer are unknown. Using pharmacological inhibitors as probes, we show here that dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH synergistically inhibits primary tumor growth and metastasis by suppressing tumor angiogenesis. COX-2/sEH dual pharmacological inhibitors also potently suppress primary tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis via selective inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. These results demonstrate a critical interaction of these two lipid metabolism pathways on tumorigenesis and suggest dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:25024195

  2. Discovery of a Novel Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase-Catalyzed Hydration of a Spiro Oxetane.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Qing; Hayes, Martin A; Grönberg, Gunnar; Berggren, Kristina; Castagnoli, Neal; Weidolf, Lars

    2016-08-01

    Oxetane moieties are increasingly being used by the pharmaceutical industry as building blocks in drug candidates because of their pronounced ability to improve physicochemical parameters and metabolic stability of drug candidates. The enzymes that catalyze the biotransformation of the oxetane moiety are, however, not well studied. The in vitro metabolism of a spiro oxetane-containing compound AZD1979 [(3-(4-(2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptan-6-ylmethyl)phenoxy)azetidin-1-yl)(5-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methanone] was studied and one of its metabolites, M1, attracted our interest because its formation was NAD(P)H independent. The focus of this work was to elucidate the structure of M1 and to understand the mechanism(s) of its formation. We established that M1 was formed via hydration and ring opening of the oxetanyl moiety of AZD1979. Incubations of AZD1979 using various human liver subcellular fractions revealed that the hydration reaction leading to M1 occurred mainly in the microsomal fraction. The underlying mechanism as a hydration, rather than an oxidation reaction, was supported by the incorporation of (18)O from H2 (18)O into M1. Enzyme kinetics were performed probing the formation of M1 in human liver microsomes. The formation of M1 was substantially inhibited by progabide, a microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, but not by trans-4-[4-(1-adamantylcarbamoylamino)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid, a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor. On the basis of these results, we propose that microsomal epoxide hydrolase catalyzes the formation of M1. The substrate specificity of microsomal epoxide hydrolase should therefore be expanded to include not only epoxides but also the oxetanyl ring system present in AZD1979. PMID:27256986

  3. Biosynthesis, glycosylation, and intracellular transport of intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase in rat.

    PubMed

    Büller, H A; Montgomery, R K; Sasak, W V; Grand, R J

    1987-12-15

    The biosynthesis of rat intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase was studied by pulse-labeling of jejunal explants from 5-day-old suckling rats in organ culture. Explants were either continuously labeled with [35S] methionine for 15, 30, and 60 min or pulse-labeled for 30 min and chased for various periods of time up to 6 h in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors (PI), leupeptin, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, and soybean trypsin inhibitor. Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase was immunoprecipitated from microvillus membrane (MVM) and ER-Golgi fractions with monoclonal antibodies. After pulse-labeling, lactase-phlorizin hydrolase from the ER-Golgi fraction appeared on SDS-PAGE as one band of approximately 220 kDa, regardless of the presence or absence of PI in the culture media. The 220-kDa protein band could also be labeled after incubation with [2-3H]mannose. In the absence of PI, the 220-kDa band appeared in the MVM by 30 min chase, simultaneously with a 180-kDa band, and by 60 min of chase an additional band of 130 kDa was seen. With increasing time of chase, the relative intensity of the 130-kDa band increased, whereas that of the 220-kDa band decreased, suggesting a precursor-product relationship. When PI were added to the medium, the formation of the 180-kDa band was not affected, but the conversion of the 180-kDa protein to the 130-kDa protein was virtually blocked. These findings suggest that lactase-phlorizin hydrolase is initially synthesized as a glycosylated precursor of 220 kDa, which is transported to the MVM. There it undergoes the following two cleavages: first, to the 180-kDa form, which is not prevented by PI used in these experiments, and second, to the 130-kDa form inhibited by PI. PMID:3119597

  4. Peptidyl - tRNA hydrolase and RNase activities in cell fractions of rat liver used in in vitro reconstitution of rough membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, A A; Czosnek, H H; Ziv, E

    1975-01-01

    Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase and RNase activities have been studied in those fractions of rat liver, which are used in in vitro reconstitution of rough membrane, because these enzymes may interfere with the in vitro reconstitution. It was found that smooth membrane has an active peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, while the other fractions tested, polyribosomes, rough membrane, stripped rough membrane and the post-microsomal supernatant had no, or very low, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase activity. Polyribosomes, rough and stripped rough membrane have RNase activity; this activity could be completely inhibited by rat liver RNase inhibitor. It is shown that RNase inhibitor is an obligatory component in in vitro experiments, in which rough membrane is reconstituted from stripped rough membrane, ribosomes and mRNA. PMID:1144067

  5. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2015-10-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation. PMID:26187963

  6. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-01-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation. PMID:26187963

  7. Structures and Mechanisms of Nudix Hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Mildvan,A.; Xia, Z.; Azurmendi, H.; saraswat, V.; Legler, P.; Massiah, M.; Gabelli, S.; Bianchet, M.; Kang, L.; Amzel, L.

    2005-01-01

    Nudix hydrolases are a family of proteins that contain the characteristic sequence GX(5)EX(7)REUXEEXG(I/L/V), the Nudix box. They catalyze the hydrolysis of a variety of nucleoside diphosphate derivatives such as ADP-ribose, Ap(n)A (3 hydrolases from several species, ranging from bacteria to humans, have been characterized, including, in some cases, the determination of their three-dimensional structures. The product of the Rv1700 gene of M. tuberculosis is a Nudix hydrolase specific for ADP-ribose (ADPR). We have determined the crystal structures of MT-ADPRase alone, and in complex with substrate, with substrate and the nonactivating metal ion Gd(3+), and in complex with a nonhydrolyzable ADPR analog and the activating metal ion Mn(2+). These structures, refined with data extending to resolutions between 2.0 and 2.3 A, showed that there are sequence differences in binding site residues between MT-ADPRase and a human homolog that may be exploited for antituberculosis drug development.

  8. Evaluation of fish models of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, J W; Denton, D L; Morisseau, C; Koger, C S; Wheelock, C E; Hinton, D E; Hammock, B D

    2001-01-01

    Substituted ureas and carbamates are mechanistic inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). We screened a set of chemicals containing these functionalities in larval fathead minnow (Pimphales promelas) and embryo/larval golden medaka (Oryzias latipes) models to evaluate the utility of these systems for investigating sEH inhibition in vivo. Both fathead minnow and medaka sEHs were functionally similar to the tested mammalian orthologs (murine and human) with respect to substrate hydrolysis and inhibitor susceptibility. Low lethality was observed in either larval or embryonic fish exposed to diuron [N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl), N'-dimethyl urea], desmethyl diuron [N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl), N'-methyl urea], or siduron [N-(1-methylcyclohexyl), N'-phenyl urea]. Dose-dependent inhibition of sEH was a sublethal effect of substituted urea exposure with the potency of siduron < desmethyl diuron = diuron, differing from the observed in vitro sEH inhibition potency of siduron > desmethyl diuron > diuron. Further, siduron exposure synergized the toxicity of trans-stilbene oxide in fathead minnows. Medaka embryos exposed to diuron, desmethyl diuron, or siduron displayed dose-dependent delays in hatch, and elevated concentrations of diuron and desmethyl diuron produced developmental toxicity. The dose-dependent toxicity and in vivo sEH inhibition correlated, suggesting a potential, albeit undefined, relationship between these factors. Additionally, the observed inversion of in vitro to in vivo potency suggests that these fish models may provide tools for investigating the in vivo stability of in vitro inhibitors while screening for untoward effects. PMID:11171526

  9. Expression and characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from Anopheles gambiae with high activity on epoxy fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiawen; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    In insects, epoxide hydrolases (EHs) play critical roles in the metabolism of xenobiotic epoxides from the food resources and in the regulation of endogenous chemical mediators, such as juvenile hormones. Using the baculovirus expression system, we expressed and characterized an epoxide hydrolase from Anopheles gambiae (AgEH) that is distinct in evolutionary history from insect juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolases (JHEHs). We partially purified the enzyme by ion exchange chromatography and isoelectric focusing. The experimentally determined molecular weight and pI were estimated to be 35kD and 6.3 respectively, different than the theoretical ones. The AgEH had the greatest activity on long chain epoxy fatty acids such as 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (14,15-EET) and 9,10-epoxy-12Z-octadecenoic acids (9,10-EpOME or leukotoxin) among the substrates evaluated. Juvenile hormone III, a terpenoid insect growth regulator, was the next best substrate tested. The AgEH showed kinetics comparable to the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases, and the activity could be inhibited by AUDA [12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid], a urea-based inhibitor designed to inhibit the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolases. The rabbit serum generated against the soluble epoxide hydrolase of Mus musculus can both cross-react with natural and denatured forms of the AgEH, suggesting immunologically they are similar. The study suggests there are mammalian sEH homologs in insects, and epoxy fatty acids may be important chemical mediators in insects. PMID:25173592

  10. Structure of HsaD, a steroid-degrading hydrolase, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lack, Nathan; Lowe, Edward D.; Liu, Jie; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Noble, Martin E. M.; Sim, Edith; Westwood, Isaac M.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of HsaD, a carbon–carbon bond serine hydrolase involved in steroid catabolism that is critical for the survival of M. tuberculosis inside human macrophages, has been solved by X-ray crystallography. Data were collected at the Diamond Light Source in Oxfordshire, England: this paper describes one of the first structures determined at the new synchrotron. Tuberculosis is a major cause of death worldwide. Understanding of the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been advanced by gene analysis and has led to the identification of genes that are important for intracellular survival in macrophages. One of these genes encodes HsaD, a meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of a carbon–carbon bond in cholesterol metabolism. This paper describes the production of HsaD as a recombinant protein and, following crystallization, the determination of its three-dimensional structure to 2.35 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography at the Diamond Light Source in Oxfordshire, England. To the authors’ knowledge, this study constitutes the first report of a structure determined at the new synchrotron facility. The volume of the active-site cleft of the HsaD enzyme is more than double the corresponding active-site volumes of related MCP hydrolases involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, consistent with the specificity of HsaD for steroids such as cholesterol. Knowledge of the structure of the enzyme facilitates the design of inhibitors.

  11. Cyanuric acid hydrolase: evolutionary innovation by structural concatenation

    PubMed Central

    Peat, Thomas S; Balotra, Sahil; Wilding, Matthew; French, Nigel G; Briggs, Lyndall J; Panjikar, Santosh; Cowieson, Nathan; Newman, Janet; Scott, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The cyanuric acid hydrolase, AtzD, is the founding member of a newly identified family of ring-opening amidases. We report the first X-ray structure for this family, which is a novel fold (termed the ‘Toblerone’ fold) that likely evolved via the concatenation of monomers of the trimeric YjgF superfamily and the acquisition of a metal binding site. Structures of AtzD with bound substrate (cyanuric acid) and inhibitors (phosphate, barbituric acid and melamine), along with mutagenesis studies, allowed the identification of the active site. The AtzD monomer, active site and substrate all possess threefold rotational symmetry, to the extent that the active site possesses three potential Ser–Lys catalytic dyads. A single catalytic dyad (Ser85–Lys42) is hypothesized, based on biochemical evidence and crystallographic data. A plausible catalytic mechanism based on these observations is also presented. A comparison with a homology model of the related barbiturase, Bar, was used to infer the active-site residues responsible for substrate specificity, and the phylogeny of the 68 AtzD-like enzymes in the database were analysed in light of this structure–function relationship. PMID:23651355

  12. Thermostable Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingyan; Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2009-01-01

    Cyanuric acid, a metabolic intermediate in the degradation of many s-triazine compounds, is further metabolized by cyanuric acid hydrolase. Cyanuric acid also accumulates in swimming pools due to the breakdown of the sanitizing agents di- and trichloroisocyanuric acid. Structurally stable cyanuric acid hydrolases are being considered for usage in pool water remediation. In this study, cyanuric acid hydrolase from the thermophile Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. The recombinant enzyme was found to have a broader temperature range and greater stability, at both elevated and low temperatures, than previously described cyanuric acid hydrolases. The enzyme had a narrow substrate specificity, acting only on cyanuric acid and N-methylisocyanuric acid. The M. thermoacetica enzyme did not require metals or other discernible cofactors for activity. Cyanuric acid hydrolase from M. thermoacetica is the most promising enzyme to use for cyanuric acid remediation applications. PMID:19767460

  13. Identification of N-acylethanolamines in Dictyostelium discoideum and confirmation of their hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase[S

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Alexander C.; Stupak, Jacek; Li, Jianjun; Cox, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid-based signaling molecules best known for their role in the endocannabinoid system in mammals, but they are also known to play roles in signaling pathways in plants. The regulation of NAEs in vivo is partly accomplished by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which hydrolyses NAEs to ethanolamine and their corresponding fatty acid. Inhibition of FAAH has been shown to increase the levels of NAEs in vivo and to produce desirable phenotypes. This has led to the development of pharmaceutical-based therapies for a variety of conditions targeting FAAH. Recently, our group identified a functional FAAH homolog in Dictyostelium discoideum, leading to our hypothesis that D. discoideum also possesses NAEs. In this study, we provide a further characterization of FAAH and identify NAEs in D. discoideum for the first time. We also demonstrate the ability to modulate their levels in vivo through the use of a semispecific FAAH inhibitor and confirm that these NAEs are FAAH substrates through in vitro studies. We believe the demonstration of the in vivo modulation of NAE levels suggests that D. discoideum could be a good simple model organism in which to study NAE-mediated signaling. PMID:23187822

  14. Loratadine analogues as MAGL inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayendra Z; Ahenkorah, Stephen; Vaara, Miia; Staszewski, Marek; Adams, Yahaya; Laitinen, Tuomo; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Parkkari, Teija; Savinainen, Juha R; Walczyński, Krzysztof; Laitinen, Jarmo T; Nevalainen, Tapio J

    2015-04-01

    Compound 12a (JZP-361) acted as a potent and reversible inhibitor of human recombinant MAGL (hMAGL, IC50=46 nM), and was found to have almost 150-fold higher selectivity over human recombinant fatty acid amide hydrolase (hFAAH, IC50=7.24 μM) and 35-fold higher selectivity over human α/β-hydrolase-6 (hABHD6, IC50=1.79 μM). Additionally, compound 12a retained H1 antagonistic affinity (pA2=6.81) but did not show cannabinoid receptor activity, when tested at concentrations ⩽ 10 μM. Hence, compound 12a represents a novel dual-acting pharmacological tool possessing both MAGL-inhibitory and antihistaminergic activities. PMID:25752982

  15. Exploration of the chlorpyrifos escape pathway from acylpeptide hydrolases using steered molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongmei; Jin, Hanyong; Wang, Junling; Guan, Shanshan; Zhang, Zuoming; Han, Weiwei

    2016-04-01

    Acylpeptide hydrolases (APH) catalyze the removal of an N-acylated amino acid from blocked peptides. APH is significantly more sensitive than acetylcholinesterase, a target of Alzheimer's disease, to inhibition by organophosphorus (OP) compounds. Thus, OP compounds can be used as a tool to probe the physiological functions of APH. Here, we report the results of a computational study of molecular dynamics simulations of APH bound to the OP compounds and an exploration of the chlorpyrifos escape pathway using steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. In addition, we apply SMD simulations to identify potential escape routes of chlorpyrifos from hydrolase hydrophobic cavities in the APH-inhibitor complex. Two previously proposed APH pathways were reliably identified by CAVER 3.0, with the estimated relative importance of P1 > P2 for its size. We identify the major pathway, P2, using SMD simulations, and Arg526, Glu88, Gly86, and Asn65 are identified as important residues for the ligand leaving via P2. These results may help in the design of APH-targeting drugs with improved efficacy, as well as in understanding APH selectivity of the inhibitor binding in the prolyl oligopeptidase family. PMID:26155973

  16. Computational insights into function and inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Giulia; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Cavalli, Andrea; De Vivo, Marco

    2015-02-16

    The Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme is a membrane-bound serine hydrolase responsible for the deactivating hydrolysis of a family of naturally occurring fatty acid amides. FAAH is a critical enzyme of the endocannabinoid system, being mainly responsible for regulating the level of its main cannabinoid substrate anandamide. For this reason, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH, which increases the level of endogenous anandamide, is a promising strategy to cure a variety of diseases including pain, inflammation, and cancer. Much structural, mutagenesis, and kinetic data on FAAH has been generated over the last couple of decades. This has prompted several informative computational investigations to elucidate, at the atomic-level, mechanistic details on catalysis and inhibition of this pharmaceutically relevant enzyme. Here, we review how these computational studies - based on classical molecular dynamics, full quantum mechanics, and hybrid QM/MM methods - have clarified the binding and reactivity of some relevant substrates and inhibitors of FAAH. We also discuss the experimental implications of these computational insights, which have provided a thoughtful elucidation of the complex physical and chemical steps of the enzymatic mechanism of FAAH. Finally, we discuss how computations have been helpful for building structure-activity relationships of potent FAAH inhibitors. PMID:25240419

  17. Re-characterization of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate hydrolase belonging to the serine hydrolase family.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Makoto; Imaoka, Takuya; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Takao

    2016-08-01

    A novel bacterium assimilating di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate as a sole carbon source was isolated, and identified as a Rhodococcus species and the strain was named EG-5. The strain has a mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) hydrolase (EG-5 MehpH), which exhibits some different enzymatic features when compared with the previously reported MEHP hydrolase (P8219 MehpH) from Gordonia sp. These differences include different pH optimum activity, maximal reaction temperature and heat stability. The Km and Vmax values of EG-5 MehpH were significantly higher than those of P8219 MehpH. The primary structure of EG-5 MehpH showed the highest sequence identity to that of P8219 MehpH (39%) among hydrolases. The phylogenetic tree suggested that EG-5 MehpH and P8219 MehpH were categorized in different groups of the novel MEHP hydrolase family. Mutation of a conserved R(109) residue of EG-5 MehpH to a hydrophobic residue resulted in a dramatic reduction in the Vmax value towards MEHP without affecting the Km value. These results indicate that this residue may neutralize the negative charge of a carboxylate anion of MEHP, and thus inhibit the catalytic nucleophile from attacking the ester bond. In other words, the R residue blocks inhibition from the carboxylate anion of MEHP. Recently, registered hypothetical proteins exhibiting 98% or 99% identities for EG-5 MehpH or for P8219 MehpH were found from some pathogens belonging to Actinomycetes. The protein may have other activities besides MEHP hydrolysis and function in other physiological reactions in some Actinomycetes. PMID:26868518

  18. Aspergillus niger DLFCC-90 rhamnoside hydrolase, a new type of flavonoid glycoside hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingqiang; Yu, Hongshan; Zhang, Chunzhi; Lu, Mingchun; Piao, Yongzhe; Ohba, Masashi; Tang, Minqian; Yuan, Xiaodong; Wei, Shenghua; Wang, Kan; Ma, Anzhou; Feng, Xue; Qin, Siqing; Mukai, Chisato; Tsuji, Akira; Jin, Fengxie

    2012-07-01

    A novel rutin-α-L-rhamnosidase hydrolyzing α-L-rhamnoside of rutin, naringin, and hesperidin was purified and characterized from Aspergillus niger DLFCC-90, and the gene encoding this enzyme, which is highly homologous to the α-amylase gene, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The novel enzyme was classified in glycoside-hydrolase (GH) family 13. PMID:22544243

  19. Lysophosphatidic acids are new substrates for the phosphatase domain of soluble epoxide hydrolase[S

    PubMed Central

    Oguro, Ami; Imaoka, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme that has a C-terminus epoxide hydrolase domain and an N-terminus phosphatase domain. The endogenous substrates of epoxide hydrolase are known to be epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, but the endogenous substrates of the phosphatase activity are not well understood. In this study, to explore the substrates of sEH, we investigated the inhibition of the phosphatase activity of sEH toward 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate by using lecithin and its hydrolyzed products. Although lecithin itself did not inhibit the phosphatase activity, the hydrolyzed lecithin significantly inhibited it, suggesting that lysophospholipid or fatty acid can inhibit it. Next, we investigated the inhibition of phosphatase activity by lysophosphatidyl choline, palmitoyl lysophosphatidic acid, monopalmitoyl glycerol, and palmitic acid. Palmitoyl lysophosphatidic acid and fatty acid efficiently inhibited phosphatase activity, suggesting that lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) are substrates for the phosphatase activity of sEH. As expected, palmitoyl, stearoyl, oleoyl, and arachidonoyl LPAs were efficiently dephosphorylated by sEH (Km, 3–7 μM; Vmax, 150–193 nmol/min/mg). These results suggest that LPAs are substrates of sEH, which may regulate physiological functions of cells via their metabolism. PMID:22217705

  20. Miniaturization of hydrolase assays in thermocyclers.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Severino A; Moraes, Caroline S; Costa, Samara G; de Souza, Wanderley; Azambuja, Patrícia; Garcia, Eloi S; Genta, Fernando A

    2013-03-01

    We adapted the protocols of reducing sugar measurements with dinitrosalicylic acid and bicinchoninic acid for thermocyclers and their use in enzymatic assays for hydrolases such as amylase and β-1,3-glucanase. The use of thermocyclers for these enzymatic assays resulted in a 10 times reduction in the amount of reagent and volume of the sample needed when compared with conventional microplate protocols. We standardized absorbance readings from the polymerase chain reaction plates, which allowed us to make direct readings of the techniques above, and a β-glycosidase assay was also established under the same conditions. Standardization of the enzymatic reaction in thermocyclers resulted in less time-consuming temperature calibrations and without loss of volume through leakage or evaporation from the microplate. Kinetic parameters were successfully obtained, and the use of the thermocycler allowed the measurement of enzymatic activities in biological samples from the field with a limited amount of protein. PMID:23123426

  1. A simplified electrostatic model for hydrolase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Pessoa Filho, Pedro de Alcantara; Prausnitz, John M

    2015-07-01

    Toward the development of an electrostatic model for enzyme catalysis, the active site of the enzyme is represented by a cavity whose surface (and beyond) is populated by electric charges as determined by pH and the enzyme's structure. The electric field in the cavity is obtained from electrostatics and a suitable computer program. The key chemical bond in the substrate, at its ends, has partial charges with opposite signs determined from published force-field parameters. The electric field attracts one end of the bond and repels the other, causing bond tension. If that tension exceeds the attractive force between the atoms, the bond breaks; the enzyme is then a successful catalyst. To illustrate this very simple model, based on numerous assumptions, some results are presented for three hydrolases: hen-egg white lysozyme, bovine trypsin and bovine ribonuclease. Attention is given to the effect of pH. PMID:25881958

  2. Superfamily-wide portrait of serine hydrolase inhibition achieved by library-versus-library screening.

    PubMed

    Bachovchin, Daniel A; Ji, Tianyang; Li, Weiwei; Simon, Gabriel M; Blankman, Jacqueline L; Adibekian, Alexander; Hoover, Heather; Niessen, Sherry; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2010-12-01

    Serine hydrolases (SHs) are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in mammals. They play fundamental roles in virtually all physiological processes and are targeted by drugs to treat diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite this, we lack biological understanding for most of the 110+ predicted mammalian metabolic SHs, in large part because of a dearth of assays to assess their biochemical activities and a lack of selective inhibitors to probe their function in living systems. We show here that the vast majority (> 80%) of mammalian metabolic SHs can be labeled in proteomes by a single, active site-directed fluorophosphonate probe. We exploit this universal activity-based assay in a library-versus-library format to screen 70+ SHs against 140+ structurally diverse carbamates. Lead inhibitors were discovered for ∼40% of the screened enzymes, including many poorly characterized SHs. Global profiles identified carbamate inhibitors that discriminate among highly sequence-related SHs and, conversely, enzymes that share inhibitor sensitivity profiles despite lacking sequence homology. These findings indicate that sequence relatedness is not a strong predictor of shared pharmacology within the SH superfamily. Finally, we show that lead carbamate inhibitors can be optimized into pharmacological probes that inactivate individual SHs with high specificity in vivo. PMID:21084632

  3. Superfamily-wide portrait of serine hydrolase inhibition achieved by library-versus-library screening

    PubMed Central

    Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Ji, Tianyang; Li, Weiwei; Simon, Gabriel M.; Blankman, Jacqueline L.; Adibekian, Alexander; Hoover, Heather; Niessen, Sherry; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Serine hydrolases (SHs) are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in mammals. They play fundamental roles in virtually all physiological processes and are targeted by drugs to treat diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite this, we lack biological understanding for most of the 110+ predicted mammalian metabolic SHs, in large part because of a dearth of assays to assess their biochemical activities and a lack of selective inhibitors to probe their function in living systems. We show here that the vast majority (> 80%) of mammalian metabolic SHs can be labeled in proteomes by a single, active site-directed fluorophosphonate probe. We exploit this universal activity-based assay in a library-versus-library format to screen 70+ SHs against 140+ structurally diverse carbamates. Lead inhibitors were discovered for ∼40% of the screened enzymes, including many poorly characterized SHs. Global profiles identified carbamate inhibitors that discriminate among highly sequence-related SHs and, conversely, enzymes that share inhibitor sensitivity profiles despite lacking sequence homology. These findings indicate that sequence relatedness is not a strong predictor of shared pharmacology within the SH superfamily. Finally, we show that lead carbamate inhibitors can be optimized into pharmacological probes that inactivate individual SHs with high specificity in vivo. PMID:21084632

  4. Lysophosphatidylcholine hydrolases of human erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and brain: Sensitive targets of conserved specificity for organophosphorus delayed neurotoxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Vose, Sarah C.; Holland, Nina T.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Casida, John E.

    2007-10-01

    Brain neuropathy target esterase (NTE), associated with organophosphorus (OP)-induced delayed neuropathy, has the same OP inhibitor sensitivity and specificity profiles assayed in the classical way (paraoxon-resistant, mipafox-sensitive hydrolysis of phenyl valerate) or with lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) as the substrate. Extending our earlier observation with mice, we now examine human erythrocyte, lymphocyte, and brain LysoPC hydrolases as possible sensitive targets for OP delayed neurotoxicants and insecticides. Inhibitor profiling of human erythrocytes and lymphocytes gave the surprising result of essentially the same pattern as with brain. Human erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolases are highly sensitive to OP delayed neurotoxicants, with in vitro IC{sub 50} values of 0.13-85 nM for longer alkyl analogs, and poorly sensitive to the current OP insecticides. In agricultural workers, erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolyzing activities are similar for newborn children and their mothers and do not vary with paraoxonase status but have high intersample variation that limits their use as a biomarker. Mouse erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolase activity is also of low sensitivity in vitro and in vivo to the OP insecticides whereas the delayed neurotoxicant ethyl n-octylphosphonyl fluoride inhibits activity in vivo at 1-3 mg/kg. Overall, inhibition of blood LysoPC hydrolases is as good as inhibition of brain NTE as a predictor of OP inducers of delayed neuropathy. NTE and lysophospholipases (LysoPLAs) both hydrolyze LysoPC, yet they are in distinct enzyme families with no sequence homology and very different catalytic sites. The relative contributions of NTE and LysoPLAs to LysoPC hydrolysis and clearance from erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and brain remain to be defined.

  5. Optical solid-state detection of organophosphates using organophosphorus hydrolase.

    PubMed

    White, Brandy J; Harmon, H James

    2005-04-15

    We have developed a sensor surface for optical detection of organophosphates based on reversible inhibition of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) by copper complexed meso-tri(4-sulfonato phenyl) mono(4-carboxy phenyl) porphyrin (CuC1TPP). OPH immobilized onto glass microscope slides retains catalytic activity for more than 232 days. CuC1TPP is a reversible, competitive inhibitor of OPH, binding at the active site of the immobilized enzyme. The absorbance spectrum of the porphyrin-enzyme complex is measured via planar waveguide evanescent wave absorbance spectroscopy using a blue LED as a light source and an Ocean Optics USB2000 as the spectrophotometer. The characteristics of the absorbance spectrum of CuC1TPP are specific and different when the porphyrin is bound to the enzyme or is bound non-specifically to the surface of the slide. Addition of a substrate of OPH such as one of the organophosphates paraoxon, coumaphos, diazinon, or malathion displaces the porphyrin from the enzyme resulting in reduced absorbance intensity at 412 nm. Absorbance changes at 412 nm show log-linear dependence on substrate concentration. Paraoxon concentrations between 7 parts per trillion (ppt) and 14 parts per million (ppm) were investigated and a 3:1 S/N detection limit of 7 ppt was determined. Concentrations of 700 ppt to 40 ppm were investigated for diazinon, malathion, and coumaphos with detection limits of 800 ppt, 1 part per billion, and 250 ppt, respectively. This optical technique does not require the addition of reagents or solutions other than the sample and absorbance spectra can be collected in less than 6 s. PMID:15741066

  6. Monoglyceride lipase: Structure and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Scalvini, Laura; Piomelli, Daniele; Mor, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Monoglyceride lipase (MGL), the main enzyme responsible for the hydrolytic deactivation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG), is an intracellular serine hydrolase that plays critical roles in many physiological and pathological processes, such as pain, inflammation, neuroprotection and cancer. The crystal structures of MGL that are currently available provide valuable information about how this enzyme might function and interact with site-directed small-molecule inhibitors. On the other hand, its conformational equilibria and the contribution of regulatory cysteine residues present within the substrate-binding pocket or on protein surface remain open issues. Several classes of MGL inhibitors have been developed, from early reversible ones, such as URB602 and pristimerin, to carbamoylating agents that react with the catalytic serine, such as JZL184 and more recent O-hexafluoroisopropyl carbamates. Other inhibitors that modulate MGL activity by interacting with conserved regulatory cysteines act through mechanisms that deserve to be more thoroughly investigated. PMID:26216043

  7. Blood acylpeptide hydrolase activity is a sensitive marker for exposure to some organophosphate toxicants.

    PubMed

    Quistad, Gary B; Klintenberg, Rebecka; Casida, John E

    2005-08-01

    Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) unblocks N-acetyl peptides. It is a major serine hydrolase in rat blood, brain, and liver detected by derivatization with (3)H-diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) or a biotinylated fluorophosphonate. Although APH does not appear to be a primary target of acute poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) compounds, the inhibitor specificity of this secondary target is largely unknown. This study fills the gap and emphasizes blood APH as a potential marker of OP exposure. The most potent in vitro inhibitors for human erythrocyte and mouse brain APH are DFP (IC(50) 11-17 nM), chlorpyrifos oxon (IC(50) 21-71 nM), dichlorvos (IC(50) 230-560 nM), naled (IC(50) 370-870 nM), and their analogs with modified alkyl substituents. (3)H-diisopropyl fluorophosphate is a potent inhibitor of mouse blood and brain APH in vivo (ED(50) 0.09-0.2 mg/kg and 0.02-0.03 mg/l for ip and vapor exposure, respectively). Mouse blood and brain APH and blood butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are of similar sensitivity to DFP in vitro and in vivo (ip and vapor exposure), but APH inhibition is much more persistent in vivo (still >80% inhibition after 4 days). The inhibitory potency of OP pesticides in vivo in mice varies from APH selective (dichlorvos, naled, and trichlorfon), to APH and BChE selective (profenofos and tribufos), to ChE selective or nonselective (many commercial insecticides). Sarin administered ip at a lethal dose to guinea pigs inhibits blood acetylcholinesterase and BChE completely but erythrocyte APH only partially. Blood APH activity is therefore a sensitive marker for exposure to some but not all OP pesticides and chemical warfare agents. PMID:15888665

  8. Investigation of the mechanism of phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Hepburn, T.W.; Olsen, D.B.; Dunaway-Mariano, D.; Mariano, P.S.

    1986-05-01

    The authors are presently studying enzymes which catalyze the formation and cleavage of carbon phosphorous bonds. In 1970 LaNauze et. al. reported the isolation of one enzyme of interest - phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase from a mutant of Bacillus cereus. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphonoaldehyde to acetaldehyde and inorganic phosphate. They have isolated phosphonatase from wild type B. cereus (grown on 2-aminoethylphosphonate as the P/sub i/ source) and have used /sup 1/H-NMR and /sup 31/P-NMR techniques to determine the products of the enzyme reaction as phosphate and acetaldehyde. The mechanism of the enzyme could involve the formation of a Schiff base between phosphonoacetaldehyde and lysine or it might only require Mg/sup + +/, an essential cofactor for activity. To distinguish between these possibilities they have begun to look at the Schiff base formation in more detail. NaBH/sub 4/ was found to inactivate the enzyme in the presence of substrate but not in its absence. This is consistent with results obtained for the enzyme isolated from the mutant bacteria. In addition treatment of the wild type enzyme with tritiated NaBH/sub 4/ resulted in significant incorporation of radiolabel into the protein as compared to the control. These results tentatively suggest that hydrolysis proceeds via a covalent imine intermediate.

  9. A remarkable activity of human leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) toward unnatural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Byzia, Anna; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Salvesen, Guy S; Drag, Marcin

    2014-05-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H--EC 3.3.2.6) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme, which processes LTA4 through an epoxide hydrolase activity and is also able to trim one amino acid at a time from N-terminal peptidic substrates via its aminopeptidase activity. In this report, we have utilized a library of 130 individual proteinogenic and unnatural amino acid fluorogenic substrates to determine the aminopeptidase specificity of this enzyme. We have found that the best proteinogenic amino acid recognized by LTA4H is arginine. However, we have also observed several unnatural amino acids, which were significantly better in terms of cleavage rate (k cat/K m values). Among them, the benzyl ester of aspartic acid exhibited a k cat/K m value that was more than two orders of magnitude higher (1.75 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) as compared to L-Arg (1.5 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). This information can be used for design of potent inhibitors of this enzyme, but may also suggest yet undiscovered functions or specificities of LTA4H. PMID:24573245

  10. The Cloning and Characterization of a Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Harris, T. R.; Morisseau, C.; Walzem, R. L.; Ma, S. J.; Hammock, B. D.

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure and vascular homeostasis through its hydrolysis of the endothelial-derived messenger molecules, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. This study reports the cloning and expression of a sEH homolog from chicken liver. The resulting 63-kDa protein has an isoelectric point of 6.1. The recombinant enzyme displayed epoxide hydrolase activity when assayed with [3H]-trans-1,3-diphenylpropene oxide (t-DPPO), as well as trans-9,10-epoxystearate and the cis-8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15- epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. The chicken enzyme displayed a lower kcat:Km for t-DPPO than the mammalian enzymes. The enzyme was sensitive to urea-based inhibitors developed for mammalian sEH. Such compounds could be used to study the role of chicken sEH in conditions in which endothelial-derived vasodilation is believed to be impaired, such as pulmonary hypertension syndrome. PMID:16523628

  11. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Homologs in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Suggest a Gene Duplication Event and Subsequent Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Todd R.; Aronov, Pavel A.

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a multidomain enzyme composed of C- and N-terminal regions that contain active sites for epoxide hydrolase (EH) and phosphatase activities, respectively. We report the cloning of two 60 kDa multidomain enzymes from the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus displaying significant sequence similarity to both the N- and C-terminal domains of the mammalian sEH. While one urchin enzyme did not exhibit EH activity, the second enzyme hydrolyzed several lipid messenger molecules metabolized by the mammalian sEH, including the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Neither of the urchin enzymes displayed phosphatase activity. The urchin EH was inhibited by small molecule inhibitors of the mammalian sEH and is the likely ancestor of the enzyme. Sequence comparisons suggest that the urchin sEH homologs are the result of a gene fusion event between a gene encoding for an EH and a gene for an enzyme of undetermined function. This fusion event was followed by a duplication event to produce the urchin enzymes. PMID:18554159

  12. First Glycoside Hydrolase Family 2 Enzymes from Thermus antranikianii and Thermus brockianus with β-Glucosidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Carola; Blank, Saskia; Antranikian, Garabed

    2015-01-01

    Two glycoside hydrolase encoding genes (tagh2 and tbgh2) were identified from different Thermus species using functional screening. Based on amino acid similarities, the enzymes were predicted to belong to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 2. Surprisingly, both enzymes (TaGH2 and TbGH2) showed twofold higher activities for the hydrolysis of nitrophenol-linked β-D-glucopyranoside than of -galactopyranoside. Specific activities of 3,966 U/mg for TaGH2 and 660 U/mg for TbGH2 were observed. In accordance, Km values for both enzymes were significantly lower when β-D-glucopyranoside was used as substrate. Furthermore, TaGH2 was able to hydrolyze cellobiose. TaGH2 and TbGH2 exhibited highest activity at 95 and 90°C at pH 6.5. Both enzymes were extremely thermostable and showed thermal activation up to 250% relative activity at temperatures of 50 and 60°C. Especially, TaGH2 displayed high tolerance toward numerous metal ions (Cu2+, Co2+, Zn2+), which are known as glycoside hydrolase inhibitors. In this study, the first thermoactive GH family 2 enzymes with β-glucosidase activity have been identified and characterized. The hydrolysis of cellobiose is a unique property of TaGH2 when compared to other enzymes of GH family 2. Our work contributes to a broader knowledge of substrate specificities in GH family 2. PMID:26090361

  13. Human valacyclovir hydrolase/biphenyl hydrolase-like protein is a highly efficient homocysteine thiolactonase.

    PubMed

    Marsillach, Judit; Suzuki, Stephanie M; Richter, Rebecca J; McDonald, Matthew G; Rademacher, Peter M; MacCoss, Michael J; Hsieh, Edward J; Rettie, Allan E; Furlong, Clement E

    2014-01-01

    Homocysteinylation of lysine residues by homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL), a reactive homocysteine metabolite, results in protein aggregation and malfunction, and is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular, autoimmune and neurological diseases. Human plasma paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and bleomycin hydrolase (Blmh) have been reported as the physiological HCTL detoxifying enzymes. However, the catalytic efficiency of HCTL hydrolysis by Blmh is low and not saturated at 20 mM HCTL. The catalytic efficiency of PON1 for HCTL hydrolysis is 100-fold lower than that of Blmh. A homocysteine thiolactonase (HCTLase) was purified from human liver and identified by mass spectrometry (MS) as the previously described human biphenyl hydrolase-like protein (BPHL). To further characterize this newly described HCTLase activity, BPHL was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The sequence of the recombinant BPHL (rBPHL) and hydrolytic products of the substrates HCTL and valacyclovir were verified by MS. We found that the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of rBPHL for HCTL hydrolysis was 7.7 × 10(4) M(-1)s(-1), orders of magnitude higher than that of PON1 or Blmh, indicating a more significant physiological role for BPHL in detoxifying HCTL. PMID:25333274

  14. Human Valacyclovir Hydrolase/Biphenyl Hydrolase-Like Protein Is a Highly Efficient Homocysteine Thiolactonase

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Matthew G.; Rademacher, Peter M.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Hsieh, Edward J.; Rettie, Allan E.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2014-01-01

    Homocysteinylation of lysine residues by homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL), a reactive homocysteine metabolite, results in protein aggregation and malfunction, and is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular, autoimmune and neurological diseases. Human plasma paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and bleomycin hydrolase (Blmh) have been reported as the physiological HCTL detoxifying enzymes. However, the catalytic efficiency of HCTL hydrolysis by Blmh is low and not saturated at 20 mM HCTL. The catalytic efficiency of PON1 for HCTL hydrolysis is 100-fold lower than that of Blmh. A homocysteine thiolactonase (HCTLase) was purified from human liver and identified by mass spectrometry (MS) as the previously described human biphenyl hydrolase-like protein (BPHL). To further characterize this newly described HCTLase activity, BPHL was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The sequence of the recombinant BPHL (rBPHL) and hydrolytic products of the substrates HCTL and valacyclovir were verified by MS. We found that the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of rBPHL for HCTL hydrolysis was 7.7 × 104 M−1s−1, orders of magnitude higher than that of PON1 or Blmh, indicating a more significant physiological role for BPHL in detoxifying HCTL. PMID:25333274

  15. TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION UNDERWATER HYDROLASING PHASE 0 & 1 & 2 TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    CHRONISTER, G.B.

    2005-06-08

    From September 10 through December 17th, 2003, S.A.Robotics executed Phases 0, I, and II of the Technology Demonstration - Underwater Hydrolasing. Phase 0 was performed at the S.A.Robotics facility in Loveland, Colorado, while Phases I and II were performed at the Hanford K-Basin East Site. The purpose of the demonstrations was to show (1) underwater hydrolasing is a feasible method of removing contaminated concrete underwater to a required depth, (2) the hydrolasing head could be controlled during operation, (3) the depth of contamination in the concrete structure could be accurately measured, and (4) a characterization of the waste stream during hydrolasing activities could be recorded. Video monitoring was also used during all demonstrations. All phases of the demonstration were completed and deemed a success by both the observers and the demonstration team. Single and multiple passes were made using variable cutting rates, different stand-off distances were tested, and stationary cuts were executed. Hot and cold hyrdolasing was performed with radiological and depth scans of the affected surfaces. Specially designed equipment was installed and operated within the contaminated environment of 100-K East Basin. Separate results are documented below by phase. The Phase II radiological demonstration was performed to determine the feasibility of underwater hydrolasing technology for decontamination of the DOE spent fuel basins at Hanford 100-K area. This project demonstration was conducted at 105 KE Basin with the expectation that, once proven, this technology can be implemented at Hanford and other DOE sites.

  16. Antibiotic growth promoters enhance animal production by targeting intestinal bile salt hydrolase and its producers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The growth-promoting effect of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) was correlated with the decreased activity of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization. Consistent with this finding, independent chicken studies have demonstrated that AGP usage significantly reduced population of Lactobacillus species, the major BSH-producers in the intestine. Recent finding also demonstrated that some AGPs, such as tetracycline and roxarsone, display direct inhibitory effect on BSH activity. Therefore, BSH is a promising microbiome target for developing novel alternatives to AGPs. Specifically, dietary supplementation of BSH inhibitor may promote host lipid metabolism and energy harvest, consequently enhancing feed efficiency and body weight gain in food animals. PMID:24575079

  17. Development and Properties of a Wax Ester Hydrolase in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Anthony H. C.; Moreau, Robert A.; Liu, Kitty D. F.

    1978-01-01

    The activity of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seedlings increased drastically during germination, parallel to the development of the gluconeogenic process. The enzyme at its peak of development was obtained in association with the wax body membrane, and its properties were studied. It had an optimal activity at alkaline pH (8.5-9). The apparent Km value for N-methylindoxylmyristate was 93 μM. It was stable at 40 C for 30 min but was inactivated at higher temperature. Various divalent cations and ethylenediaminetetraacetate had little effect on the activity. p-Chloromercuribenzoate was a strong inhibitor of the enzyme activity, and its effect was reversed by subsequent addition of dithiothreitol. It had a broad substrate specificity with highest activities on monoglycerides, wax esters, and the native substrate (jojoba wax). PMID:16660288

  18. Structural and Mechanistic Insights into C-P Bond Hydrolysis by Phosphonoacetate Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vinayak; Borisova, Svetlana A.; Metcalf, William W.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Nair, Satish K.

    2011-12-22

    Bacteria have evolved pathways to metabolize phosphonates as a nutrient source for phosphorus. In Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, 2-aminoethylphosphonate is catabolized to phosphonoacetate, which is converted to acetate and inorganic phosphate by phosphonoacetate hydrolase (PhnA). Here we present detailed biochemical and structural characterization of PhnA that provides insights into the mechanism of C-P bond cleavage. The 1.35 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure reveals a catalytic core similar to those of alkaline phosphatases and nucleotide pyrophosphatases but with notable differences, such as a longer metal-metal distance. Detailed structure-guided analysis of active site residues and four additional cocrystal structures with phosphonoacetate substrate, acetate, phosphonoformate inhibitor, and a covalently bound transition state mimic provide insight into active site features that may facilitate cleavage of the C-P bond. These studies expand upon the array of reactions that can be catalyzed by enzymes of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily.

  19. AIG1 and ADTRP are atypical integral membrane hydrolases that degrade bioactive FAHFAs.

    PubMed

    Parsons, William H; Kolar, Matthew J; Kamat, Siddhesh S; Iii, Armand B Cognetta; Hulce, Jonathan J; Saez, Enrique; Kahn, Barbara B; Saghatelian, Alan; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2016-05-01

    Enzyme classes may contain outlier members that share mechanistic, but not sequence or structural, relatedness with more common representatives. The functional annotation of such exceptional proteins can be challenging. Here, we use activity-based profiling to discover that the poorly characterized multipass transmembrane proteins AIG1 and ADTRP are atypical hydrolytic enzymes that depend on conserved threonine and histidine residues for catalysis. Both AIG1 and ADTRP hydrolyze bioactive fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) but not other major classes of lipids. We identify multiple cell-active, covalent inhibitors of AIG1 and show that these agents block FAHFA hydrolysis in mammalian cells. These results indicate that AIG1 and ADTRP are founding members of an evolutionarily conserved class of transmembrane threonine hydrolases involved in bioactive lipid metabolism. More generally, our findings demonstrate how chemical proteomics can excavate potential cases of convergent or parallel protein evolution that defy conventional sequence- and structure-based predictions. PMID:27018888

  20. Inhibiting an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Protects CFTR.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Christopher D; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Stanton, Bruce A; Hammock, Bruce D; Morisseau, Christophe; Madden, Dean R

    2015-08-17

    Opportunistic pathogens exploit diverse strategies to sabotage host defenses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes the CFTR inhibitory factor Cif and thus triggers loss of CFTR, an ion channel required for airway mucociliary defense. However, the mechanism of action of Cif has remained unclear. It catalyzes epoxide hydrolysis, but there is no known role for natural epoxides in CFTR regulation. It was demonstrated that the hydrolase activity of Cif is strictly required for its effects on CFTR. A small-molecule inhibitor that protects this key component of the mucociliary defense system was also uncovered. These results provide a basis for targeting the distinctive virulence chemistry of Cif and suggest an unanticipated role of physiological epoxides in intracellular protein trafficking. PMID:26136396

  1. Antibiotic growth promoters enhance animal production by targeting intestinal bile salt hydrolase and its producers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The growth-promoting effect of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) was correlated with the decreased activity of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization. Consistent with this finding, independent chicken studies have demonstrated that AGP usage significantly reduced population of Lactobacillus species, the major BSH-producers in the intestine. Recent finding also demonstrated that some AGPs, such as tetracycline and roxarsone, display direct inhibitory effect on BSH activity. Therefore, BSH is a promising microbiome target for developing novel alternatives to AGPs. Specifically, dietary supplementation of BSH inhibitor may promote host lipid metabolism and energy harvest, consequently enhancing feed efficiency and body weight gain in food animals. PMID:24575079

  2. Cellular viability effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition on cerebellar neurons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide (ANA) participates in the control of cell death inducing the formation of apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the ANA degrading enzyme, the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), would induce cellular death. Experiments were performed in cerebellar granule neurons cultured with the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 (25, 50 or 100 nM) as well as endogenous lipids such as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) or palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and cellular viability was determined by MTT test. Neurons cultured with URB597 (25, 50 or 100 nM) displayed a decrease in cellular viability. In addition, if cultured with OEA (25 nM) or PEA (100 nM), cellular death was found. These results further suggest that URB597, OEA or PEA promote cellular death. PMID:21854612

  3. Engineered bacterial polyester hydrolases efficiently degrade polyethylene terephthalate due to relieved product inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ren; Oeser, Thorsten; Schmidt, Juliane; Meier, René; Barth, Markus; Then, Johannes; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies on the enzymatic degradation of synthetic polyesters have shown the potential of polyester hydrolases from thermophilic actinomycetes for modifying or degrading polyethylene terephthalate (PET). TfCut2 from Thermobifida fusca KW3 and LC-cutinase (LCC) isolated from a compost metagenome are remarkably active polyester hydrolases with high sequence and structural similarity. Both enzymes exhibit an exposed active site in a substrate binding groove located at the protein surface. By exchanging selected amino acid residues of TfCut2 involved in substrate binding with those present in LCC, enzyme variants with increased PET hydrolytic activity at 65°C were obtained. The highest activity in hydrolyzing PET films and fibers were detected with the single variant G62A and the double variant G62A/I213S. Both variants caused a weight loss of PET films of more than 42% after 50 h of hydrolysis, corresponding to a 2.7-fold increase compared to the wild type enzyme. Kinetic analysis based on the released PET hydrolysis products confirmed the superior hydrolytic activity of G62A with a fourfold higher hydrolysis rate constant and a 1.5-fold lower substrate binding constant than those of the wild type enzyme. Mono-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate is a strong inhibitor of TfCut2. A determination of the Rosetta binding energy suggested a reduced interaction of G62A with 2PET, a dimer of the PET monomer ethylene terephthalate. Indeed, G62A revealed a 5.5-fold lower binding constant to the inhibitor than the wild type enzyme indicating that its increased PET hydrolysis activity is the result of a relieved product inhibition by mono-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1658-1665. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26804057

  4. Long-term consequences of perinatal fatty acid amino hydrolase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Morgan, Daniel; Jew, Chris P; Haskins, Chris; Andrews, Mary-Jeanette; Leishman, Emma; Spencer, Corinne M; Czyzyk, Traci; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeFatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors show promise as a treatment for anxiety, depression and pain. Here we investigated whether perinatal exposure to URB597, a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, alters brain development and affects behaviour in adult mice. Experimental ApproachMouse dams were treated daily from gestational day 10.5 to 16.5 with 1, 3 or 10 mg kg−1 URB597. MS was used to measure a panel of endocannabinoids and related lipid compounds and brain development was assessed at embryonic day 16.5. Separate cohorts of mouse dams were treated with 10 mg kg−1 URB597, from gestational day 10.5 to postnatal day 7, and the adult offspring were assessed with a battery of behavioural tests. Key ResultsPerinatal URB597 exposure elevated anandamide and related N-acyl amides. URB597 did not induce signs of toxicity or affect dam weight gain, neurogenesis or axonal development at embryonic day 16.5. It did lead to subtle behavioural deficits in adult offspring, manifested by reduced cocaine-conditioned preference, increased depressive behaviours and impaired working memory. Anxiety levels, motor function and sensory-motor gating were not significantly altered. Conclusions and ImplicationsTaken together, the present results highlight how exposure to elevated levels of anandamide and related N-acyl amides during brain development can lead to subtle alterations in behaviour in adulthood. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-6 PMID:24730060

  5. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition is antinociceptive in a mouse model of diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karen; Yang, Jun; Inceoglu, Bora; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is currently an insufficiently treated clinical condition. There remains a critical need for efficacious therapies without severe side effects to treat the uniquely persistent and tonic pain of neuropathy. Inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzyme which stabilize endogenous epoxy fatty acids have demonstrated antihyperalgesia in clinical chronic inflammatory pain and modeled neuropathic pain. Recently, the conditioned place preference (CPP) assay has been used to evaluate the tonic nature of neuropathy in several animal models. The current experiments use the CPP assay alongside withdrawal thresholds to investigate the antihyperalgesic efficacy of sEH inhibitors in a murine model of diabetic neuropathy. Here, the sEH inhibitor t-TUCB at 10 mg/kg induced a robust place preference in diabetic neuropathic mice representative of pain relief. Importantly, this effect was absent both in control mice and in sEH knockout mice at the same dose indicating t-TUCB is not positively reinforcing or rewarding. When compared to gabapentin, t-TUCB elicited a similar degree of withdrawal threshold improvement without the same degree of spontaneous locomotion decline in neuropathic mice. Overall, these experiments show that inhibiting the sEH attenuates chronic pain and offers an alternative to current side-effect limited therapies to meet this clinical need. PMID:24924124

  6. Structure of the Ubiquitin Hydrolase UCH-L3 Complexed with a Suicide Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Misaghi, S.; Galardy, P.J.; Meester, W.J.; Ovaa, H.; Ploegh, H.L.; Gaudet, R.

    2009-03-24

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHs) comprise a family of small ubiquitin-specific proteases of uncertain function. Although no cellular substrates have been identified for UCHs, their highly tissue-specific expression patterns and the association of UCH-L1 mutations with human disease strongly suggest a critical role. The structure of the yeast UCH Yuh1-ubiquitin aldehyde complex identified an active site crossover loop predicted to limit the size of suitable substrates. We report the 1.45 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of human UCH-L3 in complex with the inhibitor ubiquitin vinylmethylester, an inhibitor that forms a covalent adduct with the active site cysteine of ubiquitin-specific proteases. This structure confirms the predicted mechanism of the inhibitor and allows the direct comparison of a UCH family enzyme in the free and ligand-bound state. We also show the efficient hydrolysis by human UCH-L3 of a 13-residue peptide in isopeptide linkage with ubiquitin, consistent with considerable flexibility in UCH substrate size. We propose a model for the catalytic cycle of UCH family members which accounts for the hydrolysis of larger ubiquitin conjugates.

  7. Synthesis and antiviral properties of (+/-)-5'-noraristeromycin and related purine carbocyclic nucleosides. A new lead for anti-human cytomegalovirus agent design.

