O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Pate, Russell R.; Liese, Angela D.
The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of dance participation in U.S. adolescents and to estimate the contribution of dance to total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The sample was composed of 3,598 adolescents from the 2003-06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Youth reported frequency and duration of…
O'Neill, Jennifer R; Pate, Russell R; Liese, Angela D
The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of dance participation in U.S. adolescents and to estimate the contribution of dance to total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The sample was composed of 3,598 adolescents from the 2003-06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Youth reported frequency and duration of physical activities performed in the past month. Dance participation prevalence was calculated; among those who reported dance, its contribution to total MVPA was estimated. The prevalence of dance was much higher in girls (34.8%) than boys (8.4%). Girls had a greater contribution of dance to total MVPA (39.3%) than boys (23.0%). Dance is a prevalent form of physical activity among girls, and it accounts for a substantial fraction of their total MVPA.
Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter
In Austria, two recent eParticipation projects focused on adolescent citizens. The first project, “mitmachen.at - move your future” was to provide initial experiences with an eParticipation tool. The second project, “Jugend2help”, applied the lessons learned from the “mitmachen.at” project to improve the Austrian public administration web portal for adolescent citizens. In both projects, the results indicate that web portals and eParticpation seems to suit the adolescents’ information and communication needs. Involving the users is central to the development of an eParticipation process or platform so that the users’ specific characteristics (age, skills), needs and interests are included appropriately. The target users’ characteristics are also important for developing a marketing strategy which is able to reach them. Other issues which must also be considered in eParticipation are accessibility, inclusion and possibly gender.
Chávez, Noé Rubén; Williams, Camille Y; Ipp, Lisa S; Catallozzi, Marina; Rosenthal, Susan L; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki
Altruism is a well-established reason underlying research participation. Less is known about altruism in adolescent-parent decision-making about clinical trials enrolling healthy adolescents. This qualitative investigation focused on identifying spontaneous statements of altruism within adolescent-parent (dyadic) discussions of participation in a hypothetical phase I clinical trial related to adolescent sexual health. Content analysis revealed several response patterns to each other's altruistic reasoning. Across 70 adolescent-parent dyads in which adolescents were 14-17 years of age and 91% of their parents were mothers, a majority (61%) of dyadic discussions included a statement reflecting altruism. Parents responded to adolescents' statements of altruism more frequently than adolescents responded to parents' statements. Responses included: expresses concern, reiterates altruistic reasoning, agrees with altruistic reasoning, and adds to/expands altruistic reasoning. Since an altruistic perspective was often balanced with concerns about risk or study procedures, researchers cannot assume that altruism will directly lead to study participation. Optimizing the informed consent process for early phase clinical trials involving healthy adolescents may include supporting parents to have conversations with their adolescents which will enhance their capacity to consider all aspects of trial participation.
Toftegaard-Støckel, J; Nielsen, G A; Ibsen, B; Andersen, L B
Despite the well-documented health effects of physical activity, few studies focus on the correlates of leisure-time sports and exercise participation. The present study examined correlations between adolescent sports participation and demographic factors, socioeconomic status (SES) and sociocultural factors. A school-based cross-sectional cluster sample including 6356 Danish fifth- and ninth-grade adolescents from four municipalities were included. Age (younger) and gender (boy) were associated with adolescents' sports participation. Girls were half as likely [odds ratio (OR) 0.49 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.55] to participate in sports than boys. Adolescents were more likely to participate in sports if they perceived their parents as active in exercise or sports. Adolescents with one or two unemployed parents were 0.75 (95% CI: 0.62-0.89) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.56-1.00), respectively, less likely to participate in sports than adolescents with two employed parents. In a gender-stratified analysis, parents' occupational status was only a predictor of sports participation in girls. Differences between municipalities in adolescents' sports participation remained significant when controlled for individual factors such as gender, age, parents' background or parents' physical activity. The association between sociocultural and SES was stronger for girls than boys. In conclusion, demographics, SES and sociocultural factors were the best determinants of adolescent sport participation.
Purcell, Laura; LeBlanc, Claire M A
Thousands of boys and girls younger than 19 years participate in boxing in North America. Although boxing provides benefits for participants, including exercise, self-discipline, and self-confidence, the sport of boxing encourages and rewards deliberate blows to the head and face. Participants in boxing are at risk of head, face, and neck injuries, including chronic and even fatal neurologic injuries. Concussions are one of the most common injuries that occur with boxing. Because of the risk of head and facial injuries, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Paediatric Society oppose boxing as a sport for children and adolescents. These organizations recommend that physicians vigorously oppose boxing in youth and encourage patients to participate in alternative sports in which intentional head blows are not central to the sport.
Chávez, Noé Rubén; Williams, Camille Y; Ipp, Lisa S; Catallozzi, Marina; Rosenthal, Susan L; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki
Altruism is a well-established reason underlying research participation. Less is known about altruism in adolescent-parent decision-making about clinical trials enrolling healthy adolescents. This qualitative investigation focused on identifying spontaneous statements of altruism within adolescent-parent (dyadic) discussions of participation in a hypothetical phase I clinical trial related to adolescent sexual health. Content analysis revealed several response patterns to each other’s altruistic reasoning. Across 70 adolescent-parent dyads in which adolescents were 14–17 years of age and 91% of their parents were mothers, a majority (61%) of dyadic discussions included a statement reflecting altruism. Parents responded to adolescents’ statements of altruism more frequently than adolescents responded to parents’ statements. Responses included: expresses concern, reiterates altruistic reasoning, agrees with altruistic reasoning, and adds to/expands altruistic reasoning. Since an altruistic perspective was often balanced with concerns about risk or study procedures, researchers cannot assume that altruism will directly lead to study participation. Optimizing the informed consent process for early phase clinical trials involving healthy adolescents may include supporting parents to have conversations with their adolescents which will enhance their capacity to consider all aspects of trial participation. PMID:27019669
Wuang, Yeepay; Su, Chwen-Yng
This study aimed to determine participation and enjoyment in young people with Down syndrome (DS) in Taiwan and to assess how participation varies across gender, cognitive, and motor function variables. Using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment, data on participation were collected from 997 adolescents with DS and their…
Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn
This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…
Buregyeya, Esther; Kulane, Asli; Kiguli, Juliet; Musoke, Phillipa; Mayanja, Harriet; Mitchell, Ellen Maeve Hanlon
Introduction Research is being carried out to develop and test new potentially more effective tuberculosis vaccines. Among the vaccines being developed are those that target adolescents. This study explored the stakeholders’ perceptions about adolescent participation in a hypothetical tuberculosis vaccine trial in Ugandan adolescents. Methods Focus group discussions with adolescents, parents of infants and adolescents, and key informant interviews with community leaders and traditional healers were conducted. Results The majority of the respondents expressed potential willingness to allow their children participate in a tuberculosis vaccine trial. Main motivations for potential participation would be being able to learn about health-related issues. Hesitations included the notion that trial participation would distract the youths from their studies, fear of possible side effects of an investigational product, and potential for being sexually exploited by researchers. In addition, bad experiences from participation in previous research and doubts about the importance of research were mentioned. Suggested ways to motivate participation included: improved clarity on study purpose, risks, benefits and better scheduling of study procedures to minimize disruption to participants’ academic schedules. Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that the community is open to potential participation of adolescents in a tuberculosis vaccine trial. However, there is a need to communicate more effectively with the community about the purpose of the trial and its effects, including safety data, in a low-literacy, readily understood format. This raises a challenge to researchers, who cannot know all the potential effects of a trial product before it is tested. PMID:26834929
Erves, Jennifer Cunningham; Mayo-Gamble, Tilicia L; Hull, Pamela C; Duke, Lauren; Miller, Stephania T
Approximately one-quarter of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are acquired by adolescents, with a higher burden among racial/ethnic minorities. However, racial/ethnic minorities have been underrepresented in previous HPV vaccine trials. Ongoing and future HPV vaccine optimization trials would benefit from racially- and ethnically-diverse sample of adolescent trial participants. This study examined factors influencing parental willingness to consent to their adolescents' participation in HPV vaccine clinical trials and tested for possible racial differences. A convenience sample of parents of adolescents (N = 256) completed a cross-sectional survey. Chi square analyses were used to assess racial differences in parental HPV vaccine awareness and intentions and willingness to consent to their child participating in an HPV vaccine clinical trial. Ordinal logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with willingness. Approximately 47% of parents were willing to allow their adolescent to participate in HPV vaccine clinical trials (30.7% African American and 48.3% Caucasian, p = .081). African Americans had lower HPV vaccine awareness (p = .006) but not lower intentions to vaccinate (p = .086). Parental willingness was positively associated with the following variables: Child's age (p < .039), Perceived Advantages of HPV Vaccination for Adolescents (p = .002), Parental Trust in Medical Researchers (p < .001), and Level of Ease in Understanding Clinical Trial Information (p = .010). Educating parents about the advantages of HPV vaccines for younger adolescents using low-literacy educational materials and building trust between parents and researchers may increase parental willingness to consent to adolescent participation in HPV vaccine clinical trials.
