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Sample records for adolescence late adolescence

  1. Differential Parenting between Mothers and Fathers: Implications for Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although the relationship between parenting and outcomes for children and adolescents has been examined, differences between maternal and paternal parenting styles have received less attention, particularly in the case of late adolescents. As a result, this article examines the relationship between late adolescents' perceptions of their mothers'…

  2. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-04-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys.

  3. School Mobility during Childhood Predicts Psychotic Symptoms in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Wolke, Dieter; Bryson, Alex; Thompson, Andrew; Singh, Swaran P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, school mobility was identified as a risk factor for psychotic symptoms in early adolescence. The extent to which this risk continues into late adolescence and the trajectories via which this risk manifests remain unexplored. Methods: Psychotic symptoms in 4,720 adolescents aged 18 were ascertained by trained psychologists…

  4. Loneliness and Alcoholism Risk in Late Adolescence: A Comparative Study of Adults and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Cole, Galen E.

    1991-01-01

    Administered Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test to subjects over age 18. Among late adolescents (aged 18 to 20), lonely females had highest mean scores, indicating higher degree of alcoholism risk than lonely males and nonlonely subjects. For males, loneliness appeared to increase alcoholism risk, not in late adolescence, but during early…

  5. Attachment, Coping, and Attributional Style in Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberger, Ellen; McLaughlin, Caitlin

    This study examined the relationships of early and current attachment styles to the coping strategies late adolescents employ when faced with problems and to the attributions they make concerning their successes and failures. Subjects were 157 late adolescents, ages 18 to 22, taken from an ethnically diverse sample of university students. Subjects…

  6. Late Adolescent Identity Development: Narrative Meaning Making and Memory Telling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Kate C.

    2005-01-01

    Personally important autobiographical memories are the smallest unit of the life story, which begins to emerge in adolescence. This study examined 2 features of self-defining memories in late adolescence, the meaning made of the memories to garner an understanding of the narrative construction of identity as a life story and how those memories…

  7. Rejection Sensitivity in Late Adolescence: Social and Emotional Sequelae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multireporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents' social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a 3-year period, even after accounting for teens' baseline level of…

  8. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  9. Parental Attachment and Identity in Portuguese Late Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Paula Mena; Barbosa, Sonia; de Almeida, Helena Milheiro; Costa, Maria Emilia

    1999-01-01

    Based on life span attachment perspective and on identity status paradigm, this study investigated the relationship between attachment and identity in a sample of 361 Portuguese late adolescents as a function of parental and adolescent gender. The results indicated gender differences in the association between attachment variables and identity…

  10. Longitudinal study of defense mechanisms: late childhood to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe

    2007-02-01

    Based on longitudinal data from the Institute of Human Development Intergenerational Study, the use and change in defense mechanisms of more than 150 individuals, as assessed from TAT stories, was studied across ages 11, 12, and 18. The findings of this study, based on an earlier generation, were generally consistent with cross-sectional findings from current samples, showing that the defenses of projection and identification were used more frequently than denial at all three ages and that the use of projection and identification increased from early to late adolescence. However, unlike current findings, the 18-year-olds did not show greater use of identification than of projection, perhaps due to IQ differences between this community sample and the samples of more recent studies.

  11. Parental and Late Adolescent Psychopathology: Mothers May Provide Support When Needed Most

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…

  12. Close Relationships and Attributions for Peer Victimization among Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of close relationships (best friendship and romantic relationship) on late adolescents' casual attributions for peer victimization. A total of 1106 twelfth grade students completed self-report measures of perceived peer victimization, self-blame attribution, psychological maladjustment (loneliness and social…

  13. Family of Origin Influences on Late Adolescent Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Mark J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Single, never-married late adolescents (n=977) completed measures regarding trait anxiety, family dynamics in family of origin, and communication patterns in romantic relationships. Found that dynamics of fusion and control were associated with higher anxiety and were related to communication in romantic relationships. Triangulation in family of…

  14. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  15. Stress, Self-Esteem, and Suicidal Ideation in Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilburn, Victor R.; Smith, Delores E.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The…

  16. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18) were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  17. Precursors and Correlates of Anxiety Trajectories from Late Childhood to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana; Toumbourou, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research employed a prospective, multi-informant design to examine precursors and correlates of differing anxiety profiles from late childhood to late adolescence. The sample consisted of 626 boys and 667 girls who are participants in the Australian Temperament Project, a large, longitudinal, community-based study that has followed…

  18. The epidemiology of acne vulgaris in late adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Darren D; Umari, Tamara; Dunnick, Cory A; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Importance Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15–19-year olds) remains lacking. Objective To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15–19-year olds) and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Design Database summary study. Setting Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Participants Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Main outcomes and measures Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons) associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Conclusion and relevance Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous opportunities for enhanced patient care. To that end, we highlight some of the effective and promising treatments currently available and address important factors, such as sex, nationality, genetics, pathophysiology, and diet, as they relate to acne vulgaris in late adolescence. PMID:26955297

  19. Late adolescent perceptions of parent religiosity and parenting processes.

    PubMed

    Snider, J Blake; Clements, Andrea; Vazsonyi, Alexander T

    2004-12-01

    The current investigation examined the relations between adolescent reports of parent religiosity and parenting processes, using both a dimensional and a typological conceptualization of parenting. Self-report data were collected from 357 late adolescents. Partial correlations indicated that parent religiosity was associated with both parenting dimensions and parenting styles in conceptually expected directions. Regression analyses provided evidence that the dimensional conceptualization of parenting explained additional variability in perceived parental religiosity above and beyond parenting style effects. Findings suggest that a dimensional conceptualization of parenting processes extends the literature on parent religiosity because it yields more nuanced information about how parental religiosity may be related to differentiated parenting behaviors. Potential therapeutic implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. Body Image and First Sexual Intercourse in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Ram, Nilam; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual behavior is associated with body image, but the directionality of this association is unclear. This study used longitudinal data from a sample of previously abstinent college students (N = 100, 45% female, 49% European American, 26% Latino American, 25% African American) to test whether satisfaction with appearance changed after first intercourse. Male students were more satisfied with their appearance after first intercourse, whereas female students became slightly less satisfied with their appearance. These findings demonstrate that first intercourse can lead to changes in well-being, even if the transition takes places in late adolescence. In addition, they suggest that gendered cultural expectations regarding sexual behavior are associated with differing psychological outcomes for male and female adolescents. PMID:20488512

  1. Longitudinal study of striatal activation to reward and loss anticipation from mid-adolescence into late adolescence/early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lamm, C; Benson, B E; Guyer, A E; Perez-Edgar, K; Fox, N A; Pine, D S; Ernst, M

    2014-08-01

    Adolescent risk-taking behavior has been associated with age-related changes in striatal activation to incentives. Previous cross-sectional studies have shown both increased and decreased striatal activation to incentives for adolescents compared to adults. The monetary incentive delay (MID) task, designed to assess functional brain activation in anticipation of reward, has been used extensively to examine striatal activation in both adult and adolescent populations. The current study used this task with a longitudinal approach across mid-adolescence and late adolescence/early adulthood. Twenty-two participants (13 male) were studied using the MID task at two time-points, once in mid-adolescence (mean age=16.11; SD=1.44) and a second time in late adolescence/early adulthood (mean age=20.14; SD=.67). Results revealed greater striatal activation with increased age in high- compared to low-incentive contexts (incentive magnitude), for gain as well as for loss trials (incentive valence). Results extend cross-sectional findings and show reduced striatal engagement in adolescence compared to adulthood during preparation for action in an incentive context.

  2. Transitions in Gambling Participation during Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Bethany C.; Lee, Grace P.; Liu, Weiwei; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine transitions in gambling participation from late adolescence into emerging adulthood, and to identify factors (i.e., gender, race, intervention status, lunch status, conduct disorder, parental monitoring, neighborhood environment, and substance use) that might influence these transitions. Methods Markov modeling was used to describe movement between past-year gambling states (i.e., non-gambling and gambling) over five years. Annual data on past-year gambling behavior and substance use were collected from 515 young men and women starting at age 17. Results Past-year gambling declined from 51% prevalence at age 17 to 21% prevalence at age 22. Participants who reported no past-year gambling at a particular annual assessment had more than an 80% probability of also reporting no past-year gambling at the following assessment. Men were 1.07–2.82 times more likely than women to transition from past-year non-gambling to gambling year-to-year, and women were 1.27–5.26 times more likely than men to transition from past-year gambling to non-gambling year-to-year. In addition, gender and past-year tobacco use interacted such that men who used tobacco were most likely (and men who did not use tobacco least likely) to gamble at baseline. Conclusions Transition rates between gambling states appear to be relatively stable over time from late adolescence into emerging adulthood; however, men and those who engage in substance use may be at increased risk for gambling participation. Implications and Contribution The current study provides important information about the naturalistic transitions in gambling behavior during late adolescence and emerging adulthood among an urban, mainly ethnic minority population. The finding that approximately half of past-year gamblers do not gamble during the following year suggests that gambling follows a variable developmental course. PMID:24656449

  3. The effects of media violence on anxiety in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Wright, Rex A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to media violence is related to anxiety in youth, but the causality of the effect has not been established. This experimental study examined the effects of media violence on anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate in late adolescents. We also examined whether these responses varied by previous exposure to media and real-life violence. College students (N = 209; M age = 18.74; 75 % female; 50 % Caucasian, 34 % African American, 9 % Asian, 3 % Hispanic, and 3 % other racial minorities) were randomized to view either violent or nonviolent high-action movie clips. Participants reported on their anxiety before and after watching the clips, as well as their previous exposure to violence. Measures of blood pressure and heart rate were taken at baseline and during movie viewing. Participants watching violent movie clips showed a greater anxiety increase than those watching nonviolent clips. Both groups experienced increased blood pressure and reduced heart rate during movie watching compared to baseline. Prior exposure to media violence was associated with diminished heart rate response. Additionally, students previously exposed to high levels of real-life violence showed lower blood pressure increases when watching violent clips compared to nonviolent clips. Thus, relatively brief exposure to violent movie clips increased anxiety among late adolescents. Prior exposure to media and real-life violence were associated with lower physiological reactivity to high-action and violent movies, respectively, possibly indicating desensitization. Future studies should investigate long-term anxiety and physiological consequences of regular exposure to media violence in adolescence. PMID:24014349

  4. The effects of media violence on anxiety in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Wright, Rex A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to media violence is related to anxiety in youth, but the causality of the effect has not been established. This experimental study examined the effects of media violence on anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate in late adolescents. We also examined whether these responses varied by previous exposure to media and real-life violence. College students (N = 209; M age = 18.74; 75 % female; 50 % Caucasian, 34 % African American, 9 % Asian, 3 % Hispanic, and 3 % other racial minorities) were randomized to view either violent or nonviolent high-action movie clips. Participants reported on their anxiety before and after watching the clips, as well as their previous exposure to violence. Measures of blood pressure and heart rate were taken at baseline and during movie viewing. Participants watching violent movie clips showed a greater anxiety increase than those watching nonviolent clips. Both groups experienced increased blood pressure and reduced heart rate during movie watching compared to baseline. Prior exposure to media violence was associated with diminished heart rate response. Additionally, students previously exposed to high levels of real-life violence showed lower blood pressure increases when watching violent clips compared to nonviolent clips. Thus, relatively brief exposure to violent movie clips increased anxiety among late adolescents. Prior exposure to media and real-life violence were associated with lower physiological reactivity to high-action and violent movies, respectively, possibly indicating desensitization. Future studies should investigate long-term anxiety and physiological consequences of regular exposure to media violence in adolescence.

  5. Precursors and correlates of anxiety trajectories from late childhood to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana; Toumbourou, John W

    2012-01-01

    The present research employed a prospective, multi-informant design to examine precursors and correlates of differing anxiety profiles from late childhood to late adolescence. The sample consisted of 626 boys and 667 girls who are participants in the Australian Temperament Project, a large, longitudinal, community-based study that has followed young people's psychosocial adjustment from infancy to adulthood. The present research analyzes data collected from the first 12 waves of data, from 4-8 months to 17 years. Parents, primary school teachers, maternal and child health nurses, and from the age of 11 onward, the young people themselves have provided survey data. Trajectory analyses revealed three distinct patterns of self-reported anxiety from late childhood to late adolescence, comprising low, moderate, and high (increasing) trajectories, which differed somewhat between boys and girls. A range of parent- and teacher-reported factors was found to be associated with these trajectories, including temperament style, behavior problems, social skills, parenting, negative family events, and peer relationships. Compared with male trajectories, female trajectories were associated with a greater variety of psychosocial variables (including parenting and externalizing problems), which may partially account for the higher prevalence of anxiety in adolescent girls compared with boys. Findings shed light on gender-specific pathways to anxiety and the need for comprehensive, integrative approaches to intervention and prevention programs.

  6. Sedentary Time in Late Childhood and Cardiometabolic Risk in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Ngaire; Tiling, Kate; Mattocks, Calum; Cooper, Ashley; Hardy, Louise L.; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of prospective evidence examining the links between sedentary time (ST) and cardiometabolic outcomes in youth. We examined the associations between objectively assessed ST and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in childhood with cardiometabolic risk in adolescence. METHODS: The study included 4639 children (47% male) aged 11 to 12 years at baseline whose mothers were enrolled in ALSPAC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) during their pregnancy in the early 1990s. A total of 2963 children had valid blood samples at age 15 to 16 years. Associations with baseline ST and MVPA were examined for BMI, waist circumference, body fat mass, lean body mass, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, and a clustered standardized cardiometabolic risk score (CMscore). RESULTS: Baseline ST was not associated deleteriously with any cardiometabolic markers. MVPA was beneficially associated with the 3 adiposity indicators, lean body mass, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, insulin, HDL cholesterol, and CMscore; once the models were adjusted for baseline levels of these markers, these associations remained for body fat mass (mean difference per 10 minutes of MVPA: –0.320 [95% confidence interval (CI): –0.438 to –0.203]; P < .001), HDL cholesterol (0.006 logged mmol/L [95% CI: 0.001 to 0.011]; P = .028), insulin (–0.024 logged IU/L [95% CI: –0.036 to –0.013]; P < .001), and CMscore (–0.014 [95% CI: –0.025 to –0.004]; P = .009). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence linking ST in late childhood with adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in adolescence. Baseline MVPA was beneficially linked to broad cardiometabolic health in adolescence. PMID:25986017

  7. Identity formation and social relations during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Craig-Bray, L; Adams, G R; Dobson, W R

    1988-04-01

    Theoretical assumptions outlined by Erik Erikson on psychosocial crisis resolution hypothesizes that the positive resolution of the identity crisis is predictive of more mature intimacy formation. To test this hypothesis, college-aged late adolescents (48 subjects) completed interviews and selfreport instruments measuring identity formation and degree of intimacy along with daily records of social interactions for one week. Analyses indicated a complex association between identity and intimacy formation. Comparisons were made between the exploration and commitment process of identity and the measures of intimacy formation and social interaction measures. Numerous complex sex differences were observed with several interactions between gender, exploration, commitment, and intimacy context. Findings are discussed in terms of broadening future research direction beyond the simple study of the linkage of identity and intimacy.

  8. Communication of sexual risk behavior among late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lock, S E; Ferguson, S L; Wise, C

    1998-06-01

    A grounded theory approach was used to describe how males and females in late adolescence communicate with their sexual partners about sexual risk behaviors. Interviews were audiotaped with 18 women and 15 men from a university in the southeastern United States. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Building trust was identified as the core variable for both men and women. For women, prerequisites for building trust were being involved in caring relationships and indirectly gathering information about potential sexual partners. For men, prerequisites were being involved in caring relationships and using their instincts. Women usually initiated safe-sex talk, but men were willing to discuss it, once the conversation was initiated. Findings can serve as a guide for developing nursing strategies that promote more effective communication about sexual risk behavior in this age group. PMID:9615598

  9. Stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wilburn, Victor R; Smith, Delores E

    2005-01-01

    The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The hypothesis that self-esteem would moderate the effects of life stressors on suicidal ideation was supported at the .06 level. A significant minority of the sample indicated having thoughts severe enough to be classified as clinical suicidal ideation. In general, participants who had experienced negative life events in the 6 to 12 months prior to participating in the study had lower self-esteem than those who had similar stresses within the prior six months. However, the opposite was true for clinical suicidal ideators; those who experienced negative life stressors recently had lower self-esteem than those who experienced negative life events six months to a year in the past.

  10. Identity formation and social relations during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Craig-Bray, L; Adams, G R; Dobson, W R

    1988-04-01

    Theoretical assumptions outlined by Erik Erikson on psychosocial crisis resolution hypothesizes that the positive resolution of the identity crisis is predictive of more mature intimacy formation. To test this hypothesis, college-aged late adolescents (48 subjects) completed interviews and selfreport instruments measuring identity formation and degree of intimacy along with daily records of social interactions for one week. Analyses indicated a complex association between identity and intimacy formation. Comparisons were made between the exploration and commitment process of identity and the measures of intimacy formation and social interaction measures. Numerous complex sex differences were observed with several interactions between gender, exploration, commitment, and intimacy context. Findings are discussed in terms of broadening future research direction beyond the simple study of the linkage of identity and intimacy. PMID:24277583

  11. Longitudinal Follow-up of Adolescents with Late-Onset Antisocial Behavior: A Pathological yet Overlooked Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; Iacono, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Antisocial behavior that begins in mid- to late adolescence does not fit into commonly accepted taxonomies of antisocial behavior, yet it clearly exists. This study examined how this course of antisocial behavior compares with persisting (beginning by early adolescence and continuing through late adolescence) and desisting (stopping by…

  12. Multivariate Models of Parent-Late Adolescent Gender Dyads: The Importance of Parenting Processes in Predicting Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample…

  13. Mexican-Origin Youth's Cultural Orientations and Adjustment: Changes from Early to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; McHale, Susan M.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from developmental and cultural adaptation perspectives and using a longitudinal design, this study examined: (a) mean-level changes in Mexican-origin adolescents' cultural orientations and adjustment from early to late adolescence and (b) bidirectional associations between cultural orientations and adjustment using a cross-lag panel…

  14. General and Specific Self-Esteem in Late Adolescent Students: Race x Gender x SES Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Charles L.; And Others

    Self-concept formation has long been considered the most significant developmental milestone of adolescence. To assess the effects of gender, race, and social class on the general and area-specific self-esteem of late adolescents, 195 eleventh grade students, divided according gender, race (black, white), and social class (low, middle, high) were…

  15. Other-Sex Friendships in Late Adolescence: Risky Associations for Substance Use and Sexual Debut?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents' friendships with other-sex peers serve important developmental functions, but they may also facilitate engagement in problem behavior. This study examines the unique contributions of other-sex friendships and friends' behavior to alcohol use, smoking, and initiation of sexual intercourse among late adolescent girls and boys. A total…

  16. The Development of Socio-Moral Cognition in Late Adolescence: A Three-Dimensional Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappan, Mark B.

    The nature of the developmental shift from adolescence to adulthood has been of ongoing interest to researchers studying the development of socio-moral cognition from within the "cognitive-developmental" paradigm. This paper identifies three dimensions along which developmental changes in socio-moral cognition occur during late adolescence:…

  17. Nonresident Fathers' Parenting Style and the Adjustment of Late-Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karre, Jennifer K.; Mounts, Nina S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…

  18. A comparison of low birth weight among newborns of early adolescents, late adolescents, and adult mothers in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Julia A; Casapía, Martín; Aguilar, Eder; Silva, Hermánn; Rahme, Elham; Gagnon, Anita J; Manges, Amee R; Joseph, Serene A; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2011-07-01

    To compare low birth weight (LBW: <2,500 g) between infants born to adolescent and adult mothers in Iquitos, Peru. A random sample of 4,467 records of women who delivered at the Hospital Apoyo Iquitos between 2005 and 2007 was collected from hospital birth registries. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to compare LBW in newborns of adolescents (10-14, 15-19 years) and adults (≥20 years) and then for primiparous mothers with a normal gestational age, adjusting for newborn sex, antenatal care, and location of the mother's residence. A total of 4,384 mothers had had a singleton live birth and 1,501 were primiparous with a normal gestational age. Early and late adolescents had significantly greater odds of having a LBW infant than adults (OR = 2.28, 95%CI: 1.09, 4.78; OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.30, 2.14, respectively). For primiparous mothers with a normal gestational age, the same was true only for early adolescents (OR = 3.07, 95%CI: 1.09, 8.61). There were significant differences in mean birth weight between adults (3178.7 g) and both adolescent age groups overall (10-14 years: 2848.9 g; 15-19 years: 2998.3 g) and for primiparous mothers with a normal gestational age (10-14 years: 2900.8 g; 15-19 years: 3059.2 g; ≥20 years: 3151.8 g). Results suggest there is an important difference between adolescent and adult mothers in terms of newborn birth weight, especially among early adolescents. Future research on LBW and possibly other adverse birth outcomes should consider early adolescents as a separate sub-group of higher risk. PMID:20535538

  19. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  20. Developmental Patterns of Social Trust between Early and Late Adolescence: Age and School Climate Effects

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Social trust (i.e., beliefs that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1535 adolescents collected over two years, we find that middle and late adolescents had significantly lower levels of trust than early adolescents and that these beliefs became more stable and less related to interpersonal trust between early and late adolescence. Results of multiple group SEMs revealed that, regardless of age, adolescents’ reports that a strong sense of student solidarity characterized their school significantly increased ST at T2, controlling for levels at T1, and opportunities to exchange perspectives with fellow students increased ST at T2 indirectly, through feelings of student solidarity. The study points to the role of schools in nurturing the democratic dispositions of younger generations. PMID:20936077

  1. Moral Development in Late Adolescence and Adulthood: A Critique and Reconstruction of Kohlberg's Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John Michael; Gilligan, Carol

    1980-01-01

    Provides an alternative conception of postconventional moral development which fits existing data on late adolescent and adult moral judgment better than Kohlberg's higher stage descriptions. Data is from a longitudinal study of 26 undergraduates at Harvard. (Author/SS)

  2. Individual and family predictors of the perpetration of dating violence and victimization in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Bierman, Karen L

    2013-04-01

    Teen dating violence is a crime of national concern with approximately one-fourth of adolescents reporting victimization of physical, psychological, or sexual dating violence each year. The present study examined how aggressive family dynamics in both childhood and early adolescence predicted the perpetration of dating violence and victimization in late adolescence. Children (n = 401, 43 % female) were followed from kindergarten entry to the age of 18 years. Early adolescent aggressive-oppositional problems at home and aggressive-oppositional problems at school each made unique predictions to the emergence of dating violence in late adolescence. The results suggest that aggressive family dynamics during childhood and early adolescence influence the development of dating violence primarily by fostering a child's oppositional-aggressive responding style initially in the home, which is then generalized to other contexts. Although this study is limited by weaknesses detailed in the discussion, the contribution of longitudinal evidence including parent, teacher, and adolescent reports from both boys and girls, a dual-emphasis on the prediction of perpetration and victimization, as well as an analysis of both relations between variables and person-oriented group comparisons combine to make a unique contribution to the growing literature on adolescent partner violence.

  3. Early Adolescent Peer Foundations of Late Adolescent and Young Adult Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.; Szwedo, David; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    The long-term impacts of failing to establish autonomy and relatedness within close friendships are poorly understood. Adolescent behaviors undermining autonomy and relatedness in friendships at 13 were examined as predictors of friendship competence at 18 and depressive symptoms and social withdrawal at 21. A diverse community sample of 184 adolescents participated in self, peer, and observational assessments. Teens’ inability to establish autonomy and connection with friends at 13 predicted decreases in friendship competence at 18 (ß=-.20, p=.02). Direct links to increases in depressive symptoms (ß=.34, p<.001) and social withdrawal (ß=.18, p=.03) were observed, with friendship competence partially mediating these relations. Results highlight the importance of problematic adolescent peer relationships as risk factors for the development of young adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:26640356

  4. Consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence on conditioned taste aversions in rats.

    PubMed

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol's aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively) would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1) and >3 weeks (CTA2) post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS), respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4g/kg i.g. ethanol (25%) or water every 48 h from postnatal day (P) 25-45 (early AIE) or P45-65 (late AIE), or were left non-manipulated (NM). During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence.

  5. Developmental Cascade Model for Adolescent Substance Use from Infancy to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Lessard, Jared; Colder, Craig R.; Livingston, Jennifer; Casey, Meghan; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    A developmental cascade model for adolescent substance use beginning in infancy was examined in a sample of children with alcoholic and nonalcoholic parents. The model examined the role of parents' alcohol diagnoses, depression and antisocial behavior in a cascading process of risk via 3 major hypothesized pathways: first, via parental…

  6. The Continued Importance of Quality Parent-Adolescent Relationships during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Elizabeth C.; Moore, Kristin A.; Garrett, Sarah B.; Ling, Thomson; Cleveland, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The quality of adolescents' relationships with residential parents has been found to predict many different health and behavioral youth outcomes; strong associations have also been found between these outcomes and family processes, and between relationship quality and family processes. Data from Rounds 1-5 of the National Longitudinal Survey of…

  7. Identity Exploration and Relatedness among Japanese Female Late Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugimura, Kazumi

    Identity researchers are beginning to realize that identity in collectivist cultures is more deeply embedded in relational contexts than is identity in individualistic cultures. However, little is known about the ways in which adolescents use relationships in identity formation in collectivist cultures. Moreover, it is assumed that there are…

  8. Risk Behaviors and Negative Health Outcomes for Adolescents With Late Bedtimes

    PubMed Central

    McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2014-01-01

    Late bedtimes in adolescence may be a serious risk factor for later poor health and functional outcomes. The current study sought to extend existing cross sectional data by examining whether late bedtimes in adolescence predicts poor outcomes in young adulthood. Data from wave 2 (1996) and wave 3 (2001-2002) of the nationally representative sample of US youth (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between late bedtime, and several risk behaviors and negative health outcomes following 3,843 adolescents into young adulthood. At Wave 2 the mean age was 16 with 52.1% female. At wave 3 the mean age was 21.8. In cross sectional analyses, late bedtime was associated with 1.5 to over 3 times greater odds of involvement in risk behaviors and negative health outcomes, including emotional distress, suicidality, criminal and violent activity, and use of cigarettes, alcohol and illicit drugs. In longitudinal analyses, late bedtime assessed at wave 2 predicted a number of serious health outcomes at wave 3, with late bedtime in adolescence associated with around 1.5 greater odds of involvement in health jeopardizing behaviors such as criminal activity, alcohol abuse, cigarette use, illicit drug use and emotional distress in young adulthood. There was also a dose effect, such that the later the bedtime in adolescence, the greater the risk of involvement in risk behaviors in young adulthood. This research suggests that late bedtime in adolescence predicts multiple serious risk behaviors and health outcomes in young adulthood. PMID:24599733

  9. Of Sex and Romance: Late Adolescent Relationships and Young Adult Union Formation.

    PubMed

    Raley, R Kelly; Crissey, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2007-11-11

    To better understand the social factors that influence the diverse pathways to family formation young adults experience today, this research investigates the association between opposite-gender relationships during late adolescence and union formation in early adulthood. Using data from the first and third waves of the Add Health (n = 4,911), we show that, for both men and women, there is continuity between adolescent and adult relationship experiences. Those involved in adolescent romantic relationships at the end of high school are more likely to marry and to cohabit in early adulthood. Moreover, involvement in a nonromantic sexual relationship is positively associated with cohabitation, but not marriage. We conclude that the precursors to union formation patterns in adulthood are observable in adolescence.

  10. Risk factors for depressive symptoms in adolescent pregnancy in a late-teen subsample.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Hristina; Stuart, Scott

    2014-04-01

    Depression in adolescent pregnancy is common but underrecognized and can be associated with negative medical outcomes. This brief report examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and various demographic and obstetrical risk factors, as well as the use of antidepressants in pregnant adolescents of late teenage years. Data were derived from a relatively large sample (506 women) recruited from university-based and community mental health centers in Iowa. A cross-sectional analysis did not reveal significant statistical associations between the risk factors and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory). Antidepressant use was very low (3.7 %), and adolescents with higher depression scores were more likely to take medications. In conclusion, screening for depression in pregnant adolescents should be universal, regardless of demographic and obstetrical risk factors, and promptly addressed.

  11. Sex differences in the recognition of emotional prosody in late childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Takashi X; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2011-09-01

    We examined sex-related differences in the ability to recognize emotional prosody in late childhood (9-12 year olds) and adolescence (13-15 year olds) in relation to salivary testosterone levels. In order to examine both the accuracy and the sensitivity in labeling emotional prosody expressions, five intensities (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%) for each of three emotion categories were used as stimuli. Totals of 25 male and 22 female children and 28 male and 28 female adolescents were tested on their recognition of happy, angry and sad prosody at the different intensities. The results showed that adolescent females were more sensitive to happy and sad prosody than males but not to angry prosody, whereas there were no sex-related differences in emotional prosody in late childhood for any of the emotional categories. Furthermore, salivary testosterone levels were higher in males than females in adolescence, but not in late childhood, suggesting that the sex differences for emotional prosody recognition emerges in adolescence during which testosterone levels become higher in males than females.

  12. Neural Network Development in Late Adolescents during Observation of Risk-Taking Action

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Shigekazu; Hida, Akiko; Enomoto, Minori; Umezawa, Jun; Mishima, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Emotional maturity and social awareness are important for adolescents, particularly college students beginning to face the challenges and risks of the adult world. However, there has been relatively little research into personality maturation and psychological development during late adolescence and the neural changes underlying this development. We investigated the correlation between psychological properties (neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety, and depression) and age among late adolescents (n = 25, from 18 years and 1 month to 22 years and 8 months). The results revealed that late adolescents became less neurotic, less anxious, less depressive and more extraverted as they aged. Participants then observed video clips depicting hand movements with and without a risk of harm (risk-taking or safe actions) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that risk-taking actions elicited significantly stronger activation in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, temporal visual regions (superior/middle temporal areas), and parieto-occipital visual areas (cuneus, middle occipital gyri, precuneus). We found positive correlations of age and extraversion with neural activation in the insula, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus. We also found a negative correlation of age and anxiety with activation in the angular gyrus, precentral gyrus, and red nucleus/substantia nigra. Moreover, we found that insula activation mediated the relationship between age and extraversion. Overall, our results indicate that late adolescents become less anxious and more extraverted with age, a process involving functional neural changes in brain networks related to social cognition and emotional processing. The possible neural mechanisms of psychological and social maturation during late adolescence are discussed. PMID:22768085

  13. Life transitions and relevance of healthy living in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Stefan; Gillison, Fiona; Standage, Martyn; Bailey, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    Using a cross-sectional qualitative design involving focus groups and interviews, we sought to gain a more detailed understanding of adolescents' physical activity, eating habits and health perceptions during the transition from secondary school (or high school) to work. Based on thematic analyses, three themes were extracted: (1) perceptions of lifestyle and health, (2) changes in priorities and (3) passive acceptance of internal and external influences on physical activity and diet. Poor diet and physical inactivity appeared to reflect participants' amotivation towards health behaviours, reluctance to divert from perceived peer norms and efforts to assert independence from parents.

  14. Development of an attachment-informed measure of sexual behavior in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Szielasko, Alicia L; Symons, Douglas K; Lisa Price, E

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new measure uniquely predicted sexual approach styles and invasive sexual experiences. 190 18- and 19-year-old university students in late adolescence completed sexual behavior items that were provided ambivalent (anxious) and avoidant dimensions. These were systematically related to the romantic attachment dimensions of the Experiences in Close Relationships - Revised. However, even after romantic relationship style, gender, and social desirability were controlled, avoidance in sexual relationships predicted lifetime sexual partner number and negatively predicted positive sexual strategies, and ambivalence in sexual relationships predicted invasive and coercive sexual behaviors. A measure specific to sexual relationships informs the attachment and romantic context of sex in late adolescence.

  15. Assessment of night eating syndrome among late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Suri, S; Pradhan, R

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in the trend of social networking, celebrations, over a couple of decades weather in the hostel or at home. Snacking has become an important aspect of activity. Today teen prefer snacks more than a proper meal. Skipping of meal and nibbling in between meal is a common practice. The main meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) are missed and total proportions of calories are consumed from the snacks eaten. Hence, this disordered eating behavior when continued may further lead to development of serious syndrome i.e., night eating syndrome. A purposive random sample comprising 188 males and 192 females (N=380), adolescents (18-22 years) were selected including hostlers and day scholars. The subjects were administered with self-organized questionnaire so to analyze the pattern of NES among them. Out of total 380 respondents, the numbers of hostlers were 211 and day scholars 169, while boys were 188 and girls were 192 in number. Results indicated that nearly half the percentage of adolescents snacked at night, out of which very few respondents met the criteria of NES, in which the number of hostlers were quite more than the day scholars, i.e.,76.3%.

  16. Social Anhedonia and Medial Prefrontal Response to Mutual Liking in Late Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Kati L.; Morgan, Judith; Musselman, Samuel C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2014-01-01

    Anhedonia, a cardinal symptom of depression defined as difficulty experiencing pleasure, is also a possible endophenotype and prognostic factor for the development of depression. The onset of depression typically occurs during adolescence, a period in which social status and affiliation are especially salient. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region implicated in reward, self-relevant processing, and social cognition, exhibits altered function in adults with anhedonia, but its association with adolescent anhedonia has yet to be investigated. We examined neural response to social reward in 27 late adolescents, 18–21 years old, who varied in social anhedonia. Participants reported their social anhedonia, completed ratings of photos of unfamiliar peers, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging task involving feedback about being liked. Adolescents with higher social anhedonia exhibited greater mPFC activation in response to mutual liking (i.e., being liked by someone they also liked) relative to received liking (i.e., being liked by someone whom they did not like). This association held after controlling for severity of current depressive symptoms, although depressive severity was also associated with greater mPFC response. Adolescents with higher levels of social anhedonia also had stronger positive connectivity between the nucleus accumbens and the mPFC during mutual versus received liking. These results, the first on the pathophysiology of adolescent anhedonia, support altered neural reward-circuit response to social reward in young people with social anhedonia. PMID:24412087

  17. Perspective Taking Explains Gender Differences in Late Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Disadvantaged Groups.