    PubMed

    Patil, S D; Schneller, S W; Hosoya, M; Snoeck, R; Andrei, G; Balzarini, J; De Clercq, E

    1992-09-01

    (+/-)-5'-Noraristeromycin (3) has been prepared in three steps beginning with the 2,3-O-isopropylidene derivative of (+/-)-(1 alpha, 2 beta, 3 beta, 4 alpha)-4-amino-1,2,3-cyclopentanetriol (7). Also prepared from the same starting material were the related hypoxanthine (4), guanine (5), and 2,6-diaminopurine (6) analogues. Compounds 3-6 were evaluated for antiviral activity against a large number of viruses with marked activity being observed for 3 towards vaccinia virus, human cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, parainfluenza (type 3) virus, measles virus, respiratory syncytial virus, reovirus (type 1), and the arenaviruses Junin and Tacaribe. None of the compounds showed cytotoxicity to the host cell monolayers used in the antiviral studies. Both 3 and 6 have been found to be inhibitors of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (AdoHcy hydrolase), which likely accounts for their antiviral activity. Inhibition of AdoHcy hydrolase represents a new approach to human cytomegalovirus drug design that should be pursued. Also, the activity of 3 should be further scrutinized for the treatment of pox-, rhabdo-, paramyxo-, reo-, and arenavirus infections. PMID:1326633

  8. Expression of key hydrolases for soy sauce fermentation in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

    PubMed

    Yuzuki, Masanobu; Matsushima, Kenichiro; Koyama, Yasuji

    2015-01-01

    Several key hydrolases in soy sauce fermentation such as proteases, peptidases, and glutaminases are supplied by Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. The genes encoding these hydrolases were successfully expressed in salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. These transformants are expected to supply extra hydrolases during soy sauce fermentation process. PMID:25073685

  9. Identification of oxidized protein hydrolase of human erythrocytes as acylpeptide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Fujino, T; Watanabe, K; Beppu, M; Kikugawa, K; Yasuda, H

    2000-03-16

    Partial amino acid sequence of 80 kDa oxidized protein hydrolase (OPH), a serine protease present in human erythrocyte cytosol (Fujino et al., J. Biochem. 124 (1998) 1077-1085) that is adherent to oxidized erythrocyte membranes and preferentially degrades oxidatively damaged proteins (Beppu et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1196 (1994) 81-87; Fujino et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1374 (1998) 47-55) was determined. The N-terminal amino acid of diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP)-labeled OPH was suggested to be masked. Six peptide fragments of OPH obtained by digestion of DFP-labeled OPH with lysyl endopeptidase were isolated by use of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the sequence of more than eight amino acids from the N-terminal position of each peptide was determined. Results of homology search of amino acid sequence of each peptide strongly suggested that the protein was identical with human liver acylpeptide hydrolase (ACPH). OPH showed ACPH activity when N-acetyl-L-alanine p-nitroanilide and N-acetylmethionyl L-alanine were used as substrates. Glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged recombinant ACPH (rACPH) was prepared by use of baculovirus expression system as a 107-kDa protein from cDNA of human erythroleukemic cell line K-562. rACPH reacted with anti-OPH antiserum from rabbit. rACPH showed OPH activity when hydrogen peroxide-oxidized or glycated bovine serum albumin was used as substrates. As well as the enzyme activities of OPH, those of rACPH were inhibited by DFP. The results clearly demonstrate that ACPH, whose physiological function has not yet been well characterized, can play an important role as OPH in destroying oxidatively damaged proteins in living cells. PMID:10719179

  10. [Regulation of peptide hydrolase activity in psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Suworow, A P

    1990-01-01

    Clinico-biological examination of 154 patients with psoriasis resulted in data showing high activity of endo- and exopeptidases in efflorescences of that dermatosis. This was accompanied by depressed activity of trypsin inhibitor. At the same time magnesium deficiency, polysaccharide decrease and leucocyte increase were stated to be in the focus of skin damage. That character of interrelation, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of this widespread skin disease, is demonstrated. PMID:2257941

  11. The 2014 Bernard B. Brodie award lecture-epoxide hydrolases: drug metabolism to therapeutics for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Kodani, Sean D; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-05-01

    Dr. Bernard Brodie's legacy is built on fundamental discoveries in pharmacology and drug metabolism that were then translated to the clinic to improve patient care. Similarly, the development of a novel class of therapeutics termed the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors was originally spurred by fundamental research exploring the biochemistry and physiology of the sEH. Here, we present an overview of the history and current state of research on epoxide hydrolases, specifically focusing on sEHs. In doing so, we start with the translational project studying the metabolism of the insect juvenile hormone mimic R-20458 [(E)-6,7-epoxy-1-(4-ethylphenoxy)-3,7-dimethyl-2-octene], which led to the identification of the mammalian sEH. Further investigation of this enzyme and its substrates, including the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, led to insight into mechanisms of inflammation, chronic and neuropathic pain, angiogenesis, and other physiologic processes. This basic knowledge in turn led to the development of potent inhibitors of the sEH that are promising therapeutics for pain, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, arthritis, and other disorders. PMID:25762541

  12. The 2014 Bernard B. Brodie Award Lecture—Epoxide Hydrolases: Drug Metabolism to Therapeutics for Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Bernard Brodie’s legacy is built on fundamental discoveries in pharmacology and drug metabolism that were then translated to the clinic to improve patient care. Similarly, the development of a novel class of therapeutics termed the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors was originally spurred by fundamental research exploring the biochemistry and physiology of the sEH. Here, we present an overview of the history and current state of research on epoxide hydrolases, specifically focusing on sEHs. In doing so, we start with the translational project studying the metabolism of the insect juvenile hormone mimic R-20458 [(E)-6,7-epoxy-1-(4-ethylphenoxy)-3,7-dimethyl-2-octene], which led to the identification of the mammalian sEH. Further investigation of this enzyme and its substrates, including the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, led to insight into mechanisms of inflammation, chronic and neuropathic pain, angiogenesis, and other physiologic processes. This basic knowledge in turn led to the development of potent inhibitors of the sEH that are promising therapeutics for pain, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, arthritis, and other disorders. PMID:25762541

  13. Curation of characterized glycoside hydrolases of fungal origin.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Caitlin; Powlowski, Justin; Wu, Min; Butler, Greg; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Fungi produce a wide range of extracellular enzymes to break down plant cell walls, which are composed mainly of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose. Among them are the glycoside hydrolases (GH), the largest and most diverse family of enzymes active on these substrates. To facilitate research and development of enzymes for the conversion of cell-wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, we have manually curated a comprehensive set of characterized fungal glycoside hydrolases. Characterized glycoside hydrolases were retrieved from protein and enzyme databases, as well as literature repositories. A total of 453 characterized glycoside hydrolases have been cataloged. They come from 131 different fungal species, most of which belong to the phylum Ascomycota. These enzymes represent 46 different GH activities and cover 44 of the 115 CAZy GH families. In addition to enzyme source and enzyme family, available biochemical properties such as temperature and pH optima, specific activity, kinetic parameters and substrate specificities were recorded. To simplify comparative studies, enzyme and species abbreviations have been standardized, Gene Ontology terms assigned and reference to supporting evidence provided. The annotated genes have been organized in a searchable, online database called mycoCLAP (Characterized Lignocellulose-Active Proteins of fungal origin). It is anticipated that this manually curated collection of biochemically characterized fungal proteins will be used to enhance functional annotation of novel GH genes. Database URL: http://mycoCLAP.fungalgenomics.ca/. PMID:21622642

  14. Curation of characterized glycoside hydrolases of Fungal origin

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Caitlin; Powlowski, Justin; Wu, Min; Butler, Greg; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Fungi produce a wide range of extracellular enzymes to break down plant cell walls, which are composed mainly of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose. Among them are the glycoside hydrolases (GH), the largest and most diverse family of enzymes active on these substrates. To facilitate research and development of enzymes for the conversion of cell-wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, we have manually curated a comprehensive set of characterized fungal glycoside hydrolases. Characterized glycoside hydrolases were retrieved from protein and enzyme databases, as well as literature repositories. A total of 453 characterized glycoside hydrolases have been cataloged. They come from 131 different fungal species, most of which belong to the phylum Ascomycota. These enzymes represent 46 different GH activities and cover 44 of the 115 CAZy GH families. In addition to enzyme source and enzyme family, available biochemical properties such as temperature and pH optima, specific activity, kinetic parameters and substrate specificities were recorded. To simplify comparative studies, enzyme and species abbreviations have been standardized, Gene Ontology terms assigned and reference to supporting evidence provided. The annotated genes have been organized in a searchable, online database called mycoCLAP (Characterized Lignocellulose-Active Proteins of fungal origin). It is anticipated that this manually curated collection of biochemically characterized fungal proteins will be used to enhance functional annotation of novel GH genes. Database URL: http://mycoCLAP.fungalgenomics.ca/ PMID:21622642

  15. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE-BASED ASSAY FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report a rapid and versatile Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH)-based method for measurement of organophosphates. This assay is based on a substrate-dependent change in pH at the local vicinity of the enzyme. The pH change is monitored using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), ...

  16. ENGINEERING OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN HYDROLASES FOR CONTROL OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteriophages are viruses exclusively infecting bacteria and therefore offer suitable tools for their detection and control. At the end of their multiplication cycle, most phages lyse their hosts from within by means of an endolysin (peptidoglycan hydrolase), thereby enabling release of the phage p...

  17. Bacteriophage virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases: potential new enzybiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases (VAPGH) are phage-encoded lytic enzymes that locally degrade the peptidoglycan (PG) of the bacterial cell wall during infection. Their action usually generates a small hole through which the phage tail crosses the cell envelope to inject the phage genetic m...

  18. S-Inosyl-l-Homocysteine Hydrolase, a Novel Enzyme Involved in S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Danielle; Xu, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine, the product of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) methyltransferases, is known to be a strong feedback inhibitor of these enzymes. A hydrolase specific for S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine produces l-homocysteine, which is remethylated to methionine and can be used to regenerate SAM. Here, we show that the annotated S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii is specific for the hydrolysis and synthesis of S-inosyl-l-homocysteine, not S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine. This is the first report of an enzyme specific for S-inosyl-l-homocysteine. As with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase, which shares greater than 45% sequence identity with the M. jannaschii homologue, the M. jannaschii enzyme was found to copurify with bound NAD+ and has Km values of 0.64 ± 0.4 mM, 0.0054 ± 0.006 mM, and 0.22 ± 0.11 mM for inosine, l-homocysteine, and S-inosyl-l-homocysteine, respectively. No enzymatic activity was detected with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine as the substrate in either the synthesis or hydrolysis direction. These results prompted us to redesignate the M. jannaschii enzyme an S-inosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SIHH). Identification of SIHH demonstrates a modified pathway in this methanogen for the regeneration of SAM from S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine that uses the deamination of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine to form S-inosyl-l-homocysteine. IMPORTANCE In strictly anaerobic methanogenic archaea, such as Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, canonical metabolic pathways are often not present, and instead, unique pathways that are deeply rooted on the phylogenetic tree are utilized by the organisms. Here, we discuss the recycling pathway for S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, produced from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent methylation reactions, which uses a hydrolase specific for S-inosyl-l-homocysteine, an uncommon metabolite. Identification of the pathways and the enzymes involved in the unique pathways in the methanogens will provide insight

  19. Inhibition of endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase increases atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Friedrich Felix; Khoury, Mona; Slomka, Heike; Kebschull, Moritz; Lerner, Raissa; Lutz, Beat; Schott, Hans; Lütjohann, Dieter; Wojtalla, Alexandra; Becker, Astrid; Zimmer, Andreas; Nickenig, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The role of endocannabinoids such as anandamide during atherogenesis remains largely unknown. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) represents the key enzyme in anandamide degradation, and its inhibition is associated with subsequent higher levels of anandamide. Here, we tested whether selective inhibition of FAAH influences the progression of atherosclerosis in mice. Selective inhibition of FAAH using URB597 resulted in significantly increased plasma levels of anandamide compared to control, as assessed by mass spectrometry experiments in mice. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were fed a high-fat, cholesterol-rich diet to induce atherosclerotic conditions. Simultaneously, mice received either the pharmacological FAAH inhibitor URB597 1mg/kg body weight (n=28) or vehicle (n=25) via intraperitoneal injection three times a week. After eight weeks, mice were sacrificed, and experiments were performed. Vascular superoxide generation did not differ between both groups, as measured by L012 assay. To determine whether selective inhibition of FAAH affects atherosclerotic plaque inflammation, immunohistochemical staining of the aortic root was performed. Atherosclerotic plaque formation, vascular macrophage accumulation, as well as vascular T cell infiltration did not differ between both groups. Interestingly, neutrophil cell accumulation was significantly increased in mice receiving URB597 compared to control. Vascular collagen structures in atherosclerotic plaques were significantly diminished in mice treated with URB597 compared to control, as assessed by picro-sirius-red staining. This was accompanied by an increased aortic expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase does not influence plaque size but increases plaque vulnerability in mice. PMID:24286707

  20. Optimization of 1,2,5-Thiadiazole Carbamates as Potent and Selective ABHD6 Inhibitors #

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jayendra Z.; Nevalainen, Tapio J.; Savinainen, Juha R.; Adams, Yahaya; Laitinen, Tuomo; Runyon, Robert S.; Vaara, Miia; Ahenkorah, Stephen; Kaczor, Agnieszka A.; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Gynther, Mikko; Aaltonen, Niina; Joharapurkar, Amit A.; Jain, Mukul R.; Haka, Abigail S.; Maxfield, Frederick R.; Laitinen, Jarmo T.; Parkkari, Teija

    2015-01-01

    At present, inhibitors of α/β-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) are viewed as a promising approach to treat inflammation and metabolic disorders. This article describes the optimization of 1,2,5-thiadiazole carbamates as ABHD6 inhibitors. Altogether, 34 compounds were synthesized and their inhibitory activity was tested using lysates of HEK293 cells transiently expressing human ABHD6 (hABHD6). Among the compound series, 4-morpholino-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl cyclooctyl(methyl)carbamate (JZP-430, 55) potently and irreversibly inhibited hABHD6 (IC50 44 nM) and showed good selectivity (∼230 fold) over fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), the main off-targets of related compounds. Additionally, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) indicated that compound 55 (JZP-430) displayed good selectivity among the serine hydrolases of mouse brain membrane proteome. PMID:25504894

  1. Synthesis of Phenoxyacyl-Ethanolamides and Their Effects on Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Lionel; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Hwang, Hyeondo; Montgomery, Christa L.; Khan, Bibi Rafeiza; John, George; Koulen, Peter; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Chapman, Kent D.

    2014-01-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are involved in numerous biological activities in plant and animal systems. The metabolism of these lipids by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a key regulatory point in NAE signaling activity. Several active site-directed inhibitors of FAAH have been identified, but few compounds have been described that enhance FAAH activity. Here we synthesized two sets of phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides from natural products, 3-n-pentadecylphenolethanolamide and cardanolethanolamide, with structural similarity to NAEs and characterized their effects on the hydrolytic activity of FAAH. Both compounds increased the apparent Vmax of recombinant FAAH proteins from both plant (Arabidopsis) and mammalian (Rattus) sources. These NAE-like compounds appeared to act by reducing the negative feedback regulation of FAAH activity by free ethanolamine. Both compounds added to seedlings relieved, in part, the negative growth effects of exogenous NAE12:0. Cardanolethanolamide reduced neuronal viability and exacerbated oxidative stress-mediated cell death in primary cultured neurons at nanomolar concentrations. This was reversed by FAAH inhibitors or exogenous NAE substrate. Collectively, our data suggest that these phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides act to enhance the activity of FAAH and may stimulate the turnover of NAEs in vivo. Hence, these compounds might be useful pharmacological tools for manipulating FAAH-mediated regulation of NAE signaling in plants or animals. PMID:24558037

  2. Synthesis of phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides and their effects on fatty acid amide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Faure, Lionel; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Hwang, Hyeondo; Montgomery, Christa L; Khan, Bibi Rafeiza; John, George; Koulen, Peter; Blancaflor, Elison B; Chapman, Kent D

    2014-03-28

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are involved in numerous biological activities in plant and animal systems. The metabolism of these lipids by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a key regulatory point in NAE signaling activity. Several active site-directed inhibitors of FAAH have been identified, but few compounds have been described that enhance FAAH activity. Here we synthesized two sets of phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides from natural products, 3-n-pentadecylphenolethanolamide and cardanolethanolamide, with structural similarity to NAEs and characterized their effects on the hydrolytic activity of FAAH. Both compounds increased the apparent Vmax of recombinant FAAH proteins from both plant (Arabidopsis) and mammalian (Rattus) sources. These NAE-like compounds appeared to act by reducing the negative feedback regulation of FAAH activity by free ethanolamine. Both compounds added to seedlings relieved, in part, the negative growth effects of exogenous NAE12:0. Cardanolethanolamide reduced neuronal viability and exacerbated oxidative stress-mediated cell death in primary cultured neurons at nanomolar concentrations. This was reversed by FAAH inhibitors or exogenous NAE substrate. Collectively, our data suggest that these phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides act to enhance the activity of FAAH and may stimulate the turnover of NAEs in vivo. Hence, these compounds might be useful pharmacological tools for manipulating FAAH-mediated regulation of NAE signaling in plants or animals. PMID:24558037

  3. Rapid purification of cytosolic epoxide hydrolase from normal and clofibrate-treated animals by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Prestwich, G D; Hammock, B D

    1985-01-01

    Epoxide hydrolase from liver cytosol (cEH) of both normal and clofibrate-treated mice can be bioselectively adsorbed onto an affinity column prepared from epoxy-activated Sepharose and 7-methoxycitronellyl thiol. The free ligand is a modest inhibitor of cEH (I50, approximately equal to 3 X 10(-4) M) and lacks the epoxide function necessary for it to be turned over as a substrate. This study demonstrates that a methoxy group can be used to mimic an oxirane in a vertebrate system. Bioselective elution of cEH can be accomplished with several chalcone oxides, which are selective potent inhibitors (I50, 1-50 X 10(-7) M), and activity can be recovered by dialysis. This procedure thus enhances the purification by offering independent opportunities for selective binding and selective elution. Conservatively, a 40%-80% recovery of partially inhibited enzyme activity can be achieved in 4-48 hr with a 30- to 90-fold purification. The purified cEH from clofibrate-induced animals was essentially homogeneous by NaDodSO4/PAGE and had an apparent subunit molecular weight of 58,000. The cEHs from normal and clofibrate-induced animals appeared identical by NaDodSO4/PAGE. Since the cEH activity in normal and clofibrate-treated animals is due to the same enzyme, the increase in cEH activity caused by selected hypolipidemic agents appears to be true induction. Images PMID:3856846

  4. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase activity by compounds isolated from the aerial parts of Glycosmis stenocarpa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang Hoon; Morgan, Abubaker M A; Tai, Bui Huu; Van, Doan Thi; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to search for soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors from natural plants, bioassay-guided fractionation of lipophilic n-hexane and chloroform layers of an extract of the aerial parts of Glycosmis stenocarpa led to the isolation of 12 compounds (1-12) including murrayafoline-A (1), isomahanine (2), bisisomahanine (3), saropeptate (4), (24 S)-ergost-4-en-3,6-dione (5), stigmasta-4-en-3,6-dion (6), stigmast-4-en-3-one (7), β-sitosterol (8), 24-methylpollinastanol (9), trans-phytol (10), neosarmentol III (11) and (+)-epiloliolide (12). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Among them, neosarmentol III (11) was isolated from nature for the first time. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against sEH. Among isolated carbazole-type compounds, isomahanine (2) and bisisomahanine (3) were identified as a potent inhibitor of sEH, with IC50 values of 22.5 ± 1.7 and 7.7 ± 1.2 µM, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory action of 2 and 3 represented mixed-type enzyme inhibition. PMID:26444316

  5. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolases and PAA biodegradation: current knowledge and impact on applications.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, Tomohiro

    2016-02-01

    Thermally synthesized poly(aspartic acid) (tPAA) is a bio-based, biocompatible, biodegradable, and water-soluble polymer that has a high proportion of β-Asp units and equivalent moles of D- and L-Asp units. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolase-1 and hydrolase-2 are tPAA biodegradation enzymes purified from Gram-negative bacteria. PAA hydrolase-1 selectively cleaves amide bonds between β-Asp units via an endo-type process, whereas PAA hydrolase-2 catalyzes the exo-type hydrolysis of the products of tPAA hydrolysis by PAA hydrolase-1. The novel reactivity of PAA hydrolase-1 makes it a good candidate for a biocatalyst in β-peptide synthesis. This mini-review gives an overview of PAA hydrolases with emphasis on their biochemical and functional properties, in particular, PAA hydrolase-1. Functionally related enzymes, such as poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases and β-aminopeptidases, are compared to PAA hydrolases. This mini-review also provides findings that offer an insight into the catalytic mechanisms of PAA hydrolase-1 from Pedobacter sp. KP-2. PMID:26695157

  6. [GH10 Family of Glycoside Hydrolases: Structure and Evolutionary Connections].

    PubMed

    Naumoff, D G

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary connections were analyzed for endo-β-xylanases, which possess the GH10 family catalytic domains. A homology search yielded thrice as many proteins as are available from the Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZy) database. Lateral gene transfer was shown to play an important role in evolution of bacterial proteins of the family, especially in the phyla Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, and Verrucomicrobia. In the case of Verrucomicrobia, 23 lateral transfers from organisms of other phyla were detected. Evolutionary relationships were observed between the GH10 family domains and domains with the TIM-barrel tertiary structure from several other glycosidase families. The GH39 family of glycoside hydrolases showed the closest relationship. Unclassified homologs were grouped into 12 novel families of putative glycoside hydrolases (GHL51-GHL62). PMID:27028821

  7. Isolation and characterization of Xenopus soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Purba, Endang R; Oguro, Ami; Imaoka, Susumu

    2014-07-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) contributes to cell growth, but the contribution of sEH to embryonic development is not well understood. In this study, Xenopus sEH cDNA was isolated from embryos of Xenopus laevis. The Xenopus sEH was expressed in Escherichia coli and was purified. The epoxide hydrolase and phosphatase activities of purified sEH were investigated. The Xenopus sEH did not show phosphatase activity toward 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate or several lysophosphatidic acids although it had EH activity. The amino acid sequence of Xenopus sEH was compared with that reported previously. We found amino acid substitutions of the 29th Thr to Asn and the 146th Arg to His and prepared a sEH mutant (N29T/H146R), designed as mutant 1. Neither wild-type sEH nor mutant 1 had phosphatase activity. Additional substitution of the 11th Gly with Asp was found by comparison with human sEH which has phosphatase activity, but the Xenopus sEH mutant G11D prepared as mutant 2 did not have phosphatase activity. The epoxide hydrolase activity of sEH seemed to be similar to that of human sEH, while Xenopus sEH did not have phosphatase activity toward several substrates that human sEH metabolizes. PMID:24681163

  8. Acylpeptide Hydrolase Inhibition as Targeted Strategy to Induce Proteasomal Down-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Luini, Alberto; Ruvo, Menotti; Gogliettino, Marta; Langella, Emma; Saviano, Michele; Hegde, Ramanath N.; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Rossi, Mose

    2011-01-01

    Acylpeptide hydrolase (APEH), one of the four members of the prolyl oligopeptidase class, catalyses the removal of N-acylated amino acids from acetylated peptides and it has been postulated to play a key role in protein degradation machinery. Disruption of protein turnover has been established as an effective strategy to down-regulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and as a promising approach in anticancer therapy. Here, we illustrate a new pathway modulating UPS and proteasome activity through inhibition of APEH. To find novel molecules able to down-regulate APEH activity, we screened a set of synthetic peptides, reproducing the reactive-site loop of a known archaeal inhibitor of APEH (SsCEI), and the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. A 12-mer SsCEI peptide and the trans10-cis12 isomer of CLA, were identified as specific APEH inhibitors and their effects on cell-based assays were paralleled by a dose-dependent reduction of proteasome activity and the activation of the pro-apoptotic caspase cascade. Moreover, cell treatment with the individual compounds increased the cytoplasm levels of several classic hallmarks of proteasome inhibition, such as NFkappaB, p21, and misfolded or polyubiquitinylated proteins, and additive effects were observed in cells exposed to a combination of both inhibitors without any cytotoxicity. Remarkably, transfection of human bronchial epithelial cells with APEH siRNA, promoted a marked accumulation of a mutant of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), herein used as a model of misfolded protein typically degraded by UPS. Finally, molecular modeling studies, to gain insights into the APEH inhibition by the trans10-cis12 CLA isomer, were performed. Our study supports a previously unrecognized role of APEH as a negative effector of proteasome activity by an unknown mechanism and opens new perspectives for the development of strategies aimed at modulation of cancer progression. PMID:22016782

  9. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, Ludmila; Bragg, Jennifer; Wu, Jiajie; Yang, Xiaohan; Tuskan, Gerald A; Vogel, John

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we annotated the glycoside hydrolase genes in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon (an emerging monocotyledonous model) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). We then compared the glycoside hydrolases across species, both at the whole-genome level and at the level of individual glycoside hydrolase families. Results We identified 356 glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium and 404 in sorghum. The corresponding proteins fell into the same 34 families that are represented in rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar, helping to define a glycoside hydrolase family profile which may be common to flowering plants. Examination of individual glycoside hydrolase familes (GH5, GH13, GH18, GH19, GH28, and GH51) revealed both similarities and distinctions between monocots and dicots, as well as between species. Shared evolutionary histories appear to be modified by lineage-specific expansions or deletions. Within families, the Brachypodium and sorghum proteins generally cluster with those from other monocots. Conclusions This work provides the foundation for further comparative and functional analyses of plant glycoside hydrolases. Defining the Brachypodium glycoside hydrolases sets the stage for Brachypodium to be a monocot model for investigations of these enzymes and their diverse roles in planta. Insights

  10. α/β-Hydrolase Domain 6 Deletion Induces Adipose Browning and Prevents Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shangang; Mugabo, Yves; Ballentine, Gwynne; Attane, Camille; Iglesias, Jose; Poursharifi, Pegah; Zhang, Dongwei; Nguyen, Thuy Anne; Erb, Heidi; Prentki, Raphael; Peyot, Marie-Line; Joly, Erik; Tobin, Stephanie; Fulton, Stephanie; Brown, J Mark; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2016-03-29

    Suppression of α/β-domain hydrolase-6 (ABHD6), a monoacylglycerol (MAG) hydrolase, promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells. We report here that high-fat-diet-fed ABHD6-KO mice show modestly reduced food intake, decreased body weight gain and glycemia, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and enhanced locomotor activity. ABHD6-KO mice also show increased energy expenditure, cold-induced thermogenesis, brown adipose UCP1 expression, fatty acid oxidation, and white adipose browning. Adipose browning and cold-induced thermogenesis are replicated by the ABHD6 inhibitor WWL70 and by antisense oligonucleotides targeting ABHD6. Our evidence suggests that one mechanism by which the lipolysis derived 1-MAG signals intrinsic and cell-autonomous adipose browning is via PPARα and PPARγ activation, and that ABHD6 regulates adipose browning by controlling signal competent 1-MAG levels. Thus, ABHD6 regulates energy homeostasis, brown adipose function, and white adipose browning and is a potential therapeutic target for obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26997277

  11. XIP-I, a xylanase inhibitor protein from wheat: a novel protein function.

    PubMed

    Juge, Nathalie; Payan, Francoise; Williamson, Gary

    2004-02-12

    Endo-(1,4)-beta-xylanases of plant and fungal origin play an important role in the degradation of arabinoxylans. Two distinct classes of proteinaceous endoxylanase inhibitors, the Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor (TAXI) and the xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP), have been identified in cereals. Engineering of proteins in conjunction with enzyme kinetics, thermodynamic, real-time interaction, and X-ray crystallographic studies has provided knowledge on the mechanism of inhibition of XIP-I towards endoxylanases. XIP-I is a 30 kDa protein which belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 18, and folds as a typical (beta/alpha)8 barrel. Although the inhibitor shows highest homology with plant chitinases, XIP-I does not hydrolyse chitin; probably due to structural differences in the XIP-I binding cleft. The inhibitor is specific for fungal xylanases from glycoside hydrolases families 10 and 11, but does not inhibit bacterial enzymes. The inhibition is competitive and, depending on the xylanase, the Ki value can be as low as 3.4 nM. Site-directed mutagenesis of a xylanase from Aspergillus niger suggested that the XIP-I binding site was the conserved hairpin loop "thumb" region of family 11 xylanases. Furthermore, XIP-I shows the ability to inhibit barley alpha-amylases of glycoside hydrolase family 13, providing the first example of a protein able to inhibit members of different glycoside hydrolase families (10, 11, and 13), and additionally a novel function for a protein of glycoside hydrolase family 18. PMID:14871661

  12. The Responses of Rat Intestinal Brush Border and Cytosol Peptide Hydrolase Activities to Variation in Dietary Protein Content DIETARY REGULATION OF INTESTINAL PEPTIDE HYDROLASES

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, J. Alex; McCarthy, Denis M.; Kim, Young S.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of variation in dietary protein content on small intestinal brush border and cytosol peptide hydrolase activities have been investigated. One group of rats was fed a high protein diet (55% casein) and another group was fed a low protein diet (10% casein). After 1 wk, brush border peptide hydrolase activity (L-leucyl-β-naphthylamide as substrate) and cytosol peptide hydrolase activity (L-prolyl-L-leucine as substrate) were determined in mucosae taken from the proximal, middle, and distal small intestine. As judged by several parameters, brush border peptide hydrolase activity was significantly greater in rats fed the high protein diet when data for corresponding segments were compared. In contrast, no significant difference was seen in cytosol peptide hydrolase activity. In a second study, brush border and cytosol peptide hydrolase activities were determined in the proximal intestine by utilizing an additional three peptide substrates: L-leucyl-L-alanine, L-phenylalanylglycine, and glycyl-L-phenylalanine. Sucrase, maltase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were also determined. As before, brush border peptide hydrolase activities were significantly greater in rats fed the high protein diet. However, activities of the nonproteolytic brush border enzymes did not vary significantly with diet. In contrast to the results obtained with L-prolyl-L-leucine as substrate for the cytosol enzymes, cytosol activity against the three additional peptide substrates was greater in rats fed the high protein diet. It is suggested that the brush border peptide hydrolase response to variation in dietary protein content represents a functional adaptation analogous to the regulation of intestinal disaccharidases by dietary carbohydrates. The implication of the differential responses of the cytosol peptide hydrolases is uncertain, since little is known of the functional role of these nonorgan-specific enzymes. PMID:4430719

  13. Active Site and Laminarin Binding in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 55*

    PubMed Central

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S.; Yik, Eric J.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100–10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  14. Active site and laminarin binding in glycoside hydrolase family 55.

    PubMed

    Bianchetti, Christopher M; Takasuka, Taichi E; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S; Yik, Eric J; Bergeman, Lai F; Fox, Brian G

    2015-05-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100-10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  15. CREST - a large and diverse superfamily of putative transmembrane hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A number of membrane-spanning proteins possess enzymatic activity and catalyze important reactions involving proteins, lipids or other substrates located within or near lipid bilayers. Alkaline ceramidases are seven-transmembrane proteins that hydrolyze the amide bond in ceramide to form sphingosine. Recently, a group of putative transmembrane receptors called progestin and adipoQ receptors (PAQRs) were found to be distantly related to alkaline ceramidases, raising the possibility that they may also function as membrane enzymes. Results Using sensitive similarity search methods, we identified statistically significant sequence similarities among several transmembrane protein families including alkaline ceramidases and PAQRs. They were unified into a large and diverse superfamily of putative membrane-bound hydrolases called CREST (alkaline ceramidase, PAQR receptor, Per1, SID-1 and TMEM8). The CREST superfamily embraces a plethora of cellular functions and biochemical activities, including putative lipid-modifying enzymes such as ceramidases and the Per1 family of putative phospholipases involved in lipid remodeling of GPI-anchored proteins, putative hormone receptors, bacterial hemolysins, the TMEM8 family of putative tumor suppressors, and the SID-1 family of putative double-stranded RNA transporters involved in RNA interference. Extensive similarity searches and clustering analysis also revealed several groups of proteins with unknown function in the CREST superfamily. Members of the CREST superfamily share seven predicted core transmembrane segments with several conserved sequence motifs. Conclusions Universal conservation of a set of histidine and aspartate residues across all groups in the CREST superfamily, coupled with independent discoveries of hydrolase activities in alkaline ceramidases and the Per1 family as well as results from previous mutational studies of Per1, suggests that the majority of CREST members are metal-dependent hydrolases

  16. Allophanate hydrolase, not urease, functions in bacterial cyanuric acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gang; Shapir, Nir; Sadowsky, Michael J; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2005-08-01

    Growth substrates containing an s-triazine ring are typically metabolized by bacteria to liberate 3 mol of ammonia via the intermediate cyanuric acid. Over a 25-year period, a number of original research papers and reviews have stated that cyanuric acid is metabolized in two steps to the 2-nitrogen intermediate urea. In the present study, allophanate, not urea, was shown to be the 2-nitrogen intermediate in cyanuric acid metabolism in all the bacteria examined. Six different experimental results supported this conclusion: (i) synthetic allophanate was shown to readily decarboxylate to form urea under acidic extraction and chromatography conditions used in previous studies; (ii) alkaline extraction methods were used to stabilize and detect allophanate in bacteria actively metabolizing cyanuric acid; (iii) the kinetic course of allophanate formation and disappearance was consistent with its being an intermediate in cyanuric acid metabolism, and no urea was observed in those experiments; (iv) protein extracts from cells grown on cyanuric acid contained allophanate hydrolase activity; (v) genes encoding the enzymes AtzE and AtzF, which produce and hydrolyze allophanate, respectively, were found in several cyanuric acid-metabolizing bacteria; and (vi) TrzF, an AtzF homolog found in Enterobacter cloacae strain 99, was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and shown to have allophanate hydrolase activity. In addition, we have observed that there are a large number of genes homologous to atzF and trzF distributed in phylogenetically distinct bacteria. In total, the data indicate that s-triazine metabolism in a broad class of bacteria proceeds through allophanate via allophanate hydrolase, rather than through urea using urease. PMID:16085834

  17. The Molecular Basis for Dual Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH)/Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Giulia; Favia, Angelo D; Convertino, Marino; De Vivo, Marco

    2016-06-20

    The design of multitarget-directed ligands is a promising strategy for discovering innovative drugs. Here, we report a mechanistic study that clarifies key aspects of the dual inhibition of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes by a new multitarget-directed ligand named ARN2508 (2-[3-fluoro-4-[3-(hexylcarbamoyloxy)phenyl]phenyl]propanoic acid). This potent dual inhibitor combines, in a single scaffold, the pharmacophoric elements often needed to block FAAH and COX, that is, a carbamate moiety and the 2-arylpropionic acid functionality, respectively. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that ARN2508 uses a noncovalent mechanism of inhibition to block COXs, while inhibiting FAAH via the acetylation of the catalytic Ser241, in line with previous experimental evidence for covalent FAAH inhibition. This study proposes the molecular basis for the dual FAAH/COX inhibition by this novel hybrid scaffold, stimulating further experimental studies and offering new insights for the rational design of novel anti-inflammatory agents that simultaneously act on FAAH and COX. PMID:26593700

  18. An insect farnesyl phosphatase homologous to the N-terminal domain of soluble epoxide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Li; Zhang, Ping; Grant, David F.

    2009-01-01

    In insects, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) is converted to juvenile hormone (JH) via a conserved pathway consisting of isoprenoid derived metabolites. The first step of this pathway is presumed to be hydrolysis of FPP to farnesol in the ring gland. Based on alignment of putative phosphatases from D. melanogaster with the phosphatase domain of soluble epoxide hydrolase, Phos2680 and Phos15739 with conserved phosphatase motifs were identified, cloned and purified. Both D. melanogaster phosphatases hydrolyzed para-nitrophenyl phosphate, however, Phos15739 also hydrolyzed FPP with a Kcat/Km of 2.1 X 105 M−1s−1. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Phos15739 was expressed in the ring gland and its expression was correlated with JHIII titer during development of D. melanogaster. N-acetyl-S-geranylgeranyl-L-cysteine was found to be a potent inhibitor of Phos15739 with an IC50 value of 4.4 μM. Thus, our data identify Phos15739 as a FPP phosphatase that likely catalyzes the hydrolysis of FPP to farnesol in D. melanogaster. PMID:19168029

  19. Crystal structures of glycoside hydrolase family 3 β-glucosidase 1 from Aspergillus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Sumitani, Jun-ichi; Nam, Young-Woo; Nishimaki, Toru; Tani, Shuji; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Fushinobu, Shinya

    2013-06-01

    GH3 (glycoside hydrolase family 3) BGLs (β-glucosidases) from filamentous fungi have been widely and commercially used for the supplementation of cellulases. AaBGL1 (Aspergillus aculeatus BGL1) belongs to the GH3 and shows high activity towards cellooligosaccharides up to high degree of polymerization. In the present study we determined the crystal structure of AaBGL1. In addition to the substrate-free structure, the structures of complexes with glucose and various inhibitors were determined. The structure of AaBGL1 is highly glycosylated with 88 monosaccharides (18 N-glycan chains) in the dimer. The largest N-glycan chain comprises ten monosaccharides and is one of the largest glycans ever observed in protein crystal structures. A prominent insertion region exists in a fibronectin type III domain, and this region extends to cover a wide surface area of the enzyme. The subsite +1 of AaBGL1 is highly hydrophobic. Three aromatic residues are present at subsite +1 and are located in short loop regions that are uniquely present in this enzyme. There is a long cleft extending from subsite +1, which appears to be suitable for binding long cellooligosaccharides. The crystal structures of AaBGL1 from the present study provide an important structural basis for the technical improvement of enzymatic cellulosic biomass conversion. PMID:23537284

  20. Human Carboxymethylenebutenolidase as a Bioactivating Hydrolase of Olmesartan Medoxomil in Liver and Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, Tomoko; Fujimori, Izumi; Kato, Mitsunori; Noji-Sakikawa, Chisa; Saito, Motoko; Yoshigae, Yasushi; Kubota, Kazuishi; Kurihara, Atsushi; Izumi, Takashi; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Okazaki, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is a prodrug type angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist widely prescribed as an antihypertensive agent. Herein, we describe the identification and characterization of the OM bioactivating enzyme that hydrolyzes the prodrug and converts to its pharmacologically active metabolite olmesartan in human liver and intestine. The protein was purified from human liver cytosol by successive column chromatography and was identified by mass spectrometry to be a carboxymethylenebutenolidase (CMBL) homolog. Human CMBL, whose endogenous function has still not been reported, is a human homolog of Pseudomonas dienelactone hydrolase involved in the bacterial halocatechol degradation pathway. The ubiquitous expression of human CMBL gene transcript in various tissues was observed. The recombinant human CMBL expressed in mammalian cells was clearly shown to activate OM. By comparing the enzyme kinetics and chemical inhibition properties between the recombinant protein and human tissue preparations, CMBL was demonstrated to be the primary OM bioactivating enzyme in the liver and intestine. The recombinant CMBL also converted other prodrugs having the same ester structure as OM, faropenem medoxomil and lenampicillin, to their active metabolites. CMBL exhibited a unique sensitivity to chemical inhibitors, thus, being distinguishable from other known esterases. Site-directed mutagenesis on the putative active residue Cys132 of the recombinant CMBL caused a drastic reduction of the OM-hydrolyzing activity. We report for the first time that CMBL serves as a key enzyme in the bioactivation of OM, hydrolyzing the ester bond of the prodrug type xenobiotics. PMID:20177059

  1. Human carboxymethylenebutenolidase as a bioactivating hydrolase of olmesartan medoxomil in liver and intestine.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomoko; Fujimori, Izumi; Kato, Mitsunori; Noji-Sakikawa, Chisa; Saito, Motoko; Yoshigae, Yasushi; Kubota, Kazuishi; Kurihara, Atsushi; Izumi, Takashi; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Okazaki, Osamu

    2010-04-16

    Olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is a prodrug type angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist widely prescribed as an antihypertensive agent. Herein, we describe the identification and characterization of the OM bioactivating enzyme that hydrolyzes the prodrug and converts to its pharmacologically active metabolite olmesartan in human liver and intestine. The protein was purified from human liver cytosol by successive column chromatography and was identified by mass spectrometry to be a carboxymethylenebutenolidase (CMBL) homolog. Human CMBL, whose endogenous function has still not been reported, is a human homolog of Pseudomonas dienelactone hydrolase involved in the bacterial halocatechol degradation pathway. The ubiquitous expression of human CMBL gene transcript in various tissues was observed. The recombinant human CMBL expressed in mammalian cells was clearly shown to activate OM. By comparing the enzyme kinetics and chemical inhibition properties between the recombinant protein and human tissue preparations, CMBL was demonstrated to be the primary OM bioactivating enzyme in the liver and intestine. The recombinant CMBL also converted other prodrugs having the same ester structure as OM, faropenem medoxomil and lenampicillin, to their active metabolites. CMBL exhibited a unique sensitivity to chemical inhibitors, thus, being distinguishable from other known esterases. Site-directed mutagenesis on the putative active residue Cys(132) of the recombinant CMBL caused a drastic reduction of the OM-hydrolyzing activity. We report for the first time that CMBL serves as a key enzyme in the bioactivation of OM, hydrolyzing the ester bond of the prodrug type xenobiotics. PMID:20177059

  2. Analysis of the key active subsites of glycoside hydrolase 13 family members.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikash

    2010-05-01

    alpha-Amylase, pullulanase, neopullulanase, cyclomaltodextrinase (CDase), cyclomaltodextin glucanotransferase (CGTase), etc. are some of the amylolytic enzymes that act on polysaccharides. These enzymes differ from each other with respect to substrate and linkage specificities. These enzymes have been grouped into the GH13 (GH, Glycoside Hydrolase) family in the CAZy database on the basis of similarity in amino acid sequence. Members of this family share three domains viz., A, B, and C, which have several binding subsites to accommodate monomeric units of the polysaccharide substrate. Among these subsites, -2, -1, +1, and +2 subsites are the most critical subsites for catalytic activity. In the present study, the substrate analog-, inhibitor-, or product-bound 3-D structures of 24 members of GH13 family have been analyzed to identify the features of the -2, -1, +1, and +2 subsites shared by all the members for recognition of the common substrate. It is found that neither the number nor the nature of the potential hydrogen bond-forming residues is conserved with the exception of the presence of tyrosine as a stacking residue in the -1 subsite. The relative spatial disposition of the conserved subsite residues are conserved as judged by distance matrices. The backbone of the -2, -1, +1, and +2 subsites does not undergo conformational change for the recognition of the substrate. This analysis suggests that these enzymes recognize their substrate on the basis of shape of the substrate rather than on the basis of specific interactions within the binding site. PMID:20227065

  3. α/β-Hydrolase domain-6-accessible monoacylglycerol controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shangang; Mugabo, Yves; Iglesias, Jose; Xie, Li; Delghingaro-Augusto, Viviane; Lussier, Roxane; Peyot, Marie-Line; Joly, Erik; Taïb, Bouchra; Davis, Matthew A; Brown, J Mark; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Gaisano, Herbert; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Glucose metabolism in pancreatic β cells stimulates insulin granule exocytosis, and this process requires generation of a lipid signal. However, the signals involved in lipid amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) are unknown. Here we show that in β cells, glucose stimulates production of lipolysis-derived long-chain saturated monoacylglycerols, which further increase upon inhibition of the membrane-bound monoacylglycerol lipase α/β-Hydrolase Domain-6 (ABHD6). ABHD6 expression in β cells is inversely proportional to GSIS. Exogenous monoacylglycerols stimulate β cell insulin secretion and restore GSIS suppressed by the pan-lipase inhibitor orlistat. Whole-body and β-cell-specific ABHD6-KO mice exhibit enhanced GSIS, and their islets show elevated monoacylglycerol production and insulin secretion in response to glucose. Inhibition of ABHD6 in diabetic mice restores GSIS and improves glucose tolerance. Monoacylglycerol binds and activates the vesicle priming protein Munc13-1, thereby inducing insulin exocytosis. We propose saturated monoacylglycerol as a signal for GSIS and ABHD6 as a negative modulator of insulin secretion. PMID:24814481

  4. Abnormal Hypermethylation at Imprinting Control Regions in Patients with S-Adenosylhomocysteine Hydrolase (AHCY) Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Motzek, Antje; Knežević, Jelena; Switzeny, Olivier J.; Cooper, Alexis; Barić, Ivo; Beluzić, Robert; Strauss, Kevin A.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Vugrek, Oliver; Zechner, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (AHCY) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in methionine metabolism caused by mutations in the AHCY gene. Main characteristics are psychomotor delay including delayed myelination and myopathy (hypotonia, absent tendon reflexes etc.) from birth, mostly associated with hypermethioninaemia, elevated serum creatine kinase levels and increased genome wide DNA methylation. The prime function of AHCY is to hydrolyse and efficiently remove S-adenosylhomocysteine, the by-product of transmethylation reactions and one of the most potent methyltransferase inhibitors. In this study, we set out to more specifically characterize DNA methylation changes in blood samples from patients with AHCY deficiency. Global DNA methylation was increased in two of three analysed patients. In addition, we analysed the DNA methylation levels at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of six imprinted genes (MEST, SNRPN, LIT1, H19, GTL2 and PEG3) as well as Alu and LINE1 repetitive elements in seven patients. Three patients showed a hypermethylation in up to five imprinted gene DMRs. Abnormal methylation in Alu and LINE1 repetitive elements was not observed. We conclude that DNA hypermethylation seems to be a frequent but not a constant feature associated with AHCY deficiency that affects different genomic regions to different degrees. Thus AHCY deficiency may represent an ideal model disease for studying the molecular origins and biological consequences of DNA hypermethylation due to impaired cellular methylation status. PMID:26974671

  5. ROLE OF SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE IN AGE-RELATED VASCULAR COGNITIVE DECLINE

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jonathan W.; Young, Jennifer M.; Borkar, Rohan; Woltjer, Randy L.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Silbert, Lisa C.; Grafe, Marjorie R.; Alkayed, Nabil J.

    2014-01-01

    P450 eicosanoids are important regulators of the cerebral microcirculation, but their role in cerebral small vessel disease is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is linked to reduced cerebral microvascular eicosanoid signaling. We analyzed human brain tissue from individuals formerly enrolled in the Oregon Brain Aging Study, who had a history of cognitive impairment histopathological evidence of microvascular disease. VCI subjects had significantly higher lesion burden both on premortem MRI and postmortem histopathology compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Mass spectrometry-based eicosanoid analysis revealed that 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DHET) was elevated in cortical brain tissue from VCI subjects. Immunoreactivity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), the enzyme responsible for 14,15-DHET formation, was localized to cerebral microvascular endothelium, and was enhanced in microvessels of affected tissue. Finally, we evaluated the genotype frequency of two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms of sEH gene EPHX2 in VCI and control groups. Our findings support a role for sEH and a potential benefit from sEH inhibitors in age-related VCI. PMID:25277097

  6. Inverting hydrolases and their use in enantioconvergent biotransformations

    PubMed Central

    Schober, Markus; Faber, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the more abundant occurrence of racemic compounds compared to prochiral or meso forms, most enantiomerically pure products are obtained via racemate resolution. This review summarizes (chemo)enzymatic enantioconvergent processes based on the use of hydrolytic enzymes, which are able to invert a stereocenter during catalysis that can overcome the 50%-yield limitation of kinetic resolution. Recent developments are presented in the fields of inverting or retaining sulfatases, epoxide hydrolases and dehalogenases, which allow the production of secondary alcohols or vicinal diols at a 100% theoretical yield from a racemate via enantioconvergent processes. PMID:23809848

  7. Proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Teicher, Beverly A; Tomaszewski, Joseph E

    2015-07-01

    Proteasome inhibitors have a 20 year history in cancer therapy. The first proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (Velcade, PS-341), a break-through multiple myeloma treatment, moved rapidly through development from bench in 1994 to first approval in 2003. Bortezomib is a reversible boronic acid inhibitor of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome. Next generation proteasome inhibitors include carfilzomib and oprozomib which are irreversible epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors; and ixazomib and delanzomib which are reversible boronic acid proteasome inhibitors. Two proteasome inhibitors, bortezomib and carfilzomib are FDA approved drugs and ixazomib and oprozomib are in late stage clinical trials. All of the agents are potent cytotoxics. The disease focus for all the proteasome inhibitors is multiple myeloma. This focus arose from clinical observations made in bortezomib early clinical trials. Later preclinical studies confirmed that multiple myeloma cells were indeed more sensitive to proteasome inhibitors than other tumor cell types. The discovery and development of the proteasome inhibitor class of anticancer agents has progressed through a classic route of serendipity and scientific investigation. These agents are continuing to have a major impact in their treatment of hematologic malignancies and are beginning to be explored as potential treatment agent for non-cancer indications. PMID:25935605

  8. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we ann...

  9. Fatty acid amide hydrolase as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of pain and CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kay; Johnson, Douglas S.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an integral membrane enzyme that hydrolyzes the endocannabinoid anandamide and related amidated signaling lipids. Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of FAAH produces analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, and antidepressant phenotypes without showing the undesirable side effects of direct cannabinoid receptor agonists, indicating that FAAH may be a promising therapeutic target. Objectives This review highlights advances in the development of FAAH inhibitors of different mechanistic classes and their in vivo efficacy. Also highlighted are advances in technology for the in vitro and in vivo selectivity assessment of FAAH inhibitors employing activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) and click chemistry-ABPP, respectively. Recent reports on structure-based drug design for human FAAH generated by protein engineering using interspecies active site conversion are also discussed. Methods: The literature searches of Medline and SciFinder databases were used. Conclusions There has been tremendous progress in our understanding in FAAH and development of FAAH inhibitors with in vivo efficacy, selectivity, and drug like pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:20544003

  10. Metabolic products of soluble epoxide hydrolase are essential for monocyte chemotaxis to MCP-1 in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Suman; Roome, Talat; Bhattacharjee, Ashish; Carnevale, Kevin A.; Yakubenko, Valentin P.; Zhang, Renliang; Hwang, Sung Hee; Hammock, Bruce D.; Cathcart, Martha K.

    2013-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)-induced monocyte chemotaxis is a major event in inflammatory disease. Our prior studies have demonstrated that MCP-1-dependent chemotaxis requires release of arachidonic acid (AA) by activated cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). Here we investigated the involvement of AA metabolites in chemotaxis. Neither cyclooxygenase nor lipoxygenase pathways were required, whereas pharmacologic inhibitors of both the cytochrome-P450 (CYP) and the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathways blocked monocyte chemotaxis to MCP-1. To verify specificity, we demonstrated that the CYP and sEH products epoxyeiscosatrienoic acids (EETs) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), respectively, restored chemotaxis in the presence of the inhibitors, indicating that sEH-derived products are essential for MCP-1-driven chemotaxis. Importantly, DHETs also rescued chemotaxis in cPLA2-deficient monocytes and monocytes with blocked Erk1/2 activity, because Erk controls cPLA2 activation. The in vitro findings regarding the involvement of CYP/sEH pathways were further validated in vivo using two complementary approaches measuring MCP-1-dependent chemotaxis in mice. These observations reveal the importance of sEH in MCP-1-regulated monocyte chemotaxis and may explain the observed therapeutic value of sEH inhibitors in treatment of inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, pain, and even carcinogenesis. Their effectiveness, often attributed to increasing EET levels, is probably influenced by the impairment of DHET formation and inhibition of chemotaxis. PMID:23160182

  11. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase in mice promotes reverse cholesterol transport and regression of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Peng, Hongchun; Peng, Ran; Fan, Qingsong; Zhao, Shuiping; Xu, Danyan; Morisseau, Christophe; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-04-01

    Adipose tissue is the body largest free cholesterol reservoir and abundantly expresses ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which maintains plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. HDLs have a protective role in atherosclerosis by mediating reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a cytosolic enzyme whose inhibition has various beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The sEH is highly expressed in adipocytes, and it converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) into less bioactive dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. We previously showed that increasing EETs levels with a sEH inhibitor (sEHI) (t-AUCB) resulted in elevated ABCA1 expression and promoted ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The present study investigates the impacts of t-AUCB in mice deficient for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (Ldlr(-/-) mice) with established atherosclerotic plaques. The sEH inhibitor delivered in vivo for 4 weeks decreased the activity of sEH in adipose tissue, enhanced ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux from adipose depots, and consequently increased HDL levels. Furthermore, t-AUCB enhanced RCT to the plasma, liver, bile and feces. It also showed the reduction of plasma LDL-C levels. Consistently, t-AUCB-treated mice showed reductions in the size of atherosclerotic plaques. These studies establish that raising adipose ABCA1 expression, cholesterol efflux, and plasma HDL levels with t-AUCB treatment promotes RCT, decreasing LDL-C and atherosclerosis regression, suggesting that sEH inhibition may be a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic vascular disease. PMID:25733327

  12. Pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase provides cardioprotection in hyperglycemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmino, Kathleen; Jackson, Kaleena; Harris, Todd R.; Vu, Vincent; Dong, Hua; Dutrow, Gavin; Evans, James E.; Graham, James; Cummings, Bethany P.; Havel, Peter J.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Despa, Sanda; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Glycemic regulation improves myocardial function in diabetic patients, but finding optimal therapeutic strategies remains challenging. Recent data have shown that pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), an enzyme that decreases the endogenous levels of protective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), improves glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant mice. Here, we tested whether the administration of sEH inhibitors preserves cardiac myocyte structure and function in hyperglycemic rats. University of California-Davis-type 2 diabetes mellitus (UCD-T2DM) rats with nonfasting blood glucose levels in the range of 150–200 mg/dl were treated with the sEH inhibitor 1-(1-acetypiperidin-4-yl)-3-adamantanylurea (APAU) for 6 wk. Administration of APAU attenuated the progressive increase of blood glucose concentration and preserved mitochondrial structure and myofibril morphology in cardiac myocytes, as revealed by electron microscopy imaging. Fluorescence microscopy with Ca2+ indicators also showed a 40% improvement of cardiac Ca2+ transients in treated rats. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content was decreased in both treated and untreated rats compared with control rats. However, treatment limited this reduction by 30%, suggesting that APAU may protect the intracellular Ca2+ effector system. Using Western blot analysis on cardiac myocyte lysates, we found less downregulation of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), the main route of Ca2+ reuptake in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and lower expression of hypertrophic markers in treated versus untreated UCD-T2DM rats. In conclusion, APAU enhances the therapeutic effects of EETs, resulting in slower progression of hyperglycemia, efficient protection of myocyte structure, and reduced Ca2+ dysregulation and SERCA remodeling in hyperglycemic rats. The results suggest that sEH/EETs may be an effective therapeutic target for cardioprotection in insulin resistance and diabetes. PMID:22865388

  13. Gene deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase confers resilience to repeated social defeat stress

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Qian; Ma, Min; Ishima, Tamaki; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Wagner, Karen M.; Zhang, Ji-chun; Yang, Chun; Yao, Wei; Dong, Chao; Han, Mei; Hammock, Bruce D.; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a severe and chronic psychiatric disease, affecting 350 million subjects worldwide. Although multiple antidepressants have been used in the treatment of depressive symptoms, their beneficial effects are limited. The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a key role in the inflammation that is involved in depression. Thus, we examined here the role of sEH in depression. In both inflammation and social defeat stress models of depression, a potent sEH inhibitor, TPPU, displayed rapid antidepressant effects. Expression of sEH protein in the brain from chronically stressed (susceptible) mice was higher than of control mice. Furthermore, expression of sEH protein in postmortem brain samples of patients with psychiatric diseases, including depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, was higher than controls. This finding suggests that increased sEH levels might be involved in the pathogenesis of certain psychiatric diseases. In support of this hypothesis, pretreatment with TPPU prevented the onset of depression-like behaviors after inflammation or repeated social defeat stress. Moreover, sEH KO mice did not show depression-like behavior after repeated social defeat stress, suggesting stress resilience. The sEH KO mice showed increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylation of its receptor TrkB in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, but not nucleus accumbens, suggesting that increased BDNF-TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus confer stress resilience. All of these findings suggest that sEH plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression, and that epoxy fatty acids, their mimics, as well as sEH inhibitors could be potential therapeutic or prophylactic drugs for depression. PMID:26976569

  14. Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T Molinate Hydrolase, a Novel Cobalt-Dependent Amidohydrolase ▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Márcia; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Junca, Howard; Gales, Luís; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Nunes, Olga C.