Kennedy, Angie C.
Using a risk and resilience framework, this exploratory study examines the relationships between homelessness, exposure to multiple types of violence, and school participation within a survey sample of poor adolescent mothers living in an urban setting. Participants who were homeless either currently or historically were compared with participants…
Moreno, Megan A; Waite, Alan; Pumper, Megan; Colburn, Trina; Holm, Matt; Mendoza, Jason
Recruiting adolescent participants for research is challenging. The purpose of this study was to compare traditional in-person recruitment methods to social media recruitment. We recruited adolescents aged 14-18 years for a pilot physical activity intervention study, including a wearable physical activity tracking device and a Facebook group. Participants were recruited (a) in person from a local high school and an adolescent medicine clinic and (b) through social media, including Facebook targeted ads, sponsored tweets on Twitter, and a blog post. Data collected included total exposure (i.e., reach), engagement (i.e., interaction), and effectiveness. Effectiveness included screening and enrollment for each recruitment method, as well as time and resources spent on each recruitment method. In-person recruitment reached a total of 297 potential participants of which 37 enrolled in the study. Social media recruitment reached a total of 34,272 potential participants of which 8 enrolled in the study. Social media recruitment methods utilized an average of 1.6 hours of staff time and cost an average of $40.99 per participant enrolled, while in-person recruitment methods utilized an average of 0.75 hours of staff time and cost an average of $19.09 per participant enrolled. Social media recruitment reached more potential participants, but the cost per participant enrolled was higher compared to traditional methods. Studies need to consider benefits and downsides of traditional and social media recruitment methods based on study goals and population.
Michielsen, Anka; Van Wijk, Iris; Ketelaar, Marjolijn
Children and adolescents with congenital limb deficiencies are visibly and physically different from their peers. They present limitations in activities, depending on the severity of deficiency. Therefore they are at risk for lower participation in social and leisure activities. This might negatively influence the perception on their quality of life. The aim of this narrative review is to describe participation and quality of life in children with congenital limb deficiencies. Participation and quality of life are relatively new concepts. Psychosocial functioning, being closely related to the concept of quality of life, is described as well. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted on participation, quality of life and psychosocial functioning in children and adolescents with congenital limb deficiencies. The review involved a systematic search using multiple data sources. Fifteen cross-sectional studies were included in this review. The literature to date provides limited knowledge on how children and adolescents with congenital limb deficiencies participate and how they perceive their quality of life. The psychosocial functioning, although described as at risk, appears to be comparable to healthy peers. In conclusion, more research is needed on how children and adolescents with congenital limb deficiencies participate and how they perceive their quality of life. A broader perspective will not only help parents in making the right choices for their children, but can also have implications for health care providers, teachers and agencies funding rehabilitation services.
Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot
This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…
Wissman, Kelly K.; Staples, Jeanine M.; Vasudevan, Lalitha; Nichols, Rachel E.
This paper conceptualizes an approach to adolescent literacies research we call "research pedagogies." This approach recognizes the pedagogical features of the research process and includes three dimensions: created spaces, engaged participation, and embodied inquiry. By drawing upon and sometimes recasting foundational anthropological…
Michelsen, Susan I; Flachs, Esben M; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Parkes, Jacqueline; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Colver, Allan; Fauconnier, Jerome; Dickinson, Heather O; Marcelli, Marco; Uldall, Peter
Children with cerebral palsy participate less in everyday activities than children in the general populations. During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes occur which may be more difficult for adolescents with impairments. Within the European SPARCLE project we measured frequency of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy by administering the Questionnaire of Young People's Participation to 667 adolescents with cerebral palsy or their parents from nine European regions and to 4666 adolescents from the corresponding general populations. Domains and single items were analysed using respectively linear and logistic regression. Adolescents with cerebral palsy spent less time with friends and had less autonomy in their daily life than adolescents in the general populations. Adolescents with cerebral palsy participated much less in sport but played electronic games at least as often as adolescents in the general populations. Severity of motor and intellectual impairment had a significant impact on frequency of participation, the more severely impaired being more disadvantaged. Adolescents with an only slight impairment participated in some domains as often as adolescents in the general populations. Regional variation existed. For example adolescents with cerebral palsy in central Italy were most disadvantaged according to decisional autonomy, while adolescents with cerebral palsy in east Denmark and northern England played sports as often as their general populations. Participation is an important health outcome. Personal and environmental predictors of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy need to be identified in order to design interventions directed to such predictors; and in order to inform the content of services.
Michelsen, Susan I.; Flachs, Esben M.; Damsgaard, Mogens T.; Parkes, Jacqueline; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Colver, Allan; Fauconnier, Jerome; Dickinson, Heather O.; Marcelli, Marco; Uldall, Peter
Children with cerebral palsy participate less in everyday activities than children in the general populations. During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes occur which may be more difficult for adolescents with impairments. Within the European SPARCLE project we measured frequency of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy by administering the Questionnaire of Young People's Participation to 667 adolescents with cerebral palsy or their parents from nine European regions and to 4666 adolescents from the corresponding general populations. Domains and single items were analysed using respectively linear and logistic regression. Adolescents with cerebral palsy spent less time with friends and had less autonomy in their daily life than adolescents in the general populations. Adolescents with cerebral palsy participated much less in sport but played electronic games at least as often as adolescents in the general populations. Severity of motor and intellectual impairment had a significant impact on frequency of participation, the more severely impaired being more disadvantaged. Adolescents with an only slight impairment participated in some domains as often as adolescents in the general populations. Regional variation existed. For example adolescents with cerebral palsy in central Italy were most disadvantaged according to decisional autonomy, while adolescents with cerebral palsy in east Denmark and northern England played sports as often as their general populations. Participation is an important health outcome. Personal and environmental predictors of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy need to be identified in order to design interventions directed to such predictors; and in order to inform the content of services. PMID:24412031
Simpkins, Sandra D; Vest, Andrea E; Becnel, Jennifer N
This investigation examined the precursors of adolescents' participation in sport and music activities in the United States by testing a developmental model across 7 years. Data were drawn from youth questionnaires in the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 594). Findings suggest that patterns of participation across a 3-year period in elementary school predict adolescents' participation through their motivational beliefs. Specifically, children who participated in an activity, children who participated consistently across multiple years, and children who were highly active had higher adolescent motivational beliefs 4 years later than their peers. These motivational beliefs, in turn, positively predicted adolescents' participation 1 year later. Cross-domain analyses suggest that children typically maintain their orientation toward sports and music (e.g., high music-low sport orientation, not oriented toward either domain) as they age. These findings highlight the consistency in children's leisure pursuits and interests from childhood through adolescence.