    PubMed

    Smith, Colin Tucker; Shepperd, James A; Miller, Wendi A; Graber, Julia A

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents' attitudes toward disadvantaged groups are surprisingly understudied. What we know from these few studies is that adolescents' attitudes tend to become more favorable over time and that adolescent girls display more favorable attitudes than do adolescent boys. However, researchers have not offered explanations for why these effects occur. We proposed that changes in social-cognitive abilities that accompany adolescent development increase perspective taking and that the increased perspective taking facilitates more favorable attitudes toward disadvantaged groups. Because girls develop social-cognitive abilities earlier than boys, girls should show greater perspective taking and thus more positive attitudes toward disadvantaged groups than should boys. Importantly, we propose that these more positive attitudes are explained better by perspective taking than by gender. Participants were late adolescents (n = 803, 53.3 % female, ages 15-19) from high schools in north-central Florida (United States) participating in an ongoing, multi-wave study. Participants completed a measure of perspective-taking and reported their attitudes toward three disadvantaged groups (Black, gay, and poor people) during their third year of high school and, again, 6 months later during their fourth year of high school. Our findings provided strong support for our theorizing. Girls generally reported warmer attitudes than did boys toward disadvantaged groups, with the gender differences in warmth tending to diminish across time. Similarly, girls were higher than boys in perspective-taking abilities at both time points, although boys increased over time whereas girls did not. Crucially, perspective taking mediated observed gender differences in attitudes, suggesting that perspective taking is a mechanism for improving attitudes toward disadvantaged groups during late adolescence. PMID:26519366

  18. Preference-for-solitude and Adjustment Difficulties in Early and Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jennifer M.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Laursen, Brett; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Objective Social withdrawal has been associated with adjustment difficulties across development. Although much is known about shyness, little is known about preference-for-solitude; even less is known about its relations with adjustment across different periods of adolescence. We examined whether preference-for-solitude might be differentially associated with adjustment difficulties in early and late adolescence. Method Self and parent-reports of withdrawal motivations and adjustment were collected from 234 8th graders (113 boys; M age = 13.43) and 204 12th graders (91 boys; M age = 17.25). Results Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that above and beyond the effects of shyness, preference-for-solitude was more strongly associated with adjustment difficulties in 8th grade than in 12th grade. Preference-for-solitude was associated with greater anxiety/depression, emotion dysregulation, and lower self-esteem in 8th grade; these relations were not found in 12th grade. Although preference-for-solitude was associated with lower social competence in both 8th and 12th grades, this relation was significantly stronger in 8th grade than in 12th grade. Conclusion Findings suggest preference-for-solitude has closer ties to maladjustment in early adolescence than in late adolescence. Interventions targeting preferred-solitary youth in early adolescence may be particularly fruitful. PMID:23682608

  19. The Development of Narrative Identity in Late Adolescence and Emergent Adulthood: The Continued Importance of Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasupathi, Monisha; Hoyt, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Research on narrative identity in late adolescence and early adulthood has not extensively examined how conversational storytelling affects the development of narrative identity. This is a major gap, given the importance of this age period for narrative identity development and the clear importance of parent-child conversations in the development…

  20. Conflict Beliefs, Goals, and Behavior in Romantic Relationships during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Valerie A.; Kobielski, Sarah J.; Martin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about social cognition regarding conflict in romantic relationships during late adolescence. The current study examined beliefs, social goals, and behavioral strategies for conflict in romantic relationships and their associations with relationship quality among a sample of 494 college students. Two dimensions of conflict beliefs,…

  1. Relational Aspects of Identity: Late Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Relationships with Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinmann, Lance L.; Newcombe, Nora

    1990-01-01

    Male and female undergraduates were examined in an effort to determine the relationship between late adolescents' identity status and their memory of their relationships to their parents. Results revealed differences between subjects with committed identities and those with uncommitted identities in the amount of love felt for and received from…

  2. Anger, Happiness, and Sadness: Associations with Depressive Symptoms in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.

    2006-01-01

    This study used self-report and observational methods to examine associations between depressive symptoms and patterns of emotional experience and expression during late adolescence. Fifty-one male and 49 female first and second year college students completed questionnaires on emotion experience and were videotaped while completing a frustrating…

  3. Predictors of "New Economy" Career Orientation in an Australian Sample of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter; Macpherson, Jennifer; Hood, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The authors surveyed 207 late adolescents on measures of new economy career orientation (protean and boundaryless career orientation), career adaptability (planning, self-exploration, environmental exploration, decision making, and self-regulation), disposition (proactive disposition), and environmental support (social support) and hypothesized…

  4. Minimal Brain Dysfunction in Childhood: 1. Outcome in Late Adolescence and Early Adult Years. Final Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Doris H.

    Seventy-three patients, diagnosed in childhood as having either maturational lag or organic brain syndrome, were followed for an average of 12 years into late adolescence and early adult life for the purpose of discovering the outcome with respect to ultimate psychiatric status, educational attainment, social adjustment, and global adjustment. At…

  5. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method: The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met "DSM" criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and…

  6. Self-Image and Parental Attachment among Late Adolescents in Belize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen E.; Griffiths, Joann; Grossman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of ethnicity, parental education, gender, and parental attachment to multiple dimensions of self-image among 285 (161 female and 124 male) late adolescent Belizean students. Student ratings of self-image were unrelated to paternal education and student ethnicity. For maternal education, ethnic identity was…

  7. Developmental Differences in Error-Related ERPs in Middle- to Late-Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesso, Diane L.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2008-01-01

    Although there are some studies documenting structural brain changes during late adolescence, there are few showing functional brain changes over this period in humans. Of special interest would be functional changes in the medial frontal cortex that reflect response monitoring. In order to examine such age-related differences, the authors…

  8. Dysfunctional Relationship Beliefs in Parent-Late Adolescent Relationship and Conflict Resolution Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamamci, Zeynep

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of dysfunctional relationships beliefs on both the perceptions of their relationships with the parents and conflict resolution behaviors of late adolescence. The sample was consisted of 372 Turkish university students (248 women and 124 men). Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale,…

  9. Using Marital Attitudes in Late Adolescence to Predict Later Union Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 982 late adolescents and tracking them throughout young adulthood, this study investigated whether marital attitudes held during the last year of high school were predictive of union transitions to both cohabitation and marriage during young adulthood. Results using both logistic regression and discrete event history models found…

  10. Personality Traits and Educational Identity Formation in Late Adolescents: Longitudinal Associations and Academic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimstra, Theo A.; Luyckx, Koen; Germeijs, Veerle; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Goossens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Changes in personality traits in late adolescence and young adulthood are believed to co-occur with changes in identity, but little research is available that supports this hypothesis. The present study addressed this relatively understudied area of research by examining longitudinal associations of Big Five personality traits (i.e., Neuroticism,…

  11. Age Differences in Loneliness from Late Adolescence to Oldest Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to common stereotypes, loneliness is not restricted to old age but can occur at any life stage. In this study, we used data from a large, nationally representative German study (N = 16,132) to describe and explain age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age. The age distribution of loneliness followed a complex…

  12. The Developmental Significance of Late Adolescent Substance Use for Early Adult Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Michelle M.; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Oliva, Elizabeth M.; Egeland, Byron; Chung, Chu-Ting; Long, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the predictive significance of late adolescent substance use groups (i.e., abstainers, experimental users, at-risk users, and abusers) for early adult adaptation. Participants (N = 159) were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of first-born children of low-income mothers. At 17.5 years of age, participants were assigned…

  13. Cyber Victimization and Perceived Stress: Linkages to Late Adolescents' Cyber Aggression and Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined multiple sources of strain, particular cyber victimization, and perceived stress from parents, peers, and academics, in relation to late adolescents' (ages 16-18; N = 423) cyber aggression, anxiety, and depression, each assessed 1 year later (Time 2). Three-way interactions revealed that the relationship between Time 1…

  14. Prevalence of Bulimic Behaviors and Trends in Eating Attitudes among Turkish Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun; Unver, Sibel; Sezgin, Emine; Unal, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    The eating attitudes and the prevalence of bulimic behaviors in a group of 300 late adolescents were investigated using the key questions from the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), and additional questions. Only four subjects (1.3%) scored above the cut-off point on the BITE, and prevalence rates of males and females were the same.…

  15. Do Late Adolescent Fathers Have More Depressive Symptoms than Older Fathers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong; Fagan, Jay; Chen, Wan-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Although fathers are increasingly a focus of attention in research, there is a dearth of research on depressive symptoms among fathers, especially young fathers with toddlers. This study used longitudinal data to examine what risk factors, including the age status of fathers (e.g., late adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood), may be…

  16. Diversity Beliefs and Postformal Thinking in Late Adolescence: A Cognitive Basis of Multicultural Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yevvon Yi-Chi; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the developmental relationship between cognitive thinking and diversity beliefs among late adolescents from a postPiagetian perspective. The participants were 762 Taiwanese undergraduates aging from 19 to 25 years. The Social Paradigm Belief Scale was used to assess three modes of cognitive development of late…

  17. Risk Taking in Late Adolescence: Relations between Sociomoral Reasoning, Risk Stance, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Leigh A.; Amsel, Eric; Schillo, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations among late adolescents' sociomoral reasoning about risk taking, risk stance, and behavior. One-hundred and thirty-two participants (18-20-year-olds) were surveyed about their own risk stance (Avoidant, Opportunistic, Curious, Risk Seeking) and behavior in three realms (Alcohol Use, Drug Use, Reckless Driving), and…

  18. Stages of Change in Physical Activity: A Validation Study in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Martinez, Carissa; Marsh, Herbert W.; Jackson, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the validity of a recent stages of change (SoC) measure and algorithm among a sample of late adolescents. MANOVA and structural equation modeling are used to assess the relationship between five SoC groups (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance) and a set of dependent measures including…

  19. Young, Middle, and Late Adolescents' Comparisons of the Functional Importance of Five Significant Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lempers, Jacques D.; Clark-Lempers, Dania S.

    1992-01-01

    How 330 young, 481 middle, and 299 late adolescents (535 males and 575 females) perceive the relative importance of relationships with their mother, father, most important sibling, best same-sex friend, and most important teacher was investigated. Results from the Network of Relationship Inventory were analyzed. (SLD)

  20. Patterns of Problem Behavior in Relation to Thriving and Precocious Behavior in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campa, Mary I.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Eckenrode, John; Zielinski, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that an early onset of delinquent and problem behaviors is associated with a greater risk of subsequent behavioral and mental health problems. This study builds on that literature by examining histories of behavior problems in relation to indicators of thriving and precocious behavior during late adolescence. Using…

  1. Parenting, Peer Orientation, Drug Use, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Michel; Lacourse, Eric; Ercolani, Anna-Paula; Pierro, Antonio; Leone, Luigi; Presaghi, Fabio

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the links between maternal and paternal bonding, parental practices, orientation toward peers, and the prevalence of drug use and antisocial behavior during late adolescence. A model was tested using structural equation modeling in order to verify the robustness of the investigated links across 3…

  2. Factors associated with adolescents' risk for late entry into prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Wiemann, C M; Berenson, A B; Pino, L G; McCombs, S L

    1997-01-01

    Risk factors for late entry into prenatal care were examined among 533 pregnant adolescents younger than 18. Forty-seven percent entered prenatal care after 12 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression analysis indicated that adolescents who no longer had contact with their baby's father were 4.2 times as likely as those who did to enter prenatal care after the first trimester. Adolescents with no history of abortion were 3.2 times as likely to enter care late as those who had had an abortion. Young women who had not used alcohol in the last 30 days and those with only one sex partner in the last 12 months were more likely than adolescents exhibiting riskier behavior to receive care late (odds ratios of 2.7 and 1.6, respectively). Odds of late entry into care were also elevated for those who were unemployed (1.9), black or white (1.9 and 1.7, respectively) and less educated (1.2).

  3. Prospective Interrelationships Between Late Adolescent Personality and Major Depressive Disorder in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sylia; DiRago, Ana C.; Iacono, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Background A well-established body of literature demonstrates concurrent associations between personality traits and major depressive disorder (MDD), but there have been relatively fewer investigations of their dynamic interplay over time. Methods Prospective interrelationships between late adolescent personality and MDD in early adulthood were examined in a community sample of male and female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 1252). Participants were classified into naturally occurring MDD groups based on the timing (adolescent- versus adult-onset) and course (chronic/recurrent versus remitting) of MDD. MDD diagnoses were assessed at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29, and personality traits (Negative Emotionality [NEM], Positive Emotionality [PEM], Constraint [CON]) were assessed at ages 17, 24, and 29. Results Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that higher age-17 NEM was associated with the subsequent development of MDD, and any MDD, regardless of onset or course, was associated with higher NEM through age 29. Moreover, the chronic/recurrent MDD groups failed to show the normative decrease in NEM from late adolescence to early adulthood. Lower age-17 PEM was also associated with the subsequent development of MDD, but only among the chronic/recurrent MDD groups. Finally, the adolescent-onset MDD groups reported lower age-17 CON relative to the never depressed and adult-onset MDD groups. Conclusions Taken together, results speak to the role of personality traits for conferring risk for the onset of MDD in late adolescence and early adulthood, as well as the pernicious implications of chronic/recurrent MDD, particularly when it onsets during adolescence, for adaptive personality development. PMID:23689064

  4. Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Oncology in the United States: A Specialty in Its Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Peter H; Reed, Damon R; Yeager, Nicholas; Zebrack, Bradley; Castellino, Sharon M; Bleyer, Archie

    2015-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, it has become apparent that oncology patients ages 15 to 39 have not reaped the same rewards of improved survival that we have seen in younger and older patients. As a result, in 2006 the Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Oncology Progress Review Group convened and examined the factors that impact the care of the 70,000 new cases per year (approximately 7% of all new cases) in the United States and published their findings. The reasons for inferior survival gains are of course multiple and include the settings in which patients are cared for, clinical trial enrollment, insurance coverage, varied treatment of sarcomas, varied treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the psychosocial impact of cancer and cancer survivorship. A new area of a yet-to-be completely defined subspecialty was born out of this meeting: AYA oncology. As a medical community we realized that these patients do not fit neatly into the pediatric nor adult world and, therefore, require a unique approach which many individuals, oncology centers, advocacy groups, and cooperative trial groups have started to address. This group of dedicated providers and advocates has made strides but there is still much work to be done on the local, national, and international level to make up for shortcomings in the medical system and improve outcomes. We review key components of AYA cancer care in 2015 that all providers should be aware of, how far we have come, where this movement is headed, and the obstacles that continue to stand in the way of better cure rates and quality of life after cure for this unique group of patients. Like an adolescent maturing into adulthood, this movement has learned from the past and is focused on moving into the future to achieve its goals.

  5. Adolescent images of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Falchikov, N

    1989-06-01

    This study examines the extent to which a group of Scottish adolescents are influenced by negative images of adolescence present in our culture, and investigates their self-image by means of a Q sort. Forty 15- and 16-year-old school students took part in the study, half of whom were female. Half of the sample were staying on at school to take higher examinations, the other half being school leavers. Eleven factors emerged from the analysis, the first six of which met the criterion that distinguishes common factors. Participants defining common factors were re-interviewed, and their responses to factor interpretations noted. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents are influenced by newspaper images. Some descriptions hint at conflict, while others do not. If the results of the present study were to be replicated, a more pluralistic view of adolescence may be required.

  6. Are All Identity Commitments Created Equally? The Importance of Motives for Commitment for Late Adolescents' Personal Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Berzonsky, Michael D.; Dunkel, Curtis S.; Papini, Dennis R.; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of self-determination theory it is proposed that adolescents' motives for forming and maintaining identity-relevant commitments can be either autonomous or controlled in nature. This study examined whether motives for identity commitments would add to the prediction of late adolescents' adjustment beyond the effect of strength of…

  7. Daily Cortisol Activity, Loneliness, and Coping Efficacy in Late Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Emily C.; Sladek, Michael R.; Doane, Leah D.

    2016-01-01

    Many late adolescents who transition to the college environment perceive changes in psychosocial stress. One such stressor, loneliness, has been associated with numerous health problems among adolescents and adults. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is one mechanism through which loneliness may affect health. Guided by a risk and resilience…

  8. Familial Predictors of Sibling and Romantic-Partner Conflict Resolution: Comparing Late Adolescents from Intact and Divorced Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese-Weber, M.; Kahn, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined whether predictors of romantic-partner conflict may vary as a function of family structure. Using a cross-sectional design, we tested a mediation model of conflict resolution behaviours among late adolescents from intact (n=185) and divorced (n=87) families. Adolescents rated conflict resolution behaviours in five dyadic…

  9. Developmental trajectories of prejudice and tolerance toward immigrants from early to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Adolescence is an important period for the development of relationships between immigrants and non-immigrants, yet little is known about how problematic personality traits affect adolescents' relationships with and attitudes toward immigrants. This work identified the roles of intergroup relationships and one dimension of problematic personality traits, namely callous-unemotional traits, in the development of adolescents' tolerance and prejudice. Three annual measurements of a large community sample (N = 1,542) of non-immigrant adolescents (M age = 15.31 at first measurement; 50.2% girls) were used to show that tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants represent two dimensions with distinct developmental trajectories from early to late adolescence. Callous-unemotional traits predicted fewer decreases in prejudice toward immigrants, yet were not directly associated with tolerance. Intergroup friendships predicted stronger increases in tolerance, which, in turn, predicted decreases in prejudice toward immigrants. Thus, tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants seem to be differentially influenced by social experiences and problematic personality traits.

  10. Depression from childhood into late adolescence: Influence of gender, development, genetic susceptibility, and peer stress.

    PubMed

    Hankin, Benjamin L; Young, Jami F; Abela, John R Z; Smolen, Andrew; Jenness, Jessica L; Gulley, Lauren D; Technow, Jessica R; Gottlieb, Andrea Barrocas; Cohen, Joseph R; Oppenheimer, Caroline W

    2015-11-01

    Depression is a debilitating mental illness with clear developmental patterns from childhood through late adolescence. Here, we present data from the Gene Environment Mood (GEM) study, which used an accelerated longitudinal cohort design with youth (N = 665) starting in 3rd, 6th, and 9th grades, and a caretaker, who were recruited from the general community, and were then assessed repeatedly through semistructured diagnostic interviews every 6 months over 3 years (7 waves of data) to establish and then predict trajectories of depression from age 8 to 18. First, we demonstrated that overall prevalence rates of depression over time, by age, gender, and pubertal status, in the GEM study closely match those trajectories previously obtained in past developmental epidemiological research. Second, we tested whether a genetic vulnerability-stress model involving 5-HTTLPR and chronic peer stress was moderated by developmental factors. Results showed that older aged adolescents with SS/SL genotype, who experienced higher peer chronic stress over 3 years, were the most likely to be diagnosed with a depressive episode over time. Girls experiencing greater peer chronic stress were the most likely to develop depression. This study used repeated assessments of diagnostic interviewing in a moderately large sample of youth over 3 years to show that depression rates increase in middle to late adolescence, or postpubertally, and that the gender difference in depression emerges earlier in adolescence (age 12.5), or postpubertally. Additionally, genetically susceptible older adolescents who experience chronic peer stress were the most likely to become depressed over time. PMID:26595469

  11. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  12. The longitudinal development of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sophie J; Barker, Lynne A; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Our earlier work suggests that, executive functions and social cognition show protracted development into late adolescence and early adulthood (Taylor et al., 2013). However, it remains unknown whether these functions develop linearly or non-linearly corresponding to dynamic changes to white matter density at these age ranges. Executive functions are particularly in demand during the transition to independence and autonomy associated with this age range (Ahmed and Miller, 2011). Previous research examining executive function (Romine and Reynolds, 2005) and social cognition (Dumontheil et al., 2010a) in late adolescence has utilized a cross sectional design. The current study employed a longitudinal design with 58 participants aged 17, 18, and 19 years completing social cognition and executive function tasks, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson et al., 1988), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) at Time 1 with follow up testing 12-16 months later. Inhibition, rule detection, strategy generation and planning executive functions and emotion recognition with dynamic stimuli showed longitudinal development between time points. Self-report empathy and emotion recognition functions using visual static and auditory stimuli were stable by age 17 whereas concept formation declined between time points. The protracted development of some functions may reflect continued brain maturation into late adolescence and early adulthood including synaptic pruning (Sowell et al., 2001) and changes to functional connectivity (Stevens et al., 2007) and/or environmental change. Clinical implications, such as assessing the effectiveness of rehabilitation following Head Injury, are discussed.

  13. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The study aims to characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method The study included 58 females from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. Thirty-four (M=19.97 years old) met DSM criteria for ADHD in childhood, while the remaining 24 (M=19.83 years old) did not. Self- and parent-reports of psychopathology, delinquency, interpersonal relationships, academic achievement, job performance, and substance use were collected. Results The findings suggest that girls with ADHD experience difficulties in late adolescence and young adulthood, such as more conflict with their mothers, being involved in fewer romantic relationships, and experiencing more depressive symptoms than comparison women. However, differences did not emerge in all domains, such as job performance, substance use, and self-reported ADHD symptomatology. Conclusion The findings of this study add to the literature on the negative late adolescent and young adult outcomes associated with childhood ADHD in females. PMID:20562386

  14. The instability of possible selves: identity processes within late adolescents' close peer relationships.

    PubMed

    Kerpelman, J L; Pittman, J F

    2001-08-01

    Understanding how identities emerge and stabilize within the context of interpersonal relationships is an important issue in identity research. Seventy-six late adolescents and their peer partners participated in a laboratory study that focused on the possible selves tied to anticipated career, marriage, and parenthood roles. Control theory (people work to maintain existing identities) and the concept of psychosocial moratorium (identity exploration involves actively "trying on" different selves) were integrated to explain identity construction processes. Consistent with notions of exploration and commitment, emerging self-definitions for highly desired possible selves were unstable. Consistent with control theory, stable self-definitions for anticipated selves occurred when adolescents were committed to avoiding the role. The relationship context mattered only minimally for the adolescents' exploration activities. The behavior of peer partners, however, made it more likely that adolescents would engage in identity exploration of highly important possible selves. The integration of control theory with the concept of psychosocial moratorium offers explanations for the emergence of new identities and their ultimate stabilization.

  15. Cascading peer dynamics underlying the progression from problem behavior to violence in early to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Myers, Michael W

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the peer dynamics linking early adolescent problem behavior, school marginalization, and low academic performance to multiple indices of late adolescent violence (arrests, parent report, and youth report) in an ethnically diverse sample of 998 males and females. A cascade model was proposed in which early adolescent risk factors assessed at age 11 to 12 predict gang involvement at age 13 to 14, which in turn, predicts deviancy training with friends at age 16 to 17, which then predicts violence by age 18 to 19. Each construct in the model was assessed with multiple measures and methods. Structural equation modeling revealed that the cascade model fit the data well, with problem behavior, school marginalization, and low academic performance significantly predicting gang involvement 2 years later. Gang involvement, in turn, predicted deviancy training with a friend, which predicted violence. The best fitting model included an indirect and direct path between early adolescent gang involvement and later violence. These findings suggest the need to carefully consider peer clustering into gangs in efforts to prevent individual and aggregate levels of violence, especially in youths who may be disengaged, marginalized, or academically unsuccessful in the public school context.

  16. Developmental changes in the structure of the social brain in late childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kathryn L; Lalonde, François; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition provides humans with the necessary skills to understand and interact with one another. One aspect of social cognition, mentalizing, is associated with a network of brain regions often referred to as the 'social brain.' These consist of medial prefrontal cortex [medial Brodmann Area 10 (mBA10)], temporoparietal junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and anterior temporal cortex (ATC). How these specific regions develop structurally across late childhood and adolescence is not well established. This study examined the structural developmental trajectories of social brain regions in the longest ongoing longitudinal neuroimaging study of human brain maturation. Structural trajectories of grey matter volume, cortical thickness and surface area were analyzed using surface-based cortical reconstruction software and mixed modeling in a longitudinal sample of 288 participants (ages 7-30 years, 857 total scans). Grey matter volume and cortical thickness in mBA10, TPJ and pSTS decreased from childhood into the early twenties. The ATC increased in grey matter volume until adolescence and in cortical thickness until early adulthood. Surface area for each region followed a cubic trajectory, peaking in early or pre-adolescence before decreasing into the early twenties. These results are discussed in the context of developmental changes in social cognition across adolescence. PMID:23051898

  17. Impact of early adolescent externalizing problem behaviors on identity development in middle to late adolescence: a prospective 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Klimstra, Theo A; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents at-risk for problem behaviors can have more difficulties in developing a firm sense of personal identity. Hence the purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to scrutinize how externalizing problems in early adolescence impact identity development in middle to late adolescence. Participants were 443 (43.12% female) Dutch adolescents. Teachers rated their externalizing problem behaviors when participants were 11 or 12 years old and their identity formation was studied during five consecutive years (from 14 to 18 years of age). The sample was divided into four groups: boys and girls with a high versus a low-risk for externalizing problem behaviors. Participants completed a self-report measure of identity commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. Multi-group Latent Growth Curve and profile stability analyses were used to evaluate identity development across adolescence. Findings indicated that high-risk boys and girls reported a less structured identity, with lower levels of commitment and higher levels of reconsideration of commitment. Since externalizing problems behaviors and lack of a coherent sense of identity might reinforce each other, early intervention for high-risk adolescents might foster positive youth development.

  18. On the Progression and Stability of Adolescent Identity Formation: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study in Early-to-Middle and Middle-to-Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeus, Wim; Van De Schoot, Rens; Keijsers, Loes; Schwartz, Seth J.; Branje, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined identity development in a 5-wave study of 923 early-to-middle and 390 middle-to-late adolescents thereby covering the ages of 12-20. Systematic evidence for identity progression was found: The number of diffusions, moratoriums, and searching moratoriums (a newly obtained status) decreased, whereas the representation of the…

  19. Unsafe abortion in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Olukoya, A A; Kaya, A; Ferguson, B J; AbouZahr, C

    2001-11-01

    Every year, an estimated 2.0-4.4 million adolescents resort to abortion. In comparison with adults, adolescents are more likely to delay the abortion, resort to unskilled persons to perform it, use dangerous methods and present late when complications arise. Adolescents are also more likely to experience complications. Consequently, adolescents seeking abortion or presenting with complications of abortion should be considered as a medical emergency. Issues requiring special attention in the management of abortion complications in adolescents are identified. Approaches to adolescent abortion should involve all levels of the health care system, as well as the community, and should include not only management of the consequences of unsafe abortion, but also post-abortion contraception and counseling. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy by providing information on sexuality, ensuring that reproductive health services are adolescent-friendly, creating a supportive environment, building young people's social and decision-making skills, and offering counseling in times of crisis are highlighted.

  20. Teaching adolescents about adolescence: experiences from an interdisciplinary adolescent health course.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Teri

    2006-01-01

    As abstract reasoning increases in complexity, adolescents may face dissonance between new thoughts and prior beliefs. Students in the health professions may be forced to resolve these dissonances in order to execute their professional responsibilities. In developing an undergraduate interdisciplinary course on adolescent health, the authors anticipated challenges in teaching adolescents about adolescence. Over the course of the semester, the anticipated challenges became reality. The author discusses pertinent developmental theories and their application in facilitating late adolescent identity formation and professional role development.

  1. Stability of alexithymia in late adolescence: results of a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Pölönen, Tuukka; Vahlberg, Tero; Saikkonen, Suvi; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2014-10-30

    The aim of the present study was to assess the stability of alexithymia in adolescents and the effects of parental factors and social support thereon. The sample comprised 315 late adolescents, of whom 259 were female and 56 male. At baseline, the mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The follow-up period was 4 years (2008-2012). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for the assessment of alexithymia both at baseline and follow-up. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were used as measures at baseline. Regarding absolute stability, the changes in the TAS-20 total scores and two subscales (DIF and EOT) were statistically significant but the effect sizes for the changes were small (Cohen׳s d 0.21-0.24). The test-retest correlations for the TAS-20 total and subscale scores were high (ρ=0.50-0.64, P<0.001), indicating relative stability. While several parental and social support variables were associated with alexithymia at baseline, low social support from friends was the only to predict higher alexithymia at follow-up. Alexithymia is a stable personality trait also in late adolescence. Low social support from friends is related to alexithymia in young adulthood.

  2. Family Treatment for Bipolar Disorder and Substance Abuse in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The initial onset of bipolar disorder occurs in childhood or adolescence in about 50% of patients. Early-onset forms of the disorder have a poorer prognosis than adult-onset forms and are frequently characterized by comorbid substance abuse. Clinical trials research suggests that family psychoeducational approaches are effective adjuncts to medication in stabilizing the symptoms of bipolar disorder in adults and youth, although their efficacy in patients with comorbid substance use disorders has not been systematically investigated. This article describes the family-focused treatment (FFT) of a late adolescent with bipolar disorder and polysubstance dependence. The treatment of this patient and family required adapting FFT to consider the family’s structure, dysfunctional alliance patterns, and unresolved conflicts from early in the family’s history. The case illustrates the importance of conducting manual-based behavioral family treatments with a psychotherapeutic attitude, including addressing unstated emotional conflicts and resistances that may impede progress. PMID:22504610

  3. Girls' and boys' experience with teen sexting in early and late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ševčíková, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the extent to which sexting represents a problematic behavior in early and late adolescence. Using data from the EU Kids Online II project (17,016 participants aged 11-16 from 25 European countries, 49.7% boys), multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for four groups: younger girls, older girls, younger boys, and older boys. Irrespective of age and gender, sexting was associated with emotional problems and alcohol use. Its effect decreased in older adolescents, except for emotional difficulties, which remained relatively high in older boys. Vaginal sex was associated with sexting in both younger and older boys while, in girls, the association was observed only in the older group. Younger boys with higher self-efficacy were more likely to send sexts than those with lower self-efficacy. Although sexting is associated with psychological challenges and other types of risk behavior, sexting in some younger boys may not necessarily represent problematic behavior.

  4. Girls' and boys' experience with teen sexting in early and late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ševčíková, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the extent to which sexting represents a problematic behavior in early and late adolescence. Using data from the EU Kids Online II project (17,016 participants aged 11-16 from 25 European countries, 49.7% boys), multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for four groups: younger girls, older girls, younger boys, and older boys. Irrespective of age and gender, sexting was associated with emotional problems and alcohol use. Its effect decreased in older adolescents, except for emotional difficulties, which remained relatively high in older boys. Vaginal sex was associated with sexting in both younger and older boys while, in girls, the association was observed only in the older group. Younger boys with higher self-efficacy were more likely to send sexts than those with lower self-efficacy. Although sexting is associated with psychological challenges and other types of risk behavior, sexting in some younger boys may not necessarily represent problematic behavior. PMID:27391169

  5. Family treatment for bipolar disorder and substance abuse in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Miklowitz, David J

    2012-05-01

    The initial onset of bipolar disorder occurs in childhood or adolescence in about 50% of patients. Early-onset forms of the disorder have a poorer prognosis than adult-onset forms and are frequently characterized by comorbid substance abuse. Clinical trials research suggests that family psychoeducational approaches are effective adjuncts to medication in stabilizing the symptoms of bipolar disorder in adults and youth, although their efficacy in patients with comorbid substance use disorders has not been systematically investigated. This article describes the family-focused treatment (FFT) of a late adolescent with bipolar disorder and polysubstance dependence. The treatment of this patient and family required adapting FFT to consider the family's structure, dysfunctional alliance patterns, and unresolved conflicts from early in the family's history. The case illustrates the importance of conducting manual-based behavioral family treatments with a psychotherapeutic attitude, including addressing unstated emotional conflicts and resistances that may impede progress.

  6. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of repeated MDMA administration during late adolescence in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cox, Brittney M; Shah, Mrudang M; Cichon, Teri; Tancer, Manuel E; Galloway, Matthew P; Thomas, David M; Perrine, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults disproportionately abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy'); however, since most MDMA research has concentrated on adults, the effects of MDMA on the developing brain remain obscure. Therefore, we evaluated place conditioning to MDMA (or saline) during late adolescence and assessed anxiety-like behavior and monoamine levels during abstinence. Rats were conditioned to associate 5 or 10mg/kg MDMA or saline with contextual cues over 4 twice-daily sessions. Five days after conditioning, anxiety-like behavior was examined with the open field test and brain tissue was collected to assess serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the dorsal raphe, amygdala, and hippocampus by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). In a separate group of rats, anxiety-like and avoidant behaviors were measured using the light-dark box test under similar experimental conditions. MDMA conditioning caused a place aversion at 10, but not at 5, mg/kg, as well as increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field and avoidant behavior in light-dark box test at the same dose. Additionally, 10mg/kg MDMA decreased 5-HT in the dorsal raphe, increased 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the amygdala, and did not alter levels in the hippocampus. Overall, we show that repeated high (10mg/kg), but not low (5mg/kg), dose MDMA during late adolescence in rats increases anxiety-like and avoidant behaviors, accompanied by region-specific alterations in 5-HT levels during abstinence. These results suggest that MDMA causes a region-specific dysregulation of the serotonin system during adolescence that may contribute to maladaptive behavior.

  7. Childhood and Adolescent Predictors of Late Onset Criminal Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zara, Georgia; Farrington, David P.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the emergence of a criminal career in adulthood. The main hypothesis tested is that late criminal onset (at age 21 or later) is influenced by early factors that delay antisocial manifestations. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD) was used to examine early determinants of criminal behavior. 400 Inner London…

  8. Development of Emotional Facial Recognition in Late Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Laura A.; De Bellis, Michael D.; Graham, Reiko; Labar, Kevin S.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and improves with age during the preschool years. However, the developmental trajectory from late childhood to adulthood is less clear. We tested older children, adolescents…

  9. Inside the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Stacy S.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

  10. Competence in the context of adversity: pathways to resilience and maladaptation from childhood to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Masten, A S; Hubbard, J J; Gest, S D; Tellegen, A; Garmezy, N; Ramirez, M

    1999-01-01

    Competent outcomes in late adolescence were examined in relation to adversity over time, antecedent competence and psychosocial resources, in order to investigate the phenomenon of resilience. An urban community sample of 205 (114 females, 90 males; 27% minority) children were recruited in elementary school and followed over 10 years. Multiple methods and informants were utilized to assess three major domains of competence from childhood through adolescence (academic achievement, conduct, and peer social competence), multiple aspects of adversity, and major psychosocial resources. Both variable-centered and person-centered analyses were conducted to test the hypothesized significance of resources for resilience. Better intellectual functioning and parenting resources were associated with good outcomes across competence domains, even in the context of severe, chronic adversity. IQ and parenting appeared to have a specific protective role with respect to antisocial behavior. Resilient adolescents (high adversity, adequate competence across three domains) had much in common with their low-adversity competent peers, including average or better IQ, parenting, and psychological well-being. Resilient individuals differed markedly from their high adversity, maladaptive peers who had few resources and high negative emotionality. Results suggest that IQ and parenting scores are markers of fundamental adaptational systems that protect child development in the context of severe adversity.