    2011-01-01

    A new pathway of molinate mineralization has recently been described. Among the five members of the mixed culture able to promote such a process, Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T has been observed to promote the initial breakdown of the herbicide into ethanethiol and azepane-1-carboxylate. In the current study, the gene encoding the enzyme responsible for molinate hydrolysis was identified and heterologously expressed, and the resultant active protein was purified and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the gene encodes a 465-amino-acid protein of the metal-dependent hydrolase A subfamily of the amidohydrolase superfamily with a predicted molecular mass of 50.9 kDa. Molinate hydrolase shares the highest amino acid sequence identity (48 to 50%) with phenylurea hydrolases of Arthrobacter globiformis and Mycobacterium brisbanense. However, in contrast to previously described members of the metal-dependent hydrolase A subfamily, molinate hydrolase contains cobalt as the only active-site metal. PMID:21840982

  15. Structure of unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase complexed with substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Takafumi; Ochiai, Akihito; Mikami, Bunzo; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku . E-mail: kmurata@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-09-08

    Bacillus subtilis strain 168 YteR has been identified as a novel enzyme 'unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase' classified in glycoside hydrolase family 105. This enzyme acts specifically on unsaturated rhamnogalacturonan (RG) produced from plant cell wall RG type-I treated with RG lyases, releasing unsaturated galacturonic acid ({delta}GalA) from the substrate. The most likely candidate catalytic residue is Asp-143. Here, we show the structure of D143N in complex with unsaturated RG disaccharide (substrate) determined at 1.9 A resolution by X-ray crystallography. This structural feature directly contributes to the postulation of the enzyme reaction mechanism. YteR triggers the hydration of vinyl ether group in {delta}GalA, but not of glycoside bond, by using Asp-143 as a general acid and base catalyst. Asp-143 donates proton to the double bond of {delta}GalA as an acid catalyst and also deprotonates a water molecule as a base catalyst. Deprotonated water molecule attacks the C5 atom of {delta}GalA.

  16. Protective mechanisms against homocysteine toxicity: the role of bleomycin hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Zimny, Jaroslaw; Sikora, Marta; Guranowski, Andrzej; Jakubowski, Hieronim

    2006-08-11

    Homocysteine (Hcy) editing by methionyl-tRNA synthetase results in the formation of Hcy-thiolactone and initiates a pathway that has been implicated in human disease. In addition to being cleared from the circulation by urinary excretion, Hcy-thiolactone is detoxified by the serum Hcy-thiolactonase/paraoxonase carried on high density lipoprotein. Whether Hcy-thiolactone is detoxified inside cells was unknown. Here we show that Hcy-thiolactone is hydrolyzed by an intracellular enzyme, which we have purified to homogeneity from human placenta and identified by proteomic analyses as human bleomycin hydrolase (hBLH). We have also purified an Hcy-thiolactonase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified it as yeast bleomycin hydrolase (yBLH). BLH belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved cysteine aminopeptidases, and its only known biologically relevant function was deamidation of the anticancer drug bleomycin. Recombinant hBLH or yBLH, expressed in Escherichia coli, exhibits Hcy-thiolactonase activity similar to that of the native enzymes. Active site mutations, C73A for hBLH and H369A for yBLH, inactivate Hcy-thiolactonase activities. Yeast blh1 mutants are deficient in Hcy-thiolactonase activity in vitro and in vivo, produce more Hcy-thiolactone, and exhibit greater sensitivity to Hcy toxicity than wild type yeast cells. Our data suggest that BLH protects cells against Hcy toxicity by hydrolyzing intracellular Hcy-thiolactone. PMID:16769724

  17. Marine extremophiles: a source of hydrolases for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Dalmaso, Gabriel Zamith Leal; Ferreira, Davis; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2015-04-01

    The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications. PMID:25854643

  18. Mechanistic Investigations of Unsaturated Glucuronyl Hydrolase from Clostridium perfringens*

    PubMed Central

    Jongkees, Seino A. K.; Yoo, Hayoung; Withers, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to probe the details of the hydration-initiated hydrolysis catalyzed by the Clostridium perfringens unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase of glycoside hydrolase family 88 in the CAZy classification system. Direct 1H NMR monitoring of the enzymatic reaction detected no accumulated reaction intermediates in solution, suggesting that rearrangement of the initial hydration product occurs on-enzyme. An attempt at mechanism-based trapping of on-enzyme intermediates using a 1,1-difluoro-substrate was unsuccessful because the probe was too deactivated to be turned over by the enzyme. Kinetic isotope effects arising from deuterium-for-hydrogen substitution at carbons 1 and 4 provide evidence for separate first-irreversible and overall rate-determining steps in the hydration reaction, with two potential mechanisms proposed to explain these results. Based on the positioning of catalytic residues in the enzyme active site, the lack of efficient turnover of a 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-substrate, and several unsuccessful attempts at confirmation of a simpler mechanism involving a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate, the most plausible mechanism is one involving an intermediate bearing an epoxide on carbons 1 and 2. PMID:24573682

  19. Mechanistic investigations of unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Jongkees, Seino A K; Yoo, Hayoung; Withers, Stephen G

    2014-04-18

    Experiments were carried out to probe the details of the hydration-initiated hydrolysis catalyzed by the Clostridium perfringens unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase of glycoside hydrolase family 88 in the CAZy classification system. Direct (1)H NMR monitoring of the enzymatic reaction detected no accumulated reaction intermediates in solution, suggesting that rearrangement of the initial hydration product occurs on-enzyme. An attempt at mechanism-based trapping of on-enzyme intermediates using a 1,1-difluoro-substrate was unsuccessful because the probe was too deactivated to be turned over by the enzyme. Kinetic isotope effects arising from deuterium-for-hydrogen substitution at carbons 1 and 4 provide evidence for separate first-irreversible and overall rate-determining steps in the hydration reaction, with two potential mechanisms proposed to explain these results. Based on the positioning of catalytic residues in the enzyme active site, the lack of efficient turnover of a 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-substrate, and several unsuccessful attempts at confirmation of a simpler mechanism involving a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate, the most plausible mechanism is one involving an intermediate bearing an epoxide on carbons 1 and 2. PMID:24573682

  20. Catalysis of potato epoxide hydrolase, StEH1

    PubMed Central

    Elfström, Lisa T.; Widersten, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    The kinetic mechanism of epoxide hydrolase (EC 3.3.2.3) from potato, StEH1 (Solanum tuberosum epoxide hydrolase 1), was studied by presteady-state and steady-state kinetics as well as by pH dependence of activity. The specific activities towards the different enantiomers of TSO (trans-stilbene oxide) as substrate were 43 and 3 μmol·min−1·mg−1 with the R,R- or S,S-isomers respectively. The enzyme was, however, enantioselective in favour of the S,S enantiomer due to a lower Km value. The pH dependences of kcat with R,R or S,S-TSO were also distinct and supposedly reflecting the pH dependences of the individual kinetic rates during substrate conversion. The rate-limiting step for TSO and cis- and trans-epoxystearate was shown by rapid kinetic measurements to be the hydrolysis of the alkylenzyme intermediate. Functional characterization of point mutants verified residues Asp105, Tyr154, Tyr235 and His300 as crucial for catalytic activity. All mutants displayed drastically decreased enzymatic activities during steady state. Presteady-state measurements revealed the base-deficient H300N (His300→Asn) mutant to possess greatly reduced efficiencies in catalysis of both chemical steps (alkylation and hydrolysis). PMID:15882148

  1. Marine Extremophiles: A Source of Hydrolases for Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dalmaso, Gabriel Zamith Leal; Ferreira, Davis; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications. PMID:25854643

  2. POTENT UREA AND CARBAMATE INHIBITORS OF SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Human platelets stimulated by thrombin produce platelet-activating factor (1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) when the degrading enzyme acetyl hydrolase is blocked.

    PubMed Central

    Touqui, L; Hatmi, M; Vargaftig, B B

    1985-01-01

    It has been shown [Touqui, Jacquemin & Vargaftig (1983) Thromb. Haemostasis 50, 163; Touqui, Jacquemin & Vargaftig (1983) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 110, 890-893; Alam, Smith & Melvin (1983) Lipids 18, 534-538; Pieroni & Hanahan (1983) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 224, 485-493] that rabbit platelets inactivate exogenous PAF (platelet-activating factor, PAF-acether) by a deacetylation-reacylation mechanism. The deacetylation step is catalysed by an acetyl hydrolase sensitive to the serine-hydrolase inhibitor PMSF (phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride) [Touqui, Jacquemin, Dumarey & Vargaftig (1985) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 833, 111-118]. We report here that human platelets can produce PAF on thrombin stimulation. This production is marginal and transient, reaching a maximum at 10 min and decreasing thereafter. In contrast, 10-12 times more PAF is produced when platelets are treated with PMSF and stimulated with thrombin. Under these conditions, the maximum formation is observed at 30 min and no decline occurs for up to 60 min after stimulation. In addition, these platelets (treated with PMSF and stimulated with thrombin) incorporate exogenous labelled acetate in the 2-position of PAF, probably by an acetyltransferase-dependent mechanism. Production of PAF by human platelets during physiological stimulation can be demonstrated when PAF degradation is suppressed by the acetyl-hydrolase inhibitor PMSF. PMID:4052028

  4. A Proton Wire and Water Channel Revealed in the Crystal Structure of Isatin Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Kaare; Sommer, Theis; Jensen, Jan K.; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Etzerodt, Michael; Morth, J. Preben

    2014-01-01

    The high resolution crystal structures of isatin hydrolase from Labrenzia aggregata in the apo and the product state are described. These are the first structures of a functionally characterized metal-dependent hydrolase of this fold. Isatin hydrolase converts isatin to isatinate and belongs to a novel family of metalloenzymes that include the bacterial kynurenine formamidase. The product state, mimicked by bound thioisatinate, reveals a water molecule that bridges the thioisatinate to a proton wire in an adjacent water channel and thus allows the proton released by the reaction to escape only when the product is formed. The functional proton wire present in isatin hydrolase isoform b represents a unique catalytic feature common to all hydrolases is here trapped and visualized for the first time. The local molecular environment required to coordinate thioisatinate allows stronger and more confident identification of orthologous genes encoding isatin hydrolases within the prokaryotic kingdom. The isatin hydrolase orthologues found in human gut bacteria raise the question as to whether the indole-3-acetic acid degradation pathway is present in human gut flora. PMID:24917679

  5. Development of the aza-crown ether metal complexes as artificial hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Li, Fang-zhen; Wu, Jiao-yi; Xie, Jia-qing; Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolases play a crucial role in the biochemical process, which can catalyze the hydrolysis of various compounds like carboxylic esters, phosphoesters, amides, nucleic acids, peptides, and so on. The design of artificial hydrolases has attracted extensive attention due to their scientific significance and potential applications in the field of gene medicine and molecular biology. Numerous macrocyclic metal complexes have been used as artificial hydrolase in the catalytic hydrolysis of the organic substrate. Aza-crown ether for this comment is a special class of the macrocyclic ligand containing both the nitrogen atoms and oxygen atoms in the ring. The studies showed that the aza-crown complexes exhibited high activity of hydrolytic enzyme. However, the aza-crown ether metal complex as artificial hydrolase is still very limited because of its difficulty in synthesis. This review summarizes the development of the aza-crown ether metal complexes as the artificial hydrolase, including the synthesis and catalysis of the transition metal complexes and lanthanide metal complexes of aza-crown ethers. The purpose of this review is to highlight: (1) the relationship between the structure and hydrolytic activity of synthetic hydrolase; (2) the synergistic effect of metal sites and ligands in the course of organic compound hydrolysis; and (3) the design strategies of the aza-crown ethers as hydrolase. PMID:26460062

  6. Cloning and characterization of two rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase genes from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed Central

    Suykerbuyk, M E; Kester, H C; Schaap, P J; Stam, H; Musters, W; Visser, J

    1997-01-01

    A rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase gene of Aspergillus aculeatus was used as a probe for the cloning of two rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase genes of Aspergillus niger. The corresponding proteins, rhamnogalacturonan hydrolases A and B, are 78 and 72% identical, respectively, with the A. aculeatus enzyme. In A. niger cultures which were shifted from growth on sucrose to growth on apple pectin as a carbon source, the expression of the rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase A gene (rhgA) was transiently induced after 3 h of growth on apple pectin. The rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase B gene was not induced by apple pectin, but the rhgB gene was derepressed after 18 h of growth on either apple pectin or sucrose. Gene fusions of the A. niger rhgA and rhgB coding regions with the strong and inducible Aspergillus awamori exlA promoter were used to obtain high-producing A. awamori transformants which were then used for the purification of the two A. niger rhamnogalacturonan hydrolases. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography of oligomeric degradation products showed that optimal degradation of an isolated highly branched pectin fraction by A. niger rhamnogalacturonan hydrolases A and B occurred at pH 3.6 and 4.1, respectively. The specific activities of rhamnogalacturonan hydrolases A and B were then 0.9 and 0.4 U/mg, respectively, which is significantly lower than the specific activity of A. aculeatus rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase (2.5 U/mg at an optimal pH of 4.5). Compared to the A enzymes, the A. niger B enzyme appears to have a different substrate specificity, since additional oligomers are formed. PMID:9212401

  7. Soluble epoxide hydrolase contamination of specific catalase preparations inhibits epoxyeicosatrienoic acid vasodilation of rat renal arterioles.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Kathryn M; Olson, Lauren; Harder, Adam; Isbell, Marilyn; Imig, John D; Gutterman, David D; Falck, J R; Campbell, William B

    2011-10-01

    Cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), are important signaling molecules in the kidney. In renal arteries, EETs cause vasodilation whereas H(2)O(2) causes vasoconstriction. To determine the physiological contribution of H(2)O(2), catalase is used to inactivate H(2)O(2). However, the consequence of catalase action on EET vascular activity has not been determined. In rat renal afferent arterioles, 14,15-EET caused concentration-related dilations that were inhibited by Sigma bovine liver (SBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml) but not Calbiochem bovine liver (CBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml). SBL catalase inhibition was reversed by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor tAUCB (1 μM). In 14,15-EET incubations, SBL catalase caused a concentration-related increase in a polar metabolite. Using mass spectrometry, the metabolite was identified as 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-DHET), the inactive sEH metabolite. 14,15-EET hydrolysis was not altered by the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-ATZ; 10-50 mM), but was abolished by the sEH inhibitor BIRD-0826 (1-10 μM). SBL catalase EET hydrolysis showed a regioisomer preference with greatest hydrolysis of 14,15-EET followed by 11,12-, 8,9- and 5,6-EET (V(max) = 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.23 ± 0.06, 0.18 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 ng DHET·U catalase(-1)·min(-1), respectively). Of five different catalase preparations assayed, EET hydrolysis was observed with two Sigma liver catalases. These preparations had low specific catalase activity and positive sEH expression. Mass spectrometric analysis of the SBL catalase identified peptide fragments matching bovine sEH. Collectively, these data indicate that catalase does not affect EET-mediated dilation of renal arterioles. However, some commercial catalase preparations are contaminated with sEH, and these contaminated preparations diminish the biological activity of H(2)O(2) and EETs. PMID:21753077

  8. Yeast-based assays for the high-throughput screening of inhibitors of coronavirus RNA cap guanine-N7-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Wang, Zidao; Tao, Jiali; Wang, Yi; Wu, Andong; Yang, Ziwen; Wang, Kaimei; Shi, Liqiao; Chen, Yu; Guo, Deyin

    2014-04-01

    The 5'-cap structure is a distinct feature of eukaryotic mRNAs and is important for RNA stability and protein translation by providing a molecular signature for the distinction of self or non-self mRNA. Eukaryotic viruses generally modify the 5'-end of their RNAs to mimic the cellular mRNA structure, thereby facilitating viral replication in host cells. However, the molecular organization and biochemical mechanisms of the viral capping apparatus typically differ from its cellular counterpart, which makes viral capping enzymes attractive targets for drug discovery. Our previous work showed that SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) non-structural protein 14 represents a structurally novel and unique guanine-N7-methyltransferase (N7-MTase) that is able to functionally complement yeast cellular N7-MTase. In the present study, we developed a yeast-based system for identifying and screening inhibitors against coronavirus N7-MTase using both 96-well and 384-well microtiter plates. The MTase inhibitors previously identified by in vitro biochemical assays were tested, and some, such as sinefungin, effectively suppressed N7-MTase in the yeast system. However, other compounds, such as ATA and AdoHcy, did not exert an inhibitory effect within a cellular context. These results validated the yeast assay system for inhibitor screening yet also demonstrated the difference between cell-based and in vitro biochemical assays. The yeast system was applied to the screening of 3000 natural product extracts, and three were observed to more potently inhibit the activity of coronavirus than human N7-MTase. PMID:24530452

  9. Inhibition of peptidoglycan hydrolase activity in vivo and in vitro by energy uncouplers in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rodionov, D G; Ishiguro, E E

    1996-01-01

    The effects of energy uncouplers on in vivo and in vitro peptidoglycan hydrolase activities in Escherichia coli were determined. Sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone all inhibited ampicillin-induced lysis of exponential phase cultures, even when they were added to lysis-committed cultures. These energy uncouplers also inhibited the solubilization of radiolabeled peptidoglycan by bacterial suspensions that had been treated with 5% trichloroacetic acid by the method of Hartmann et al.3 to activate the peptidoglycan hydrolases. Therefore, the in vivo and in vitro activities of peptidoglycan hydrolases in E. coli are dependent on membrane energization. PMID:9158735

  10. Retinyl ester hydrolases and their roles in vitamin A homeostasis☆

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Renate; Taschler, Ulrike; Preiss-Landl, Karina; Wongsiriroj, Nuttaporn; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim

    2012-01-01

    In mammals, dietary vitamin A intake is essential for the maintenance of adequate retinoid (vitamin A and metabolites) supply of tissues and organs. Retinoids are taken up from animal or plant sources and subsequently stored in form of hydrophobic, biologically inactive retinyl esters (REs). Accessibility of these REs in the intestine, the circulation, and their mobilization from intracellular lipid droplets depends on the hydrolytic action of RE hydrolases (REHs). In particular, the mobilization of hepatic RE stores requires REHs to maintain steady plasma retinol levels thereby assuring constant vitamin A supply in times of food deprivation or inadequate vitamin A intake. In this review, we focus on the roles of extracellular and intracellular REHs in vitamin A metabolism. Furthermore, we will discuss the tissue-specific function of REHs and highlight major gaps in the understanding of RE catabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Retinoid and Lipid Metabolism. PMID:21586336

  11. Glycerol Ester Hydrolase Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Oterholm, Anders; Ordal, Z. John; Witter, Lloyd D.

    1968-01-01

    Seventeen strains of lactic acid bacteria were assayed for their glycerol ester hydrolase activity by using an improved agar-well technique, and eight strains by determining the activity in cell-free extracts using a pH-stat procedure. All cultures tested showed activity and hydrolyzed tributyrin more actively than they did tricaproin. The cell extract studies demonstrated that the cells contained intracellular esterases and lipases. The culture supernatant fluid was without activity. The lipase and the esterase differed in their relative activity to each other in the different extracts and in the ease by which they could be freed from the cellular debris. It is suggested that the lipase of these organisms is an endoenzyme and the esterase an ectoenzyme. PMID:5649866

  12. Soluble epoxide hydrolase: Gene structure, expression and deletion

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Todd R.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) converts epoxides to their corresponding diols through the addition of a water molecule. sEH readily hydrolyzes lipid signaling molecules, including the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), epoxidized lipids produced from arachidonic acid by the action of cytochrome p450s. Through its metabolism of the EETs and other lipid mediators, sEH contributes to the regulation of vascular tone, nociception, angiogenesis and the inflammatory response. Because of its central physiological role in disease states such as cardiac hypertrophy, diabetes, hypertension, and pain sEH is being investigated as a therapeutic target. This review begins with a brief introduction to sEH protein structure and function. sEH evolution and gene structure are then discussed before human small nucleotide polymorphisms and mammalian gene expression are described in the context of several disease models. The review ends with an overview of studies that have employed the sEH knockout mouse model. PMID:23701967

  13. Crystal structure of bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuzhou; Guo, Fangfang; Hu, Xiao Jian; Lin, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) is a gut-bacterial enzyme that negatively influences host fat digestion and energy harvesting. The BSH enzyme activity functions as a gateway reaction in the small intestine by the deconjugation of glycine-conjugated or taurine-conjugated bile acids. Extensive gut-microbiota studies have suggested that BSH is a key mechanistic microbiome target for the development of novel non-antibiotic food additives to improve animal feed production and for the design of new measures to control obesity in humans. However, research on BSH is still in its infancy, particularly in terms of the structural basis of BSH function, which has hampered the development of BSH-based strategies for improving human and animal health. As an initial step towards the structure-function analysis of BSH, C-terminally His-tagged BSH from Lactobacillus salivarius NRRL B-30514 was crystallized in this study. The 1.90 Å resolution crystal structure of L. salivarius BSH was determined by molecular replacement using the structure of Clostridium perfringens BSH as a starting model. It revealed this BSH to be a member of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily. Crystals of apo BSH belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 90.79, b = 87.35, c = 86.76 Å (PDB entry 5hke). Two BSH molecules packed perfectly as a dimer in one asymmetric unit. Comparative structural analysis of L. salivarius BSH also identified potential residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity. PMID:27139829

  14. Expanding the Catalytic Triad in Epoxide Hydrolases and Related Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Potato epoxide hydrolase 1 exhibits rich enantio- and regioselectivity in the hydrolysis of a broad range of substrates. The enzyme can be engineered to increase the yield of optically pure products as a result of changes in both enantio- and regioselectivity. It is thus highly attractive in biocatalysis, particularly for the generation of enantiopure fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. The present work aims to establish the principles underlying the activity and selectivity of the enzyme through a combined computational, structural, and kinetic study using the substrate trans-stilbene oxide as a model system. Extensive empirical valence bond simulations have been performed on the wild-type enzyme together with several experimentally characterized mutants. We are able to computationally reproduce the differences between the activities of different stereoisomers of the substrate and the effects of mutations of several active-site residues. In addition, our results indicate the involvement of a previously neglected residue, H104, which is electrostatically linked to the general base H300. We find that this residue, which is highly conserved in epoxide hydrolases and related hydrolytic enzymes, needs to be in its protonated form in order to provide charge balance in an otherwise negatively charged active site. Our data show that unless the active-site charge balance is correctly treated in simulations, it is not possible to generate a physically meaningful model for the enzyme that can accurately reproduce activity and selectivity trends. We also expand our understanding of other catalytic residues, demonstrating in particular the role of a noncanonical residue, E35, as a “backup base” in the absence of H300. Our results provide a detailed view of the main factors driving catalysis and regioselectivity in this enzyme and identify targets for subsequent enzyme design efforts. PMID:26527505

  15. Role of haem oxygenase in the renoprotective effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition in diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Elmarakby, Ahmed A; Faulkner, Jessica; Pye, Chelsey; Rouch, Katelyn; Alhashim, Abdulmohsin; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Baban, Babak

    2013-10-01

    We have shown previously that inhibition of sEH (soluble epoxide hydrolase) increased EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids) levels and reduced renal injury in diabetic mice and these changes were associated with induction of HO (haem oxygenase)-1. The present study determines whether the inhibition of HO negates the renoprotective effect of sEH inhibition in diabetic SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats). After 6 weeks of induction of diabetes with streptozotocin, SHR were divided into the following groups: untreated, treated with the sEH inhibitor t-AUCB {trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid}, treated with the HO inhibitor SnMP (stannous mesoporphyrin), and treated with both inhibitors for 4 more weeks; non-diabetic SHR served as a control group. Induction of diabetes significantly increased renal sEH expression and decreased the renal EETs/DHETEs (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid) ratio without affecting HO-1 activity or expression in SHR. Inhibition of sEH with t-AUCB increased the renal EETs/DHETEs ratio and HO-1 activity in diabetic SHR; however, it did not significantly alter systolic blood pressure. Treatment of diabetic SHR with t-AUCB significantly reduced the elevation in urinary albumin and nephrin excretion, whereas co-administration of the HO inhibitor SnMP with t-AUCB prevented these changes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed elevations in renal fibrosis as indicated by increased renal TGF-β (transforming growth factor β) levels and fibronectin expression in diabetic SHR and these changes were reduced with sEH inhibition. Co-administration of SnMP with t-AUCB prevented its ability to reduce renal fibrosis in diabetic SHR. In addition, SnMP treatment also prevented t-AUCB-induced decreases in renal macrophage infiltration, IL-17 expression and MCP-1 levels in diabetic SHR. These findings suggest that HO-1 induction is involved in the protective effect of sEH inhibition against diabetic renal injury. PMID:23611540

  16. CFTR Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Synder, David; Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Anderson, Marc O.

    2014-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is a cAMP-regulated Cl− channel whose major function is to facilitate epithelial fluid secretion. Loss-of-function mutations in CFTR cause the genetic disease cystic fibrosis. CFTR is required for transepithelial fluid transport in certain secretory diarrheas, such as cholera, and for cyst expansion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. High-throughput screening has yielded CFTR inhibitors of the thiazolidinone, glycine hydrazide and quinoxalinedione chemical classes. The glycine hydrazides target the extracellular CFTR pore, whereas the thiazolidinones and quinoxalinediones act at the cytoplasmic surface. These inhibitors have been widely used in cystic fibrosis research to study CFTR function at the cell and organ levels. The most potent CFTR inhibitor has IC50 of approximately 4 nM. Studies in animal models support the development of CFTR inhibitors for antisecretory therapy of enterotoxin-mediated diarrheas and polycystic kidney disease. PMID:23331030

  17. Soluble epoxide hydrolase gene deletion improves blood flow and reduces infarct size after cerebral ischemia in reproductively senescent female mice

    PubMed Central

    Zuloaga, Kristen L.; Zhang, Wenri; Roese, Natalie E.; Alkayed, Nabil J.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a key enzyme in the metabolism of vasodilatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), is sexually dimorphic, suppressed by estrogen, and contributes to underlying sex differences in cerebral blood flow and injury after cerebral ischemia. We tested the hypothesis that sEH inhibition or gene deletion in reproductively senescent (RS) female mice would increase cerebral perfusion and decrease infarct size following stroke. RS (15–18 month old) and young (3–4 month old) female sEH knockout (sEHKO) mice and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to 45 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with laser Doppler perfusion monitoring. WT mice were treated with vehicle or a sEH inhibitor t-AUCB at the time of reperfusion and every 24 h thereafter for 3 days. Differences in regional cerebral blood flow were measured in vivo using optical microangiography (OMAG). Infarct size was measured 3 days after reperfusion. Infarct size and cerebral perfusion 24 h after MCAO were not altered by age. Both sEH gene deletion and sEH inhibition increased cortical perfusion 24 h after MCAO. Neither sEH gene deletion nor sEH inhibition reduced infarct size in young mice. However, sEH gene deletion, but not sEH inhibition of the hydrolase domain of the enzyme, decreased infarct size in RS mice. Results of these studies show that sEH gene deletion and sEH inhibition enhance cortical perfusion following MCAO and sEH gene deletion reduces damage after ischemia in RS female mice; however this neuroprotection in absent is young mice. PMID:25642188

  18. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase contributes to the anti-inflammatory effect of antimicrobial triclocarban in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun-Yan; Qiu, Hong; Morisseau, Christophe; Hwang, Sung Hee; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Ulu, Arzu; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Hammock, Bruce D

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of the anti-microbial triclocarban (TCC) in personal care products (PCPs) has resulted in concern regarding environmental pollution. TCC is a potent inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Inhibitors of sEH (sEHIs) are anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive and cardio-protective in multiple animal models. However, the in vivo effects anticipated from a sEHI have not been reported for TCC. Here we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects in vivo of TCC in a murine model. TCC was employed in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged murine model. Systolic blood pressure, plasma levels of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokine, and metabolomic profile of plasma oxylipins were determined. TCC significantly reversed LPS-induced morbid hypotension in a time-dependent manner. TCC significantly repressed the increased release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine caused by LPS. Furthermore, TCC significantly shifted the oxylipin profile in vivo in a time-dependent manner towards resolution of inflammation as expected from a sEHI. These results demonstrated that at the doses used TCC is anti-inflammatory in the murine model. This study suggests that TCC may provide some benefits in humans in addition to its antimicrobial activities due to its potent inhibition of sEH. It may be a promising starting point for developing new low volume high value applications of TCC. However these biological effects also caution against the general over use of TCC in PCPs. PMID:21741984

  19. DETOXIFICATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES BY IMMOBILIZED ESCHERICHIA COLI EXPRESSING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE ON CELL SURFACE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An improved whole-cell technology for detoxifying organophosphate nerve agents was recently developed based on genetically engineered Escherichia coli with organophosphorus hydrolase anchored on the surface. This article reports the immobilization of these novel biocatalys...

  20. Structural and Enzymatic Characterization of a Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugar Hydrolase from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    PubMed Central

    Duong-ly, Krisna C.; Schoeffield, Andrew J.; Pizarro-Dupuy, Mario A.; Zarr, Melissa; Pineiro, Silvia A.; Amzel, L. Mario; Gabelli, Sandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Given the broad range of substrates hydrolyzed by Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked to X) enzymes, identification of sequence and structural elements that correctly predict a Nudix substrate or characterize a family is key to correctly annotate the myriad of Nudix enzymes. Here, we present the structure determination and characterization of Bd3179 –- a Nudix hydrolase from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus–that we show localized in the periplasmic space of this obligate Gram-negative predator. We demonstrate that the enzyme is a nucleoside diphosphate sugar hydrolase (NDPSase) and has a high degree of sequence and structural similarity to a canonical ADP-ribose hydrolase and to a nucleoside diphosphate sugar hydrolase (1.4 and 1.3 Å Cα RMSD respectively). Examination of the structural elements conserved in both types of enzymes confirms that an aspartate-X-lysine motif on the C-terminal helix of the α-β-α NDPSase fold differentiates NDPSases from ADPRases. PMID:26524597

  1. Oligomeric structure of proclavaminic acid amidino hydrolase: evolution of a hydrolytic enzyme in clavulanic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Jonathan M; Clifton, Ian J; Hernández, Helena; Doan, Linh X; Robinson, Carol V; Schofield, Christopher J; Hewitson, Kirsty S

    2002-01-01

    During biosynthesis of the clinically used beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid, one of the three steps catalysed by clavaminic acid synthase is separated from the other two by a step catalysed by proclavaminic acid amidino hydrolase (PAH), in which the guanidino group of an intermediate is hydrolysed to give proclavaminic acid and urea. PAH shows considerable sequence homology with the primary metabolic arginases, which hydrolyse arginine to ornithine and urea, but does not accept arginine as a substrate. Like other members of the bacterial sub-family of arginases, PAH is hexameric in solution and requires Mn2+ ions for activity. Other metal ions, including Co2+, can substitute for Mn2+. Two new substrates for PAH were identified, N-acetyl-(L)-arginine and (3R)-hydroxy-N-acetyl-(L)-arginine. Crystal structures of PAH from Streptomyces clavuligerus (at 1.75 A and 2.45 A resolution, where 1 A=0.1 nm) imply how it binds beta-lactams rather than the amino acid substrate of the arginases from which it evolved. The structures also suggest how PAH selects for a particular alcohol intermediate in the clavam biosynthesis pathway. As observed for the arginases, each PAH monomer consists of a core of beta-strands surrounded by alpha-helices, and its active site contains a di-Mn2+ centre with a bridging water molecule responsible for hydrolytic attack on to the guanidino group of the substrate. Comparison of structures obtained under different conditions reveals different conformations of a flexible loop, which must move to allow substrate binding. PMID:12020346

  2. Cholesterol ester hydrolase in pig liver is activated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.J.S.; Dubin, E.; Margolis, S.

    1986-05-01

    To examine whether hepatic neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) is regulated by phosphorylation, the authors have assayed CEH activity from pig liver cytosol by measuring /sup 14/C-oleate release from labeled cholesteryl oleate at pH 7.4. When pig liver cytosol was incubated with 2 mM Mg and 0.5 mM ATP, CEH activity was increased (141 +/- 8% of control, mean +/- SEM). Addition of 25..mu..M cyclic AMP (cAMP) further activated CEH activity (164 +/- 4% of control) as compared to incubation with Mg and ATP (p < 0.02). In the presence of 5 mM EDTA or in the absence of either Mg or ATP, no activation of CEH was observed. The activation was completely abolished by further incubation of activated cytosol with E. coli alkaline phosphatase. Activation of CEH activity was partially prevented by the addition of protein kinase inhibitor (p < 0.02) and this effect was completely reversed in the presence of exogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase (p < 0.05). To examine further the role of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, CEH activity was purified 240-fold by 35% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ precipitation and Sepharose 4B chromatography. Incubation of partially purified CEH fractions with Mg, ATP and cAMP did not increase CEH activity. Addition of exogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase activated CEH activity of partially purified fractions. The authors observations indicate that pig liver CEH is activated by phosphorylation mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

  3. Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Limits Mitochondrial Damage and Preserves Function Following Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Akhnokh, Maria K.; Yang, Feng Hua; Samokhvalov, Victor; Jamieson, Kristi L.; Cho, Woo Jung; Wagg, Cory; Takawale, Abhijit; Wang, Xiuhua; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Seubert, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Myocardial ischemia can result in marked mitochondrial damage leading to cardiac dysfunction, as such identifying novel mechanisms to limit mitochondrial injury is important. This study investigated the hypothesis that inhibiting soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), responsible for converting epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids protects mitochondrial from injury caused by myocardial infarction. Methods: sEH null and WT littermate mice were subjected to surgical occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery or sham operation. A parallel group of WT mice received an sEH inhibitor, trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-y1-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (tAUCB; 10 mg/L) or vehicle in the drinking water 4 days prior and 7 days post-MI. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography prior- and 7-days post-surgery. Heart tissues were dissected into infarct, peri-, and non-infarct regions to assess ultrastructure by electron microscopy. Complexes I, II, IV, citrate synthase, PI3K activities, and mitochondrial respiration were assessed in non-infarct regions. Isolated working hearts were used to measure the rates of glucose and palmitate oxidation. Results: Echocardiography revealed that tAUCB treatment or sEH deficiency significantly improved systolic and diastolic function post-MI compared to controls. Reduced infarct expansion and less adverse cardiac remodeling were observed in tAUCB-treated and sEH null groups. EM data demonstrated mitochondrial ultrastructure damage occurred in infarct and peri-infarct regions but not in non-infarct regions. Inhibition of sEH resulted in significant improvements in mitochondrial respiration, ATP content, mitochondrial enzymatic activities and restored insulin sensitivity and PI3K activity. Conclusion: Inhibition or genetic deletion of sEH protects against long-term ischemia by preserving cardiac function and maintaining mitochondrial efficiency. PMID:27375480

  4. Erectogenic and Aphrodisiac Property of Moringa oleifera: Involvement of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Dethe, Shekhar M; Gururaj, Giligar M; Jamwal, Rohitash; Bhaskar, Anirban; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit

    2016-07-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors have been reported to improve penile erection; therefore, sEH could be useful for management of erectile dysfunction. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of 30 Indian medicinal plants were screened for their sEH inhibition potential. Fifteen extracts showed >50% inhibition when screened at 50 µg/mL in sEH inhibition assay. Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) seeds (MEMO) was most potent with IC50 1.7 ± 0.1 µg/mL and was selected for in vitro studies on isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and in vivo sexual behaviour studies on healthy and diabetic rats. Rats were divided into five groups, each containing six animals and treated orally with either water, vehicle (1% Tween-20), MEMO (45 and 90 mg/kg/day for 21 days), and standard drug, sildenafil (5 mg/kg/day for 7 days). An equal number of female rats were used, and the effect of MEMO and sildenafil was compared with that of vehicle. MEMO significantly relaxed isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle at 0.1-100 µg/mL in vitro and significantly increased (p < 0.05) sexual activity, intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure in normal and diabetic rats. The increase in erectile function of rats by MEMO could be because of its sEH inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27020843

  5. Compositional profile of α/β-hydrolase fold proteins in mangrove soil metagenomes: prevalence of epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in oil-contaminated sites

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Ottoni, Júlia Ronzella; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of genes encoding biotechnologically relevant α/β-hydrolases in mangrove soil microbial communities was assessed using data obtained by whole-metagenome sequencing of four mangroves areas, denoted BrMgv01 to BrMgv04, in São Paulo, Brazil. The sequences (215 Mb in total) were filtered based on local amino acid alignments against the Lipase Engineering Database. In total, 5923 unassembled sequences were affiliated with 30 different α/β-hydrolase fold superfamilies. The most abundant predicted proteins encompassed cytosolic hydrolases (abH08; ∼ 23%), microsomal hydrolases (abH09; ∼ 12%) and Moraxella lipase-like proteins (abH04 and abH01; < 5%). Detailed analysis of the genes predicted to encode proteins of the abH08 superfamily revealed a high proportion related to epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in polluted mangroves BrMgv01-02-03. This suggested selection and putative involvement in local degradation/detoxification of the pollutants. Seven sequences that were annotated as genes for putative epoxide hydrolases and five for putative haloalkane dehalogenases were found in a fosmid library generated from BrMgv02 DNA. The latter enzymes were predicted to belong to Actinobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria. Our integrated approach thus identified 12 genes (complete and/or partial) that may encode hitherto undescribed enzymes. The low amino acid identity (< 60%) with already-described genes opens perspectives for both production in an expression host and genetic screening of metagenomes. PMID:25171437

  6. Compositional profile of α / β-hydrolase fold proteins in mangrove soil metagenomes: prevalence of epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in oil-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Ottoni, Júlia Ronzella; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2015-05-01

    The occurrence of genes encoding biotechnologically relevant α/β-hydrolases in mangrove soil microbial communities was assessed using data obtained by whole-metagenome sequencing of four mangroves areas, denoted BrMgv01 to BrMgv04, in São Paulo, Brazil. The sequences (215 Mb in total) were filtered based on local amino acid alignments against the Lipase Engineering Database. In total, 5923 unassembled sequences were affiliated with 30 different α/β-hydrolase fold superfamilies. The most abundant predicted proteins encompassed cytosolic hydrolases (abH08; ∼ 23%), microsomal hydrolases (abH09; ∼ 12%) and Moraxella lipase-like proteins (abH04 and abH01; < 5%). Detailed analysis of the genes predicted to encode proteins of the abH08 superfamily revealed a high proportion related to epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in polluted mangroves BrMgv01-02-03. This suggested selection and putative involvement in local degradation/detoxification of the pollutants. Seven sequences that were annotated as genes for putative epoxide hydrolases and five for putative haloalkane dehalogenases were found in a fosmid library generated from BrMgv02 DNA. The latter enzymes were predicted to belong to Actinobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria. Our integrated approach thus identified 12 genes (complete and/or partial) that may encode hitherto undescribed enzymes. The low amino acid identity (< 60%) with already-described genes opens perspectives for both production in an expression host and genetic screening of metagenomes. PMID:25171437

  7. SARS coronavirus protein 7a interacts with human Ap4A-hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) open reading frame 7a (ORF 7a) encodes a 122 amino acid accessory protein. It has no significant sequence homology with any other known proteins. The 7a protein is present in the virus particle and has been shown to interact with several host proteins; thereby implicating it as being involved in several pathogenic processes including apoptosis, inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, and activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase. In this study we present data demonstrating that the SARS-CoV 7a protein interacts with human Ap4A-hydrolase (asymmetrical diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase, EC 3.6.1.17). Ap4A-hydrolase is responsible for metabolizing the "allarmone" nucleotide Ap4A and therefore likely involved in regulation of cell proliferation, DNA replication, RNA processing, apoptosis and DNA repair. The interaction between 7a and Ap4A-hydrolase was identified using yeast two-hybrid screening. The interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation from cultured human cells transiently expressing V5-His tagged 7a and HA tagged Ap4A-hydrolase. Human tissue culture cells transiently expressing 7a and Ap4A-hydrolase tagged with EGFP and Ds-Red2 respectively show these proteins co-localize in the cytoplasm. PMID:20144233

  8. Piperidinyl thiazole isoxazolines: A new series of highly potent, slowly reversible FAAH inhibitors with analgesic properties.

    PubMed

    Pember, Stephen O; Mejia, Galo L; Price, Theodore J; Pasteris, Robert J

    2016-06-15

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a membrane anchored serine hydrolase that has a principle role in the metabolism of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Docking studies using representative FAAH crystal structures revealed that compounds containing a novel piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline core fit within the ligand binding domains. New potential FAAH inhibitors were designed and synthesized incorporating urea, carbamate, alkyldione and thiourea reactive centers as potential pharmacophores. A small library of candidate compounds (75) was then screened against human FAAH leading to the identification of new carbamate and urea based inhibitors (Ki=pM and nM, respectively). Representative carbamate and urea based chemotypes displayed slow, time dependent inhibition kinetics leading to enzyme inactivation which was slowly reversible. However, evidence indicated that features of the mechanism of inactivation differ between the two pharmacophore types. Selected compounds were also evaluated for analgesic activity in the mouse-tail flick test. PMID:27130358

  9. PET imaging of fatty acid amide hydrolase with [(18)F]DOPP in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Rotstein, Benjamin H; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Shoup, Timothy M; Wilson, Alan A; Liang, Steven H; Hooker, Jacob M; Vasdev, Neil

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) regulates endocannabinoid signaling. [(11)C]CURB, an irreversibly binding FAAH inhibitor, has been developed for clinical research imaging with PET. However, no fluorine-18 labeled radiotracer for FAAH has yet advanced to human studies. [(18)F]DOPP ([(18)F]3-(4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-yl)phenyl (5-fluoropentyl)carbamate) has been identified as a promising (18)F-labeled analogue based on rodent studies. The goal of this work is to evaluate [(18)F]DOPP in nonhuman primates to support its clinical translation. High specific activity [(18)F]DOPP (5-6 Ci·μmol(-1)) was administered intravenously (iv) to three baboons (2M/1F, 3-4 years old). The distribution and pharmacokinetics were quantified following a 2 h dynamic imaging session using a simultaneous PET/MR scanner. Pretreatment with the FAAH-selective inhibitor, URB597, was carried out at 200 or 300 μg/kg iv, 10 min prior to [(18)F]DOPP administration. Rapid arterial blood sampling for the first 3 min was followed by interval sampling with metabolite analysis to provide a parent radiotracer plasma input function that indicated ∼95% baseline metabolism at 60 min and a reduced rate of metabolism after pretreatment with URB597. Regional distribution data were analyzed with 1-, 2-, and 3-tissue compartment models (TCMs), with and without irreversible trapping since [(18)F]DOPP covalently links to the active site of FAAH. Consistent with previous findings for [(11)C]CURB, the 2TCM with irreversible binding was found to provide the best fit for modeling the data in all regions. The composite parameter λk3 was therefore used to evaluate whole brain (WB) and regional binding of [(18)F]DOPP. Pretreatment studies showed inhibition of λk3 across all brain regions (WB baseline: 0.112 mL/cm(3)/min; 300 μg/kg URB597: 0.058 mL/cm(3)/min), suggesting that [(18)F]DOPP binding is specific for FAAH, consistent with previous rodent data. PMID:25004399

  10. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  11. Characterization and functional analysis of Trichinella spiralis Nudix hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Long, Shao Rong; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Ruo Dan; Qi, Xin; Liu, Pei; Ren, Hui Jun; Shi, Hai Ning; Cui, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Trichinella spiralis Nudix hydrolase (TsNd) was identified by screening a T7 phage display cDNA library from T. spiralis intestinal infective larvae (IIL), and vaccination of mice with recombinant TsNd protein (rTsNd) or TsNd DNA vaccine produced a partial protective immunity. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics and biological functions of TsNd in the process of invasion and development of T. spiralis larvae. Transcription and expression of TsNd gene at all developmental stages of T. spiralis were observed by qPCR and immunofluorescent test (IFT). The rTsNd had the Nd enzymatic activity to dGTP, NAD, NADP and CoA. Its kinetic properties on the preferred substrate dGTP were calculated, and the Vmax, Km, and kcat/Km values at pH 8.0 were 3.19 μM min(-1) μg(-1), 370 μM, and 144 s(-1) M(-1), respectively, in reaction matrix containing 5 mM Zn(2+) and 2 mM DTT. The rTsNd was active from 25 °C to 50 °C, with optimal activity at 37 °C. rTsNd was able to bind specifically to mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and promoted the larval invasion of IECs, whereas anti-rTsNd antibodies inhibited the larval invasion of IECs in a dose-dependent manner. Anti-rTsNd antibodies could kill T. spiralis infective larvae by an ADCC-mediated mechanism. Our results showed that the rTsNd protein was able to interact with host IECs, had the Nudix hydrolasing activity and the enzymatic activity appeared to be essential indispensable for the T. spiralis larval invasion, development and survival in host. PMID:26545353

  12. Identification and characterization of a bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus salivarius for development of novel alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong; Zeng, Ximin; Mo, Yiming; Smith, Katie; Guo, Yuming; Lin, Jun

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been used as feed additives to improve average body weight gain and feed efficiency in food animals for more than 5 decades. However, there is a worldwide trend to limit AGP use to protect food safety and public health, which raises an urgent need to discover effective alternatives to AGPs. The growth-promoting effect of AGPs has been shown to be highly correlated with the decreased activity of intestinal bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an enzyme that is produced by various gut microflora and involved in host lipid metabolism. Thus, BSH inhibitors are likely promising feed additives to AGPs to improve animal growth performance. In this study, the genome of Lactobacillus salivarius NRRL B-30514, a BSH-producing strain isolated from chicken, was sequenced by a 454 GS FLX sequencer. A BSH gene identified by genome analysis was cloned and expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system for enzymatic analyses. The BSH displayed efficient hydrolysis activity for both glycoconjugated and tauroconjugated bile salts, with slightly higher catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) on glycoconjugated bile salts. The optimal pH and temperature for the BSH activity were 5.5 and 41°C, respectively. Examination of a panel of dietary compounds using the purified BSH identified some potent BSH inhibitors, in which copper and zinc have been recently demonstrated to promote feed digestion and body weight gain in different food animals. In sum, this study identified and characterized a BSH with broad substrate specificity from a chicken L. salivarius strain and established a solid platform for us to discover novel BSH inhibitors, the promising feed additives to replace AGPs for enhancing the productivity and sustainability of food animals. PMID:23064348

  13. Identification and Characterization of a Bile Salt Hydrolase from Lactobacillus salivarius for Development of Novel Alternatives to Antibiotic Growth Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhong; Zeng, Ximin; Mo, Yiming; Smith, Katie; Guo, Yuming

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been used as feed additives to improve average body weight gain and feed efficiency in food animals for more than 5 decades. However, there is a worldwide trend to limit AGP use to protect food safety and public health, which raises an urgent need to discover effective alternatives to AGPs. The growth-promoting effect of AGPs has been shown to be highly correlated with the decreased activity of intestinal bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an enzyme that is produced by various gut microflora and involved in host lipid metabolism. Thus, BSH inhibitors are likely promising feed additives to AGPs to improve animal growth performance. In this study, the genome of Lactobacillus salivarius NRRL B-30514, a BSH-producing strain isolated from chicken, was sequenced by a 454 GS FLX sequencer. A BSH gene identified by genome analysis was cloned and expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system for enzymatic analyses. The BSH displayed efficient hydrolysis activity for both glycoconjugated and tauroconjugated bile salts, with slightly higher catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) on glycoconjugated bile salts. The optimal pH and temperature for the BSH activity were 5.5 and 41°C, respectively. Examination of a panel of dietary compounds using the purified BSH identified some potent BSH inhibitors, in which copper and zinc have been recently demonstrated to promote feed digestion and body weight gain in different food animals. In sum, this study identified and characterized a BSH with broad substrate specificity from a chicken L. salivarius strain and established a solid platform for us to discover novel BSH inhibitors, the promising feed additives to replace AGPs for enhancing the productivity and sustainability of food animals. PMID:23064348

  14. Nudix hydrolases degrade protein-conjugated ADP-ribose.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Casey M; Thirawatananond, Puchong; Ong, Shao-En; Gabelli, Sandra B; Leung, Anthony K L

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the transfer of the ADP-ribose group from NAD(+) to target proteins post-translationally, either attached singly as mono(ADP-ribose) (MAR) or in polymeric chains as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Though ADP-ribosylation is therapeutically important, investigation of this protein modification has been limited by a lack of proteomic tools for site identification. Recent work has demonstrated the potential of a tag-based pipeline in which MAR/PAR is hydrolyzed down to phosphoribose, leaving a 212 Dalton tag at the modification site. While the pipeline has been proven effective by multiple groups, a barrier to application has become evident: the enzyme used to transform MAR/PAR into phosphoribose must be purified from the rattlesnake Crotalus adamanteus venom, which is contaminated with proteases detrimental for proteomic applications. Here, we outline the steps necessary to purify snake venom phosphodiesterase I (SVP) and describe two alternatives to SVP-the bacterial Nudix hydrolase EcRppH and human HsNudT16. Importantly, expression and purification schemes for these Nudix enzymes have already been proven, with high-quality yields easily attainable. We demonstrate their utility in identifying ADP-ribosylation sites on Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) with mass spectrometry and discuss a structure-based rationale for this Nudix subclass in degrading protein-conjugated ADP-ribose, including both MAR and PAR. PMID:26669448

  15. Soluble epoxide hydrolase: A potential target for metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    He, Jinlong; Wang, Chunjiong; Zhu, Yi; Ai, Ding

    2016-05-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), important lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid, have many beneficial effects in metabolic diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and kidney disease. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids can be further hydrolyzed to less active diols by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Increasing evidence suggests that inhibition of sEH increases levels of EETs, which have anti-inflammatory effects and can prevent the development of hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart failure, fatty liver, and multiple organ fibrosis. Arachidonic acid is the most abundant omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and shares the same set of enzymes with omega-3 PUFAs, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The omega-3 PUFAs and metabolites, such as regioisomeric epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids and epoxydocosapentaenoic acids, have been reported to have strong vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, sEH may be a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. In this review, we focus on our and other recent studies of the functions of sEH, including the effects of its eicosanoid products from both omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs, in various metabolic diseases. We also discuss the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of sEH. PMID:26621325

  16. Epoxide hydrolase of Trichoderma reesei: Biochemical properties and conformational characterization.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Stephani; Adriani, Patricia Pereira; Borges, Flavia Garcia; Lopes, Adriana Rios; Campana, Patricia T; Chambergo, Felipe S

    2016-08-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that are present in all living organisms and catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. EHs have biotechnological potential in chiral chemistry. We report the cloning, purification, enzymatic activity, and conformational analysis of the TrEH gene from Trichoderma reesei strain QM9414 using circular dichroism spectroscopy. The EH gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 343 amino acid residues, resulting in a molecular mass of 38.2kDa. The enzyme presents an optimum pH of 7.2, and it is highly active at temperatures ranging from 23 to 50°C and thermally inactivated at 70°C (t1/2=7.4min). The Michaelis constants (Km) were 4.6mM for racemic substrate, 21.7mM for (R)-(+)-styrene oxide and 3.0mM for (S)-(-)-styrene oxide. The kcat/Km analysis indicated that TrEH is enantioselective and preferentially hydrolyzes (S)-(-)-styrene oxide. The conformational stability studies suggested that, despite the extreme conditions (high temperatures and extremely acid and basic pHs), TrEH is able to maintain a considerable part of its regular structures, including the preservation of the native cores in some cases. The recombinant protein showed enantioselectivity that was distinct from other fungus EHs, making this protein a potential biotechnological tool. PMID:27177457

  17. Soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency ameliorates acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bettaieb, Ahmed; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce; Haj, Fawaz

    2014-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a frequent gastrointestinal disorder that causes significant morbidity and its incidence has been progressively increasing. AP starts as a local inflammation in the pancreas that often leads to systemic inflammatory response and complications. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a cytosolic enzyme whose inhibition in murine models has beneficial effects in inflammatory diseases, but its significance in AP remains unexplored. To investigate whether sEH may have a causal role in AP we utilized sEH knockout (KO) mice to determine the effects of sEH deficiency on ceruelin- and arginine-induced AP. sEH expression increased at the protein and messenger RNA levels, as well as sEH activity in the early phase of cerulein- and arginine-induced AP in mice. In addition, amylase and lipase levels were lower in cerulein-treated sEH KO mice compared with non-treated controls. Moreover, pancreatic mRNA and serum concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and IL-6 were lower in sEH KO mice compared with controls. Further, sEH KO mice exhibited decreased cerulein- and arginine-induced NF-?B inflammatory response, MAPKs activation and decreased cell death. These findings demonstrate a novel role for sEH in the progression of cerulein- and arginine-induced AP. PMID:26461340

  18. Extracellular Glycoside Hydrolase Activities in the Human Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Inui, Taichi; Walker, Lauren C; Dodds, Michael W J; Hanley, A Bryan

    2015-08-15

    Carbohydrate availability shifts when bacteria attach to a surface and form biofilm. When salivary planktonic bacteria form an oral biofilm, a variety of polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the primary carbon sources; however, simple sugar availabilities are limited due to low diffusion from saliva to biofilm. We hypothesized that bacterial glycoside hydrolase (GH) activities would be higher in a biofilm than in saliva in order to maintain metabolism in a low-sugar, high-glycoprotein environment. Salivary bacteria from 13 healthy individuals were used to grow in vitro biofilm using two separate media, one with sucrose and the other limiting carbon sources to a complex carbohydrate. All six GHs measured were higher in vitro when grown in the medium with complex carbohydrate as the sole carbon source. We then collected saliva and overnight dental plaque samples from the same individuals and measured ex vivo activities for the same six enzymes to determine how oral microbial utilization of glycoconjugates shifts between the planktonic phase in saliva and the biofilm phase in overnight dental plaque. Overall higher GH activities were observed in plaque samples, in agreement with in vitro observation. A similar pattern was observed in GH activity profiles between in vitro and ex vivo data. 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that plaque samples had a higher abundance of microorganisms with larger number of GH gene sequences. These results suggest differences in sugar catabolism between the oral bacteria located in the biofilm and those in saliva. PMID:26048943

  19. Nudix hydrolases degrade protein-conjugated ADP-ribose

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Casey M.; Thirawatananond, Puchong; Ong, Shao-En; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the transfer of the ADP-ribose group from NAD+ to target proteins post-translationally, either attached singly as mono(ADP-ribose) (MAR) or in polymeric chains as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Though ADP-ribosylation is therapeutically important, investigation of this protein modification has been limited by a lack of proteomic tools for site identification. Recent work has demonstrated the potential of a tag-based pipeline in which MAR/PAR is hydrolyzed down to phosphoribose, leaving a 212 Dalton tag at the modification site. While the pipeline has been proven effective by multiple groups, a barrier to application has become evident: the enzyme used to transform MAR/PAR into phosphoribose must be purified from the rattlesnake Crotalus adamanteus venom, which is contaminated with proteases detrimental for proteomic applications. Here, we outline the steps necessary to purify snake venom phosphodiesterase I (SVP) and describe two alternatives to SVP—the bacterial Nudix hydrolase EcRppH and human HsNudT16. Importantly, expression and purification schemes for these Nudix enzymes have already been proven, with high-quality yields easily attainable. We demonstrate their utility in identifying ADP-ribosylation sites on Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) with mass spectrometry and discuss a structure-based rationale for this Nudix subclass in degrading protein-conjugated ADP-ribose, including both MAR and PAR. PMID:26669448

  20. Disrupting Dimerization Translocates Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase to Peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jonathan W.; Das, Anjali J.; Barnes, Anthony P.; Alkayed, Nabil J.