Moilanen, Kristin L
The purpose of the present study was to describe the degree to which parents of adolescents were willing to grant consent for their teenagers' participation in sexually themed research, and to link the likelihood of consent to parents' demographics, personality traits, parenting, attitudes, and their children's characteristics. A total of 203 parents of adolescents ages 13 to 18 years anonymously responded to an internet survey (81.7% mothers; 87% European American). Approximately 40% of respondents were possibly willing and 36% were definitely willing to provide consent for a hypothetical study covering all included sexual health topics. Parents were more likely to give consent if they were highly extraverted, viewed science positively, were not highly conservative about sexuality, and if they thought their teenager was already sexually experienced. Overall, many parents appear to be quite open to adolescent survey participation.
Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth
Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women's Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical and/or sexual violence and 17 % scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15 % scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority.
Burnett, Darrell J.
This leader manual and participant workbook present a 15 session program on parent-adolescent relationships. Three main topic areas are covered: perceiving each other (social perception); communicating effectively; and recognizing behavior as a function of its consequence. The leader manual presents an overview of the program which discusses its…
Vieira, Roberta Peixoto; Gomes, Sílvia Helena Pereira; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa; Bezerra, Italla Maria Pinheiro; Machado, Caroline Antero
Objective to evaluate the participation of adolescents in the Family Health Strategy, from the theoretical-methodological structure of an enabler to participation. Method a quantitative study, conducted from December of 2010 to March of 2011, with 213 professionals in the FHS in the region of Cariri-Ceará-Brazil. Data were collected through a questionnaire and organized in SPSS 18.0. Results the level of normative participation becomes manifest beginning with the adolescent search for health services, motivated by disease (77.9%). Normative participation + independence appear when they seek prenatal care and family planning. Emancipatory participation was identified by the frequency of adolescents in group activities, in the schools, and a move in the direction of the level of transformative participation was observed. Conclusion in this context, it is understood that there exists a need to stimulate the participatory process of the adolescents for a change in health promotion in this group. PMID:26107840
Veliz, Philip T; Boyd, Carol; McCabe, Sean E
We assessed the nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) among adolescents who participate in competitive sports. Using data from Monitoring the Future, we found that adolescent participants in high-injury sports had 50% higher odds of NMUPO than adolescents who did not participate in these types of sports (i.e., nonparticipants and participants in other sports). Detecting certain subpopulations of youths at risk for NMUPO should be a central concern among health care providers.
de Souza, Mariluce Karla Bomfim; Santana, Judith Sena da Silva
This qualitative study aimed at analyzing the participation of the local health managers in the assistance provided to the adolescent victim of violence in the city of Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil. Specific objectives of this study were: to identify how the local health managers perceive violence and its repercussions in adolescence; to identify the public healthcare policies directed to the adolescent implanted by the health system of Itabuna-BA, focusing on violence and on the actions developed by the local health managers toward an effective implantation of these policies. The data collected from interviews and documents were analyzed using the technique of content analysis. Analytical categories: Violence as any form of physical, moral, psychical or social aggression, omission and disrespect to the human rights; Violence has psychological repercussions in adolescence, causes pain and suffering, compromises the life and the future and generates violence; Assistance for the adolescent victim of violence: limitations and advances of a policy in construction. The results show that the managers have put forth efforts for the effective implementation of the Adolescent Health Program, with the intention to include violence as a focal issue of their actions.
Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
This study examined gender differences in adolescent participation in sport and physical activity, in teasing experiences specific to the physical activity domain, and the relationship between adolescent physical activity and body image. A sample of 714 adolescents (332 girls, 382 boys) aged between 12 and 16 years completed measures of…
Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Silva, Susan; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Waslick, Bruce; Hughes, Carroll W.; Prentice, Ernest D.; May, Diane E.; March, John S.
A study examined the extent to which parents and adolescents participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) understood the study. The results concluded that most were well-informed, and also parents were overall better informed than adolescents.
Guerra, Cristóbal; Pereda, Noemí
The aim of this study was to evaluate the emotional impact on adolescent victims of sexual abuse from participating in a study addressing the consequences of their abuse. A total of 114 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old participated (54 sexually abused adolescents and 60 nonabused students). Both groups responded to a battery of scales to determine their coping strategies and some psychological consequences linked to stressful experiences and two questions about the emotional impact of participating in the study. Sexually abused adolescents reported fewer unpleasant emotions after participating than did nonvictim students (mean difference = .45, t = -2.934; p < .01). Adolescents who had more symptoms reported more discomfort (rS scores between .35 and .49; p < .01). These results suggest that when ethical guidelines are followed, it is possible to survey adolescent victims of sexual abuse on aspects related to their experience without causing them significant distress.
Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Fearon, Danielle D.
The importance of student IEP participation has been indicated by both legislative mandates such as IDEA and research literature. The purpose of the current study was to examine those variables that predict student IEP participation among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders as compared to adolescents with disabilities other than autism…
Skaar, Nicole R.; Williams, John E.
The current study aimed to investigate emotional intelligence as a predictor of adolescent risk participation and risk perception. While research has suggested that certain personality traits relate to adolescent risk behavior and perception, the extent to which emotional intelligence relates to risk behavior participation and perception is…
Christiana, Richard W.; Davis, Marsha; Wilson, Mark G.; McCarty, Frances A.; Green, Gary T.
Purpose: Young adolescents who have little interest in participating in competitive team sports are at an increased risk for physical inactivity. Noncompetitive outdoor physical activity can provide young adolescents with increased opportunities to participate in physical activities that appeal to them and have positive health effects. The purpose…
Maiano, Christophe; Ninot, Gregory; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Bilard, Jean
The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self-concept of adolescents with conduct disorders (CD). Participants were 24 adolescent males with CD, divided equally into three groups: (a) interestablishment basketball (IEBB), (b) integrated scholastic basketball (ISBB),…
Simpkins, Sandra D.; Vest, Andrea E.; Becnel, Jennifer N.
This investigation examined the precursors of adolescents' participation in sport and music activities in the United States by testing a developmental model across 7 years. Data were drawn from youth questionnaires in the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 594). Findings suggest that patterns of participation across a 3-year…
de Araújo Teixeira Silva, Catarina; Rebelo Vieira, Janete Maria; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Vettore, Mario Vianna
There is limited evidence concerning the role of social networks on the oral health of adolescents. This study assessed the association between the participation of adolescents in community groups and dental caries. A cross-sectional household-based study was carried out involving 200 subjects aged 15-19 years living in a deprived area in the state of Amazon, Brazil. Dental caries was assessed through dental examinations using the DMFT index conducted by a single examiner who was previously calibrated. Four dental caries outcomes were investigated, including caries experience (DMFT score), current caries (number of current decayed teeth), missing teeth due to caries, and the care index (ratio between number of filled teeth and DMFT score). Details of participation of adolescents in community groups, demographic and socioeconomic data and information on dental visiting were obtained through individual interviews. All caries measures were significantly higher in adolescents who did not participate in community groups compared to their counterparts. Multivariate Poisson regression showed that participation of adolescents in community groups was independently associated with all dental caries outcomes. After adjusting for confounders, participation in community groups was statistically associated with lower DMFT score (ratio of mean, RM: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.24-0.46), fewer decayed teeth (RM: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.11-0.47), fewer missing teeth (RM: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.47), and higher care index (RM: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24-2.29) than those who did not participate. Participation of adolescents in community activities was related to lower levels of dental caries.
Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Li, Zhushan
Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder often do not have access to crucial peer social activities. This study examines how typically developing adolescents evaluate decisions not to include a peer based on disability status, and the justifications they apply to these decisions. A clinical interview methodology was used to elicit judgments and…
Pouwels, J Loes; Salmivalli, Christina; Saarento, Silja; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N
The aim of this study was to determine how trajectory clusters of social status (social preference and perceived popularity) and behavior (direct aggression and prosocial behavior) from age 9 to age 14 predicted adolescents' bullying participant roles at age 16 and 17 (n = 266). Clusters were identified with multivariate growth mixture modeling (GMM). The findings showed that participants' developmental trajectories of social status and social behavior across childhood and early adolescence predicted their bullying participant role involvement in adolescence. Practical implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for…
Winston, Susanna E; Chirchir, Amon K; Muthoni, Lauryn N; Ayuku, David; Koech, Julius; Nyandiko, Winstone; Carter, E Jane; Braitstein, Paula
Purpose The objectives of this study were to characterise the sexual health of street-connected adolescents in Eldoret, Kenya, analyse gender disparity of risks, estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and identify factors associated with STIs. Methods A cross-sectional study of street-connected adolescents ages 12–21 years was conducted in Eldoret, Kenya. Participants were interviewed and screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus-2, syphilis and HIV. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with having any STI. Results Of the 200 participants, 81 (41%) were female. 70.4% of females and 60.5% of males reported sexual activity. Of those that participated in at least one STI test, 28% (55/194) had ≥1 positive test, including 56% of females; 14% (28/194) had >1 positive test. Twelve females and zero males (6% overall, 14.8% of females) were HIV positive. Among females, those with HIV infection more frequently reported transactional sex (66.7% vs 26.1%, p=0.01), drug use (91.7% vs 56.5%, p=0.02), and reported a prior STI (50.0% vs 14.7%, p<0.01). Having an adult caregiver was less likely among those with HIV infection (33.3% vs 71.0%, p=0.04). Transactional sex (AOR 3.02, 95% CI (1.05 to 8.73)), a previous STI (AOR 3.46 95% CI (1.05 to 11.46)) and ≥2 sexual partners (AOR 5.62 95% (1.67 to 18.87)) were associated with having any STI. Conclusions Street-connected adolescents in Eldoret, Kenya are engaged in high-risk sexual behaviours and females in particular have a substantial burden of STIs and HIV. There is a need for STI interventions targeted to street-connected youth. PMID:25714102
Dang, Van Mô; Colver, Allan; Dickinson, Heather O.; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme
We investigated whether childhood factors that are amenable to intervention (parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain) predicted participation in daily activities and social roles of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). We randomly selected 1174 children aged 8–12 years from eight population-based registers of children with CP in six European countries; 743 (63%) agreed to participate. One further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. These 818 children were visited at home at age 8–12 years, 594 (73%) agreed to follow-up at age 13–17 years. We used the following measures: parent reported stress (Parenting Stress Index Short Form), their child's psychological difficulties (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire) and frequency and severity of pain; either child or parent reported the child's participation (LIFE Habits questionnaire). We fitted a structural equation model to each of the participation domains, regressing participation in childhood and adolescence on parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain, and regressing adolescent factors on the corresponding childhood factors; models were adjusted for impairment, region, age and gender. Pain in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains except Mealtimes and Communication (standardized total indirect effects β −0.05 to −0.18, 0.01 < p < 0.05 to p < 0.001, depending on domain). Psychological problems in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains of social roles, and in Personal Care and Communication (β −0.07 to −0.17, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). Parenting stress in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in Health Hygiene, Mobility and Relationships (β −0.07 to −0.18, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). These childhood factors predicted adolescent participation largely via their effects on childhood participation; though in some domains early psychological
Dang, Van Mô; Colver, Allan; Dickinson, Heather O; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme
We investigated whether childhood factors that are amenable to intervention (parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain) predicted participation in daily activities and social roles of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). We randomly selected 1174 children aged 8-12 years from eight population-based registers of children with CP in six European countries; 743 (63%) agreed to participate. One further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. These 818 children were visited at home at age 8-12 years, 594 (73%) agreed to follow-up at age 13-17 years. We used the following measures: parent reported stress (Parenting Stress Index Short Form), their child's psychological difficulties (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire) and frequency and severity of pain; either child or parent reported the child's participation (LIFE Habits questionnaire). We fitted a structural equation model to each of the participation domains, regressing participation in childhood and adolescence on parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain, and regressing adolescent factors on the corresponding childhood factors; models were adjusted for impairment, region, age and gender. Pain in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains except Mealtimes and Communication (standardized total indirect effects β -0.05 to -0.18, 0.01
adolescent participation in all domains of social roles, and in Personal Care and Communication (β -0.07 to -0.17, 0.001
adolescent participation in Health Hygiene, Mobility and Relationships (β -0.07 to -0.18, 0.001
adolescent participation largely via their effects on childhood participation; though in some domains early psychological problems and parenting stress in childhood predicted
Pouwels, J Loes; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N
This study examined how adolescents evaluate bullying at three levels of specificity: (a) the general concept of bullying, (b) hypothetical peers in different bullying participant roles, and (c) actual peers in different bullying participant roles. Participants were 163 predominantly ethnic majority adolescents in The Netherlands (58% girls; Mage=16.34years, SD=0.79). For the hypothetical peers, we examined adolescents' explicit evaluations as well as their implicit evaluations. Adolescents evaluated the general concept of bullying negatively. Adolescents' explicit evaluations of hypothetical and actual peers in the bullying roles depended on their own role, but adolescents' implicit evaluations of hypothetical peers did not. Adolescents' explicit evaluations of hypothetical peers and actual peers were different. Hypothetical bullies were evaluated negatively by all classmates, whereas hypothetical victims were evaluated relatively positively compared with the other roles. However, when adolescents evaluated their actual classmates, the differences between bullies and the other roles were smaller, whereas victims were evaluated the most negatively of all roles. Further research should take into account that adolescents' evaluations of hypothetical peers differ from their evaluations of actual peers.
Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang
This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day…
Eime, R. M.; Payne, W. R.; Casey, M. M.; Harvey, J. T.
Physical activity (PA) is important for lifelong health; however, participation is lower in rural compared with metropolitan areas and declines during adolescence, particularly for girls. It is likely that this decline is related to the number of life transitions that occur during adolescence. This qualitative study examined the views of active…
Livingston, Michael H.; Stewart, Debra; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Russell, Dianne J.
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine what participation issues are important to adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Two hundred and three adolescents with CP (mean age 16.0 [plus or minus] 1.8 years) were assessed using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). This was done through semistructured interviews by…
Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna; Fournier, Bernard; Gavray, Claire; Born, Michel
Research examining youths' political development mostly focused on young people as a general group; comparatively less attention has been devoted to the examination of gender pathways toward citizenship. Two studies were conducted addressing (a) the role of parents' participation and the moderating role of adolescent gender and age group (n =…
Bartoszuk, Karin; Randall, Brandy A.