  11. Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Negative Dependent Life Events from Late Childhood to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Daniel P.; Whisman, Mark A.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.; Rhee, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The association between stressful life events and depression has been consistently supported in the literature; however, studies of the developmental trajectories of these constructs and the nature of their association over time are limited. We examined trajectories of depressive symptoms and negative dependent life events and the associations between these constructs in a sample of 916 youth assessed annually from age 9 to 16, using latent growth curve modeling. Youth depressive symptoms, as rated by youth, parents, and teachers, decreased from late childhood into adolescence, whereas rates of youth-rated life events did not change significantly over time. Initial levels of depressive symptoms were positively associated with initial levels of life events. Furthermore, after controlling for the initial association between the two constructs, increases in depressive symptoms (as assessed by parents and youth) were positively associated with increases in life events over time. The study builds on prior research by focusing specifically on negative dependent life events, examining results across multiple informants, and employing latent growth curve modeling to evaluate associations between trajectories of life events and depressive symptoms in a longitudinal adolescent sample. Additional studies employing latent growth modeling to examine the changes in this association during adolescence are needed. PMID:22592931

  12. The longitudinal development of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sophie J.; Barker, Lynne A.; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Our earlier work suggests that, executive functions and social cognition show protracted development into late adolescence and early adulthood (Taylor et al., 2013). However, it remains unknown whether these functions develop linearly or non-linearly corresponding to dynamic changes to white matter density at these age ranges. Executive functions are particularly in demand during the transition to independence and autonomy associated with this age range (Ahmed and Miller, 2011). Previous research examining executive function (Romine and Reynolds, 2005) and social cognition (Dumontheil et al., 2010a) in late adolescence has utilized a cross sectional design. The current study employed a longitudinal design with 58 participants aged 17, 18, and 19 years completing social cognition and executive function tasks, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson et al., 1988), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) at Time 1 with follow up testing 12–16 months later. Inhibition, rule detection, strategy generation and planning executive functions and emotion recognition with dynamic stimuli showed longitudinal development between time points. Self-report empathy and emotion recognition functions using visual static and auditory stimuli were stable by age 17 whereas concept formation declined between time points. The protracted development of some functions may reflect continued brain maturation into late adolescence and early adulthood including synaptic pruning (Sowell et al., 2001) and changes to functional connectivity (Stevens et al., 2007) and/or environmental change. Clinical implications, such as assessing the effectiveness of rehabilitation following Head Injury, are discussed. PMID:26441579

  13. The longitudinal development of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sophie J; Barker, Lynne A; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Our earlier work suggests that, executive functions and social cognition show protracted development into late adolescence and early adulthood (Taylor et al., 2013). However, it remains unknown whether these functions develop linearly or non-linearly corresponding to dynamic changes to white matter density at these age ranges. Executive functions are particularly in demand during the transition to independence and autonomy associated with this age range (Ahmed and Miller, 2011). Previous research examining executive function (Romine and Reynolds, 2005) and social cognition (Dumontheil et al., 2010a) in late adolescence has utilized a cross sectional design. The current study employed a longitudinal design with 58 participants aged 17, 18, and 19 years completing social cognition and executive function tasks, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson et al., 1988), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) at Time 1 with follow up testing 12-16 months later. Inhibition, rule detection, strategy generation and planning executive functions and emotion recognition with dynamic stimuli showed longitudinal development between time points. Self-report empathy and emotion recognition functions using visual static and auditory stimuli were stable by age 17 whereas concept formation declined between time points. The protracted development of some functions may reflect continued brain maturation into late adolescence and early adulthood including synaptic pruning (Sowell et al., 2001) and changes to functional connectivity (Stevens et al., 2007) and/or environmental change. Clinical implications, such as assessing the effectiveness of rehabilitation following Head Injury, are discussed. PMID:26441579

  14. History of Depression and Frontostriatal Connectivity during Reward Processing in Late Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Judith K.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Olino, Thomas M.; Musselman, Samuel C.; Kurapati, Nikhil T.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Given that depression in men is associated with risk for seriously adverse consequences, evaluating how putative neural mechanisms of depression—such as reward-related frontostriatal connectivity—may be altered in late adolescent boys with a history of depression is an important research aim. Adolescents and adults with depression have been demonstrated to show blunted striatal response and heightened medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to winning reward. Function in reward circuits appears to be best understood as coordination of regions within frontostriatal circuitry, and alterations to this circuitry could occur in those with a history of depression. Method The current study evaluated functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens and mPFC in a sample of 166 ethnically-diverse boys with and without a history of depression. Participants completed an fMRI monetary reward paradigm at age 20. Lifetime history of depression and other psychiatric illnesses was measured prospectively and longitudinally, using structured clinical interviews at 7 time points from ages 8 to 20. Results Boys with a history of depression showed heightened positive connectivity between the nucleus accumbens and the mPFC relative to boys with no psychiatric history when winning rewards relative to losing rewards. This altered frontostriatal connectivity pattern was also associated with greater number of depressive episodes in the boys’ lifetime. Conclusions History of depression in late adolescent boys may be associated with altered coordination between the nucleus accumbens and mPFC when winning reward. This coordination could reflect over-signaling of the mPFC to dampen typical VS response or enhance weak VS response. PMID:25915469

  15. Seasonal variation in adolescent conceptions, induced abortions, and late initiation of prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Petersen, D J; Alexander, G R

    1992-01-01

    The monthly distribution of conceptions among adolescents and the proportion of adolescent pregnancies that are voluntarily terminated by induced abortion by month of conception are the objects of this study. Additionally, seasonal variations in the timing of initiation of prenatal care services by adolescents are investigated. Vital records files of single live births, fetal deaths, and induced terminations of pregnancy to residents in the State of South Carolina, 1979-86, were aggregated to estimate conceptions. There was a significant difference between adolescents and adults in the monthly distribution of conceptions. The peak month of adolescent conceptions coincided with the end of the school year. Pregnancies of adolescents occurring at this time further demonstrated later access of prenatal care services than conceptions occurring at other times of the year, most notably during the school term. These findings suggest that there is considerable opportunity for improving the availability of reproductive health care services for adolescents. The results specifically suggest the potential benefit of increasing adolescent pregnancy prevention efforts prior to high-risk events and increasing the availability of and access to health care and counseling services to adolescents during the school recess months of the summer.

  16. Substance Use among Late Adolescent Urban Youths: Mental Health and Gender Influences

    PubMed Central

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.; Trent, Danielle N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores gender and mental health influences on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among late adolescent urban youths. Specifically, we examine whether rates of substance use differ by gender, whether mental health indices differ by gender and are predictive of substance use, and whether gender moderates the relationship between mental health and substance use. Data from our non-clinical sample of 400 youths were collected primarily online. Analysis of cross-sectional data revealed no differences in substance use by gender. Indices of mental health differed by gender, with girls reporting greater symptoms of depression and anxiety. Ratings of hostility were similar for boys and girls. Alcohol, tobacco, and drug use were associated with greater symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hostility; this relationship, however, was not moderated by gender. Study findings provide evidence that among late adolescent youths living in urban areas, poorer mental health status is associated with increased substance use. Evidence of a moderating effect of gender on the relationship between mental health and substance use was not significant. PMID:19716660

  17. Tobacco smoking and depressed mood in late childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, L T; Anthony, J C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study builds on previous observations about a suspected causal association linking tobacco smoking with depression. With prospective data, the study sheds new light on the temporal sequencing of tobacco smoking and depressed mood in late childhood and early adolescence. METHODS: The epidemiologic sample that was studied consisted of 1731 youths (aged 8-9 to 13-14 years) attending public schools in a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area, who were assessed at least twice from 1989 to 1994. A survival analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship from antecedent tobacco smoking to subsequent onset of depressed mood, as well as from antecedent depressed mood to subsequent initiation of tobacco use. RESULTS: Tobacco smoking signaled a modestly increased risk for the subsequent onset of depressed mood, but antecedent depressed mood was not associated with a later risk of starting to smoke tobacco cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: This evidence is consistent with a possible causal link from tobacco smoking to later depressed mood in late childhood and early adolescence, but not vice versa. PMID:10589312

  18. [Development of the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale for late adolescence].

    PubMed

    Muto, Sera

    2016-02-01

    This study developed a scale to measure the respect-related emotional traits (the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale) for late adolescence and examined the reliability and validity. In study 1,368 university students completed the items of the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale and other scales of theoretically important personality constructs including adult attachment style, the "Big Five," self-esteem, and two types of narcissistic personality. Factor analysis indicated that there are three factors of trait respect-related emotions: (a) trait (prototypical) respect; (b) trait idolatry (worship and adoration); and (c) trait awe. The three traits associated differentially with the daily experience (frequency) of the five basic respect-related emotions (prototypical respect, idolatry, awe, admiration, and wonder), and other constructs. In Study 2, a test-retest correlation of the new scale with 60 university students indicated good reliability. Both studies generally supported the reliability and validity of the new scale. These findings suggest that, at Ieast in late adolescence, there are large individual differences in respect-related emotion experiences and the trait of respect should be considered as multi-dimensional structure. PMID:26964371

  19. Evaluation of the Immediate Dentofacial Changes in Late Adolescent Patients Treated with the Forsus™ FRD

    PubMed Central

    Gunay, Esen Ali; Arun, Tulin; Nalbantgil, Didem

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term dentoalveolar and soft tissue changes in late adolescent patients treated with the Forsus™ FRD. Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 54 lateral cephalometric radiograms that were taken before placement and after removal of the appliance in the treatment group (15 subjects) and at the beginning and six months after in the control group (12 subjects). The patient selection criteria were as follows: skeletal and dental Class II malocclusion due to retrognatic mandible, normal or low-angle growth pattern, post-peak growth period, no extracted or congenitally missing permanent teeth, and minimum crowding in the lower dental arch. Results: The statistical assesment of the data suggested the following results: No sagital and vertical skeletal changes were induced. The mandibular incisors were protruded and intruded, while the maxillary incisors were retruded and extruded. The occlusal plane was rotated in clockwise direction as a result of these dentoalveolar changes. Overbite and overjet were reduced in all patients. Soft tissue profile slightly improved. Conclusions: The results revealed that, in late-adolescent patients Forsus™ FRD corrected Class II discrepancies through maxillary and mandibular dentoalveolar changes. PMID:22589581

  20. [Development of the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale for late adolescence].

    PubMed

    Muto, Sera

    2016-02-01

    This study developed a scale to measure the respect-related emotional traits (the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale) for late adolescence and examined the reliability and validity. In study 1,368 university students completed the items of the Trait Respect-Related Emotions Scale and other scales of theoretically important personality constructs including adult attachment style, the "Big Five," self-esteem, and two types of narcissistic personality. Factor analysis indicated that there are three factors of trait respect-related emotions: (a) trait (prototypical) respect; (b) trait idolatry (worship and adoration); and (c) trait awe. The three traits associated differentially with the daily experience (frequency) of the five basic respect-related emotions (prototypical respect, idolatry, awe, admiration, and wonder), and other constructs. In Study 2, a test-retest correlation of the new scale with 60 university students indicated good reliability. Both studies generally supported the reliability and validity of the new scale. These findings suggest that, at Ieast in late adolescence, there are large individual differences in respect-related emotion experiences and the trait of respect should be considered as multi-dimensional structure.

  1. Maturing out of alcohol involvement: transitions in latent drinking statuses from late adolescence to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Chassin, Laurie; Villalta, Ian K

    2013-11-01

    Research has shown a developmental process of "maturing out" of alcohol involvement beginning in young adulthood, but the precise nature of changes characterizing maturing out is unclear. We used latent transition analysis to investigate these changes in a high-risk sample from a longitudinal study of familial alcoholism (N = 844; 51% children of alcoholics; 53% male, 71% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 27% Hispanic). Analyses classified participants into latent drinking statuses during late adolescence (ages 17-22), young adulthood (ages 23-28), and adulthood (ages 29-40), and characterized transitions among these statuses over time. The resulting four statuses were abstainers, low-risk drinkers who typically drank less than weekly and rarely binged or showed drinking problems, moderate-risk drinkers who typically binged less than weekly and showed moderate risk for drinking problems, and high-risk drinkers who typically binged at least weekly and showed high risk for drinking problems. Maturing out between late adolescence and young adulthood was most common among initial high-risk drinkers, but they typically declined to moderate-risk drinking rather than to nonrisky drinking statuses. This suggests that the developmental phenomenon of maturing out pertains primarily to relatively high-risk initial drinkers and that many high-risk drinkers who mature out merely reduce rather than eliminate their risky drinking. PMID:24229554

  2. Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…

  3. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  4. Positively Adolescent!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  5. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (P<0·05) than in the first trimester. Baby birth length was significantly shorter of adolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth.

  6. Relationship of Substance Use and Associated Predictors of Violence in Early, Middle, and Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Michelle D.; Pentz, Mary Ann; Skara, Silvana N.; Li, Chaoyang; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2004-01-01

    This study examined relationships among selected predictors of violence, including victimization, low conflict management efficacy, hostile anger and drug use in 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade adolescents. The study was a secondary analysis of data from a population- based, cross-sectional survey of health behaviors among adolescents (N = 3922). For…

  7. Family Sex Communication and the Sexual Desire, Attitudes, and Behavior of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboni, Brian D.; Silver, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Parental sex education might promote healthy sexual behavior among adolescents, but some parents assume that family communication about sex will lead to sexual activity. Family sex communication has been studied with a limited range of adolescent sexual behaviors but not sexual fantasy or desire. Two measures of family sex communication were…

  8. Individual and Family Predictors of the Perpetration of Dating Violence and Victimization in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Teen dating violence is a crime of national concern with approximately one-fourth of adolescents reporting victimization of physical, psychological, or sexual dating violence each year. The present study examined how aggressive family dynamics in both childhood and early adolescence predicted the perpetration of dating violence and victimization…

  9. Pathways of Behavior Problems from Childhood to Late Adolescence Leading to Delinquency and Academic Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Maartje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent delinquency and academic underachievement are both linked with child and adolescent behavior problems. However, little is known about behavioral pathways leading to these adverse outcomes. Children's aggression, opposition, status violations, and property violations scores were collected at ages 5, 10, and 18. Delinquency and academic…

  10. Correlates of Appearance Anxiety in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood among Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keelan, J. Patrick R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Findings from female undergraduates (n=106) who completed questionnaires assessing appearance anxiety and childhood and early adolescent experiences suggest that appearance anxiety in women is related to reported negative social experiences in childhood and early adolescence. Appearance anxiety was also found to be related to current social…

  11. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  12. Relational Stressors and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adolescence: Rejection Sensitivity as a Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chango, Joanna M.; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Allen, Joseph P.; Schad, Megan M.; Marston, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The role of rejection sensitivity as a critical diathesis moderating the link between adolescent relational stressors and depressive symptoms was examined using multi-method, multi-reporter data from a diverse community sample of 173 adolescents, followed from age 16 to 18. Relational stressors examined included emotional abuse, maternal behavior…

  13. Childhood Predictors of Male Criminality: A Prospective Population-Based Follow-up Study from Age 8 to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Elonheimo, Henrik; Niemela, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study childhood predictors for late adolescence criminality. Method: The follow-up sample included 2,713 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and the children themselves. The follow-up information about criminal offenses was based on the national…

  14. Stability and Change in Executive Function Abilities from Late Adolescence to Early Adulthood: A Longitudinal Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Naomi P.; Miyake, Akira; Altamirano, Lee J.; Corley, Robin P.; Young, Susan E.; Rhea, Sally Ann; Hewitt, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs)--the higher level cognitive abilities that enable us to control our own thoughts and actions--continue to develop into early adulthood, yet no longitudinal study has examined their stability during the important life transition from late adolescence to young adulthood. In this twin study (total N = 840 individuals from…

  15. The Moderating Role of Father's Care on the Onset of Binge Eating Symptoms among Female Late Adolescents with Insecure Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents…

  16. A Daily Diary Study of Co-Rumination, Stressful Life Events, and Depressed Mood in Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Megan E.; Shih, Josephine H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on co-rumination and depressed mood by examining the impact of co-rumination on depressed mood on a daily basis while controlling for the effects of daily stress events in a sample of late adolescents. Two-hundred and seventy-nine predominantly Caucasian college students (95 male, 184 female)…

  17. Differential Risk for Late Adolescent Conduct Problems and Mood Dysregulation Among Children with Early Externalizing Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5–7) to late adolescence (ages 17–19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger (“conduct problems”), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation (“mood dysregulation”), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality – possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder – emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood. PMID:25183553

  18. Brief Report: Direct and Indirect Relations of Risk Factors with Eating Behavior Problems in Late Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Birgit; Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Zimmermann-van Beuningen, Ritine

    2009-01-01

    This study explored correlations between risk factors and eating behavior problems in late adolescent, non-clinical females (N = 301). Participants completed questionnaires for assessing eating problems, the closely associated factors of Body Mass Index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction, and a number of other risk variables that are thought to be…

  19. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  20. The Interplay between Peer Rejection and Acceptance in Preadolescence and Early Adolescence, Serotonin Transporter Gene, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelius; Veenstra, Rene´

    2014-01-01

    Gene-environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rejection and acceptance, as well as the…

  1. Parenting and late adolescent emotional adjustment: mediating effects of discipline and gender.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-08-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described as emerging adults. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships among parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), discipline strategies (e.g., non-violent discipline, psychological aggression, physical assault), and emerging adult emotional adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depression, and anxiety). The sample consisted of 526 participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Results were analyzed with structural equation modeling and suggest that, although perceived parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, perceived parenting is associated with emerging adult emotional adjustment for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. This finding demonstrates the importance of examining the direct and indirect relationships in the context of gender dyads. PMID:21479509

  2. Prevalence of substance use and abuse in late childhood and early adolescence: What are the implications?

    PubMed Central

    Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Lion, Camilla; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Gomez Perez, Luis Javier; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence by gender of substance use and misuse in late childhood and early adolescence. A survey was conducted in 2013–2014 at primary and secondary schools of Padova, Veneto region, North-East Italy, on a sample of 171 pupils in 5th grade and 1325 in 6th to 8th grade. Among the 8th graders, more than one in three males and one in four females had experimented with smoking, and more than half the boys and nearly half the girls had experience of alcohol. In this same age group, almost two in three males and one in three females had used energy drinks, and nearly 5% of the boys had experience of marijuana and/or stimulant drugs. In addition, almost one in four of the male students in 8th grade had experimented with three of these substances. The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the “gateway drugs.” PMID:26844161

  3. Parenting and late adolescent emotional adjustment: mediating effects of discipline and gender.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-08-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described as emerging adults. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships among parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), discipline strategies (e.g., non-violent discipline, psychological aggression, physical assault), and emerging adult emotional adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depression, and anxiety). The sample consisted of 526 participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Results were analyzed with structural equation modeling and suggest that, although perceived parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, perceived parenting is associated with emerging adult emotional adjustment for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. This finding demonstrates the importance of examining the direct and indirect relationships in the context of gender dyads.

  4. The typical developmental trajectory of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sophie Jane; Barker, Lynne Ann; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Executive functions and social cognition develop through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood and are important for adaptive goal-oriented behavior (Apperly, Samson, & Humphreys, 2009; Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006). These functions are attributed to frontal networks known to undergo protracted maturation into early adulthood (Barker, Andrade, Morton, Romanowski, & Bowles, 2010; Lebel, Walker, Leemans, Phillips, & Beaulieu, 2008), although social cognition functions are also associated with widely distributed networks. Previously, nonlinear development has been reported around puberty on an emotion match-to-sample task (McGivern, Andersen, Byrd, Mutter, & Reilly, 2002) and for IQ in midadolescence (Ramsden et al., 2011). However, there are currently little data on the typical development of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood. In a cross-sectional design, 98 participants completed tests of social cognition and executive function, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond & Snaith, 1983), and measures of pubertal development and demographics at ages 17, 18, and 19. Nonlinear age differences for letter fluency and concept formation executive functions were found, with a trough in functional ability in 18-year-olds compared with other groups. There were no age group differences on social cognition measures. Gender accounted for differences on 1 scale of concept formation, 1 dynamic social interaction scale, and 2 empathy scales. The clinical, developmental, and educational implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22946438

  5. Depression from childhood into late adolescence: Influence of gender, development, genetic susceptibility, and peer stress

    PubMed Central

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Young, Jami F.; Abela, John R. Z.; Smolen, Andrew; Jenness, Jessica L.; Gulley, Lauren D.; Technow, Jessica R.; Gottlieb, Andrea Barrocas; Cohen, Joseph R.; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a debilitating mental illness with clear developmental patterns from childhood through late adolescence. Here, we present data from the Gene Environment Mood (GEM) study, which used an accelerated longitudinal cohort design with youth (N = 665) starting in 3rd, 6th, and 9th grades, and a caretaker, who were recruited from the general community, and were then assessed repeatedly via semi-structured diagnostic interviews every 6-months over 3 years (7 waves of data) to establish and then predict trajectories of depression from age 8 to 18. First, we demonstrated that overall prevalence rates of depression over time, by age, gender, and pubertal status, in the GEM study closely match those trajectories previously obtained in past developmental epidemiological research. Second, we tested whether a genetic vulnerability-stress model involving 5-HTTLPR and chronic peer stress was moderated by developmental factors. Results showed that older aged adolescents with SS/SL genotype, who experienced higher peer chronic stress over 3 years, were the most likely to be diagnosed with a depressive episode over time. Girls experiencing greater peer chronic stress were the most likely to develop depression. PMID:26595469

  6. Prevalence of substance use and abuse in late childhood and early adolescence: What are the implications?

    PubMed

    Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Lion, Camilla; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Gomez Perez, Luis Javier; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence by gender of substance use and misuse in late childhood and early adolescence. A survey was conducted in 2013-2014 at primary and secondary schools of Padova, Veneto region, North-East Italy, on a sample of 171 pupils in 5th grade and 1325 in 6th to 8th grade. Among the 8th graders, more than one in three males and one in four females had experimented with smoking, and more than half the boys and nearly half the girls had experience of alcohol. In this same age group, almost two in three males and one in three females had used energy drinks, and nearly 5% of the boys had experience of marijuana and/or stimulant drugs. In addition, almost one in four of the male students in 8th grade had experimented with three of these substances. The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the "gateway drugs." PMID:26844161

  7. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pons, Francisco; de Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick K; Doudin, Pierre-André; Harris, Paul L; Giménez-Dasí, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants' emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not for simple components. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.

  8. Facing Facts: Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W., Ed.

    This report summarizes the deliberations, findings, and recommendations of the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health. The report defines the characteristics of a sexually healthy adolescent, provides a foundation for understanding the three developmental stages of adolescents (early, middle, and late adolescence), and offers…

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Aggression from Late Childhood through Adolescence: Similarities and Differences across Gender

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongling; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Chen, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous investigations of overt aggressive and antisocial trajectories have been undertaken, there is a dearth of literature examining gender differences and similarities in trajectory patterns and their correlates. To address these gaps, we investigated gender differences in the prevalence rates, predictive validity during transition to adulthood, childhood risk factors, and adolescent correlates of different trajectories of teacher-reported overt aggression (i.e., fights, argues, gets in trouble) among 220 participants (116 girls and 104 boys) evaluated annually from grade 4 to grade 12. Four patterns of trajectories were identified: low, increasing (i.e., adolescent-onset), decreasing (i.e., childhood-limited), and high (i.e., childhood-onset). majority large proportion of youth, particularly girls, displayed low levels of aggression over time. A small proportion followed the childhood-onset trajectory. Across gender, the childhood-onset trajectory was associated with the highest rates of maladjustment during the transition to adulthood, the highest number of childhood risk factors, and multiple problems during adolescence. The adolescent-onset trajectory was associated with few childhood risk factors, but with high levels of independent status during adolescence. In contrast, the childhood-limited trajectory was associated with several childhood risk factors, but high levels of parental monitoring and school engagement during adolescence. Romantic involvement differentiated the adolescent-onset and childhood-limited trajectories among girls. PMID:21748751

  10. Perceptions of parental control and the development of indecision among late adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, J R; Olivette, M J

    1993-01-01

    Late adolescent females (N = 86; M age = 19.1 years) completed reliable and valid self-report measures on their perception of both parents' authority style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and their own tendency toward decisional procrastination. Households where daughters perceived both parents as high authoritarian (n = 32) were significantly more likely to raise daughters with strong indecision tendencies than were parents perceived as low authoritarian (n = 23). Mothers and fathers perceived as high (n = 22) or low (n = 22) authoritative, and high (n = 32) or low (n = 24) permissive, did not produce significant differences in daughters' self-reported decisional procrastination. Results suggest that parental authority characterized by stern inflexibility and overcontrol has the greatest influence on daughters who develop chronic indecision tendencies.

  11. Culture and class as determinants of out-of-wedlock childbearing and poverty during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M L

    1993-01-01

    Out-of-wedlock childbearing during late adolescence is associated with poverty, both before and after the transition to parenthood. This article compares 2 linked data sets to examine the effects of income level and membership in race/ethnic categories on whether teen pregnancies terminate in abortion and whether those carried to term are legitimated by marriage. One data set consists of ethnographic data from 3 neighborhoods in Brooklyn, New York, that are predominantly African-American, Hispanic (mostly Puerto Rican), and non-Latino White, respectively. The other consists of all birth and abortion records from the health areas of those neighborhoods. Both data sets show higher rates of abortion and lower rates of marriage for poorer people, along with distinctive race/ethnic patterns that cannot be reduced to income differences. The results support the predictions of expectancy theory and show the strong independent role of culture in processes of family and household formation.

  12. Relation of Childhood Home Environment to Cortical Thickness in Late Adolescence: Specificity of Experience and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Avants, Brian B.; Hackman, Daniel A.; Betancourt, Laura M.; Lawson, Gwendolyn M.; Hurt, Hallam; Farah, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    What are the long-term effects of childhood experience on brain development? Research with animals shows that the quality of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance both play important roles in shaping lifelong brain structure and function. Human research has so far been limited to the effects of abnormal experience and pathological development. Using a unique longitudinal dataset of in-home measures of childhood experience at ages 4 and 8 and MRI acquired in late adolescence, we were able to relate normal variation in childhood experience to later life cortical thickness. Environmental stimulation at age 4 predicted cortical thickness in a set of automatically derived regions in temporal and prefrontal cortex. In contrast, age 8 experience was not predictive. Parental nurturance was not predictive at either age. This work reveals an association between childhood experience and later brain structure that is specific relative to aspects of experience, regions of brain, and timing. PMID:26509809

  13. Daily salivary cortisol profile: Insights from the Croatian Late Adolescence Stress Study (CLASS)

    PubMed Central

    Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Milas, Goran; Hofman, Irena Drmić; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to examine basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and to determine associations of various covariates (gender, sleep-wake rhythm, demographic, academic, life style and health-related characteristics) with altered daily salivary cortisol profiles in late adolescence. Materials and methods The total analytic sample consisted of 903 Croatian secondary school students aged 18 - 21 years (median 19 years). Salivary cortisol was sampled at home at three time points over the course of one week and its concentrations were measured by using the enzyme immunoassay. Results In comparison to males, female students had a higher cortisol awakening response (CAR) (median 4.69, IQR 10.46 and median 3.03, IQR 8.94, respectively; P < 0.001), a steeper (“healthier”) diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) (median 0.51, IQR 0.55 and median 0.44, IQR 0.51, respectively; P = 0.001), and a greater area under curve with respect to ground (AUCG) (median 206.79, IQR 111.78 and median 191.46, IQR 104.18, respectively; P < 0.001). Those students who woke-up earlier and were awake longer, had a higher CAR (P < 0.001), a flatter (“less healthy”) DCS (P < 0.001), and a greater AUCG (P < 0.001), than students who woke-up later and were awake shorter. Less consistent but still significant predictors of salivary cortisol indexes were age, school behaviour, friendship, diet healthiness and drug abuse. Conclusion Gender and sleep-wake up rhythm were major determinants of the altered daily salivary cortisol profiles in late adolescence. The predictive power of other covariates, although less clear, has a potential for identifying vulnerable subgroups such as male drug users and females without a best friend. PMID:27812308

  14. Continuity and Discontinuity of Depressed Mood from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Mediating and Stabilizing Roles of Young Adults' Socioeconomic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Federick O.; Martin, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data from 467 youth over a 13-year period (late adolescence and young adulthood), the present study investigates three research questions: (1) to what extent do elevations in depressed mood continue (homotypic continuity) from adolescence to young adulthood, (2) to what extent do young adults' socioeconomic…

  15. Adolescent immunization.

    PubMed

    Handal, G A

    2000-06-01

    The dramatic improvements achieved in the control of vaccine-preventable diseases in children have only been shared partially by adolescents and young adults, as today several million adolescents are not receiving the full complement of vaccines recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). This article discusses the reasons for this problem and the tools to bridge this gap. In particular, medical societies and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend a close assessment of the adolescentís immunization status between 11 and 12 years of age, inclusion of school immunization, and providing missing immunizations at any opportunity. The article also addresses other vaccines recommended for groups of adolescents with special needs, reporting information, and provides an update on the vaccines of the future.

  16. Acceptance of cosmetic surgery, body appreciation, body ideal internalization, and fashion blog reading among late adolescents in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Carolina

    2013-09-01

    This study examined adolescents' attitudes of cosmetic surgery, as well as the relationships between these attitudes, body appreciation, body ideal internalization, and fashion blog reading. The sample comprised 110 (60 boys, 50 girls) late adolescents (mean age 16.9 years) from a Swedish high school. The results indicated that younger adolescents seem somewhat more accepting of cosmetic surgery. This was especially the case for boys' acceptance of social motives for obtaining cosmetic surgery (boys' M=2.3±1.55 vs. girls' M=1.7±0.89). Girls', and to a limited extent boys', internalization of the thin ideal was related to more favorable cosmetic surgery attitudes. Athletic ideal internalization and body appreciation were unrelated to these attitudes. Finally, girls who frequently read fashion blogs reported higher thin ideal internalization, and also demonstrated a slight tendency of more cosmetic surgery consideration.

  17. Adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

    1988-12-01

    The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.

  18. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.

  19. The Recognition of Mental Illness, Schizophrenia Identification, and Help-Seeking from Friends in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Syudo; Ando, Shuntaro; Shimodera, Shinji; Endo, Kaori; Okazaki, Yuji; Asukai, Nozomu; Usami, Satoshi; Nishida, Atsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The recognition of mental illness without anticipating stigma might encourage adolescents’ help-seeking behavior. We aimed to identify the relationship between mental illness identification and adolescents’ intention to seek help if faced with mental illness. Method We examined the relationships between help-seeking intentions and recognition of mental illness (RMI) without correctly identifying the disease name, as well as correct labelling of schizophrenia (LSC) using a vignette about a person with schizophrenia in a cross-sectional survey of 9,484 Japanese high-school students aged 15–18 years. Results When compared with adolescents who were unable to recognize the mental illness (UMI) in the vignette, those in the RMI group reported they were significantly more likely to seek help from friends (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.17–1.41; P < 0.001) and expressed an increased likelihood to seek help from professionals (all P < .05). Those in the LSC group reported they were significantly less likely to exhibit help-seeking behavior (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.65–0.92, P = 0.003) and expressed an increased likelihood of help-seeking from health professionals than the UMI group (all P < .05). Conclusion The ability to recognize mental illness without identifying the disease may increase help-seeking from friends, while the ability to identify the disease as schizophrenia might decrease late adolescents’ help-seeking. To promote help-seeking behavior among adolescents, improving their ability to recognize mental illness generally is recommended. PMID:26967510

  20. Age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C

    2016-06-01

    Contrary to common stereotypes, loneliness is not restricted to old age but can occur at any life stage. In this study, we used data from a large, nationally representative German study (N = 16,132) to describe and explain age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age. The age distribution of loneliness followed a complex nonlinear trajectory, with elevated loneliness levels among young adults and among the oldest old. The late-life increase in loneliness could be explained by lower income levels, higher prevalence of functional limitations, and higher proportion of singles in this age group. Consistent with an age-normative perspective, the association of income, relationship status, household size, and work status with loneliness differed between different age groups. In contrast, indicators of the quantity of social relationships (social engagement, number of friends, contact frequency) were universally associated with loneliness regardless of age. Overall, these findings show that sources of loneliness in older adults are well understood. Future research should focus on understanding the specific sources of loneliness in middle-aged adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Adolescent loneliness.

    PubMed

    Williams, E G

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of loneliness in delinquent adolescents with regard to types of delinquency offenses committed, demographic characteristics, and personality characteristics in the areas of interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The types of delinquency offenses were categorized as burglary, runaway, drugs, assault, and incorrigible. The demographic variables examined were age, sex, race, family rank or birth order, family structure in terms of parental presence, family income level, religion, and geographic locale. A sample of 98 adolescents was obtained from juvenile detention facilities in three metropolitan areas in the United States. Subjects ranged in age from 12 to 18. Subjects were asked to complete the Loneliness Questionnaire as a self-reported measure of loneliness. Subjects also provided information about themselves relative to demographic characteristics and completed the FIRO-B Questionnaire, which measured interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The results revealed no significant differences with regard to any of the demographic variables when the effect of each was considered alone. However, there was a significant effect on loneliness by income when considered jointly with other demographic variables. Adolescents from the middle income group expressed more loneliness than those from the upper and lower income groups. No significant differences were observed with regard to personality characteristics related to interpersonal needs for inclusion and affection, but delinquent adolescents with medium to high needs for control indicated significantly more feelings of loneliness than delinquent adolescents with low needs for control.

  2. Brief report: identity processes in Filipino late adolescents and young adults: parental influences and mental health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pesigan, Ivan Jacob Agaloos; Luyckx, Koen; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2014-07-01

    This study focused on a process-oriented approach to identity formation using a sample of Filipino late adolescents and young adults (17-30 years; N = 779). Indirect relations between parenting and mental health via identity formation processes were examined. Two parenting dimensions (psychological control and support), two types of mental health outcomes (depression and psychological well-being), and five identity dimensions (commitment making (CM), identification with commitment (IC), exploration in breadth (EB), exploration in depth (ED), and ruminative exploration (RE)) were assessed. Recursive path analysis showed indirect relations between parenting and mental health via EB, ED, RE, and IC. Model differences between late adolescents (17-21 year olds) and young adults (22-30 year olds) were examined using multigroup path analysis. Results showed that the direct effect of psychological control on RE, and its indirect effect on depression through RE differed between the age groups. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  3. Father-child separation, retrospective and current views of attachment relationship with father, and self-esteem in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    McCormick, C B; Kennedy, J H

    2000-06-01

    Relationships between paternal separation in childhood and adult measures of self-esteem, paternal acceptance and independence-encouragement were investigated with 236 nonparent college students as subjects. Current relationship with father was measured by a modified version of Epstein's Mother-Father-Peer Scale. Self-esteem was measured by Coopersmith's Self-esteem Inventory. Individuals who experienced separation for all reasons from their fathers during childhood recounted less acceptance by their fathers in late adolescence but not less independence-encouragement. Individuals whose parents had divorced (whether or not they had experienced a significant separation) reported lower acceptance by their fathers in both childhood and in late adolescence, and they attained lower scores on self-esteem.

  4. Contraceptive counseling for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Potter, Julia; Santelli, John S

    2015-11-01

    The majority of adolescents become sexually active during their teenage years, making contraceptive counseling an important aspect of routine adolescent healthcare. However, many healthcare providers express discomfort when it comes to counseling adolescents about contraceptive options. This Special Report highlights the evidence supporting age-appropriate contraceptive counseling for adolescents and focuses on best practices for addressing adolescents' questions and concerns about contraceptive methods.

  5. The Acute Effects of Alcohol on Sleep Architecture in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Julia K. M.; Trinder, John; Andrewes, Holly E.; Colrain, Ian M.; Nicholas, Christian L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is prevalent in late adolescence, however little is known about its effect on sleep in this group. In mature adults, alcohol decreases sleep onset latency (SOL) and sleep efficiency (SE) and increases wake after sleep onset (WASO). It also increases slow wave sleep (SWS) and decreases REM sleep in the first half of the night, with the inverse occurring in the second half. Alcohol’s effect on sleep during late adolescence is of interest given that this age group shows both dramatic increases in alcohol consumption, and significant developmental changes in the central nervous system. This study examined the effect of alcohol on sleep architecture in women and men aged 18–21 years and whether previously reported sleep architecture effects may have been as an artificial result of changes to sleep cycle length. Methods 24 (12 female) healthy 18–21 year old light social drinkers (19.1±1.0yrs) underwent two conditions: pre-sleep alcohol (Target BAC 0.10%) and placebo administered under controlled conditions, followed by standard polysomnography. Results In the alcohol condition, mean breath alcohol concentration (BAC) at lights out was 0.084 ±0.016%. Time in bed, total sleep time and sleep onset latency (all p>.05) did not differ between conditions. However, there was less REM (p=.011) and more stage 2 sleep (p=.035) in the alcohol condition. Further, alcohol increased SWS (p=.02) and decreased REM sleep (p<.001) in the first half of the night and disrupted sleep in the second half, with increased WASO (interaction: p=.034), and decreased SE (p=.04) and SWS (p=.01) and no REM sleep rebound in the second half of the night (p=.262). Additionally, alcohol had no effect on sleep cycle length (p=.598). Conclusions The results were broadly consistent with the adult literature with the novel extension that half night sleep architecture effects could not be attributed to changes in sleep cycle length. However, alcohol did not reduce SOL, or

  6. Depressive Symptoms and the Experience of Pleasure in Daily Life: An Exploration of Associations in Early and Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    van Roekel, Eeske; Bennik, Elise C; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A; Verhagen, Maaike; Ormel, Johan; Engels, Rutger C M E; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-07-01

    Although loss of pleasure (i.e., anhedonia) is one of the two core symptoms of depression, very little research has examined the relation between depressive symptoms and the experience of pleasure in daily life. This exploratory study in two population-based adolescent samples aimed to examine how depressive symptoms and anhedonia specifically were related to (1) the proportion and intensity of positive events, (2) mean and variability of positive affect (PA), (3) reactivity to positive events, and (4) reactivity to PA (i.e., whether PA elicits positive events). We used Experience Sampling to measure positive events and PA several times a day during 6 to 14 days in early (N = 284) and late (N = 74) adolescents. Results showed that depressive symptoms were related to a lower proportion and intensity of positive events, lower mean PA, and higher variability in PA regardless of sex and stage of adolescence. No clear evidence was found for differential reactivity to positive events or to PA. Anhedonia was not associated with most daily life experiences of pleasure. Our findings, though preliminary, suggest that although adolescents with many depressive symptoms experience less positive events and lower PA, they are able to enjoy pleasurable events to the same extent as individuals with fewer depressive symptoms.