    2016-01-01

    The epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) neutralizing enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a neuronal enzyme, which has been localized in both the cytosol and peroxisomes. The molecular basis for its dual localization remains unclear as sEH contains a functional peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS). Recently, a missense polymorphism was identified in human sEH (R287Q) that enhances its peroxisomal localization. This same polymorphism has also been shown to generate weaker sEH homo-dimers. Taken together, these observations suggest that dimerization may mask the sEH PTS and prevent peroxisome translocation. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that dimerization is a key regulator of sEH subcellular localization. Specifically, we altered the dimerization state of sEH by introducing substitutions in amino acids responsible for the dimer-stabilizing salt-bridge. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) fusions of each of mutants were co-transfected into mouse primary cultured cortical neurons together with a PTS-linked red fluorescent protein to constitutively label peroxisomes. Labeled neurons were analyzed using confocal microscopy and co-localization of sEH with peroxisomes was quantified using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We find that dimer-competent sEH constructs preferentially localize to the cytosol, whereas constructs with weakened or disrupted dimerization were preferentially targeted to peroxisomes. We conclude that the sEH dimerization status is a key regulator of its peroxisomal localization. PMID:27203283

  1. Thermus thermophilus Glycoside Hydrolase Family 57 Branching Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Palomo, Marta; Pijning, Tjaard; Booiman, Thijs; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; van der Vlist, Jeroen; Kralj, Slavko; Planas, Antoni; Loos, Katja; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Leemhuis, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Branching enzyme (EC 2.4.1.18; glycogen branching enzyme; GBE) catalyzes the formation of α1,6-branching points in glycogen. Until recently it was believed that all GBEs belong to glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13). Here we describe the cloning and expression of the Thermus thermophilus family GH57-type GBE and report its biochemical properties and crystal structure at 1.35-Å resolution. The enzyme has a central (β/α)7-fold catalytic domain A with an inserted domain B between β2 and α5 and an α-helix-rich C-terminal domain, which is shown to be essential for substrate binding and catalysis. A maltotriose was modeled in the active site of the enzyme which suggests that there is insufficient space for simultaneously binding of donor and acceptor substrates, and that the donor substrate must be cleaved before acceptor substrate can bind. The biochemical assessment showed that the GH57 GBE possesses about 4% hydrolytic activity with amylose and in vitro forms a glucan product with a novel fine structure, demonstrating that the GH57 GBE is clearly different from the GH13 GBEs characterized to date. PMID:21097495

  2. Acute and subacute effects of miconazole nitrate on hepatic styrene oxide hydrolase and cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase activities in male and female AKR/J mice.

    PubMed

    James, M O

    1988-08-01

    The imidazole-containing anti-fungal drug, miconazole nitrate, was shown to enhance hepatic microsomal styrene oxide hydrolase and inhibit several cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase activities in the AKR/J mouse. Miconazole was a more potent inhibitor of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase activities in microsomes from male than female mice, and inhibitory potency also varied with substrate. When administered in vivo miconazole nitrate stimulated epoxide hydrolase activity, but had a substrate-dependent biphasic effect on cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase activities. Monooxygenase activities with benzo[a]pyrene and benzphetamine were inhibited to varying degrees in liver homogenate and hepatic microsomes from mice sacrificed 45 min after miconazole administration. After repeated administration of miconazole, liver weight, microsomal protein yield and cytochrome P-450 were increased, as were specific monooxygenase activities with ethoxycoumarin and ethoxyresorufin, but benzphetamine N-demethylase activity was decreased. These results suggested that a metabolite of miconazole was responsible for the inhibition of benzphetamine N-demethylase. It was of special interest that ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity was induced in the AKR/J mouse by miconazole, since the AKR/J mouse is not responsive to induction by aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:3394155

  3. Therapeutic potential of monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mulvihill, Melinda M; Nomura, Daniel K

    2013-03-19

    Marijuana and aspirin have been used for millennia to treat a wide range of maladies including pain and inflammation. Both cannabinoids, like marijuana, that exert anti-inflammatory action through stimulating cannabinoid receptors, and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, like aspirin, that suppress pro-inflammatory eicosanoid production have shown beneficial outcomes in mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Both cannabinoids and COX inhibitors, however, have untoward effects that discourage their chronic usage, including cognitive deficits and gastrointestinal toxicity, respectively. Recent studies have uncovered that the serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) links the endocannabinoid and eicosanoid systems together through hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to provide the major arachidonic acid (AA) precursor pools for pro-inflammatory eicosanoid synthesis in specific tissues. Studies in recent years have shown that MAGL inhibitors elicit anti-nociceptive, anxiolytic, and anti-emetic responses and attenuate precipitated withdrawal symptoms in addiction paradigms through enhancing endocannabinoid signaling. MAGL inhibitors have also been shown to exert anti-inflammatory action in the brain and protect against neurodegeneration through lowering eicosanoid production. In cancer, MAGL inhibitors have been shown to have anti-cancer properties not only through modulating the endocannabinoid-eicosanoid network, but also by controlling fatty acid release for the synthesis of protumorigenic signaling lipids. Thus, MAGL serves as a critical node in simultaneously coordinating multiple lipid signaling pathways in both physiological and disease contexts. This review will discuss the diverse (patho)physiological roles of MAGL and the therapeutic potential of MAGL inhibitors in treating a vast array of complex human diseases. PMID:23142242

  4. Bacterial 2,4-Dioxygenases: New Members of the α/β Hydrolase-Fold Superfamily of Enzymes Functionally Related to Serine Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Frank; Künne, Stefan; Fetzner, Susanne

    1999-01-01

    1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinoline 2,4-dioxygenase (Qdo) from Pseudomonas putida 33/1 and 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase (Hod) from Arthrobacter ilicis Rü61a catalyze an N-heterocyclic-ring cleavage reaction, generating N-formylanthranilate and N-acetylanthranilate, respectively, and carbon monoxide. Amino acid sequence comparisons between Qdo, Hod, and a number of proteins belonging to the α/β hydrolase-fold superfamily of enzymes and analysis of the similarity between the predicted secondary structures of the 2,4-dioxygenases and the known secondary structure of haloalkane dehalogenase from Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 strongly suggested that Qdo and Hod are structurally related to the α/β hydrolase-fold enzymes. The residues S95 and H244 of Qdo were found to be arranged like the catalytic nucleophilic residue and the catalytic histidine, respectively, of the α/β hydrolase-fold enzymes. Investigation of the potential functional significance of these and other residues of Qdo through site-directed mutagenesis supported the hypothesis that Qdo is structurally as well as functionally related to serine hydrolases, with S95 being a possible catalytic nucleophile and H244 being a possible catalytic base. A hypothetical reaction mechanism for Qdo-catalyzed 2,4-dioxygenolysis, involving formation of an ester bond between the catalytic serine residue and the carbonyl carbon of the substrate and subsequent dioxygenolysis of the covalently bound anionic intermediate, is discussed. PMID:10482514

  5. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates hepatic fibrosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Todd R.; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Kodani, Sean; Dong, Hua; Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Haj, Fawaz G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-07-15

    Liver fibrosis is a pathological condition in which chronic inflammation and changes to the extracellular matrix lead to alterations in hepatic tissue architecture and functional degradation of the liver. Inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduce fibrosis in the heart, pancreas and kidney in several disease models. In this study, we assess the effect of sEH inhibition on the development of fibrosis in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced mouse model by monitoring changes in the inflammatory response, matrix remolding and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The sEH inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) was administered in drinking water. Collagen deposition in the liver was increased five-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group, and this was returned to control levels by TPPU treatment. Hepatic expression of Col1a2 and 3a1 mRNA was increased over fifteen-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group relative to the Control group, and this increase was reduced by 50% by TPPU treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress observed in the livers of CCl{sub 4}-treated animals was attenuated by TPPU treatment. In order to support the hypothesis that TPPU is acting to reduce the hepatic fibrosis and ER stress through its action as a sEH inhibitor we used a second sEH inhibitor, trans-4-(4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy)-benzoic acid (t-TUCB), and sEH null mice. Taken together, these data indicate that the sEH may play an important role in the development of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl{sub 4}, presumably by reducing endogenous fatty acid epoxide chemical mediators acting to reduce ER stress. - Highlights: • We administer an inhibitor of sEH in a CCl4 murine model. • sEH inhibition reduces liver collagen deposition and pro-fibrotic gene expression. • sEH inhibition induces MMP-1a activity.

  6. Simultaneous Inhibition of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase and Monoacylglycerol Lipase Shares Discriminative Stimulus Effects with Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hruba, Lenka; Seillier, Alexandre; Zaki, Armia; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors exert preclinical effects indicative of therapeutic potential (i.e., analgesia). However, the extent to which MAGL and FAAH inhibitors produce unwanted effects remains unclear. Here, FAAH and MAGL inhibition was examined separately and together in a Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC; 5.6 mg/kg i.p.) discrimination assay predictive of subjective effects associated with cannabis use, and the relative contribution of N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and caudate putamen to those effects was examined. Δ9-THC dose-dependently increased Δ9-THC appropriate responses (ED50 value = 2.8 mg/kg), whereas the FAAH inhibitors PF-3845 [N-3-pyridinyl-4-[[3-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-1-piperidinecarboxamide] and URB597 [(3′-​(aminocarbonyl)[1,​1′-​biphenyl]-​3-​yl)-​cyclohexylcarbamate] or a MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-​nitrophenyl-​4-​(dibenzo[d][1,​3]dioxol-​5-​yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-​1-​carboxylate] alone did not substitute for the Δ9-THC discriminative stimulus. The nonselective FAAH/MAGL inhibitors SA-57 [4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester] and JZL195 [4-​nitrophenyl 4-​(3-​phenoxybenzyl)piperazine-​1-​carboxylate] fully substituted for Δ9-THC with ED50 values equal to 2.4 and 17 mg/kg, respectively. Full substitution for Δ9-THC was also produced by a combination of JZL184 and PF-3845, but not by a combination of JZL184 and URB597 (i.e., 52% maximum). Cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist rimonabant attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of Δ9-THC, SA-57, JZL195, and the combined effects of JZL184 and PF-3845. Full substitution for the Δ9-THC discriminative stimulus occurred only when both 2-AG and AEA were significantly elevated, and the patterns of increased endocannabinoid content were

  7. [Proteasome inhibitor].

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hideo

    2014-06-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an essential role in degradation of eukaryotic intracellular protein, including cell cycle regulation, cell growth and proliferation, and survival. Cancer cells generally have higher level of proteasome activity compared with normal cells, suggesting proteasome inhibition could be therapeutic target in oncology. Bortezomib, the first proteasome inhibitor introduced into the clinic, is approved for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Although it was approved as single agent in the relapsed setting, bortezomib is now predominantly used in combination with conventional and novel targeted agents because bortezomib has demonstrated additive and synergistic activity in preclinical studies. Recently, several second-generation proteasome inhibitors, such as carfilzomib and MLN9708, have been developed and entered into clinical trials. These agents were investigated in frontline MM in combination with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone. These studies demonstrated positive efficacy and safety, and it is expected that they will be approved in near future. PMID:25016815

  8. A Bifunctional Enzyme That Has Both Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase and Acyl Hydrolase Activities1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraj, Panneerselvam; Jashal, Charnitkaur B.; Vijayakumar, Anitha; Rani, Sapa Hima; Venkata Rao, D.K.; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2012-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol, the precursor of triacylglycerol biosynthesis and an important signaling molecule. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea) MGAT gene. The soluble enzyme utilizes invariant histidine-62 and aspartate-67 residues of the acyltransferase motif for its MGAT activity. A sequence analysis revealed the presence of a hydrolase (GXSXG) motif, and enzyme assays revealed the presence of monoacylglycerol (MAG) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) hydrolytic activities, indicating the bifunctional nature of the enzyme. The overexpression of the MGAT gene in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) caused an increase in triacylglycerol accumulation. Similar to the peanut MGAT, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog (At1g52760) also exhibited both acyltransferase and hydrolase activities. Interestingly, the yeast homolog lacks the conserved HX4D motif, and it is deficient in the acyltransferase function but exhibits MAG and LPC hydrolase activities. This study demonstrates the presence of a soluble MGAT/hydrolase in plants. The predicted three-dimensional homology modeling and substrate docking suggested the presence of two separate substrate (MAG and LPC)-binding sites in a single polypeptide. Our study describes a soluble bifunctional enzyme that has both MGAT and hydrolase functions. PMID:22915575

  9. Development of a differential medium for bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Dashkevicz, M P; Feighner, S D

    1989-01-01

    An agar plate assay was developed to detect bile salt hydrolase activity in lactobacilli. On Lactobacillus-selective MRS or Rogosa SL medium supplemented with taurodeoxycholic, taurocholic, or taurochenodeoxycholic acids, bile salt hydrolysis was manifested at two intensities: (i) the formation of precipitate halos around colonies or (ii) the formation of opaque granular white colonies. Sixty-six lactobacilli were tested for bile salt hydrolase activity by both the plate assay and a sensitive radiochemical assay. No false-positive or false-negative results were detected by the plate assay. Based on results of experiments with Eubacterium lentum and Bacteroides species, the plate assay was dependent on two factors: (i) the presence of bile salt hydrolytic activity and (ii) the ability of the organism to sufficiently acidify the medium to protonate free bile acids. The availability of a differential medium for determination of bile salt hydrolase activity will provide a rapid method for determining shifts in a specific functional activity of intestinal Lactobacillus species and provide a rapid screening capability for identifying bile salt hydrolase-deficient mutants. The latter application should allow bile salt hydrolase activity to be used as a marker enzyme in genetic experiments. Images PMID:2705765

  10. Soluble epoxide hydrolase limits mechanical hyperalgesia during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytochrome-P450 (CYP450) epoxygenases metabolise arachidonic acid (AA) into four different biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) regioisomers. Three of the EETs (i.e., 8,9-, 11,12- and 14,15-EET) are rapidly hydrolysed by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Here, we investigated the role of sEH in nociceptive processing during peripheral inflammation. Results In dorsal root ganglia (DRG), we found that sEH is expressed in medium and large diameter neurofilament 200-positive neurons. Isolated DRG-neurons from sEH-/- mice showed higher EET and lower DHET levels. Upon AA stimulation, the largest changes in EET levels occurred in culture media, indicating both that cell associated EET concentrations quickly reach saturation and EET-hydrolyzing activity mostly effects extracellular EET signaling. In vivo, DRGs from sEH-deficient mice exhibited elevated 8,9-, 11,12- and 14,15-EET-levels. Interestingly, EET levels did not increase at the site of zymosan-induced inflammation. Cellular imaging experiments revealed direct calcium flux responses to 8,9-EET in a subpopulation of nociceptors. In addition, 8,9-EET sensitized AITC-induced calcium increases in DRG neurons and AITC-induced calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release from sciatic nerve axons, indicating that 8,9-EET sensitizes TRPA1-expressing neurons, which are known to contribute to mechanical hyperalgesia. Supporting this, sEH-/- mice showed increased nociceptive responses to mechanical stimulation during zymosan-induced inflammation and 8,9-EET injection reduced mechanical thresholds in naive mice. Conclusion Our results show that the sEH can regulate mechanical hyperalgesia during inflammation by inactivating 8,9-EET, which sensitizes TRPA1-expressing nociceptors. Therefore we suggest that influencing the CYP450 pathway, which is actually highly considered to treat cardiovascular diseases, may cause pain side effects. PMID:21970373

  11. Bioprospecting metagenomics of decaying wood: mining for new glycoside hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant plant biomass to fermentable sugars in industrial processes, biocatalysts of higher performance and lower cost are required. The genetic diversity found in the metagenomes of natural microbial biomass decay communities may harbor such enzymes. Our goal was to discover and characterize new glycoside hydrolases (GHases) from microbial biomass decay communities, especially those from unknown or never previously cultivated microorganisms. Results From the metagenome sequences of an anaerobic microbial community actively decaying poplar biomass, we identified approximately 4,000 GHase homologs. Based on homology to GHase families/activities of interest and the quality of the sequences, candidates were selected for full-length cloning and subsequent expression. As an alternative strategy, a metagenome expression library was constructed and screened for GHase activities. These combined efforts resulted in the cloning of four novel GHases that could be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Further characterization showed that two enzymes showed significant activity on p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside, one enzyme had significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, and one enzyme showed significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside. Enzymes were also tested in the presence of ionic liquids. Conclusions Metagenomics provides a good resource for mining novel biomass degrading enzymes and for screening of cellulolytic enzyme activities. The four GHases that were cloned may have potential application for deconstruction of biomass pretreated with ionic liquids, as they remain active in the presence of up to 20% ionic liquid (except for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate). Alternatively, ionic liquids might be used to immobilize or stabilize these enzymes for minimal solvent processing of biomass. PMID:21816041

  12. A Novel Saponin Hydrolase from Neocosmospora vasinfecta var. vasinfecta

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Manabu; Sumida, Naomi; Yanai, Koji; Murakami, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    We isolated a soybean saponin hydrolase from Neocosmospora vasinfecta var. vasinfecta PF1225, a filamentous fungus that can degrade soybean saponin and generate soyasapogenol B. This enzyme was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of about 77 kDa and a glycoprotein. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the corresponding gene (sdn1) indicated that this enzyme consisted of 612 amino acids and had a molecular mass of 65,724 Da, in close agreement with that of the apoenzyme after the removal of carbohydrates. The sdn1 gene was successfully expressed in Trichoderma viride under the control of the cellobiohydrolase I gene promoter. The molecular mass of the recombinant enzyme, about 69 kDa, was smaller than that of the native enzyme due to fewer carbohydrate modifications. Examination of the degradation products obtained by treatment of soyasaponin I with the recombinant enzyme showed that the enzyme hydrolyzed soyasaponin I to soyasapogenol B and triose [α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl (1→2)-d-glucuronopyranoside]. Also, when soyasaponin II and soyasaponin V, which are different from soyasaponin I only in constituent saccharides, were treated with the enzyme, the ratio of the reaction velocities for soyasaponin I, soyasaponin II, and soyasaponin V was 2,680:886:1. These results indicate that this enzyme recognizes the fine structure of the carbohydrate moiety of soyasaponin in its catalytic reaction. The amino acid sequence of this enzyme predicted from the DNA sequence shows no clear homology with those of any of the enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of carbohydrates. PMID:14766566

  13. Conformational diversity and enantioconvergence in potato epoxide hydrolase 1.

    PubMed

    Bauer, P; Carlsson, Å Janfalk; Amrein, B A; Dobritzsch, D; Widersten, M; Kamerlin, S C L

    2016-06-28

    Potato epoxide hydrolase 1 (StEH1) is a biocatalytically important enzyme that exhibits rich enantio- and regioselectivity in the hydrolysis of chiral epoxide substrates. In particular, StEH1 has been demonstrated to enantioconvergently hydrolyze racemic mixes of styrene oxide (SO) to yield (R)-1-phenylethanediol. This work combines computational, crystallographic and biochemical analyses to understand both the origins of the enantioconvergent behavior of the wild-type enzyme, as well as shifts in activities and substrate binding preferences in an engineered StEH1 variant, R-C1B1, which contains four active site substitutions (W106L, L109Y, V141K and I155V). Our calculations are able to reproduce both the enantio- and regioselectivities of StEH1, and demonstrate a clear link between different substrate binding modes and the corresponding selectivity, with the preferred binding modes being shifted between the wild-type enzyme and the R-C1B1 variant. Additionally, we demonstrate that the observed changes in selectivity and the corresponding enantioconvergent behavior are due to a combination of steric and electrostatic effects that modulate both the accessibility of the different carbon atoms to the nucleophilic side chain of D105, as well as the interactions between the substrate and protein amino acid side chains and active site water molecules. Being able to computationally predict such subtle effects for different substrate enantiomers, as well as to understand their origin and how they are affected by mutations, is an important advance towards the computational design of improved biocatalysts for enantioselective synthesis. PMID:27049844

  14. Prunasin hydrolases during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-04-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet. PMID:22353576

  15. Long-acting cocaine hydrolase for addiction therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiabin; Xue, Liu; Hou, Shurong; Jin, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2016-01-12

    Cocaine abuse is a world-wide public health and social problem without a US Food and Drug Administration-approved medication. An ideal anticocaine medication would accelerate cocaine metabolism, producing biologically inactive metabolites by administration of an efficient cocaine-specific exogenous enzyme. Our recent studies have led to the discovery of the desirable, highly efficient cocaine hydrolases (CocHs) that can efficiently detoxify and inactivate cocaine without affecting normal functions of the CNS. Preclinical and clinical data have demonstrated that these CocHs are safe for use in humans and are effective for accelerating cocaine metabolism. However, the actual therapeutic use of a CocH in cocaine addiction treatment is limited by its short biological half-life (e.g., 8 h or shorter in rats). Here we demonstrate a novel CocH form, a catalytic antibody analog, which is a fragment crystallizable (Fc)-fused CocH dimer (CocH-Fc) constructed by using CocH to replace the Fab region of human IgG1. The CocH-Fc not only has a high catalytic efficiency against cocaine but also, like an antibody, has a considerably longer biological half-life (e.g., ∼107 h in rats). A single dose of CocH-Fc was able to accelerate cocaine metabolism in rats even after 20 d and thus block cocaine-induced hyperactivity and toxicity for a long period. Given the general observation that the biological half-life of a protein drug is significantly longer in humans than in rodents, the CocH-Fc reported in this study could allow dosing once every 2-4 wk, or longer, for treatment of cocaine addiction in humans. PMID:26712009

  16. Bioprospecting metagenomics of decaying wood: mining for new glycoside hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Li L. L.; van der Lelie D.; Taghavi, S.; McCorkle, S. M.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Blewitt, M. G.; Brunecky, R.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Brumm, P.; Drinkwater, C.; Mead, D. A.; Tringe, S. G.

    2011-08-01

    To efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant plant biomass to fermentable sugars in industrial processes, biocatalysts of higher performance and lower cost are required. The genetic diversity found in the metagenomes of natural microbial biomass decay communities may harbor such enzymes. Our goal was to discover and characterize new glycoside hydrolases (GHases) from microbial biomass decay communities, especially those from unknown or never previously cultivated microorganisms. From the metagenome sequences of an anaerobic microbial community actively decaying poplar biomass, we identified approximately 4,000 GHase homologs. Based on homology to GHase families/activities of interest and the quality of the sequences, candidates were selected for full-length cloning and subsequent expression. As an alternative strategy, a metagenome expression library was constructed and screened for GHase activities. These combined efforts resulted in the cloning of four novel GHases that could be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Further characterization showed that two enzymes showed significant activity on p-nitrophenyl-{alpha}-L-arabinofuranoside, one enzyme had significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, and one enzyme showed significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-xylopyranoside. Enzymes were also tested in the presence of ionic liquids. Metagenomics provides a good resource for mining novel biomass degrading enzymes and for screening of cellulolytic enzyme activities. The four GHases that were cloned may have potential application for deconstruction of biomass pretreated with ionic liquids, as they remain active in the presence of up to 20% ionic liquid (except for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate). Alternatively, ionic liquids might be used to immobilize or stabilize these enzymes for minimal solvent processing of biomass.

  17. Reward and Toxicity of Cocaine Metabolites Generated by Cocaine Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Vishakantha; Geng, Liyi; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Bin; Miller, Jordan D; Reyes, Santiago; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) gene therapy is emerging as a promising concept for treatment of cocaine addiction. BChE levels after gene transfer can rise 1000-fold above those in untreated mice, making this enzyme the second most abundant plasma protein. For months or years, gene transfer of a BChE mutated into a cocaine hydrolase (CocH) can maintain enzyme levels that destroy cocaine within seconds after appearance in the blood stream, allowing little to reach the brain. Rapid enzyme action causes a sharp rise in plasma levels of two cocaine metabolites, benzoic acid (BA) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), a smooth muscle relaxant that is mildly hypotensive and, at best, only weakly rewarding. The present study, utilizing Balb/c mice, tested reward effects and cardiovascular effects of administering EME and BA together at molar levels equivalent to those generated by a given dose of cocaine. Reward was evaluated by conditioned place preference. In this paradigm, cocaine (20 mg/kg) induced a robust positive response but the equivalent combined dose of EME + BA failed to induce either place preference or aversion. Likewise, mice that had undergone gene transfer with mouse CocH (mCocH) showed no place preference or aversion after repeated treatments with a near-lethal 80 mg/kg cocaine dose. Furthermore, a single administration of that same high cocaine dose failed to affect blood pressure as measured using the noninvasive tail-cuff method. These observations confirm that the drug metabolites generated after CocH gene transfer therapy are safe even after a dose of cocaine that would ordinarily be lethal. PMID:25814464

  18. Alterations of intestinal glycoprotein hydrolases in congenital diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Najjar, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The diabetic BioBreed (BB{sub d}) rat was used for the study of the molecular structure of intestinal brush border sucrase-{alpha}-dextrinase (SD) and aminooligopeptidase (AOP) in diabetes mellitus. The specific catalytic activity of S-D and AOP in the BB{sub d} rat is normal. However, solid-phase radioimmunoassay revealed loss of some antigenic determinants in the BB{sub d} rat. S-D and AOP migrated abnormally on 6% SDS-gel electrophoresis in the BB{sub d} rat. S was larger (+5 kDa), D was either smaller (-5 kDa) or unaltered, and AOP was smaller (-5 kDa) in the BB{sub d} than in the normal Wistar. The structural abnormalities were independent of hyperglycemia or ketoacidosis and restored to normal by daily insulin treatment (NPH, 3-4 units/rat) for two to three weeks. Newly-synthesized brush border hydrolases were examined after 6 hours of intraperitoneal injection of ({sup 35}S) methionine (2 mCi) and found to be altered, suggesting that structural abnormality appeared acutely during intracellular synthesis rather than being due to slow extracellular modifications such as non-enzymatic glycosylation. Deglycosylation of brush border proteins by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid resulted in an apoprotein with normal electrophoretic migration in BB{sub d}, indicating that the alteration was due to the carbohydrates component of the glycoprotein. Pulse-chase studies with ({sup 35}S) methionine were consistent with normal protein an co-translational and initial N-linked carbohydrate assembly in association with the endoplasmic reticulum in BB{sub d}. However, the post-translational maturation of N-linked and addition of 0-linked carbohydrate chains in Golgi were prolonged, and produced a larger single-chain precursor of S-D in BB{sub d} than normal.

  19. Analyzing S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase gene sequences in deuterostome genomes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing-Nan; Wang, Yuan; Zhao, Bo-Sheng; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2009-12-01

    S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) gene sequences of sea-urchin, two amphioxus, sea-squirt and eight vertebrates are comparatively analyzed in the current analysis. Although SAHH protein sequences are highly conserved in these species, their nucleotide sequences are much different, ranging from 5,446 bp in amphioxus to 40,174 bp in zebra fish. The length divergence is mainly caused by distinct introns in some species. SAHH genes in amphioxus (or sea-urchin), sea-squirt and vertebrates are composed of eight, nine and ten exons, respectively. Sequence alignment shows that exon 3 in amphioxus and sea-urchin is similar to exons 3 + 4 in vertebrates, exon 5 in amphioxus and sea-urchin is similar to exons 5 + 6 in sea-squirt, and the two exons are fused into exon 6 in vertebrates. Furthermore, exon 7 in sea-squirt is similar to exons 7 + 8 in vertebrates, indicating that exon-fission and exon-fusion events have been taken place during the evolution of deuterostome SAHH genes. Active sites and NAD+-binding sites are located in exons 2 7 in amphioxus, which are dispersed into much more exons along with the evolution of vertebrates. It is speculated that ten-exon organization of SAHH gene occurred after the separation of invertebrates and vertebrates. Synonymous and non-synonymous substitution analysis shows that negative selection plays a dominant role in the evolution of SAHH genes. Phylogenetic analysis shows that SAHH genes in amphioxus, sea-urchin and sea-squirt form a cluster and locate at the base of neighbor-joining tree, suggesting that they are the archetype of vertebrate SAHH genes. PMID:19795919

  20. GENETIC VARIATION IN SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE (EPHX2) AND RISK OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE: THE ATHEROSCLEROSIS RISK IN COMMUNITIES (ARIC) STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). Soluble epoxide hydrolase metabolizes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in the vasculature and regulates endothelial function. We sought to determine whether genetic variation in soluble epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2) was ass...

  1. Genetic variation in soluble epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2) and risk of coronary heart disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). Soluble epoxide hydrolase metabolizes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in the vasculature and regulates endothelial function. We sought to determine whether genetic variation in soluble epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2) was ass...

  2. A thiocarbamate inhibitor of endothelial lipase raises HDL cholesterol levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Greco, M N; Connelly, M A; Leo, G C; Olson, M W; Powell, E; Huang, Z; Hawkins, M; Smith, C; Schalk-Hihi, C; Darrow, A L; Xin, H; Lang, W; Damiano, B P; Hlasta, D J

    2013-05-01

    By screening directed libraries of serine hydrolase inhibitors using the cell surface form of endothelial lipase (EL), we identified a series of carbamate-derived (EL) inhibitors. Compound 3 raised plasma HDL-C levels in the mouse, and a correlation was found between HDL-C and plasma compound levels. Spectroscopic and kinetic studies support a covalent mechanism of inhibition. Our findings represent the first report of EL inhibition as an effective means for increasing HDL-C in an in vivo model. PMID:23528297

  3. Recombinant production, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic structure determination of peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Vandavasi, Venugopal; Taylor-Creel, Kasey; McFeeters, Robert L.; Coates, Leighton; McFeeters, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth; EC 3.1.1.29) from the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella typhimurium has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized for X-ray analysis. Crystals were grown using hanging-drop vapor diffusion against a reservoir solution consisting of 0.03 M citric acid, 0.05 M bis-tris propane, 1% glycerol, 3% sucrose, 25% PEG 6000 pH 7.6. Crystals were used to obtain the three-dimensional structure of the native protein at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure was determined by molecular replacement of the crystallographic data processed in space group P212121 with unit-cell parameters a = 62.1, b = 64.9, c = 110.5 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The asymmetric unit of the crystallographic lattice was composed of two copies of the enzyme molecule with a 51% solvent fraction, corresponding to a Matthews coefficient of 2.02 Å3 Da−1. The structural coordinates reported serve as a foundation for computational and structure-guided efforts towards novel small-molecule Pth1 inhibitors and potential antibacterial development. PMID:25005080

  4. Identification of the conserved spatial position of key active-site atoms in glycoside hydrolase 13 family members.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikash

    2010-07-19

    A computational study on the glycoside hydrolase 13 (GH13) family of the CAZy database has been carried out at the atomic level in order to identify the conserved positions that may be responsible for recognition of the substrate. Analysis with substrate analog-, inhibitor-, or product-bound 3D structures was carried out to find the atomic spatial arrangement of the amino acids that make -2, -1, +1, and +2 subsites and water oxygen atoms around the ligand. The identified conserved positions of subsites were independent from the nature of the amino acid. The -1 and +1 subsites have more conserved positions than the -2 and +2 subsites. Some of the clusters of the -1 and +1 subsites have atoms of the same chemical nature. A spatially conserved position for water, which is stabilized by a hydrogen bond with the carboxyl group of a proton donor (Glu) and Asp of the catalytic triad, was found in the -1 subsite of 75% of the enzymes subjected to analysis. This position could be the region of hydrolytic water. PMID:20557875

  5. Unraveling the substrate recognition mechanism and specificity of the unusual glycosyl hydrolase family 29 BT2192 from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

    PubMed

    Guillotin, Laure; Lafite, Pierre; Daniellou, Richard

    2014-03-11

    Glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 29 (CAZy database) consists of retaining α-l-fucosidases. We have identified BT2192, a protein from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, as the first GH29 representative exhibiting both weak α-l-fucosidase and β-d-galactosidase activities. Determination and analysis of X-ray structures of BT2192 in complex with β-d-galactoside competitive inhibitors showed a new binding mode different from that of known GH29 enzymes. Three point mutations, specific to BT2192, prevent the canonical GH29 substrate α-l-fucose from binding efficiently to the fucosidase-like active site relative to other GH29 enzymes. β-d-Galactoside analogues bind and interact in a second pocket, which is not visible in other reported GH29 structures. Molecular simulations helped in the assessment of the flexibility of both substrates in their respective pocket. Hydrolysis of the fucosyl moiety from the putative natural substrates like 3-fucosyllactose or Lewis(X) antigen would be mainly due to the efficient interactions with the galactosyl moiety, in the second binding site, located more than 6-7 Å apart. PMID:24527659

  6. Recombinant production, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic structure determination of the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Ronny C.; McFeeters, Hana; Coates, Leighton; McFeeters, Robert L.

    2014-10-15

    The peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase enzyme from the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pth; EC 3.1.1.29) has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized for X-ray structural analysis. Suitable crystals were grown using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method after one week of incubation against a reservoir solution consisting of 20% polyethylene glycol 4000, 100 mM Tris pH 7.5, 10%(v/v) isopropyl alcohol. The crystals were used to obtain the three-dimensional structure of the native protein at 1.77 Å resolution. The structure was determined by molecular replacement of the crystallographic data processed in space group P6122 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 63.62,c = 155.20 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. The asymmetric unit of the crystallographic lattice was composed of a single copy of the enzyme molecule with a 43% solvent fraction, corresponding to a Matthews coefficient of 2.43 Å3 Da-1. The crystallographic structure reported here will serve as the foundation for future structure-guided efforts towards the development of novel small-molecule inhibitors specific to bacterial Pths.

  7. Intracellular Self-Assembly of Cyclic d-Luciferin Nanoparticles for Persistent Bioluminescence Imaging of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yue; Wang, Fuqiang; Tang, Wei; Ding, Zhanling; Wang, Lin; Liang, Lili; Zheng, Zhen; Zhang, Huafeng; Liang, Gaolin

    2016-07-26

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) overexpression induces several disorder symptoms in nerve systems, and therefore long-term tracing of FAAH activity in vivo is of high importance but remains challenging. Current bioluminescence (BL) methods are limited in detecting FAAH activity within 5 h. Herein, by rational design of a latent BL probe (d-Cys-Lys-CBT)2 (1), we developed a "smart" method of intracellular reduction-controlled self-assembly and FAAH-directed disassembly of its cyclic d-luciferin-based nanoparticles (i.e., 1-NPs) for persistent BL imaging of FAAH activity in vitro, in cells, and in vivo. Using aminoluciferin methyl amide (AMA), Lys-amino-d-luciferin (Lys-Luc), and amino-d-luciferin (NH2-Luc) as control BL probes, we validated that the persistent BL of 1 from luciferase-expressing cells or tumors was controlled by the activity of intracellular FAAH. With the property of long-term tracing of FAAH activity in vivo of 1, we envision that our BL precursor 1 could probably be applied for in vivo screening of FAAH inhibitors and the diagnosis of their related diseases (or disorders) in the future. PMID:27348334

  8. Asymmetric fluorogenic organophosphates for the development of active organophosphate hydrolases with reversed stereoselectivity.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Gabi; Adani, Rellie; Yacov, Guy; Yishay, Shelly; Teitlboim, Shai; Tveria, Liat; Limanovich, Osnat; Kushnir, Moshe; Meshulam, Haim

    2007-04-20

    In order to enhance the enzymatic detoxification rate of organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents we have searched for more active variants of recombinant mammalian paraoxonase (PON1). We have previously identified three key positions in PON1 that affect OP hydrolysis: Leu69, Val346 and His115, that significantly enhance the hydrolysis of cyclosarin (GF), soman, chlorpyrifos-oxon (ChPo), O-isopropyl-O-(p-nitrophenyl)methylphosphonate (IMP-pNP) and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). GC/FPD analysis compared to residual AChE inhibition assay displayed stereoselective hydrolysis of GF, soman and IMP-pNP, indicating that wild type PON1 and its variant V346A are more active toward the less toxic P(+) optical isomer. In order to obtain new PON1 variants with reversed stereoselectivity, displaying augmented activity toward the more toxic isomer P(-) of nerve agents, we synthesized new asymmetric fluorogenic OPs (Flu-OPs). Six Flu-OPs were prepared containing either ethyl (E), cyclohexyl (C) or pinacolyl (P) alkyl radicals attached to methyl-phosphonyl (MP) moiety analogous to the structure of VX, GF and soman, respectively. The fluorescent moieties are either 3-cyano-4-methyl-7-hydroxy coumarin (MeCyC) or 1,3-dichloro-7-hydroxy-9,9-dimethyl-9H-acridin-2-one (DDAO). The kinetics of AChE and BChE inhibition by these new Flu-OPs display k(i) values 8.5x10(4) to 8.5x10(7) and 5x10(4) to 2x10(6)M(-1)min(-1), respectively. EMP-MeCyC and EMP-DDAO are the most active inhibitors of AChE whereas CMP-MeCyC and CMP-DDAO are better inhibitors of BChE than AChE, indicating accommodation of bulky cyclohexyl group inside the active site of BChE. PMP-MeCyC and PMP-DDAO are the least active inhibitors of both AChE and BChE. CMP-MeCyC and CMP-DDAO were significantly detoxified only by the five-site mutations PON1 variant L69V/S138L/S193P/N287D/V346A. Degradation kinetics of Flu-OPs measured by increase in absorbance of the released fluorogenic group was fit by a two exponential function

  9. Structure-guided engineering of molinate hydrolase for the degradation of thiocarbamate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Leite, José P; Duarte, Márcia; Paiva, Ana M; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Matias, Pedro M; Nunes, Olga C; Gales, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Molinate is a recalcitrant thiocarbamate used to control grass weeds in rice fields. The recently described molinate hydrolase, from Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T, plays a key role in the only known molinate degradation pathway ending in the formation of innocuous compounds. Here we report the crystal structure of recombinant molinate hydrolase at 2.27 Å. The structure reveals a homotetramer with a single mononuclear metal-dependent active site per monomer. The active site architecture shows similarities with other amidohydrolases and enables us to propose a general acid-base catalysis mechanism for molinate hydrolysis. Molinate hydrolase is unable to degrade bulkier thiocarbamate pesticides such as thiobencarb which is used mostly in rice crops. Using a structural-based approach, we were able to generate a mutant (Arg187Ala) that efficiently degrades thiobencarb. The engineered enzyme is suitable for the development of a broader thiocarbamate bioremediation system. PMID:25905461

  10. Structure-Guided Engineering of Molinate Hydrolase for the Degradation of Thiocarbamate Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Ana M.; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Matias, Pedro M.; Nunes, Olga C.; Gales, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Molinate is a recalcitrant thiocarbamate used to control grass weeds in rice fields. The recently described molinate hydrolase, from Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T, plays a key role in the only known molinate degradation pathway ending in the formation of innocuous compounds. Here we report the crystal structure of recombinant molinate hydrolase at 2.27 Å. The structure reveals a homotetramer with a single mononuclear metal-dependent active site per monomer. The active site architecture shows similarities with other amidohydrolases and enables us to propose a general acid-base catalysis mechanism for molinate hydrolysis. Molinate hydrolase is unable to degrade bulkier thiocarbamate pesticides such as thiobencarb which is used mostly in rice crops. Using a structural-based approach, we were able to generate a mutant (Arg187Ala) that efficiently degrades thiobencarb. The engineered enzyme is suitable for the development of a broader thiocarbamate bioremediation system. PMID:25905461

  11. Polyglycine hydrolases: fungal b-lactamase-like endoproteases that cleave polyglycine regions within plant class IV chitinases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyglycine hydrolases are secreted fungal proteases that cleave glycine-glycine peptide bonds in the inter-domain linker region of specific plant defense chitinases. Previously, we reported the catalytic activity of polyglycine hydrolases from the phytopathogens Epicoccum sorghi (Es-cmp) and Cochli...

  12. A pro-nociceptive phenotype unmasked in mice lacking fatty-acid amide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Lawrence M; Slivicki, Richard A; Leishman, Emma; Cornett, Ben; Mackie, Ken; Bradshaw, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the major enzyme responsible for degradation of anandamide, an endocannabinoid. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of FAAH (FAAH KO) produces antinociception in preclinical pain models that is largely attributed to anandamide-induced activation of cannabinoid receptors. However, FAAH metabolizes a wide range of structurally related, biologically active lipid signaling molecules whose functions remain largely unknown. Some of these endogenous lipids, including anandamide itself, may exert pro-nociceptive effects under certain conditions. In our study, FAAH KO mice exhibited a characteristic analgesic phenotype in the tail flick test and in both formalin and carrageenan models of inflammatory nociception. Nonetheless, intradermal injection of the transient receptor potential channel V1 (TRPV1) agonist capsaicin increased nocifensive behavior as well as mechanical and heat hypersensitivity in FAAH KO relative to wild-type mice. This pro-nociceptive phenotype was accompanied by increases in capsaicin-evoked Fos-like immunoreactive (FLI) cells in spinal dorsal horn regions implicated in nociceptive processing and was attenuated by CB1 (AM251) and TRPV1 (AMG9810) antagonists. When central sensitization was established, FAAH KO mice displayed elevated levels of anandamide, other fatty-acid amides, and endogenous TRPV1 agonists in both paw skin and lumbar spinal cord relative to wild-type mice. Capsaicin decreased spinal cord 2-AG levels and increased arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 levels in both spinal cord and paw skin irrespective of genotype. Our studies identify a previously unrecognized pro-nociceptive phenotype in FAAH KO mice that was unmasked by capsaicin challenge. The heightened nociceptive response was mediated by CB1 and TRPV1 receptors and accompanied by enhanced spinal neuronal activation. Moreover, genetic deletion of FAAH has a profound impact on the peripheral and central lipidome. Thus, genetic

  13. A pro-nociceptive phenotype unmasked in mice lacking fatty-acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lawrence M; Slivicki, Richard A; Leishman, Emma; Cornett, Ben; Mackie, Ken; Bradshaw, Heather; Hohmann, Andrea G

    2016-02-01

    Fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the major enzyme responsible for degradation of anandamide, an endocannabinoid. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of FAAH (FAAH KO) produces antinociception in preclinical pain models that is largely attributed to anandamide-induced activation of cannabinoid receptors. However, FAAH metabolizes a wide range of structurally related, biologically active lipid signaling molecules whose functions remain largely unknown. Some of these endogenous lipids, including anandamide itself, may exert pro-nociceptive effects under certain conditions. In our study, FAAH KO mice exhibited a characteristic analgesic phenotype in the tail flick test and in both formalin and carrageenan models of inflammatory nociception. Nonetheless, intradermal injection of the transient receptor potential channel V1 (TRPV1) agonist capsaicin increased nocifensive behavior as well as mechanical and heat hypersensitivity in FAAH KO relative to wild-type mice. This pro-nociceptive phenotype was accompanied by increases in capsaicin-evoked Fos-like immunoreactive (FLI) cells in spinal dorsal horn regions implicated in nociceptive processing and was attenuated by CB1 (AM251) and TRPV1 (AMG9810) antagonists. When central sensitization was established, FAAH KO mice displayed elevated levels of anandamide, other fatty-acid amides, and endogenous TRPV1 agonists in both paw skin and lumbar spinal cord relative to wild-type mice. Capsaicin decreased spinal cord 2-AG levels and increased arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 levels in both spinal cord and paw skin irrespective of genotype. Our studies identify a previously unrecognized pro-nociceptive phenotype in FAAH KO mice that was unmasked by capsaicin challenge. The heightened nociceptive response was mediated by CB1 and TRPV1 receptors and accompanied by enhanced spinal neuronal activation. Moreover, genetic deletion of FAAH has a profound impact on the peripheral and central lipidome. Thus, genetic

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae Endohexosaminidase D, Structural and Mechanistic Insight into Substrate-Assisted Catalysis in Family 85 Glycoside Hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, D.; Macauley, M; Vocadlo, D; Boraston, A

    2009-01-01

    Endo-?-d-glucosaminidases from family 85 of glycoside hydrolases (GH85 endohexosaminidases) act to cleave the glycosidic linkage between the two N-acetylglucosamine units that make up the chitobiose core of N-glycans. Endohexosaminidase D (Endo-D), produced by Streptococcus pneumoniae, is believed to contribute to the virulence of this organism by playing a role in the deglycosylation of IgG antibodies. Endohexosaminidases have received significant attention for this reason and, moreover, because they are powerful tools for chemoenzymatic synthesis of proteins having defined glycoforms. Here we describe mechanistic and structural studies of the catalytic domain (SpGH85) of Endo-D that provide compelling support for GH85 enzymes using a catalytic mechanism involving substrate-assisted catalysis. Furthermore, the structure of SpGH85 in complex with the mechanism-based competitive inhibitor NAG-thiazoline (Kd = 28 ?m) provides a coherent rationale for previous mutagenesis studies of Endo-D and other related GH85 enzymes. We also find GH85, GH56, and GH18 enzymes have a similar configuration of catalytic residues. Notably, GH85 enzymes have an asparagine in place of the aspartate residue found in these other families of glycosidases. We propose that this residue, as the imidic acid tautomer, acts analogously to the key catalytic aspartate of GH56 and GH18 enzymes. This topographically conserved arrangement of the asparagine residue and a conserved glutamic acid, coupled with previous kinetic studies, suggests these enzymes may use an unusual proton shuttle to coordinate effective general acid and base catalysis to aid cleavage of the glycosidic bond. These results collectively provide a blueprint that may be used to facilitate protein engineering of these enzymes to improve their function as biocatalysts for synthesizing glycoproteins having defined glycoforms and also may serve as a guide for generating inhibitors of GH85 enzymes.

  15. The general anesthetic propofol increases brain N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide) content and inhibits fatty acid amide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sachin; Wohlfeil, Eric R; Rademacher, David J; Carrier, Erica J; Perry, LaToya J; Kundu, Abhijit; Falck, J R; Nithipatikom, Kasem; Campbell, William B; Hillard, Cecilia J

    2003-01-01

    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is widely used as a general anesthetic and for the maintenance of long-term sedation. We have tested the hypothesis that propofol alters endocannabinoid brain content and that this effect contributes to its sedative properties. A sedating dose of propofol in mice produced a significant increase in the whole-brain content of the endocannabinoid, N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide), when administered intraperitoneally in either Intralipid or emulphor-ethanol vehicles. In vitro, propofol is a competitive inhibitor (IC50 52 μM; 95% confidence interval 31, 87) of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which catalyzes the degradation of anandamide. Within a series of propofol analogs, the critical structural determinants of FAAH inhibition and sedation were found to overlap. Other intravenous general anesthetics, including midazolam, ketamine, etomidate, and thiopental, do not affect FAAH activity at sedative-relevant concentrations. Thiopental, however, is a noncompetitive inhibitor of FAAH at a concentration of 2 mM. Pretreatment of mice with the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 (1 mg kg−1, i.p.) significantly reduced the number of mice that lost their righting reflex in response to propofol. Pretreatment of mice with the CB1 receptor agonist, Win 55212-2 (1 mg kg−1, i.p.), significantly potentiated the loss of righting reflex produced by propofol. These data indicate that CB1 receptor activity contributes to the sedative properties of propofol. These data suggest that propofol activation of the endocannabinoid system, possibly via inhibition of anandamide catabolism, contributes to the sedative properties of propofol and that FAAH could be a novel target for anesthetic development. PMID:12839875

  16. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase contributes to the anti-inflammatory effect of antimicrobial triclocarban in a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Junyan; Qiu Hong; Morisseau, Christophe; Hwang, Sung Hee; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Ulu, Arzu; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2011-09-01

    The increasing use of the antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) in personal care products (PCPs) has resulted in concern regarding environmental pollution. TCC is a potent inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Inhibitors of sEH (sEHIs) are anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive and cardio-protective in multiple animal models. However, the in vivo effects anticipated from a sEHI have not been reported for TCC. Here we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects in vivo of TCC in a murine model. TCC was employed in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged murine model. Systolic blood pressure, plasma levels of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokine, and metabolomic profile of plasma oxylipins were determined. TCC significantly reversed LPS-induced morbid hypotension in a time-dependent manner. TCC significantly repressed the increased release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine caused by LPS. Furthermore, TCC significantly shifted the oxylipin profile in vivo in a time-dependent manner towards resolution of inflammation as expected from a sEHI. These results demonstrated that at the doses used TCC is anti-inflammatory in the murine model. This study suggests that TCC may provide some benefits in humans in addition to its antimicrobial activities due to its potent inhibition of sEH. It may be a promising starting point for developing new low volume high value applications of TCC. However these biological effects also caution against the general over use of TCC in PCPs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: > Anti-microbial triclocarban (TCC) is anti-inflammatory in a murine model. > TCC significantly shifted the oxylipin profile in vivo as expected from a sEHI. > TCC significantly reversed LPS-induced morbid hypotension in a time-dependent manner. > TCC significantly repressed LPS-induced increased release of inflammatory cytokines.

  17. Development and characterization of a promising fluorine-18 labelled radiopharmaceutical for in vivo imaging of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Sadovski, Oleg; Hicks, Justin W; Parkes, Jun; Raymond, Roger; Nobrega, José; Houle, Sylvain; Cipriano, Mariateresa; Fowler, Christopher J; Vasdev, Neil; Wilson, Alan A

    2013-07-15

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for terminating signaling by the endocannabinoid anandamide, plays an important role in the endocannabinoid system, and FAAH inhibitors are attractive drugs for pain, addiction, and neurological disorders. The synthesis, radiosynthesis, and evaluation, in vitro and ex vivo in rat, of an (18)F-radiotracer designed to image FAAH using positron emission tomography (PET) is described. Fluorine-18 labelled 3-(4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-yl)phenyl (5-fluoropentyl)carbamate, [(18)F]5, was synthesized at high specific activity in a one-pot three step reaction using a commercial module with a radiochemical yield of 17-22% (from [(18)F]fluoride). In vitro assay using rat brain homogenates showed that 5 inhibited FAAH in a time-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 0.82nM after a preincubation of 60min. Ex vivo biodistribution studies and ex vivo autoradiography in rat brain demonstrated that [(18)F]5 had high brain penetration with standard uptake values of up to 4.6 and had a regional distribution which correlated with reported regional FAAH enzyme activity. Specificity of binding to FAAH with [(18)F]5 was high (>90%) as demonstrated by pharmacological challenges with potent and selective FAAH inhibitors and was irreversible as demonstrated by radioactivity measurements on homogenized brain tissue extracts. We infer from these results that [(18)F]5 is a highly promising candidate radiotracer with which to image FAAH in human subjects using PET and clinical studies are proceeding. PMID:23712084

  18. Structural Determinants Allowing Transferase Activity in SENSITIVE TO FREEZING 2, Classified as a Family I Glycosyl Hydrolase*

    PubMed Central

    Roston, Rebecca L.; Wang, Kun; Kuhn, Leslie A.; Benning, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    SENSITIVE TO FREEZING 2 (SFR2) is classified as a family I glycosyl hydrolase but has recently been shown to have galactosyltransferase activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Natural occurrences of apparent glycosyl hydrolases acting as transferases are interesting from a biocatalysis standpoint, and knowledge about the interconversion can assist in engineering SFR2 in crop plants to resist freezing. To understand how SFR2 evolved into a transferase, the relationship between its structure and function are investigated by activity assay, molecular modeling, and site-directed mutagenesis. SFR2 has no detectable hydrolase activity, although its catalytic site is highly conserved with that of family 1 glycosyl hydrolases. Three regions disparate from glycosyl hydrolases are identified as required for transferase activity as follows: a loop insertion, the C-terminal peptide, and a hydrophobic patch adjacent to the catalytic site. Rationales for the effects of these regions on the SFR2 mechanism are discussed. PMID:25100720

  19. Immunocytochemical Localization of Prunasin Hydrolase and Mandelonitrile Lyase in Stems and Leaves of Prunus serotina.

    PubMed Central

    Swain, E.; Poulton, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    In macerates of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) leaves and stems, (R)-prunasin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and D-glucose by the sequential action of prunasin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.21) and (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase (EC 4.1.2.10). Immuno-cytochemical techniques have shown that within these organs prunasin hydrolase occurs within the vacuoles of phloem parenchyma cells. In arborescent leaves, mandelonitrile lyase was also located in phloem parenchyma vacuoles, but comparison of serial sections revealed that these two degradative enzymes are usually localized within different cells. PMID:12232409

  20. Data set of optimal parameters for colorimetric red assay of epoxide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Stephani; Adriani, Patricia Pereira; Borges, Flavia Garcia; Lopes, Adriana Rios; Campana, Patricia T; Chambergo, Felipe S

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Epoxide hydrolase of Trichoderma reesei: Biochemical properties and conformational characterization" [1]. Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. This article describes the optimal parameters for the colorimetric red assay to determine the enzymatic activity, with an emphasis on the characterization of the kinetic parameters, pH optimum and thermal stability of this enzyme. The effects of reagents that are not resistant to oxidation by sodium periodate on the reactions can generate false positives and interfere with the final results of the red assay. PMID:27366781

  1. Molecular Models to Emulate Confinement Effects on the Internal Dynamics of Organophosphorous Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Diego Enry B.; Lins, Roberto D.; Pascutti, Pedro G.; Straatsma, TP; Soares, Thereza A.

    2008-09-28

    The confinement of the metalloenzyme organophosphorous hydrolase in functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) enhances the stability and increases catalytic specific activity by 200% compared to the enzyme in solution. The mechanism by which these processes take place is not well understood. We have developed two coarse-grain models of confinement to provide insights into how the nanocage environment steers enzyme conformational dynamics towards enhanced stability and enzymatic activity. The structural dynamics of organophosphorous hydrolase under the two confinement models are very distinct from each other. Comparisons of the present simulations show that only one model leads to an accurate depiction of the internal dynamics of the enzyme.

  2. Diversity of glycosyl hydrolase enzymes from metagenome and their application in food industry.

    PubMed

    Sathya, T A; Khan, Mahejibin

    2014-11-01

    Traditional use of enzymes for food processing and production of food ingredients resulted in fast-growing enzyme industries world over. The advances in technologies gave rise to exploring newer enzymes and/or modified enzymes for specific application. Search for novel enzymes that can augment catalytic efficiency and advances in molecular biology techniques including sequencing has targeted microbial diversity through metagenomic approaches for sourcing enzymes from difficult to culture organisms. Such mining studies have received more attention in characterizing hydrolases, their prevalence, broad substrate specificities, stability, and independence of cofactors. The focus on glycosyl hydrolases from metagenome for their application in food sector is reviewed. PMID:25311940

  3. Conformational Variability of Organophosphorus Hydrolase upon Soman and Paraoxon Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Diego Eb; Lins, Roberto D.; Pascutti, Pedro G.; Lei, Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A.