The study reported here examined 367 adolescent 4-H participants in terms of demographic, psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics, as well as their perceptions and experiences in 4-H. Overall, participants scored high on all outcome variables except having a diverse population in their club. Older participants were more…
Coplan, Robert J.; Ooi, Laura L.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda
The goal of this study was to examine links between observed social participation in the schoolyard and indices of socio-emotional functioning in early adolescence. Participants were children (N = 290) aged 9 to 12 years. Social participation (e.g., solitary play, dyadic interaction, group interaction) was assessed in the schoolyard during recess…
Guddal, Maren Hjelle; Stensland, Synne Øien; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Johnsen, Marianne Bakke; Zwart, John-Anker; Storheim, Kjersti
Background: Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among adolescents is high, and pain in adolescence increases the risk of chronic pain in adulthood. Studies have shown conflicting evidence regarding associations between physical activity and musculoskeletal pain, and few have evaluated the potential impact of sport participation on musculoskeletal pain in adolescent population samples. Purpose: To examine the associations between physical activity level, sport participation, and musculoskeletal pain in the neck and shoulders, low back, and lower extremities in a population-based sample of adolescents. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence 4. Methods: Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (Young-HUNT3) were used. All 10,464 adolescents in the Nord-Trøndelag county of Norway were invited, of whom 74% participated. Participants were asked how often they had experienced pain, unrelated to any known disease or acute injury, in the neck and shoulders, low back, and lower extremities in the past 3 months. The associations between (1) physical activity level (low [reference], medium or high) or (2) sport participation (weekly compared with no/infrequent participation) and pain were evaluated using logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, and psychological distress. Results: The analyses included 7596 adolescents (mean age, 15.8 years; SD, 1.7). Neck and shoulder pain was most prevalent (17%). A moderate level of physical activity was associated with reduced odds of neck and shoulder pain (OR = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66-0.94]) and low back pain (OR = 0.75 [95% CI, 0.62-0.91]), whereas a high level of activity increased the odds of lower extremity pain (OR = 1.60 [95% CI, 1.29-1.99]). Participation in endurance sports was associated with lower odds of neck and shoulder pain (OR = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.68-0.92]) and low back pain (OR = 0.77 [95% CI, 0.65-0.92]), especially among girls. Participation in technical
This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…
Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Gniewosz, Burkhard
Drawing on data from a longitudinal cohort-sequential project, the present study examined developmental trajectories of adolescents' attitudes toward political engagement and their willingness to participate in politics from grade 7 to 11 while accounting for the influence of school track and gender. Moreover, stabilities on the dependent variables were assessed. The results revealed differential trajectories regarding adolescents' educational level. Increases were mainly shown for students attending the college-bound school track. Generally, both orientations toward political behaviors were shown to become more stable throughout the adolescent years. Together, the findings confirmed adolescence to be a crucial period in life concerning the emergence, consolidation, and development of political points of view.
Brawner, Bridgette M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Stewart, Jennifer M.; Gomes, Melissa M.
Background Biobehavioural research methodology can be invasive and burdensome for participants—particularly adolescents with mental illnesses. Human biological researchers should consider how methodological impositions may hinder adolescent research participation. However, literature on adolescent’s voices and concerns toward biobehavioural research participation is virtually non-existent. Aim This study was designed to determine adolescents’ perceptions of participation in research involving the collection of biomarkers via blood, saliva and/or urine samples. Subjects and methods Urban adolescent females (aged 12–19) receiving outpatient mental health treatment (n = 37) participated in focus groups with concurrent survey administration to explore attitudes, beliefs and willingness/intentions toward biobehavioural research participation. Results Participants had favourable attitudes toward biobehavioural research and were amenable to provide each specimen type. Mistrust for research emerged, however, and concerns related to privacy and confidentiality were expressed. Conclusion Participant recruitment is a critical component in study design and implementation; this includes knowledge of population-specific recruitment barriers and facilitators. This innovative paper provides a context for the research participants’ decision-making process, strategies to allay fears and concerns and concrete areas to target in research-related interventions. Although the findings are from a specific, US-based sample, the implications warrant replication of the research in other geosocial settings. PMID:23822716
Dodge, Tonya; Lambert, Sharon F.
The present study examined the relationship between participation in sports during adolescence and physical activity and subjective health in young adulthood. A sample of 8,152 (males = 50.8%, females = 49.2%) adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Results of the study showed that participating in an…
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What financial management standards do I include... financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants? So as not to force system changes..., your expenditure-based TIA's requirements for the financial management system of any...
Bohnert, Amy M.; Garber, Judy
This longitudinal study examined psychopathology as a predictor and outcome of organized activity involvement during high school among 198 adolescents who varied in risk for psychopathology as a function of their mother's depression history. Higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in eighth grade significantly predicted lower…
Lopez, Anna B.; Huynh, Virginia W.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
To examine the development of religious identity during the teenage years, adolescents (N = 477) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds completed questionnaires in the 10th, 11th, and 12th grades (10th grade age: M = 15.81, SD = 0.36). Results indicated that religious identity remained stable across high school whereas religious…
This study investigates factors influencing participation of Afro-American female adolescents in sports. Following a review of the literature, two topics are addressed. The first of these, "Behavior in Sport," discusses benefits of sports to youth; stereotypes of Afro-American female sports participants; behaviors of female athletes; and…
Grunstein, Rose; Nutbeam, Don
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine characteristics of resilience among Australian adolescents, the extent to which resilience might be strengthened through participation in a dance/drama competition, the Rock Eisteddfod Challenge (REC), and the impact participation may have on health related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: …
Alley, Thomas R.; Hicks, Catherine M.
This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in…
Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for participation in legal protest actions. No relationships with readiness for participation in federal elections or with readiness for participation in illegal protest actions occurred, and a negative relationship with readiness for participation in political violent actions was found. In a second step, the socialization of the value social responsibility in the parents and peer context was the focus. Value similarities between adolescents, their parents and friends, as well as other contextual factors were considered. Multiple regression analyses revealed differential effects for male and female adolescents. In male adolescents, authoritative parenting and political discussions with parents were positively linked to social responsibility. Furthermore, peer-group membership had a negative impact. For female adolescents, significant value similarities with their parents, especially with their mothers, occurred. Value similarities with their friend were found in both gender groups, but appeared to be higher in the female group. Also, in both gender groups, a positive parent-child relationship quality was linked to higher social responsibility. In sum, findings show that parents as well as peer contextual factors were contributing to the adolescents' value acquisition.
Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa
As higher education institutions progressively deliver many more courses through online mode, student retention in courses and ensuring participation in tasks and activities are becoming more a concern to teachers and educational institutions. This pilot study--an action learning project--explored the effect of including students' identified…
... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants? 37.620 Section 37.620 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award...
... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants? 37.620 Section 37.620 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award...
Reimers, Anne K.; Wagner, Matthias; Alvanides, Seraphim; Steinmayr, Andreas; Reiner, Miriam; Schmidt, Steffen; Woll, Alexander
Objectives To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany. Methods A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11–17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities. Results The logisitic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively. Conclusions Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas. PMID:24675689
Davis, Erin; Demby, Hilary; Jenner, Lynne Woodward; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha
Maintaining contact with and collecting outcome data from adolescent study participants can present a significant challenge for researchers conducting longitudinal studies. Establishing an organized and effective protocol for participant follow-up is crucial to reduce attrition and maintain high retention rates. This paper describes our methods in using and adapting the evidence-based Engagement, Verification, Maintenance, and Confirmation (EVMC) model to follow up with adolescents 6 and 12 months after implementation of a health program. It extends previous research by focusing on two key modifications to the model: (1) the central role of cell phones and texting to maintain contact with study participants throughout the EVMC process and, (2) use of responsive two-way communication between staff and participants and flexible administration modes and methods in the confirmation phase to ensure that busy teens not only respond to contacts, but also complete data collection. These strategies have resulted in high overall retention rates (87-91%) with adolescent study participants at each follow-up data collection point without the utilization of other, more involved tracking measures. The methods and findings presented may be valuable for other researchers with limited resources planning for or engaged in collecting follow-up outcome data from adolescents enrolled in longitudinal studies.
Koch, Cecelia; Mayes, Rachel
Background: The aim of this study was to explore parents' experiences and strategies used when meeting the needs of all their children, including an adolescent with disabilities. Materials and methods: A qualitative study design was employed. The study was conducted in two phases. (i) Secondary analysis of ecocultural interviews with 12…
Eime, R M; Payne, W R; Casey, M M; Harvey, J T
Physical activity (PA) is important for lifelong health; however, participation is lower in rural compared with metropolitan areas and declines during adolescence, particularly for girls. It is likely that this decline is related to the number of life transitions that occur during adolescence. This qualitative study examined the views of active rural living girls regarding the factors affecting their sport and PA participation, using the socioecological model. Twenty-seven girls aged 16-17 from four schools participated in semi-structured focus group discussions. Content and thematic analysis was conducted from verbatim transcripts using NVivo. The girls enjoyed involvement in community club sport with friends and they reported living in communities where participation in sport was a major form of social interaction. However, the desire to succeed educationally was a critical factor affecting their participation in sport and PA and influenced their movement from structured club sport to more flexible, but socially isolated individual activities. It is recommended that future longitudinal research should track rural living adolescent females as they complete secondary school, in order to better understand the influence of educational priorities upon sport and PA participation and to identify practical strategies for both schools and community organizations to foster continuing participation throughout this crucial period of life transition.