  7. Peer relationship antecedents of delinquent behavior in late adolescence: Is there evidence of demographic group differences in developmental processes?

    PubMed Central

    LAIRD, ROBERT D.; PETTIT, GREGORY S.; DODGE, KENNETH A.; BATES, JOHN E.

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal prospective design was used to test the generalizability of low levels of social preference and high levels of antisocial peer involvement as risk factors for delinquent behavior problems to African American (AA) and European American (EA) boys and girls (N = 384). Social preference scores were computed from peer reports in middle childhood (ages 6–9). Parents and adolescents reported antisocial peer involvement in early adolescence (ages 13–16) and adolescents reported on their own delinquent behavior in late adolescence (ages 17 and 18). Analyses tested for differences across four groups (AA boys, EA boys, AA girls, EA girls) in construct measurement, mean levels, and associations among variables. Few measurement differences were found. Mean-level differences were found for social preference and delinquent behavior. AA boys were least accepted by peers and reported the highest level of delinquent behavior. EA girls were most accepted by peers and reported the lowest level of delinquent behavior. Associations among peer experiences and delinquent behavior were equivalent across groups, with lower levels of social preference and higher levels of antisocial peer involvement associated with more delinquent behavior. Person-centered analyses showed the risk associated with low social preference and high antisocial peer involvement to be similar across groups, providing further evidence of the generalizability of the peer relationship experiences as risk factors for subsequent delinquent behavior problems. PMID:15971763

  8. Understanding Nonprescription and Prescription Drug Misuse in Late Adolescence/Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Fleary, Sasha A.; Heffer, Robert W.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which nonprescription and prescription drugs misuse among adolescents/young adults are related to their perception that it is safer than illicit drugs, ease of access, and lower societal stigma. Adolescents/young adults (N = 465; Mage = 18.57, SD = 0.86) completed an online survey about their nonprescription and prescription drug misuse, other substance use, and correlates of use. Perceived risk, societal stigma, and access to nonprescription and prescription drugs were predictive of misuse. Results support program planners working towards targeting perceived risk and societal stigma in reducing misuse and the need to restrict and monitor access to nonprescription and prescription drugs for adolescents/young adults. PMID:24826368

  9. History of dating violence and the association with late adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present investigation expands upon prior studies by examining the relationship between health in late adolescence and the experience of physical/sexual and non-physical dating violence victimization, including dating violence types that are relevant to today’s adolescents (e.g., harassment via email and text messaging). We examined the relationship between physical/sexual and non-physical dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 and health in late adolescence/early adulthood. Methods The sample comprised 585 subjects (ages 18 to 21; mean age, 19.8, SD = 1.0) recruited from The Ohio State University who completed an online survey to assess: 1) current health (depression, disordered eating, binge drinking, smoking, and frequent sexual behavior); and 2) dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 (retrospectively assessed using eight questions covering physical, sexual, and non-physical abuse, including technology-related abuse involving stalking/harassment via text messaging and email). Multivariable models compared health indicators in never-exposed subjects to those exposed to physical/sexual or non-physical dating violence only. The multivariable models were adjusted for age and other non-dating abuse victimization (bullying; punched, kicked, choked by a parent/guardian; touched in a sexual place, forced to touch someone sexually). Results In adjusted analyses, compared to non-exposed females, females with physical/sexual dating violence victimization were at increased risk of smoking (prevalence ratio = 3.95); depressive symptoms (down/hopeless, PR = 2.00; lost interest, PR = 1.79); eating disorders (using diet aids, PR = 1.98; fasting, PR = 4.71; vomiting to lose weight, PR = 4.33); and frequent sexual behavior (5+ intercourse and oral sex partners, PR = 2.49, PR = 2.02; having anal sex, PR = 2.82). Compared to non-exposed females, females with non-physical dating violence only were at increased risk of smoking (PR = 3

  10. Developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of relationships with their parents.

    PubMed

    De Goede, Irene H A; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2009-01-01

    This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses showed that support declined from early to middle adolescence for boys and girls and increased from middle to late adolescence for girls, while stabilizing for boys. Conflict was found to temporarily increase during middle adolescence. Parental power (relative power and dominance of parents) decreased from early to late adolescence. Results indicated that: (1) parent-adolescent relationships become more egalitarian during adolescence, (2) parents perceived by adolescents as powerful are viewed as supportive, especially in early adolescence, and (3) perceived conflict with parents is related to but not an impetus for changes in parent-adolescent relationships towards more equality.

  11. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  12. A Comparison of Two Models of Risky Sexual Behavior During Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Braje, Sopagna Eap; Eddy, J Mark; Hall, Gordon C N

    2016-01-01

    Two models of risky sexual behavior (RSB) were compared in a community sample of late adolescents (N = 223). For the traumagenic model, early negative sexual experiences were posited to lead to an association between negative affect with sexual relationships. For the cognitive escape model, depressive affect was posited to lead to engagement in RSB as a way to avoid negative emotions. The current study examined whether depression explained the relationship between sexual trauma and RSB, supporting the cognitive escape model, or whether it was sexual trauma that led specifically to RSB, supporting the traumagenic model. Physical trauma experiences were also examined to disentangle the effects of sexual trauma compared to other emotionally distressing events. The study examined whether the results would be moderated by participant sex. For males, support was found for the cognitive escape model but not the traumagenic model. Among males, physical trauma and depression predicted engagement in RSB but sexual trauma did not. For females, support was found for the traumagenic and cognitive escape model. Among females, depression and sexual trauma both uniquely predicted RSB. There was an additional suppressor effect of socioeconomic status in predicting RSB among females. Results suggest that the association of trauma type with RSB depends on participant sex. Implications of the current study for RSB prevention efforts are discussed.

  13. Alcohol consumption in late adolescence and early adulthood--where is the problem?

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-07-25

    Risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) is more common in late adolescence and early adulthood (approximately between the ages of 16 and 30) than in any other period in life. This is also the age when young people in Switzerland and many other European countries are legally allowed to buy and drink alcohol, but they usually do not yet have adult responsibilities. This paper reviews evidence from the international literature and provides examples of studies conducted in Switzerland demonstrating that (a) RSOD is by far most prevalent on Saturday evenings followed by Friday evenings, usually because young people go out and do not have any work or study responsibilities the next day; (b) RSOD results from drinking in private before going out ("predrinking") and accelerating the pace of drinking (i.e. increasing the number of drinks consumed per hour); (c) RSOD is often not accidental but purposeful,. to seek excitement, to have fun and to feel the effects of alcohol; (d) RSOD occurs predominantly outside the home, mostly in bars, pubs, discos or at special events and festivals; (e) RSOD often results in intended and unintended injuries and other acute consequences, which are leading risk factors for mortality and morbidity in this age group. Effective prevention strategies should include attempts to reduce opportunities to engage in heavy drinking as well as strategies to reduce its harmful consequences.

  14. The development of loneliness from mid- to late adolescence: trajectory classes, personality traits, and psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc; Luyckx, Koen; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-12-01

    Although loneliness is a common problem across late adolescence, its developmental course has not been investigated in depth in this period of life. The present study aims to fill this gap by means of a five-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study spanning ages 15 to 20 (N = 389). Both variable-centered (i.e., latent growth curve modeling) and person-centered (i.e., latent class growth analysis) approaches were used. Variable-centered analyses showed that loneliness generally decreased over time. Person-centered analyses pointed to considerable inter-individual differences in the development of loneliness, and identified five trajectory classes (i.e., stable low, low increasing, moderate decreasing, high increasing, and chronically high). These five trajectory classes were differentially related to personality traits at age 15 (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability) and psychosocial functioning at age 20 (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem, anxiety, and perceived stress). These findings underscore the additional value of studying subgroups regarding the development of loneliness.

  15. Treating Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  16. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  17. Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    This volume presents an overview of contemporary black adolescents from social, psychological, economic, educational, medical, historical, and comparative perspectives, with most emphasizing the roles that race, socioeconomic status, and environmental forces play in this critical period. The volume includes 19 chapters by various authors arranged…

  18. Social Isolation During Adolescence Strengthens Retention of Fear Memories and Facilitates Induction of Late-Phase Long-Term Potentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Hong; You, Qiang-Long; Wei, Mei-Dan; Wang, Qian; Luo, Zheng-Yi; Lin, Song; Huang, Lang; Li, Shu-Ji; Li, Xiao-Wen; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Social isolation during the vulnerable period of adolescence produces emotional dysregulation that often manifests as abnormal behavior in adulthood. The enduring consequence of isolation might be caused by a weakened ability to forget unpleasant memories. However, it remains unclear whether isolation affects unpleasant memories. To address this, we used a model of associative learning to induce the fear memories and evaluated the influence of isolation mice during adolescence on the subsequent retention of fear memories and its underlying cellular mechanisms. Following adolescent social isolation, we found that mice decreased their social interaction time and had an increase in anxiety-related behavior. Interestingly, when we assessed memory retention, we found that isolated mice were unable to forget aversive memories when tested 4 weeks after the original event. Consistent with this, we observed that a single train of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) enabled a late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of isolated mice, whereas only an early-phase LTP was observed with the same stimulation in the control mice. Social isolation during adolescence also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus, and application of a tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor inhibitor ameliorated the facilitated L-LTP seen after isolation. Together, our results suggest that adolescent isolation may result in mental disorders during adulthood and that this may stem from an inability to forget the unpleasant memories via BDNF-mediated synaptic plasticity. These findings may give us a new strategy to prevent mental disorders caused by persistent unpleasant memories.

  19. Borderline Symptoms and Suicidality/Self-injury in Late Adolescence: Prospectively Observed Relationship Correlates in Infancy and Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Holmes, Bjarne; Easterbrooks, Ann; Brooks, Nancy Hall

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective was to assess whether prospectively observed quality of parent-child interaction in infancy and middle childhood contributed to the prediction of borderline symptoms and recurrent suicidality/self-injury in late adolescence. Adolescents (mean 19.9 years) from 56 families participating in a longitudinal study since infancy (retention rate 74%) were assessed on the SCID-II for symptoms of borderline personality disorder, including suicidality/self-injury. Early clinical risk was indexed by clinical referral to parent-infant services. Attachment security and parent-child interaction were assessed from videotape at 18 months and 8 years. Severity of childhood abuse was rated from interview and self-report measures. Maternal withdrawal in infancy was a significant predictor of both borderline symptoms and suicidality/self-injury in late adolescence. Disorganizedcontrolling child behavior at age 8 contributed independently to the prediction of borderline symptoms. The effect of maternal withdrawal was independent of, and additive to, variability explained by severity of childhood abuse. Borderline symptoms and suicidality/self-injury may be preceded developmentally by disturbed interactions as early as 18 months of age. A parent-child transactional model is proposed to account for the findings. PMID:23123044

  20. Personality, Identity Styles, and Religiosity: An Integrative Study among Late and Middle Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duriez, Bart; Soenens, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Past research has shown that the way people deal with religion is related to prejudice. Therefore, it is important to study the determinants of individual differences in adolescent religious attitudes. In the present study, it is proposed that both differences in personality and identity formation might determine these religious attitudes.…

  1. Dispositional mindfulness is predicted by structural development of the insula during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Friedel, S; Whittle, S L; Vijayakumar, N; Simmons, J G; Byrne, M L; Schwartz, O S; Allen, N B

    2015-08-01

    Adolescence is a critical period of development, in which the increasing social and cognitive demands of independence need to be met by enhanced self-regulatory abilities. The cultivation of mindfulness has been associated with improved self-regulation in adult populations, and it is theorized that one neurodevelopmental mechanism that supports this capacity is the development of the prefrontal cortex. The current study examined the neurodevelopmental mechanisms associated with dispositional mindfulness in adolescence. Using a longitudinal within-persons design, 82 participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessments at approximately ages 16 and 19, and also completed self-reported measurements of mindfulness at age 19. It was hypothesized that adolescents who demonstrated greater thinning of frontal cortical regions between the age of 16 and 19 would exhibit higher dispositional mindfulness levels at age 19. Results indicated that, contrary to predictions, adolescents with higher levels of mindfulness demonstrated less thinning in the left anterior insula. By contrast, higher IQ was associated with greater thinning of the right caudal middle frontal and right superior frontal regions. The involvement of insula development in mindfulness is consistent with a direct role for this structure in managing self-regulation, and in doing so concords with recent models of self-referential interoceptive awareness.

  2. Self-Recognition of the Body and Its Parts during Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and female student volunteers were photographed nude in three orientations and asked to identify bodily parts from an array of photographs grouped according to height and linearity. Results are discussed in terms of ego involvement, narcissism, and the increased attention given to the body during adolescence. (Author/GK)

  3. Families Created by Assisted Reproduction: Parent-Child Relationships in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Lucy; Golombok, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the third phase of a longitudinal study of families created by assisted reproduction. The quality of parent-child relationships was examined close to the adolescent's 18th birthday in 26 "in vitro" fertilization (IVF) families and 26 donor insemination (DI) families in comparison with 38 adoptive families and 63…

  4. A Hazard Approach to Understanding Factors Associated with Early and Late Adolescent Tobacco Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby, Janet Nieuwsma; Vargas, Delfino

    This report examines risk and protective factors associated with adolescent tobacco involvement. Of interest are family contexts, peers, and individual covariates. Participants were 399 youth, parents, and a close-in-age sibling. Of the youth, 150 initiated use early (7th, 8th, or 9th grade), 82 later (10th or 11th grade), and 167 abstained.…

  5. Stability and Change of Moral Disengagement and Its Impact on Aggression and Violence in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciello, Marinella; Fida, Roberta; Tramontano, Carlo; Lupinetti, Catia; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2008-01-01

    Stability and change of moral disengagement were examined in a sample of 366 adolescents from ages 14 to 20 years. Four developmental trajectories were identified: (a) nondisengaged group that started with initially low levels followed by an important decline, (b) normative group that started with initially moderate levels followed by a decline,…

  6. The Typical Developmental Trajectory of Social and Executive Functions in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sophie Jane; Barker, Lynne Ann; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Executive functions and social cognition develop through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood and are important for adaptive goal-oriented behavior (Apperly, Samson, & Humphreys, 2009; Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006). These functions are attributed to frontal networks known to undergo protracted maturation into early adulthood…

  7. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  8. Prenatal Smoking and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Children Studied from Childhood to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Janka; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Timmermans, Maartje; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate whether prenatal smoking was only related to externalizing or both internalizing and externalizing problems in children from childhood to early adolescence. Results indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is an accurate predictor of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among children.

  9. Parenting and Late Adolescent Emotional Adjustment: Mediating Effects of Discipline and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment…

  10. Dispositional mindfulness is predicted by structural development of the insula during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Friedel, S; Whittle, S L; Vijayakumar, N; Simmons, J G; Byrne, M L; Schwartz, O S; Allen, N B

    2015-08-01

    Adolescence is a critical period of development, in which the increasing social and cognitive demands of independence need to be met by enhanced self-regulatory abilities. The cultivation of mindfulness has been associated with improved self-regulation in adult populations, and it is theorized that one neurodevelopmental mechanism that supports this capacity is the development of the prefrontal cortex. The current study examined the neurodevelopmental mechanisms associated with dispositional mindfulness in adolescence. Using a longitudinal within-persons design, 82 participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessments at approximately ages 16 and 19, and also completed self-reported measurements of mindfulness at age 19. It was hypothesized that adolescents who demonstrated greater thinning of frontal cortical regions between the age of 16 and 19 would exhibit higher dispositional mindfulness levels at age 19. Results indicated that, contrary to predictions, adolescents with higher levels of mindfulness demonstrated less thinning in the left anterior insula. By contrast, higher IQ was associated with greater thinning of the right caudal middle frontal and right superior frontal regions. The involvement of insula development in mindfulness is consistent with a direct role for this structure in managing self-regulation, and in doing so concords with recent models of self-referential interoceptive awareness. PMID:26209810

  11. Developmental Trajectories of Perceived Friendship Intimacy, Constructive Problem Solving, and Depression from Early to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfhout, M. H. W.; Branje, S. J. T.; Meeus, W. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined friendship types in developmental trajectories of perceived closeness and balanced relatedness. In addition, differences between friendship types in the development of constructive problem solving and depression were examined. Questionnaire data of five annual waves were used from two adolescent cohorts (cohort 1: M = 12.41…

  12. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Variables Related to Cigarette Smoking in Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, L. L.; Lefcoe, N. M.

    1985-01-01

    Compared correlates of smoking in a cohort of 4,641 older adolescents with correlates of smoking in the same group when they were in grades 4 to 6. In contrast to the earlier follow-ups, attitude toward smoking has become a more important determinant than it was before, particularly among females. (Author/BL)

  13. Personality and emotional processing: A relationship between extraversion and the late positive potential in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Speed, Brittany C; Nelson, Brady D; Perlman, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-01

    Neuroticism and extraversion are multifaceted affective-laden personality traits that have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Research and theory have argued that extraversion, and particularly its facet positive emotionality, is specific to MDD, while neuroticism is common across internalizing disorders. Converging evidence has suggested that MDD is associated with reduced engagement with emotional stimuli, but it remains unclear whether either extraversion, neuroticism, or both modulate reactivity to emotional cues. The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related brain potential that is uniquely suited to assess engagement with emotional stimuli because it reflects sustained attention toward emotional content. The current study examined the LPP in relation to personality traits that may confer risk for depression by examining the relationship between the LPP and both neuroticism and extraversion in never-depressed adolescent girls. Specifically, 550 girls aged 13.5-15.5 with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task, and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. Personality traits were gathered via self- and informant report. Results indicated that high extraversion was associated with a potentiated LPP to emotional pictures-and this effect was accounted for by positive emotionality in particular. In contrast, there was no association between the LPP and neuroticism or its facets. The present study is one of the first to demonstrate that extraversion is associated with variation in neural indices of emotional picture processing, similar to what has been observed among individuals with depression and at high risk for depression.

  14. Parental monitoring in late adolescence: relations to ADHD symptoms and longitudinal predictors.

    PubMed

    Salari, Raziye; Thorell, Lisa B

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to replicate Stattin and Kerr's (2000) study on parental monitoring and adolescents' deviant behavior, to extend their findings to ADHD symptoms, and to examine the longitudinal predictors (8-18 years) of parental knowledge and child disclosure. Results showed that conduct problems were primarily associated with parental knowledge and child disclosure, but not with parental solicitation and control. A similar pattern was observed for ADHD symptoms. However, while the relations for conduct problems were generally independent of ADHD symptoms, the relations for ADHD symptoms were primarily non-significant after controlling for conduct problems. Moreover, early behavior problems, but not insecure/disorganized attachment, were associated with parental knowledge and child disclosure in adolescence. In conclusion, child disclosure is primarily associated with deviant behavior rather than ADHD, and early child problem behavior is a more important predictor of child disclosure (implicating reciprocal relations between these two constructs) than is insecure/disorganized attachment. PMID:25602918

  15. Delay of gratification: impulsive choices and problem behaviors in early and late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wulfert, Edelgard; Block, Jennifer A; Santa Ana, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Monica L; Colsman, Melissa

    2002-08-01

    High school students were offered a monetary incentive for participating in research. They were given a choice between a smaller fee immediately or a larger fee one week later. Compared to students who delayed gratification, those who chose the immediate fee showed more self-regulatory deficits. They showed greater involvement with cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana, had a poorer self-concept and underperformed academically. A replication study with middle-school students and different reward parameters yielded equivalent results. Younger adolescents who chose the immediate monetary incentive showed a similar pattern of problem behaviors as the high school students. The findings indicate that this simple choice-delay procedure yields an unobtrusive behavioral measure of self-regulation and offers a developmentally appropriate extension of the delay-of-gratification paradigm for use with older children and adolescents.

  16. Adolescent Development: Workshop II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keng, Chiam Heng; And Others

    Workshops concerning adolescent development explored problems of adolescents, schooling and adolescence, preparation for adulthood, leisure and recreation, as well as values, culture, and change in relation to the development of youth. The discussion of adolescents' problems identified major problem areas, (emphasizing problems of communicating…

  17. Mirror Neurons System Engagement in Late Adolescents and Adults While Viewing Emotional Gestures.

    PubMed

    Salvia, Emilie; Süß, Moritz; Tivadar, Ruxandra; Harkness, Sarah; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Observing others' actions enhances muscle-specific cortico-spinal excitability, reflecting putative mirror neurons activity. The exposure to emotional stimuli also modulates cortico-spinal excitability. We investigated how those two phenomena might interact when they are combined, i.e., while observing a gesture performed with an emotion, and whether they change during the transition between adolescence and adulthood, a period of social and brain maturation. We delivered single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand area of the left primary motor cortex of 27 healthy adults and adolescents and recorded their right first dorsal interossus (FDI) muscle activity (i.e., motor evoked potential - MEP), while they viewed either videos of neutral or angry hand actions and facial expressions, or neutral objects as a control condition. We reproduced the motor resonance and the emotion effects - hand-actions and emotional stimuli induced greater cortico-spinal excitability than the faces/control condition and neutral videos, respectively. Moreover, the influence of emotion was present for faces but not for hand actions, indicating that the motor resonance and the emotion effects might be non-additive. While motor resonance was observed in both groups, the emotion effect was present only in adults and not in adolescents. We discuss the possible neural bases of these findings. PMID:27489547

  18. Mirror Neurons System Engagement in Late Adolescents and Adults While Viewing Emotional Gestures.

    PubMed

    Salvia, Emilie; Süß, Moritz; Tivadar, Ruxandra; Harkness, Sarah; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Observing others' actions enhances muscle-specific cortico-spinal excitability, reflecting putative mirror neurons activity. The exposure to emotional stimuli also modulates cortico-spinal excitability. We investigated how those two phenomena might interact when they are combined, i.e., while observing a gesture performed with an emotion, and whether they change during the transition between adolescence and adulthood, a period of social and brain maturation. We delivered single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand area of the left primary motor cortex of 27 healthy adults and adolescents and recorded their right first dorsal interossus (FDI) muscle activity (i.e., motor evoked potential - MEP), while they viewed either videos of neutral or angry hand actions and facial expressions, or neutral objects as a control condition. We reproduced the motor resonance and the emotion effects - hand-actions and emotional stimuli induced greater cortico-spinal excitability than the faces/control condition and neutral videos, respectively. Moreover, the influence of emotion was present for faces but not for hand actions, indicating that the motor resonance and the emotion effects might be non-additive. While motor resonance was observed in both groups, the emotion effect was present only in adults and not in adolescents. We discuss the possible neural bases of these findings.

  19. Coping Strategies in Late Adolescence: Relationships to Parental Attachment and Time Perspective.

    PubMed

    Blomgren, Anna-Sara; Svahn, Kajsa; Åström, Elisabeth; Rönnlund, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated adolescents' use of coping strategies in relation to attachment to parents and time perspective. Adolescents in Grade 3 upper secondary school (M age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.6 years; n = 160) completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and the Brief COPE. Correlational analyses showed that attachment to parents was associated with a more favorable view of the past (higher past positive and lower past negative), a less fatalistic view of the present, and a more favorable view of the future (higher future positive and lower future negative). Parental attachment accounted for significant variance in composite coping scores (adaptive and maladaptive) when entered before, but not after, time perspective subscales in hierarchical regression analyses. However, time perspective (mainly present hedonistic and positive or negative future) predicted adaptive or maladaptive coping over and beyond attachment. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that most of the relationship between adolescents' attachment to parents and coping is mediated by individual differences in time perspective. By contrast, factors other than attachment to parents (e.g., temperament) must be considered to fully account for the relationship between time perspective and coping.

  20. Mirror Neurons System Engagement in Late Adolescents and Adults While Viewing Emotional Gestures

    PubMed Central

    Salvia, Emilie; Süß, Moritz; Tivadar, Ruxandra; Harkness, Sarah; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Observing others’ actions enhances muscle-specific cortico-spinal excitability, reflecting putative mirror neurons activity. The exposure to emotional stimuli also modulates cortico-spinal excitability. We investigated how those two phenomena might interact when they are combined, i.e., while observing a gesture performed with an emotion, and whether they change during the transition between adolescence and adulthood, a period of social and brain maturation. We delivered single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand area of the left primary motor cortex of 27 healthy adults and adolescents and recorded their right first dorsal interossus (FDI) muscle activity (i.e., motor evoked potential – MEP), while they viewed either videos of neutral or angry hand actions and facial expressions, or neutral objects as a control condition. We reproduced the motor resonance and the emotion effects – hand-actions and emotional stimuli induced greater cortico-spinal excitability than the faces/control condition and neutral videos, respectively. Moreover, the influence of emotion was present for faces but not for hand actions, indicating that the motor resonance and the emotion effects might be non-additive. While motor resonance was observed in both groups, the emotion effect was present only in adults and not in adolescents. We discuss the possible neural bases of these findings. PMID:27489547

  1. The Developmental Pathway From Pubertal Timing to Delinquency and Sexual Activity From Early to Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Elizabeth, J. Susman; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9–13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency. PMID:21191640

  2. The developmental pathway from pubertal timing to delinquency and sexual activity from early to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Negriff, Sonya; Susman, Elizabeth J; Trickett, Penelope K

    2011-10-01

    There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9-13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency. PMID:21191640

  3. Higher education is an age-independent predictor of white matter integrity and cognitive control in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Brickman, Adam M

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect.

  4. Effects of domestication on biobehavioural profiles: a comparison of domestic guinea pigs and wild cavies from early to late adolescence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Domestication can lead to marked alterations in the biobehavioural profile of a species. Furthermore, during ontogeny, the individual phenotype of an animal can be shaped by the environment in important phases such as adolescence. We investigated differences in biobehavioural profiles between domestic guinea pigs and their ancestor, the wild cavy, over the course of adolescence. At this age, comparisons between the two groups have not been conducted yet. Male guinea pigs and cavies were subjected to a series of tests twice: during the early and late phase of adolescence. We analysed emotional and social behaviours as well as cortisol reactivity and testosterone levels. Results Concerning emotional behaviour, cavies were more explorative and showed more anxiety-like behaviour in the open field test and dark-light test. They also were more risk-taking when having to jump off an elevated platform. Regarding social behaviour, cavies showed less social activity towards unfamiliar females and infants. Furthermore, while guinea pigs and cavies did not differ in basal cortisol levels, cavies showed distinctly higher and prolonged cortisol responses when exposed to an unfamiliar environment. Cavies also had lower basal testosterone titres. No substantial changes in biobehavioural profiles were revealed over the course of adolescence in both groups. Conclusions Domestication led to a substantial shift in the biobehavioural profile of the guinea pig regarding all investigated domains in early and late adolescence. Hence, the differentiation between guinea pigs and cavies emerges early in ontogeny, well before the attainment of sexual maturity. The young individuals already show adaptations that reflect the differences between the natural habitat of cavies and the man-made housing conditions guinea pigs are exposed to. Higher levels of exploration and risk-taking and lower levels of anxiety-like behaviour are necessary for cavies in order to cope with their

  5. The inter-relations of mother and father attachment, self-esteem and aggression during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rapson; McLaren, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This study examined three models depicting the relations between mother and father attachment, self-esteem and aggression. A total of 385 participants (173 males and 212 females), aged from 18 to 20 years, completed self-rating questionnaires covering mother and father attachment, self-esteem and aggression. Results showed that self-esteem had additive and mediation effects on both the father attachment-aggression and mother attachment-aggression relationships, and also moderated the mother attachment-aggression relation. These findings are discussed in terms of different models for the inter-relations of mother and father attachment, self-esteem and aggression in late adolescence.

  6. The Pressured World of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the adolescent experience and why adolescents engage in self-destructive behavior. He suggests some changes in the way that adults treat adolescents that could reduce adolescent behavior problems and self-abuse. (CH)

  7. Marital Conflict and Adolescent Distress: The Role of Adolescent Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harold, Gordon T.; Conger, Rand D.

    1997-01-01

    Studied role of adolescents' awareness in relationship between marital conflict and adolescent distress. Found marital conflict was related to parental hostility toward adolescents and adolescents' awareness of conflict; parental hostility and adolescents' awareness of marital conflict were related to adolescent-perceived parental hostility. Found…

  8. Prognostic factors and survival in late adolescent and adult patients with small round cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Eralp, Yeşim; Bavbek, Sevil; Başaran, Mert; Kaytan, Esra; Yaman, Fulya; Bilgiç, Bilge; Darendeliler, Emin; Onat, Haluk

    2002-08-01

    The primary objective of this study is to review the clinical characteristics of 25 patients in the adult and late adolescent age group, diagnosed and treated with small round cell tumors involving soft tissues (extraosseous Ewing sarcoma, rhabdo-myosarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and undiffer-entiated small round cell tumors). Additionally, survival and prognostic factors influencing the outcome with multimodality treatment are evaluated. There were 19 males (76%) and 6 females (24%). The median age was 26 years (range: 15-56 years). In 9 patients (36%), the tumor was located at an extremity, whereas 16 patients (64%) had central localizations. Tumor size was larger than 10 cm in 7 patients (29.2%). Six patients (24%) had metastatic disease. Twelve patients (48%) received radiation and 16 patients (64%) underwent surgery. Among the resected tumors, 2 were resected with contaminated margins (12.5%), whereas 2 were radically resected and 12 (75%) were resected with wide margins. All patients were given a median of 4 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy (1-14 cycles). With preoperative chemotherapy, complete regression (CR) of the tumor was achieved in 6 patients (24%). In 4 patients (16%), a partial response was obtained. After the completion of multimodality treatment, 12 patients (48%) had a CR. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the entire group was 25.0 +/- 10.8% at 1 year and 30.5 +/- 15.5% at 3 years, respectively. Nonmetastatic disease, wide and radical resection, and presence of CR to multimodality treatment were associated with a significantly longer PFS and OS by univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis, CR to multimodality treat-ment was the only independent predictive factor for a longer OS (p: 0.0036, relative risk [RR]: 23.6, 95% CI: 2.8; 198.7) and metastatic presentation was the only independent factor predic-tive for a shorter PFS (p: 0.017, RR. 15, 95% CI: 1.6; 141.2). Large-scale, multicenter studies are required for

  9. Social feedback processing from early to late adolescence: influence of sex, age, and attachment style

    PubMed Central

    Vrtička, Pascal; Sander, David; Anderson, Brittany; Badoud, Deborah; Eliez, Stephan; Debbané, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The establishment of an accurate understanding of one's social context is a central developmental task during adolescence. A critical component of such development is to learn how to integrate the objective evaluation of one's behavior with the social response to the latter—here referred to as social feedback processing. Case report We measured brain activity by means of fMRI in 33 healthy adolescents (12–19 years old, 14 females). Participants played a difficult perceptual game with integrated verbal and visual feedback. Verbal feedback provided the participants with objective performance evaluation (won vs. lost). Visual feedback consisted of either smiling or angry faces, representing positive or negative social evaluations. Together, the combination of verbal and visual feedback gave rise to congruent versus incongruent social feedback combinations. In addition to assessing sex differences, we further tested for the effects of age and attachment style on social feedback processing. Results revealed that brain activity during social feedback processing was significantly modulated by sex, age, and attachment style in prefrontal cortical areas, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, caudate, and amygdala/hippocampus. We found indication for heightened activity during incongruent social feedback processing in females, older participants, and individuals with an anxious attachment style. Conversely, we observed stronger activity during processing of congruent social feedback in males and participants with an avoidant attachment style. Conclusion Our findings not only extend knowledge on the typical development of socio-emotional brain function during adolescence, but also provide first clues on how attachment insecurities, and particularly attachment avoidance, could interfere with the latter mechanisms. PMID:25328847

  10. Influence of parental alcohol-related attitudes, behavior and parenting styles on alcohol use in late and very late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Stafström, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Parents influence adolescent drinking behavior, but to what extent does this association diminish with age, however? The cross-sectional data was drawn from the Scania drug use survey 2007, consisting of 4,828 secondary education students in the 9th and 11th grade. The age- and gender-adjusted findings indicate that having parents who are consenting to alcohol use (OR 1.4), having been provided with alcohol by one's parents (OR 1.8), having parents with an authoritarian (OR 1.5) or neglectful (OR 2.1) parenting style, and having parents who both have a university degree (OR 1.3) were factors significantly associated with monthly heavy episodic drinking. These findings lead to the conclusion that parenting styles as well as parental attitudes and behaviors are important throughout the high school years. Thus, prevention targeting parents should emphasize both these domains. PMID:24776849

  11. Influence of parental alcohol-related attitudes, behavior and parenting styles on alcohol use in late and very late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Stafström, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Parents influence adolescent drinking behavior, but to what extent does this association diminish with age, however? The cross-sectional data was drawn from the Scania drug use survey 2007, consisting of 4,828 secondary education students in the 9th and 11th grade. The age- and gender-adjusted findings indicate that having parents who are consenting to alcohol use (OR 1.4), having been provided with alcohol by one's parents (OR 1.8), having parents with an authoritarian (OR 1.5) or neglectful (OR 2.1) parenting style, and having parents who both have a university degree (OR 1.3) were factors significantly associated with monthly heavy episodic drinking. These findings lead to the conclusion that parenting styles as well as parental attitudes and behaviors are important throughout the high school years. Thus, prevention targeting parents should emphasize both these domains.

  12. Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: dyadic and individual processes.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Hollenstein, Tom; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of mothers and adolescents. The current observational study examined whether dyadic emotional variability, maternal emotional variability, and adolescent emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence predicted mothers' and adolescents' internalizing problems five years later. We used data from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (Mage T1 = 13.05; 65.20 % boys) who were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions and it was observed for mother-adolescent dyads, mothers and adolescents separately. Mothers and adolescents also completed questionnaires in early adolescence (T1) and five years later in late adolescence (T6) on mothers' internalizing problems, and adolescents' anxiety and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that less dyadic emotional variability in early adolescence predicted relative increases in mothers' internalizing problems, adolescents' depressive symptoms, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms from early to late adolescence. Less maternal emotional variability only predicted relative increases in adolescents' anxiety symptoms over time. The emotional valence (e.g., types of emotions expressed) of conflict interactions did not moderate the results. Taken together, findings highlighted the importance of considering limited emotional variability during conflict interactions in the development, prevention, and treatment of internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents.

  13. Image, context and transition: smoking in mid-to-late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Susan; Amos, Amanda; Haw, Sally; McNeill, Ann

    2005-10-01

    This paper explores 16-19-year-old Scottish smokers' experiences and attitudes towards smoking and their understandings of the ways in which this transitional period impacts on their smoking behaviour. The study involved 49 qualitative interviews conducted mostly in friendship pairs. Interviewees also completed a brief smoking questionnaire. The paper highlights the salience of social context in smoking initiation and maintenance, and the role of smoking across a range of social spheres. Interviewees described how transitions from school to work, further education or un/employment, impacted on their smoking. Smoking was perceived to be an important 'lubricant' for social relations, and marker of an acceptable identity in familiar and new contexts which acted to reinforce and increase smoking. In contrast, smoking restrictions at home, work and/or educational settings were felt to moderate consumption. This has implications for cessation programmes for older adolescents who have been relatively ignored by tobacco control. The study also suggests that if smoke-free policies were extended to all workplaces, this would have a particular impact on smoking amongst older adolescents by hindering the transition from social to regular smoking.