    2011-12-31

    The bacterial enzyme organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) exhibits both catalytic and substrate promiscuity. It hydrolyzes bonds in a variety of phosphotriester (P-O), phosphonothioate (P-S), phosphofluoridate (P-F) and phosphonocyanate (F-CN) compounds. However, its catalytic efficiency varies markedly for different substrates, limiting the broad-range application of OPH as catalyst in the bioremediation of pesticides and chemical war agents. In the present study, pK{sub a} calculations and multiple explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to characterize and contrast the structural dynamics of OPH bound to two substrates hydrolyzed with very distinct catalytic efficiencies: the nerve agent soman (O-pinacolyl-methyl-phosphonofluoridate) and the pesticide paraoxon (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate). pK{sub a} calculations for the substrate-bound and unbound enzyme showed a significant pK{sub a} shift from standard values ({Delta}pK{sub a} = {+-} 3 units) for residues 254His and 275Arg. MD simulations of the doubly protonated 254His revealed a dynamic hydrogen bond network connecting the catalytic residue 301Asp via 254His to 232Asp, 233Asp, 275Arg and 235Asp, and is consistent with a previously postulated proton relay mechanism to ferry protons away from the active site with substrates that do not require activation of the leaving group. Hydrogen bonds between 301Asp and 254His were persistent in the OPH-paraoxon complex but not in the OPH-soman one, suggesting a potential role for such interaction in the more efficient hydrolysis of paraoxon over soman by OPH. These results are in line with previous mutational studies of residue 254His, which led to an increase of the catalytic efficiency of OPH over soman yet decreased its efficiency for paraoxon. In addition, comparative analysis of the molecular trajectories for OPH bound to soman and paraoxon suggests that binding of the latter facilitates the conformational transition of OPH from the

  4. Conformational Variability of Organophosphorous Hydrolase upon Soman and Paraoxon Binding

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Diego E.B.; Lins, Roberto D.; Pascutti, Pedro G.; Lei, Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial enzyme organophosphorous hydrolase (OPH) exhibits both catalytic and substrate promiscuity. It hydrolyzes bonds in a variety of phosphotriester (P-O), phosphonothioate (P-S), phosphofluoridate (P-F) and phosphonocyanate (F-CN) compounds. However, its catalytic efficiency varies markedly for different substrates, limiting the broad-range application of OPH as catalyst in the bioremediation of pesticides and chemical war agents. In the present study, pKa calculations and multiple explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to characterize and contrast the structural dynamics of OPH bound to two substrates hydrolyzed with very distinct catalytic efficiencies: the nerve agent soman (O-pinacolyl-methyl-phosphonofluoridate) and the pesticide paraoxon (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate). pKa calculations for the substrate-bound and unbound enzyme showed a significant pKa shift from standard values (ΔpKa=±3 units) for residues 254His and 275Arg. MD simulations of the doubly protonated 254His revealed a dynamic hydrogen bond network connecting the catalytic residue 301Asp via 254His to 232Asp, 233Asp, 275Arg and 235Asp, and is consistent with a previously postulated proton relay mechanism to ferry protons away from the active site with substrates that do not require activation of the leaving group. Hydrogen bonds between 301Asp and 254His were persistent in the OPH-paraoxon complex but not in the OPH-soman one, suggesting a potential role for such interaction in the more efficient hydrolysis of paraoxon over soman by OPH. These results are in line with previous mutational studies of residue 254His, which led to an increase of the catalytic efficiency of OPH over soman yet decreased its efficiency for paraoxon. In addition, comparative analysis of the molecular trajectories for OPH bound to soman and paraoxon suggests that binding of the latter facilitates the conformational transition of OPH from the open to the closed substate

  5. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolases of Lactobacillus sakei.

    PubMed

    Najjari, Afef; Amairi, Houda; Chaillou, Stéphane; Mora, Diego; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Zagorec, Monique; Ouzari, Hadda

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei, a lactic acid bacterium naturally found in fresh meat and sea products, is considered to be one of the most important bacterial species involved in meat fermentation and bio-preservation. Several enzymes of Lb. sakei species contributing to microbial safeguarding and organoleptic properties of fermented-meat were studied. However, the specific autolytic mechanisms and associated enzymes involved in Lb. sakei are not well understood. The autolytic phenotype of 22 Lb. sakei strains isolated from Tunisian meat and seafood products was evaluated under starvation conditions, at pH 6.5 and 8.5, and in the presence of different carbon sources. A higher autolytic rate was observed when cells were grown in the presence of glucose and incubated at pH 6.5. Almost all strains showed high resistance to mutanolysin, indicating a minor role of muramidases in Lb. sakei cell lysis. Using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells as a substrate in activity gels zymogram, peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH) patterns for all strains was characterized by two lytic bands of ∼80 (B1) and ∼70 kDa (B2), except for strain BMG.167 which harbored two activity signals at a lower MW. Lytic activity was retained in high salt and in acid/basic conditions and was active toward cells of Lb. sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria innocua. Analysis of five putative PGH genes found in the Lb. sakei 23 K model strain genome, indicated that one gene, lsa1437, could encode a PGH (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase) containing B1 and B2 as isoforms. According to this hypothesis, strain BMG.167 showed an allelic version of lsa1437 gene deleted of one of the five LysM domains, leading to a reduction in the MW of lytic bands and the high autolytic rate of this strain. Characterization of autolytic phenotype of Lb. sakei should expand the knowledge of their role in fermentation processes where they represent the dominant species. PMID:26843981

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolases of Lactobacillus sakei

    PubMed Central

    Najjari, Afef; Amairi, Houda; Chaillou, Stéphane; Mora, Diego; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Zagorec, Monique; Ouzari, Hadda

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei, a lactic acid bacterium naturally found in fresh meat and sea products, is considered to be one of the most important bacterial species involved in meat fermentation and bio-preservation. Several enzymes of Lb. sakei species contributing to microbial safeguarding and organoleptic properties of fermented-meat were studied. However, the specific autolytic mechanisms and associated enzymes involved in Lb. sakei are not well understood. The autolytic phenotype of 22 Lb. sakei strains isolated from Tunisian meat and seafood products was evaluated under starvation conditions, at pH 6.5 and 8.5, and in the presence of different carbon sources. A higher autolytic rate was observed when cells were grown in the presence of glucose and incubated at pH 6.5. Almost all strains showed high resistance to mutanolysin, indicating a minor role of muramidases in Lb. sakei cell lysis. Using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells as a substrate in activity gels zymogram, peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH) patterns for all strains was characterized by two lytic bands of ∼80 (B1) and ∼70 kDa (B2), except for strain BMG.167 which harbored two activity signals at a lower MW. Lytic activity was retained in high salt and in acid/basic conditions and was active toward cells of Lb. sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria innocua. Analysis of five putative PGH genes found in the Lb. sakei 23 K model strain genome, indicated that one gene, lsa1437, could encode a PGH (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase) containing B1 and B2 as isoforms. According to this hypothesis, strain BMG.167 showed an allelic version of lsa1437 gene deleted of one of the five LysM domains, leading to a reduction in the MW of lytic bands and the high autolytic rate of this strain. Characterization of autolytic phenotype of Lb. sakei should expand the knowledge of their role in fermentation processes where they represent the dominant species. PMID:26843981

  7. Discovery of potent and reversible monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    King, Alvin R; Dotsey, Emmanuel Y; Lodola, Alessio; Jung, Kwang Mook; Ghomian, Azar; Qiu, Yan; Fu, Jin; Mor, Marco; Piomelli, Daniele

    2009-10-30

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) is a serine hydrolase involved in the biological deactivation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG). Previous efforts to design MGL inhibitors have focused on chemical scaffolds that irreversibly block the activity of this enzyme. Here, we describe two naturally occurring terpenoids, pristimerin and euphol, which inhibit MGL activity with high potency (median effective concentration, IC(50) = 93 nM and 315 nM, respectively) through a reversible mechanism. Mutational and modeling studies suggest that the two agents occupy a common hydrophobic pocket located within the putative lid domain of MGL, and each reversibly interacts with one of two adjacent cysteine residues (Cys(201) and Cys(208)) flanking such pocket. This previously unrecognized regulatory region might offer a molecular target for potent and reversible inhibitors of MGL. PMID:19875078

  8. Discovery of Potent and Reversible Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    King, Alvin R.; Dotsey, Emmanuel Y.; Lodola, Alessio; Jung, Kwang Mook; Ghomian, Azar; Qiu, Yan; Fu, Jin; Mor, Marco; Piomelli, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Summary Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) is a serine hydrolase involved in the biological deactivation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG). Previous efforts to design MGL inhibitors have focused on chemical scaffolds that irreversibly block the activity of this enzyme. Here, we describe two naturally occurring terpenoids, pristimerin and euphol, which inhibit MGL activity with high potency (median effective concentration, IC50 = 93 nM and 315 nM, respectively) through a reversible mechanism. Mutational and modeling studies suggest that the two agents occupy a common hydrophobic pocket located within the putative lid domain of MGL, and each reversibly interact with one of two adjacent cysteine residues (Cys201 and Cys208) flanking such pocket. This previously unrecognized regulatory region may offer a novel molecular target for potent and reversible inhibitors of MGL. PMID:19875078

  9. Autophagy inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Benoit

    2016-03-01

    Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent mechanism of intracellular degradation. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this process are highly complex and involve multiple proteins, including the kinases ULK1 and Vps34. The main function of autophagy is the maintenance of cell survival when modifications occur in the cellular environment. During the past decade, extensive studies have greatly improved our knowledge and autophagy has exploded as a research field. This process is now widely implicated in pathophysiological processes such as cancer, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders, making it an attractive target for drug discovery. In this review, we will summarize the different types of inhibitors that affect the autophagy machinery and provide some potential therapeutic perspectives. PMID:26658914

  10. Encoded Library Synthesis Using Chemical Ligation and the Discovery of sEH Inhibitors from a 334-Million Member Library

    PubMed Central

    Litovchick, Alexander; Dumelin, Christoph E.; Habeshian, Sevan; Gikunju, Diana; Guié, Marie-Aude; Centrella, Paolo; Zhang, Ying; Sigel, Eric A.; Cuozzo, John W.; Keefe, Anthony D.; Clark, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    A chemical ligation method for construction of DNA-encoded small-molecule libraries has been developed. Taking advantage of the ability of the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase to accept templates with triazole linkages in place of phosphodiesters, we have designed a strategy for chemically ligating oligonucleotide tags using cycloaddition chemistry. We have utilized this strategy in the construction and selection of a small molecule library, and successfully identified inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase. PMID:26061191

  11. Encoded Library Synthesis Using Chemical Ligation and the Discovery of sEH Inhibitors from a 334-Million Member Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litovchick, Alexander; Dumelin, Christoph E.; Habeshian, Sevan; Gikunju, Diana; Guié, Marie-Aude; Centrella, Paolo; Zhang, Ying; Sigel, Eric A.; Cuozzo, John W.; Keefe, Anthony D.; Clark, Matthew A.

    2015-06-01

    A chemical ligation method for construction of DNA-encoded small-molecule libraries has been developed. Taking advantage of the ability of the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase to accept templates with triazole linkages in place of phosphodiesters, we have designed a strategy for chemically ligating oligonucleotide tags using cycloaddition chemistry. We have utilized this strategy in the construction and selection of a small molecule library, and successfully identified inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase.

  12. Oxidoreductive cellulose depolymerization by the enzymes cellobiose dehydrogenase and glycoside hydrolase 61.

    PubMed

    Langston, James A; Shaghasi, Tarana; Abbate, Eric; Xu, Feng; Vlasenko, Elena; Sweeney, Matt D

    2011-10-01

    Several members of the glycoside hydrolase 61 (GH61) family of proteins have recently been shown to dramatically increase the breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass by microbial hydrolytic cellulases. However, purified GH61 proteins have neither demonstrable direct hydrolase activity on various polysaccharide or lignacious components of biomass nor an apparent hydrolase active site. Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is a secreted flavocytochrome produced by many cellulose-degrading fungi with no well-understood biological function. Here we demonstrate that the binary combination of Thermoascus aurantiacus GH61A (TaGH61A) and Humicola insolens CDH (HiCDH) cleaves cellulose into soluble, oxidized oligosaccharides. TaGH61A-HiCDH activity on cellulose is shown to be nonredundant with the activities of canonical endocellulase and exocellulase enzymes in microcrystalline cellulose cleavage, and while the combination of TaGH61A and HiCDH cleaves highly crystalline bacterial cellulose, it does not cleave soluble cellodextrins. GH61 and CDH proteins are coexpressed and secreted by the thermophilic ascomycete Thielavia terrestris in response to environmental cellulose, and the combined activities of T. terrestris GH61 and T. terrestris CDH are shown to synergize with T. terrestris cellulose hydrolases in the breakdown of cellulose. The action of GH61 and CDH on cellulose may constitute an important, but overlooked, biological oxidoreductive system that functions in microbial lignocellulose degradation and has applications in industrial biomass utilization. PMID:21821740

  13. A novel meta-cleavage product hydrolase from Flavobacterium sp. ATCC27551

    SciTech Connect

    Khajamohiddin, Syed; Babu, Pakala Suresh; Chakka, Deviprasanna; Merrick, Mike; Bhaduri, Anirban; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; Siddavattam, Dayananda . E-mail: sdsl@uohyd.ernet.in

    2006-12-22

    The organophosphate degrading (opd) gene cluster of plasmid pPDL2 of Flavobacterium sp. ATCC27551 contains a novel open-reading frame, orf243. This was predicted to encode an {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase distantly related to the meta-fission product (MFP) hydrolases such as XylF, PhnD, and CumD. By homology modeling Orf243 has most of the structural features of MFP hydrolases including the characteristic active site catalytic triad. The purified protein (designated MfhA) is a homotetramer and shows similar affinity for 2-hydroxy-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoate (HOHD), 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde (HMSA), and 2-hydroxy-5-methylmuconic semialdehyde (HMMSA), the meta-fission products of 3-methyl catechol, catechol, and 4-methyl catechol. The unique catalytic properties of MfhA and the presence near its structural gene of cis-elements required for transposition suggest that mfhA has evolved towards encoding a common hydrolase that can act on meta-fission products containing either aldehyde or ketone groups.

  14. Extracellular xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolase production by A. flavus isolates contributes to crop invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates, including some biocontrol agents, and one toxigenic isolate were surveyed for the ability to produce extracellular xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases. All of the tested isolates displayed good production of endoxylanases when grown on a medium ut...

  15. Proteomic Analysis of a Novel Bacillus Jumbo Phage Revealing Glycoside Hydrolase As Structural Component

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2016-01-01

    Tailed phages with genomes of larger than 200 kbp are classified as Jumbo phages and exhibited extremely high uncharted diversity. The genomic annotation of Jumbo phage is often disappointing because most of the predicted proteins, including structural proteins, failed to make good hits to the sequences in the databases. In this study, 23 proteins of a novel Bacillus Jumbo phage, vB_BpuM_BpSp, were identified as phage structural proteins by the structural proteome analysis, including 14 proteins of unknown function, 5 proteins with predicted function as structural proteins, a glycoside hydrolase, a Holliday junction resolvase, a RNA-polymerase β-subunit, and a host-coding portal protein, which might be hijacked from the host strain during phage virion assembly. The glycoside hydrolase (Gp255) was identified as phage virion component and was found to interact with the phage baseplate protein. Gp255 shows specific lytic activity against the phage host strain GR8 and has high temperature tolerance. In situ peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activities analysis revealed that the expressed Gp255 and phage structural proteome exhibited glycoside hydrolysis activity against the tested GR8 cell extracts. This study identified the first functional individual structural glycoside hydrolase in phage virion. The presence of activated glycoside hydrolase in phage virions might facilitate the injection of the phage genome during infection by forming pores on the bacterial cell wall. PMID:27242758

  16. EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RECOMBINANT JUVENILE HORMONE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE (JHEH) FROM MANDUCA SEXTA. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cDNA of the microsomal Juvenile Hormone Epoxide Hydrolase (JHEH) from Manduca sexta was expressed in vitro in the baculovirus system. In insect cell culture, the recombinant enzyme (Ms-JHEH) was produced at a high level (100 fold over background EH catalytic activit...

  17. Rehabilitation of faulty kinetic determinations and misassigned glycoside hydrolase family of retaining mechanism ß-xylosidases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We obtained Cx1 from a commercial supplier, whose catalog listed it as a ß-xylosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 43. NMR experiments indicate retention of anomeric configuration in its reaction stereochemistry, opposing the assignment of GH43, which follows an inverting mechanism. Partial protein...

  18. Highly active ß-xylosidases of glycoside hydrolase family 43 operating on natural and artificial substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hemicellulose xylan constitutes a major portion of plant biomass, a renewable feedstock available for conversion to biofuels and other bioproducts. ß-xylosidase operates in the deconstruction of the polysaccharide to fermentable sugars. Glycoside hydrolase family 43 has been identified as a so...

  19. Expression of recombinant organophosphorus hydrolase in the original producer of the enzyme, Sphingobium fuliginis ATCC 27551.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kosuke; Ohmori, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Iwata, Natsumi; Seto, Yasuo; Kawahara, Kazuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    The plasmid encoding His-tagged organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) cloned from Sphingobium fuliginis was modified to be transferred back to this bacterium. The replication function of S. amiense plasmid was inserted at downstream of OPH gene, and S. fuliginis was transformed with this plasmid. The transformant produced larger amount of active OPH with His-tag than E. coli. PMID:26784883

  20. Purification and Characterization of TrzF: Biuret Hydrolysis by Allophanate Hydrolase Supports Growth

    PubMed Central

    Shapir, Nir; Cheng, Gang; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2006-01-01

    TrzF, the allophanate hydrolase from Enterobacter cloacae strain 99, was cloned, overexpressed in the presence of a chaperone protein, and purified to homogeneity. Native TrzF had a subunit molecular weight of 65,401 and a subunit stoichiometry of α2 and did not contain significant levels of metals. TrzF showed time-dependent inhibition by phenyl phosphorodiamidate and is a member of the amidase signature protein family. TrzF was highly active in the hydrolysis of allophanate but was not active with urea, despite having been previously considered a urea amidolyase. TrzF showed lower activity with malonamate, malonamide, and biuret. The allophanate hydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, AtzF, was also shown to hydrolyze biuret slowly. Since biuret and allophanate are consecutive metabolites in cyanuric acid metabolism, the low level of biuret hydrolase activity can have physiological significance. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain containing atzD, encoding cyanuric acid hydrolase that produces biuret, and atzF grew slowly on cyanuric acid as a source of nitrogen. The amount of growth produced was consistent with the liberation of 3 mol of ammonia from cyanuric acid. In vitro, TrzF was shown to hydrolyze biuret to liberate 3 mol of ammonia. The biuret hydrolyzing activity of TrzF might also be physiologically relevant in native strains. E. cloacae strain 99 grows on cyanuric acid with a significant accumulation of biuret. PMID:16597948

  1. High-Throughput In Vitro Glycoside Hydrolase (HIGH) Screening for Enzyme Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Wan; Chokhawala, Harshal A.; Hess, Matthias; Dana, Craig M.; Baer, Zachary; Sczyrba, Alexander; Rubin, Edward M.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Clark, Douglas S.

    2011-09-16

    A high-throughput protein-expression and screening method (HIGH method, see picture) provides a rapid approach to the discovery of active glycoside hydrolases in environmental samples. Finally, HIGH screening combines cloning, protein expression, and enzyme hydrolysis in one pot; thus, the entire process from gene expression to activity detection requires only three hours.

  2. Cloning, Expression and Characterization of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 39 Xylosidase from Bacillus Halodurans C-125

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 39 xylosidase (BH1068) from the alkaliphile Bacillus halodurans strain C-125 was cloned with a C-terminal His-tag and the recombinant gene product termed XylBH1068 was expressed in E. coli. Of the artificial substrates tested, XylBH1068 hydrolyzed nitro...

  3. BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY SURFACE-EXPRESSED ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) was displayed and anchored onto the surface of
    Escherichia coli using an Lpp-OmpA fusion system. Production of the fusion proteins in membrane
    fractions was verified by immunoblotting with OmpA antisera. inclusion of the organophosphorus
    ...

  4. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE-BASED AMPEROMETRIC SENSOR: MODULATION OF SENSITIVITY AND SUBSTRATE SELECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of organophosphate (OP) insecticides with nitrophenyl substituents is reported using an enzyme electrode composed of Organophosphorus Hydrolase (OPH) and albumin co-immobilized to a nylon net and attached to a carbon paste electrode. The mechanism for this biosen...

  5. Proteomic Analysis of a Novel Bacillus Jumbo Phage Revealing Glycoside Hydrolase As Structural Component.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2016-01-01

    Tailed phages with genomes of larger than 200 kbp are classified as Jumbo phages and exhibited extremely high uncharted diversity. The genomic annotation of Jumbo phage is often disappointing because most of the predicted proteins, including structural proteins, failed to make good hits to the sequences in the databases. In this study, 23 proteins of a novel Bacillus Jumbo phage, vB_BpuM_BpSp, were identified as phage structural proteins by the structural proteome analysis, including 14 proteins of unknown function, 5 proteins with predicted function as structural proteins, a glycoside hydrolase, a Holliday junction resolvase, a RNA-polymerase β-subunit, and a host-coding portal protein, which might be hijacked from the host strain during phage virion assembly. The glycoside hydrolase (Gp255) was identified as phage virion component and was found to interact with the phage baseplate protein. Gp255 shows specific lytic activity against the phage host strain GR8 and has high temperature tolerance. In situ peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activities analysis revealed that the expressed Gp255 and phage structural proteome exhibited glycoside hydrolysis activity against the tested GR8 cell extracts. This study identified the first functional individual structural glycoside hydrolase in phage virion. The presence of activated glycoside hydrolase in phage virions might facilitate the injection of the phage genome during infection by forming pores on the bacterial cell wall. PMID:27242758

  6. Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L5 cDNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ubiquitin-proteasome cycle is a complex, non-lysosomal biochemical process for intracellular protein degradation. This process involves many enzymes. One of them is ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase (UCT). In this report, we cloned, sequenced and characterized the channel catfish UCT L5 cDNA....

  7. Functional characterization and structural modeling of synthetic polyester-degrading hydrolases from Thermomonospora curvata

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Thermomonospora curvata is a thermophilic actinomycete phylogenetically related to Thermobifida fusca that produces extracellular hydrolases capable of degrading synthetic polyesters. Analysis of the genome of T. curvata DSM43183 revealed two genes coding for putative polyester hydrolases Tcur1278 and Tcur0390 sharing 61% sequence identity with the T. fusca enzymes. Mature proteins of Tcur1278 and Tcur0390 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10. Tcur1278 and Tcur0390 exhibited an optimal reaction temperature against p-nitrophenyl butyrate at 60°C and 55°C, respectively. The optimal pH for both enzymes was determined at pH 8.5. Tcur1278 retained more than 80% and Tcur0390 less than 10% of their initial activity following incubation for 60 min at 55°C. Tcur0390 showed a higher hydrolytic activity against poly(ε-caprolactone) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanoparticles compared to Tcur1278 at reaction temperatures up to 50°C. At 55°C and 60°C, hydrolytic activity against PET nanoparticles was only detected with Tcur1278. In silico modeling of the polyester hydrolases and docking with a model substrate composed of two repeating units of PET revealed the typical fold of α/β serine hydrolases with an exposed catalytic triad. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the superior thermal stability of Tcur1278 considered as the main reason for its higher hydrolytic activity on PET. PMID:25405080

  8. γ-PGA Hydrolases of Phage Origin in Bacillus subtilis and Other Microbial Genomes.

    PubMed

    Mamberti, Stefania; Prati, Paola; Cremaschi, Paolo; Seppi, Claudio; Morelli, Carlo F; Galizzi, Alessandro; Fabbi, Massimo; Calvio, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Poly-γ-glutamate (γ-PGA) is an industrially interesting polymer secreted mainly by members of the class Bacilli which forms a shield able to protect bacteria from phagocytosis and phages. Few enzymes are known to degrade γ-PGA; among them is a phage-encoded γ-PGA hydrolase, PghP. The supposed role of PghP in phages is to ensure access to the surface of bacterial cells by dismantling the γ-PGA barrier. We identified four unannotated B. subtilis genes through similarity of their encoded products to PghP; in fact these genes reside in prophage elements of B. subtilis genome. The recombinant products of two of them demonstrate efficient polymer degradation, confirming that sequence similarity reflects functional homology. Genes encoding similar γ-PGA hydrolases were identified in phages specific for the order Bacillales and in numerous microbial genomes, not only belonging to that order. The distribution of the γ-PGA biosynthesis operon was also investigated with a bioinformatics approach; it was found that the list of organisms endowed with γ-PGA biosynthetic functions is larger than expected and includes several pathogenic species. Moreover in non-Bacillales bacteria the predicted γ-PGA hydrolase genes are preferentially found in species that do not have the genetic asset for polymer production. Our findings suggest that γ-PGA hydrolase genes might have spread across microbial genomes via horizontal exchanges rather than via phage infection. We hypothesize that, in natural habitats rich in γ-PGA supplied by producer organisms, the availability of hydrolases that release glutamate oligomers from γ-PGA might be a beneficial trait under positive selection. PMID:26158264

  9. Molecular Identification of β-Citrylglutamate Hydrolase as Glutamate Carboxypeptidase 3*

    PubMed Central

    Collard, François; Vertommen, Didier; Constantinescu, Stefan; Buts, Lieven; Van Schaftingen, Emile

    2011-01-01

    β-Citrylglutamate (BCG), a compound present in adult testis and in the CNS during the pre- and perinatal periods is synthesized by an intracellular enzyme encoded by the RIMKLB gene and hydrolyzed by an as yet unidentified ectoenzyme. To identify β-citrylglutamate hydrolase, this enzyme was partially purified from mouse testis and characterized. Interestingly, in the presence of Ca2+, the purified enzyme specifically hydrolyzed β-citrylglutamate and did not act on N-acetyl-aspartylglutamate (NAAG). However, both compounds were hydrolyzed in the presence of Mn2+. This behavior and the fact that the enzyme was glycosylated and membrane-bound suggested that β-citrylglutamate hydrolase belonged to the same family of protein as glutamate carboxypeptidase 2 (GCP2), the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-aspartylglutamate. The mouse tissue distribution of β-citrylglutamate hydrolase was strikingly similar to that of the glutamate carboxypeptidase 3 (GCP3) mRNA, but not that of the GCP2 mRNA. Furthermore, similarly to β-citrylglutamate hydrolase purified from testis, recombinant GCP3 specifically hydrolyzed β-citrylglutamate in the presence of Ca2+, and acted on both N-acetyl-aspartylglutamate and β-citrylglutamate in the presence of Mn2+, whereas recombinant GCP2 only hydrolyzed N-acetyl-aspartylglutamate and this, in a metal-independent manner. A comparison of the structures of the catalytic sites of GCP2 and GCP3, as well as mutagenesis experiments revealed that a single amino acid substitution (Asn-519 in GCP2, Ser-509 in GCP3) is largely responsible for GCP3 being able to hydrolyze β-citrylglutamate. Based on the crystal structure of GCP3 and kinetic analysis, we propose that GCP3 forms a labile catalytic Zn-Ca cluster that is critical for its β-citrylglutamate hydrolase activity. PMID:21908619

  10. Different types of dienelactone hydrolase in 4-fluorobenzoate-utilizing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Schlömann, M; Schmidt, E; Knackmuss, H J

    1990-01-01

    Of various benzoate-utilizing bacteria tested, Alcaligenes eutrophus 335, A. eutrophus H16, A. eutrophus JMP222, A. eutrophus JMP134, Alcaligenes strain A7, and Pseudomonas cepacia were able to grow with 4-fluorobenzoate as the sole source of carbon and energy. P. cepacia also utilizes 3-fluorobenzoate. Except for A. eutrophus JMP134, which is known to grow with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate and 3-chlorobenzoate (R. H. Don and J. M. Pemberton, J. Bacteriol. 145:681-686, 1981), the strains were unable to grow at the expense of these compounds or 4-chlorobenzoate. Assays of cell extracts revealed that all strains express dienelactone hydrolase and maleylacetate reductase activities in addition to enzymes of the catechol branch of the 3-oxoadipate pathway when growing with 4-fluorobenzoate. Induction of dienelactone hydrolase and maleylacetate reductase apparently is not necessarily connected to synthesis of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase type II and chloromuconate cycloisomerase activities, which are indispensable for the degradation of chlorocatechols. Substrate specificities of the dienelactone hydrolases provisionally differentiate among three types of this activity. (i) Extracts of A. eutrophus 335, A. eutrophus H16, A. eutrophus JMP222, and Alcaligenes strain A7 convert trans-4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-4-olide (trans-dienelactone) much faster than the cis-isomer (type I). (ii) The enzyme present in P. cepacia shows the opposite preference for the isomeric substrates (type II). (iii) Cell extracts of A. eutrophus JMP134, as well as purified dienelactone hydrolase from Pseudomonas strain B13 (E. Schmidt and H.-J. Knackmuss, Biochem. J. 192:339-347, 1980), hydrolyze both dienelactones at rates that are of the same order of magnitude (type III). This classification implies that A. eutrophus JMP134 possesses at least two different dienelactone hydrolases, one of type III encoded by the plasmid pJP4 and one of type I, which is also present in the cured strain JMP222. PMID

  11. Characteristics, protein engineering and applications of microbial thermostable pullulanases and pullulan hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Nisha, M; Satyanarayana, T

    2016-07-01

    Pullulan hydrolyzing enzymes are endoacting, classified based on the substrate specificity and hydrolysis products as pullulanases (type I and II) and pullulan hydrolases (type I, II and III). Pullulanases and pullulan hydrolase type I are produced by bacteria and archaea. Among bacteria, many mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bacteria produce pullulanases and neopullulanases. While pullulan hydrolase type II and type III are produced by fungi and archaea, respectively. These are multi-domain proteins with three conserved catalytic acidic residues of the glycosyl hydrolases. The recent advances in molecular biology and protein engineering via mutagenesis and truncation led to improvement in thermostability, catalytic activity and substrate specificity. Pullulanases are debranching enzymes, which are widely employed in starch saccharification that minimizes the use of glucoamylase (approx. 50 %) and reduces the total reaction time of the industrial starch conversion process. The thermostable amylopullulanases are useful in one-step starch liquefaction and saccharification, which replaces amylolytic enzymes like α-amylase and glucoamylase, thus resulting in the reduction in the cost of sugar production. The enzymes also find application in making resistant starches and as an antistale in bread making. Panose and isopanose containing syrups are useful as prebiotics, while panose has also been reported to display anticarcinogenic activity. This review focuses on the distinguishing features of these enzymes based on the analysis of amino acid sequences and domain structure, besides highlighting recent advances in the molecular biology and protein engineering for enhancing their thermostability, catalytic activity and substrate specificity. This review also briefly summarizes the potential applications of pullulanases and pullulan hydrolases. PMID:27142298

  12. Molecular identification of β-citrylglutamate hydrolase as glutamate carboxypeptidase 3.

    PubMed

    Collard, François; Vertommen, Didier; Constantinescu, Stefan; Buts, Lieven; Van Schaftingen, Emile

    2011-11-01

    β-Citrylglutamate (BCG), a compound present in adult testis and in the CNS during the pre- and perinatal periods is synthesized by an intracellular enzyme encoded by the RIMKLB gene and hydrolyzed by an as yet unidentified ectoenzyme. To identify β-citrylglutamate hydrolase, this enzyme was partially purified from mouse testis and characterized. Interestingly, in the presence of Ca(2+), the purified enzyme specifically hydrolyzed β-citrylglutamate and did not act on N-acetyl-aspartylglutamate (NAAG). However, both compounds were hydrolyzed in the presence of Mn(2+). This behavior and the fact that the enzyme was glycosylated and membrane-bound suggested that β-citrylglutamate hydrolase belonged to the same family of protein as glutamate carboxypeptidase 2 (GCP2), the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-aspartylglutamate. The mouse tissue distribution of β-citrylglutamate hydrolase was strikingly similar to that of the glutamate carboxypeptidase 3 (GCP3) mRNA, but not that of the GCP2 mRNA. Furthermore, similarly to β-citrylglutamate hydrolase purified from testis, recombinant GCP3 specifically hydrolyzed β-citrylglutamate in the presence of Ca(2+), and acted on both N-acetyl-aspartylglutamate and β-citrylglutamate in the presence of Mn(2+), whereas recombinant GCP2 only hydrolyzed N-acetyl-aspartylglutamate and this, in a metal-independent manner. A comparison of the structures of the catalytic sites of GCP2 and GCP3, as well as mutagenesis experiments revealed that a single amino acid substitution (Asn-519 in GCP2, Ser-509 in GCP3) is largely responsible for GCP3 being able to hydrolyze β-citrylglutamate. Based on the crystal structure of GCP3 and kinetic analysis, we propose that GCP3 forms a labile catalytic Zn-Ca cluster that is critical for its β-citrylglutamate hydrolase activity. PMID:21908619

  13. γ-PGA Hydrolases of Phage Origin in Bacillus subtilis and Other Microbial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Mamberti, Stefania; Prati, Paola; Cremaschi, Paolo; Seppi, Claudio; Morelli, Carlo F.; Galizzi, Alessandro; Fabbi, Massimo; Calvio, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Poly-γ-glutamate (γ-PGA) is an industrially interesting polymer secreted mainly by members of the class Bacilli which forms a shield able to protect bacteria from phagocytosis and phages. Few enzymes are known to degrade γ-PGA; among them is a phage-encoded γ-PGA hydrolase, PghP. The supposed role of PghP in phages is to ensure access to the surface of bacterial cells by dismantling the γ-PGA barrier. We identified four unannotated B. subtilis genes through similarity of their encoded products to PghP; in fact these genes reside in prophage elements of B. subtilis genome. The recombinant products of two of them demonstrate efficient polymer degradation, confirming that sequence similarity reflects functional homology. Genes encoding similar γ-PGA hydrolases were identified in phages specific for the order Bacillales and in numerous microbial genomes, not only belonging to that order. The distribution of the γ-PGA biosynthesis operon was also investigated with a bioinformatics approach; it was found that the list of organisms endowed with γ-PGA biosynthetic functions is larger than expected and includes several pathogenic species. Moreover in non-Bacillales bacteria the predicted γ-PGA hydrolase genes are preferentially found in species that do not have the genetic asset for polymer production. Our findings suggest that γ-PGA hydrolase genes might have spread across microbial genomes via horizontal exchanges rather than via phage infection. We hypothesize that, in natural habitats rich in γ-PGA supplied by producer organisms, the availability of hydrolases that release glutamate oligomers from γ-PGA might be a beneficial trait under positive selection. PMID:26158264

  14. Cell- and ligand-specific dephosphorylation of acid hydrolases: Evidence that the mannose 6-phosphatase is controlled by compartmentalization

    SciTech Connect

    Einstein, R.; Gabel, C.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Mouse L cells that possess the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate (Man 6-P)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II receptor change the extent to which they dephosphorylate endocytosed acid hydrolases in response to serum. To investigate the mechanism by which dephosphorylation competence is regulated, the dephosphorylation of individual acid hydrolases was studied in Man 6-P/IGF II receptor-positive and -deficient cell lines. 125I-labeled Man 6-P-containing acid hydrolases were proteolytically processed but remained phosphorylated when endocytosed by receptor-positive L cells maintained in the absence of serum; after the addition of serum, however, the cell-associated hydrolases were dephosphorylated. Individual hydrolases were dephosphorylated at distinct rates and to different extents. In contrast, the same hydrolases were dephosphorylated equally and completely after entry into Man 6-P/IGF II receptor-positive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The dephosphorylation competence of Man 6-P/IGF II receptor-deficient mouse J774 cells was more limited. beta-Glucuronidase produced by these cells underwent a limited dephosphorylation in transit to lysosomes such that diphosphorylated oligosaccharides were converted to monophosphorylated species. The overall quantity of phosphorylated oligosaccharides associated with the enzyme, however, did not decrease within the lysosomal compartment. Likewise, beta-glucuronidase was not dephosphorylated when introduced into J774 cells via Fc receptor-mediated endocytosis. The CHO and J774 cell lysosomes, therefore, display opposite extremes with respect to their capacity to dephosphorylate acid hydrolases; within CHO cell lysosomes acid hydrolases are rapidly and efficiently dephosphorylated, but within J774 cell lysosomes the same acid hydrolases remain phosphorylated.

  15. Discovery and optimization of sulfonyl acrylonitriles as selective, covalent inhibitors of protein phosphatase methylesterase-1.

    PubMed

    Bachovchin, Daniel A; Zuhl, Andrea M; Speers, Anna E; Wolfe, Monique R; Weerapana, Eranthie; Brown, Steven J; Rosen, Hugh; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2011-07-28

    The serine hydrolase protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1) regulates the methylesterification state of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and has been implicated in cancer and Alzheimer's disease. We recently reported a fluorescence polarization-activity-based protein profiling (fluopol-ABPP) high-throughput screen for PME-1 that uncovered a remarkably potent and selective class of aza-β-lactam (ABL) PME-1 inhibitors. Here, we describe a distinct set of sulfonyl acrylonitrile inhibitors that also emerged from this screen. The optimized compound, 28 (AMZ30), selectively inactivates PME-1 and reduces the demethylated form of PP2A in living cells. Considering that 28 is structurally unrelated to ABL inhibitors of PME-1, these agents, together, provide a valuable set of pharmacological probes to study the role of methylation in regulating PP2A function. We furthermore observed that several serine hydrolases were sensitive to analogues of 28, suggesting that more extensive structural exploration of the sulfonyl acrylonitrile chemotype may result in useful inhibitors for other members of this large enzyme class. PMID:21639134

  16. Discovery and Optimization of Sulfonyl Acrylonitriles as Selective, Covalent Inhibitors of Protein Phosphatase Methylesterase-1

    PubMed Central

    Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Zuhl, Andrea M.; Speers, Anna E.; Wolfe, Monique R.; Weerapana, Eranthie; Brown, Steven J.; Rosen, Hugh; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2011-01-01

    The serine hydrolase protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1) regulates the methylesterification state of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and has been implicated in cancer and Alzheimer's disease. We recently reported a fluorescence polarization-activity-based protein profiling (fluopol-ABPP) high-throughput screen for PME-1 that uncovered a remarkably potent and selective class of aza-β-lactam (ABL) PME-1 inhibitors. Here, we describe a distinct set of sulfonyl acrylonitrile inhibitors that also emerged from this screen. The optimized compound, 28 (AMZ30), selectively inactivates PME-1 and reduces the demethylated form of PP2A in living cells. Considering that 28 is structurally unrelated to ABL inhibitors of PME-1, these agents, together, provide a valuable set of pharmacological probes to study the role of methylation in regulating PP2A function. We furthermore observed that several serine hydrolases were sensitive to analogs of 28, suggesting that more extensive structural exploration of the sulfonyl acrylonitrile chemotype may result in useful inhibitors for other members of this large enzyme class. PMID:21639134

  17. Cathepsin D-mediated yolk protein degradation is blocked by acid phosphatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fialho, Eliane; Nakamura, Angelica; Juliano, Luiz; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Silva-Neto, Mário A C

    2005-04-15

    Vitellin (VT) is a lipoglycophosphoprotein stored inside the eggs of every oviparous organism during oogenesis. In the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus, VT is deposited inside growing oocytes together with two acid hydrolases: acid phosphatase (AP) and cathepsin D (CD). Egg fertilization triggers AP activity and VT proteolysis in vivo [Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2002 (32) 847]. Here, we show that CD is the main protease targeting VT proteolysis during egg development. CD activity in total egg homogenates is blocked by the classical aspartyl protease inhibitor, pepstatin A. Surprisingly, AP inhibitors such as NaF, Na+/K+ tartrate, and inorganic phosphate also block VT proteolysis, whereas this effect is not observed when tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors such as vanadate and phenylarsine oxide or an inhibitor of alkaline phosphatases such as levamisole are used in a VT proteolysis assay. NaF concentrations that block isolated AP activity do not affect the activity of partially purified CD. Therefore, a specific repressor of VT proteolysis must be dephosphorylated by AP in vivo. In conclusion, these results demonstrate for the first time that acid hydrolases act cooperatively to promote yolk degradation during egg development in arthropods. PMID:15797237

  18. Advances in the discovery of N-acylethanolamine acid amidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bandiera, Tiziano; Ponzano, Stefano; Piomelli, Daniele

    2014-08-01

    N-Acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) is a cysteine amidase that hydrolyzes saturated or monounsaturated fatty acid ethanolamides, such as palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA). PEA has been shown to exert analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects by engaging peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α. Like other fatty acid ethanolamides, PEA is not stored in cells, but produced on demand from cell membrane precursors, and its actions are terminated by intracellular hydrolysis by either fatty acid amide hydrolase or NAAA. Endogenous levels of PEA and OEA have been shown to decrease during inflammation. Modulation of the tissue levels of PEA by inhibition of enzymes responsible for the breakdown of this lipid mediator may represent therefore a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain and inflammation. While a large number of inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase have been discovered, few compounds have been reported to inhibit NAAA activity. Here, we describe the most representative NAAA inhibitors and briefly highlight their pharmacological profile. A recent study has shown that a NAAA inhibitor attenuated heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia caused by local inflammation or nerve damage in animal models of pain and inflammation. This finding encourages further exploration of the pharmacology of NAAA inhibitors. PMID:24798679

  19. Identification of selective covalent inhibitors of platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase 1B2 from the screening of an oxadiazolone-capped peptoid-azapeptoid hybrid library.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Bani Kanta; Liu, Xiaodan; Kodadek, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    A potent and selective inhibitor of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1B2 (PAFAH1B2) is described. The compound was derived by improvement of a modest affinity primary hit isolated from the screening of a bead-displayed peptoid-azapeptoid hybrid library tethered to an oxadiazolone 'warhead'. The oxadiazolone moiety of the inhibitors was found to react covalently with the active site serine residue of PAFAH1B2. This screening strategy may be useful for the identification of many selective, covalent inhibitors of serine hydrolases. PMID:27160052

  20. Full Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibition Combined with Partial Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibition: Augmented and Sustained Antinociceptive Effects with Reduced Cannabimimetic Side Effects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Kinsey, Steven G.; Liu, Qing-song; Hruba, Lenka; McMahon, Lance R.; Grim, Travis W.; Merritt, Christina R.; Wise, Laura E.; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Selley, Dana E.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary hydrolytic enzymes for the respective endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), produces antinociception but with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Although selective inhibitors of either enzyme often show partial efficacy in various nociceptive models, their combined blockade elicits augmented antinociceptive effects, but side effects emerge. Moreover, complete and prolonged MAGL blockade leads to cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor functional tolerance, which represents another challenge in this potential therapeutic strategy. Therefore, the present study tested whether full FAAH inhibition combined with partial MAGL inhibition would produce sustained antinociceptive effects with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Accordingly, we tested a high dose of the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-​3-​pyridinyl-​4-​[[3-​[[5-​(trifluoromethyl)-​2-​pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-​1-​piperidinecarboxamide; 10 mg/kg) given in combination with a low dose of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate] (4 mg/kg) in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. This combination of inhibitors elicited profound increases in brain AEA levels (>10-fold) but only 2- to 3-fold increases in brain 2-AG levels. This combination produced significantly greater antinociceptive effects than single enzyme inhibition and did not elicit common cannabimimetic effects (e.g., catalepsy, hypomotility, hypothermia, and substitution for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the drug-discrimination assay), although these side effects emerged with high-dose JZL184 (i.e., 100 mg/kg). Finally, repeated administration of this combination did not lead to tolerance to its antiallodynic actions in the carrageenan assay or CB1 receptor functional tolerance. Thus, full FAAH inhibition combined

  1. Arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA)-induced Apoptosis is Mediated by J-series Prostaglandins and is Enhanced by Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Kuc, Christian; Jenkins, Audrey; Van Dross, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) is a potent inducer of tumor cell apoptosis however its mechanism of cytotoxicity is unclear. A previous report from our laboratory showed that AEA induced cell death in a COX-2-dependent manner and in this report our data indicate that AEA-induced apoptosis is mediated by COX-2 metabolic products of the J-series. In experiments conducted with JWF2 keratinocytes which overexpress COX-2, AEA caused a concentration-regulated increase in J-series prostaglandin production and apoptosis. Similarly, cell treatment with exogenously added J-series prostaglandins (15-deoxy, Δ12,14 PGJ2 and PGJ2) induced apoptosis. AEA-induced apoptosis was inhibited by the antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine, indicating that reactive oxygen species generation was required for apoptosis. Using antagonists of cannabinoid receptor 1, cannabinoid receptor 2, or TRPV1, it was observed that cannabinoid receptor inhibition did not block AEA-mediated cell death. In contrast, an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) potentiated AEA-induced J-series PG synthesis and apoptosis. These results suggest that the metabolism of AEA to J-series PGs regulates the induction of apoptosis in cells with elevated COX-2 levels. Our data further indicate that the proapoptotic activity of AEA can be enhanced by combining it with an inhibitor of FAAH. As such, AEA may be an effective agent to eliminate tumor cells that overexpress COX-2. PMID:21432910

  2. Experimental colitis in mice is attenuated by changes in the levels of endocannabinoid metabolites induced by selective inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)

    PubMed Central

    Sałaga, M; Mokrowiecka, A; Zakrzewski, P K; Cygankiewicz, A; Leishman, E; Sobczak, M; Zatorski, H; Małecka-Panas, E; Kordek, R; Storr, M; Krajewska, W M; Bradshaw, H B; Fichna, J

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Pharmacological treatment and/or maintenance of remission in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is currently one of the biggest challenge in the field of gastroenterology. Available therapies are mostly limited to overcoming the symptoms, but not the cause of the disease. Recently, the endocannabinoid system has been proposed as a novel target in the treatment of IBD. Here we aimed to assess the anti-inflammatory action of the novel fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor PF-3845 and its effect on the endocannabinoid and related lipid metabolism during the course of experimental colitis. Methods We used two models of experimental colitis in mice (TNBS- and DSS-induced) and additionally, we employed LC/MS/MS spectrometry to determine the changes in biolipid levels in the mouse colon during inflammation. Results We showed that the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 reduced experimental TNBS-induced colitis in mice and its anti-inflammatory action is associated with altering the levels of selected biolipids (arachidonic and oleic acid derivatives, prostaglandins and biolipids containing glycine in the mouse colon). Conclusions We show that FAAH is a promising pharmacological target and the FAAH-dependent biolipids play a major role in colitis. Our results highlight and promote therapeutic strategy based on targeting FAAH-dependent metabolic pathways in order to alleviate intestinal inflammation. PMID:24530133

  3. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    SciTech Connect

    Germane, Katherine L.; Servinsky, Matthew D.; Gerlach, Elliot S.; Sund, Christian J.; Hurley, Margaret M.

    2015-07-29

    The crystal structure of the protein product of the C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 is structurally similar to YteR, an unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase from B. subtilis strain 168. Substrate modeling and electrostatic studies of the active site of the structure of CA-C0359 suggests that the protein can now be considered to be part of CAZy glycoside hydrolase family 105. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA-C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry (http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm)) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA-C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate

  4. Structure Determination and Characterization of the Vitamin B[superscript 6] Degradative Enzyme (E)-2-(Acetamidomethylene)succinate Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, Kathryn M.; Mukherjee, Tathagata; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-06-22

    The gene identification and kinetic characterization of (E)-2-(acetamidomethylene)succinate (E-2AMS) hydrolase has recently been described. This enzyme catalyzes the final reaction in the degradation of vitamin B{sub 6} and produces succinic semialdehyde, acetate, ammonia, and carbon dioxide from E-2AMS. The structure of E-2AMS hydrolase was determined to 2.3 {angstrom} using SAD phasing. E-2AMS hydrolase is a member of the {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase superfamily and utilizes a serine/histidine/aspartic acid catalytic triad. Mutation of either the nucleophilic serine or the aspartate resulted in inactive enzyme. Mutation of an additional serine residue in the active site causes the enzyme to be unstable and is likely structurally important. The structure also provides insight into the mechanism of hydrolysis of E-2AMS and identifies several potential catalytically important residues.

  5. Effect of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase on the Modulation of Coronary Reactive Hyperemia: Role of Oxylipins and PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Ahmad; Edin, Matthew L; Zeldin, Darryl C; Morisseau, Christophe; Nayeem, Mohammed A

    2016-01-01

    Coronary reactive hyperemia (CRH) is a physiological response to ischemic insult that prevents the potential harm associated with an interruption of blood supply. The relationship between the pharmacologic inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and CRH response to a brief ischemia is not known. sEH is involved in the main catabolic pathway of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which are converted into dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). EETs protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury and have numerous beneficial physiological effects. We hypothesized that inhibition of sEH by t-AUCB enhances CRH in isolated mouse hearts through changing the oxylipin profiles, including an increase in EETs/DHETs ratio. Compared to controls, t-AUCB-treated mice had increased CRH, including repayment volume (RV), repayment duration, and repayment/debt ratio (p < 0.05). Treatment with t-AUCB significantly changed oxylipin profiles, including an increase in EET/DHET ratio, increase in EpOME/DiHOME ratio, increase in the levels of HODEs, decrease in the levels of mid-chain HETEs, and decrease in prostanoids (p < 0.05). Treatment with MS-PPOH (CYP epoxygenase inhibitor) reduced CRH, including RV (p < 0.05). Involvement of PPARγ in the modulation of CRH was demonstrated using a PPARγ-antagonist (T0070907) and a PPARγ-agonist (rosiglitazone). T0070907 reduced CRH (p < 0.05), whereas rosiglitazone enhanced CRH (p < 0.05) in isolated mouse hearts compared to the non-treated. These data demonstrate that sEH inhibition enhances, whereas CYP epoxygenases-inhibition attenuates CRH, PPARγ mediate CRH downstream of the CYP epoxygenases-EET pathway, and the changes in oxylipin profiles associated with sEH-inhibition collectively contributed to the enhanced CRH. PMID:27583776

  6. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition and gene deletion are protective against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo.

    PubMed

    Motoki, Atsuko; Merkel, Matthias J; Packwood, William H; Cao, Zhiping; Liu, Lijuan; Iliff, Jeffrey; Alkayed, Nabil J; Van Winkle, Donna M

    2008-11-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. EETs are formed from arachidonic acid during myocardial ischemia and play a protective role against ischemic cell death. Deletion of sEH has been shown to be protective against myocardial ischemia in the isolated heart preparation. We tested the hypothesis that sEH inactivation by targeted gene deletion or pharmacological inhibition reduces infarct size (I) after regional myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo. Male C57BL\\6J wild-type or sEH knockout mice were subjected to 40 min of left coronary artery (LCA) occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. Wild-type mice were injected intraperitoneally with 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid butyl ester (AUDA-BE), a sEH inhibitor, 30 min before LCA occlusion or during ischemia 10 min before reperfusion. 14,15-EET, the main substrate for sEH, was administered intravenously 15 min before LCA occlusion or during ischemia 5 min before reperfusion. The EET antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (EEZE) was given intravenously 15 min before reperfusion. Area at risk (AAR) and I were assessed using fluorescent microspheres and triphenyltetrazolium chloride, and I was expressed as I/AAR. I was significantly reduced in animals treated with AUDA-BE or 14,15-EET, independent of the time of administration. The cardioprotective effect of AUDA-BE was abolished by the EET antagonist 14,15-EEZE. Immunohistochemistry revealed abundant sEH protein expression in left ventricular tissue. Strategies to increase 14,15-EET, including sEH inactivation, may represent a novel therapeutic approach for cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:18835921

  7. Impaired neurogenesis by HIV-1-Gp120 is rescued by genetic deletion of fatty acid amide hydrolase enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Avraham, H K; Jiang, S; Fu, Y; Rockenstein, E; Makriyannis, A; Wood, J; Wang, L; Masliah, E; Avraham, S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The HIV-envelope glycoprotein Gp120 is involved in neuronal injury and is associated with neuro-AIDS pathogenesis in the brain. Endocannabinoids are important lipid ligands in the CNS regulating neural functions, and their degeneration is controlled by hydrolysing enzymes such as the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Here, we examined whether in vivo genetic deletion of Faah gene prevents HIV-1 Gp120-mediated effects on neurogenesis. Experimental Approach We generated new GFAP/Gp120 transgenic (Tg) mice that have genetic deletion of Faah gene by mating glial fribillary acidic protein (GFAP)/Gp120 Tg mice with Faah−/− mice. Neurogenesis and cell death were assessed by immunocytochemical analysis. Key Results Endocannabinoid levels in the brain of the double GFAP/Gp120//Faah−/− mice were similar to those observed in Faah−/− mice. However, unlike the impaired neurogenesis observed in GFAP/Gp120 Tg mice and Faah−/− mice, these GFAP/Gp120//Faah-/ mice showed significantly improved neurogenesis in the hippocampus, indicated by a significant increase in neuroblasts and neuronal cells, an increase in BrdU+ cells and doublecortin positive cells (DCX+), and an increase in the number of PCNA. Furthermore, a significant decrease in astrogliosis and gliogenesis was observed in GFAP/Gp120//Faah−/−mice and neurogenesis was stimulated by neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and/or the newly formed NPC niches characterized by increased COX-2 expression and elevated levels of PGE2. Conclusions and Implications In vivo genetic ablation of Faah, resulted in enhanced neurogenesis through modulation of the newly generated NPC niches in GFAP/Gp120//Faah−/− mice. This suggests a novel approach of using FAAH inhibitors to enhance neurogenesis in HIV-1 infected brain. PMID:24571443

  8. The PE16 (Rv1430) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is an Esterase Belonging to Serine Hydrolase Superfamily of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Rafiya; Vemula, Mani Harika; Banerjee, Sharmishta; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2013-01-01

    The PE and PPE multigene families, first discovered during the sequencing of M. tuberculosis H37Rv genome are responsible for antigenic variation and have been shown to induce increased humoral and cell mediated immune response in the host. Using the bioinformatics tools, we had earlier reported that the 225 amino acid residue PE-PPE domain (Pfam: PF08237) common to some PE and PPE proteins has a “serine α/β hydrolase” fold and conserved Ser, Asp and His catalytic triad characteristic of lipase, esterase and cutinase activities. In order to prove experimentally that PE-PPE domain is indeed a serine hydrolase, we have cloned the full-length Rv1430 and its PE-PPE domain into pET-28a vector, expressed the proteins in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The activity assays of both purified proteins were carried out using p-nitrophenyl esters of aliphatic carboxylic acids with varying chain length (C2–C16) to study the substrate specificity. To characterize the active site of the PE-PPE domain, we mutated the Ser199 to Ala. The activity of the protein in the presence of serine protease inhibitor- PMSF and the mutant protein were measured. Our results reveal that Rv1430 and its PE-PPE domain possess esterase activity and hydrolyse short to medium chain fatty acid esters with the highest specific activity for pNPC6 at 37°C, 38°C and pH 7.0, 8.0. The details of this work and the observed results are reported in this manuscript. PMID:23383323

  9. Juggling jobs: roles and mechanisms of multifunctional protease inhibitors in plants.

    PubMed

    Grosse-Holz, Friederike M; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2016-05-01

    Multifunctional protease inhibitors juggle jobs by targeting different enzymes and thereby often controlling more than one biological process. Here, we discuss the biological functions, mechanisms and evolution of three types of multifunctional protease inhibitors in plants. The first type is double-headed inhibitors, which feature two inhibitory sites targeting proteases with different specificities (e.g. Bowman-Birk inhibitors) or even different hydrolases (e.g. α-amylase/protease inhibitors preventing both early germination and seed predation). The second type consists of multidomain inhibitors which evolved by intragenic duplication and are released by processing (e.g. multicystatins and potato inhibitor II, implicated in tuber dormancy and defence, respectively). The third type consists of promiscuous inhibitory folds which resemble mouse traps that can inhibit different proteases cleaving the bait they offer (e.g. serpins, regulating cell death, and α-macroglobulins). Understanding how multifunctional inhibitors juggle biological jobs increases our knowledge of the connections between the networks they regulate. These examples show that multifunctionality evolved independently from a remarkable diversity of molecular mechanisms that can be exploited for crop improvement and provide concepts for protein design. PMID:26800491

  10. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase from Shigella flexneri 2a

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Wenxin; Wang, Qihai; Bi, Ruchang

    2005-12-01

    The 31.3 kDa Ap{sub 4}A hydrolase from Shigella flexneri 2a has been cloned, expressed and purified using an Escherichia coli expression system. Crystals of Ap{sub 4}A hydrolase have been obtained by the hanging-drop technique at 291 K using PEG 550 MME as precipitant. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap{sub 4}A) hydrolase (EC 3.6.1.41) hydrolyzes Ap{sub 4}A symmetrically in prokaryotes. It plays a potential role in organisms by regulating the concentration of Ap{sub 4}A in vivo. To date, no three-dimensional structures of proteins with significant sequence homology to this protein have been determined. The 31.3 kDa Ap{sub 4}A hydrolase from Shigella flexneri 2a has been cloned, expressed and purified using an Escherichia coli expression system. Crystals of Ap{sub 4}A hydrolase have been obtained by the hanging-drop technique at 291 K using PEG 550 MME as precipitant. Ap{sub 4}A hydrolase crystals diffract X-rays to 3.26 Å and belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 118.9, b = 54.6, c = 128.5 Å, β = 95.7°.