Morrison, Shannon; Knight, Candace; Crew-Gooden, Annette
The purpose of this study was to explore African-American adolescent girls' perceptions of physical activity participation, examine how physical activity is defined and identify the most preferred forms of physical activity. Qualitative focus group interviews of a convenience sample (N = 30; Mean age = 14.3 years) were used to identifyfactors that influence African-American girls' physical activity participation as well as to explore how physical activity is defined within this population. Four themes emerged: (a) benefits and motivation to engage in physical activity, (b) behaviors consistent with perceived physical activity, (c) most enjoyable physical activity/activities, and (d) barriers to physical activity. Physical activities that promoted normative adolescent development (i.e., autonomy) were perceived as most beneficial, desirable, and most likely to be sustained. Implications of these findings highlight the importance of the incorporation of socialization and peer engagement in physical activity programs designed for African-American adolescent girls.
Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Petersen, Gloria M; Wolf, Susan M; Chaffee, Kari G; Robinson, Marguerite E; Gordon, Deborah R; Lindor, Noralane M; Koenig, Barbara A
Data are lacking with regard to participants' perspectives on return of genetic research results to relatives, including after the participant's death. This paper reports descriptive results from 3,630 survey respondents: 464 participants in a pancreatic cancer biobank, 1,439 family registry participants, and 1,727 healthy individuals. Our findings indicate that most participants would feel obligated to share their results with blood relatives while alive and would want results to be shared with relatives after their death.
Uslan, Mark; Blubaugh, Morgan
In an article in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sherwyn Schwartz, M.D., presents a study to validate the design of the ClikSTAR® insulin pen from sanofi-aventis and demonstrates that the device can be used correctly by participants with diabetes. Concern with this article lies with the selection of participants, which was meant to reflect the intended audience for the insulin pen device but does not address the inclusion of visually impaired individuals, who comprise over 20% of the adult diabetes population. Visually impaired individuals need to be included as part of the intended audience for insulin administration technology, and manufacturers of these devices need to design their products for safe use by all people, including those who are visually impaired. The study demonstrated successful use of the ClikSTAR insulin pen in a population that did not include subjects with severe visual impairment. We believe that future validation studies for insulin administration technology should also include samples of visually impaired users and that visually impaired patients will embrace the use of insulin pens designed with their needs in mind.
Wong, Cara L.; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Whitfield, Jessica; Duncan, Jill
The internet and social media have fast become an everyday aspect of adolescents' lives. Online participation may increase social capital and be particularly beneficial for individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH), as it provides an alternative method to communicate, interact with others and access information. However, reduced levels of…
This study examined adolescent developmental experiences and participation in extracurricular activities. Providing youth with multiple channels to nurture their development and acknowledge their interests and strengths can play a significant role in their holistic growth. This is a descriptive study of a mixed-methods design (quantitative and…
Hoffmann, John P.
This research investigates the effects of extracurricular activities on alcohol use among male (n = 4,495) and female (n = 5,398) adolescents who participated in the 1990-92 National Education Longitudinal Study. Previous studies have assessed the association between extracurricular activities and alcohol use, but none have explored whether the…
Stovitz, Steven D.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Boostrom, Ardys
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between weight status and participation in physical activity (PA) among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adolescent boys and girls. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, height and weight were measured and a modified 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to 1302…
Prins, Richard G.; van Empelen, Pepijn; te Velde, Saskia J.; Timperio, Anna; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Tak, Nannah I.; Crawford, David; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke
This longitudinal study aimed to identify individual and environmental predictors of adolescents' sports participation and to examine whether availability of sports facilities moderated the intention-behaviour relation. Data were obtained from the Environmental Determinants of Obesity in Rotterdam Schoolchildren study (2005/2006 to 2007/2008). A…
Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Gniewosz, Burkhard
Drawing on data from a longitudinal cohort-sequential project, the present study examined developmental trajectories of adolescents' attitudes toward political engagement and their willingness to participate in politics from grade 7 to 11 while accounting for the influence of school track and gender. Moreover, stabilities on the dependent…
Ninot, G.; Bilard, J.; Delignieres, D.
Background: The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic programme (integrated vs. segregated) on the athletic domain of perceived competence and on general self-worth. Methods: Participants were 32 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID), divided equally into four groups: (1) segregated swimming; (2) integrated…
McCabe, Kira O; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L
Adolescents are at a significant risk for binge drinking and illicit drug use. One way to protect against these behaviors is through participation in extracurricular activities. However, there is a debate about whether highly conscientious adolescents are more likely to participate in activities, which raises the concern of a confound. To disentangle these relationships, we tested the latent trajectories of substance use and personality across 3 years, with participation in activities and sports as time-varying predictors. We surveyed 687 adolescents (55 % female, 85.4 % Caucasian) in Western Australia schools across 3 years. At Time 1, the students were in Year 10 1 (mean age 15 years). The results showed that participation in activities and conscientiousness are related, but each uniquely predicts slower growth in substance use. Across waves, participation in activities predicted less risky substance use a year later, over and above conscientiousness development. These results suggest that there may be unique benefits of participation in activities that protect against risky substance use.
Longo, Egmar; Badia, Marta; Orgaz, Begona M.
This study analyzed the patterns and predictors of participation in leisure activities outside of school of Spanish children and adolescents with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Children and adolescents with CP (n = 199; 113 males and 86 females) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mean age was 12.11 years (SD = 3.02; range 8-18 years), and…
Pincham, Hannah L; Wu, Claire; Killikelly, Clare; Vuillier, Laura; Fearon, R M Pasco
Increasingly, research is turning to the ways in which social context impacts decision making and feedback processing in adolescents. The current study recorded electroencephalography to examine the trajectory of development across adolescence, with a focus on how social context impacts cognition and behaviour. To that end, younger (10-12 years) and older (14-16 years) adolescents played a modified Taylor Aggression Paradigm against two virtual opponents: a low-provoker and a high-provoker. During the task's decision phase (where participants select punishment for their opponent), we examined two event-related potentials: the N2 and the late positive potential (LPP). During the outcome phase (where participants experience win or loss feedback), we measured the feedback related negativity (FRN). Although N2 amplitudes did not vary with provocation, LPP amplitudes were enhanced under high provocation for the younger group, suggesting that emotional reactivity during the decision phase was heightened for early adolescents. During the outcome phase, the FRN was reduced following win outcomes under high provocation for both groups, suggesting that a highly provocative social opponent may influence the reward response. Collectively, the data argue that social context is an important factor modulating neural responses in adolescent behavioural and brain development.
Blomfield, Corey J; Barber, Bonnie L
The relationship between Australian adolescents' participation in extracurricular activities and their self-concepts was investigated. A total of 1489 adolescents (56% female; mean age 13.8 years) completed measures of social self-concept, academic self-concept, and general self-worth, and reported on their extracurricular activity participation. In general, participation in any type of extracurricular activity was associated with a higher social and academic self-concept, and general self-worth, compared to no participation. Adolescents who participated in both sports and non-sports also reported a more positive social self-concept and general self-worth, compared to those who only participated in one of the activity types. This research provides support for extracurricular activities as a context facilitative of positive self-concept, and demonstrates the importance of a mixed participation profile for an adolescent's self-concept.