  14. Intrinsic connectivity networks from childhood to late adolescence: Effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Solé-Padullés, Cristina; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Calvo, Rosa; Baeza, Inmaculada; Moya, Jaime; Lázaro, Luisa; Rosa, Mireia; Bargalló, Nuria; Sugranyes, Gisela

    2016-02-01

    There is limited evidence on the effects of age and sex on intrinsic connectivity of networks underlying cognition during childhood and adolescence. Independent component analysis was conducted in 113 subjects aged 7-18; the default mode, executive control, anterior salience, basal ganglia, language and visuospatial networks were identified. The effect of age was examined with multiple regression, while sex and 'age × sex' interactions were assessed by dividing the sample according to age (7-12 and 13-18 years). As age increased, connectivity in the dorsal and ventral default mode network became more anterior and posterior, respectively, while in the executive control network, connectivity increased within frontoparietal regions. The basal ganglia network showed increased engagement of striatum, thalami and precuneus. The anterior salience network showed greater connectivity in frontal areas and anterior cingulate, and less connectivity of orbitofrontal, middle cingulate and temporoparietal regions. The language network presented increased connectivity of inferior frontal and decreased connectivity within the right middle frontal and left inferior parietal cortices. The visuospatial network showed greater engagement of inferior parietal and frontal cortices. No effect of sex, nor age by sex interactions was observed. These findings provide evidence of strengthening of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical networks across childhood and adolescence.

  15. Does perceived social support and parental attitude relate to alexithymia? A study in Finnish late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti; Hautala, Lea; Kaleva, Olli; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Liuksila, Pirjo-Riitta; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2011-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of perceived social support and parental attitude with alexithymia in a Finnish adolescent population sample. Of the initial sample of 935 adolescents, 729 (78%) answered the questionnaire and formed the final sample. The mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for assessment of alexithymia. Perceived social support from family, friends, and significant other people was measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Perceived parental care and overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and separately for mother and father. After controlling for the sociodemographic factors, alexithymia was significantly associated with a lower degree of experienced social support and higher parental overprotection both in females and males. Maternal overprotection was associated (p<0.04) with TAS-20 total score as well as the Difficulty Identifying Feelings (DIF) and Difficulty Describing Feelings (DDF) subscales. The lack of social support from friends appeared to predict alexithymia more strongly than lack of support from family and significant other people. Against our hypothesis, maternal and paternal care was not directly associated with alexithymic features. This study highlights the significance of intrusive and overprotective parental attitudes as a possible risk factor for development of alexithymia. However, to assess causality, we need longitudinal studies. The results also emphasize the need for further studies to establish the significance of peer relationships in the development of alexithymia. PMID:21185086

  16. Does perceived social support and parental attitude relate to alexithymia? A study in Finnish late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti; Hautala, Lea; Kaleva, Olli; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Liuksila, Pirjo-Riitta; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2011-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of perceived social support and parental attitude with alexithymia in a Finnish adolescent population sample. Of the initial sample of 935 adolescents, 729 (78%) answered the questionnaire and formed the final sample. The mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for assessment of alexithymia. Perceived social support from family, friends, and significant other people was measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Perceived parental care and overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and separately for mother and father. After controlling for the sociodemographic factors, alexithymia was significantly associated with a lower degree of experienced social support and higher parental overprotection both in females and males. Maternal overprotection was associated (p<0.04) with TAS-20 total score as well as the Difficulty Identifying Feelings (DIF) and Difficulty Describing Feelings (DDF) subscales. The lack of social support from friends appeared to predict alexithymia more strongly than lack of support from family and significant other people. Against our hypothesis, maternal and paternal care was not directly associated with alexithymic features. This study highlights the significance of intrusive and overprotective parental attitudes as a possible risk factor for development of alexithymia. However, to assess causality, we need longitudinal studies. The results also emphasize the need for further studies to establish the significance of peer relationships in the development of alexithymia.

  17. Childhood Family Instability and Mental Health Problems during Late Adolescence: A Test of Two Mediation Models--The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56 at the initial…

  18. A Shared Genetic Propensity Underlies Experiences of Bullying Victimization in Late Childhood and Self-Rated Paranoid Thinking in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Shakoor, Sania; McGuire, Phillip; Cardno, Alastair G.; Freeman, Daniel; Plomin, Robert; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a risk factor for developing psychotic experiences (PEs). Whether bullying is associated with particular PEs, and the extent to which genes and environments influence the association, are unknown. This study investigated which specific PEs in adolescence are associated with earlier bullying victimization and the genetic and environmental contributions underlying their association. Method: Participants were 4826 twin pairs from a longitudinal community-based twin study in England and Wales who reported on their bullying victimization at the age of 12 years. Measures of specific PEs (self-rated Paranoia, Hallucinations, Cognitive disorganization, Grandiosity, Anhedonia, and parent-rated Negative Symptoms) were recorded at age of 16 years. Results: Childhood bullying victimization was most strongly associated with Paranoia in adolescence (r = .26; P < .01), with weaker associations with Hallucinations, Cognitive Disorganization, parent-rated Negative Symptoms (r = .12–.20; P < .01), Grandiosity (r = .04; P < .05), and Anhedonia (r = .00, n.s.). Bivariate twin model-fitting demonstrated that bullying victimization and Paranoia were both heritable (35% and 52%, respectively) with unique environmental influences (39% and 48%, respectively), and bullying victimization showed common environmental influences (26%). The association between bullying victimization and Paranoia operated almost entirely via genetic influences (bivariate heritability = 93%), with considerable genetic overlap (genetic correlation = .55). Conclusion: In contrast to the assumed role of bullying victimization as an environmental trigger, these data suggest that bullying victimization in late childhood is particularly linked to self-rated Paranoia in adolescence via a shared genetic propensity. Clinically, individuals with a history of bullying victimization are predicted to be particularly susceptible to paranoid symptoms. PMID:25323579

  19. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    PubMed

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article. PMID:26342392

  20. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    PubMed

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article.

  1. Peer-related loneliness across early to late adolescence: normative trends, intra-individual trajectories, and links with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Gary W; Ettekal, Idean

    2013-12-01

    Study aims were to: (a) describe normative levels and person-oriented developmental trends in loneliness across adolescence, and (2) examine the association between loneliness and depressive symptoms during this same epoch. Participants included 478 youth (239 males and females; 80% Caucasian, 16% African American, and 4% other). Measures of loneliness and multiple indicators of depressive symptoms were gathered yearly across grades 6 through 12 (ages 12-18). Findings implied that most adolescents experience loneliness more strongly during early rather than later adolescence, but not all adolescents traverse the same loneliness trajectories. Youth followed one of five distinct trajectories, characterized as: (a) stable non-lonely, (b) stable low lonely, (c) stable high (chronic) lonely, (d) moderate decliners, and (e) steep decliners. Adolescents following stable high and moderate loneliness trajectories displayed the most depressive symptoms and, although informant differences were found, these youth also manifest the largest gains in depressive symptoms over time.

  2. Studying Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Young people in their teens constitute the largest age group in the world, in a special stage recognized across the globe as the link in the life cycle between childhood and adulthood. Longitudinal studies in both developed and developing countries and better measurements of adolescent behavior are producing new insights. The physical and psychosocial changes that occur during puberty make manifest generational and early-childhood risks to development, in the form of individual differences in aspects such as growth, educational attainment, self-esteem, peer influences, and closeness to family. They also anticipate threats to adult health and well-being. Multidisciplinary approaches, especially links between the biological and the social sciences, as well as studies of socioeconomic and cultural diversity and determinants of positive outcomes, are needed to advance knowledge about this stage of development. PMID:16809526

  3. ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL EXPOSURE: ARE THERE SEPARABLE VULNERABLE PERIODS WITHIN ADOLESCENCE?

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-01-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  4. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Are there separable vulnerable periods within adolescence?

    PubMed

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-09-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  5. Adolescent attraction to cults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, E

    1998-01-01

    This article details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. It is recommended that parents, teachers, and counselors familiarize themselves with the warning signs. Suggestions are offered on how to make adolescents less vulnerable to cult overtures. PMID:9831888

  6. Adolescent and School Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Adolescent and School Health Note: Javascript is disabled or ... behaviors now JAMA Viewpoint: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents New MMWR Article Learn What State and Local ...

  7. Variable profile of individual heart rate responses to cold water immersion apnea in healthy late adolescent men.

    PubMed

    Wierzba, Tomasz H; Musiał, Paweł; Cwikałowska, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Holding breath combined with immersion of face in cool water induces diving reflex consisting in bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and preferential redistribution of blood to the vital organs. The individual responses are variable, highly expressed in young children to weaken with age. Detailed assessment of the cardiac response to diving in late adolescents who are mostly prone to unexpected diving experiments and related complications are of practical importance. The study was performed to the investigate the heart rate (HR) response to controlled breath-hold diving in cold water in young healthy late adolescents aged 17.5 - 20.4. Twenty volunteers performed a procedure consisting in immersion of face in cold water during possibly long breath-holding. Beat-to-beat HR was assessed from the continuous ECG recording. Average diving time (tD) was 77.5±10.5 s, ranging from 61.7 to 95.4 s. Apnea and face immersion induced a biphasic response: an increase in HR was followed by its gradual decrease to reach a final limit of the response 47.7±9.0 beats/min at 55.2±16.1 s of dive. Within a variable time course of the evoked responses, two patterns of the HR decrease were distinguished: monoexponential decay functions fitted best for 8 (40%) subjects with a constant rate τ 31.3±11.4 s-1, whereas the 60% majority displayed a two phase negative chronotropic effect with constant rates: τ1 10.3±4.2 s-1 and τ1 25.5±10.1 s-1. The initial, anticipatory excitation influenced the HR response: the higher was the initial HR increase, the more pronounced was bradycardia. Disturbances of heart rhythm were observed in majority of subjects: supraventricular ectopic beats (40%), ventricular beats (20%), I-degree AV block (30%), II-degree Mobitz I block (15%), junctional rhythm (60%). In one case pair of ventricular ectopic beats looked severe and the trial was rapidly terminated. In conclusion, the unquestionable potency of late adolescents towards diving challenges

  8. The relationship of self-esteem, maternal employment, and work-family plans to sex role orientations of late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Keith, P M

    1988-01-01

    Self-esteem, maternal employment, and work-family plans are examined in relation to sex role orientations of late adolescents. Data are analyzed from questionnaires administered to 387 males and females. It was found that future work-family plans were closely tied to sex role orientations of adolescents of both sexes. However, self-esteem, evaluation of the relative difficulty of male-female sex roles, and projected childlessness were salient to sex role attitudes of females but not of males. Positive evaluations of self were related to non-traditional sex role orientations among females. Maternal employment differentially affected male and female children. Sons of women in high-status occupations were reluctant to get involved in a two-career family with children. Mothers' occupational status had little influence on the plans or sex role attitudes of daughters. The results indicate that future research should investigate whether maternal employment in high-status occupations, while providing a wider range of acceptable models for girls, may serve as a negative model for boys. PMID:3232579

  9. Direct and Indirect Effects of a Family-Based Intervention in Early Adolescence on Parent-Youth Relationship Quality, Late Adolescent Health, and Early Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Nowicka, Paulina

    2013-01-01

    We explored family processes in adolescence that may influence the likelihood of obesity in early adulthood using a randomized trial of a family-based intervention (the Family CheckUp, or FCU). The FCU has been shown to reduce escalations in antisocial behavior and depression in adolescence by supporting positive family management practices, but no research has examined the mechanisms by which the FCU could influence health-related attitudes and behaviors linked to obesity. Participants were 998 adolescents (n = 526 male; n = 423 European American; M age 12.21 yrs) and their families, recruited in 6th grade from 3 middle schools in the Pacific Northwest. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) and an Intent-To-Treat (ITT) design to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of the FCU on parent–youth relationship quality (ages 12–15), healthy lifestyle behaviors, eating attitudes, depressive symptoms (all measured at age 17), and obesity (age 22). We found that the FCU led to greater parent–youth relationship quality, which predicted enhanced health-related behaviors, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes, and reduced depression. In turn, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes predicted reduced odds of obesity. The indirect effect of the FCU on obesity by way of parent–youth relationship quality and eating attitudes was significant. Our findings illustrate how family processes may influence adolescent health and suggest that family functioning may be an additional factor to consider when developing intervention programs for obesity. PMID:23421838

  10. Direct and indirect effects of a family-based intervention in early adolescence on parent-youth relationship quality, late adolescent health, and early adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Nowicka, Paulina

    2013-02-01

    We explored family processes in adolescence that may influence the likelihood of obesity in early adulthood using a randomized trial of a family-based intervention (the Family Check-Up, or FCU). The FCU has been shown to reduce escalations in antisocial behavior and depression in adolescence by supporting positive family management practices, but no research has examined the mechanisms by which the FCU could influence health-related attitudes and behaviors linked to obesity. Participants were 998 adolescents (n = 526 male; n = 423 European American; M age 12.21 years) and their families, recruited in 6th grade from 3 middle schools in the Pacific Northwest. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) and an Intent-To-Treat (ITT) design to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of the FCU on parent-youth relationship quality (ages 12-15), healthy lifestyle behaviors, eating attitudes, depressive symptoms (all measured at age 17), and obesity (age 22). We found that the FCU led to greater parent-youth relationship quality, which predicted enhanced health-related behaviors, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes, and reduced depression. In turn, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes predicted reduced odds of obesity. The indirect effect of the FCU on obesity by way of parent-youth relationship quality and eating attitudes was significant. Our findings illustrate how family processes may influence adolescent health and suggest that family functioning may be an additional factor to consider when developing intervention programs for obesity.

  11. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  12. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  13. Coping Behavior of International Late Adolescent Students in Selected Australian Educational Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were: work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample’s performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights. PMID:24373267

  14. Coping behavior of international late adolescent students in selected Australian educational institutions.

    PubMed

    Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were:  work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample's performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights. PMID:24373267

  15. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  16. Adolescent Attachment and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    1996-01-01

    In relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality, traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Attachment was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Results support a model of…

  17. Adolescence and Mythology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitris; Soumaki, Eugenia; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    The article begins with a brief exploration of the various aspects of adolescent's psychic qualities as these are described in Greek mythology. It is argued that myths are an integral part of the way that adolescence is perceived and myths play an important role in adolescents' psychic and external world, as well as in their mythological thinking.…

  18. Life Satisfaction of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgoff, Irving; And Others

    The feelings and perceptions of adolescents, apart from objective indices, warrent attention from those who are concerned with adolescent development and psychological stress. There is a need for a reliable baseline measure of adolescent subjective well-being, as manifested by self-reports of life satisfaction, to which future measurements can be…

  19. Update on Adolescent Immunizations.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Rebecca; Halady, Tasia; Bishop, Nina; Chatterjee, Archana

    2016-02-01

    Timely and complete adolescent vaccination remains an elusive public health goal. Three infections for which routine adolescent vaccination is recommended in the U.S. are pertussis, meningococcal disease and human papillomavirus (HPV). These infections and the Tdap, meningococcal and HPV vaccines recommended for adolescents are reviewed in this article. PMID:26999915

  20. Demystifying the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…

  1. The Adolescent Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, William A., Jr.

    Written to orient the physician and paramedical personnel to the adolescent patient, the book provides information concerning the changes of adolescence, and age-related problems and illnesses. Part 1 discusses the essence of adolescence by describing physical, mental, and emotional growth and development. Part 2, the major section, consists of 21…

  2. Adolescents and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasburgber, Victor C., Ed.; Comstock, George A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    In the 1990s, the media represent the single most easily modifiable influence on children and adolescents. This series of articles offers medically oriented practitioners a review of current research on the influence of the media on children and adolescents. The 13 articles are: (1) "Children, Adolescents, and the Media: Five Crucial Issues"…

  3. 2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Periodically, Maryland's sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders are surveyed to determine the nature, extent, and trend of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents. The "2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey (MAS)" presents the latest findings regarding ATOD use by Maryland's adolescents and compares State and local findings with…

  4. Maternal Nicotine Exposure During Late Gestation and Lactation Increases Anxiety-Like and Impulsive Decision-Making Behavior in Adolescent Offspring of Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunchan; Chung, Sooyeon; Noh, Jihyun

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure over an entire pregnancy has been associated with an increased prevalence of hyperactivity, anxiety-like behavior and depression-like behavior in mature rats. However, the effects of maternal nicotine exposure in late gestation and lactation on the psychology and behavior of adolescent rat offspring are unclear. Thus, we investigated the effect of nicotine exposure during late gestation and lactation on anxiety-like and impulsive decision-making behavior in adolescent offspring of rat. Female rats were orally exposed to nicotine which is within range of plasma level of human chronic smokers during the period of third last period of gestation and lactation. When the offspring were weaned, we observed alterations in the anxiety-like behavior and decision-making ability of adolescent rat offspring using light/dark box test and T-maze delay-based cost-benefit decision-making task. The maternal consumption of nicotine reduced both the time spent in the light compartment and the number of transitions compared to nicotine-free rats. Moreover, such nicotine exposed adolescent offspring rats showed impulsive decision making which chose the instant reward in a decision-making situation. We found that nicotine exposure during late gestation and lactation induces an increase in anxiety-like and impulsive decision-making behavior at this developmental stage. These findings suggest that maternal nicotine-exposed offspring are at an increased risk of developing anxious and impulsive behavior.

  5. Health for Adolescents and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…

  6. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ott, Mary A; Sucato, Gina S

    2014-10-01

    A working knowledge of contraception will assist the pediatrician in both sexual health promotion as well as treatment of common adolescent gynecologic problems. Best practices in adolescent anticipatory guidance and screening include a sexual health history, screening for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, counseling, and if indicated, providing access to contraceptives. Pediatricians' long-term relationships with adolescents and families allow them to help promote healthy sexual decision-making, including abstinence and contraceptive use. Additionally, medical indications for contraception, such as acne, dysmenorrhea, and heavy menstrual bleeding, are frequently uncovered during adolescent visits. This technical report provides an evidence base for the accompanying policy statement and addresses key aspects of adolescent contraceptive use, including the following: (1) sexual history taking, confidentiality, and counseling; (2) adolescent data on the use and side effects of newer contraceptive methods; (3) new data on older contraceptive methods; and (4) evidence supporting the use of contraceptives in adolescent patients with complex medical conditions. PMID:25266435

  7. COLLEGE ASPIRATIONS AND EXPECTATIONS AMONG NEW AFRICAN AMERICAN MOTHERS IN LATE ADOLESCENCE

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    It is a generally accepted finding in the sociological literature as well as in public discourse that adolescent mothers are less likely than their non-parenting counterparts to graduate high school and to attend college. For several decades, however, researchers have pointed out that the implied causal process from teen motherhood to academic failure has been largely unsupported by empirical research. In fact, scholars have recently argued that motherhood may actually serve as a positive turning point in the lives of young women. Using a sample of young African American women, the present study assesses the degree to which teen motherhood not only affects college aspirations but also expectations. Further, it tests the ability of these effects to explain the well-known educational attainment gap between teen mothers and their non-childbearing peers. Results indicate that, in general, young mothers’ college aspirations are similar to those of non-mothers, but that their generally high aspirations for academic success appear to be effectively countered by their decreased educational expectations. PMID:23226923

  8. Pubertal development and school transition. Joint influences on depressive symptoms in middle and late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Koenig, L J; Gladstone, T R

    1998-07-01

    The impact of simultaneous changes in biological and social context on the mental health of adolescents was examined by testing the hypothesis that normative developmental transitions can be associated with increased dysphoria if they occur in close temporal proximity. Girls experiencing physical changes associated with middle or later stage pubertal development during the initial high school or college year were predicted to experience more dysphoria than those experiencing these changes during non-transitional times, with negative pubertal attitudes exacerbating the relation. Pubertal status and dysphoria of high school and college students were assessed. Among females experiencing pubertal changes, dysphoria was indeed highest for the 15 and 19 year olds, and lower for the 16, 17, and 18 year olds with females viewing menstrual onset as negative experienced depressive symptoms of moderate clinical severity. This pattern did not emerge for males, or females not experiencing pubertal changes. In contrast, the hypothesis was not supported when transition time was operationalized using grade level. Implications for psychopathology risk are discussed.

  9. Fear extinction, persistent disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits: fMRI in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Moran D; van Lith, Koen; Kindt, Merel; Pape, Louise E; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Popma, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent antisocial development. However, we have recently shown that both DBD persisters and desisters are characterized by increased fear conditioning compared with healthy controls (HCs). In this study, we investigated whether brain function during fear extinction is associated with DBD subgroup-membership and psychopathic traits. Adolescents from a childhood arrestee cohort (mean age 17.6 years, s.d. 1.4) who met criteria for a DBD diagnosis during previous assessments were re-assessed and categorized as persistent DBD (n = 25) or desistent DBD (n = 25). Functional MRI during the extinction phase of a classical fear-conditioning task was used to compare regional brain function between these subgroups and 25 matched controls. Both DBD persisters and desisters showed hyperreactivity during fear extinction, when compared with HCs. Impulsive-irresponsible psychopathic traits were positively associated with responses in the fear neurocircuitry and mediated the association between neural activation and group membership. These results suggest that fear acquisition and fear extinction deficits may provide an endophenotype for an emotionally hyperreactive subtype of antisocial development.

  10. Life stress, social support and psychological distress in late adolescence: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ystgaard, M; Tambs, K; Dalgard, O S

    1999-01-01

    Questionnaire data from 211 adolescents and follow-up data recorded 18 months later were employed to test main effects and stress-buffering effects of negative life events, on-going stressors and social support from family and friends on mental health. Negative life events, change from baseline level of on-going adversities and social support all contributed significantly to subsequent symptom scores, although negative life events only reached borderline significance among boys. There was evidence in favour of the buffer hypothesis for boys: negative life events had a significantly stronger effect when social support from peers was low, and long-lasting adversities had a significantly stronger effect when social support from parents was low. Both these two-way interaction effects among boys were significantly different from the corresponding trends among girls. Since the scores on both the independent and dependent variables are based on subjective self-reports, the results may have been affected by various types of response bias. The probabilities of such bias effects are discussed.

  11. Motor Competence in Early Childhood Is Positively Associated With Bone Strength in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Adrian; Deere, Kevin C; Emond, Alan; Tobias, Jon H

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The onset of walking in early childhood results in exposure of the lower limb to substantial forces from weight bearing activity that ultimately contribute to adult bone strength. Relationships between gross motor score (GMS), at 18 months and bone outcomes measured at age 17 years were examined in 2327 participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Higher GMS indicated greater motor competence in weight‐bearing activities. Total hip bone mineral density (BMD) and hip cross‐sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) were assessed from dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone measures including cortical bone mineral content (BMC), periosteal circumference (PC), cortical thickness (CT), cortical bone area (CBA), cortical BMD (BMDC) and cross‐sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at 50% distal‐proximal length. Before adjustment, GMS was associated with hip BMD, CSMI, and tibia BMC, PC, CT, CBA and CSMI (all p < 0.001) but not BMDC (p > 0.25). Strongest associations (standardized regression coefficients with 95% CI) were between GMS and hip BMD (0.086; 95% CI, 0.067 to 0.105) and tibia BMC (0.105; 95% CI, 0.089 to 0.121). With the exception of hip BMD, larger regression coefficients were observed in males (gender interactions all p < 0.05). Adjustment for lean mass resulted in substantial attenuation of regression coefficients, suggesting associations between impaired motor competence and subsequent bone development are partly mediated by alterations in body composition. In conclusion, impaired motor competence in childhood is associated with lower adolescent bone strength, and may represent a risk factor for subsequent osteoporosis. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR). PMID:26713753

  12. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Contraception is a pillar in reducing adolescent pregnancy rates. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians develop a working knowledge of contraception to help adolescents reduce risks of and negative health consequences related to unintended pregnancy. Over the past 10 years, a number of new contraceptive methods have become available to adolescents, newer guidance has been issued on existing contraceptive methods, and the evidence base for contraception for special populations (adolescents who have disabilities, are obese, are recipients of solid organ transplants, or are HIV infected) has expanded. The Academy has addressed contraception since 1980, and this policy statement updates the 2007 statement on contraception and adolescents. It provides the pediatrician with a description and rationale for best practices in counseling and prescribing contraception for adolescents. It is supported by an accompanying technical report.

  13. Pregnancy in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda Y; Fleming, Nathalie A; Rome, Ellen S

    2012-04-01

    Adolescent pregnancy remains a public health issue with significant medical, emotional, and societal consequences for the adolescent mother, her child, and her family. Teenage pregnancies are at higher risk of many adverse outcomes, including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality. Teen pregnancy and motherhood may have detrimental effects on the teen mother and her child; antenatal and postpartum care need to be adapted to meet the special needs of pregnant adolescents because standard obstetrical environments may not do so. This comprehensive review of adolescent pregnancy will highlight global statistics, factors contributing to adolescent pregnancy, social implications of adolescent pregnancy, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, and the importance of multidisciplinary antenatal and postnatal care.

  14. Executive functions and basic symptoms in adolescent antisocial behavior: a cross-sectional study on an Italian sample of late-onset offenders.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Micò, Umberto; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Mallamace, Domenico; Mento, Carmela; Zoccali, Rocco; Bruno, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Executive cognitive functions (ECFs) and other cognitive impairments, such as lower IQ and verbal deficits, have been associated with the pattern of antisocial and delinquent behavior starting in childhood (early-onset), but not with late-onset antisocial behavior. Beyond objective measures of ECF, basic symptoms are prodromal, subjectively experienced cognitive, perceptual, affective, and social disturbances, associated with a range of psychiatric disorders, mainly with psychosis. The goal of the present study was to examine ECF and basic symptoms in a sample of late-onset juvenile delinquents. Two-hundred nine male adolescents (aged 15-20 years) characterized by a pattern of late-onset delinquent behavior with no antecedents of Conduct Disorder, were consecutively recruited from the Social Services of the Department of Juvenile Justice of the city of Messina (Italy), and compared with nonantisocial controls matched for age, educational level, and socio-demographic features on measures for ECF dysfunction and basic symptoms. Significant differences between late-onset offenders (completers=147) and control group (n=150) were found on ECF and basic symptoms measures. Chi-square analysis showed that a significantly greater number of late-onset offending participants scored in the clinical range on several ECF measures. Executive cognitive impairment, even subtle and subclinical, along with subjective symptoms of cognitive dysfunction (basic symptom), may be contributing factor in the development and persistence of antisocial behaviors displayed by late-onset adolescent delinquents. The findings also suggest the need for additional research aimed to assess a broader range of cognitive abilities and specific vulnerability and risk factors for late-onset adolescent offenders. PMID:24405775

  15. Gender Differences in Internalizing Symptoms and Suicide Risk Among Men and Women Seeking Treatment for Cannabis Use Disorder from Late Adolescence to Middle Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Foster, Katherine T; Li, Ningfei; McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Gray, Kevin M

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis continues to rise in popularity as the perception of its harmfulness decreases and evidence of its deleterious developmental effect increases. While internalizing distress and suicide risk have been linked with cannabis use problems [DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD); DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence] it remains unclear how this association varies over the course of development in treatment-seeking men and women. The current study utilized the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) to conduct a cross-sectional comparison of internalizing distress and suicide risk among men (n=437) and women (n=163) spanning ages 18-50 who met DSM-5 criteria for CUD. Interactions between gender and developmental stage (i.e., late adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood) were observed for suicide risk and anxiety but not depression problems. Specifically, women seeking CUD treatment in late adolescence and middle adulthood exhibited significantly higher rates of anxiety and suicide risk compared to men seeking treatment during the same developmental stages. Internalizing distress and suicide risk did not differ between treatment-seeking men and women in the early adult stage. Overall, results suggest that the structure of risk for CUD may differ in men and women across the lifespan and that women presenting for CUD treatment during late adolescence and middle adulthood may uniquely benefit from intervention designed to address these elevations in anxiety and suicide risk.

  16. Gender Differences in Internalizing Symptoms and Suicide Risk Among Men and Women Seeking Treatment for Cannabis Use Disorder from Late Adolescence to Middle Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Foster, Katherine T; Li, Ningfei; McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Gray, Kevin M

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis continues to rise in popularity as the perception of its harmfulness decreases and evidence of its deleterious developmental effect increases. While internalizing distress and suicide risk have been linked with cannabis use problems [DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD); DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence] it remains unclear how this association varies over the course of development in treatment-seeking men and women. The current study utilized the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) to conduct a cross-sectional comparison of internalizing distress and suicide risk among men (n=437) and women (n=163) spanning ages 18-50 who met DSM-5 criteria for CUD. Interactions between gender and developmental stage (i.e., late adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood) were observed for suicide risk and anxiety but not depression problems. Specifically, women seeking CUD treatment in late adolescence and middle adulthood exhibited significantly higher rates of anxiety and suicide risk compared to men seeking treatment during the same developmental stages. Internalizing distress and suicide risk did not differ between treatment-seeking men and women in the early adult stage. Overall, results suggest that the structure of risk for CUD may differ in men and women across the lifespan and that women presenting for CUD treatment during late adolescence and middle adulthood may uniquely benefit from intervention designed to address these elevations in anxiety and suicide risk. PMID:27211992

  17. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions. PMID:1434557

  18. Providing Contraception to Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand.

  19. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions.

  20. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner.

  1. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner. PMID:26599529

  2. Aggression in Adolescent Dating Relationships: Predictors and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of romantic relationships is one of the most striking features of adolescence. By the late adolescent years, most teenagers have been in a romantic relationship at least once and roughly half of teens are dating currently. Alarmingly though, in many of these relationships adolescents act aggressively toward each other and this…

  3. The Dynamics and Correlates of Religious Service Attendance in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Pearce, Lisa D.; Denton, Melinda Lundquist

    2016-01-01

    This study examines changes in religious service attendance over time for a contemporary cohort of adolescents moving from middle to late adolescence. We use two waves of a nationally representative panel survey of youth from the National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR) to examine the dynamics of religious involvement during adolescence. We…

  4. Conflict Resolution in Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relation between conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent delinquency. Questionnaires about conflict resolution styles were completed by 284 early adolescents (mean age 13.3) and their parents. Adolescents also completed a questionnaire on delinquency. Hierarchical regression analyses…

  5. Adolescent Literature, Adolescent Reading and the English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Ken, Ed.

    1972-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona English Bulletin contains articles discussing literature that adolescents read and literature that they might be encouraged to read. Thus there are discussions both of literature specifically written for adolescents and the literature adolescents choose to read. The term adolescent is understood to include young people in…

  6. [Contraception in adolescents].

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    The proportion of women aged 15-19 in Colombia who are mothers declined from 14% in 1985 to 10% in 1990, but the actual number of cases increased due to population growth. Some 1,780,000 adolescents who have had children or are pregnant require family planning services. An additional, unknown number of adolescent pregnancies are terminated by abortion. It is estimated that 95% of adolescent pregnancies diagnosed or followed by PROFAMILIA's center for young people were unwanted. Reasons for making family planning services available to adolescents include the ever young age at initiation of sexual activity, the very low rates of contraceptive usage among sexually active adolescents, the lack of information of adolescents concerning reproduction and contraception, and their fear and guilt surrounding their sexual activity and contraceptive usage. Obstetrical services appear reluctant to furnish adolescent mothers with information on contraception, and the pharmacists and their employees who provide such information may not be aware of contraindications for this age group or whether adolescents are adequately instructed in use of the method. The rising age at marriage increases the span of time that adolescents are at risk of unwanted pregnancy. Adolescents who are well informed about sexuality and contraception and trained in decision making, self-esteem, and responsible parenthood are likely to postpone sexual activity. Information on contraception and family planning services needs to be made available to adolescents in a way that will actually motivate use. Information on sex and contraception should be made available at puberty and should include the form of use, contraindications, and advantages and disadvantages of all methods appropriate to adolescents. Orientation and assistance in selecting the best method should be individually tailored and should be provided in schools or other places accessible to young people, in a language they can understand. Rhythm and

  7. Late adolescents' perceptions of their caregiver's feeding styles and practices and those they will use with their own children.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J; Branen, L J; Lawrence, A

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of late adolescents regarding their caregivers' feeding styles and practices and their perceptions of those they plan to use with their children. The 546 subjects were from a randomly selected sample of 1,000, nonparenting, 18 to 23-year old college students who responded to a questionnaire. Two distinct feeding styles emerged: adult-controlled and cooperative. The adult-controlled style reflects a perception of control which the adult decides what and how much a child will eat. The cooperative style reflects shared control where the adult decides what food will be presented and the child decides how much and whether to eat. Chi-square analysis of the relationship between subjects' perceptions of their caregivers' feeding styles and their perceptions of the styles they believe they will use with their children, resulted in a positive association. To examine perceived past and future feeding practices, a Pearson's r was computed on subscales from a factor analysis. Results indicated positive correlations between subjects' perceived past and future feeding practices. These results suggest generational transmission of feeding styles and practices. A recommendation is made for parent and nutrition educators to focus on both parenting styles and feeding practices.

  8. Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; χ2 = 17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

  9. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Responsiveness and Autonomy-Granting in Early Adolescence: Prediction to Later Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence.…

  10. Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W.

    1996-01-01

    The National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health developed a professional consensus statement about adolescent sexual health. Its report for policymakers recommends that adults face the facts about adolescent sexuality and that public policies on adolescent sexual health be based on appropriate knowledge, accurate data, current theory, ongoing…

  11. Cigars, Cigarettes, and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Ashley; Larkin, Elizabeth M. Gaier; Kishore, Sonal; Frank, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine public health implications of adolescent use of cigars only, cigarettes only, and both cigarettes and cigars. Methods: A cross-sectional health risk survey was administered to a random sample of 4486 high school students in a Midwestern county. Results: More adolescents reported using both cigarettes and cigars (10.6%) than…

  12. Adolescent Literacy. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molineaux, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that there is a crisis in adolescent literacy. Part of the problem is that students often receive little literacy instruction after elementary school. This "Focus On" examines the literacy instruction that adolescents need to be successful as they move on to more challenging texts in middle and high school. In addition, this…

  13. Diagnosing ADHD in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and…

  14. The Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, B. J.; Getz, Sarah; Galvan, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by suboptimal decisions and actions that give rise to an increased incidence of unintentional injuries and violence, alcohol and drug abuse, unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Traditional neurobiological and cognitive explanations for adolescent behavior have failed to…

  15. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document comprises two issues of a new UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Both issues contain news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the subject.…

  16. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of the two 2002 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue includes news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  17. Classifying Adolescent Perfectionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Gilman, Rich

    2011-01-01

    A large school-based sample of 9th-grade adolescents (N = 875) completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, & Johnson, 1996). Decision rules and cut-scores were developed and replicated that classify adolescents as one of two kinds of perfectionists (adaptive or maladaptive) or as nonperfectionists. A…

  18. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the two 1999 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent heath and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  19. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document comprises the two 2001 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  20. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the two 2000 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  1. [Adolescent sexuality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M

    1987-01-01

    22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined.

  2. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  3. Fluency Variation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim; Martins, Vanessa De Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    The Speech Fluency Profile of fluent adolescent speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, were examined with respect to gender and neurolinguistic variations. Speech samples of 130 male and female adolescents, aged between 12;0 and 17;11 years were gathered. They were analysed according to type of speech disruption; speech rate; and frequency of speech…

  4. Defining Early Adolescent Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maureen G.; Sowers, MaryFran

    2002-01-01

    Determined the age group for defining early adolescent childbearing based on rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Data on infant mortality, very low birth weight, and very pre-term delivery per 1,000 live births for women age 12-23 years in the 1995 U.S. birth cohort indicate that early adolescent childbearing is best defined as giving birth at age…

  5. Adolescence and Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  6. The Changing Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Aaron M.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, a period during which an individual acquires the skills necessary to survive on his or her own, away from parents or other caregivers. Adolescence can be a very confusing time. They experience changes in sleep, diet, mood, weight and attitude and a decreased pleasure from daily activities.…

  7. Adolescence. What is normal?

    PubMed

    Offer, D; Ostrov, E; Howard, K I

    1989-06-01

    We present in some detail what constitutes normal behavior, or mental health, among teenagers. Our data are based on the results of a specially devised psychological questionnaire by one of us (D.O.). This questionnaire has been shown to reliably distinguish mentally healthy from psychiatrically disturbed populations. Results are presented across three decades (1960s, 1970s, and 1980s), across genders, and across the high school years. A conceptual framework is presented to help the clinician working with adolescents to understand the fluctuation in psychopathology among youth. Adolescent density in the total population is shown to be a significant factor in determining the rate of disturbance among teenagers. Our research findings demonstrate that the rate of behavioral disturbance among adolescents is the same as in other parts of the life cycle. The clinician working with adolescents tends to underestimate the severity of adolescent problems because of the near-universal belief that all adolescents undergo "adolescent turmoil." We have found that adolescents who are experiencing turmoil need professional help.