  11. A New Insight into the Physiological Role of Bile Salt Hydrolase among Intestinal Bacteria from the Genus Bifidobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Jarocki, Piotr; Podleśny, Marcin; Glibowski, Paweł; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence of bile salt hydrolase in fourteen strains belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. Deconjugation activity was detected using a plate test, two-step enzymatic reaction and activity staining on a native polyacrylamide gel. Subsequently, bile salt hydrolases from B. pseudocatenulatum and B. longum subsp. suis were purified using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Biochemical characterization of the bile salt hydrolases showed that the purified enzymes hydrolyzed all of the six major human bile salts under the pH and temperature conditions commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Next, the dynamic rheometry was applied to monitor the gelation process of deoxycholic acid under different conditions. The results showed that bile acids displayed aqueous media gelating properties. Finally, gel-forming abilities of bifidobacteria exhibiting bile salt hydrolase activity were analyzed. Our investigations have demonstrated that the release of deconjugated bile acids led to the gelation phenomenon of the enzymatic reaction solution containing purified BSH. The presented results suggest that bile salt hydrolase activity commonly found among intestinal microbiota increases hydrogel-forming abilities of certain bile salts. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that bile salt hydrolase activity among Bifidobacterium is directly connected with the gelation process of bile salts. In our opinion, if such a phenomenon occurs in physiological conditions of human gut, it may improve bacterial ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and their survival in this specific ecological niche. PMID:25470405

  12. Plant Microsomal Phospholipid Acyl Hydrolases Have Selectivities for Uncommon Fatty Acids.

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, U.; Banas, A.; Stymne, S.

    1995-01-01

    Developing endosperms and embryos accumulating triacylglycerols rich in caproyl (decanoyl) groups (i.e. developing embryos of Cuphea procumbens and Ulmus glabra) had microsomal acyl hydrolases with high selectivities toward phosphatidylcholine with this acyl group. Similarly, membranes from Euphorbia lagascae and Ricinus communis endosperms, which accumulate triacylglycerols with vernoleate (12-epoxy-octadeca-9-enoate) and ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoate), respectively, had acyl hydrolases that selectively removed their respective oxygenated acyl group from the phospholipids. The activities toward phospholipid substrates with epoxy, hydroxy, and medium-chain acyl groups varied greatly between microsomal preparations from different plant species. Epoxidated and hydroxylated acyl groups in sn-1 and sn-2 positions of phosphatidylcholine and in sn-1-lysophosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed to a similar extent, whereas the hydrolysis of caproyl groups was highly dependent on the positional localization. PMID:12228415

  13. Malbranchea cinnamomea: A thermophilic fungal source of catalytically efficient lignocellulolytic glycosyl hydrolases and metal dependent enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Chhavi; Basotra, Neha; Singh, Surender; Di Falco, Marcos; Tsang, Adrian; Chadha, B S

    2016-01-01

    This study reports thermophilic fungus Malbranchea cinnamomea as an important source of lignocellulolytic enzymes. The secretome analysis using LC-MS/MS orbitrap showed that fungus produced a spectrum of glycosyl hydrolases (cellulase/hemicellulase), polysaccharide lyases (PL) and carbohydrate esterases (CE) in addition to cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) indicating the presence of functional classical and oxidative cellulolytic mechanisms. The protein fractions in the secretome resolved by ion exchange chromatography were analyzed for ability to hydrolyze alkali treated carrot grass (ATCG) in the presence of Mn(2+)/Cu(2+). This strategy in tandem with peptide mass fingerprinting led to identification of metal dependent protein hydrolases with no apparent hydrolytic activity, however, showed 5.7 folds higher saccharification in presence of Mn(2+). Furthermore, adding different protein fractions to commercial cellulase (Novozymes: Cellic CTec2) resulted in enhanced hydrolysis of ATCG ranging between 1.57 and 3.43 folds indicating the enzymes from M. cinnamomea as catalytically efficient. PMID:26476165

  14. [Effect of chitosan on the cell ultrastructure and activity of hydrolases in tobacco leaves].

    PubMed

    Nagorskaia, V P; Reunov, A V; Lapshina, L A; Davydova, V N; Ermak, I M

    2012-01-01

    Effect of chitosan on the mesophyll cell ultrastucture and activity of hydrolases in leaves of tobacco cv. Samsun was studied. It was shown that, in many cells, chitosan treatment stimulated the protein-synthesizing apparatus (nucleolus dimension and amount of both mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes increased) and, at the same time, caused some activation of lytic compartment expressed in the stimulation of the formation of dictyosomes, smooth ER elements and cytoplasmic vacuoles, which are all prominent constituents of this compartment. In biochemical experiments, it was established that chitosan substantially enhanced activity of hydrolases (acid phosphatase, RNase, proteases) in the leaves as compared to untreated leaves. In some cells chitosan treatment caused considerable destructive changes (condensation of nuclear chromatin, collapse of cytoplasm and so on) that can be classified as a result of programmed cell death development. PMID:23461036

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of neoagarobiose hydrolase from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Saeyoung; Lee, Jonas Yun; Ha, Sung Chul; Jung, Jina; Shin, Dong Hae; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Choi, In-Geol

    2009-01-01

    Many agarolytic bacteria degrade agar polysaccharide into the disaccharide unit neoagarobiose [O-3,6-anhydro-α-l-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-d-galactose] using various β-agarases. Neoagarobiose hydrolase is an enzyme that acts on the α-­1,3 linkage in neoagarobiose to yield d-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose. This activity is essential in both the metabolism of agar by agarolytic bacteria and the production of fermentable sugars from agar biomass for bioenergy production. Neoagarobiose hydrolase from the marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 129.83, b = 76.81, c = 90.11 Å, β = 101.86°. The crystals diffracted to 1.98 Å resolution and possibly contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:20054134

  16. New families in the classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities.

    PubMed Central

    Henrissat, B; Bairoch, A

    1993-01-01

    301 glycosyl hydrolases and related enzymes corresponding to 39 EC entries of the I.U.B. classification system have been classified into 35 families on the basis of amino-acid-sequence similarities [Henrissat (1991) Biochem. J. 280, 309-316]. Approximately half of the families were found to be monospecific (containing only one EC number), whereas the other half were found to be polyspecific (containing at least two EC numbers). A > 60% increase in sequence data for glycosyl hydrolases (181 additional enzymes or enzyme domains sequences have since become available) allowed us to update the classification not only by the addition of more members to already identified families, but also by the finding of ten new families. On the basis of a comparison of 482 sequences corresponding to 52 EC entries, 45 families, out of which 22 are polyspecific, can now be defined. This classification has been implemented in the SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank. PMID:8352747

  17. Involvement of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae hydrolase Ldh1p in lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Debelyy, Mykhaylo O; Thoms, Sven; Connerth, Melanie; Daum, Günther; Erdmann, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    Here, we report the functional characterization of the newly identified lipid droplet hydrolase Ldh1p. Recombinant Ldh1p exhibits esterase and triacylglycerol lipase activities. Mutation of the serine in the hydrolase/lipase motif GXSXG completely abolished esterase activity. Ldh1p is required for the maintenance of a steady-state level of the nonpolar and polar lipids of lipid droplets. A characteristic feature of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δldh1 strain is the appearance of giant lipid droplets and an excessive accumulation of nonpolar lipids and phospholipids upon growth on medium containing oleic acid as a sole carbon source. Ldh1p is thought to play a role in maintaining the lipid homeostasis in yeast by regulating both phospholipid and nonpolar lipid levels. PMID:21478434

  18. Investigation of the Microheterogeneity and Aglycone Specificity-Conferring Residues of Black Cherry Prunasin Hydrolases1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiming; Hartmann, Stefanie; Shepherd, Brianne K.; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    2002-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, (R)-amygdalin is degraded to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose by the sequential action of amygdalin hydrolase (AH), prunasin hydrolase (PH), and mandelonitrile lyase. Leaves are also highly cyanogenic because they possess (R)-prunasin, PH, and mandelonitrile lyase. Taking both enzymological and molecular approaches, we demonstrate here that black cherry PH is encoded by a putative multigene family of at least five members. Their respective cDNAs (designated Ph1, Ph2, Ph3, Ph4, and Ph5) predict isoforms that share 49% to 92% amino acid identity with members of glycoside hydrolase family 1, including their catalytic asparagine-glutamate-proline and isoleucine-threonine-glutamate-asparagine-glycine motifs. Furthermore, consistent with the vacuolar/protein body location and glycoprotein character of these hydrolases, their open reading frames predict N-terminal signal sequences and multiple potential N-glycosylation sites. Genomic sequences corresponding to the open reading frames of these PHs and of the previously isolated AH1 isoform are interrupted at identical positions by 12 introns. Earlier studies established that native AH and PH display strict specificities toward their respective glucosidic substrates. Such behavior was also shown by recombinant AH1, PH2, and PH4 proteins after expression in Pichia pastoris. Three amino acid moieties that may play a role in conferring such aglycone specificities were predicted by structural modeling and comparative sequence analysis and tested by introducing single and multiple mutations into isoform AH1 by site-directed mutagenesis. The double mutant AH ID (Y200I and G394D) hydrolyzed prunasin at approximately 150% of the rate of amygdalin hydrolysis, whereas the other mutations failed to engender PH activity. PMID:12114579

  19. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105.

    PubMed

    Germane, Katherine L; Servinsky, Matthew D; Gerlach, Elliot S; Sund, Christian J; Hurley, Margaret M

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA_C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA_C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry 1nc5) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA_C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate specificity from that of YteR. PMID:26249707

  20. Dual roles of brain serine hydrolase KIAA1363 in ether lipid metabolism and organophosphate detoxification

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Daniel K.; Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Issa, Roger S.; Ward, Anna M.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Casida, John E.

    2008-04-01

    Serine hydrolase KIAA1363 is an acetyl monoalkylglycerol ether (AcMAGE) hydrolase involved in tumor cell invasiveness. It is also an organophosphate (OP) insecticide-detoxifying enzyme. The key to understanding these dual properties was the use of KIAA1363 +/+ (wildtype) and -/- (gene deficient) mice to define the role of this enzyme in brain and other tissues and its effectiveness in vivo in reducing OP toxicity. KIAA1363 was the primary AcMAGE hydrolase in brain, lung, heart and kidney and was highly sensitive to inactivation by chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) (IC{sub 50} 2 nM) [the bioactivated metabolite of the major insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF)]. Although there was no difference in hydrolysis product monoalkylglycerol ether (MAGE) levels in +/+ and -/- mouse brains in vivo, isopropyl dodecylfluorophosphonate (30 mg/kg) and CPF (100 mg/kg) resulted in 23-51% decrease in brain MAGE levels consistent with inhibition of AcMAGE hydrolase activity. On incubating +/+ and -/- brain membranes with AcMAGE and cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine, the absence of KIAA1363 activity dramatically increased de novo formation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and lyso-PAF, signifying that metabolically-stabilized AcMAGE can be converted to this bioactive lipid in brain. On considering detoxification, KIAA1363 -/- mice were significantly more sensitive than +/+ mice to ip-administered CPF (100 mg/kg) and parathion (10 mg/kg) with increased tremoring and mortality that correlated for CPF with greater brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Docking AcMAGE and CPO in a KIAA1363 active site model showed similar positioning of their acetyl and trichloropyridinyl moieties, respectively. This study establishes the relevance of KIAA1363 in ether lipid metabolism and OP detoxification.

  1. Hydrolysis of VX and related compounds by organophosphorus hydrolase. Final report, Februray-December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kolakowski, J.E.; DeFrank, J.J.; Lai, K.; Wild, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    Organophosphorus Hydrolase (OPH) is a fully characterized and cloned enzyme, derived from Pseudomonas diminuta, consisting of 365 amino acids with a total molecular weight of 38,0(X). The enzyme has a leader sequence of 29 amino acids which has been removed in the construction used in this study. OPH was evaluated for its effectiveness in catalyzing the S-(2-diisopwpylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) and its analogs.

  2. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    PubMed Central

    Germane, Katherine L.; Servinsky, Matthew D.; Gerlach, Elliot S.; Sund, Christian J.; Hurley, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA_C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA_C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry 1nc5) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA_C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate specificity from that of YteR. PMID:26249707

  3. Phosphonoacetate hydrolase from Penicillium oxalicum: purification and properties, phosphate starvation-independent expression, and partial sequencing.

    PubMed

    Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena; Raucci, Giuseppe; Lejczak, Barbara; Forlani, Giuseppe

    2006-03-01

    The enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of phosphonoacetic acid, a non-biogenic C-P compound, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from a wild-type strain of Penicillium oxalicum. A 50-fold enrichment was obtained by a combination of anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction and MonoQ-fast protein liquid chromatography, with a yield of one-third of the initial activity. A characterization of the protein showed both similarities and differences with respect to the well-characterized bacterial counterpart. The fungal phosphonoacetate hydrolase is a 43-kDa monomeric protein showing low affinity toward its substrate and high sensitivity to even mildly acidic pH values. Enzyme activity neither required nor was stimulated by the presence of divalent cations. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in mouse against the purified protein, allowing the study of enzyme induction as a function of the phosphate status of the cell. Peptide mass mapping led to the determination of about 20% of the primary structure. Despite the biochemical differences, amino acid alignment showed a high degree of similarity of the fungal hydrolase with the few sequences available to date for the bacterial enzyme. The possible physiological role of a phosphonoacetate hydrolase is discussed. PMID:16129582

  4. Strategies to reduce end-product inhibition in family 48 glycoside hydrolases

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Mo; Bu, Lintao; Alahuhta, Markus; Brunecky, Roman; Xu, Qi; Lunin, Vladimir V.; Brady, John W.; Crowley, Michael F.; Himmel, Michael E.; Bomble, Yannick J.

    2016-02-01

    Family 48 cellobiohydrolases are some of the most abundant glycoside hydrolases in nature. They are able to degrade cellulosic biomass and therefore serve as good enzyme candidates for biofuel production. Family 48 cellulases hydrolyze cellulose chains via a processive mechanism, and produce end products composed primarily of cellobiose as well as other cellooligomers (dp ≤ 4). The challenge of utilizing cellulases in biofuel production lies in their extremely slow turnover rate. A factor contributing to the low enzyme activity is suggested to be product binding to enzyme and the resulting performance inhibition. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the productmore » inhibitory effect of four family 48 glycoside hydrolases using molecular dynamics simulations and product expulsion free-energy calculations. We also suggested a series of single mutants of the four family 48 glycoside hydrolases with theoretically reduced level of product inhibition. As a result, the theoretical calculations provide a guide for future experimental studies designed to produce mutant cellulases with enhanced activity.« less

  5. Identification of Neutral Cholesterol Ester Hydrolase, a Key Enzyme Removing Cholesterol from Macrophages*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Masaki; Nishi, Makiko; Sekiya, Motohiro; Tajima, Makiko; Takase, Satoru; Takanashi, Mikio; Ohta, Keisuke; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Sachiko; Yahagi, Naoya; Ohashi, Ken; Amemiya-Kudo, Michiyo; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Nagai, Ryozo; Kadowaki, Takashi; Osuga, Jun-ichi; Ishibashi, Shun

    2008-01-01

    Unstable lipid-rich plaques in atherosclerosis are characterized by the accumulation of macrophage foam cells loaded with cholesterol ester (CE). Although hormone-sensitive lipase and cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) have been proposed to mediate the hydrolysis of CE in macrophages, circumstantial evidence suggests the presence of other enzymes with neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (nCEH) activity. Here we show that the murine orthologue of KIAA1363, designated as neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (NCEH), is a microsomal nCEH with high expression in murine and human macrophages. The effect of various concentrations of NaCl on its nCEH activity resembles that on endogenous nCEH activity of macrophages. RNA silencing of NCEH decreases nCEH activity at least by 50%; conversely, its overexpression inhibits the CE formation in macrophages. Immunohistochemistry reveals that NCEH is expressed in macrophage foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions. These data indicate that NCEH is responsible for a major part of nCEH activity in macrophages and may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:18782767

  6. Brucella abortus Choloylglycine Hydrolase Affects Cell Envelope Composition and Host Cell Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Marchesini, María Inés; Connolly, Joseph; Delpino, María Victoria; Baldi, Pablo C.; Mujer, Cesar V.; DelVecchio, Vito G.; Comerci, Diego J.

    2011-01-01

    Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization. PMID:22174816

  7. Conserved catalytic machinery and the prediction of a common fold for several families of glycosyl hydrolases.

    PubMed Central

    Henrissat, B; Callebaut, I; Fabrega, S; Lehn, P; Mornon, J P; Davies, G

    1995-01-01

    The regions surrounding the catalytic amino acids previously identified in a few "retaining" O-glycosyl hydrolases (EC 3.2.1) have been analyzed by hydrophobic cluster analysis and have been used to define sequence motifs. These motifs have been found in more than 150 glycosyl hydrolase sequences representing at least eight established protein families that act on a large variety of substrates. This allows the localization and the precise role of the catalytic residues (nucleophile and acid catalyst) to be predicted for each of these enzymes, including several lysosomal glycosidases. An identical arrangement of the catalytic nucleophile was also found for S-glycosyl hydrolases (myrosinases; EC 3.2.3.1) for which the acid catalyst is lacking. A (beta/alpha)8 barrel structure has been reported for two of the eight families of proteins that have been grouped. It is suggested that the six other families also share this fold at their catalytic domain. These enzymes illustrate how evolutionary events led to a wide diversification of substrate specificity with a similar disposition of identical catalytic residues onto the same ancestral (beta/alpha)8 barrel structure. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7624375

  8. Properties of a β-(1→4)-glucan hydrolase from Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, A. E.; Stone, B. A.

    1965-01-01

    1. A β-(1→4)-glucan hydrolase prepared from Aspergillus niger, as described by Clarke & Stone (1965a), showed a pH optimum in the range 4·5–6 and Km 0·25% when acting on a cellulose dextrin sulphate substrate. 2. The hydrolase rapidly decreased the specific viscosity of carboxymethylcellulose with a small increase in the production of reducing sugars. The identity of the products of hydrolysis of cellotetraose, cellopentaose and their reduced analogues indicate a preferential cleavage of non-terminal glucosidic linkages. The enzyme may be described as β-(1→4)-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.4). 3. In addition to carboxymethylcellulose, cellulose dextrins, cellopentaose and cellotetraose the enzyme fraction hydrolysed lichenin, oat and barley glucans, ivory-nut mannan and a glucomannan from Konjak flour. No hydrolysis of wheat-straw β-(1→4)-xylan, Lupinus albus β-(1→4)-galactan, pneumococcal type III polysaccharide, chitin, hyaluronic acid, laminarin, pachydextrins, carboxymethylpachyman or β-(1→3)-oligoglucosides was detected. 4. The hydrolase showed no transglycosylase activity from cellodextrin or cellopentaose substrates to glucose or methanol acceptors. 5. The hydrolysis of cellodextrins was inhibited completely by 1·0mm-Hg2+, 0·7mm-phenylmercuric nitrate and 1·0mm-iodine. PMID:5862418

  9. Properties of a beta-(1-4)-glucan hydrolase from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Clarke, A E; Stone, B A

    1965-09-01

    1. A beta-(1-->4)-glucan hydrolase prepared from Aspergillus niger, as described by Clarke & Stone (1965a), showed a pH optimum in the range 4.5-6 and K(m) 0.25% when acting on a cellulose dextrin sulphate substrate. 2. The hydrolase rapidly decreased the specific viscosity of carboxymethylcellulose with a small increase in the production of reducing sugars. The identity of the products of hydrolysis of cellotetraose, cellopentaose and their reduced analogues indicate a preferential cleavage of non-terminal glucosidic linkages. The enzyme may be described as beta-(1-->4)-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.4). 3. In addition to carboxymethylcellulose, cellulose dextrins, cellopentaose and cellotetraose the enzyme fraction hydrolysed lichenin, oat and barley glucans, ivory-nut mannan and a glucomannan from Konjak flour. No hydrolysis of wheat-straw beta-(1-->4)-xylan, Lupinus albus beta-(1-->4)-galactan, pneumococcal type III polysaccharide, chitin, hyaluronic acid, laminarin, pachydextrins, carboxymethylpachyman or beta-(1-->3)-oligoglucosides was detected. 4. The hydrolase showed no transglycosylase activity from cellodextrin or cellopentaose substrates to glucose or methanol acceptors. 5. The hydrolysis of cellodextrins was inhibited completely by 1.0mm-Hg(2+), 0.7mm-phenylmercuric nitrate and 1.0mm-iodine. PMID:5862418

  10. Inhibition of Diabrotica Larval Growth by Patatin, the Lipid Acyl Hydrolase from Potato Tubers.

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, J. A.; Orr, G. L.; Walsh, T. A.

    1995-01-01

    Patatin, the nonspecific lipid acyl hydrolase from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, dose-dependently inhibits the growth of southern corn rootworm (SCR) and western corn rootworm when fed to them on artificial diet. The 50% growth reduction levels are somewhat cultivar dependent, ranging from 60 to 150 [mu]g/g diet for neonate SCR larvae. A single patatin isoform also inhibits larval growth. Neonate SCR continuously exposed to patatin are halted in larval development. Treatment with di-isopropylfluorophosphate essentially eliminates patatin's phospholipase, galactolipase, and acyl hydrolase activities. SCR growth inhibition is eliminated also, indicating that patatin's serine hydrolase activity is responsible for the observed activities. Patatin-mediated phospholipolysis is highly pH and cultivar dependent, with specific activities up to 300-fold less at pH 5.5 than at pH 8.5. Esterase or phospholipase activities do not correlate with insect growth inhibition. Galactolipase activity, being cultivar and pH independent, correlates significantly with SCR growth inhibition. Insect-growth inhibition of patatin is significantly reduced with increased dietary cholesterol levels. In conclusion, patatin represents a new class of insect-control proteins with a novel mode of action possibly involving lipid metabolism. PMID:12228621

  11. Inhibition of Diabrotica Larval Growth by Patatin, the Lipid Acyl Hydrolase from Potato Tubers.

    PubMed

    Strickland, J. A.; Orr, G. L.; Walsh, T. A.

    1995-10-01

    Patatin, the nonspecific lipid acyl hydrolase from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, dose-dependently inhibits the growth of southern corn rootworm (SCR) and western corn rootworm when fed to them on artificial diet. The 50% growth reduction levels are somewhat cultivar dependent, ranging from 60 to 150 [mu]g/g diet for neonate SCR larvae. A single patatin isoform also inhibits larval growth. Neonate SCR continuously exposed to patatin are halted in larval development. Treatment with di-isopropylfluorophosphate essentially eliminates patatin's phospholipase, galactolipase, and acyl hydrolase activities. SCR growth inhibition is eliminated also, indicating that patatin's serine hydrolase activity is responsible for the observed activities. Patatin-mediated phospholipolysis is highly pH and cultivar dependent, with specific activities up to 300-fold less at pH 5.5 than at pH 8.5. Esterase or phospholipase activities do not correlate with insect growth inhibition. Galactolipase activity, being cultivar and pH independent, correlates significantly with SCR growth inhibition. Insect-growth inhibition of patatin is significantly reduced with increased dietary cholesterol levels. In conclusion, patatin represents a new class of insect-control proteins with a novel mode of action possibly involving lipid metabolism. PMID:12228621

  12. Probiotic characterization of potential hydrolases producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolated from pickled yam.

    PubMed

    Bhanwar, Seema; Singh, Arashdeep; Ganguli, Abhijit

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize potential probiotic strain co-producing α-amylase and β-galactosidase. Sixty-three strains, isolated from pickle samples were screened for their hydrolase producing capacity by utilizing different starches as carbon source. One out of 63 strains, isolated from traditionally fermented pickled yam showing maximum hydrolase activity (α-amylase (36.9 U/ml) and β-galactosidase (42.6 U/ml)) within a period of 48 hours was identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Further, it was assessed for the probiotic characteristics under gastrointestinal conditions like acidic, alkaline, proteolytic enzymes, bile stress and found to exhibit tolerance to these stresses. The therapeutic potential of the isolate is implicated because of its antagonistic effect against enteric foodborne pathogens (Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica and Aeromonas hydrophila). The results of this study entail a potential applicability of the isolate in developing future probiotic foods besides the production of industrially significant hydrolases. PMID:24020495

  13. Functions, structures, and applications of cellobiose 2-epimerase and glycoside hydrolase family 130 mannoside phosphorylases.

    PubMed

    Saburi, Wataru

    2016-07-01

    Carbohydrate isomerases/epimerases are essential in carbohydrate metabolism, and have great potential in industrial carbohydrate conversion. Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE) reversibly epimerizes the reducing end d-glucose residue of β-(1→4)-linked disaccharides to d-mannose residue. CE shares catalytic machinery with monosaccharide isomerases and epimerases having an (α/α)6-barrel catalytic domain. Two histidine residues act as general acid and base catalysts in the proton abstraction and addition mechanism. β-Mannoside hydrolase and 4-O-β-d-mannosyl-d-glucose phosphorylase (MGP) were found as neighboring genes of CE, meaning that CE is involved in β-mannan metabolism, where it epimerizes β-d-mannopyranosyl-(1→4)-d-mannose to β-d-mannopyranosyl-(1→4)-d-glucose for further phosphorolysis. MGPs form glycoside hydrolase family 130 (GH130) together with other β-mannoside phosphorylases and hydrolases. Structural analysis of GH130 enzymes revealed an unusual catalytic mechanism involving a proton relay and the molecular basis for substrate and reaction specificities. Epilactose, efficiently produced from lactose using CE, has superior physiological functions as a prebiotic oligosaccharide. PMID:27031293

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of plant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Lupinus luteus)

    SciTech Connect

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Bujacz, Grzegorz; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2008-07-01

    Single crystals of recombinant S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from L. luteus in complex with adenosine diffract X-rays to 1.17 Å resolution at 100 K. The crystals are tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, and contain one copy of the dimeric enzyme in the asymmetric unit. By degrading S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, which is a byproduct of S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methylation reactions, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHase) acts as a regulator of cellular methylation processes. S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase from the leguminose plant yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), LlSAHase, which is composed of 485 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 55 kDa, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of LlSAHase in complex with adenosine were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 10%(v/v) 2-propanol as precipitants in 0.1 M Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.0. The crystals were tetragonal, space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.4, c = 126.5 Å and contained two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to the functional dimeric form of the enzyme. Atomic resolution (1.17 Å) X-ray diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation.

  15. Synergistic action modes of arabinan degradation by exo- and endo-arabinosyl hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Mi; Jang, Myoung-Uoon; Oh, Gyo Won; Lee, Eun-Hee; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Song, Yeong-Bok; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Tae-Jip

    2015-02-01

    Two recombinant arabinosyl hydrolases, α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus sp. KCTC 3012 (GAFase) and endo-(1,5)-α-L-arabinanase from Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 (BlABNase), were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and their synergistic modes of action against sugar beet (branched) arabinan were investigated. Whereas GAFase hydrolyzed 35.9% of L-arabinose residues from sugar beet (branched) arabinan, endo-action of BlABNase released only 0.5% of L-arabinose owing to its extremely low accessibility towards branched arabinan. Interestingly, the simultaneous treatment of GAFase and BlABNase could liberate approximately 91.2% of L-arabinose from arabinan, which was significantly higher than any single exo-enzyme treatment (35.9%) or even stepwise exo- after endo-enzyme treatment (75.5%). Based on their unique modes of action, both exo- and endo-arabinosyl hydrolases can work in concert to catalyze the hydrolysis of arabinan to L-arabinose. At the early stage in arabinan degradation, exo-acting GAFase could remove the terminal arabinose branches to generate debranched arabinan, which could be successively hydrolyzed into arabinooligosaccharides via the endoaction of BlABNase. At the final stage, the simultaneous actions of exo- and endo-hydrolases could synergistically accelerate the L-arabinose production with high conversion yield. PMID:25433551

  16. A novel nucleoside hydrolase from Lactobacillus buchneri LBK78 catalyzing hydrolysis of 2'-O-methylribonucleosides.

    PubMed

    Mitsukawa, Yuuki; Hibi, Makoto; Matsutani, Narihiro; Horinouchi, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Satomi; Ogawa, Jun

    2016-08-01

    2'-O-Methylribonucleosides (2'-OMe-NRs) are promising raw materials for nucleic acid drugs because of their high thermal stability and nuclease tolerance. In the course of microbial screening for metabolic activity toward 2'-OMe-NRs, Lactobacillus buchneri LBK78 was found to decompose 2'-O-methyluridine (2'-OMe-UR). The enzyme responsible was partially purified from L. buchneri LBK78 cells by a four-step purification procedure, and identified as a novel nucleoside hydrolase. This enzyme, LbNH, belongs to the nucleoside hydrolase superfamily, and formed a homotetrameric structure composed of subunits with a molecular mass around 34 kDa. LbNH hydrolyzed 2'-OMe-UR to 2'-O-methylribose and uracil, and the kinetic constants were Km of 0.040 mM, kcat of 0.49 s(-1), and kcat/Km of 12 mM(-1) s(-1). In a substrate specificity analysis, LbNH preferred ribonucleosides and 2'-OMe-NRs as its hydrolytic substrates, but reacted weakly with 2'-deoxyribonucleosides. In a phylogenetic analysis, LbNH showed a close relationship with purine-specific nucleoside hydrolases from trypanosomes. PMID:27180876

  17. Characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengfei; Leeson, Cristian; Zhi, Xiaoduo; Leng, Fenfei; Pierce, Richard H; Henry, Michael S; Rein, Kathleen S

    2016-02-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EH, EC 3.3.2.3) have been proposed to be key enzymes in the biosynthesis of polyether (PE) ladder compounds such as the brevetoxins which are produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. These enzymes have the potential to catalyze kinetically disfavored endo-tet cyclization reactions. Data mining of K. brevis transcriptome libraries revealed two classes of epoxide hydrolases: microsomal and leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolases. A microsomal EH was cloned and expressed for characterization. The enzyme is a monomeric protein with molecular weight 44kDa. Kinetic parameters were evaluated using a variety of epoxide substrates to assess substrate selectivity and enantioselectivity, as well as its potential to catalyze the critical endo-tet cyclization of epoxy alcohols. Monitoring of EH activity in high and low toxin producing cultures of K. brevis over a three week period showed consistently higher activity in the high toxin producing culture implicating the involvement of one or more EH in brevetoxin biosynthesis. PMID:26626160

  18. The development and use of small molecule inhibitors of glycosphingolipid metabolism for lysosomal storage diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shayman, James A.; Larsen, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosphingolipid (GSL) storage diseases have been the focus of efforts to develop small molecule therapeutics from design, experimental proof of concept studies, and clinical trials. Two primary alternative strategies that have been pursued include pharmacological chaperones and GSL synthase inhibitors. There are theoretical advantages and disadvantages to each of these approaches. Pharmacological chaperones are specific for an individual glycoside hydrolase and for the specific mutation present, but no candidate chaperone has been demonstrated to be effective for all mutations leading to a given disorder. Synthase inhibitors target single enzymes such as glucosylceramide synthase and inhibit the formation of multiple GSLs. A glycolipid synthase inhibitor could potentially be used to treat multiple diseases, but at the risk of lowering nontargeted cellular GSLs that are important for normal health. The basis for these strategies and specific examples of compounds that have led to clinical trials is the focus of this review. PMID:24534703

  19. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Vito, Stephen T.; Austin, Adam T.; Banks, Christopher N.; Inceoglu, Bora; Bruun, Donald A.; Zolkowska, Dorota; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Rogawski, Michael A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA{sub A}R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA{sub A}R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA{sub A}R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase

  20. Confirming target engagement for reversible inhibitors in vivo by kinetically tuned activity-based probes.

    PubMed

    Adibekian, Alexander; Martin, Brent R; Chang, Jae Won; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Tsuboi, Katsunori; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Speers, Anna E; Brown, Steven J; Spicer, Timothy; Fernandez-Vega, Virneliz; Ferguson, Jill; Hodder, Peter S; Rosen, Hugh; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2012-06-27

    The development of small-molecule inhibitors for perturbing enzyme function requires assays to confirm that the inhibitors interact with their enzymatic targets in vivo. Determining target engagement in vivo can be particularly challenging for poorly characterized enzymes that lack known biomarkers (e.g., endogenous substrates and products) to report on their inhibition. Here, we describe a competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) method for measuring the binding of reversible inhibitors to enzymes in animal models. Key to the success of this approach is the use of activity-based probes that show tempered rates of reactivity with enzymes, such that competition for target engagement with reversible inhibitors can be measured in vivo. We apply the competitive ABPP strategy to evaluate a newly described class of piperazine amide reversible inhibitors for the serine hydrolases LYPLA1 and LYPLA2, two enzymes for which selective, in vivo active inhibitors are lacking. Competitive ABPP identified individual piperazine amides that selectively inhibit LYPLA1 or LYPLA2 in mice. In summary, competitive ABPP adapted to operate with moderately reactive probes can assess the target engagement of reversible inhibitors in animal models to facilitate the discovery of small-molecule probes for characterizing enzyme function in vivo. PMID:22690931

  1. Confirming Target Engagement for Reversible Inhibitors In Vivo by Kinetically Tuned Activity-Based Probes

    PubMed Central

    Adibekian, Alexander; Martin, Brent R.; Chang, Jae Won; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Tsuboi, Katsunori; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Speers, Anna E.; Brown, Steven J.; Spicer, Timothy; Fernandez-Vega, Virneliz; Ferguson, Jill; Hodder, Peter S.; Rosen, Hugh; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2012-01-01

    The development of small-molecule inhibitors for perturbing enzyme function requires assays to confirm that the inhibitors interact with their enzymatic targets in vivo. Determining target engagement in vivo can be particularly challenging for poorly characterized enzymes that lack known biomarkers (e.g., endogenous substrates and products) to report on their inhibition. Here, we describe a competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) method for measuring the binding of reversible inhibitors to enzymes in animal models. Key to the success of this approach is the use of activity-based probes that show tempered rates of reactivity with enzymes, such that competition for target engagement with reversible inhibitors can be measured in vivo. We apply the competitive ABPP strategy to evaluate a newly described class of piperazine amide reversible inhibitors for the serine hydrolases LYPAL1 and LYPLA2, two enzymes for which selective, in vivo-active inhibitors are lacking. Competitive ABPP identified individual piperazine amides that selectively inhibit LYPLA1 or LYPLA2 in mice. In summary, competitive ABPP adapted to operate with moderately reactive probes can assess the target engagement of reversible inhibitors in animal models to facilitate the discovery of small-molecule probes for characterizing enzyme function in vivo. PMID:22690931

  2. Proton pump inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by glands in ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a ...

  3. Systemic and spinal administration of FAAH, MAGL inhibitors and dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors produce antipruritic effect in mice.

    PubMed

    Yesilyurt, Ozgur; Cayirli, Mutlu; Sakin, Yusuf Serdar; Seyrek, Melik; Akar, Ahmet; Dogrul, Ahmet

    2016-07-01

    The increase of endocannabinoid tonus by inhibiting fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) represents a promising therapeutic approach in a variety of disease to overcome serious central side effects of exocannabinoids. Recent studies reported that systemic administration of FAAH and MAGL inhibitors produce antipruritic action. Dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors have also been described to get enhanced endocannabinoid therapeutic effect. In this study, we examined and compared dose-related antipruritic effects of systemic (intraperitoneal; ip) or intrathecal (it) administration of selective FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.p.; 1, 5, and 10 µg, i.t.), MAGL inhibitor JZL184 (4, 20, and 40 mg/kg, i.p.; 1, 5, and 10 µg, i.t.) and dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitor JZL195 (2, 5, and 20 mg/kg, i.p.; 1, 5, and 10 µg, i.t.) on serotonin (5-HT)-induced scratching model. Serotonin (25 μg) was injected intradermally in a volume of 50 μl into the rostral part of skin on the back of male Balb-C mice. Both systemic or intrathecal administration of PF-3845, JZL184 or JZL195 produced similar dose-dependent antipruritic effects. Our results suggest that endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes FAAH and MAGL are involved in pruritic process at spinal level. FAAH, MAGL or dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors have promising antipruritic effects, at least, in part through spinal site of action. PMID:27126057

  4. Esterase SeE of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is a Novel Non-specific Carboxylic Ester Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gang; Liu, Mengyao; Zhu, Hui; Lei, Benfang

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular carboxylic ester hydrolases are produced by many bacterial pathogens and have been shown recently to be important for virulence of some pathogens. However, these hydrolases are poorly characterized in enzymatic activity. This study prepared and characterized the secreted ester hydrolase of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (designated SeE for S. equi esterase). SeE hydrolyzes ethyl acetate, acetylsalicylic acid, and tributyrin but not ethyl butyrate. This substrate specificity pattern does not match those of the three conventional types of non-specific carboxylic ester hydrolases (carboxylesterases, arylesterases, and acetylesterases). To determine whether SeE has lipase activity, a number of triglycerides and vinyl esters were tested in SeE-catalyzed hydrolysis. SeE does not hydrolyze triglycerides and vinyl esters of long chain carboxylic acids nor display interfacial activation, indicating that SeE is not a lipase. Like the conventional carboxylesterases, SeE is inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate. These findings indicate that SeE is a novel non-specific carboxylic ester hydrolase that has broader substrate specificity than the conventional carboxylesterases. PMID:19054107

  5. Development of organophosphate hydrolase activity in a bacterial homolog of human cholinesterase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legler, Patricia; Boisvert, Susanne; Compton, Jaimee; Millard, Charles

    2014-07-01

    We applied a combination of rational design and directed evolution (DE) to Bacillus subtilis p-nitrobenzyl esterase (pNBE) with the goal of enhancing organophosphorus acid anhydride hydrolase (OPAAH) activity. DE started with a designed variant, pNBE A107H, carrying a histidine homologous with human butyrylcholinesterase G117H to find complementary mutations that further enhance its OPAAH activity. Five sites were selected (G105, G106, A107, A190, and A400) within a 6.7 Å radius of the nucleophilic serine O?. All 95 variants were screened for esterase activity with a set of five substrates: pNP-acetate, pNP-butyrate, acetylthiocholine, butyrylthiocholine, or benzoylthiocholine. A microscale assay for OPAAH activity was developed for screening DE libraries. Reductions in esterase activity were generally concomitant with enhancements in OPAAH activity. One variant, A107K, showed an unexpected 7-fold increase in its kcat/Km for benzoylthiocholine, demonstrating that it is also possible to enhance the cholinesterase activity of pNBE. Moreover, DE resulted in at least three variants with modestly enhanced OPAAH activity compared to wild type pNBE. A107H/A190C showed a 50-fold increase in paraoxonase activity and underwent a slow time- and temperature-dependent change affecting the hydrolysis of OPAA and ester substrates. Structural analysis suggests that pNBE may represent a precursor leading to human cholinesterase and carboxylesterase 1 through extension of two vestigial specificity loops; a preliminary attempt to transfer the Ω-loop of BChE into pNBE is described. pNBE was tested as a surrogate scaffold for mammalian esterases. Unlike butyrylcholinesterase and pNBE, introducing a G143H mutation (equivalent to G117H) did not confer detectable OP hydrolase activity on human carboxylesterase 1. We discuss the importance of the oxyanion-hole residues for enhancing the OPAAH activity of selected serine hydrolases.

  6. Haloalkylphosphorus Hydrolases Purified from Sphingomonas sp. Strain TDK1 and Sphingobium sp. Strain TCM1

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yuto; Mori, Junichi; Doi, Yuka; Takahashi, Shouji; Kera, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Phosphotriesterases catalyze the first step of organophosphorus triester degradation. The bacterial phosphotriesterases purified and characterized to date hydrolyze mainly aryl dialkyl phosphates, such as parathion, paraoxon, and chlorpyrifos. In this study, we purified and cloned two novel phosphotriesterases from Sphingomonas sp. strain TDK1 and Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1 that hydrolyze tri(haloalkyl)phosphates, and we named these enzymes haloalkylphosphorus hydrolases (TDK-HAD and TCM-HAD, respectively). Both HADs are monomeric proteins with molecular masses of 59.6 (TDK-HAD) and 58.4 kDa (TCM-HAD). The enzyme activities were affected by the addition of divalent cations, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis suggested that zinc is a native cofactor for HADs. These enzymes hydrolyzed not only chlorinated organophosphates but also a brominated organophosphate [tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate], as well as triaryl phosphates (tricresyl and triphenyl phosphates). Paraoxon-methyl and paraoxon were efficiently degraded by TCM-HAD, whereas TDK-HAD showed weak activity toward these substrates. Dichlorvos was degraded only by TCM-HAD. The enzymes displayed weak or no activity against trialkyl phosphates and organophosphorothioates. The TCM-HAD and TDK-HAD genes were cloned and found to encode proteins of 583 and 574 amino acid residues, respectively. The primary structures of TCM-HAD and TDK-HAD were very similar, and the enzymes also shared sequence similarity with fenitrothion hydrolase (FedA) of Burkholderia sp. strain NF100 and organophosphorus hydrolase (OphB) of Burkholderia sp. strain JBA3. However, the substrate specificities and quaternary structures of the HADs were largely different from those of FedA and OphB. These results show that HADs from sphingomonads are novel members of the bacterial phosphotriesterase family. PMID:25038092

  7. Exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases can be utilized to disrupt and prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Perrin; Hill, Preston J.; Snarr, Brendan D.; Alnabelseya, Noor; Pestrak, Matthew J.; Lee, Mark J.; Jennings, Laura K.; Tam, John; Melnyk, Roman A.; Parsek, Matthew R.; Sheppard, Donald C.; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms present a significant medical challenge because they are recalcitrant to current therapeutic regimes. A key component of biofilm formation in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl, which are involved in the formation and maintenance of the structural biofilm scaffold and protection against antimicrobials and host defenses. Given that the glycoside hydrolases PelAh and PslGh encoded in the pel and psl biosynthetic operons, respectively, are utilized for in vivo exopolysaccharide processing, we reasoned that these would provide specificity to target P. aeruginosa biofilms. Evaluating these enzymes as potential therapeutics, we demonstrate that these glycoside hydrolases selectively target and degrade the exopolysaccharide component of the biofilm matrix. PelAh and PslGh inhibit biofilm formation over a 24-hour period with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 69.3 ± 1.2 and 4.1 ± 1.1 nM, respectively, and are capable of disrupting preexisting biofilms in 1 hour with EC50 of 35.7 ± 1.1 and 12.9 ± 1.1 nM, respectively. This treatment was effective against clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa isolates and reduced biofilm biomass by 58 to 94%. These noncytotoxic enzymes potentiated antibiotics because the addition of either enzyme to a sublethal concentration of colistin reduced viable bacterial counts by 2.5 orders of magnitude when used either prophylactically or on established 24-hour biofilms. In addition, PelAh was able to increase neutrophil killing by ~50%. This work illustrates the feasibility and benefits of using bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases to develop novel antibiofilm therapeutics. PMID:27386527

  8. The case for the development of novel analgesic agents targeting both fatty acid amide hydrolase and either cyclooxygenase or TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, CJ; Naidu, PS; Lichtman, A; Onnis, V

    2009-01-01

    Although the dominant approach to drug development is the design of compounds selective for a given target, compounds targeting more than one biological process may have superior efficacy, or alternatively a better safety profile than standard selective compounds. Here, this possibility has been explored with respect to the endocannabinoid system and pain. Compounds inhibiting the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), by increasing local endocannabinoid tone, produce potentially useful effects in models of inflammatory and possibly neuropathic pain. Local increases in levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide potentiate the actions of cyclooxygenase inhibitors, raising the possibility that compounds inhibiting both FAAH and cyclooxygenase can be as effective as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs but with a reduced cyclooxygenase inhibitory ‘load’. An ibuprofen analogue active in models of visceral pain and with FAAH and cyclooxygenase inhibitory properties has been identified. Another approach, built in to the experimental analgesic compound N-arachidonoylserotonin, is the combination of FAAH inhibitory and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 antagonist properties. Although finding the right balance of actions upon the two targets is a key to success, it is hoped that dual-action compounds of the types illustrated in this review will prove to be useful analgesic drugs. PMID:19226258

  9. Organophosphate Hydrolase Is a Lipoprotein and Interacts with Pi-specific Transport System to Facilitate Growth of Brevundimonas diminuta Using OP Insecticide as Source of Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Sunil; Parapatla, Hari; Nandavaram, Aparna; Palmer, Tracy; Siddavattam, Dayananda

    2016-04-01

    Organophosphate hydrolase (OPH), encoded by the organophosphate degradation (opd) island, hydrolyzes the triester bond found in a variety of organophosphate insecticides and nerve agents. OPH is targeted to the inner membrane ofBrevundimonas diminutain a pre-folded conformation by thetwinargininetransport (Tat) pathway. The OPH signal peptide contains an invariant cysteine residue at the junction of the signal peptidase (Spase) cleavage site along with a well conserved lipobox motif. Treatment of cells producing native OPH with the signal peptidase II inhibitor globomycin resulted in accumulation of most of the pre-OPH in the cytoplasm with negligible processed OPH detected in the membrane. Substitution of the conserved lipobox cysteine to serine resulted in release of OPH into the periplasm, confirming that OPH is a lipoprotein. Analysis of purified OPH revealed that it was modified with the fatty acids palmitate and stearate. Membrane-bound OPH was shown to interact with the outer membrane efflux protein TolC and with PstS, the periplasmic component of the ABC transporter complex (PstSACB) involved in phosphate transport. Interaction of OPH with PstS appears to facilitate transport of Pigenerated from organophosphates due to the combined action of OPH and periplasmically located phosphatases. Consistent with this model,opdnull mutants ofB. diminutafailed to grow using the organophosphate insecticide methyl parathion as sole source of phosphate. PMID:26861877

  10. New perspective on glycoside hydrolase binding to lignin from pretreated corn stover

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yarbrough, John M.; Mittal, Ashutosh; Mansfield, Elisabeth; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Sammond, Deanne W.; Bomble, Yannick J.; Crowley, Michael F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; et al

    2015-12-18

    In this study, non-specific binding of cellulases to lignin has been implicated as a major factor in the loss of cellulase activity during biomass conversion to sugars. It is believed that this binding may strongly impact process economics through loss of enzyme activities during hydrolysis and enzyme recycling scenarios. The current model suggests glycoside hydrolase activities are lost though non-specific/non-productive binding of carbohydrate-binding domains to lignin, limiting catalytic site access to the carbohydrate components of the cell wall.

  11. Novel glycoside hydrolases identified by screening a Chinese Holstein dairy cow rumen-derived metagenome library.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Jiaqi; Bu, Dengpan; Liu, Kailang; Zhu, Yaxin; Dong, Zhiyang; Yu, Zhongtang

    2010-10-01

    One clone encoding glycoside hydrolases was identified through functional screening of a rumen bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. Of the 68 open reading frames (ORFs) predicted, one ORF encodes a novel endo-β-1,4-xylanase with two catalytic domains of family GH43 and two cellulose-binding modules (CBMs) of family IV. Partial characterization showed that this endo-xylanase has a greater specific activity than a number of other xylanases over a wide temperature range at neutral pH and could be useful in some industrial applications. PMID:20709844

  12. Cloning and analysis of bile salt hydrolase genes from Lactobacillus plantarum CGMCC No. 8198.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiang-Chao; Luo, Xue-Gang; Wang, Chong-Xi; Ma, De-Yun; Wang, Yan; He, Ying-Ying; Li, Wen; Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2014-05-01

    Genes coding for bile salt hydrolase of Lactobacillus plantarum CGMCC 8198, a novel probiotic strain isolated from silage, were identified, analyzed and cloned. L. plantarum strongly resisted the inhibitory effects of bile salts and also decreased serum cholesterol levels by 20% in mice with hypercholesterolemia. Using RT-PCR analysis, bsh2, bsh3 and bsh4 were upregulated by bile salts in a dose-dependent manner. All three bsh genes had high similarity with those of other Lactobacillus strains. All three recombinant BSHs had high activities for the hydrolysis of glycodeoxycholic acids and taurodeoxycholic acids. PMID:24375235

  13. Detection and determination of lipase (acylglycerol hydrolase) activity from various sources.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R G

    1983-09-01

    Methods for the detection and determination of lipases (acylglycerol hydrolases) and preparation of assays are reviewed including substrates, conditions and screening. Some newer methods for the determination of lipase activity are discussed. Several of these are: (a) titrimetry, (b) colorimetry of Cu soaps of free fatty acids (FFA), (c) colorimetry of chromophores in the acyl chain of FFA or in glycerol, (d) radioassay, (e) gas liquid chromatography, (f) enzymatic treatment of FFA and measurement of the resulting products, and (g) direct immunological determination of the lipase. Examples and sensitivities are given and advantages and disadvantages are described. PMID:6633171

  14. Radiometric assay of ghrelin hydrolase activity and 3H-ghrelin distribution into mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2015-12-15

    A high-throughput radiometric assay was developed to characterize enzymatic hydrolysis of ghrelin and to track the peptide's fate in vivo. The assay is based on solvent partitioning of [(3)H]-octanoic acid liberated from [(3)H]-octanoyl ghrelin during enzymatic hydrolysis. This simple and cost-effective method facilitates kinetic analysis of ghrelin hydrolase activity of native and mutated butyrylcholinesterases or carboxylesterases from multiple species. In addition, the assay's high sensitivity facilitates ready evaluation of ghrelin's pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in mice after i.v. bolus administration of radiolabeled peptide. PMID:26514871

  15. Characterization of organophosphorus hydrolases and the genetic manipulation of the phosphotriesterase from pseudomonas diminuta

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, K.I.; Miller, C.E.; Wild, J.R.

    1993-12-31

    There are a variety of enzymes which are specifically capable of hydrolyzing organophosphorus esters with different phosphoryl bonds from the typical phosphotriester bonds of common insecticidal neurotoxins (e.g. paraoxon or coumaphos) to the phosphonate-fluoride bonds of chemical warfare agents (e.g. soman or sarin). These enzymes comprise a diverse set of enzymes whose basic architecture and substrate specificities vary dramatically, yet they appear to be ubiquitous throughout nature. The most thoroughly studied of these enzymes is the organophosphate hydrolase (opd gene product) of Pseudomonas diminuta and Ftavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551, and the heterologous expression, post-translational modification, and genetic engineering studies undertaken with this enzyme are described.