Kwan, Matthew; Bobko, Sarah; Faulkner, Guy; Donnelly, Peter; Cairney, John
Sport participation can play an important and positive role in the health and development of children and youth. One area that has recently been receiving greater attention is the role that sport participation might play in preventing drug and alcohol use among youth. The current study is a systematic review of 17 longitudinal studies examining the relationship between sport participation and alcohol and drug use among adolescents. Results indicated that sport participation is associated with alcohol use, with 82% of the included studies (14/17) showing a significant positive relationship. Sport participation, however, appears to be related to reduced illicit drug use, especially use of non-cannabis related drugs. Eighty percent of the studies found sport participation associated with decreased illicit drug use, while 50% of the studies found negative association between sport participation and marijuana use. Further investigation revealed that participation in sports reduced the risk of overall illicit drug use, but particularly during high school; suggesting that this may be a critical period to reduce or prevent the use of drugs through sport. Future research must better understand what conditions are necessary for sport participation to have beneficial outcomes in terms of preventing alcohol and/or illicit drug use. This has been absent in the extent literature and will be central to intervention efforts in this area.
Schrooten, Inge; Scholte, Ron H J; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Hymel, Shelley
This study investigated whether participant roles (i.e., bully, assistant, follower, defender, outsider, victim) identified in bullying among normative groups of adolescents educated in regular education could also be found among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) educated in special education classrooms. Relationships between the participant roles and three social status measures (social preference, social impact, and popularity) were also examined. There were 260 Dutch adolescents with ASD, ages 12-18 (M = 13.75, SD = 1.42; 224 boys, 36 girls), and 743 Dutch typically developing (TD) adolescents, ages 11-17 (M = 13.41, SD = 1.24; 380 boys, 363 girls) who filled out questionnaires during classroom testing sessions conducted by the first author and trained (under)graduate students. Participant roles could be distinguished, although role distributions differed across groups and across sexes. There were more outsiders and defenders, and fewer followers among boys with ASD than among TD boys. Among girls with ASD, there were more victims than among TD girls. Students with ASD could more often be assigned multiple roles and were less often uninvolved than TD students. The relationships between participant roles and social status measures also differed across groups and across sexes. Whereas bullying is considered a universal social phenomenon, the existence of participant roles in bullying situations might be considered universal, as well. Apparently, the social difficulties of students with ASD do not seem to prevent them from taking on various participant roles in bullying situations. Additional practical implications are discussed.
De Miguel-Etayo, P; Muro, C; Santabárbara, J; López-Antón, R; Morandé, G; Martín-Matillas, M; Azcona-San Julián, M C; Martí, A; Campoy, C; Marcos, A; Moreno, L A; Garagorri, J M
The aims of this study were to identify the cognitive and behavioral predictors of dropping out and to estimate the attrition rate during different phases of an intervention program to treat overweight and obesity in adolescents. Overweight/obese adolescents (n=156, aged: 13-16 years; 71 male and 85 female subjects) were included in a multicomponent (diet, physical activity and psychological support) family-based group treatment program. At baseline and after 2 months (intensive phase) and 13 months (extensive phase) of follow-up, we measured adolescents' cognitive and behavioral dimensions, together with the parents' perception of their child's behavior. Of the 156 adolescents selected, 112 completed the full program (drop-out rate of 28.2%). The risk of dropping out during the extensive phase increased by 20% for each unit increase in the adolescent's social insecurity score (odds ratio=1.20, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.34, P=0.002). The adolescents who had a high interoceptive awareness showed a significant decrease of 13.0% in the probability of dropping out (odds ratio=0.87, 95% confidence interval=0.77-0.99, P=0.040). Adolescents' social insecurity was the main predictor of drop-out in a multicomponent family-group-based obesity treatment program. To reduce attrition rates in these programs, the individual's social insecurity level needs to be reduced, whereas the family's awareness of eating-related behavior needs adjustment.
Vogel, Katja; Timmers, Inge; Kumar, Vinod; Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Bastiani, Matteo; Roebroek, Alard; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Goebel, Rainer; Seitz, Jochen
Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) often begins in adolescence, however, the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology at this developmentally important age is scarce, impeding early interventions. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate microstructural white matter (WM) brain changes including an experimental longitudinal follow-up. Methods We acquired whole brain diffusion-weighted brain scans of 22 adolescent female hospitalized patients with AN at admission and nine patients longitudinally at discharge after weight rehabilitation. Patients (10–18 years) were compared to 21 typically developing controls (TD). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were applied to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) across groups and time points. Associations between average FA values of the global WM skeleton and weight as well as illness duration parameters were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results We observed increased FA in bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal areas in AN patients at admission compared to TD. Higher FA of the global WM skeleton at admission was associated with faster weight loss prior to admission. Exploratory longitudinal analysis showed this FA increase to be partially normalized after weight rehabilitation. Conclusions Our findings reveal a markedly different pattern of WM microstructural changes in adolescent AN compared to most previous results in adult AN. This could signify a different susceptibility and reaction to semi-starvation in the still developing brain of adolescents or a time-dependent pathomechanism differing with extend of chronicity. Higher FA at admission in adolescents with AN could point to WM fibers being packed together more closely. PMID:27182488
Parekh, Jenita; Tunçalp, Özge; Turke, Shani; Blum, Robert William
We systematically reviewed peer-reviewed and gray literature on comprehensive adolescent health (CAH) programs (1998–2013), including sexual and reproductive health services. We screened 36 119 records and extracted articles using predefined criteria. We synthesized data into descriptive characteristics and assessed quality by evidence level. We extracted data on 46 programs, of which 19 were defined as comprehensive. Ten met all inclusion criteria. Most were US based; others were implemented in Egypt, Ethiopia, and Mexico. Three programs displayed rigorous evidence; 5 had strong and 2 had modest evidence. Those with rigorous or strong evidence directly or indirectly influenced adolescent sexual and reproductive health. The long-term impact of many CAH programs cannot be proven because of insufficient evaluations. Evaluation approaches that take into account the complex operating conditions of many programs are needed to better understand mechanisms behind program effects. PMID:25320876
Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sirucek, Jan
Background Organized leisure-time activities (OLTA) have been identified as a context suitable for improvement of school performance. This study aimed to assess the associations between participation in OLTA and school engagement, school-related stress, academic achievement and whether these associations differ by specific pattern of OLTA participation, gender and age. Furthermore, it assessed whether OLTA participants are more likely to acquire support for schoolwork from outside the family. Methods The sample concerned 10,483 adolescents (49.2% boys) aged 11, 13 and 15 from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children data collection in 2014 in the Czech Republic. Logistic regressions adjusted for gender and age were used to analyse the associations between participation in OLTA and four education-related outcomes. Results Participation in OLTA was associated with higher school engagement, lower levels of school-related stress and better academic achievement regardless of gender and age. The strongest associations were observed for adolescents involved in various types of OLTA concurrently, with odds ratios ranging from 1.34 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17–1.54) for lower school-related stress to 1.97 (95% CI 1.73–2.25) for above-average academic achievement. OLTA participants were also more likely to have a non-familial person to help them with schoolwork, though this association was weaker in 15-year-olds. Conclusion Youth involvement in OLTA is linked to general better school performance and attachment to school. Adolescents participating in more activities at the same time have the best school performance. PMID:27073841
Objet: Décrire la fonction motrice, la participation, les obstacles et les préférences en matière d'activité physique chez les adolescents avant et après un traitement du cancer et discuter de la promotion de l'activité physique dans le contexte des transitions du développement et du cancer. Méthode: Une étude transversale a utilisé les échelles d'autodéclaration et de déclaration par les parents du questionnaire Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) et des questions sur la participation et les préférences en matière d'activité physique afin de recueillir des données sur la mobilité des transferts, la mobilité de base, le fonctionnement dans les sports et le fonctionnement physique auprès de 80 adolescents et de 63 parents. Résultats: Les résultats du questionnaire PODCI pour les adolescents recevant un traitement étaient plus variables et considérablement plus bas que pour les adolescents qui avaient terminé leur traitement il y a plus de deux ans. La fatigue, la douleur, la santé en général et les recommandations du médecin étaient fréquemment désignées comme étant des obstacles à l'activité physique chez les adolescents qui reçoivent un traitement. Bon nombre d'entre eux n'atteignaient pas les niveaux d'activité physique recommandés. Les adolescents ont exprimé des préférences pour l'activité physique pratiquée avec des amis ou en famille, à la maison ou à l'école, dans l'après-midi ou le soir et dans des loisirs et des sports que les adolescents choisissent habituellement. Conclusions: Les capacités physiques, la participation et les obstacles en matière d'activité physique varient au cours du parcours du cancer. Les interventions devraient tenir compte de la variabilité ainsi que des préférences et des environnements des individus au cours des trajectoires et des transitions du traitement du cancer et du développement du jeune pour que ce dernier puisse adopter de saines habitudes de vie
Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Turney, Kristin; Kao, Grace
Background/Context: Prior research has linked social engagement, such as peer interaction and participation in school activities, to a host of positive outcomes for youth and adolescents. However, little research considers patterns of social engagement among racial/ethnic minority and immigrant adolescents, despite prior research suggesting…
... § 668.370 What policies govern payments to participants, including wages, training allowances or... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What policies govern payments to participants, including wages, training allowances or stipends, or direct payments for supportive services?...