  8. Key Data on Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, John

    In order to counteract widespread stereotyping of adolescents and to provide a historical perspective on the lives of youth in Great Britain, this report compiles statistical data in six areas regarding adolescents and youth. Chapter 1, "Population, Families and Households," presents information on the population of the United Kingdom including…

  9. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  10. Adolescent Development Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilligan, Carol

    1987-01-01

    Emphasizes necessity of reconsideration of adolescent development, for these reasons: the view of childhood has changed; females have not been systematically studied; theories of cognitive development favor mathematical and scientific thinking over the humanities; and because the psychology of adolescence is anchored in separation and independence…

  11. Relationship violence in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Alison J; Raymond, Marissa; Catallozzi, Marina; Ryan, Owen; Rickert, Vaughn I

    2007-12-01

    Previous experience with violence or a deficit in interpersonal skills may lead to violence in adolescent relationships. In this article we focus on various forms of interpersonal violence (bullying, sexual harassment, coercion, and relationship violence) that adolescents may experience and pay special attention to risk factors, help-seeking behaviors, and sequelae.

  12. Adolescent Attraction to Cults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Eagan

    1998-01-01

    Details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. and distinguishes functions of cults and the term "cult." Identifies various cults, and describes the process of involvement. Notes that in the absence of authentic, stabilizing standards, some youth are especially vulnerable. Provides recommendations for adults working with adolescents.…

  13. [Adolescent sexuality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M

    1987-01-01

    22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined. PMID:12269059

  14. Gender and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  15. Motivating Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormeli, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This author acknowledges that teachers agree that "adolescents aren't always interested in the topics adults consider important for them to learn." It is easy for adults who have forgotten the wonder and uncertainty of the adolescent years to declare that students today are more uninterested in school and undisciplined in life than…

  16. Wellness Factors among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleet, David A.; Dane, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    Content for wellness-learning games aimed at youth was derived from the professional judgment of an advisory panel composed of experts in preventive medicine, health education, and adolescent development using a Delphi-like series of structured inquiries. Thirty-nine attributes considered important in the development of healthy adolescents were…

  17. Smoking and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  18. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave; Golden, Larry

    This book deals with the realities of adolescent suicide. It consists of 15 chapters organized under 5 major headings: The Problem of Adolescent Suicide (chapters 1 and 2); A Profile of the Attempter (chapters 3-6); Assessing Lethality (chapters 7 and 8); Prevention and Intervention (chapters 9-14); and Legal Issues (chapter 15). Individual…

  19. Identity statuses as developmental trajectories: a five-wave longitudinal study in early-to-middle and middle-to-late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Meeus, Wim; van de Schoot, Rens; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan

    2012-08-01

    This study tested whether Marcia's original identity statuses of achievement, moratorium, early closure (a new label for foreclosure), and diffusion, can be considered identity status trajectories. That is, we examined whether these statuses are distinct and relatively stable, over-time configurations of commitment strength, levels of in-depth exploration of present commitments, and consideration of alternative commitments. The study examined identity development in a five-wave study of 923 early-to-middle (49.3% female) and 390 middle-to-late adolescents (56.7% female), covering the ages of 12-20. Using Latent class growth analysis (LCGA), the authors found that Marcia's (1966) statuses are indeed identity status trajectories. Two kinds of moratorium were also found: the classical moratorium and searching moratorium. Support was found for Waterman's developmental hypothesis of the identity status model: the number of achievers was significantly higher, and the number of diffusions lower, in middle-to-late adolescence than in early-to-middle adolescence. Females were more often in the advanced identity status trajectories, and stable differences were found between the trajectories in psychosocial adjustment. Study findings highlight that identity formation should be conceptualized as an over-time process.

  20. The Influence of Family Relations on Trajectories of Cigarette and Alcohol Use from Early to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutman, Leslie Morrison; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Peck, Stephen; Malanchuk, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines growth curve trajectories of cigarette and alcohol use from 13 to 19 years, and investigates how family relations (i.e., decision-making opportunities, negative family interactions, and positive identification with parents) relate to contemporaneous and predictive alcohol and cigarette use during adolescence. Data came…

  1. Trajectories of Peer Social Influences as Long-Term Predictors of Drug Use from Early through Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Lei; Chou, Chih-Ping; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyzed the long-term effects of perceived friend use and perceived peer use on adolescents' own cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use as a series of parallel growth curves that were estimated in two developmental pieces, representing middle and high school (N = 1,040). Data were drawn from a large drug abuse prevention trial,…

  2. Concurrent and Prospective Effects of Psychopathic Traits on Affective and Cognitive Empathy in a Community Sample of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouns, Bart H. J.; de Wied, Minet Annette; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A deficit in affective rather than cognitive empathy is thought to be central to psychopathic traits. However, empirical evidence for empathy deficits in adolescents with psychopathic traits is limited. We investigated the concurrent and prospective effects of psychopathic traits on affective and cognitive trait empathy in late…

  3. Risky Decision Making in a Laboratory Driving Task Is Associated with Health Risk Behaviors during Late Adolescence but Not Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chiu, Pearl; Steinberg, Laurence; King-Casas, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimentation with drugs and alcohol. To fill the gap in our understanding of the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we investigated associations between laboratory-based risky decision-making using the Stoplight task and…

  4. Comparing the in vivo glycine fluxes of adolescent girls and adult women during early and late pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During pregnancy, growth of the fetus depends on an adequate glycine supply because it is needed for synthesis of fetal DNA, collagen, and serine. Since pregnant adolescent girls give birth to lower birth weight babies, it is possible that they do not produce sufficient glycine to meet overall deman...

  5. Eating Disorder Behaviors, Strength of Faith, and Values in Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults: An Exploration of Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents entering college are often affected by eating disorders and during this transition to emerging adulthood, individuals begin to establish personal values and beliefs, which makes this population interesting when studying Eating Disorders, values, and faith. This research project seeks to examine the association among strength of…

  6. The Relation between Civic Education and Political Attitudes and Behavior: A Two-Year Panel Study among Belgian Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dassonneville, Ruth; Quintelier, Ellen; Hooghe, Marc; Claes, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that civic education efforts will have a positive effect on the political attitudes and behaviors of adolescents and young adults. In the present study, we distinguish among formal civic education, an open classroom climate, and active learning strategies, and we explore their relation with political interest, efficacy,…

  7. Adolescent depression: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Dundon, Edith Emma

    2006-01-01

    Concerns about the adequate assessment and treatment of adolescent depression have been in the forefront of pediatric mental health literature in the recent past. While quantitative studies have provided valuable information, the voice of the adolescent has been lacking in the development of theory and treatment of this prevalent disorder. Using approach, a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies was conducted. This process revealed six themes that outline the course of adolescents who struggle with depression: (a) beyond the blues, (b) spiraling down and within, (c) breaking points, (d) seeing and being seen, (e) seeking solutions, and (f) taking control. Knowledge of the experience of adolescent depression will aid practitioners in recognition and early intervention for the increasing number of adolescents suffering with depression, as well as guide educational initiatives to provide needed information on the symptoms of depression and available resources for getting help.

  8. Neighborhoods and Adolescent Development

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in identifying specific aspects of adolescents' lives that are positively or adversely affected by their place of residence. This body of work suggests that it is important to consider neighborhoods when examining their 1) engagement in risk-related behaviors; 2) educational outcomes; 3) physical and mental health; and 4) their integration within social institutions. To date, however, no existing work has simultaneously considered the range of outcomes in which neighborhoods are believed to be important within and across these four domains. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examine the extent to which neighborhoods influence adolescent outcomes across 34 characteristics nested within these four areas. The findings suggest that for adolescents, residential area is equally important in terms of risk behaviors, educational outcomes, and their integration within their families, schools, and churches. However, we find no evidence that neighborhoods are associated with adolescents' physical health or emotional well-being. PMID:21984874

  9. Adolescent bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Labuschagne, Zandre; Le Grange, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Onset of bulimia nervosa (BN) typically occurs in adolescence and is frequently accompanied by medical and psychiatric sequelae that may have detrimental effects on adolescent development. Potentially serious medical consequences and high comorbid rates of mood disorders and suicidality underscore the need for early recognition and effective treatments. Research among adolescents with BN has lagged behind that of adults, although evidence is accumulating to support the efficacy of family-based interventions and cognitive behavioral treatments that are adapted for use with adolescent populations. The aim of the current article is to provide an overview of recent research on epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic issues, and treatment interventions focusing on adolescent BN, and to highlight areas for future research.

  10. Adolescent attachment and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, D S; Horowitz, H A

    1996-04-01

    The relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. The concordance of attachment classification was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Adolescents showing a dismissing attachment organization were more likely to have a conduct or substance abuse disorder, narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported narcissistic, antisocial, and paranoid personality traits. Adolescents showing a preoccupied attachment organization were more likely to have an affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive, histrionic, borderline or schizotypal personality disorder, and self-reported avoidant, anxious, and dysthymic personality traits. The results support a model of development of psychopathology based partially on relational experiences with parents.

  11. Androgenetic alopecia in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Price, Vera H

    2003-02-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or hereditary hair thinning, is a common and unwelcome cause of hair loss in men and women. AGA also occurs in adolescents, though its prevalence in this younger population is not known. Physical appearance is extremely important to most adolescents, and early onset of hair loss can have a definite negative effect on self-image and self-esteem. Minoxidil topical solution is widely used by adults for hair loss, but its use by adolescents has not been systematically evaluated. This article provides an overview of AGA and presents new information on the prevalence and age at onset of hereditary hair thinning in adolescents. In addition, data are presented on the efficacy and proper use of minoxidil topical solution in adolescent boys and girls. PMID:12635889

  12. Adoptive parenting and attachment: association of the internal working models between adoptive mothers and their late-adopted children during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Cecilia S.; Di Folco, Simona; Guerriero, Viviana; Santona, Alessandra; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recent literature has shown that the good outcome of adoption would mostly depend on the quality of adoptive parenting, which is strongly associated with the security of parental internal working models (IWMs) of attachment. Specifically, attachment states-of-mind of adoptive mothers classified as free and autonomous and without lack of resolution of loss or trauma could represent a good protective factor for adopted children, previously maltreated and neglected. While most research on adoptive families focused on pre-school and school-aged children, the aim of this study was to assess the concordance of IWMs of attachment in adoptive dyads during adolescence. Method: Our pilot-study involved 76 participants: 30 adoptive mothers (mean age = 51.5 ± 4.3), and their 46 late-adopted adolescents (mean age = 13.9 ± 1.6), who were all aged 4–9 years old at time of adoption (mean age = 6.3 ± 1.5). Attachment representations of adopted adolescents were assessed by the Friend and Family Interview (FFI), while adoptive mothers’ state-of-mind with respect to attachment was classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Adolescents’ verbal intelligence was controlled for. Results: Late-adopted adolescents were classified as follows: 67% secure, 26% dismissing, and 7% preoccupied in the FFI, while their adoptive mothers’ AAI classifications were 70% free-autonomous, 7% dismissing, and 23% unresolved. We found a significant concordance of 70% (32 dyads) between the secure–insecure FFI and AAI classifications. Specifically adoptive mothers with high coherence of transcript and low unresolved loss tend to have late-adopted children with high secure attachment, even if the adolescents’ verbal intelligence made a significant contribution to this prediction. Discussion: Our results provides an empirical contribution to the literature concerning the concordance of attachment in adoptive dyads, highlighting the beneficial impact of highly coherent

  13. Contributions of Parent-Adolescent Negative Emotionality, Adolescent Conflict, and Adoption Status to Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Although most adopted children are well adjusted, research has consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. The present investigation tested a model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors.…

  14. Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. Methods 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. Results 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly) was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization showed no socioeconomic

  15. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility Across Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-04-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51 % girls, 91 % European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships.

  16. Health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S

    1992-01-01

    Adolescents are the future adults of the world. While adolescence is typically regarded as a period of life relatively free from health problems, adolescents are actually in need of the attention of health professionals and health services, especially with regard to sexual health. A trend of decreasing age at menarche and increasing age at marriage presents adolescents with a substantial number of years in which they will experiment with their developing reproductive organs and sexuality. Substantial psychological and physical change takes place during this period. Inconsistent and suboptimal users of contraception, youths are at high risk for reproductive health problems and sexually transmitted diseases. Substance abuse, unintentional and intentional injuries and their sequelae, academic underachievement and illiteracy, and obesity may also be problematic for adolescents. Adolescents are, however, most damaged by internalized and externalized homophobia. The authors point out that adolescents may be persuaded to learn and change their behaviors more readily than adults. Appropriate messages could be conveyed through targeted information, education, and communication strategies to complement medical and health care services which are available, accessible, and acceptable. PMID:12318653

  17. Predictors of the Transition from Experimental to Daily Smoking in Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sunhee; Weaver, Terri E.; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Although smoking initiation is rare in young adulthood, the progression to a higher level of smoking still occurs at this developmental stage. Thus, this study was aimed at exploring predictors of the transition from experimental to daily smoking in late teens and young adults using the 2nd and 3rd waves from the National Longitudinal Study of…

  18. Mediators of the Associations between Externalizing Behaviors and Internalizing Symptoms in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early…

  19. Graffiti and adolescent personality.

    PubMed

    Peretti, P O; Carter, R; McClinton, B

    1977-01-01

    Graffiti has been studied for many years from many viewpoints. They have been used to explain accounts of people, styles of life, and assumed relationships. The present paper reports an attempt to analyze graffiti as outward manifestations of adolescent personality. Results suggested that different forms of graffiti could be interpreted from five characterizations of early adolescent personality: sexual maturity, self-identity, idealism, iconoclasm, and rebelliousness. Significant differences were found between boys and girls in numbers of inscriptions for each category. Further, the graffiti were analyzed in relation to early adolescent stages of development. PMID:868627

  20. Adolescent attitudes to authority.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J; Coleman, E Z

    1984-06-01

    This study is concerned with adolescent attitudes to authority. In particular the investigation focuses on notions of the ideal authority figure, attitudes to the sorts of conflicts experienced at home and in school, and on the types of resolutions to conflicts preferred by young people. Subjects were 43 adolescents from working class areas in outer London boroughs, all of whom were given a semistructured interview. Results indicated important differences in the amount of control required at home and in the school, and showed adolescents of 14 and 15 to have relatively little need for autonomy but a very considerable need for support from parents and teachers.

  1. Graffiti and adolescent personality.

    PubMed

    Peretti, P O; Carter, R; McClinton, B

    1977-01-01

    Graffiti has been studied for many years from many viewpoints. They have been used to explain accounts of people, styles of life, and assumed relationships. The present paper reports an attempt to analyze graffiti as outward manifestations of adolescent personality. Results suggested that different forms of graffiti could be interpreted from five characterizations of early adolescent personality: sexual maturity, self-identity, idealism, iconoclasm, and rebelliousness. Significant differences were found between boys and girls in numbers of inscriptions for each category. Further, the graffiti were analyzed in relation to early adolescent stages of development.

  2. [Adolescents' physical activity].

    PubMed

    Pagaeva, E K; Misho, P -A; Zhanin, A; Chanturishvili, T P; Pagaeva, K I

    2006-01-01

    The paper defines the parameters reflecting the physical activity of adolescents and their correlation with health and a risk of behavioral disorders, bad habits, and cravings. A total of 9499 Georgian adolescents aged 14-18 years, the senior (9th-llth-form) pupils, selected through two-step cluster sampling were surveyed. The pupils anonymously filled in special questionnaires. This yielded the parameters reflecting the intensity of physical activity of the adolescents and the latter's going in for sports. The parameters were shown to have a beneficial effect on health, including mental health, and on the magnitude of unhealthy behavior.

  3. The adolescent basketball player.

    PubMed

    Sickles, R T; Lombardo, J A

    1993-04-01

    Adolescent basketball players can be viewed in two ways, as a unique population requiring special attention for their unique problems or as a similar group sharing the same problems as their adult counterparts. Attention should be paid to issues related to adolescence in general including changes in body size, growth of the musculoskeletal system, and hormonal changes that contribute to changes in behavior, emotions, and maturity. Attention to the particular needs of the adolescent basketball player may help prevent problems or lead to early recognition and intervention.

  4. Romantic Relationship Commitment and Its Linkages with Commitment to Parents and Friends during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan; van Duin, Jet; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This five-wave longitudinal study examines linkages between adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationship commitment and the development of adolescents' perceptions of commitment to parents and friends. A total of 218 early-to-middle adolescents (39.0 percent boys) and 185 middle-to-late adolescents (30.8 percent boys) participated.…

  5. The Meaning of Grandparents as Viewed by Adolescent Grandchildren: An Empirical Study in Belgium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ranst, Nancy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Study investigates reasons adolescents value their grandparents. Results show adolescents generally find their grandparents important and feel close to them because they provide affection, reassurance of worth, and reliable alliance. Early adolescents assigned more importance and meaning to their grandparents than middle and late adolescents.…

  6. Reconsidering Changes in Parent-Child Conflict across Adolescence: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; Coy, Katherine C.; Collins, W. Andrew

    1998-01-01

    A series of meta-analyses identified changes in parent-child conflict during adolescence and moderating factors. Results of age meta-analyses indicated that conflict rate and total conflict declined from early to mid adolescence and from mid to late adolescence; conflict affect increased from early to mid-adolescence. Puberty meta-analyses…

  7. Adolescent Endocrinology for Counselors of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerill K.

    1973-01-01

    In this paper, the author attempted to outline a program, aimed at the middle and junior high school student, which would inform students of the extent, type and variation of physiological changes of early adolescence in order to relieve anxiety and augment self-acceptance through assurance. (Author/RK)

  8. [Adolescence and choice of contraceptive].

    PubMed

    Theunissen, L

    1986-11-01

    The majority of books, studies, and publications on adolescence are written by adults, whose frequent focus on unbridled adolescent sexuality, adolescents in crisis, or immature adolescents does not seem to correspond to the self-image of adolescents. All authors agree that adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood beginning at puberty, but opinions differ as to the termination of adolescence and entrance into adulthood. The most significant consensus about adolescence is its tendency to become prolonged. The majority of authors regard adolescence as a preparation for adult life and hence as a natural phase necessary and indispensable to human existence. Ethnographic studies of societies that do not acknowledge adolescence demonstrate, however, that it is not a natural phase. It is also evident that comparatively few roles in modern society require lengthy periods of preparation such as adolescence. It is therefore difficult to regard adolescence as a time of preparation for adult life. From a historic perspective, adolescence emerged with the socioeconomic transformations of industrialization. Mechanization and automation excluded numerous types of workers, especially young workers, from the labor force. Adolescence represents marginalization of young people in response to socioeconomic exigencies rather than a period of preparation for a better adult life. The marginalization is internalized in the consciousness of adults and youth alike and in their hierarchical relations. The marginalization of young people is expressed in the domain of sexuality by the fact that, although physiologically mature, adolescents are not viewed as psychologically mature enough to have children. Adolescents have sexual relations at increasingly young ages, but unlike adults they are not permitted by society the choice of having a child. Contraception, an option for adults, becomes obligatory for sexually active adolescents. The refusal of contraception or failure to

  9. Alcohol-Induced Changes in Conflict Monitoring and Error Detection as Predictors of Alcohol Use in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Korucuoglu, Ozlem; Gladwin, Thomas E; Wiers, Reinout W

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of substance use and related problems. Understanding how exposure to drugs influences the adolescent brain could reveal mechanisms underlying risk for addiction later in life. In the current study, 87 adolescents (16–20-year olds; the local legal drinking age was16, allowing the inclusion of younger subjects than usually possible) underwent EEG measurements during a Go/No-Go task with and without alcohol cues; after placebo and a low dose of alcohol (0.45 g/kg). Conflict monitoring and error detection processes were investigated with the N2 and the error-related negativity (ERN) ERP components. Participants were followed-up after 6 months to assess changes in alcohol use. The NoGo-N2 was larger for alcohol cues and acute alcohol decreased the amplitude of the NoGo-N2 for alcohol cues. ERN amplitude was blunted for alcohol cues. Acute alcohol decreased the amplitude of the ERN, specifically for control cues. Furthermore, the differences in ERN for alcohol cues between the placebo and alcohol conditions predicted alcohol use 6 months later: subjects who showed stronger blunting of the ERN after acute alcohol were more likely to return to more moderate drinking patterns. These results suggest that cues signalling reward opportunities might activate a go-response mode and larger N2 (detection of increased conflict) for these cues might be necessary for inhibition. The ERN results suggest a deficiency in the monitoring system for alcohol cues. Finally, a lack of alcohol-induced deterioration of error monitoring for cues with high salience might be a vulnerability factor for alcohol abuse in adolescents. PMID:25189856

  10. Mental Health Literacy Among Late Adolescents in South India: What They Know and What Attitudes Drive Them

    PubMed Central

    Ogorchukwu, Judith Miti; Sekaran, Varalakshmi Chandra; Nair, Sreekumaran; Ashok, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early recognition of mental health problems gives an individual the opportunity for better long-term outcomes if intervention is initiated early. Mental health literacy is a related concept which is increasingly seen as an important measure of the awareness and knowledge of mental health disorders. Aim and Objectives: This study aimed at assessing the mental health literacy, help-seeking behavior and beliefs and attitudes related to mental illnesses among adolescents attending preuniversity colleges. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected preuniversity college students (n = 916). Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. Data were computed using STATA. Analysis and interpretation were carried out using descriptives and Chi-square test. Results: Of the 916 respondents, 54.15% were male while 45.85% were female. The majority (78.60%) of the respondents ascribed to the Hindu religion, hailed largely from rural areas (57.21%) and were mostly studying in the 11th standard (72.49%). The percentage of mental health literacy among the respondents was very low, i.e., depression was identified by 29.04% and schizophrenia/psychosis was recognized by 1.31%. The study findings indicate that adolescents preferred reaching out more to informal sources including family members such as mothers than formal sources for self than for others indicating deeply prevalent stigmatizing attitudes toward mental health conditions. Conclusions: There is a need for immediate improvement in the knowledge of adolescents on mental health literacy which suggests that programs need to be developed such that adolescents can seek help from valid resources if the need were to arise and have appropriate knowledge on whom to approach for help. PMID:27335519

  11. Identity formation in adolescence: change or stability?

    PubMed

    Klimstra, Theo A; Hale, William W; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this five-wave longitudinal study of 923 early to middle adolescents (50.7% boys; 49.3% girls) and 390 middle to late adolescents (43.3% boys and 56.7% girls) is to provide a comprehensive view on change and stability in identity formation from ages 12 to 20. Several types of change and stability (i.e., mean-level change, rank-order stability, and profile similarity) were assessed for three dimensions of identity formation (i.e., commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration), using adolescent self-report questionnaires. Results revealed changes in identity dimensions towards maturity, indicated by a decreasing tendency for reconsideration, increasingly more in-depth exploration, and increasingly more stable identity dimension profiles. Mean levels of commitment remained stable, and rank-order stability of commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration did not change with age. Overall, girls were more mature with regard to identity formation in early adolescence, but boys had caught up with them by late adolescence. Taken together, our findings indicate that adolescent identity formation is guided by progressive changes in the way adolescents deal with commitments, rather than by changes in the commitments themselves.

  12. [The pregnant adolescent].

    PubMed

    Grenon-Plante, D

    1982-03-01

    According to the Canadian Association of Family Planning 85% of adolescents are unprotected at their 1st intercourse, and 16% become pregnant; only 20% of those having a regular sex life use contraception. Women below 20 contributed to 17% of births in 1976 in Canada; in the same year 41.5% of all new mothers were unmarried, and only 27.5% of new fathers accepted responsibility for their paternity. These figures give an idea of the extent of the problem of unwanted pregnancy among adolescents, a problem shared by all Western countries. The adolescent mother is too young to know what she wants, not to mention to accept responsibility for the caring of an infant. Risk of maternal mortality is twice as great among teenage mothers, and so is risk of infant death, mostly due to prematurity. Nurses can play a very important role in helping adolescent mothers, and they must never project their moral values on their young patients.

  13. Adolescent pregnancy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Clear, specific information about sexual behavior and its consequences is frequently not provided to adolescents by their families, schools and communities. The "sex education" that many receive comes from misinformed or uninformed peers.

  14. The Philosophy of Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feibleman, James K.

    1969-01-01

    The adolescent goes through various stages of physical and psychological development in the years between puberty and maturity. Finding his rightful place in society and refining his ideas about life are two experiences he undergoes during this period. (CK)

  15. [Adolescent health in numbers].

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent health is not a priority to public health services. The physical, psychological and social changes lived by youngsters expose these individuals to several health risks and events that are determinant to their actual and future health status. The main health problems in adolescents are infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases but traumatisms are very important in males. Female adolescents demand services related to their reproductive life and link to early and not desired pregnancies. Another important health problem is overweight and obesity in both sexes. The main causes of death in this age group are malignant tumors, specially leukemias, and accidents. We do not have information related to health risks like addictions and mental health. Data show how important adolescents health should be to the public health sector specially because it will be more easy to tackle their health risks and negative health life-styles at this age than further in their lives.

  16. The Fears of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamber, James H.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the self-reported fears and some personality characteristics of a sample of 1112 adolescents ranging in age from 12 to 18 years (attending grammar and secondary schools in Northern Ireland). (CS)

  17. [Relations of the adolescent].

    PubMed

    Arballo Angulo, M A

    1990-01-01

    Adolescents often feel like sexual beings because of the physical and psychological changes produced by their hormones. Adolescents are sometimes disturbed by their newly occurring sexual fantasies and by lack of understanding from their parents of the changes they are experiencing. These factors together with social pressures of various kinds occasionally make the adolescent forget that decisions about how to behave sexually should be made by the individual, not by others. Adolescents should be able to evaluate personal relationships for their positive or destructive qualities. Decisions by adolescents about their sexual behavior and about when a personal relationship should become a sexual relationship are made more difficult by the conflicting social, group, and interpersonal pressures they face. In a good sexual relationship as in a good friendship, the 2 persons feel confident and behave honestly with each other. Neither dominates the other, and the relationship is pleasurable rather than negative for both. According to research, the 1st sexual relations of an adolescent often occur with an adult. Sex is usually unpremeditated and unplanned. Many adolescents are disappointed in their 1st sexual experiences, which may have occurred in unfavorable circumstances. The combination of inadequate sex education and knowledge of what to expect and unrealistically high expectations from movies or stories probably are principal causes of disappointment. Adolescents in the process of maturing from childhood into adulthood are not completely prepared psychologically or socioculturally for parenthood. In Mexico, 75% of 1st unions are believed to begin before the woman is 20 years old. Most adolescents who become pregnant do not use contraception. In 1976, only 16% of new family planning acceptors were believed to be 15-19 years old. The proportion of births to mothers under 18 was estimated to have increased from 3.1% in 1968-70 to 10% in 1976. Adolescent pregnancies

  18. Computerized assessment of cognitive late effects among adolescent brain tumor survivors.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Heather M; Ashford, Jason M; Di Pinto, Marcos; Vaughan, Christopher G; Gioia, Gerard A; Merchant, Thomas E; Ogg, Robert J; Santana, Victor; Wu, Shengjie

    2013-06-01

    Advantages of computerized assessment of neuropsychological functions include improved standardization and increased reliability of response time variables. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is a computerized battery developed for monitoring recovery following mild brain injuries that assesses attention, memory and processing speed. Despite evidence that core areas of deficit among cancer survivors are those assessed by ImPACT, it has not previously been used with this population. Twenty four childhood brain tumor (BT) survivors treated with conformal radiation therapy (mean age = 15.7 ± 1.6; mean age at irradiation = 9.8 ± 2.5), twenty solid tumor (ST) survivors treated without CNS-directed therapy (mean age = 16.2 ± 1.8) and twenty healthy siblings (mean age = 15.1 ± 1.6 years) were administered an age modified version of ImPACT. Additional computerized measures of working memory and recognition memory were administered. Univariate ANOVAs revealed group differences (p < 0.05) on measures of recognition memory, spatial working memory, processing speed and reaction time, with BT survivors performing significantly worse than ST survivors and siblings. Pearson correlation coefficients revealed significant associations between ImPACT memory tasks and computerized forced choice recognition tasks (rs = 0.30-0.33, p < 0.05). Multiple surgical resections, hydrocephalus and CSF shunt placement most consistently predicted worse ImPACT performance using linear mixed models (p < 0.05). The ImPACT test battery demonstrated sensitivity to cognitive late effects experienced by some BT survivors with clinical predictors of performance consistent with the pediatric oncology literature. Correlations with measures of similar constructs provide evidence for convergent validity. Findings offer initial support for the utility of ImPACT for monitoring of cognitive late effects.

  19. Implants in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rohit A.; Mitra, Dipika K.; Rodrigues, Silvia V.; Pathare, Pragalbha N.; Podar, Rajesh S.; Vijayakar, Harshad N.

    2013-01-01

    Implants have gained tremendous popularity as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth in adults. There is extensive research present on the use of implants in adults, but there is a dearth of data available on the same in adolescents. The treatment planning and execution of implant placement in adolescents is still in its infancy. This review article is an attempt to bring together available literature. PMID:24174743

  20. [Eczematous disorders in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R

    2016-04-01

    Eczematous disorders in adolescence (definition WHO: the period between 10 and 20 years) are common and include mainly atopic dermatitis, contact eczema, and seborrheic dermatitis. They all share the similarity of inflammatory reactions which mainly affect the epidermis and can take a chronic course, depending on the underlying dermatosis. In the following article, the particularities of eczematous diseases in adolescents are discussed. PMID:26857132

  1. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  2. Identity Formation in Adolescence: Change or Stability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimstra, Theo A.; Hale, William W., III; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this five-wave longitudinal study of 923 early to middle adolescents (50.7% boys; 49.3% girls) and 390 middle to late adolescents (43.3% boys and 56.7% girls) is to provide a comprehensive view on change and stability in identity formation from ages 12 to 20. Several types of change and stability (i.e., mean-level change, rank-order…

  3. Iron nutrition in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mesías, Marta; Seiquer, Isabel; Navarro, M Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing adequate iron bioavailability to favor element utilization and thus be sufficient for needs at this stage of life. Currently, many adolescents consume monotonous and unbalanced diets which may limit mineral intake and/or bioavailability, leading to iron deficiency and, consequently, to ferropenic anemia, a nutritional deficit of worldwide prevalence. Iron deficiency, apart from provoking important physiological repercussions, can adversely affect adolescents' cognitive ability and behavior. Accordingly, promoting the consumption of a varied, adjusted, and balanced diet by adolescents will facilitate iron utilization, benefiting their health both at present and in adulthood. This review discusses how physiological changes during adolescence can cause iron requirements to increase. Consequently, it is important that diet should contribute an appropriate amount of this mineral and, moreover, with an adequate bioavailability to satisfy needs during this special period of life.

  4. Addiction in adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, M A

    1990-01-01

    Some symptoms seen in adolescents with the disease of chemical dependence are similar to those seen in adults. Because of their age, lack of personality development, dependent family role, immaturity, and acting out of age-related behavioral tendencies, however, symptoms specific to this population occur. These may become exacerbated and telescope--intensify and shorten--the progression of the disease. A plan to solve the problem of adolescent chemical dependence must focus on education, demonstration, cooperation, prevention, intervention, habilitation, treatment, and recovery. The phenomenon of denial in a chemically dependent adolescent yields a more complex delusional system that dictates age-specific intervention approaches. Habilitation is necessary for successful adolescent treatment and recovery because what is needed is an initial process of learning, not relearning or rehabilitation. If specific adolescent issues are addressed through comprehensive, multimodality treatment approaches, then treatment and recovery outcomes for chemically dependent adolescents and their families are substantially improved. Primary care physicians must be alert to the possibility of drug use in their young patients and aware of treatment options. PMID:2349798

  5. Perception and recognition of faces in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrmann, D.; Knoll, L. J.; Sakhardande, A. L.; Speekenbrink, M.; Kadosh, K. C.; Blakemore, S. -J.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the development of face cognition abilities have focussed on childhood, with early maturation accounts contending that face cognition abilities are mature by 3–5 years. Late maturation accounts, in contrast, propose that some aspects of face cognition are not mature until at least 10 years. Here, we measured face memory and face perception, two core face cognition abilities, in 661 participants (397 females) in four age groups (younger adolescents (11.27–13.38 years); mid-adolescents (13.39–15.89 years); older adolescents (15.90–18.00 years); and adults (18.01–33.15 years)) while controlling for differences in general cognitive ability. We showed that both face cognition abilities mature relatively late, at around 16 years, with a female advantage in face memory, but not in face perception, both in adolescence and adulthood. Late maturation in the face perception task was driven mainly by protracted development in identity perception, while gaze perception abilities were already comparatively mature in early adolescence. These improvements in the ability to memorize, recognize and perceive faces during adolescence may be related to increasing exploratory behaviour and exposure to novel faces during this period of life. PMID:27647477

  6. Perception and recognition of faces in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, D; Knoll, L J; Sakhardande, A L; Speekenbrink, M; Kadosh, K C; Blakemore, S-J

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the development of face cognition abilities have focussed on childhood, with early maturation accounts contending that face cognition abilities are mature by 3-5 years. Late maturation accounts, in contrast, propose that some aspects of face cognition are not mature until at least 10 years. Here, we measured face memory and face perception, two core face cognition abilities, in 661 participants (397 females) in four age groups (younger adolescents (11.27-13.38 years); mid-adolescents (13.39-15.89 years); older adolescents (15.90-18.00 years); and adults (18.01-33.15 years)) while controlling for differences in general cognitive ability. We showed that both face cognition abilities mature relatively late, at around 16 years, with a female advantage in face memory, but not in face perception, both in adolescence and adulthood. Late maturation in the face perception task was driven mainly by protracted development in identity perception, while gaze perception abilities were already comparatively mature in early adolescence. These improvements in the ability to memorize, recognize and perceive faces during adolescence may be related to increasing exploratory behaviour and exposure to novel faces during this period of life. PMID:27647477

  7. Emotional closeness in Mexican-origin adolescents' relationships with mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sue A; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2014-12-01

    Research on the associations between parent-adolescent relationships and friendships among Latinos is limited. Drawing on developmental and ecological perspectives, we examined bidirectional associations between parental warmth and friendship intimacy with same-sex peers from early to late adolescence using a longitudinal cross-lag panel design. Parent-adolescent immigration status and adolescent gender were examined as moderators of these associations. Home interviews were conducted with 246 Mexican American adolescents (51 % female) when they were in early (M = 12.55; SD = .60 years), middle (M = 14.64; SD = .59 years), and late adolescence (M = 17.67; SD = .57 years). Modest declines in paternal warmth were evident from early to late adolescence, but maternal warmth was high and stable across this time period. Girls' intimacy with same-sex friends also was high and stable from early to late adolescence, but boys' intimacy with same-sex friends increased over this time period. In general, findings revealed that adolescents' perceptions of parents' warmth in early adolescence were associated positively with friendship intimacy in middle adolescence, and friendship intimacy in middle adolescence was associated positively with parental warmth in late adolescence. Some associations were moderated by adolescent gender and parent-adolescent immigration status. For example, there was an association from maternal warmth in early adolescence to friendship intimacy in late adolescence only for immigrant youth. These findings suggest that among Mexican American adolescents, their relationships with their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends are intertwined closely and that gender and immigration status shape some of these associations during adolescence.