  16. Expression and purification of an engineered, yeast-expressed Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase with immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Hudspeth, Elissa M; Wang, Qian; Seid, Christopher A; Hammond, Molly; Wei, Junfei; Liu, Zhuyun; Zhan, Bin; Pollet, Jeroen; Heffernan, Michael J; McAtee, C Patrick; Engler, David A; Matsunami, Risë K; Strych, Ulrich; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    Leishmania donovani is the major cause of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), now recognized as the parasitic disease with the highest level of mortality second only to malaria. No human vaccine is currently available. A 36 kDa L. donovani nucleoside hydrolase (LdNH36) surface protein has been previously identified as a potential vaccine candidate antigen. Here we present data on the expression of LdNH36 in Pichia pastoris and its purification at the 20 L scale to establish suitability for future pilot scale manufacturing. To improve efficiency of process development and ensure reproducibility, 4 N-linked glycosylation sites shown to contribute to heterogeneous high-mannose glycosylation were mutated to glutamine residues. The mutant LdNH36 (LdNH36-dg2) was expressed and purified to homogeneity. Size exclusion chromatography and light scattering demonstrated that LdNH36-dg2 existed as a tetramer in solution, similar to the wild-type recombinant L. major nucleoside hydrolase. The amino acid mutations do not affect the tetrameric interface as confirmed by theoretical modeling, and the mutated amino acids are located outside the major immunogenic domain. Immunogenic properties of the LdNH36-dg2 recombinant protein were evaluated in BALB/c mice using formulations that included a synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, together with a microparticle delivery platform (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)). Mice exhibited high levels of IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibodies that were reactive to both LdNH36-dg2 and LdNH36 wild-type. While the point mutations did affect the hydrolase activity of the enzyme, the IgG antibodies elicited by LdNH36-dg2 were shown to inhibit the hydrolase activity of the wild-type LdNH36. The results indicate that LdNH36-dg2 as expressed in and purified from P. pastoris is suitable for further scale-up, manufacturing, and testing in support of future first-in-humans phase 1 clinical trials. PMID:26839079

  17. Discovery of MK-3168: A PET Tracer for Imaging Brain Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Hamill, Terence G; Chioda, Marc; Chobanian, Harry; Fung, Selena; Guo, Yan; Chang, Linda; Bakshi, Raman; Hong, Qingmei; Dellureficio, James; Lin, Linus S; Abbadie, Catherine; Alexander, Jessica; Jin, Hong; Mandala, Suzanne; Shiao, Lin-Lin; Li, Wenping; Sanabria, Sandra; Williams, David; Zeng, Zhizhen; Hajdu, Richard; Jochnowitz, Nina; Rosenbach, Mark; Karanam, Bindhu; Madeira, Maria; Salituro, Gino; Powell, Joyce; Xu, Ling; Terebetski, Jenna L; Leone, Joseph F; Miller, Patricia; Cook, Jacquelynn; Holahan, Marie; Joshi, Aniket; O'Malley, Stacey; Purcell, Mona; Posavec, Diane; Chen, Tsing-Bau; Riffel, Kerry; Williams, Mangay; Hargreaves, Richard; Sullivan, Kathleen A; Nargund, Ravi P; DeVita, Robert J

    2013-06-13

    We report herein the discovery of a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer. Starting from a pyrazole lead, medicinal chemistry efforts directed toward reducing lipophilicity led to the synthesis of a series of imidazole analogues. Compound 6 was chosen for further profiling due to its appropriate physical chemical properties and excellent FAAH inhibition potency across species. [(11)C]-6 (MK-3168) exhibited good brain uptake and FAAH-specific signal in rhesus monkeys and is a suitable PET tracer for imaging FAAH in the brain. PMID:24900701

  18. Biosensing Paraoxon in Simulated Environmental Samples by Immobilized Organophosphorus Hydrolase in Functionalized Mesoporous Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Chenghong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Saripalli, Prasad; Ackerman, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a critical need for highly sensitive, cost-effective sensors to conduct ecological analyses for environmental and homeland security related applications. We report here on a method which significantly overcomes this difficulty, and demonstrate its application in a biosensor for aquatic environmental applications. A fast-responding and stable biosensor was developed via immobilization of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) in functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) with pore sizes in tens of nanometers. The sensor was tested for detection of paraoxon in simulated environmental samples, under wide ranging physico-chemical conditions.

  19. TLXI, a novel type of xylanase inhibitor from wheat (Triticum aestivum) belonging to the thaumatin family

    PubMed Central

    Fierens, Ellen; Rombouts, Sigrid; Gebruers, Kurt; Goesaert, Hans; Brijs, Kristof; Beaugrand, Johnny; Volckaert, Guido; Van Campenhout, Steven; Proost, Paul; Courtin, Christophe M.; Delcour, Jan A.

    2007-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) contains a previously unknown type of xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) inhibitor, which is described in the present paper for the first time. Based on its >60% similarity to TLPs (thaumatin-like proteins) and the fact that it contains the Prosite PS00316 thaumatin family signature, it is referred to as TLXI (thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor). TLXI is a basic (pI≥9.3 in isoelectric focusing) protein with a molecular mass of approx. 18–kDa (determined by SDS/PAGE) and it occurs in wheat with varying extents of glycosylation. The TLXI gene sequence encodes a 26-amino-acid signal sequence followed by a 151-amino-acid mature protein with a calculated molecular mass of 15.6–kDa and pI of 8.38. The mature TLXI protein was expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris, resulting in a 21–kDa (determined by SDS/PAGE) recombinant protein (rTLXI). Polyclonal antibodies raised against TLXI purified from wheat react with epitopes of rTLXI as well as with those of thaumatin, demonstrating high structural similarity between these three proteins. TLXI has a unique inhibition specificity. It is a non-competitive inhibitor of a number of glycoside hydrolase family 11 xylanases, but it is inactive towards glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases. Progress curves show that TLXI is a slow tight-binding inhibitor, with a Ki of approx. 60–nM. Except for zeamatin, an α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor from maize (Zea mays), no other enzyme inhibitor is currently known among the TLPs. TLXI thus represents a novel type of inhibitor within this group of proteins. PMID:17269932

  20. Structural genomics analysis of uncharacterized protein families overrepresented in human gut bacteria identifies a novel glycoside hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteroides spp. form a significant part of our gut microbiome and are well known for optimized metabolism of diverse polysaccharides. Initial analysis of the archetypal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron genome identified 172 glycosyl hydrolases and a large number of uncharacterized proteins associated with polysaccharide metabolism. Results BT_1012 from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 is a protein of unknown function and a member of a large protein family consisting entirely of uncharacterized proteins. Initial sequence analysis predicted that this protein has two domains, one on the N- and one on the C-terminal. A PSI-BLAST search found over 150 full length and over 90 half size homologs consisting only of the N-terminal domain. The experimentally determined three-dimensional structure of the BT_1012 protein confirms its two-domain architecture and structural analysis of both domains suggests their specific functions. The N-terminal domain is a putative catalytic domain with significant similarity to known glycoside hydrolases, the C-terminal domain has a beta-sandwich fold typically found in C-terminal domains of other glycosyl hydrolases, however these domains are typically involved in substrate binding. We describe the structure of the BT_1012 protein and discuss its sequence-structure relationship and their possible functional implications. Conclusions Structural and sequence analyses of the BT_1012 protein identifies it as a glycosyl hydrolase, expanding an already impressive catalog of enzymes involved in polysaccharide metabolism in Bacteroides spp. Based on this we have renamed the Pfam families representing the two domains found in the BT_1012 protein, PF13204 and PF12904, as putative glycoside hydrolase and glycoside hydrolase-associated C-terminal domain respectively. PMID:24742328

  1. Partial purification and characterization of an inducible indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid hydrolase from Enterobacter agglomerans

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jyh-Ching |; Cohen, J.D.; Mulbry, W.W.

    1996-11-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-amino acid conjugate hydrolases are believed to be important in the regulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) metabolism in plants and therefore have potential uses for the alteration of plant IAA metabolism. To isolate bacterial strains exhibiting significant indole-3-acetyl-aspartate (IAA-Asp) hydrolase activity, a sewage sludge inoculation was cultured under conditions in which IAA-Asp served as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. One isolate, Enterobacter agglomerans, showed hydrolase activity inducible by IAA-L-Asp or N-acetyl-L-Asp but not by IAA, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, urea, or indoleacetamide. Among a total of 17 IAA conjugates tested as potential substrates, the enzyme had an exclusively high substrate specificity for IAA-L-Asp of 13.5 mM. The optimal pH for this enzyme was between 8.0 and 8.5. In extraction buffer containing 0.8 mM Mg{sup 2+} the hydrolase activity was inhibited to 80% by 1 mM dithiothreitol and to 60% by 1 mm CuSO{sub 4}; the activity was increased by 40% with 1mM MnSO{sub 4}. However, in extraction buffer with no trace elements, the hydrolase activity was inhibited to 50% by either 1 mM dithiothreitol or 1% Triton X-100 (Sigma). These results suggest that disulfide bonding might be essential for enzyme activity. Purification of the hydrolase by hydroxyapatite and TSK-phenyl (HP-Genenchem, South San Francisco, CA) preparative high-performance liquid chromatography yielded a major 45-kD polypeptide as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Regulation of JH epoxide hydrolase versus JH esterase activity in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, by juvenile hormone and xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, Douglas D; Roe, R Michael

    2005-05-01

    JH III esterase and JH III epoxide hydrolase (EH) in vitro activity was compared in whole body Trichoplusia ni homogenates at each stage of development (egg, larva, pupa and adult). While activity of both enzymes was detected at all ages tested, JH esterase was significantly higher than EH activity except for day three of the fifth (last) stadium (L5D3). For both enzymes, activity was highest in eggs. Adult virgin females had 4.6- and 4.0-fold higher JH esterase and EH activities, respectively, than adult virgin males. JH III metabolic activity also was measured in whole body homogenates of fifth stadium T. ni that were fed a nutritive diet (control) or starved on a non-nutritive diet of alphacel, agar and water. With larvae that were starved for 6, 28 and 52 h, EH activity per insect equivalent was 48%, 5% and 1%, respectively, of the control insects. At the same time points, JH esterase activity levels in starved T. ni were 29%, 4% and 3% of that of insects fed the nutritive diet. Selected insect hormones and xenobiotics were administered topically or orally to fifth stadium larvae for up to 52 h, and the effects on whole body EH and JH esterase activity analyzed. JH III increased the JH III esterase activity as high as 2.2-fold, but not the JH III EH activity. The JH analog, methoprene, increased both JH esterase and EH activity as high as 2.5-fold. The JH esterase inhibitor, 3-octylthio-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one (OTFP), had no impact on EH activity. The epoxides trans- and cis-stilbene oxide (TSO and CSO) in separate experiments increased the EH activity approximately 2.0-fold. TSO did not alter JH esterase levels when topically applied, but oral administration reduced activity to 70% of the control at 28 h, and then increased the activity 1.8-fold at 52 h after the beginning of treatment. CSO had no effect on JH esterase activity. Phenobarbital increased EH activity by 1.9-fold, but did not change JH esterase levels. Clofibrate and cholesterol 5alpha,6alpha

  3. Isolation and partial characterization of a protein synthesis inhibitor from brine shrimp embryos.

    PubMed

    Warner, A H; Shridhar, V; Finamore, F J

    1977-09-01

    Encysted embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, contain an inhibitor of protein synthesis that appears to be important in translational control. In cyst homogenates, the inhibitor appears to be partitioned almost equally between the cytosol and ribosome fractions and it has been purified from both fractions to near homogeneity. In a cell-free protein-synthesizing system derived from Artemia cysts, with poly(U) as messenger, the protein inhibits polyphenylalanine synthesis proportional to inhibitor concentration up to about 75% inhibition, and the primary site of action appears to be at the elongation step. The inhibitor activity is not altered by 50-150 mM KCl in the reaction mixture, but it is slightly more effective at 5 mM MgCl2 than at 10 mM MgCl2. The inhibitor is a heat-labile protein of 130000 molecular weight and is devoid of hydrolase activity. Our data indicate that the inhibitor is not elongation factor EF-1 or EF-2, but we are studying the possibility that it may be a modified form of elongation factor EF-2. PMID:907902

  4. Pharmacological blockade of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) alters neural proliferation, apoptosis and gliosis in the rat hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum in a negative energy context

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Patricia; Bindila, Laura; Pastor, Antoni; Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; de la Torre, Rafael; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids participate in the control of neurogenesis, neural cell death and gliosis. The pharmacological effect of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which limits the endocannabinoid degradation, was investigated in the present study. Cell proliferation (phospho-H3+ or BrdU+ cells) of the main adult neurogenic zones as well as apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3+), astroglia (GFAP+), and microglia (Iba1+ cells) were analyzed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum of rats intraperitoneally treated with URB597 (0.3 mg/kg/day) at one dose/4-days resting or 5 doses (1 dose/day). Repeated URB597 treatment increased the plasma levels of the N-acylethanolamines oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide and arachidonoylethanolamine, reduced the plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, and induced a transitory body weight decrease. The hippocampi of repeated URB597-treated rats showed a reduced number of phospho-H3+ and BrdU+ subgranular cells as well as GFAP+, Iba1+ and cleaved caspase-3+ cells, which was accompanied with decreased hippocampal expression of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor gene Cnr1 and Faah. In the hypothalami of these rats, the number of phospho-H3+, GFAP+ and 3-weeks-old BrdU+ cells was specifically decreased. The reduced striatal expression of CB1 receptor in repeated URB597-treated rats was only associated with a reduced apoptosis. In contrast, the striatum of acute URB597-treated rats showed an increased number of subventricular proliferative, astroglial and apoptotic cells, which was accompanied with increased Faah expression. Main results indicated that FAAH inhibitor URB597 decreased neural proliferation, glia and apoptosis in a brain region-dependent manner, which were coupled to local changes in Faah and/or Cnr1 expression and a negative energy context. PMID:25870539

  5. Pharmacological blockade of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) alters neural proliferation, apoptosis and gliosis in the rat hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum in a negative energy context.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Patricia; Bindila, Laura; Pastor, Antoni; Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; de la Torre, Rafael; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids participate in the control of neurogenesis, neural cell death and gliosis. The pharmacological effect of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which limits the endocannabinoid degradation, was investigated in the present study. Cell proliferation (phospho-H3(+) or BrdU(+) cells) of the main adult neurogenic zones as well as apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3(+)), astroglia (GFAP(+)), and microglia (Iba1(+) cells) were analyzed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum of rats intraperitoneally treated with URB597 (0.3 mg/kg/day) at one dose/4-days resting or 5 doses (1 dose/day). Repeated URB597 treatment increased the plasma levels of the N-acylethanolamines oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide and arachidonoylethanolamine, reduced the plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, and induced a transitory body weight decrease. The hippocampi of repeated URB597-treated rats showed a reduced number of phospho-H3(+) and BrdU(+) subgranular cells as well as GFAP(+), Iba1(+) and cleaved caspase-3(+) cells, which was accompanied with decreased hippocampal expression of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor gene Cnr1 and Faah. In the hypothalami of these rats, the number of phospho-H3(+), GFAP(+) and 3-weeks-old BrdU(+) cells was specifically decreased. The reduced striatal expression of CB1 receptor in repeated URB597-treated rats was only associated with a reduced apoptosis. In contrast, the striatum of acute URB597-treated rats showed an increased number of subventricular proliferative, astroglial and apoptotic cells, which was accompanied with increased Faah expression. Main results indicated that FAAH inhibitor URB597 decreased neural proliferation, glia and apoptosis in a brain region-dependent manner, which were coupled to local changes in Faah and/or Cnr1 expression and a negative energy context. PMID:25870539

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the amidase domain of allophanate hydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP

    SciTech Connect

    Balotra, Sahil; Newman, Janet; French, Nigel G.; Briggs, Lyndall J.; Peat, Thomas S.; Scott, Colin

    2014-02-19

    The amidase domain of the allophanate hydrolase AtzF from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP has been crystallized and preliminary X-ray diffraction data have been collected. The allophanate hydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP was expressed and purified, and a tryptic digest fragment was subsequently identified, expressed and purified. This 50 kDa construct retained amidase activity and was crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and adopted space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.4, b = 179.2, c = 112.6 Å, β = 106.6°.

  7. Structural analysis of xylanase inhibitor protein I (XIP-I), a proteinaceous xylanase inhibitor from wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. Soisson).

    PubMed Central

    Payan, Françoise; Flatman, Ruth; Porciero, Sophie; Williamson, Gary; Juge, Nathalie; Roussel, Alain

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of proteinaceous inhibitors exhibiting specificity towards microbial xylanases has recently been discovered in cereals. The three-dimensional structure of xylanase inhibitor protein I (XIP-I) from wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. Soisson) was determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.8 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution. The inhibitor possesses a (beta/alpha)(8) barrel fold and has structural features typical of glycoside hydrolase family 18, namely two consensus regions, approximately corresponding to the third and fourth barrel strands, and two non-proline cis -peptide bonds, Ser(36)-Phe and Trp(256)-Asp (in XIP-I numbering). However, detailed structural analysis of XIP-I revealed several differences in the region homologous with the active site of chitinases. The catalytic glutamic acid residue of family 18 chitinases [Glu(127) in hevamine, a chitinase/lysozyme from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)] is conserved in the structure of the inhibitor (Glu(128)), but its side chain is fully engaged in salt bridges with two neighbouring arginine residues. Gly(81), located in subsite -1 of hevamine, where the reaction intermediate is formed, is replaced by Tyr(80) in XIP-I. The tyrosine side chain fills the subsite area and makes a strong hydrogen bond with the side chain of Glu(190) located at the opposite side of the cleft, preventing access of the substrate to the catalytic glutamic acid. The structural differences in the inhibitor cleft structure probably account for the lack of activity of XIP-I towards chitin. PMID:12617724

  8. Structural insights into the reaction mechanism of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Kusakabe, Yoshio; Ishihara, Masaaki; Umeda, Tomonobu; Kuroda, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Masayuki; Kitade, Yukio; Gouda, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kazuo T.; Tanaka, Nobutada

    2015-01-01

    S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAH hydrolase or SAHH) is a highly conserved enzyme that catalyses the reversible hydrolysis of SAH to L-homocysteine (HCY) and adenosine (ADO). High-resolution crystal structures have been reported for bacterial and plant SAHHs, but not mammalian SAHHs. Here, we report the first high-resolution crystal structure of mammalian SAHH (mouse SAHH) in complex with a reaction product (ADO) and with two reaction intermediate analogues—3’-keto-aristeromycin (3KA) and noraristeromycin (NRN)—at resolutions of 1.55, 1.55, and 1.65 Å. Each of the three structures constitutes a structural snapshot of one of the last three steps of the five-step process of SAH hydrolysis by SAHH. In the NRN complex, a water molecule, which is an essential substrate for ADO formation, is structurally identified for the first time as the candidate donor in a Michael addition by SAHH to the 3’-keto-4’,5’-didehydroadenosine reaction intermediate. The presence of the water molecule is consistent with the reaction mechanism proposed by Palmer & Abeles in 1979. These results provide insights into the reaction mechanism of the SAHH enzyme. PMID:26573329

  9. Extracellular Xylanolytic and Pectinolytic Hydrolase Production by Aspergillus flavus Isolates Contributes to Crop Invasion.

    PubMed

    Mellon, Jay E

    2015-08-01

    Several atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates, including some being used as biocontrol agents, and one toxigenic isolate were surveyed for the ability to produce extracellular xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases. All of the tested isolates displayed good production of endoxylanases when grown on a medium utilizing larch xylan as a sole carbon substrate. Four of the tested isolates produced reasonably high levels of esterase activity, while the atoxigenic biocontrol agent NRRL 21882 isolate esterase level was significantly lower than the others. Atoxigenic A. flavus isolates 19, 22, K49, AF36 (the latter two are biocontrol agents) and toxigenic AF13 produced copious levels of pectinolytic activity when grown on a pectin medium. The pectinolytic activity levels of the atoxigenic A. flavus 17 and NRRL 21882 isolates were significantly lower than the other tested isolates. In addition, A. flavus isolates that displayed high levels of pectinolytic activity in the plate assay produced high levels of endopolygalacturonase (pectinase) P2c, as ascertained by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Isolate NRRL 21882 displayed low levels of both pectinase P2c and pectin methyl esterase. A. flavus appears capable of producing these hydrolytic enzymes irrespective of aflatoxin production. This ability of atoxigenic isolates to produce xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases mimics that of toxigenic isolates and, therefore, contributes to the ability of atoxigenic isolates to occupy the same niche as A. flavus toxigenic isolates. PMID:26295409

  10. Identification of the Major Prostaglandin Glycerol Ester Hydrolase in Human Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Joseph D.; Wepy, James A.; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Chang, Jae Won; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Marnett, Lawrence J.

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin glycerol esters (PG-Gs) are produced as a result of the oxygenation of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, by cyclooxygenase 2. Understanding the role that PG-Gs play in a biological setting has been difficult because of their sensitivity to enzymatic hydrolysis. By comparing PG-G hydrolysis across human cancer cell lines to serine hydrolase activities determined by activity-based protein profiling, we identified lysophospholipase A2 (LYPLA2) as a major enzyme responsible for PG-G hydrolysis. The principal role played by LYPLA2 in PGE2-G hydrolysis was confirmed by siRNA knockdown. Purified recombinant LYPLA2 hydrolyzed PG-Gs in the following order of activity: PGE2-G > PGF2α-G > PGD2-G; LYPLA2 hydrolyzed 1- but not 2-arachidonoylglycerol or arachidonoylethanolamide. Chemical inhibition of LYPLA2 in the mouse macrophage-like cell line, RAW264.7, elicited an increase in PG-G production. Our data indicate that LYPLA2 serves as a major PG-G hydrolase in human cells. Perturbation of this enzyme should enable selective modulation of PG-Gs without alterations in endocannabinoids, thereby providing a means to decipher the unique functions of PG-Gs in biology and disease. PMID:25301951

  11. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of acylpeptide hydrolase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ping; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Ze

    2016-04-10

    Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) can catalyze the release of the N-terminal amino acid from acetylated peptides. There were many documented examples of this enzyme in various prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. However, knowledge about APH in insects still remains unknown. In this study, we cloned and sequenced a putative silkworm Bombyx mori APH (BmAPH) gene. The BmAPH gene encodes a protein of 710 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 78.5kDa. The putative BmAPH and mammal APHs share about 36% amino acid sequence identity, yet key catalytic residues are conserved (Ser566, Asp654, and His686). Expression and purification of the recombinant BmAPH in Escherichia coli showed that it has acylpeptide hydrolase activity toward the traditional substrate, Ac-Ala-pNA. Furthermore, organophosphorus (OP) insecticides, chlorpyrifos, phoxim, and malathion, significantly inhibited the activity of the APH both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, BmAPH was expressed in all tested tissues and developmental stages of the silkworm. Finally, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that BmAPH protein was localized in the basement membranes. These results suggested that BmAPH may be involved in enhancing silkworm tolerance to the OP insecticides. In a word, our results provide evidence for understanding of the biological function of APH in insects. PMID:26778207

  12. Crystal structure of the glycosidase family 73 peptidoglycan hydrolase FlgJ

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Wataru; Ochiai, Akihito; Momma, Keiko; Itoh, Takafumi; Mikami, Bunzo; Maruyama, Yukie; Murata, Kousaku

    2009-03-27

    Glycoside hydrolase (GH) categorized into family 73 plays an important role in degrading bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. The flagellar protein FlgJ contains N- and C-terminal domains responsible for flagellar rod assembly and peptidoglycan hydrolysis, respectively. A member of family GH-73, the C-terminal domain (SPH1045-C) of FlgJ from Sphingomonas sp. strain A1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. SPH1045-C exhibited bacterial cell lytic activity most efficiently at pH 6.0 and 37 deg. C. The X-ray crystallographic structure of SPH1045-C was determined at 1.74 A resolution by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. The enzyme consists of two lobes, {alpha} and {beta}. A deep cleft located between the two lobes can accommodate polymer molecules, suggesting that the active site is located in the cleft. Although SPH1045-C shows a structural homology with family GH-22 and GH-23 lysozymes, the arrangement of the nucleophile/base residue in the active site is specific to each peptidoglycan hydrolase.

  13. A chemical proteomic atlas of brain serine hydrolases identifies cell type-specific pathways regulating neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Viader, Andreu; Ogasawara, Daisuke; Joslyn, Christopher M; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Mori, Simone; Nguyen, William; Conti, Bruno; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic specialization among major brain cell types is central to nervous system function and determined in large part by the cellular distribution of enzymes. Serine hydrolases are a diverse enzyme class that plays fundamental roles in CNS metabolism and signaling. Here, we perform an activity-based proteomic analysis of primary mouse neurons, astrocytes, and microglia to furnish a global portrait of the cellular anatomy of serine hydrolases in the brain. We uncover compelling evidence for the cellular compartmentalization of key chemical transmission pathways, including the functional segregation of endocannabinoid (eCB) biosynthetic enzymes diacylglycerol lipase-alpha (DAGLα) and –beta (DAGLβ) to neurons and microglia, respectively. Disruption of DAGLβ perturbed eCB-eicosanoid crosstalk specifically in microglia and suppressed neuroinflammatory events in vivo independently of broader effects on eCB content. Mapping the cellular distribution of metabolic enzymes thus identifies pathways for regulating specialized inflammatory responses in the brain while avoiding global alterations in CNS function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12345.001 PMID:26779719

  14. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Dimerization of aminopeptidase N and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Danielsen, E.M. )

    1990-01-09

    The pig intestinal brush border enzymes aminopeptidase and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase are present in the microvilla membrane as homodimers. Dimethyl adipimidate was used to cross-link the two ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled brush border enzymes from cultured mucosal explants. For aminopeptidase N, dimerization did not begin until 5-10 min after synthesis, and maximal dimerization by cross-linking of the transient form of the enzyme required 1 h, whereas the mature form of aminopeptidase N cross-linked with unchanged efficiency from 45 min to 3 h of labeling. Formation of dimers of this enzyme therefore occurs prior to the Golgi-associated processing, and the slow rate of dimerization may be the rate-limiting step in the transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex. For lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, the posttranslational processing includes a proteolytic cleavage of its high molecular weight precursor. Since only the mature form and not the precursor of this enzyme could be cross-linked, formation of tightly associated dimers only takes place after transport out of the endoplasmic reticulum. Dimerization of the two brush border enzymes therefore seems to occur in different organelles of the enterocyte.

  15. Human microsomal epoxide hydrolase: genetic polymorphism and functional expression in vitro of amino acid variants

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, Christopher; Aicher, Lauri; Sidhu, Jaspreet S.

    2016-01-01

    Human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a biotransformation enzyme that metabolizes reactive epoxide intermediates to more water-soluble trans-dihydrodiol derivatives. We compared protein-coding sequences from six full-length human mEH DNA clones and assessed potential amino acid variation at seven positions. The prevalence of these variants was assessed in at least 37 unrelated individuals using polymerase chain reaction experiments. Only Tyr/His 113 (exon 3) and His/Arg 139 (exon 4) variants were observed. The genotype frequencies determined for residue 113 alleles indicate that this locus may not be in Hardy – Weinberg equilibrium, whereas frequencies observed for residue 139 alleles were similar to expected values. Nucleotide sequences coding for the variant amino acids were constructed in an mEH cDNA using site-directed mutagenesis, and each was expressed in vitro by transient transfection of COS-1 cells. Epoxide hydrolase mRNA level, catalytic activity, and immunoreactive protein were evaluated for each construct. The results of these analyses demonstrated relatively uniform levels of mEH RNA expression between the constructs. mEH enzymatic activity and immunoreactive protein were strongly correlated, indicating that mEH specific activity was similar for each variant. However, marked differences were noted in the relative amounts of immunoreactive protein and enzymatic activity resulting from the amino acid substitutions. These data suggest that common human mEH amino acid polymorphisms may alter enzymatic function, possibly by modifying protein stability. PMID:7516776

  16. Heavy chain single-domain antibodies to detect native human soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yongliang; Li, Dongyang; Morisseau, Christophe; Dong, Jie-Xian; Yang, Jun; Wan, Debin; Rossotti, Martín A; Gee, Shirley J; González-Sapienza, Gualberto G; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-09-01

    The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a potential pharmacological target for treating hypertension, vascular inflammation, pain, cancer, and other diseases. However, there is not a simple, inexpensive, and reliable method to estimate levels of active sEH in tissues. Toward developing such an assay, a polyclonal variable domain of heavy chain antibody (VHH) sandwich immunoassay was developed. Ten VHHs, which are highly selective for native human sEH, were isolated from a phage-displayed library. The ten VHHs have no significant cross-reactivity with human microsomal epoxide hydrolase, rat and mouse sEH, and denatured human sEH. There is a high correlation between protein levels of the sEH determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the catalytic activity of the enzyme in S9 fractions of human tissues (liver, kidney, and lung). The VHH-based ELISA appears to be a new reliable method for monitoring the sEH and may be useful as a diagnostic tool for diseases influenced by sEH. This study also demonstrates the broad utility of VHH in biochemical and pharmacological research. PMID:26229025

  17. Soluble epoxide hydrolase as an anti-inflammatory target of the thrombolytic stroke drug SMTP-7.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Naoki; Suzuki, Eriko; Ishikawa, Makoto; Shirafuji, Takumi; Hasumi, Keiji

    2014-12-26

    Although ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, only a small fraction of patients benefit from the current thrombolytic therapy due to a risk of cerebral hemorrhage caused by inflammation. Thus, the development of a new strategy to combat inflammation during thrombolysis is an urgent demand. The small molecule thrombolytic SMTP-7 effectively treats ischemic stroke in several animal models with reducing cerebral hemorrhage. Here we revealed that SMTP-7 targeted soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to suppress inflammation. SMTP-7 inhibited both of the two sEH enzyme activities: epoxide hydrolase (which inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxy-fatty acids) and lipid phosphate phosphatase. SMTP-7 suppressed epoxy-fatty acid hydrolysis in HepG2 cells in culture, implicating the sEH inhibition in the anti-inflammatory mechanism. The sEH inhibition by SMTP-7 was independent of its thrombolytic activity. The simultaneous targeting of thrombolysis and sEH by a single molecule is a promising strategy to revolutionize the current stroke therapy. PMID:25361765

  18. Extracellular Xylanolytic and Pectinolytic Hydrolase Production by Aspergillus flavus Isolates Contributes to Crop Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, Jay E.

    2015-01-01

    Several atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates, including some being used as biocontrol agents, and one toxigenic isolate were surveyed for the ability to produce extracellular xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases. All of the tested isolates displayed good production of endoxylanases when grown on a medium utilizing larch xylan as a sole carbon substrate. Four of the tested isolates produced reasonably high levels of esterase activity, while the atoxigenic biocontrol agent NRRL 21882 isolate esterase level was significantly lower than the others. Atoxigenic A. flavus isolates 19, 22, K49, AF36 (the latter two are biocontrol agents) and toxigenic AF13 produced copious levels of pectinolytic activity when grown on a pectin medium. The pectinolytic activity levels of the atoxigenic A. flavus 17 and NRRL 21882 isolates were significantly lower than the other tested isolates. In addition, A. flavus isolates that displayed high levels of pectinolytic activity in the plate assay produced high levels of endopolygalacturonase (pectinase) P2c, as ascertained by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Isolate NRRL 21882 displayed low levels of both pectinase P2c and pectin methyl esterase. A. flavus appears capable of producing these hydrolytic enzymes irrespective of aflatoxin production. This ability of atoxigenic isolates to produce xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases mimics that of toxigenic isolates and, therefore, contributes to the ability of atoxigenic isolates to occupy the same niche as A. flavus toxigenic isolates. PMID:26295409

  19. [Inhibition of adherence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to human buccal epithelium by glycoside hydrolases from marine hydrobiontes].

    PubMed

    Zaporozhets, T S; Makarenkova, I D; Bakunina, I Iu; Burtseva, Iu V; Kusaĭkin, M I; Balabanova, L A; Zviagintseva, T N; Besednova, N N; Rasskazov, V A

    2010-01-01

    A possibility of adhesion inhibition of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to human buccal epithelium by glycoside hydrolases of marine hydrobiontes was investigated using alpha-galactosidase from marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. KMM 701, total enzyme preparation and beta-1,3-glucanase from marine fungi Chaetomium, total enzyme preparation and beta-1,3-glucanase from marine mollusk Littorina kurila, and total enzyme preparation from crystalline style of marine mollusk Spisula sachalinensis were used. The enzymes were added to test-tubes containing buccal epithelial cells and/or the toxigenic bacterial strain C. diphtheriae No 1129, v. gravis. All the investigated enzymes were able to abort C. diphtheriae adherence, to human buccal epithelocytes. Inhibition of adhesion was more pronounced in the case of treatment of epithelocytes with highly purified enzymes of marine hydrobiontes in comparison with total enzyme preparations. The significant inhibition of C. diphtheriae adhesion was observed when the enzymes were added to the epithelocytes with the attached microorganisms. The results obtained show that glycoside hydrolases of marine hydrobiontes degrade any carbohydrates expressed on cell surface of bacterium or human buccal epithelocytes, impair unique lectin-carbohydrate interaction and prevent the adhesion. PMID:20695214

  20. A multifunctional hybrid glycosyl hydrolase discovered in an uncultured microbial consortium from ruminant gut.

    PubMed

    Palackal, Nisha; Lyon, Christopher S; Zaidi, Seema; Luginbühl, Peter; Dupree, Paul; Goubet, Florence; Macomber, John L; Short, Jay M; Hazlewood, Geoffrey P; Robertson, Dan E; Steer, Brian A

    2007-02-01

    A unique multifunctional glycosyl hydrolase was discovered by screening an environmental DNA library prepared from a microbial consortium collected from cow rumen. The protein consists of two adjacent catalytic domains. Sequence analysis predicted that one domain conforms to glycosyl hydrolase family 5 and the other to family 26. The enzyme is active on several different beta-linked substrates and possesses mannanase, xylanase, and glucanase activities. Site-directed mutagenesis studies on the catalytic residues confirmed the presence of two functionally independent catalytic domains. Using site-specific mutations, it was shown that one catalytic site hydrolyzes beta-1,4-linked mannan substrates, while the second catalytic site hydrolyzes beta-1,4-linked xylan and beta-1,4-linked glucan substrates. Polysaccharide Analysis using Carbohydrate gel Electrophoresis (PACE) also confirmed that the enzyme has discrete domains for binding and hydrolysis of glucan- and mannan-linked polysaccharides. Such multifunctional enzymes have many potential industrial applications in plant processing, including biomass saccharification, animal feed nutritional enhancement, textile, and pulp and paper processing. PMID:17103163

  1. Cloning, expression and mutation of a triazophos hydrolase gene from Burkholderia sp. SZL-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Qiang; Guo, Su-Hui; Cheng, Ming-Gen; Zhao, Meng-Jun; Hong, Qing; Huang, Xing

    2016-06-01

    Triazophos is a broad-spectrum and highly effective insecticide, and the residues of triazophos have been frequently detected in the environment. A triazophos-degrading bacterium, Burkholderia sp. SZL-1, was isolated from a long-term triazophos-polluted soil. Strain SZL-1 could hydrolyze triazophos to 1-phenyl-3-hydroxy-1,2,4-triazole, which was further utilized as the carbon sources for growth. The triazophos hydrolase gene trhA, cloned from strain SZL-1, was expressed and homogenously purified using Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. TrhA is 55 kDa and displays maximum activity at 25°C, pH 8.0. This enzyme still has nearly 60% activity at the range of 15°C-50°C for 30 min. TrhA was mutated by sequential error prone PCR and screened for improved activity for triazophos degradation. One purified variant protein (Val89-Gly89) named TrhA-M1 showed up to 3-fold improvement in specific activity against triazophos, and the specificity constants of Kcat and Kcat/Km for TrhA-M1 were improved up to 2.3- and 8.28-fold, respectively, compared to the wild-type enzyme. The results in this paper provided potential material for the contaminated soil remediation and hydrolase genetic structure research. PMID:27190294

  2. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase as an Anti-inflammatory Target of the Thrombolytic Stroke Drug SMTP-7*

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Naoki; Suzuki, Eriko; Ishikawa, Makoto; Shirafuji, Takumi; Hasumi, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    Although ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, only a small fraction of patients benefit from the current thrombolytic therapy due to a risk of cerebral hemorrhage caused by inflammation. Thus, the development of a new strategy to combat inflammation during thrombolysis is an urgent demand. The small molecule thrombolytic SMTP-7 effectively treats ischemic stroke in several animal models with reducing cerebral hemorrhage. Here we revealed that SMTP-7 targeted soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to suppress inflammation. SMTP-7 inhibited both of the two sEH enzyme activities: epoxide hydrolase (which inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxy-fatty acids) and lipid phosphate phosphatase. SMTP-7 suppressed epoxy-fatty acid hydrolysis in HepG2 cells in culture, implicating the sEH inhibition in the anti-inflammatory mechanism. The sEH inhibition by SMTP-7 was independent of its thrombolytic activity. The simultaneous targeting of thrombolysis and sEH by a single molecule is a promising strategy to revolutionize the current stroke therapy. PMID:25361765

  3. Molecular Basis of Prodrug Activation by Human Valacyclovirase, an [alpha]-Amino Acid Ester Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Longsheng; Xu, Zhaohui; Zhou, Jiahai; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2008-07-08

    Chemical modification to improve biopharmaceutical properties, especially oral absorption and bioavailability, is a common strategy employed by pharmaceutical chemists. The approach often employs a simple structural modification and utilizes ubiquitous endogenous esterases as activation enzymes, although such enzymes are often unidentified. This report describes the crystal structure and specificity of a novel activating enzyme for valacyclovir and valganciclovir. Our structural insights show that human valacyclovirase has a unique binding mode and specificity for amino acid esters. Biochemical data demonstrate that the enzyme hydrolyzes esters of {alpha}-amino acids exclusively and displays a broad specificity spectrum for the aminoacyl moiety similar to tricorn-interacting aminopeptidase F1. Crystal structures of the enzyme, two mechanistic mutants, and a complex with a product analogue, when combined with biochemical analysis, reveal the key determinants for substrate recognition; that is, a flexible and mostly hydrophobic acyl pocket, a localized negative electrostatic potential, a large open leaving group-accommodating groove, and a pivotal acidic residue, Asp-123, after the nucleophile Ser-122. This is the first time that a residue immediately after the nucleophile has been found to have its side chain directed into the substrate binding pocket and play an essential role in substrate discrimination in serine hydrolases. These results as well as a phylogenetic analysis establish that the enzyme functions as a specific {alpha}-amino acid ester hydrolase. Valacyclovirase is a valuable target for amino acid ester prodrug-based oral drug delivery enhancement strategies.

  4. Molecular characterization of human ABHD2 as TAG lipase and ester hydrolase.

    PubMed

    M, Naresh Kumar; V B S C, Thunuguntla; G K, Veeramachaneni; B, Chandra Sekhar; Guntupalli, Swapna; J S, Bondili

    2016-08-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism have been progressively documented as a characteristic property of cancer cells. Though, human ABHD2 gene was found to be highly expressed in breast and lung cancers, its biochemical functionality is yet uncharacterized. In the present study we report, human ABHD2 as triacylglycerol (TAG) lipase along with ester hydrolysing capacity. Sequence analysis of ABHD2 revealed the presence of conserved motifs G(205)XS(207)XG(209) and H(120)XXXXD(125) Phylogenetic analysis showed homology to known lipases, Drosophila melanogaster CG3488. To evaluate the biochemical role, recombinant ABHD2 was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using pYES2/CT vector and His-tag purified protein showed TAG lipase activity. Ester hydrolase activity was confirmed with pNP acetate, butyrate and palmitate substrates respectively. Further, the ABHD2 homology model was built and the modelled protein was analysed based on the RMSD and root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) of the 100 ns simulation trajectory. Docking the acetate, butyrate and palmitate ligands with the model confirmed covalent binding of ligands with the Ser(207) of the GXSXG motif. The model was validated with a mutant ABHD2 developed with alanine in place of Ser(207) and the docking studies revealed loss of interaction between selected ligands and the mutant protein active site. Based on the above results, human ABHD2 was identified as a novel TAG lipase and ester hydrolase. PMID:27247428

  5. Differential Recognition and Hydrolysis of Host Carbohydrate Antigens by Streptococcus pneumoniae Family 98 Glycoside Hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M.; Whitworth, G; El Warry, N; Randriantsoa, M; Samain, E; Burke, R; Vocadlo, D; Boraston, A

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a fucose utilization operon in the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome and its established importance in virulence indicates a reliance of this bacterium on the harvesting of host fucose-containing glycans. The identities of these glycans, however, and how they are harvested is presently unknown. The biochemical and high resolution x-ray crystallographic analysis of two family 98 glycoside hydrolases (GH98s) from distinctive forms of the fucose utilization operon that originate from different S. pneumoniae strains reveal that one enzyme, the predominant type among pneumococcal isolates, has a unique endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity on the LewisY antigen. Altered active site topography in the other species of GH98 enzyme tune its endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity to the blood group A and B antigens. Despite their different specificities, these enzymes, and by extension all family 98 glycoside hydrolases, use an inverting catalytic mechanism. Many bacterial and viral pathogens exploit host carbohydrate antigens for adherence as a precursor to colonization or infection. However, this is the first evidence of bacterial endoglycosidase enzymes that are known to play a role in virulence and are specific for distinct host carbohydrate antigens. The strain-specific distribution of two distinct types of GH98 enzymes further suggests that S. pneumoniae strains may specialize to exploit host-specific antigens that vary from host to host, a factor that may feature in whether a strain is capable of colonizing a host or establishing an invasive infection.

  6. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Acylpeptide Hydrolase Bound to Chlorpyrifosmethyl Oxon and Dichlorvos

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hanyong; Zhou, Zhenhuan; Wang, Dongmei; Guan, Shanshan; Han, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Acylpeptide hydrolases (APHs) catalyze the removal of N-acylated amino acids from blocked peptides. Like other prolyloligopeptidase (POP) family members, APHs are believed to be important targets for drug design. To date, the binding pose of organophosphorus (OP) compounds of APH, as well as the different OP compounds binding and inducing conformational changes in two domains, namely, α/β hydrolase and β-propeller, remain poorly understood. We report a computational study of APH bound to chlorpyrifosmethyl oxon and dichlorvos. In our docking study, Val471 and Gly368 are important residues for chlorpyrifosmethyl oxon and dichlorvos binding. Molecular dynamics simulations were also performed to explore the conformational changes between the chlorpyrifosmethyl oxon and dichlorvos bound to APH, which indicated that the structural feature of chlorpyrifosmethyl oxon binding in APH permitted partial opening of the β-propeller fold and allowed the chlorpyrifosmethyl oxon to easily enter the catalytic site. These results may facilitate the design of APH-targeting drugs with improved efficacy. PMID:25794283

  7. Substrate recognition and catalysis by LytB, a pneumococcal peptidoglycan hydrolase involved in virulence

    PubMed Central

    Rico-Lastres, Palma; Díez-Martínez, Roberto; Iglesias-Bexiga, Manuel; Bustamante, Noemí; Aldridge, Christine; Hesek, Dusan; Lee, Mijoon; Mobashery, Shahriar; Gray, Joe; Vollmer, Waldemar; García, Pedro; Menéndez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of life-threatening diseases worldwide. Here we provide an in-depth functional characterization of LytB, the peptidoglycan hydrolase responsible for physical separation of daughter cells. Identified herein as an N-acetylglucosaminidase, LytB is involved also in colonization and invasion of the nasopharynx, biofilm formation and evasion of host immunity as previously demonstrated. We have shown that LytB cleaves the GlcNAc-β-(1,4)-MurNAc glycosidic bond of peptidoglycan building units. The hydrolysis occurs at sites with fully acetylated GlcNAc moieties, with preference for uncross-linked muropeptides. The necessity of GlcN acetylation and the presence of a single acidic moiety (Glu585) essential for catalysis strongly suggest a substrate-assisted mechanism with anchimeric assistance of the acetamido group of GlcNAc moieties. Additionally, modelling of the catalytic region bound to a hexasaccharide tripentapeptide provided insights into substrate-binding subsites and peptidoglycan recognition. Besides, cell-wall digestion products and solubilisation rates might indicate a tight control of LytB activity to prevent unrestrained breakdown of the cell wall. Choline-independent localization at the poles of the cell, mediated by the choline-binding domain, peptidoglycan modification, and choline-mediated (lipo)teichoic-acid attachment contribute to the high selectivity of LytB. Moreover, so far unknown chitin hydrolase and glycosyltransferase activities were detected using GlcNAc oligomers as substrate. PMID:26537571

  8. Engineering of an epoxide hydrolase for efficient bioresolution of bulky pharmaco substrates

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xu-Dong; Yuan, Shuguang; Li, Lin; Chen, She; Xu, Jian-He; Zhou, Jiahai

    2014-01-01

    Optically pure epoxides are essential chiral precursors for the production of (S)-propranolol, (S)-alprenolol, and other β-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs. Although the enzymatic production of these bulky epoxides has proven difficult, here we report a method to effectively improve the activity of BmEH, an epoxide hydrolase from Bacillus megaterium ECU1001 toward α-naphthyl glycidyl ether, the precursor of (S)-propranolol, by eliminating the steric hindrance near the potential product-release site. Using X-ray crystallography, mass spectrum, and molecular dynamics calculations, we have identified an active tunnel for substrate access and product release of this enzyme. The crystal structures revealed that there is an independent product-release site in BmEH that was not included in other reported epoxide hydrolase structures. By alanine scanning, two mutants, F128A and M145A, targeted to expand the potential product-release site displayed 42 and 25 times higher activities toward α-naphthyl glycidyl ether than the wild-type enzyme, respectively. These results show great promise for structure-based rational design in improving the catalytic efficiency of industrial enzymes for bulky substrates. PMID:25331869

  9. Structure of a Trypanosoma brucei α/β-hydrolase fold protein with unknown function

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Ethan A.; Holmes, Margaret; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Quartly, Erin; Phizicky, Eric M.; Lauricella, Angela; Luft, Joseph; DeTitta, George; Neely, Helen; Zucker, Frank; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of a structural genomics target protein, Tbru020260AAA from Trypanosoma brucei, has been determined to a resolution of 2.2 Å using multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction at the Se K edge. This protein belongs to Pfam sequence family PF08538 and is only distantly related to previously studied members of the α/β-hydrolase fold family. Structural superposition onto representative α/β-hydrolase fold proteins of known function indicates that a possible catalytic nucleophile, Ser116 in the T. brucei protein, lies at the expected location. However, the present structure and by extension the other trypanosomatid members of this sequence family have neither sequence nor structural similarity at the location of other active-site residues typical for proteins with this fold. Together with the presence of an additional domain between strands β6 and β7 that is conserved in trypanosomatid genomes, this suggests that the function of these homologs has diverged from other members of the fold family. PMID:18540054

  10. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    PubMed Central

    Allgaier, Martin; Reddy, Amitha; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanova, Natalia; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ∼10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50°C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme. PMID:20098679

  11. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    SciTech Connect

    Allgaier, M.; Reddy, A.; Park, J. I.; Ivanova, N.; D'haeseleer, P.; Lowry, S.; Sapra, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.; Hugenholtz, P.

    2009-11-15

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, {approx}10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  12. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Amitha; Allgaier, Martin; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanoval, Natalia; Dhaeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2011-05-11

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Smallsubunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ,10percent were putative cellulasesmostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50uC and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  13. Novel Strategies for Upstream and Downstream Processing of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V.; Valdivia-Urdiales, Blanca; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase also referred as tannase is an enzyme with important applications in several science and technology fields. Due to its hydrolytic and synthetic properties, tannase could be used to reduce the negative effects of tannins in beverages, food, feed, and tannery effluents, for the production of gallic acid from tannin-rich materials, the elucidation of tannin structure, and the synthesis of gallic acid esters in nonaqueous media. However, industrial applications of tannase are still very limited due to its high production cost. Thus, there is a growing interest in the production, recovery, and purification of this enzyme. Recently, there have been published a number of papers on the improvement of upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. These papers dealt with the search for new tannase producing microorganisms, the application of novel fermentation systems, optimization of culture conditions, the production of the enzyme by recombinant microorganism, and the design of efficient protocols for tannase recovery and purification. The present work reviews the state of the art of basic and biotechnological aspects of tannin acyl hydrolase, focusing on the recent advances in the upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. PMID:21941633

  14. Direct detection, cloning and characterization of a glucoside hydrolase from forest soil.

    PubMed

    Hua, Mei; Zhao, Shubo; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Dongbo; Xia, Hongmei; Li, Fan; Chen, Shan

    2015-06-01

    A glucoside hydrolase gene, egl01, was cloned from the soil DNA of Changbai Mountain forest by homologous PCR amplification. The deduced sequence of 517 amino acids included a catalytic domain of glycoside hydrolase family 5 and was homologous to a putative cellulase from Bacillus licheniformis. The recombinant enzyme, Egl01, was maximally active at pH 5 and 50 °C and it was stable at pH 3-9, 4-50 °C, and also stable in the presence of metal ions, organic solvents, surfactants and salt. Its activity was above 120 % in 2-3 M NaCl/KCl and over 70 % was retained in 1-4 M NaCl/KCl for 6d. Egl01 hydrolyzed carboxymethyl cellulose, beechwood xylan, crop stalk, laminarin, filter paper, and avicel but not pNPG, indicating its broad substrate specificity. These properties make this recombinant enzyme a promising candidate for industrial applications. PMID:25700816

  15. Molecular characterization of human ABHD2 as TAG lipase and ester hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    M., Naresh Kumar; V.B.S.C., Thunuguntla; G.K., Veeramachaneni; B., Chandra Sekhar; Guntupalli, Swapna; J.S., Bondili

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism have been progressively documented as a characteristic property of cancer cells. Though, human ABHD2 gene was found to be highly expressed in breast and lung cancers, its biochemical functionality is yet uncharacterized. In the present study we report, human ABHD2 as triacylglycerol (TAG) lipase along with ester hydrolysing capacity. Sequence analysis of ABHD2 revealed the presence of conserved motifs G205XS207XG209 and H120XXXXD125. Phylogenetic analysis showed homology to known lipases, Drosophila melanogaster CG3488. To evaluate the biochemical role, recombinant ABHD2 was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using pYES2/CT vector and His-tag purified protein showed TAG lipase activity. Ester hydrolase activity was confirmed with pNP acetate, butyrate and palmitate substrates respectively. Further, the ABHD2 homology model was built and the modelled protein was analysed based on the RMSD and root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) of the 100 ns simulation trajectory. Docking the acetate, butyrate and palmitate ligands with the model confirmed covalent binding of ligands with the Ser207 of the GXSXG motif. The model was validated with a mutant ABHD2 developed with alanine in place of Ser207 and the docking studies revealed loss of interaction between selected ligands and the mutant protein active site. Based on the above results, human ABHD2 was identified as a novel TAG lipase and ester hydrolase. PMID:27247428

  16. Determinants of Murein Hydrolase Targeting to Cross-wall of Staphylococcus aureus Peptidoglycan*

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Matthew B.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Cells of eukaryotic or prokaryotic origin express proteins with LysM domains that associate with the cell wall envelope of bacteria. The molecular properties that enable LysM domains to interact with microbial cell walls are not yet established. Staphylococcus aureus, a spherical microbe, secretes two murein hydrolases with LysM domains, Sle1 and LytN. We show here that the LysM domains of Sle1 and LytN direct murein hydrolases to the staphylococcal envelope in the vicinity of the cross-wall, the mid-cell compartment for peptidoglycan synthesis. LysM domains associate with the repeating disaccharide β-N-acetylmuramic acid, (1→4)-β-N-acetylglucosamine of staphylococcal peptidoglycan. Modification of N-acetylmuramic acid with wall teichoic acid, a ribitol-phosphate polymer tethered to murein linkage units, prevents the LysM domain from binding to peptidoglycan. The localization of LytN and Sle1 to the cross-wall is abolished in staphylococcal tagO mutants, which are defective for wall teichoic acid synthesis. We propose a model whereby the LysM domain ensures septal localization of LytN and Sle1 followed by processive cleavage of peptidoglycan, thereby exposing new LysM binding sites in the cross-wall and separating bacterial cells. PMID:22303016

  17. Structural and kinetic insights into the mechanism of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2011-08-01

    The crystal structure of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from K. pneumoniae and the steady-state kinetic parameters of the native enzyme as well as several mutants provide insights into the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme and the possible roles of the active-site residues. The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin has recently been demonstrated to proceed via two unstable intermediates and requires three separate enzymatic reactions. The second step of this reaction, the conversion of 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) to 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline, is catalyzed by HIU hydrolase (HIUH). The high-resolution crystal structure of HIUH from the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpHIUH) has been determined. KpHIUH is a homotetrameric protein that, based on sequence and structural similarity, belongs to the transthyretin-related protein family. In addition, the steady-state kinetic parameters for this enzyme and four active-site mutants have been measured. These data provide valuable insight into the functional roles of the active-site residues. Based upon the structural and kinetic data, a mechanism is proposed for the KpHIUH-catalyzed reaction.

  18. Identification of the Gene Encoding Isoprimeverose-producing Oligoxyloglucan Hydrolase in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Mitsuishi, Yasushi; Kameyama, Akihiko; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2016-03-01

    Aspergillus oryzae produces a unique β-glucosidase, isoprimeverose-producing oligoxyloglucan hydrolase (IPase), that recognizes and releases isoprimeverose (α-D-xylopyranose-(1 → 6)-D-glucopyranose) units from the non-reducing ends of oligoxyloglucans. A gene encoding A. oryzae IPase, termed ipeA, was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. With the exception of cellobiose, IpeA hydrolyzes a variety of oligoxyloglucans and is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 3. Xylopyranosyl branching at the non-reducing ends was vital for IPase activity, and galactosylation at a α-1,6-linked xylopyranosyl side chain completely abolished IpeA activity. Hepta-oligoxyloglucan saccharide (Xyl3Glc4) substrate was preferred over tri- (Xyl1Glc2) and tetra- (Xyl2Glc2) oligoxyloglucan saccharides substrates. IpeA transferred isoprimeverose units to other saccharides, indicating transglycosylation activity. The ipeA gene was expressed in xylose and xyloglucan media and was strongly induced in the presence of xyloglucan endo-xyloglucanase-hydrolyzed products. This is the first study to report the identification of a gene encoding IPase in eukaryotes. PMID:26755723

  19. [Inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Ken

    2008-04-01

    Inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase decrease production of uric acid, thus they act as hypouricemic drugs. Allopurinol, a prototypical xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, has been widely prescribed for treatment of gout and hyperuricemia. However, severe side effects of allopurinol may occur in patients with renal insufficiency. Recently, novel nonpurine selective inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase have been developed as potential alternatives to allopurinol. They have different inhibition mechanisms, utilizing the enzyme structure and the reaction mechanism. Such variation of the inhibition mechanism affects/in vivo/hypouricemic effects of the inhibitors. PMID:18409526

  20. HYDROLASING OF CONTAMINATED UNDERWATER BASIN SURFACES AT THE HANFORD K-AREA

    SciTech Connect

    CHRONISTER, G.B.

    2005-06-14

    This paper discusses selecting and Implementing hydrolasing technology to reduce radioactive contamination in preparing to dispose of the K Basins; two highly contaminated concrete basins at the Hanford Site. A large collection of spent nuclear fuel stored for many years underwater at the K Basins has been removed to stable, dry, safe storage. Remediation activities have begun for the remaining highly contaminated water, sludge, and concrete basin structures. Hydrolasing will be used to decontaminate and prepare the basin structures for disposal. The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is considered the world's largest environmental cleanup project. The site covers 1,517 Km{sup 2} (586 square miles) along the Columbia River in an arid region of the northwest United States (U.S.). Hanford is the largest of the US former nuclear defense production sites. From the World War II era of the mid-1940s until the late-1980s when production stopped, Hanford produced 60 percent of the plutonium for nuclear defense and, as a consequence, produced a significant amount of environmental pollution now being addressed. Spent nuclear fuel was among the major challenges for DOE's environmental cleanup mission at Hanford. The end of production left Hanford with about 105,000 irradiated, solid uranium metal fuel assemblies--representing approximately 2,100 metric tons (80 percent of DOE's spent nuclear fuel). The fuel was ultimately stored in the K Basins water-filled, concrete basins attached to Hanford's K East (KE) and K West (KW) reactors. K Basin's fuel accounted for 95 percent of the total radioactivity in Hanford's former reactor production areas. Located about 457 meters (500 yards) from the Columbia River, the K Basins are two indoor, rectangular structures of reinforced concrete; each filled with more than 3.8 million liters (one million gallons) of water that has become highly contaminated with long-lived radionuclides. At the KW Basin, fuel was packaged and

  1. TIL-type protease inhibitors may be used as targeted resistance factors to enhance silkworm defenses against invasive fungi.

    PubMed

    Li, Youshan; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Huawei; Guo, Xiaomeng; He, Huawei; Zhu, Rui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-02-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi penetrate the insect cuticle using their abundant hydrolases. These hydrolases, which include cuticle-degrading proteases and chitinases, are important virulence factors. Our recent findings suggest that many serine protease inhibitors, especially TIL-type protease inhibitors, are involved in insect resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. To clarify the molecular mechanism underlying this resistance to entomopathogenic fungi and identify novel genes to improve the silkworm antifungal capacity, we conducted an in-depth study of serine protease inhibitors. Here, we cloned and expressed a novel silkworm TIL-type protease inhibitor, BmSPI39. In activity assays, BmSPI39 potently inhibited the virulence protease CDEP-1 of Beauveria bassiana, suggesting that it might suppress the fungal penetration of the silkworm integument by inhibiting the cuticle-degrading proteases secreted by the fungus. Phenol oxidase activation studies showed that melanization is involved in the insect immune response to fungal invasion, and that fungus-induced excessive melanization is suppressed by BmSPI39 by inhibiting the fungal cuticle-degrading proteases. To better understand the mechanism involved in the inhibition of fungal virulence by protease inhibitors, their effects on the germination of B. bassiana conidia was examined. BmSPI38 and BmSPI39 significantly inhibited the germination of B. bassiana conidia. Survival assays showed that BmSPI38 and BmSPI39 markedly improved the survival rates of silkworms, and can therefore be used as targeted resistance proteins in the silkworm. These results provided new insight into the molecular mechanisms whereby insect protease inhibitors confer resistance against entomopathogenic fungi, suggesting their potential application in medicinal or agricultural fields. PMID:25453359

  2. THE SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE GENE HARBORS SEQUENCE VARIATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AND PROTECTION FROM INCIDENT ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stroke is the leading cause of severe disability and the third leading cause of death, accounting for one of every 15 deaths in the USA. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in the soluble epoxide hydrolase gene (EPHX2) with incident ischemic stroke in African-Americans and Whites. Twelv...

  3. Potential of the virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 and its derivative fusion proteins in milk biopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteriophage lytic enzymes have recently attracted considerable interest as novel antimicrobials against Gram-positive bacteria. In this work, antimicrobial activity in milk of HydH5 [(a virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase (VAPGH) encoded by the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-ph...

  4. Hydrolysis of filter-paper cellulose to glucose by two recombinant endogenous glycosyl hydrolases of Coptotermes formosanus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genes encoding for glycosyl hydrolases in multiple families were recovered from an EST library of Coptotermes formosanus, a wood-eating insect. Functional analyses of these genes not only shed light on the mechanisms the insect employs to successfully use cellulosic materials as energy sources, whic...

  5. Cloning, crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of XC1258, a CN-hydrolase superfamily protein from Xanthomonas campestris

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Ying-Der; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Shr, Hui-Lin; Gao, Fei Philip; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2006-10-01

    A CN-hydrolase superfamily protein from the plant pathogen X. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. CN-hydrolase superfamily proteins are involved in a wide variety of non-peptide carbon–nitrogen hydrolysis reactions, producing some important natural products such as auxin, biotin, precursors of antibiotics etc. These reactions all involve attack on a cyano or carbonyl carbon by a conserved novel catalytic triad Glu-Lys-Cys through a thiol acylenzyme intermediate. However, classification into the CN-hydrolase superfamily based on sequence similarity alone is not straightforward and further structural data are necessary to improve this categorization. Here, the cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC1258, a CN-hydrolase superfamily protein from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris (Xcc), are reported. The SeMet-substituted XC1258 crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.73 Å. They are orthorhombic and belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 143.8, b = 154.63, c = 51.3 Å, respectively.

  6. A dual enzyme system composed of a polyester hydrolase and a carboxylesterase enhances the biocatalytic degradation of polyethylene terephthalate films.

    PubMed

    Barth, Markus; Honak, Annett; Oeser, Thorsten; Wei, Ren; Belisário-Ferrari, Matheus R; Then, Johannes; Schmidt, Juliane; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    TfCut2 from Thermobifida fusca KW3 and the metagenome-derived LC-cutinase are bacterial polyester hydrolases capable of efficiently degrading polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Since the enzymatic PET hydrolysis is inhibited by the degradation intermediate mono-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (MHET), a dual enzyme system consisting of a polyester hydrolase and the immobilized carboxylesterase TfCa from Thermobifida fusca KW3 was employed for the hydrolysis of PET films at 60°C. HPLC analysis of the reaction products obtained after 24 h of hydrolysis showed an increased amount of soluble products with a lower proportion of MHET in the presence of the immobilized TfCa. The results indicated a continuous hydrolysis of the inhibitory MHET by the immobilized TfCa and demonstrated its advantage as a second biocatalyst in combination with a polyester hydrolase for an efficient degradation oft PET films. The dual enzyme system with LC-cutinase produced a 2.4-fold higher amount of degradation products compared to TfCut2 after a reaction time of 24 h confirming the superior activity of his polyester hydrolase against PET films. PMID:27214855

  7. Crystal structure analysis of a glycosides hydrolase family 42 cold-adapted ß-galactosidase from Rahnella sp. R3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ß-galactosidase isolated from a psychrotrophic bacterium, Rahnella sp. R3 (R-ß-Gal), exhibits high activity at low temperature. R-ß-Gal is a member of the glycoside hydrolases family 42 (GH42), and forms a 225 kDa trimeric structure in solution. The X-ray crystal structure of R-ß-Gal was determi...

  8. Purification and characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 43 Beta-xylosidase from Geobacillus thermoleovorans IT-08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 43 enzyme termed deAX was isolated and subcloned from a culture seeded with a compost starter mixed bacterium population, expressed with a C-terminal His6-tag, and purified to apparent homogeneity. deAX was monomeric in solution, and had a broad pH maxi...

  9. New mode for divalent metal activation of glycoside hydrolases: X-ray structure of ß-xyloisdase-Ca2+

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the first X-ray structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 43 ß-xylosidase, RS223BX, which is strongly activated by the addition of divalent metal cations. The 2.69 Å structure reveals that the Ca2+ cation is located at the back of the active site pocket. The Ca2+ coordinates to H274 to sta...

  10. Purification and characterization of a cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase from Nocardia tartaricans CAS-52, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziqiang; Wang, Yunshan; Su, Zhiguo

    2013-03-01

    A highly enantioselective cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase from Nocardia tartaricans was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme was purified 184-fold with a yield of 18.8 %. The purified cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase had a monomeric molecular weight of 28 kDa, and its optimum conditions were 37 °C and pH 7-9. With sodium cis-epoxysuccinate as the substrate, Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics analysis gave a Km value of 35.71 mM and a Vmax of 2.65 mM min(-1). The enzyme was activated by Ni(2+) and Al(3+), while strongly inhibited by Fe(3+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), and Ag(+). The cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase gene was cloned, and its open reading frame sequence predicted a protein composed of 253 amino acids. A pET11a expression plasmid carrying the gene under the control of the T7 promoter was introduced into Escherichia coli, and the cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase gene was successfully expressed in the recombinant strains. PMID:22552902

  11. 3-D QSAR ANALYSIS OF INHIBITION OF MURINE SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE (MSEH) BY BENZOYLUREAS, ARYLUREAS, AND THEIR ANALOGUES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two hundred and seventy-one compounds including benzoylureas, arylureas and related compounds were assayed using recombinant murine soluble epoxide hydrolase (MsEH) produced from a baculovirus expression system. Among all the insect growth regulators assayed, 18 benzoylphenylu...

  12. Emergent decarboxylase activity and attenuation of α/β-hydrolase activity during the evolution of methylketone biosynthesis in tomato.

    PubMed

    Auldridge, Michele E; Guo, Yongxia; Austin, Michael B; Ramsey, Justin; Fridman, Eyal; Pichersky, Eran; Noel, Joseph P

    2012-04-01

    Specialized methylketone-containing metabolites accumulate in certain plants, in particular wild tomatoes in which they serve as toxic compounds against chewing insects. In Solanum habrochaites f. glabratum, methylketone biosynthesis occurs in the plastids of glandular trichomes and begins with intermediates of de novo fatty acid synthesis. These fatty-acyl intermediates are converted via sequential reactions catalyzed by Methylketone Synthase2 (MKS2) and MKS1 to produce the n-1 methylketone. We report crystal structures of S. habrochaites MKS1, an atypical member of the α/β-hydrolase superfamily. Sequence comparisons revealed the MKS1 catalytic triad, Ala-His-Asn, as divergent to the traditional α/β-hydrolase triad, Ser-His-Asp. Determination of the MKS1 structure points to a novel enzymatic mechanism dependent upon residues Thr-18 and His-243, confirmed by biochemical assays. Structural analysis further reveals a tunnel leading from the active site consisting mostly of hydrophobic residues, an environment well suited for fatty-acyl chain binding. We confirmed the importance of this substrate binding mode by substituting several amino acids leading to an alteration in the acyl-chain length preference of MKS1. Furthermore, we employ structure-guided mutagenesis and functional assays to demonstrate that MKS1, unlike enzymes from this hydrolase superfamily, is not an efficient hydrolase but instead catalyzes the decarboxylation of 3-keto acids. PMID:22523203

  13. AMPEROMETRIC THICK-FILM STRIP ELECTRODES FOR MONITORING ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS BASED ON IMMOBILIZED ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of organophosphorus hydrolase
    (OPH) onto screen-printed carbon electrodes is shown useful for the rapid, sensitive, and low-cost
    detection of organophosphate (OP) nerve agents. The sensor relies upon the sensitive and ra...

  14. [The effect of antioxidants on the activity of acid hydrolases in blood leukocytes from patients with leukoplakia of mouth mucosa].

    PubMed

    Petrovich, Iu A; Mashkilleĭson, A L; Suleĭmanova, G G; Lagunov, A I

    1989-01-01

    Activity of acid hydrolases, alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase was studied in leukocytes of patients with leukoplakia of mouth mucosa before and after the treatment involving antioxidant drugs. The enzymatic activity studied was increased in leukoplakia. Cryotherapy combined with antioxidants and the treatment with antioxidants only contributed to a decrease in these enzymes activity. PMID:2617939

  15. Targeted gene inactivation in Clostridium phytofermentans shows that cellulose degradation requires the family 9 hydrolase Cphy3367

    PubMed Central

    Tolonen, Andrew C; Chilaka, Amanda C; Church, George M

    2009-01-01

    Microbial cellulose degradation is a central part of the global carbon cycle and has great potential for the development of inexpensive, carbon-neutral biofuels from non-food crops. Clostridium phytofermentans has a repertoire of 108 putative glycoside hydrolases to break down cellulose and hemicellulose into sugars, which this organism then ferments primarily to ethanol. An understanding of cellulose degradation at the molecular level requires learning the different roles of these hydrolases. In this study, we show that interspecific conjugation with Escherichia coli can be used to transfer a plasmid into C. phytofermentans that has a resistance marker, an origin of replication that can be selectively lost, and a designed group II intron for efficient, targeted chromosomal insertions without selection. We applied these methods to disrupt the cphy3367 gene, which encodes the sole family 9 glycoside hydrolase (GH9) in the C. phytofermentans genome. The GH9-deficient strain grew normally on some carbon sources such as glucose, but had lost the ability to degrade cellulose. Although C. phytofermentans upregulates the expression of numerous enzymes to break down cellulose, this process thus relies upon a single, key hydrolase, Cphy3367. PMID:19775243

  16. Xyloglucan Endotransglucosylase-Hydrolase17 Interacts with Xyloglucan Endotransglucosylase-Hydrolase31 to Confer Xyloglucan Endotransglucosylase Action and Affect Aluminum Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Wan, Jiang Xue; Sun, Ying; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Braam, Janet; Li, Gui Xin; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2014-06-19

    Previously, we reported that although the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Xyloglucan Endotransglucosylase-Hydrolase31 (XTH31) has predominately xyloglucan endohydrolase activity in vitro, loss of XTH31 results in remarkably reduced in vivo xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) action and enhanced Al resistance. Here, we report that XTH17, predicted to have XET activity, binds XTH31 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitations assays and that this interaction may be required for XTH17 XET activity in planta. XTH17 and XTH31 may be colocalized in plant cells because tagged XTH17 fusion proteins, like XTH31 fusion proteins, appear to target to the plasma membrane. XTH17 expression, like that of XTH31, was substantially reduced in the presence of aluminum (Al), even at concentrations as low as 10 µm for 24 h or 25 µm for just 30 min. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transfer DNA insertion mutant of XTH17, xth17, showed low XET action and had moderately shorter roots than the wild type but was more Al resistant than the wild type. Similar to xth31, xth17 had low hemicellulose content and retained less Al in the cell wall. These data suggest a model whereby XTH17 and XTH31 may exist as a dimer at the plasma membrane to confer in vivo XET action, which modulates cell wall Al-binding capacity and thereby affects Al sensitivity in Arabidopsis. PMID:24948835

  17. Novel corrosion inhibitor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Ven, P.; Fritz, P.; Pellet, R.

    1999-11-01

    A novel, patented corrosion inhibitor technology has been identified for use in heat transfer applications such as automotive and heavy-duty coolant. The new technology is based on a low-toxic, virtually depletion-free carboxylic acid corrosion inhibitor package that performs equally well in mono ethylene glycol and in less toxic propylene glycol coolants. An aqueous inhibitor concentrate is available to provide corrosion protection where freezing protection is not an issue. In the present paper, this inhibitor package is evaluated in the different base fluids: mono ethylene glycol, mono propylene glycol and water. Results are obtained in both standardized and specific corrosion tests as well as in selected field trials. These results indicate that the inhibitor package remains effective and retains the benefits previously identified in automotive engine coolant applications: excellent corrosion protection under localized conditions, general corrosion conditions as well as at high temperature.

  18. Development of organophosphate hydrolase activity in a bacterial homolog of human cholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Legler, Patricia M; Boisvert, Susanne M; Compton, Jaimee R; Millard, Charles B

    2014-01-01

    We applied a combination of rational design and directed evolution (DE) to Bacillus subtilis p-nitrobenzyl esterase (pNBE) with the goal of enhancing organophosphorus acid anhydride hydrolase (OPAAH) activity. DE started with a designed variant, pNBE A107H, carrying a histidine homologous with human butyrylcholinesterase G117H to find complementary mutations that further enhance its OPAAH activity. Five sites were selected (G105, G106, A107, A190, and A400) within a 6.7 Å radius of the nucleophilic serine Oγ. All 95 variants were screened for esterase activity with a set of five substrates: pNP-acetate, pNP-butyrate, acetylthiocholine, butyrylthiocholine, or benzoylthiocholine. A microscale assay for OPAAH activity was developed for screening DE libraries. Reductions in esterase activity were generally concomitant with enhancements in OPAAH activity. One variant, A107K, showed an unexpected 7-fold increase in its k cat/K m for benzoylthiocholine, demonstrating that it is also possible to enhance the cholinesterase activity of pNBE. Moreover, DE resulted in at least three variants with modestly enhanced OPAAH activity compared to wild type pNBE. A107H/A190C showed a 50-fold increase in paraoxonase activity and underwent a slow time- and temperature-dependent change affecting the hydrolysis of OPAA and ester substrates. Structural analysis suggests that pNBE may represent a precursor leading to human cholinesterase and carboxylesterase 1 through extension of two vestigial specificity loops; a preliminary attempt to transfer the Ω-loop of BChE into pNBE is described. Unlike butyrylcholinesterase and pNBE, introducing a G143H mutation (equivalent to G117H) did not confer detectable OP hydrolase activity on human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1). We discuss the use of pNBE as a surrogate scaffold for the mammalian esterases, and the importance of the oxyanion-hole residues for enhancing the OPAAH activity of selected serine hydrolases. PMID:25077141

  19. Three-dimensional Structure of Nylon Hydrolase and Mechanism of Nylon-6 Hydrolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Negoro, Seiji; Shibata, Naoki; Tanaka, Yusuke; Yasuhira, Kengo; Shibata, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Haruka; Lee, Young-Ho; Oshima, Shohei; Santa, Ryuji; Oshima, Shohei; Mochiji, Kozo; Goto, Yuji; Ikegami, Takahisa; Nagai, Keisuke; Kato, Dai-ichiro; Takeo, Masahiro; Higuchi, Yoshiki

    2012-01-01

    We performed x-ray crystallographic analyses of the 6-aminohexanoate oligomer hydrolase (NylC) from Agromyces sp. at 2.0 Å-resolution. This enzyme is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily that is responsible for the degradation of the nylon-6 industry byproduct. We observed four identical heterodimers (27 kDa + 9 kDa), which resulted from the autoprocessing of the precursor protein (36 kDa) and which constitute the doughnut-shaped quaternary structure. The catalytic residue of NylC was identified as the N-terminal Thr-267 of the 9-kDa subunit. Furthermore, each heterodimer is folded into a single domain, generating a stacked αββα core structure. Amino acid mutations at subunit interfaces of the tetramer were observed to drastically alter the thermostability of the protein. In particular, four mutations (D122G/H130Y/D36A/E263Q) of wild-type NylC from Arthrobacter sp. (plasmid pOAD2-encoding enzyme), with a heat denaturation temperature of Tm = 52 °C, enhanced the protein thermostability by 36 °C (Tm = 88 °C), whereas a single mutation (G111S or L137A) decreased the stability by ∼10 °C. We examined the enzymatic hydrolysis of nylon-6 by the thermostable NylC mutant. Argon cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses of the reaction products revealed that the major peak of nylon-6 (m/z 10,000–25,000) shifted to a smaller range, producing a new peak corresponding to m/z 1500–3000 after the enzyme treatment at 60 °C. In addition, smaller fragments in the soluble fraction were successively hydrolyzed to dimers and monomers. Based on these data, we propose that NylC should be designated as nylon hydrolase (or nylonase). Three potential uses of NylC for industrial and environmental applications are also discussed. PMID:22187439

  20. Development of organophosphate hydrolase activity in a bacterial homolog of human cholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Legler, Patricia M.; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Compton, Jaimee R.; Millard, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    We applied a combination of rational design and directed evolution (DE) to Bacillus subtilis p-nitrobenzyl esterase (pNBE) with the goal of enhancing organophosphorus acid anhydride hydrolase (OPAAH) activity. DE started with a designed variant, pNBE A107H, carrying a histidine homologous with human butyrylcholinesterase G117H to find complementary mutations that further enhance its OPAAH activity. Five sites were selected (G105, G106, A107, A190, and A400) within a 6.7 Å radius of the nucleophilic serine Oγ. All 95 variants were screened for esterase activity with a set of five substrates: pNP-acetate, pNP-butyrate, acetylthiocholine, butyrylthiocholine, or benzoylthiocholine. A microscale assay for OPAAH activity was developed for screening DE libraries. Reductions in esterase activity were generally concomitant with enhancements in OPAAH activity. One variant, A107K, showed an unexpected 7-fold increase in its kcat/Km for benzoylthiocholine, demonstrating that it is also possible to enhance the cholinesterase activity of pNBE. Moreover, DE resulted in at least three variants with modestly enhanced OPAAH activity compared to wild type pNBE. A107H/A190C showed a 50-fold increase in paraoxonase activity and underwent a slow time- and temperature-dependent change affecting the hydrolysis of OPAA and ester substrates. Structural analysis suggests that pNBE may represent a precursor leading to human cholinesterase and carboxylesterase 1 through extension of two vestigial specificity loops; a preliminary attempt to transfer the Ω-loop of BChE into pNBE is described. Unlike butyrylcholinesterase and pNBE, introducing a G143H mutation (equivalent to G117H) did not confer detectable OP hydrolase activity on human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1). We discuss the use of pNBE as a surrogate scaffold for the mammalian esterases, and the importance of the oxyanion-hole residues for enhancing the OPAAH activity of selected serine hydrolases. PMID:25077141

  1. Isolation and characterization of an extracellular glycosylated protein complex from Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum with pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonate hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Van Rijssel, M; Gerwig, G J; Hansen, T A

    1993-03-01

    An extracellular protein complex was isolated from the supernatant of a pectin-limited continuous culture of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum Haren. The complex possessed both pectin methylesterase (EC 3.1.1.11) and exo-poly-alpha-galacturonate hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.82) activity and produced digalacturonate from the nonreducing end of the pectin chain. The protein consisted of 230- and 25-kDa subunits. The large subunit contained 10% (wt/wt) sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose). Under physiological conditions both activities acted in a coordinated manner: the ratio between methanol and digalacturonate released during degradation was constant and equal to the degree of esterification of the pectin used. Prolonged incubation of the enzyme with pectin led to a nondialyzable fraction that was enriched in neutral sugars, such as arabinose, rhamnose, and galactose; the high rhamnose/galacturonic acid ratio was indicative of hairy region-like structures. The smallest substrate utilized by the hydrolase was a tetragalacturonate. Vmax with oligogalacturonates increased with increasing chain length. The Km and Vmax for the polygalacturonate hydrolase with citrus pectate as a substrate were 0.8 g liter-1 and 180 mumol min-1 mg of protein-1, respectively. The Km and Vmax for the esterase with citrus pectin as a substrate were 1.2 g liter-1 and 440 mumol min-1 mg of protein-1, respectively. The temperature optima for the hydrolase and esterase were 70 and 60 degrees C, respectively. Both enzyme activities were stable for more than 1 h at 70 degrees C. The exo-polygalacturonate hydrolase of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes was partially purified while the methylesterase was also copurified. PMID:8481009

  2. Efficient Calculation of Enzyme Reaction Free Energy Profiles Using a Hybrid Differential Relaxation Algorithm: Application to Mycobacterial Zinc Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Romero, Juan Manuel; Martin, Mariano; Ramirez, Claudia Lilián; Dumas, Victoria Gisel; Marti, Marcelo Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Determination of the free energy profile for an enzyme reaction mechanism is of primordial relevance, paving the way for our understanding of the enzyme's catalytic power at the molecular level. Although hybrid, mostly DFT-based, QM/MM methods have been extensively applied to this type of studies, achieving accurate and statistically converged results at a moderate computational cost is still an open challenge. Recently, we have shown that accurate results can be achieved in less computational time, combining Jarzynski's relationship with a hybrid differential relaxation algorithm (HyDRA), which allows partial relaxation of the solvent during the nonequilibrium steering of the reaction. In this work, we have applied this strategy to study two mycobacterial zinc hydrolases. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections are still a worldwide problem and thus characterization and validation of new drug targets is an intense field of research. Among possible drug targets, recently two essential zinc hydrolases, MshB (Rv1170) and MA-amidase (Rv3717), have been proposed and structurally characterized. Although possible mechanisms have been proposed by analogy to the widely studied human Zn hydrolases, several key issues, particularly those related to Zn coordination sphere and its role in catalysis, remained unanswered. Our results show that mycobacterial Zn hydrolases share a basic two-step mechanism. First, the attacking water becomes deprotonated by the conserved base and establishes the new C-O bond leading to a tetrahedral intermediate. The intermediate requires moderate reorganization to allow for proton transfer to the amide N and C-N bond breaking to occur in the second step. Zn ion plays a key role in stabilizing the tetrahedral intermediate and balancing the negative charge of the substrate during hydroxide ion attack. Finally, comparative analysis of other Zn hydrolases points to a convergent mechanistic evolution. PMID:26415840

  3. Advances in the development of SUMO specific protease (SENP) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Zhang, Kam Y J

    2015-01-01

    Sumoylation is a reversible post-translational modification that involves the covalent attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins to their substrate proteins. Prior to their conjugation, SUMO proteins need to be proteolytically processed from its precursor form to mature or active form. SUMO specific proteases (SENPs) are cysteine proteases that cleave the pro or inactive form of SUMO at C-terminus using its hydrolase activity to expose two glycine residues. SENPs also catalyze the de-conjugation of SUMO proteins using their isopeptidase activity, which is crucial for recycling of SUMO from substrate proteins. SENPs are important for maintaining the balance between sumoylated and unsumoylated proteins required for normal cellular physiology. Several studies reported the overexpression of SENPs in disease conditions and highlighted their role in the development of various diseases, especially cancer. In this review, we will address the current biological understanding of various SENP isoforms and their role in the pathogenesis of different cancers and other diseases. We will then discuss the advances in the development of protein-based, peptidyl and small molecule inhibitors of various SENP isoforms. Finally, we will summarize successful examples of computational screening that allowed the identification of SENP inhibitors with therapeutic potential. PMID:25893082

  4. Development of a versatile organophosphorous-hydrolase-based assay for organophosphate pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kim R.; Wang, Yi; Mulchandani, Ashok; Mulchandani, P.; Chen, Wilfred

    1999-02-01

    We report a rapid and versatile organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH)-based method for measurement of organophosphate pesticides. This assay is based on a substrate-dependant change in pH near the active site of the enzyme. The pH change is monitored using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) which is covalently immobilized to the enzyme. This method employs FITC-labeled enzyme adsorbed to polymethylmethacrylate beads. Analytes were measured using a microbead fluorescence analyzer. The dynamic concentration range for the assay extends from 25 (mu) M to 400 (mu) M for paraoxon with a detection limit of 8 (mu) M. This assay compared favorably to an HPLC method for monitoring the concentration of coumaphos in bioremediation filtrate samples.

  5. Determination of Organophosphate Pesticides at a Carbon Nanotube/Organophosphorus Hydrolase Electrochemical Biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, R P.; Wang, Joseph; Block, I; Mulchandani, Ashok; Joshi, K; Trojanowicz, M; Scholz, F; Chen, Wilfred; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-02-08

    An amperometric biosensor for organophosphorus (OP) pesticides based on a carbon-nanotube (CNT) modified transducer and an organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) biocatalyst is described. A bilayer approach with the OPH layer atop of the CNT film was used for preparing the CNT/OPH biosensor. The CNT layer leads to a greatly improved anodic detection of the enzymatically-generated p-nitrophenol product, including higher sensitivity and stability. The sensor performance was optimized with respect to the surface modification and operating conditions. Under the optimal conditions the biosensor was used to measure as low as 0.15 {micro}M paraoxon and 0.8 {micro}M methyl parathion with sensitivities of 25 and 6 nA/{micro}M, respectively.

  6. Use of Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry to Deduce Selectivity of Reaction in Glycoside Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kai; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Adams, Paul D.; Northen, Trent R.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Chemically synthesized nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) probes derivatized with tetrasaccharides were used to study the reactivity of representative Clostridium thermocellum β-glucosidase, endoglucanases, and cellobiohydrolase. Diagnostic patterns for reactions of these different classes of enzymes were observed. Results show sequential removal of glucose by the β-glucosidase and a progressive increase in specificity of reaction from endoglucanases to cellobiohydrolase. Time-dependent reactions of these polysaccharide-selective enzymes were modeled by numerical integration, which provides a quantitative basis to make functional distinctions among a continuum of naturally evolved catalytic properties. Consequently, our method, which combines automated protein translation with high-sensitivity and time-dependent detection of multiple products, provides a new approach to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic trees with functional measurements. PMID:26579511

  7. A glycoside hydrolase family 31 dextranase with high transglucosylation activity from Flavobacterium johnsoniae.

    PubMed

    Gozu, Yoshifumi; Ishizaki, Yuichi; Hosoyama, Yuhei; Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 31 enzymes exhibit various substrate specificities, although the majority of members are α-glucosidases. Here, we constructed a heterologous expression system of a GH31 enzyme, Fjoh_4430, from Flavobacterium johnsoniae NBRC 14942, using Escherichia coli, and characterized its enzymatic properties. The enzyme hydrolyzed dextran and pullulan to produce isomaltooligosaccharides and isopanose, respectively. When isomaltose was used as a substrate, the enzyme catalyzed disproportionation to form isomaltooligosaccharides. The enzyme also acted, albeit inefficiently, on p-nitrophenyl α-D-glucopyranoside, and p-nitrophenyl α-isomaltoside was the main product of the reaction. In contrast, Fjoh_4430 did not act on trehalose, kojibiose, nigerose, maltose, maltotriose, or soluble starch. The optimal pH and temperature were pH 6.0 and 60 °C, respectively. Our results indicate that Fjoh_4430 is a novel GH31 dextranase with high transglucosylation activity. PMID:27170214

  8. Cytochemical localization of some hydrolases in the pollen and pollen tubes of Amaryllis vittata Ait.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D

    1982-01-01

    Some hydrolases are localized cytochemically in the pollen and pollen tubes of Amaryllis vittata Ait. The function of different enzymes is discussed in relation to pollen tubes morphogenesis. Activity of most of the enzymes was confined to colpus region, pollen wall and general cytoplasm of pollen and pollen tube. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes like acid monophosphoesterase and lipase and was nil in the exine of both germinated and ungerminated pollen, whereas intense reaction for esterase was observed in exine. Enzyme activity increased after germination which suggest the hydrolysis of stored metabolites and synthesis of proteins and other metabolites for the active growth of pollen tube. Intense reaction for enzymes like alkaline phosphomonoesterase, ATP-ase, 5-nucleotidase etc. at the tip region of pollen tube suggest their role in physiological processes associated with exchange of materials through intercellular transport during tube wall polysaccharide biogenesis. PMID:6298081

  9. Searching for monooxygenases and hydrolases in bacteria from an extreme environment.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Georgiana F; Angolini, Célio F F; de Oliveira, Luciana G; Lopes, Patrícia F; de Vasconcellos, Suzan P; Crespim, Elaine; de Oliveira, Valéria M; dos Santos Neto, Eugênio V; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2010-06-01

    Microbial oxidation potentials of extremophiles recovered from Pampo Sul oil field, Campos Basin, Brazil, in pure culture or in consortia, were investigated using high-throughput screening (HTS) and multibioreactions. Camphor (1), cis-jasmone (2), 2-methyl-cyclohexanone (3), 1,2-epoxyoctane (4), phenylethyl acetate (5), phenylethyl propionate (6), and phenylethyl octanoate (7) were used to perform multibioreaction assays. Eighty-two bacterial isolates were recovered from oil and formation water samples and those presenting outstanding activities in HTS assays were identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. These results revealed that most microorganisms belonged to the genus Bacillus and presented alcohol dehydrogenase, monooxygenase, epoxide hydrolase, esterase, and lipase activities. PMID:20204614

  10. Effect of Bleomycin Hydrolase Gene Polymorphism on Late Pulmonary Complications of Treatment for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Miltényi, Zsófia; Póliska, Szilárd; Bálint, Bálint László; Illés, Árpád

    2016-01-01

    Background Bleomycin hydrolase (BLMH), an enzyme that inactivates bleomycin, may be a potential candidate that could influence pulmonary function in ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastin, dacarbasine)–treated Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. Patients and Methods We hypothesized that the BLMH gene SNP A1450G (rs1050565) influences BLMH activity and late pulmonary toxicity. St. George Respiratory Questionnaire, lung scintigraphy and spirometry were used to determine lung function. TaqMan genotyping assay was used to determine genotype distribution of 131 previously treated HL patients. Results Significantly more favorable results were seen in the wild-type A/A genotype group than those in the group containing the mutated allele: A/G+G/G in retrospective pulmonary tests of ABVD treated patients. Conclusion Besides limitations of the current study, bleomycin pharmacokinetics should be further evaluated in patients with BLMH variations, hence identify those cases even in the frontline setting, where bleomycin should be omitted and replaced with targeted therapy. PMID:27327270

  11. A formin-nucleated actin aster concentrates cell wall hydrolases for cell fusion in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dudin, Omaya; Bendezú, Felipe O.; Groux, Raphael; Laroche, Thierry; Seitz, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Cell–cell fusion is essential for fertilization. For fusion of walled cells, the cell wall must be degraded at a precise location but maintained in surrounding regions to protect against lysis. In fission yeast cells, the formin Fus1, which nucleates linear actin filaments, is essential for this process. In this paper, we show that this formin organizes a specific actin structure—the actin fusion focus. Structured illumination microscopy and live-cell imaging of Fus1, actin, and type V myosins revealed an aster of actin filaments whose barbed ends are focalized near the plasma membrane. Focalization requires Fus1 and type V myosins and happens asynchronously always in the M cell first. Type V myosins are essential for fusion and concentrate cell wall hydrolases, but not cell wall synthases, at the fusion focus. Thus, the fusion focus focalizes cell wall dissolution within a broader cell wall synthesis zone to shift from cell growth to cell fusion. PMID:25825517

  12. Peroxisomal translocation of soluble epoxide hydrolase protects against ischemic stroke injury

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jonathan W; Zhang, Wenri; Alkayed, Nabil J; Koerner, Ines P

    2015-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) contributes to cardiovascular disease, including stroke, although the exact mechanism remains unclear. While primarily a cytosolic enzyme, sEH can translocate into peroxisomes. The relevance of this for stroke injury is not understood. We tested the hypothesis that sEH-mediated injury is tied to the cytoplasmic localization. We found that a human sEH variant possessing increased affinity to peroxisomes reduced stroke injury in sEH-null mice, whereas infarcts were significantly larger when peroxisomal translocation of sEH was disrupted. We conclude that sEH contributes to stroke injury only when localized in the cytoplasm, while peroxisomal sEH may be protective. PMID:26126869

  13. [Molecular engineering of cellulase catalytic domain based on glycoside hydrolase family].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Li, Dandan; Wang, Lushan; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Guanjun

    2013-04-01

    Molecular engineering of cellulases can improve enzymatic activity and efficiency. Recently, the Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes Database (CAZy), including glycoside hydrolase (GH) families, has been established with the development of Omics and structural measurement technologies. Molecular engineering based on GH families can obviously decrease the probing space of target sequences and structures, and increase the odds of experimental success. Besides, the study of cellulase active-site architecture paves the way toward the explanation of catalytic mechanism. This review focuses on the main GH families and the latest progresses in molecular engineering of catalytic domain. Based on the combination of analysis of a large amount of data in the same GH family and their conservative active-site architecture information, rational design will be an important direction for molecular engineering and promote the rapid development of the conversion of biomass. PMID:23894816

  14. Chitosanases from Family 46 of Glycoside Hydrolases: From Proteins to Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Viens, Pascal; Lacombe-Harvey, Marie-Ève; Brzezinski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Chitosanases, enzymes that catalyze the endo-hydrolysis of glycolytic links in chitosan, are the subject of numerous studies as biotechnological tools to generate low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) or chitosan oligosaccharides (CHOS) from native, high molecular weight chitosan. Glycoside hydrolases belonging to family GH46 are among the best-studied chitosanases, with four crystallography-derived structures available and more than forty enzymes studied at the biochemical level. They were also subjected to numerous site-directed mutagenesis studies, unraveling the molecular mechanisms of hydrolysis. This review is focused on the taxonomic distribution of GH46 proteins, their multi-modular character, the structure-function relationships and their biological functions in the host organisms. PMID:26516868

  15. Chemical constituents from the root of Polygonum multiflorum and their soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya Nan; Li, Wei; Kim, Jang Hoon; Yan, Xi Tao; Kim, Ji Eun; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-06-01

    Fourteen compounds were isolated from a methanol extract of Polygonum multiflorum roots, and their structures were elucidated by comparing spectroscopic data to published spectra. The inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were then evaluated. Compounds 1-7 inhibited sEH activity potently, with IC50 values ranging from 6.2 ± 0.5 to 48.6 ± 3.1 μM. Moreover, a kinetic analysis of compounds 1-7 revealed that the inhibitory actions of compounds 1, 3 and 4 were non-competitive, whereas those of compounds 2 and 5-7 were mixed-type. PMID:25413971

  16. Use of Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry to Deduce Selectivity of Reaction in Glycoside Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Takasuka, Taichi E; Bianchetti, Christopher M; Bergeman, Lai F; Adams, Paul D; Northen, Trent R; Fox, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Chemically synthesized nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) probes derivatized with tetrasaccharides were used to study the reactivity of representative Clostridium thermocellum β-glucosidase, endoglucanases, and cellobiohydrolase. Diagnostic patterns for reactions of these different classes of enzymes were observed. Results show sequential removal of glucose by the β-glucosidase and a progressive increase in specificity of reaction from endoglucanases to cellobiohydrolase. Time-dependent reactions of these polysaccharide-selective enzymes were modeled by numerical integration, which provides a quantitative basis to make functional distinctions among a continuum of naturally evolved catalytic properties. Consequently, our method, which combines automated protein translation with high-sensitivity and time-dependent detection of multiple products, provides a new approach to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic trees with functional measurements. PMID:26579511

  17. A classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities.

    PubMed Central

    Henrissat, B

    1991-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of 301 glycosyl hydrolases and related enzymes have been compared. A total of 291 sequences corresponding to 39 EC entries could be classified into 35 families. Only ten sequences (less than 5% of the sample) could not be assigned to any family. With the sequences available for this analysis, 18 families were found to be monospecific (containing only one EC number) and 17 were found to be polyspecific (containing at least two EC numbers). Implications on the folding characteristics and mechanism of action of these enzymes and on the evolution of carbohydrate metabolism are discussed. With the steady increase in sequence and structural data, it is suggested that the enzyme classification system should perhaps be revised. PMID:1747104

  18. Towards a molecular-level theory of carbohydrate processivity in glycoside hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Beckham, Gregg T; Ståhlberg, Jerry; Knott, Brandon C; Himmel, Michael E; Crowley, Michael F; Sandgren, Mats; Sørlie, Morten; Payne, Christina M

    2014-06-01

    Polysaccharide depolymerization in nature is primarily accomplished by processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), which abstract single carbohydrate chains from polymer crystals and cleave glycosidic linkages without dissociating after each catalytic event. Understanding the molecular-level features and structural aspects of processivity is of importance due to the prevalence of processive GHs in biomass-degrading enzyme cocktails. Here, we describe recent advances towards the development of a molecular-level theory of processivity for cellulolytic and chitinolytic enzymes, including the development of novel methods for measuring rates of key steps in processive action and insights gained from structural and computational studies. Overall, we present a framework for developing structure-function relationships in processive GHs and outline additional progress towards developing a fundamental understanding of these industrially important enzymes. PMID:24863902

  19. Fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases bind starch and β-cyclodextrin similarly to amylolytic hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Nekiunaite, Laura; Isaksen, Trine; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2016-08-01

    Starch-binding modules of family 20 (CBM20) are present in 60% of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) catalyzing the oxidative breakdown of starch, which highlights functional importance in LPMO activity. The substrate-binding properties of starch-active LMPOs, however, are currently unexplored. Affinities and binding-thermodynamics of two recombinant fungal LPMOs toward starch and β-cyclodextrin were shown to be similar to fungal CBM20s. Amplex Red assays showed ascorbate and Cu-dependent activity, which was inhibited in the presence of β-cylodextrin and amylose. Phylogenetically, the clustering of CBM20s from starch-targeting LPMOs and hydrolases was in accord with taxonomy and did not correlate to appended catalytic activity. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the CBM20-binding scaffold is retained in the evolution of hydrolytic and oxidative starch-degrading activities. PMID:27397613

  20. Synthesis of novel bioactive lactose-derived oligosaccharides by microbial glycoside hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Municio, Marina; Herrero, Miguel; Olano, Agustín; Moreno, F Javier

    2014-01-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are increasingly demanded within the Food Science domain because of the interesting healthy properties that these compounds may induce to the organism, thanks to their beneficial intestinal microbiota growth promotion ability. In this regard, the development of new efficient, convenient and affordable methods to obtain this class of compounds might expand even further their use as functional ingredients. This review presents an overview on the most recent interesting approaches to synthesize lactose-derived oligosaccharides with potential prebiotic activity paying special focus on the microbial glycoside hydrolases that can be effectively employed to obtain these prebiotic compounds. The most notable advantages of using lactose-derived carbohydrates such as lactosucrose, galactooligosaccharides from lactulose, lactulosucrose and 2-α-glucosyl-lactose are also described and commented. PMID:24690139

  1. Extensive hydrolysis of phosphonates as unexpected behaviour of the known His6-organophosphorus hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Lyagin, Ilya V; Andrianova, Mariia S; Efremenko, Elena N

    2016-07-01

    The catalytic activity of hexahistidine-tagged organophosphorus hydrolase (His6-OPH) in hydrolytic reactions of methylphosphonic acid (MPA) and its monoesters and diesters being decomposition products of R-VX was demonstrated for the first time. The catalytic constants of enzyme in such reactions were determined. The mechanism of C-P bond cleavage in the MPA by His6-OPH was proposed. Such reaction was estimated to be carried out with the soluble and nanocapsulated forms of His6-OPH. His6-OPH was demonstrated to be capable of degrading the key organophosphorus components of reaction masses (RMs) that are produced by the chemical detoxification of R-VX and RMs are multi-substrate mixtures for this enzyme. The kinetic model describing the behaviour of His6-OPH in RMs was proposed and was shown to adequately fit experimental points during degradation of the real samples of RMs. PMID:26932546

  2. Chitosanases from Family 46 of Glycoside Hydrolases: From Proteins to Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Viens, Pascal; Lacombe-Harvey, Marie-Ève; Brzezinski, Ryszard

    2015-11-01

    Chitosanases, enzymes that catalyze the endo-hydrolysis of glycolytic links in chitosan, are the subject of numerous studies as biotechnological tools to generate low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) or chitosan oligosaccharides (CHOS) from native, high molecular weight chitosan. Glycoside hydrolases belonging to family GH46 are among the best-studied chitosanases, with four crystallography-derived structures available and more than forty enzymes studied at the biochemical level. They were also subjected to numerous site-directed mutagenesis studies, unraveling the molecular mechanisms of hydrolysis. This review is focused on the taxonomic distribution of GH46 proteins, their multi-modular character, the structure-function relationships and their biological functions in the host organisms. PMID:26516868

  3. Structural and kinetic insights into the mechanism of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2011-07-19

    The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin has recently been demonstrated to proceed via two unstable intermediates and requires three separate enzymatic reactions. The second step of this reaction, the conversion of 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) to 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline, is catalyzed by HIU hydrolase (HIUH). The high-resolution crystal structure of HIUH from the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpHIUH) has been determined. KpHIUH is a homotetrameric protein that, based on sequence and structural similarity, belongs to the transthyretin-related protein family. In addition, the steady-state kinetic parameters for this enzyme and four active-site mutants have been measured. These data provide valuable insight into the functional roles of the active-site residues. Based upon the structural and kinetic data, a mechanism is proposed for the KpHIUH-catalyzed reaction.

  4. Structure of Acidothermus cellulolyticus family 74 glycoside hydrolase at 1.82 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Alahuhta, Markus; Adney, William S.; Himmel, Michael E.; Lunin, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    Here, a 1.82 Å resolution X-ray structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 74 (GH74) enzyme from Acidothermus cellulolyticus is reported. The resulting structure was refined to an R factor of 0.150 and an R free of 0.196. Structural analysis shows that five related structures have been reported with a secondary-structure similarity of between 75 and 89%. The five similar structures were all either Clostridium thermocellum or Geotrichum sp. M128 GH74 xyloglucanases. Structural analysis indicates that the A. cellulolyticus GH74 enzyme is an endoxyloglucanase, as it lacks a characteristic loop that blocks one end of the active site in exoxyloglucanases. Superimposition with the C. thermocellum GH74 shows that Asp451 and Asp38 are the catalytic residues. PMID:24316824

  5. Screening of telomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kleideiter, Elke; Piotrowska, Kamilla; Klotz, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Shortening of telomeres prevents cells from uncontrolled proliferation. Progressive telomere shortening occurs at each cell division until a critical telomeric length is reached. Telomerase expression is switched off after embryonic differentiation in most normal cells, but it is expressed in a very high percentage of tumors of different origin. Thus, telomerase is regarded as the best tumor marker and a promising novel molecular target for cancer treatment. Therefore, different strategies to inhibit telomerase have been developed. However, systematic screening of telomerase inhibitors has not been performed to compare their therapeutic potential. We propose a suitable strategy for estimation of the therapeutic potential of telomerase inhibitors, which is based on a systematic screening of different inhibitors in the same cell system. From the long list of compounds discussed in the literature, we have selected four telomerase inhibitors of different structure and mode of action: BRACO19 (G-quadruplex-interactive compound), BIBR1532 (non-nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitor), 2'-O-methyl RNA, and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs; hTR antisense oligonucleotides). To determine minimal effective concentrations for telomerase inhibition, telomerase activity was measured using the cell-free telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. We also tested inhibitors in long-term cell-culture experiments by exposing A-549 cells to non-cytotoxic concentrations of inhibitors for a period of 99 days. Subsequently, telomerase activity of A-549 cells was investigated using the TRAP assay, and telomere length of samples was assessed by telomere restriction fragment (TRF) Southern blot analysis. PMID:18369824

  6. First Structural Insights into α-l-Arabinofuranosidases from the Two GH62 Glycoside Hydrolase Subfamilies*

    PubMed Central

    Siguier, Béatrice; Haon, Mireille; Nahoum, Virginie; Marcellin, Marlène; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Mourey, Lionel; O'Donohue, Michael J.; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Tranier, Samuel; Dumon, Claire

    2014-01-01

    α-l-Arabinofuranosidases are glycoside hydrolases that specifically hydrolyze non-reducing residues from arabinose-containing polysaccharides. In the case of arabinoxylans, which are the main components of hemicellulose, they are part of microbial xylanolytic systems and are necessary for complete breakdown of arabinoxylans. Glycoside hydrolase family 62 (GH62) is currently a small family of α-l-arabinofuranosidases that contains only bacterial and fungal members. Little is known about the GH62 mechanism of action, because only a few members have been biochemically characterized and no three-dimensional structure is available. Here, we present the first crystal structures of two fungal GH62 α-l-arabinofuranosidases from the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis (UmAbf62A) and ascomycete Podospora anserina (PaAbf62A). Both enzymes are able to efficiently remove the α-l-arabinosyl substituents from arabinoxylan. The overall three-dimensional structure of UmAbf62A and PaAbf62A reveals a five-bladed β-propeller fold that confirms their predicted classification into clan GH-F together with GH43 α-l-arabinofuranosidases. Crystallographic structures of the complexes with arabinose and cellotriose reveal the important role of subsites +1 and +2 for sugar binding. Intriguingly, we observed that PaAbf62A was inhibited by cello-oligosaccharides and displayed binding affinity to cellulose although no activity was observed on a range of cellulosic substrates. Bioinformatic analyses showed that UmAbf62A and PaAbf62A belong to two distinct subfamilies within the GH62 family. The results presented here provide a framework to better investigate the structure-function relationships within the GH62 family. PMID:24394409

  7. Cloning and characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from Cupriavidus metallidurans-CH34.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjai; Wani, Shadil Ibrahim; Chauhan, Nar Singh; Sharma, Rakesh; Sareen, Dipti

    2011-09-01

    A putative epoxide hydrolase-encoding gene was identified from the genome sequence of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34. The gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli with His(6)-tag at its N-terminus. The epoxide hydrolase (CMEH) was purified to near homogeneity and was found to be a homodimer, with subunit molecular weight of 36 kDa. The CMEH had broad substrate specificity as it could hydrolyze 13 epoxides, out of 15 substrates tested. CMEH had high specific activity with 1,2-epoxyoctane, 1,2-epoxyhexane, styrene oxide (SO) and was also found to be active with meso-epoxides. The enzyme had optimum pH and temperature of 7.5 and 37°C respectively, with racemic SO. Biotransformation of 80 mM SO with recombinant whole E. coli cells expressing CMEH led to 56% ee(P) of (R)-diol with 77.23% conversion in 30 min. The enzyme could hydrolyze (R)-SO, ∼2-fold faster than (S)-SO, though it accepted both (R)- and (S)-SO with similar affinity as K(m)(R) and K(m)(S) of CMEH were 2.05±0.42 and 2.11±0.16 mM, respectively. However, the k(cat)(R) and k(cat)(S) for the two enantiomers of SO were 4.80 and 3.34 s(-1), respectively. The wide substrate spectrum exhibited by CMEH combined with the fast conversion rate makes it a robust biocatalyst for industrial use. Regioselectivity studies with enantiopure (R)- and (S)-SO revealed that with slightly altered regioselectivity, CMEH has a high potential to synthesize an enantiopure (R)-PED, through an enantioconvergent hydrolytic process. PMID:21515382

  8. Novel β-1,4-Mannanase Belonging to a New Glycoside Hydrolase Family in Aspergillus nidulans*

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Motoyuki; Kaneko, Yuhei; Ishihara, Saaya; Mochizuki, Mai; Sakai, Kiyota; Yamada, Miyuki; Murata, Shunsuke; Itoh, Eriko; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Sugimura, Yu; Hirano, Tatsuya; Takaya, Naoki; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Kato, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Many filamentous fungi produce β-mannan-degrading β-1,4-mannanases that belong to the glycoside hydrolase 5 (GH5) and GH26 families. Here we identified a novel β-1,4-mannanase (Man134A) that belongs to a new glycoside hydrolase (GH) family (GH134) in Aspergillus nidulans. Blast analysis of the amino acid sequence using the NCBI protein database revealed that this enzyme had no similarity to any sequences and no putative conserved domains. Protein homologs of the enzyme were distributed to limited fungal and bacterial species. Man134A released mannobiose (M2), mannotriose (M3), and mannotetraose (M4) but not mannopentaose (M5) or higher manno-oligosaccharides when galactose-free β-mannan was the substrate from the initial stage of the reaction, suggesting that Man134A preferentially reacts with β-mannan via a unique catalytic mode. Man134A had high catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) toward mannohexaose (M6) compared with the endo-β-1,4-mannanase Man5C and notably converted M6 to M2, M3, and M4, with M3 being the predominant reaction product. The action of Man5C toward β-mannans was synergistic. The growth phenotype of a Man134A disruptant was poor when β-mannans were the sole carbon source, indicating that Man134A is involved in β-mannan degradation in vivo. These findings indicate a hitherto undiscovered mechanism of β-mannan degradation that is enhanced by the novel β-1,4-mannanase, Man134A, when combined with other mannanolytic enzymes including various endo-β-1,4-mannanases. PMID:26385921

  9. Dysregulation of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase and Lipidomic Profiles in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Pei-an Betty; Yang, Jun; Morisseau, Christophe; German, J. Bruce; Van Zeeland, Ashley; Armando, Aaron M.; Quehenberger, Oswald; Bergen, Andrew W.; Magistretti, Pierre; Berrettini, Wade; Halmi, Katherine Ann; Schork, Nicholas; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kaye, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict eating and become emaciated. AN tend to have an aversion to foods rich in fat. Because Epoxide Hydrolase 2 (EPHX2) was identified as a novel AN susceptibility gene, and because its protein product, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), converts bioactive epoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to the corresponding diols, lipidomic and metabolomic targets of EPHX2 were assessed to evaluate the biological functions of EPHX2 and their role in AN. Epoxide substrates of sEH and associated oxylipins were measured in ill AN, recovered AN, and gender- and race-matched controls. PUFA and oxylipin markers were tested as potential biomarkers for AN. Oxylipin ratios were calculated as proxy markers of in vivo sEH activity. Several free- and total PUFAs were associated with AN diagnosis and with AN recovery. AN displayed elevated n-3 PUFAs and may differ from controls in PUFA elongation and desaturation processes. Cytochrome P450 pathway oxylipins from arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid PUFAs are associated with AN diagnosis. The diol:epoxide ratios suggest the sEH activity is higher in AN compared to controls. Multivariate analysis illustrates normalization of lipidomic profiles in recovered ANs. EPHX2 influences AN risk through in vivo interaction with dietary PUFAs. PUFA composition and concentrations as well as sEH activity may contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of AN. Our data support the involvement of EPHX2-associated lipidomic and oxylipin dysregulations in AN, and reveal their potential as biomarkers to assess responsiveness to future intervention or treatment. PMID:25824304

  10. Determinants of Reactivity and Selectivity in Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase from Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Modeling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an enzyme involved in drug metabolism that catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxides to form their corresponding diols. sEH has a broad substrate range and shows high regio- and enantioselectivity for nucleophilic ring opening by Asp333. Epoxide hydrolases therefore have potential synthetic applications. We have used combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) umbrella sampling molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (at the AM1/CHARMM22 level) and high-level ab initio (SCS-MP2) QM/MM calculations to analyze the reactions, and determinants of selectivity, for two substrates: trans-stilbene oxide (t-SO) and trans-diphenylpropene oxide (t-DPPO). The calculated free energy barriers from the QM/MM (AM1/CHARMM22) umbrella sampling MD simulations show a lower barrier for phenyl attack in t-DPPO, compared with that for benzylic attack, in agreement with experiment. Activation barriers in agreement with experimental rate constants are obtained only with the highest level of QM theory (SCS-MP2) used. Our results show that the selectivity of the ring-opening reaction is influenced by several factors, including proximity to the nucleophile, electronic stabilization of the transition state, and hydrogen bonding to two active site tyrosine residues. The protonation state of His523 during nucleophilic attack has also been investigated, and our results show that the protonated form is most consistent with experimental findings. The work presented here illustrates how determinants of selectivity can be identified from QM/MM simulations. These insights may also provide useful information for the design of novel catalysts for use in the synthesis of enantiopure compounds. PMID:22280021

  11. Role of leukotriene A4 hydrolase aminopeptidase in the pathogenesis of emphysema1

    PubMed Central

    Paige, Mikell; Wang, Kan; Burdick, Marie; Park, Sunhye; Cha, Josiah; Jeffrey, Erin; Sherman, Nicholas; Shim, Y. Michael

    2014-01-01

    The leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) is a bi-functional enzyme with an epoxy hydrolase and aminopeptidase activities. We hypothesize that the LTA4H aminopeptidase activity alleviates neutrophilic inflammation, which contributes to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema by clearing Proline-Glycine-Proline (PGP), a tri-amino acid chemokine known to induce chemotaxis of neutrophils. To investigate the biological contributions made by the LTA4H aminopeptidase activity in CS-induced emphysema, we exposed wild type mice to CS over five months while treating them with a vehicle or a pharmaceutical agent (4MDM) that selectively augments the LTA4H aminopeptidase without affecting the bio-production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Emphysematous phenotypes were assessed by pre mortem lung physiology with a small animal ventilator and by postmortem histologic morphometry. CS exposure acidified the airspaces and induced localization of the LTA4H protein into the nuclei of the epithelial cells. This resulted in accumulation of PGP in the airspaces by suppressing the LTA4H aminopeptidase activity. When the LTA4H aminopeptidase activity was selectively augmented by 4MDM, the levels of PGP in the BALF and infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs were significant reduced without affecting the levels of LTB4. This protected murine lungs from CS-induced emphysematous alveolar remodeling. In conclusion, CS exposure promotes the development of CS-induced emphysema by suppressing the enzymatic activities of the LTA4H aminopeptidase in lung tissues and accumulating PGP and neutrophils in the airspaces. However, restoring the LTA4 aminopeptidase activity with a pharmaceutical agent protected murine lungs from developing CS-induced emphysema. PMID:24771855