  8. Comparisons between Thai Adolescent Voices and Thai Adolescent Health Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; McElmurry, Beverly J.

    2006-01-01

    Thai adolescents are hesitant to openly talk to adults; however, they are avid users of the Internet. In 2002, faculty of the Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Nopparat Vajira, Thailand, established a webboard to reach out to high school students for questions and answers on adolescent health. Adolescents pose health questions, which are answered…

  9. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…

  10. Agreement between Parent and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy, Neil; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.; Burke-Storer, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the correspondence between parent and adolescent reports of the adolescent's substance use in a population of parents concerned about, and experiencing problems resulting from, their teen's substance use. Seventy-five parents and their adolescents (76% not in treatment; 24% in treatment) were interviewed separately regarding…

  11. The Portrayal of Obese Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beineke, Rachel

    1998-01-01

    Takes a personal approach to the lives of overweight teenagers and suggests some adolescent novels that explore such lives. Notes, however, that most such novels end unrealistically with the adolescent losing weight and gaining popularity. (RS)

  12. Motivational Interviewing and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilallo, John J.; Weiss, Gony

    2009-01-01

    The use of motivational interviewing strategies in the practice of adolescent psychopharmacology is described. Motivational interviewing is an efficient and collaborative style of clinical interaction and this helps adolescent patients to integrate their psychiatric difficulties into a more resilient identity.

  13. Adolescent Pregnancy: A Medical Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborn, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the medical and social consequences of adolescent pregnancy, including maternal and infant mortality, and low birth weight. Discusses why pregnant adolescents do not seek prenatal care and implications for health providers. (FMW)

  14. FastStats: Adolescent Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Adolescent Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Health status Percent of adolescents 12-17 years of age who are in ...

  15. Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions and Answers about Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents This publication defines scoliosis and provides information about ... it is diagnosed and treated in children and adolescents. You may be interested in contacting one or ...

  16. Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Adolescents Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ... is a demanding and challenging task for every adolescent. One important aspect is forming one's sexual identity. ...

  17. Of Adolescent Cultures and Subcultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deiulio, Anthony M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of adolescent graffiti, analyzes recent trends in graffiti content, and argues that graffiti tend to reflect the same feelings and concerns uncovered by formal studies of adolescents conducted by sociologists and pollsters. (JG)

  18. On Variations in Adolescent Subcultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.

    1978-01-01

    The attributes of adolescents involved in marihuana and nonmarihuana-using peer groups are described. Adolescent subcultures are highly differentiated and involvement with peers does not necessarily entail rejection and estrangement from parents. (Author/AM)

  19. Family violence and the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Rixey, S

    1994-04-01

    Violence within the family may have a major impact on child and adolescent development. Abused adolescents are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors with serious consequences. Current adolescent health care is often inadequate in terms of psychosocial screening and anticipatory guidance. Physicians may play a significant role in reducing and preventing adolescent-related violence by increasing their efforts to identify those at risk and helping them with appropriate interventions. PMID:8007793

  20. Alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among late adolescent Hispanics: Testing associations of acculturation and enculturation in a bicultural transaction model.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes. PMID:26092776

  1. Alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among late adolescent Hispanics: Testing associations of acculturation and enculturation in a bicultural transaction model.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes.

  2. Adolescent Egocentrism: A Contemporary View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Paul D.; Maynard, Amanda M.; Uzelac, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether adolescent egocentrism is displayed during adolescence in the same patterns as when the constructs were first defined in 1967. We empirically revisited the constructs of personal fable and imaginary audience in contemporary adolescents, hypothesizing a decrease in egocentrism with increasing age. Adolescents…

  3. The Adolescent Drug Involvement Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, D. Paul; Hahn, Lori

    1991-01-01

    Developed Adolescent Drug Involvement Scale (ADIS) to measure level of drug involvement, considered as continuum ranging from no use to severe dependency, in adolescents. Administered ADIS to 453 adolescents referred for treatment. Results indicated acceptable internal consistency and provide preliminary evidence of validity. Scores correlated…

  4. Anger Communication in Bicultural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novin, Sheida; Rieffe, Carolien

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about bicultural adolescents' emotional competence. The aim of the present study was to examine anger communication by comparing thirty-eight 16-year-old Moroccan-Dutch adolescents with 40 Dutch and 40 Moroccan peers using hypothetical anger-eliciting vignettes. Findings show that although Moroccan and Dutch adolescents were…

  5. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  6. Rorschach Evaluation of Adolescent Bulimics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used Rorschach Test to contrast 12 diagnosed female adolescent bulimics with 12 female adolescent controls. Bulimics averaged greater number of aggression responses. Data suggest that adolescent bulimics are more depressed, self-punitive, and negativistic than peers and that they have more disordered thoughts, inaccurate perceptions, and impaired…

  7. Popular Music in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Peter G.; Roberts, Donald F.

    This paper examines young adolescents' involvement with popular music and the health implications of that involvement. Initial discussion explores three central concepts: music media, adolescence, and mass media effects. A summary of research on music media in adolescence is offereed in two sections discussing exposure to, and gratifications and…

  8. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  9. Adolescent Psychology around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book paints a portrait of adolescent psychology in 4 major regions: Africa/the Middle East, Asia, the Americas, and Europe. Featuring 24 revised and updated chapters from the "International Encyclopedia of Adolescence" (2007), readers are introduced to the way the majority of the world's adolescents actually live. Most contributors are…

  10. Latino Adolescents' Adjustment, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…

  11. Prospective Study of Adolescent Drug Use among Community Samples of ADHD and Non-ADHD Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Gerald J.; Winters, Ken C.; Realmuto, George M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Botzet, Andria; Lee, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the late adolescent drug use outcomes from a relatively large, community-identified sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have been assessed longitudinally from childhood through late adolescence. Method: Adolescent drug use outcomes were compared between ADHD-only (n = 27),…

  12. Predicting reading comprehension academic achievement in late adolescents with velo-cardio-facial (22q11.2 deletion) syndrome (VCFS): A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Hier, Bridget O.; Fremont, Wanda; Faraone, Stephen V.; Kates, Wendy R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The primary objective of the current study was to examine the childhood predictors of adolescent reading comprehension in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). Although much research has focused on mathematics skills among individuals with VCFS, no studies have examined predictors of reading comprehension. Methods 69 late adolescents with VCFS , 23 siblings of youth with VCFS and 30 community controls participated in a longitudinal research project and had repeat neuropsychological test batteries and psychiatric evaluations every 3 years. The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test – 2nd edition (WIAT-II) Reading Comprehension subtest served as our primary outcome variable. Results Consistent with previous research, children and adolescents with VCFS had mean reading comprehension scores on the WIAT-II which were approximately two standard deviations below the mean and word reading scores approximately one standard deviation below the mean. A more novel finding is that relative to both control groups, individuals with VCFS demonstrated a longitudinal decline in reading comprehension abilities yet a slight increase in word reading abilities. In the combined control sample, WISC-III FSIQ, WIAT-II Word Reading, WISC-III Vocabulary and CVLT-C List A Trial 1 accounted for 75% of the variance in Time 3 WIAT-II Reading Comprehension scores. In the VCFS sample, WISC-III FSIQ, BASC-Teacher Aggression, CVLT-C Intrusions, Tower of London, Visual Span Backwards, WCST non-perseverative errors, WIAT-II Word Reading and WISC-III Freedom from Distractibility index accounted for 85% of the variance in Time 3 WIAT-II Reading Comprehension scores. A principal component analysis with promax rotation computed on the statistically significant Time 1 predictor variables in the VCFS sample resulted in three factors: Word reading decoding / Interference control, Self-Control / Self-Monitoring and Working Memory. Conclusions Childhood predictors of late adolescent reading

  13. The adolescent and contraception.

    PubMed

    Bonar, R W; Mcculla, D

    1981-08-01

    Coital activity is often initiated during adolescence, and adolescents, like many adults, do not behave in purely rational ways and frequently fail to protect themselves against undesired pregnancy. Public attention is focused on adolescent pregnancies because of their increasing number and because the consequences are usually catastrophic. Unplanned pregnancies can have physical, psychosocial, and prenatal effects. It is important from both the individual and societal perspective that high priority be given to the task of preventing adolescent pregnancy. The health care provider, to gain the trust of the adolescent, must be open, honest, and willing to consider the young person's feelings and motivations. In addition to historical data and physical examination, the choice of a contraceptive method is based on individual preferences involving personal, familial, religious, and societal beliefs as well as sexual practice. A decision involving birth control for the adolescent can be complicated by parental influence and involvement. The teenage years are frequently a time of embarrassment about the physical maturation and biological functioning of the body. Birth control methods which require a person to touch himself/herself or to be used at the time of sexual intercourse may be unacceptable to the teenager. Fertility awareness techniques, such as basal body temperature, rhythm, and cervical mucus methods are inexpensive but call for a high degree of personal motivation. The use of a diaphragm requires an office visit and a pelvic examination for fitting and prescription. Contraceptive foam, suppositories, and condoms can be easily obtained over-the-counter for a minimal cost, and a moderate degree of personal motivation is needed for their effective use. Though effective, abortions should not be recommended indiscriminately. Permanent contraceptive methods are not recommended for the adolescent. The IUD and oral contraceptives (OCs) are recommended for adolescents

  14. Early adolescents' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Porter, C P; Ronis, D L; Oakley, D J; Guthrie, B J; Killion, C

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in early adolescents' intimate behaviors and the initiation of sexual intercourse over a one-year time period. The changes are interpreted within the context of recent progress in understanding the development of early adolescents. Public school students in sixth and ninth grades of selected schools in a midwestern industrial city were studied in two waves of data collection. A total of 106 students provided data for the second year, allowing comparisons of their Time 2 with their Time 1 responses. Five of eight intimate behaviors studied increased in frequency during the year. Also, the adolescents' perceived benefits of having sexual intercourse increased and perceived costs decreased during the follow-up year. Increases in the frequency of intimate behaviors but not changes in their perceptions of the benefits and costs predicted whether or not students had initiated sexual intercourse during the follow-up period. These findings support current understanding of early adolescence as a time of incremental learning about intimacy and about sexual relationships. The findings suggest that preventing early sexual intercourse may require understanding the specific behavioral competencies related to healthful development of intimacy. Pediatric nurses can be leaders in providing the necessary counseling and education to young adolescents, their families, and their communities.

  15. Adolescent bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Daniel S; Fallon, Sara C; Brandt, Mary L

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity has increased from a relatively uncommon problem to one of the most important public health problems facing children today. Typical "adult" diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, have become increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population. The earlier presentation of these comorbidities will have a significant impact for the future because this population of children will require more medical resources at an earlier age and will have a significantly decreased life expectancy. The significant morbidity of obesity in the pediatric population has led to consideration of more aggressive treatment protocols for obesity in children, including the introduction of surgical management at an earlier age. Surgery for obesity in adolescents has particular risks and benefits that must be accounted for when considering this approach. The unique psychological and emotional needs of adolescent patients make the patient selection process and perioperative management substantially different from those of adult patients. Initial outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents are comparable to those seen in adults in the short term. However, the long-term effects of these procedures on the adolescent population are not known. This review discusses the epidemiology of pediatric obesity, the indications for operative therapy in adolescent patients, the common surgical procedures used for weight loss, the reported outcomes of these procedures, and the importance of multidisciplinary management for this unique patient population.

  16. Psychopharmacology in adolescent medicine.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Michael A; Williams, Thomas P

    2006-02-01

    Psychopharmacology is a challenge for health care providers treating adolescents. A detailed and accurate assessment, including developmental issues relevant to adolescence in general and to the individual adolescent, guides clinicians in formulating thoughtful and effective treatment plans to meet the needs of each patient. Parents play an important role in providing family history regarding psychiatric diagnoses and the response to various drugs, in making decisions to initiate medication and to change a medication regimen, and in monitoring an adolescent's adherence to a prescribed regimen. The role of parents is especially important for younger patients. Following the biopsychosocial model, rarely should psychopharmacologic agents be used as the sole means to treat a psychiatric condition in adolescents. Pharmacologic agents described in this article are tools that have their effect in the biological domain of central neurotransmitters, but psychosocial interventions addressing the emotional and behavioral issues that are the indications for such medication are generally also required. The development of newer medications holds promise for more effective treatment of target symptoms with minimal side effects. PMID:16473299

  17. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  18. The Adolescent Experience: European and American Adolescents in the 1990s. Research Monographs in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsaker, Francoise D., Ed.; Flammer, August, Ed.

    Scholars are increasingly recognizing that adolescent development is best understood by acknowledging and examining adolescents' cultural, social, historical, and political contexts. The Euronet for Research on Adolescence in the Context of Social Change project, begun in 1991, is a collaborative effort among research teams from European countries…

  19. [Family dynamics around the adolescent].

    PubMed

    Schmit, Gérard

    2005-05-31

    Family dynamics around the adolescent Adolescence modifies the family dynamics around the adolescent because adolescence comprises an unavoidable process of psychological separation between the subject and the parents of his childhood. On the adolescent side, the relations with his parents show a newer claim of recognition. On the parents' side, the mourning deals with several topics. The outcome of the crisis depends on the inner family control of anxiety and on the degree of differentiation of its members. Parents, grandparents and siblings have an important role to play in those transformations. PMID:16097251

  20. Adolescents and sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Yarber, W L; Parrillo, A V

    1992-09-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a serious health problem for adolescents, occurring in an estimated one-quarter of sexually active teen-agers. Many of the health problems--including STDs--result from specific risk-taking behaviors. Determinants of STD risks among adolescents include behavioral, psychological, social, biological, institutional factors. Education is an important component in STD control in adolescents. The goal of education is to increase adolescent self-efficiency in practicing STD prevention and risk-reduction. A comprehensive approach including quality, theory-based education, accessible and effective health clinics, and improved social and economic conditions has the most promise of controlling STDs in adolescents. PMID:1434562

  1. [Adolescence and sickle cell disease].

    PubMed

    Samperi, P; Schilirò, G

    2002-12-01

    Sickle cell disease adds relevant problems to the physical, emotional and social changes that normally occur during adolescence. Specific physical characteristics and complications of the disease can hinder the social and emotional adjustment of the affected teenagers. The cooperation between the physician and the parents is essential in order to assist the teenager to the difficulties of this critical phase of adolescence. Recommendations are best offered in the form of education of the adolescent about the disease, education of the family and the school about the needs of the adolescent, and the preparation of the adolescent for the transition to the adult life and adult medical care.

  2. Physical Activity, Physical Self-Concept, and Health-Related Quality of Life of Extreme Early and Late Maturing Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Sean P.; Sherar, Lauren B.; Smart, Joanna E. Hunter; Rodrigues, Aristides M. M.; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B.; Malina, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we tested for differences in physical activity (PA), physical self-concept, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between the least and most biologically mature adolescent females within their respective chronological and academic year groups. A total of 222 British female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years (X[bar] age = 12.7…

  3. Improving adolescent maternal health.

    PubMed

    Baxter, C; Moodley, D

    2015-11-01

    Each year thousands of adolescent girls and young women in South Africa (SA) become pregnant and many die from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. Although women of all ages are susceptible, girls<15 years of age are five times as likely, and those aged 15-19 years twice as likely, to die from complications related to childbirth than women in their 20s. In SA, non-pregnancy-related infections (e.g. HIV), obstetric haemorrhage and hypertension contributed to almost 70% of avoidable maternal deaths. In addition to the implementation of standardized preventive interventions to reduce obstetric haemorrhage and hypertension, better reproductive health services for adolescents, access to HIV care and treatment for women infected with HIV, and improved access to and uptake of long-acting reversible contraception are important ingredients for reducing maternal mortality among adolescents. PMID:26937508

  4. Promoting adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kristina Berg

    2007-10-01

    The aim is to discuss why paediatricians should be involved in adolescent health care and provide youth-friendly-health-services. Global epidemiological data on morbidity and mortality demonstrate that much of ill health in the short and long run are connected to adolescent behaviour and in theory available for prevention. Young people seemingly lose their heads and do not consider dangers. Recent research on brain development provides us with an understanding how this may have a biological base. Also psychology has long taught us how adolescents use experimental behaviours as means to satisfy developmental needs and explore identity. Prevention and health promotion are areas of research where much more needs to be done. There is also a lack of venues for publishing even excellent studies in this field.

  5. Adolescent women and obesity.

    PubMed

    In-Iw, Supinya; Biro, Frank M

    2011-04-01

    The proportion of child and adolescent obesity in the United States has dramatically increased over the past few decades, challenging public health strategies and medical needs of the individual. The medical consequences of obesity include metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. There is no definite diagnostic criterion of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents; commonly noted features are central adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. To prevent negative health outcomes and early recognition for those at risk for overweight and obesity, healthcare providers should screen BMI in children and adolescents at least annually, as well as provide anticipatory guidance to all families during health maintenance visit. This review will address the epidemiology and consequences of obesity in children and adults, and issues for health care providers and public health officials to consider. These issues include increasing physical activity, decreasing sedentary activities, and promoting healthy eating behaviors.

  6. Counseling the pregnant adolescent.

    PubMed

    Dibiasi, V; Sturgis, S H

    1980-07-01

    Approaches employed in counseling pregnant adolescents at the Crittenton Clinic in Boston are described. Concentrating on concrete issues of management of the pregnancy -- supplying information and exploring the pros and cons of various alternatives are advocated; probing into the psychological and emotional background of the pregnant adolescent is discouraged. Counseling about contraceptives and taking into account each individual situation are considered essential. Case studies are reviewed and figures representing the attitudes and contraceptive use of patients 1 year after abortion are presented. It is considered important to establish a trusting relationship with the adolescent, which will increase the likelihood that she will return for follow-up and additional help if she needs it. PMID:12314921

  7. Targeting the adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Pitt, E

    1986-01-01

    The National Urban League regards too early parenting among adolescents as an issue requiring high level, active attention from all segments of the Black community. Poverty, single parent households and adolescent pregnancies are not exclusively female problems. The role that males play has been missing from too many studies of these phenomena. In light of the fact that most sexual activity is male initiated, and most sexual behavior is male influenced, it becomes clear that there will be no resolution of the problem of teenage pregnancy without directing greater attention to the male. The issue of male responsibility is skirted too often due to parental pride on the part of mothers and fathers when their male children seek sexual relations with female partners. It is viewed as a sign that they are developing sexually within the norm. This is especially true, in many instances, in female headed households where the mother is concerned that she may not be providing her son with an adequate male role model. Sexual activity by female adolescents, however, is generally not condoned. This confusing double standard is further compounded by the disjointed fashion in which American society responds to adolescent sexuality on the whole. Although the home should be the focal point, many parents reluctantly admit an inability to communicate effectively about sex with their pre-adolescent children. Thus, the school, church, community and social agencies have all been enlisted in this task. The National Urban League's initiative in this area is expected to have significant impact on the course of adolescent sexuality and reproductive responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  9. Tattoos: counseling the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, D F; Parks, D

    2001-01-01

    In Western society, approximately 3% to 5% of the population has at least one decorative tattoo, and the number of new tattoos has increased dramatically over the last decade. Tattooing is becoming increasingly popular among adolescents. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) are in key positions to counsel preadolescents and adolescents about tattoos. PNPs should be knowledgeable about the care, potential adverse reactions, risks of blood-borne diseases, and removal of tattoos. PNPs should also have an understanding of who gets tattoos, why they get tattoos, and what type of regulations exist related to tattooing in the United States. PMID:11174653

  10. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  11. Television and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S

    1990-01-01

    Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored.

  12. [Depressive syndromes in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Branik, E

    1990-04-01

    First the difficulties with the concept of depression, its definition and with the classification and heterogeneity of the depressive syndromes are pointed out. The particular clinical importance of depressive states, especially of adolescents, is shown by means of epidemiological data. A case report illustrates the classification problems and a part of the typical conflicts and psychic demands in adolescence. Then follows a short survey on the conception of depressive states in psychoanalysis, with special reference to this age group. The evaluation of the given studies calls for interdisciplinary research, in order to tackle the still unsolved questions concerning depressive conditions and to improve the coordination of separate findings. PMID:2352911

  13. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  14. Adolescent varicocoele management controversies.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, E C; Saitz, T R; La Nasa, J A; Hellstrom, W J

    2013-01-01

    Varicocoele is defined as excessive dilatation of the pampiniform venous plexus of the spermatic cord. Varicocoele frequently appears during early puberty and is recognized to be the most common surgically correctable cause of male infertility. However, the actual incidence in adolescents, pathophysiology and the association with male factor infertility all remain somewhat controversial. The most accurate diagnostic technique for identifying young men who will benefit from surgical treatment has yet to be established. Observations of testicular asymmetry and deteriorating semen quality helped establish current guidelines and recommendations for surgical treatment. Further studies, comparing observation with surgical intervention, are needed to refine the current indications for varicocoele repair in the adolescent male. PMID:23258638

  15. Probable hepatic capillariosis and hydatidosis in an adolescent from the late Roman period buried in Amiens (France)

    PubMed Central

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Kacki, Sacha; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Mobedi, Iraj; Makki, Mahsasadat; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2014-01-01

    Two calcified objects recovered from a 3rd to 4th-century grave of an adolescent in Amiens (Northern France) were identified as probable hydatid cysts. By using thin-section petrographic techniques, probable Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) eggs were identified in the wall of the cysts. Human hepatic capillariosis has not been reported from archaeological material so far, but could be expected given the poor level of environmental hygiene prevalent in this period. Identification of tissue-dwelling parasites such as C. hepaticum in archaeological remains is particularly dependent on preservation conditions and taphonomic changes and should be interpreted with caution due to morphological similarities with Trichuris sp. eggs. PMID:24572211

  16. Some considerations arising from the treatment of a patient with necrophilic fantasies in late adolescence and young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Baker, R

    1984-01-01

    Some psychoanalytic theories relating to necrophilia are reviewed, supplemented by other relevant theoretical abstracts. A psychoanalytic case of a young man with necrophilic fantasies is described, emphasizing separation anxiety, sadism and anal masturbation, all compellingly manifest in the transference and rooted in infantile trauma. The material is compared with that of other analysts working with similar pathology, then discussed in relation to perversions generally. Finally, it is argued that if the prognosis depends on whether core fantasies are amenable to analysis in the transference, then there may be therapeutic justification for keeping adolescence open by blocking the developmental move forward, on the grounds that these fantasies would quickly be rendered inaccessible under the normal repressive processes of young adulthood.

  17. Pathways to self-esteem in late adolescence: the role of parent and peer attachment, empathy, and social behaviours.

    PubMed

    Laible, Deborah J; Carlo, Gustavo; Roesch, Scott C

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine both the direct and indirect relations of parent and peer attachment with self-esteem and to examine the potential mediating roles of empathy and social behaviour. 246 college students (M age = 18.6 years, S.D. = 1.61) completed self-report measures of parent and peer attachment, empathy, social behaviour, and self-esteem. Structural equation modelling revealed that parental attachment had mostly direct effects on self-esteem. Among females, the links between peer attachment and self-esteem, however, were entirely mediated by empathy and prosocial behaviour. The findings from this study suggest that although close supportive relationships with parents and peers are related to adolescent self-esteem, these links are complex.

  18. Probable hepatic capillariosis and hydatidosis in an adolescent from the late Roman period buried in Amiens (France).

    PubMed

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Kacki, Sacha; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Mobedi, Iraj; Makki, Mahsasadat; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2014-01-01

    Two calcified objects recovered from a 3rd to 4th-century grave of an adolescent in Amiens (Northern France) were identified as probable hydatid cysts. By using thin-section petrographic techniques, probable Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) eggs were identified in the wall of the cysts. Human hepatic capillariosis has not been reported from archaeological material so far, but could be expected given the poor level of environmental hygiene prevalent in this period. Identification of tissue-dwelling parasites such as C. hepaticum in archaeological remains is particularly dependent on preservation conditions and taphonomic changes and should be interpreted with caution due to morphological similarities with Trichuris sp. eggs. PMID:24572211

  19. [Irritable bowel syndrome in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Shimada, A; Takano, M

    1992-11-01

    We studied seventy patients, 23 males and 47 females with irritable bowel syndrome in adolescence aged 13-19 yrs, who visited the department of psychosomatic medicine in Takano Hospital during about six year period of April, 1986-July, 1992. Takano Hospital is a coloproctological center in Kumamoto. In the clinical pattern of adolescent patients with irritable bowel syndrome the "gas" pattern was dominant (51.4%). Patients with the gas pattern have severe symptoms of flatus, fullness, rumbling sound and abdominal pain as well as bowel dysfunction, constipation and diarrhea in a classroom. Next, the diarrheal pattern occurred in 20.0%. Diarrheal patients complained of frequent bowel movements and retention feelings before attending school. Recurrent abdominal pain-like pattern was found in 7.1% patients. Clinical symptoms in the adolescent patients seem to derived from a mental tension and stress in a close classroom or before attending school. Many adolescenct patients (67.1%) with irritable bowel syndrome are embarrassed in school-maladjustment; leaving class early, late coming, a long absence, and a withdrawal. PMID:1363122

  20. Genetics Home Reference: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions adolescent idiopathic scoliosis adolescent idiopathic scoliosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the ...

  1. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Adolescent Patients Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients Basics Overview Eosinophilic esophagitis also known as ( ... children may have vomiting and abdominal pain, and adolescents may complain of the feeling of food getting ...

  2. Do Family and Parenting Factors in Adolescence Influence Condom Use in Early Adulthood in a Multiethnic Sample of Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A.; Kopak, Albert M.; Robillard, Alyssa G.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that positive family factors help protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual activities, but do they continue to protect adolescents as they transition to late adolescence/early adulthood? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined whether family support, parent-child closeness, parental…

  3. Adolescents' Demonstrative Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfilova, Gulfiya G.; Karimova, Lilia Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of demonstrative behavior is very topical among teenagers and this issue has become the subject of systematic scientific research. Demonstrative manifestations in adolescents disrupt the favorable socialization; therefore, understanding, prevention and correction of demonstrative behavior at this age is relevant and requires special…

  4. Adolescent Sociopaths. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, Eliot D.

    Presented is the final report of a research project on the programed training and placement of nonpsychotic disturbed adolescents. Eleven chapters cover topics which include the following: psychiatry and the sociopaths and psychopaths; boys dealt with in the project; development of the programed interaction diagnostic interview; disturbances to…

  5. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  6. Adolescent Russian roulette deaths.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kim A

    2010-03-01

    Adolescence, between the ages of 10 and 19 years, is a unique period both physically and emotionally. During this time of life, individuals are known to experiment and engage in risky behavior, sometimes with unforeseen morbidity and mortality. We also see suicide emerge as a manner of death in this age group. The most common method is gunshot wound and sometimes in the form of Russian roulette. Few studies have looked at deaths by Russian roulette, the victims, and scenarios. In particular, no study examines the adolescent victim of Russian roulette. To better understand and classify this entity, adolescent Russian roulette autopsy cases over a 20-year period were examined looking at the victims, scenarios, autopsy findings, cause and manner of death, and the weapons. All victims were males, ages 13 to 19 years, with a Black-to-White ratio of 1:1. No victim had a previous psychiatric history. Toxicology was positive for alcohol and/or marijuana in 50% of the victims. Friends were present when the victim shot himself which occurred in the home the majority of the time. In all but 1 case, premeditation of the game was involved as the victim provided the weapon for the roulette. The cause of death was gunshot wound to the head (6 to the right side, 1 to the mouth, 1 to the forehead), and the manner of death was suicide in 6 cases and accident in 2 cases. A review of the literature discusses the adolescent victim, suicide, and Russian roulette.

  7. Wolof Adolescents' Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewiele, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Wolof tribe adolescents were asked about their dreams and the importance they attached to their dreams. Thirty-one percent believed in dreams' predictive power; girls recalled dreams more often and had more realistic dreams than boys; and dreams about academic achievement were considered most important. (Author/DB)

  8. Posttraumatic Growth among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milam, Joel E.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined posttraumatic growth (PTG), the construing of benefits from a traumatic event, in a sample of 435 mostly Hispanic adolescents who experienced a major life event within the previous 3 years. Levels of PTG did not differ between experienced negative life events. The relationship between PTG and sociodemographics, substance use,…

  9. Moral Development in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…

  10. Adolescent menstrual irregularity.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, M J; Emans, S J

    1984-06-01

    Amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in the adolescent female are often the result of anovulation due to an immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. A careful history, physical examination and selected laboratory tests can help to differentiate this type of transient menstrual irregularity from the large number of endocrine and anatomic abnormalities that also present in this age group.

  11. Controlling Adolescent Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, Hyman

    1985-01-01

    Public concern over adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior is increasing. One recommended policy response is for states to pass legislation giving minors the right to consent to reproductive health services. Such services are likely to benefit individuals, families, and society. (KH)

  12. Adolescent Program for Stutterers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepp, Daniel S.; Kiernan, Bonnie M.

    Written for speech-language clinicians in the school setting, the manual describes therapy techniques used in the Keystone Adolescent Program for Stutterers (KAPS). KAPS emphasizes the Airflow Technique, a self-regulatory approach consisting of two parts: (1) a quiet breathing in and out allowing the breath to flow out a distance before initiating…

  13. Nonpuerperal mastitis in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Tamar; Navratil, Francesca; Forster, Ishilde; Hürlimann, Renate; Sennhauser, Felix H

    2006-02-01

    Mastitis in non-lactating adolescents is rare and its cause unclear. This retrospective study summarizes 22 such episodes, in 3 of which Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. Serum prolactin levels were normal. Most patients were successfully treated with oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Three patients with bilateral breast cysts had a recurrence.

  14. Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKigney, John I,; Munro, Hamish N.

    It is important to understand the nutrient requirements and the significance of nutrition both in pubescence and adolescence. The pubescent growth spurt is characterized by an increase in body size and a change in proportion of different tissues. Both of these factors are of great nutritional importance, since there is reason to believe that the…

  15. Adolescents and Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Leo B.; Patrick, Helen

    1977-01-01

    Over 2,000 15-16 year old adolescents from central Scotland were surveyed to determine characteristics of high- vs. low-frequency television viewers. Personality characteristics, attitudes toward school and sports, and socioeconomic status were related to viewing habits. Sex of the viewer was found to be related to choice of programs. (GDC)

  16. Popularity Contagion among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Peter E. L.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to support the theory of popularity contagion, which posits that popularity spreads among friends spontaneously and regardless of behavioral changes. Peer nominations of status and behavior were collected annually between 6th and 12th grades from a total of 1062 adolescents. Longitudinal hypotheses were mostly supported using path…

  17. Adolescent suicide: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sudak, H S; Ford, A B; Rushforth, N B

    1984-07-01

    Etiological theories of suicide are reviewed from epidemiological, individual (both biological and psychological), and psychosocial perspectives. Cohort and population-model approaches as explanations for the two- to three-fold increase in completed suicide rates observed in adolescents and young adults over the past 25 years are presented. The results of the authors' study of suicides in adolescents and young adults in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, to test these hypotheses are summarized. This study revealed marked cohort differences in suicide rates and provided partial support for the "population-model" approach. Differences between suicide rates in adolescents and other age groups are discussed, as are data from some minority groups. The role of depression in adolescents and various studies of diagnostic approaches (e.g., structured diagnostic assessments, biological markers, clues during intensive psychotherapy or psychoanalysis, studies of high-risk diagnostic groups) are reviewed. Lastly, treatment employing individual, family, and group approaches to classical psychoanalytic or cognitive psychotherapy as well as the role of pharmacological treatments are considered. PMID:6385734

  18. Brief Interventions for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C

    2016-01-01

    Public health concerns regarding adolescent alcohol and other drug involvement emphasize the need for continuing research to develop and evaluate preventive interventions for use in a variety of settings. This focus includes research on brief interventions. This short commentary piece provides an overview of the brief intervention literature and highlights future directions PMID:27182561

  19. Maryland Adolescent Survey, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Compensatory Education and Support Services.

    This report details the latest findings from the biennial Maryland Adolescent Survey of the extent and trends in alcohol, tobacco, and drug use among students. To permit comparisons with national findings and trends, the form and content of survey items parallel those of the annual national study "Monitoring the Future," conducted by the…

  20. Adolescent Gynecologic Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Yen, Sophia; Goyal, Monika K; Hillard, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent females frequently present to the ED with complaints that may be caused by a gynecologic emergency. Differentiating and excluding some of the common and most serious gynecologic emergencies reviewed in this article are critical. Timely and effective treatment of these conditions, once diagnosed, can result in better health outcomes.

  1. Governing Adolescent Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen, Margaretha; Ostergaard, Jeanette

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the drinking habits of Danish adolescents and the upbringing ideals and alcohol rules of their parents. It is based on three different data sets: a survey of 2,000 Danish young people born in 1989, a survey with the parents of these young people, and two waves of focus group interviews (in all 28)…

  2. Adolescence Intellectual Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia B.

    The purposes of this study were to investigate adolescent intellectual decline, and to attempt to determine some of the sexual differences possibly inherent in the phenomenon. It was hypothesized that (1) girls would decline in greater numbers and to a greater degree than boys; and (2) areas and amounts of sex differences of the decliners would…

  3. [Self care in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de la Parra, S; Carbelo Baquero, B

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to offer an analysis on the adolescence as stage of the life with some specific characteristics due to the transformations that happen so much at biological level as cognitive and psychosocial. During this period, the adolescent develops their autonomy and by so much starts their independence of the parents, some and other will experience situations that them will make be felt insecure in their/its performances until each one assume their new paper in the familiar environment and before itself. Parents and adolescent can need support and advice to obtain that this stage, in conflicting occasions, is developed normally, so that the adolescent become a capable adult about caring whether same and about others, with a life style that favor the integrated operation and the continued development. The family nurse can lend them the support and advice that need, since occupies a privileged place in the health equipment to guarantee the continuity of the assistance to the familiar group from the birth until the maturity. Basing us on the theory of the self-care developed by D. Orem, we will check the specific requirements of self-care of this stage of the vital cycle, of great transcendency for the step to the adult age. PMID:10514786

  4. Adolescence and Formal Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasi, A.; Hoeffel, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between the development of formal operations and the development of the adolescent personality, as hypothesized by Inhelder and Piaget. It is suggested that the concepts of possibility and reflectivity have a variety of meanings, and that once these meanings are examined, the logical foundation for the…

  5. Adolescence: Season of Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philibert, Paul J.

    1982-01-01

    Delineates Sigmund Freud's theories of symbolic relations, Jean Piaget's theories of cognitive development, and Eric Erickson's concept of identity crisis to analyze and explain the characteristics and phenomena of adolescent development. Suggests roles and tasks for teachers and parents in promoting healthy development. (WL)

  6. Psychopathological Development across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Daniel Offer's seminal writings in the 1960s led to a realization that normal adolescence was not characterized by turmoil and upheaval, the then prevailing view that derived from studies of clinical samples. In this paper, the research findings that have appeared over the last four decades are reviewed with respect to the overall features of…

  7. The adolescent hymen.

    PubMed

    Edgardh, Karin; Ormstad, Kari

    2002-09-01

    The genital examination is not a routine part of health maintenance assessment in prepubertal and pubertal girls. However, evaluation of minors for suspected sexual abuse has been addressed extensively in the last two decades. In spite of this, normal anatomic variations and developmental changes are not fully investigated. This paper reviews current knowledge about the hymen, with a focus on puberty and adolescence. More is known about the external genitals of prepubertal children than of adolescent girls. No longitudinal studies have been performed among girls older than age 3. Tanner staging does not include detailed genital development. A variety of terms have been used to describe the configuration and/or distortion of the hymen: attenuation, clefts, tears and transections, bumps and notches. No studies have been published on the normal variations of the width of the hymenal rim, although an attenuated and/or narrow rim is categorized as consistent with penetrative sexual abuse according to an international consensus statement. Critiques of the literature on the hymen have been published by experts on forensic medicine, emphasizing the fact that the normal hymenal appearance in adolescents still is not well documented. Few studies on hymenal configuration in nonabused adolescent girls have been performed, including girls with and without experience of consensual vaginal intercourse and use of tampons. Longitudinal investigations are required for a better knowledge of female genital development during puberty, with a special focus on vulvar and hymenal anatomy. PMID:12380450

  8. Sexual Behavior of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hilmar

    1978-01-01

    Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)

  9. The Emotionally Sensitive Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Lehtonen, Kimmo

    This paper provides a list of signs, symptoms, and indicators of emotionally sensitive adolescents includes clinging behavior, withdrawn behavior, shy/inhibited behavior, represses anger, poor reaction to criticism, makes self-disparaging statements, low self-esteem, "can't forgive self or others," ruined by a small critical comment, exploding…

  10. Gender dysphoria in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, Scott; de Vries, Annelou L C

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents presenting with gender-related concerns are increasingly seeking support from providers from a variety of disciplines within health care settings across the world. For those treating young people who meet the criteria for the DSM 5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria (GD), complex decisions in clinical care are common. Defining best practice with this population with respect to interventions that span mental health, physical, and surgical domains can be challenging, given a relative dearth of empirical data available; yet practice guidelines have emerged from different professional organizations which can aid with this. For this review paper, a broad literature search was performed to identify relevant studies pertaining to the care of adolescents with GD. In addition, an overview of trends in clinical practice, including shifts in conceptualization of how clinicians and patients define care that is considered affirming when working with this population, is described. This paper explores the characteristics of referral patterns to specialized clinics, provides a brief overview of gender identity development in adolescence, and then describes the phenomenology of known aetiological factors and co-occurring psychiatric issues in adolescents with GD. Additionally, clinical management considerations that detail assessment aims and common treatment interventions across disciplines will be explored. PMID:26828376

  11. Adolescents and Graffiti.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Koon-Hwee

    2001-01-01

    Describes the different types of graffiti: (1) private forms of graffiti (doodling and latrinalia); and (2 public forms (gang graffiti, tags, and pieces). Uses teenage psychology to interpret adolescents' involvement in graffiti. Examines graffiti art in relation to its educational implications for secondary art education. (CMK)

  12. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  13. Shaping Adolescent Gambling Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcuri, Alan F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed the incidence of casino gambling by adolescents. Results indicated that 64 percent of the students at one Atlantic City high school had gambled at the casinos. The dangers of shaping compulsive gambling behavior through societal acceptance of legalized gambling are discussed. (Author/BL)

  14. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  15. Abortion among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  16. Psychotherapy with native adolescents.

    PubMed

    Katz, P

    1981-11-01

    Psychotherapy with native adolescents requires that the therapist learn about a different set of values, develop new communication skills, and re-examine many of his practices. Varying with the individual tribe, the attitudes to time, property and anger may be significantly different from the values of the white culture. Many of the Indian adolescents rely heavily on non-verbal communication, requiring an increased sensitivity by the therapist to this form of communication. The therapist may need to review his office setting, with an eye to making it less alien, and because of the different attitude to time, he may have to adjust the time structure of his practice, often using more than the fifty-minute hour. Treatment begins with an exploration of Indian-White difficulties, especially the stereotyping of all whites. It then focuses on helping the adolescents to establish their own individual identity, bucking the stereotypes that are projected on them. Examples are given from the author's own practice with Cree and Saulteaux-Ojibway adolescents.

  17. Reading, Writing, and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Noting that most junior high level curricula do not take into account students' rapid mental and physical changes, the articles in this focused journal issue recommend works and teaching strategies that harmonize with these student needs. The titles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Adolescent Development and the Growth of Writing Abilities"…

  18. Personality and adolescent pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the relationship between personality, pregnancy and birth outcomes in adolescents Background Personality has been shown to be a strong predictor of many health outcomes. Adolescents who become pregnant have worse birth outcomes than adults. Design Cross-sectional study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (baseline, 1994-1995; follow-up, 2007-2008). Methods The study sample was 6529 girls, 820 of whom reported on pregnancy outcomes for a teenage birth. Personality data was taken from the Mini International Personality Item Pool personality tool, which measures the five-factor personality traits of neuroticism, conscientiousness, intellect/imagination, extraversion and agreeableness. Logistic regression was used to predict teen pregnancy and linear regression was used to predict birth weight and gestational age with adjustment for confounders and stratification by race. Results Agreeableness and intellect/imagination were associated with a reduced likelihood of becoming pregnant as an adolescent, while neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion were all associated with an increased likelihood of becoming pregnant. Higher neuroticism was associated with lower birth weight and gestational age among Black girls, but not non-Black. Conscientiousness was associated with lower gestational age among non-Black girls. No relationships were found with extraversion or agreeableness and birth outcomes. Receiving late or no prenatal care was associated with higher intellect/imagination. Conclusions Personality is understudied with respect to pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with other health outcomes. Such research could help professionals and clinicians design and target programs that best fit the characteristics of the population most likely to need them, such as those with high neuroticism. PMID:25040691

  19. [REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN PUBERTY, BORN WITH UNDERWEIGHT].

    PubMed

    Rusyn, L P; Malyar, V A; Malyar, V

    2014-12-01

    Deficiency birth weight adversely affects menstrual function. The menstruation in adolescent girls born with underweight begins late 2 to 6 months. Most of it is expressed in teenage girls who live in the region lack natural iodine. The dysmenorrhea occurs much more often in adolescent girls born with underweight, and it need of prevention and treatment measures.

  20. Dating and Disclosure: Adolescent Management of Information regarding Romantic Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddis, Christopher; Randolph, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary disclosure regarding romantic involvement was examined in a sample of 222 middle and late adolescents (124 female adolescents, M = 16.19 years). Disclosure was described with three empirically derived, conceptually meaningful composites that pertained to identity/choice of romantic partner, everyday expression of romantic relationship,…

  1. Coping Strategies among Adolescents: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olah, Attila

    1995-01-01

    Studied influence of culture on coping behavior of youngsters in anxiety-provoking situations. Applied a situation-reaction inventory to late adolescents (n=721) from India, Italy, Hungary, Sweden, and Yemen. Consistent results showed adolescents at low-medium anxiety levels employed constructive and assimilative coping and at high anxiety levels…

  2. Sharing the Past and Future among Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirai, Toshiaki; Higata, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how sharing past and future life events among late adolescents and their parents influenced the quality of their own time perspectives. Triads (N =104) of female students and their parents described three important life events from their past and future. The results showed that adolescents who shared past and future life events…

  3. Social Identity Change: Shifts in Social Identity during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A.; Halloran, Michael J.; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then…

  4. Keeping Secrets from Parents: Daily Variations among Poor, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Villalobos, Myriam; Rogge, Ronald D.; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Daily variations in secrecy with mothers and fathers were examined in 108 poor, urban, diverse middle adolescents (M = 15.16 years, SD = 0.89). Adolescents completed online diaries over 14 days assessing secrecy from parents about school, personal, and multifaceted activities (e.g., staying out late), and bad behavior. Three-level hierarchical…

  5. Australian Adolescents' Perceptions of Health-Related Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan M.; Rosenthal, Doreen A.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the perceptions of adolescents (n=189) of their risks and ascertains the relationship between risk perception and actual risky behavior in five areas: AIDS, STDs, serious car accidents, lung cancer, and skin cancer. Results indicated that although late-adolescent students underestimated risk behavior, they were able to make judgments…

  6. Development of the social brain in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2012-01-01

    The brain has evolved to understand and interact with other people. We are increasingly learning more about the neurophysiological basis of social cognition and what is known as the social brain, that is the network of brain regions involved in understanding others. This paper focuses on how the social brain develops during adolescence. Adolescence is a time characterized by change – hormonally, physically, psychologically and socially. Yet until recently this period of life was neglected by cognitive neuroscience. In the past decade, research has shown that the brain develops both structurally and functionally during adolescence. Large-scale structural MRI studies have demonstrated development during adolescence in white matter and grey matter volumes in regions within the social brain. Activity in some of these regions, as measured using fMRI, also shows changes between adolescence and adulthood during social cognition tasks. I will also present evidence that theory of mind usage is still developing late in adolescence. Finally, I will speculate on potential implications of this research for society. PMID:22434810

  7. Body Image Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cok, Figen

    1990-01-01

    Examined body image satisfaction in Turkish adolescents. Findings from 269 female and 286 male secondary school students revealed that males were more satisfied with their bodies than were females, early-maturing males and late-maturing females had higher levels of body image satisfaction, and participants in physical activities were more…

  8. Brief report: Physical health of adolescent perpetrators of sibling aggression.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar

    2015-12-01

    We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.

  9. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population.

  10. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population. PMID:27338965

  11. Adverse Life Events and Psychopathology and Prosocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Testing the Timing, Specificity, Accumulation, Gradient, and Moderation of Contextual Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the role of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The results show that risk accumulation matters instead of specificity and that the number of adverse life events is nonmultiplicative with psychopathology.

  12. General Reading on Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Center for Early Adolescence.

    This brief resource list of books and articles on early adolescent physical, social, and intellectual development mentions materials relating to psychology, religion, employment, and parent participation. (BJD)

  13. Family planning and adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ramiro Cartes; Roca, Carolina Gonzalez; Zamorano, Jorge Sandoval; Araya, Electra Gonzales

    2010-04-01

    High adolescent fecundity principally affects developing countries. In spite of a decrease in the incidence of pregnancies in the developing countries over the past 13 years, the differences that exist with respect to developed countries turn adolescent fecundity into an indicator of the level of development of countries. The impact of adolescent pregnancy is evident in maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, in addition to the age involved in precocious pregnancy, it also reflects previous conditions such as malnutrition, infectious diseases and deficiencies in the health care given to pregnant adolescents. The most important impact lies in the psychosocial area: it contributes to a loss of self-esteem, a destruction of life projects and the maintenance of the circle of poverty. This affects both adolescent mothers and fathers; the latter have been studied very little. Intervention with comprehensive health services and the maintenance of the education of adolescent mothers and fathers prevents repeat pregnancies. Evidence shows success in the prevention of the first pregnancy when the intervention includes comprehensive sexual education, the existence of preferential sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents, the handout of modern contraceptives gauged to the adolescence stage of the subjects and the existence of an information network. There is little research in contraception for adolescents, and for this reason, the indications given are projections of data obtained from adults. PMID:20167542

  14. Initiation into Adolescent Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship of three domains (personality/attitudinal orientations, peer relationships, and family socialization factors) with initiation into adolescent marihuana use. (Author/DB)

  15. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Deborah A

    2003-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder among reproductive-age women, yet the diagnosis may be overlooked during adolescence. Although the clinical and metabolic features are similar to those found in adult women, it can be difficult to distinguish the young woman with PCOS from a normal adolescent. Irregular menses, anovulatory cycles, and acne are not uncommon in adolescent women. Adolescents with a history of premature pubarche, a family history of PCOS, Caribbean-Hispanic and African-American ancestry, and/or obesity are at risk for PCOS and deserve close surveillance. The laboratory evaluation of the adolescent with suspected PCOS or hyperandrogenism should be individualized based on the history, symptoms, and examination findings. The cornerstone of management of PCOS in adolescence includes either a combination oral contraceptive or progestin. Consideration of insulin-sensitizing agents, antiandrogens, topical treatments for acne, and various treatments for hair removal are dependent on the patient's symptoms and concerns. Healthy eating, regular exercise, and for the overweight adolescent, weight reduction, are encouraged to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies have shown that weight loss and exercise decrease androgen levels, improve insulin sensitivity, and lead to the resumption of ovulation. Although initial studies suggest that Metformin may be particularly useful for treating the PCOS adolescent with insulin resistance and obesity, additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy and long-term outcome. Management of the adolescent with PCOS is challenging and requires a supportive, multidisciplinary team approach for optimal results.

  16. Update on Adolescent Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Desai, Nirav K; Wulkan, Mark L; Inge, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    Childhood obesity remains a significant public health issue. Approximately 8% of adolescent girls and 7% of adolescent boys have severe (≥class 2) obesity. Adolescent severe obesity is associated with numerous comorbidities, and persists into adulthood. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment available, resulting in major weight loss and resolution of important comorbid conditions. Clinical practice guidelines for pediatric obesity treatment recommend consideration of surgery after failure of behavioral approaches. Careful screening and postoperative management of patients by a multidisciplinary team is required. Long-term studies are needed to assess the impact of adolescent bariatric surgery. PMID:27519138

  17. The wider social environment and changes in self-reported quality of life in the transition from late childhood to early adolescence: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Drukker, Marjan; Kaplan, Charles; Schneiders, Josien; Feron, Frans JM; van Os, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Background Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and social capital have been associated with adolescent well-being, but the majority of studies were cross-sectional, and the time window over which the neighbourhood may impact on development is unknown. Therefore, the contribution of the neighbourhood environment to adolescents' quality of life and the course of these effects during the period of transition from childhood to early adolescence was examined. Methods A cohort of adolescents living in Maastricht (The Netherlands), with a mean age of 11.2 years at baseline and of 13.5 years at follow-up was followed. Adolescents who responded both at baseline and at follow-up were included in the analysis (n = 475). Multilevel regression analyses estimated neighbourhood effects while controlling for individual-level effects. Neighbourhood-level socioeconomic and social capital variables, individual-level confounders, and baseline values of the outcome measures were included in the models. Results None of the neighbourhood factors was associated with changes in general health or mental health over the two-year period. However, two-year exposure to greater disparity between individual level socioeconomic status on the one hand and neighbourhood level of socioeconomic status on the other (e.g. high socioeconomic status adolescents living in deprived neighbourhoods and vice versa) negatively impacted on self-esteem and satisfaction. Conclusion The neighbourhood environment per se does not contribute to change in quality of life during the transition to early adolescence. However, adolescents living in families whose socioeconomic status deviates from the mean level of neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation may be negatively affected. PMID:16707015

  18. Long-term effects of a universal family intervention: mediation through parent-adolescent conflict.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Michaeline R; Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Dumka, Larry E; Millsap, Roger; Coxe, Stefany

    2014-01-01

    This randomized trial of a family-focused preventive intervention for Mexican American middle schoolers examined internalizing, externalizing, and substance use outcomes in late adolescence, 5 years after completing the intervention. Parent-adolescent conflict was tested as a mediator of these effects. The role of parent and adolescent acculturation in these pathways was also examined. There were 494 seventh-grade adolescents and their primary female caregivers randomized to receive either a 9-week multicomponent intervention or a brief workshop control group. Assessments were conducted at pretest, 2-year follow-up (9th grade), and 5-year follow-up (when most participants were in the 12th grade). The Bridges program significantly reduced mother-adolescent conflict measured in the 9th grade, with conflict mediating program effects on internalizing and externalizing symptoms, adolescent substance use, and diagnosed internalizing disorder in late adolescence. Mother and child acculturation were both significantly predictive of late adolescence outcomes. Contrary to hypotheses, neither mother nor child acculturation emerged as a significant predictor of mother-adolescent conflict, and the interaction of mother and adolescent acculturation was similarly not related to mother-adolescent conflict. Intervention effects were largely consistent across different levels of acculturation. These findings provide support for the efficacy of family-focused intervention during early adolescence, both in reducing mental health problems and substance use in the long term and in impacting parent-adolescent conflict processes that appear to play an important role in the development of later adjustment problems. PMID:24730357

  19. The Predictive Influence of Family and Neighborhood Assets on Fighting and Weapon Carrying from Mid- to Late-Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Haegerich, Tamara M.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Tolma, Eleni L.

    2015-01-01

    Using a developmental, social-ecological approach to understand the etiology of health risk behavior and inform primary prevention efforts, we assess the predictive effects of family and neighborhood social processes on youth physical fighting and weapon carrying. Specifically, we focus on relationships among youth and their parents, family communication, and parental monitoring, as well as sense of community and neighborhood informal social control, support, concerns, and disorder. This study advances knowledge through its investigation of family and neighborhood structural factors and social processes together, employment of longitudinal models that estimate effects over adolescent development, and use of self-report and observational measures. Data from 1,093 youth/parent pairs were analyzed from the Youth Assets Study using a Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) approach; family and neighborhood assets and risks were analyzed as time-varying and lagged. Similar family assets affected physical fighting and weapon carrying, whereas different neighborhood social processes influenced the two forms of youth violence. Study findings have implications for the primary prevention of youth violence, including the use of family-based approaches that build relationships and parental monitoring skills, and community-level change approaches that promote informal social control and reduce neighborhood concerns about safety. PMID:23677457

  20. Variation in functional connectivity along anterior-to-posterior intraparietal sulcus, and relationship with age across late childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Vinette, Sarah A; Bray, Signe

    2015-06-01

    The intraparietal sulcus (IPS), a region in the dorsal attention network (DAN), has been implicated in multi-sensory attention and working memory. Working memory and attention develop across childhood; changes in functional connectivity within the DAN may relate to this maturation. Previous findings regarding fronto-parietal intrinsic functional connectivity age-effects were mixed. Our study aimed to circumvent limitations of previous work using a large cross-sectional sample, 183 typically developing participants 6.5-20 years, from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange, and seed regions along the anterior-to-posterior axis of the IPS. These seeds, IPS0-4, were entered into functional connectivity models. Group-level models investigated differential connectivity along the IPS and relationships with age. Anterior IPS3/4 exhibited greater connectivity with sensorimotor/pre-motor regions. Posterior IPS0/1 demonstrated greater connectivity with dorsal and ventral visual regions. Positive age-effects were found between IPS3-4 and visual regions. Negative age-effects were found between IPS and superior parietal and medial orbitofrontal cortices. Follow-up region of interest analyses were used to estimate age-effects for DAN and anticorrelated default mode network regions. Results suggest age-effects on IPS functional connectivity are relatively modest, and may differ pre- and across-adolescence. Studying typical age-related connectivity variability within this network may help to understand neurodevelopmental disorders marked by impaired attention. PMID:25951196

  1. The predictive influence of family and neighborhood assets on fighting and weapon carrying from mid- to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K; Aspy, Cheryl B; Tolma, Eleni L

    2014-08-01

    Using a developmental, social-ecological approach to understand the etiology of health-risk behavior and inform primary prevention efforts, we assess the predictive effects of family and neighborhood social processes on youth physical fighting and weapon carrying. Specifically, we focus on relationships among youth and their parents, family communication, parental monitoring, as well as sense of community and neighborhood informal social control, support, concerns, and disorder. This study advances knowledge through its investigation of family and neighborhood structural factors and social processes together, employment of longitudinal models that estimate effects over adolescent development, and use of self-report and observational measures. Data from 1,093 youth/parent pairs were analyzed from the Youth Assets Study using a Generalized Estimating Equation approach; family and neighborhood assets and risks were analyzed as time varying and lagged. Similar family assets affected physical fighting and weapon carrying, whereas different neighborhood social processes influenced the two forms of youth violence. Study findings have implications for the primary prevention of youth violence, including the use of family-based approaches that build relationships and parental monitoring skills and community-level change approaches that promote informal social control and reduce neighborhood concerns about safety.

  2. Romantic Relationship Experiences from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Role of Older Siblings in Mexican-Origin Families.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Killoren, Sarah E; Whiteman, Shawn D; Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2016-05-01

    Youth's experiences with romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood have far reaching implications for future relationships, health, and well-being; yet, although scholars have examined potential peer and parent influences, we know little about the role of siblings in youth's romantic relationships. Accordingly, this study examined the prospective longitudinal links between Mexican-origin older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences and variation by sibling structural and relationship characteristics (i.e., sibling age and gender similarity, younger siblings' modeling) and cultural values (i.e., younger siblings' familism values). Data from 246 Mexican-origin families with older (M = 20.65 years; SD = 1.57; 50 % female) and younger (M = 17.72 years; SD = .57; 51 % female) siblings were used to examine the likelihood of younger siblings' involvement in dating relationships, sexual relations, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage with probit path analyses. Findings revealed older siblings' reports of involvement in a dating relationship, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage predicted younger siblings' relationship experiences over a 2-year period. These links were moderated by sibling age spacing, younger siblings' reports of modeling and familism values. Our findings suggest the significance of social learning dynamics as well as relational and cultural contexts in understanding the links between older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences among Mexican-origin youth.

  3. Adolescent drinking, social identity, and parenting for safety: Perspectives from Australian adolescents and parents.

    PubMed

    Berends, Lynda; Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly

    2016-03-01

    We explored young people and parents' views on adolescent drinking and safety in the locations where drinking may occur. Focus groups with adolescents and parents showed that many believed adolescent drinking and drunkenness is normative. Younger adolescents had more negative views of adolescent drinkers than their older peers. Adolescent drinking occurred in private settings and parents made decisions about allowing their adolescent children to attend social events based on the level of safety attributed to the location. If adolescent drinking was likely then home was the preferred location as it provided scope for risk minimisation. Positive portrayals of non-drinking adolescents and information to assist parents' decision-making are needed.

  4. Social identity change: shifts in social identity during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A; Halloran, Michael J; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then measured the effect of the prime on self-stereotyping and ingroup favouritism. The findings showed significant differences in social identity across adolescent groups, in that social identity effects were relatively strong in early- and late-adolescents, particularly when peer group identity rather than gender identity was salient. While these effects were consistent with the experience of change in educational social context, differences in cognitive style were only weakly related to ingroup favouritism. The implications of the findings for theory and future research on social identity during adolescence are discussed.

  5. Brief Report: British Adolescents' Views about the Rights of Asylum-Seeking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruck, Martin D.; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; Sines, Jennie

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined 60 (30 early-to-middle adolescents and 30 late adolescents) British adolescents' understanding of the rights of asylum-seeker children. Participants completed semi-structured interviews designed to assess judgments and evaluations of hypothetical asylum-seeker children's nurturance and self-determination rights in…

  6. Reliability and Validity of the Perception of Parental Reciprocity Scale (POPRS) with Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wintre, Maxine G.; Crowley, Jeannine

    The Perception of Parental Reciprocity Scale (POPRS) was originally developed with a late adolescent population to assess the extent of perceived reciprocity in adolescent-parent relations. This study examined the reliability and validity of using POPRS with younger adolescents. Subjects, 655 males and 636 females ranging in age from 13 to 18,…

  7. A Developmental Study of Social Self-Conceptions in Adolescence: Impressions and Misimpressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberger, Sharon, D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigates adolescents' perceptions of impressions held about them by important others, focusing on cross-sectional differences from early to late adolescence in the structure of social self-conceptions, on differences between parental and peer social self-conceptions and between individual and social self-conceptions, and on adolescents'…

  8. Social Skills and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence: Social Support as a Mediator in Girls versus Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Mathiesen, Kristin S.

    2013-01-01

    The current population-based study of Norwegian adolescents examined gender-specific patterns in the prospective association between social skills in early adolescence (age 12.5; n = 566) and changes in depressive symptoms from early to late adolescence (age 16.5; n = 375). Further, a potential mediation effect of social support (from peers,…

  9. Aplastic Anemia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    DeZern, Amy E.; Guinan, Eva C.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent and young adult patient presentations of aplastic anemia require a particular perspective on both diagnosis and treatment. This unique age group necessitates a thorough diagnostic evaluation to ensure the etiology, acquired or inherited, is sufficiently determined. The treatment options include human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling hematopoietic cell transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy, and both require attention to the specific medical and social needs of these adolescents and young adults. Longitudinal surveillance throughout life for the development of late complications of the disease and treatment is mandatory. PMID:25228559

  10. Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

  11. Adolescent-Mother Agreement about Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Direction and Predictors of Disagreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Erin T.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent problems are low in magnitude. In community samples adolescents tend to report "more" problems than parents and in clinical samples adolescents tend to report "fewer" problems than parents. Indices of agreement may be biased if some adolescents in a given sample report more problems…

  12. Role of the Father-Adolescent Relationship in Shaping Adolescents Attitudes toward Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risch, Sharon C.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Eccles, Jaquelynne S.

    2004-01-01

    The quality of father-adolescent relationships, especially for non-traditional fathers, has been neglected in investigating adolescents beliefs. Closeness of father-adolescent relationships was examined as a predictor of adolescents attitudes toward divorce. A sample of European and African American adolescents N=300 reported on the quality of…

  13. Adolescent Sexuality and Parent-Adolescent Processes: Promoting Healthy Teen Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Bartholomae, Suzanne; Zentall, Shannon R.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on trends in adolescent sexual health, the relation between parenting and adolescent sexual outcomes, and adolescent sexuality interventions. Discusses parenting efforts related to adolescent sexual behavior. Examines adolescent sexuality programs with a parent component. Review of 19 programs supports the incorporation of theory and the…

  14. Quality of Parent/Adolescent Attachment and Aggression in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Kevin J.; Paternite, Carl E.; Shore, Cecilia

    2001-01-01

    Examined association between adolescents' perception of parent-adolescent attachment quality and adolescent aggression, as mediated by social cognition and self-esteem. Found that higher social cognition was associated with lower self-reported aggression when parent-adolescent attachments and adolescent self-esteem were controlled. When…

  15. Is adolescent rebellion universal?

    PubMed

    Frankel, J; Dullaert, J

    1977-01-01

    Forty volunteer subjects were interviewed in an attempt to determine if indications of adolescent rebellion would be found across the range of disciplinary styles. An analysis of the taped interviews did not support the expectations. Twenty-five percent of the sample manifested high rebelliousness and none of these subjects came from low-control homes. Seveny-five percent of the sample showed little or no rebelliousness at all. Low rebelliousness was evently distributed across the spectrum of disciplinary styles. The twenty per-cent incidence of permissive homes was higher than other research indicated it might be. Authoritarian parents in this sample appeared to be less restricting than would have been expected. A wider range of adolescent behavior was accepted and fewer issues provoked conflict and rebellion as the parents appeared to be responding to a changing society.

  16. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jack C; Castelein, René M; Chu, Winnie C; Danielsson, Aina J; Dobbs, Matthew B; Grivas, Theodoros B; Gurnett, Christina A; Luk, Keith D; Moreau, Alain; Newton, Peter O; Stokes, Ian A; Weinstein, Stuart L; Burwell, R Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of structural spinal deformities that have a radiological lateral Cobb angle - a measure of spinal curvature - of ≥10(°). AIS affects between 1% and 4% of adolescents in the early stages of puberty and is more common in young women than in young men. The condition occurs in otherwise healthy individuals and currently has no recognizable cause. In the past few decades, considerable progress has been made towards understanding the clinical patterns and the three-dimensional pathoanatomy of AIS. Advances in biomechanics and technology and their clinical application, supported by limited evidence-based research, have led to improvements in the safety and outcomes of surgical and non-surgical treatments. However, the definite aetiology and aetiopathogenetic mechanisms that underlie AIS are still unclear. Thus, at present, both the prevention of AIS and the treatment of its direct underlying cause are not possible. PMID:27188385

  17. [Adolescence and disease].

    PubMed

    Blanco Picabia, A

    1990-01-01

    The difficulties of the combined analysis of two factors, as illness behaviour and adolescence are studying in our work. Most authors support the subjectivity and impression of this field of investigation. We consider some relevant aspects in adolescence and the effects of the illness situation on it. We concluded it's necessary to realize particular and individual analysis of this problem, because it's not possible to report a general conclusion. However, it's possible to realize some predictions about some conflict global areas of behaviour and personality. We analyze the trends of behaviour, adaptative or not, and the differential effects of the illness (chronic and acute). We review the effects of the life-events and the social support on the behaviour, and the relevancy of some particular and transitory aspects of the people on his behaviour. PMID:2075843

  18. Patterns of Parenting during Adolescence: Perceptions of Adolescents and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…

  19. Older Adolescents' Positive Attitudes toward Younger Adolescents as Sexual Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegna, Kristinn; Mossige, Svein; Wichstrom, Lars

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in…

  20. Editorial: Reducing adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Michael H

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in young people ages 10-19 (CDC, 2015). Current statistics suggest that in the US one in every seven youths has seriously considered or made a plan to commit suicide and one in every 13 youths has attempted suicide in the previous year (CDC, 2015). Suicide represents a - if not the - major public health problem in adolescents. PMID:27320365

  1. [School difficulties in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Schwarzenberg, T L; Buffone, M R; Scardia, C; Facente, C

    2002-12-01

    Loss, failure and desertion are those words, which better describe the most frequent difficulties incurred by teenagers, and their relation to the school environment, and indicate, as well, the lack of connection between individual aspirations and school achievements obtained. Despite the likelihood of school difficulties throughout the entire educational career, from the kindergarten to the college, we are able to recognize certain specific "disturbances" which come out during the adolescence, basically relating to the school experiences. School failure, school desertion and school abandonment are, in fact, issues mainly discussed in coincidence with the beginning of the adolescent age and the attending of the high school. The aetiopathogenesis of school discomfort is mostly determined by more than only one factor: psychological, physical, cognitive and environmental aspects, all together, contribute in various ways, to the rise and persisting of the above described problems. Suggesting a univocal characterization of the adolescent with school difficulties, is indeed a hard task, since school failure is not an exclusive feature of only one kind of personality or the expression of only one type of conflict. Once identified the individuals more subject to risk, and the warning signs of actual uneasiness, it is important therefore to intervene timely and in different ways in order to avoid the worsening or the excessive extension of the school difficulties and of their frequent and serious consequences on the teenagers' individual and domestic well-being. Such type of prevention definitely belongs to the Adolescent Medicine, and must be developed on different levels, by involving not only the teenagers, but also their families, the school, and the whole social environment in which the teenagers live and with which they interact.

  2. The Adolescent in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacht, Francine G.

    This paper describes a one-semester high school course which introduces students to well-written contemporary novels in which the main character is an adolescent. Eight novels are read, and five of these are the core of the course: "The Catcher in the Rye,""A Separate Peace,""The Temple of Gold,""The Man Without a Face," and "Night." The students…

  3. [School difficulties in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Schwarzenberg, T L; Buffone, M R; Scardia, C; Facente, C

    2002-12-01

    Loss, failure and desertion are those words, which better describe the most frequent difficulties incurred by teenagers, and their relation to the school environment, and indicate, as well, the lack of connection between individual aspirations and school achievements obtained. Despite the likelihood of school difficulties throughout the entire educational career, from the kindergarten to the college, we are able to recognize certain specific "disturbances" which come out during the adolescence, basically relating to the school experiences. School failure, school desertion and school abandonment are, in fact, issues mainly discussed in coincidence with the beginning of the adolescent age and the attending of the high school. The aetiopathogenesis of school discomfort is mostly determined by more than only one factor: psychological, physical, cognitive and environmental aspects, all together, contribute in various ways, to the rise and persisting of the above described problems. Suggesting a univocal characterization of the adolescent with school difficulties, is indeed a hard task, since school failure is not an exclusive feature of only one kind of personality or the expression of only one type of conflict. Once identified the individuals more subject to risk, and the warning signs of actual uneasiness, it is important therefore to intervene timely and in different ways in order to avoid the worsening or the excessive extension of the school difficulties and of their frequent and serious consequences on the teenagers' individual and domestic well-being. Such type of prevention definitely belongs to the Adolescent Medicine, and must be developed on different levels, by involving not only the teenagers, but also their families, the school, and the whole social environment in which the teenagers live and with which they interact. PMID:12388952

  4. Editorial: Reducing adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Michael H

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in young people ages 10-19 (CDC, 2015). Current statistics suggest that in the US one in every seven youths has seriously considered or made a plan to commit suicide and one in every 13 youths has attempted suicide in the previous year (CDC, 2015). Suicide represents a - if not the - major public health problem in adolescents.

  5. The obese adolescent.

    PubMed

    Someshwar, Jean; Someshwar, Shiv; Perkins, Kathaleen C

    2006-03-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the formidable challenges that healthcare providers face. Early recognition and implementation of preventive strategies is crucial in combating this problem. Inculcation of a healthy lifestyle in our youth by encouraging physical activity, decreasing sedentary pastimes, and making healthy food choices is critical right from the start, before poor habits become ingrained. More research is needed to find more effective ways to treat obesity in childhood and adolescence.

  6. Family Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Andy L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Study used self-report questionnaire data from high school students to determine the relation between adolescents' perception of family characteristics and adolescent substance use patterns. Results indicate adolescents' perception of maternal substance use, family hardiness, and age of the adolescent were significant predictors of substance use.…

  7. Creative Counseling Interventions for Grieving Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slyter, Marty

    2012-01-01

    This article provides information on adolescent developmental issues and developmentally appropriate interventions that can help mental health practitioners work with adolescents grieving a death loss. Specific areas that are initially covered include core adolescent developmental issues that must be understood, including adolescent developmental…

  8. Assessment of Parental and Adolescent Verbal Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Rhydonia H.; And Others

    Verbal interactions between adolescents and their parents may affect adolescents' self-esteem and self-concept. The current development of an instrument, the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (VIQ), was designed to measure adolescents' perceptions of their parents verbal interactions with them. Noting that the relationship between adolescents'…

  9. Adolescence: A "Risk Factor" for Physical Inactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Thomas W.

    1999-01-01

    This publication examines influences on the present and future physical activity levels of adolescents, noting that the adolescents' physical activity habits, as well as other risk factors, are likely to track into the adult years. Section 1 discusses physical activity in adolescence, noting that adolescence is a time when physical activity tends…

  10. Abortion in Adolescence: The Ethical Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    This essay, addressed to medical personnel and counselors, presents a bioethical approach to adolescent abortion. Topics include an overview of abortion in the U.S., related medical issues, data pertinent to adolescent abortions, ethical theory, adolescent moral development, and moral aspects of treatment of adolescents. (Author/DB)

  11. Adolescent risk factors for child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Thornberry, Terence P; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L; Smith, Carolyn A; Ireland, Timothy O

    2014-04-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment.

  12. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569

  13. Re/Mediating Adolescent Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, John, Ed.; Luke, Allan, Ed.

    Suggesting that teaching in New Times requires that educators read and re/mediate the social relations, the cultural knowledges, and the relationships of power between adolescents and their social, biological, and semiotic universes, this collection of essays offers new ways of seeing and talking about adolescents and their literacies. Most of the…

  14. Adolescent Brain Development and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Arria, Amelia

    2011-01-01

    Research now suggests that the human brain is still maturing during adolescence. The developing brain may help explain why adolescents sometimes make decisions that are risky and can lead to safety or health concerns, including unique vulnerabilities to drug abuse. This article explores how this new science may be put to use in our prevention and…

  15. Athletic Involvement and Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathleen E.; Melnick, Merrill J.; Barnes, Grace M.; Sabo, Don; Farrell, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Although conventional wisdom suggests that organized sport deters delinquency by building character, structuring adolescents' time, and providing incentives for socially approved behavior, the empirical evidence to date has been mixed. Based on a sample of approximately 600 Western New York adolescents, the present study examined how self-reported…

  16. Adolescence: A Time That Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    Noting that there are an estimated 1.2 billion 10- to 19-year-olds in the world, this report examines the challenges faced by adolescents in both developing and developed nations. The report describes adolescence as a complex transition during which youth take on new responsibilities and experiment with independence. The importance of the…

  17. Best Practices for Adolescent ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rance-Roney, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent English language learners present particular challenges for schools. The population of adolescent ELLs is diverse, and their educational needs are affected by differences in immigration status, quality of educational background, native language, cultural distance from U.S. culture, future plans, and economic status. The article offers…

  18. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  19. Aspects of Spirituality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP questionnaire…

  20. Self-Mutilation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Self-mutilation is not a new trend or phenomenon in adolescents. Self-mutilation can be divided into three categories: major, stereotypic, and moderate/superficial. Moderate/superficial self-mutilation is the most common type in adolescents and includes cutting, burning, and carving. School nurses are positioned to identify, to assist, and to…