... What policies govern payments to participants, including wages, training allowances or stipends, or... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What policies govern payments to participants, including wages, training allowances or stipends, or direct payments for supportive services?...
... What policies govern payments to participants, including wages, training allowances or stipends, or... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What policies govern payments to participants, including wages, training allowances or stipends, or direct payments for supportive services?...
... § 668.370 What policies govern payments to participants, including wages, training allowances or... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What policies govern payments to participants, including wages, training allowances or stipends, or direct payments for supportive services?...
... § 668.370 What policies govern payments to participants, including wages, training allowances or... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What policies govern payments to participants, including wages, training allowances or stipends, or direct payments for supportive services?...
Marston, Cicely; Hinton, Rachael; Kean, Stuart; Baral, Sushil; Ahuja, Arti; Costello, Anthony; Portela, Anayda
The Global strategy for women's, children's and adolescents' health (2016-2030) recognizes that people have a central role in improving their own health. We propose that community participation, particularly communities working together with health services (co-production in health care), will be central for achieving the objectives of the global strategy. Community participation specifically addresses the third of the key objectives: to transform societies so that women, children and adolescents can realize their rights to the highest attainable standards of health and well-being. In this paper, we examine what this implies in practice. We discuss three interdependent areas for action towards greater participation of the public in health: improving capabilities for individual and group participation; developing and sustaining people-centred health services; and social accountability. We outline challenges for implementation, and provide policy-makers, programme managers and practitioners with illustrative examples of the types of participatory approaches needed in each area to help achieve the health and development goals.
Balaguer, Isabel; Atienza, Francisco L; Duda, Joan L
The purpose of this study was to study the associations between specific self-perceptions and global self-worth with different frequency levels of sport participation among Spanish boys and girls adolescents. Students (457 boys and 460 girls) completed the Self Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985) and items assessing sport engagement from The Health Behavior in School Children Questionnaire (Wold, 1995). Results showed that some specific dimensions of self-perception were related to different frequency of sport participation whereas overall judgments of self-worth did not. Specifically, for boys and girls, higher levels of sport participation were positively associated to Athletic Competence, and for boys were also associated with Physical Appearance and Social Acceptance. The potential implications of domain specific socialisation processes on the configuration of self-perceptions are highlighted.
Petersen, Gloria M.; Wolf, Susan M.; Chaffee, Kari G.; Robinson, Marguerite E.; Gordon, Deborah R.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Koenig, Barbara A.
Data are lacking with regard to participants’ perspectives on return of genetic research results to relatives, including after the participant’s death. This paper reports descriptive results from 3,630 survey respondents: 464 participants in a pancreatic cancer biobank, 1,439 family registry participants, and 1,727 healthy individuals. Our findings indicate that most participants would feel obligated to share their results with blood relatives while alive and would want results to be shared with relatives after their death. PMID:26479556
Notzon, S; Deppermann, S; Fallgatter, A; Diemer, J; Kroczek, A; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Ehlis, A-C
Preliminary evidence suggests beneficial effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on anxiety. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as a form of TMS on acute anxiety provoked by a virtual reality (VR) scenario. Participants with spider phobia (n=41) and healthy controls (n=42) were exposed to a spider scenario in VR after one session of iTBS over the prefrontal cortex or sham treatment. Participants with spider phobia reacted with more anxiety compared to healthy controls. Their heart rate and skin conductance increased compared to baseline. Contrary to expectations, iTBS did not influence these reactions, but modulated heart rate variability (HRV). Sympathetic influence on HRV showed an increase in the active iTBS group only. This study does not support the idea of beneficial effects of a single session of iTBS on anxiety, although other protocols or repeated sessions might be effective.
Bridge, Matthew W; Toms, Martin R
Whether young people should specialise in one competitive sport at an early age, or pursue a wider range of sports during adolescence is a topic of some debate (Baker, Cobley, & Fraser-Thomas, 2009) and is fundamental within sports policy and coaching practice. The purpose of this retrospective recall study was to identify whether early specialisation or sporting diversification (sampling) throughout childhood and adolescence can influence performance levels prior to adulthood. An online questionnaire was used to collect the sport participation histories of 1006 UK sports people, which were then compared with the developmental framework provided by the Developmental Model of Sport Participation (DMSP, Côté & Fraser-Thomas, 2007). A significant association between the number of sports participated in at the ages of 11, 13, and 15 and the standard of competition between 16 and 18 years was found. Individuals who competed in three sports aged 11, 13, and 15 were significantly more likely to compete at a national compared with club standard between the ages of 16 and 18 than those who practised only one sport. The findings reported here provide some empirical support for the sampling performance pathway DMSP model in a UK context.
Sabiston, Catherine M; Jewett, Rachel; Ashdown-Franks, Garcia; Belanger, Mathieu; Brunet, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin; O'Loughlin, Jennifer
The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal and unique association between number of years of team sport and individual sport participation during adolescence and depressive symptoms during early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 860) reported team sport and individual sport participation in each year of secondary school for five years. Participants reported depressive symptoms using the Major Depression Inventory three years after secondary school. Multivariate linear regression was performed to model the associations of sport participation with depressive symptoms while controlling for sex, age, parent education, and baseline depressive symptoms. In the final model, adolescents who consistently participated in team sport during high school reported lower depression scores in early adulthood (β = -.09, p = .02). Number of years of individual sport participation was not statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms in early adulthood. Based on these findings, team sport participation may protect against depressive symptoms in early adulthood. If this finding is replicated, strategies should be implemented to encourage and maintain team sport participation during adolescence. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link team sport participation to lower depression.
Godley, Susan H; Passetti, Lora L; Funk, Rodney R; Garner, Bryan R; Godley, Mark D
The American Society on Addiction Medicine's Patient Placement criteria are commonly used in adolescent treatment. However, the use of these criteria and how they affect the course of treatment and interact with adolescent change has not been examined. Twelve-month treatment patterns were examined for 176 adolescents who entered their first ever episode in a treatment system using these criteria. Forty-one percent of the adolescents received additional treatment after their initial outpatient episode with over 30 unique treatment sequences (i.e., various combinations of outpatient, intensive outpatient, and residential treatment). Significant differences in treatment patterns were found between the change trajectory groups. For example, adolescents who participated in only one outpatient treatment episode were more likely to be in the low alcohol and drug use (AOD) group and less likely to have high rates of time in a controlled environment or to report moderate AOD use. Over one-third of the adolescents participated in additional treatment and almost one-quarter of those who only participated in outpatient treatment had problematic use. These findings suggest the need for clinical monitoring protocols that can be used to identify adolescents needing additional treatment or recovery services.
Poon, K. K.
Background: This study sought to describe the activities and participation of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Singapore and to examine the suitability of the Activity and Participation component of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for achieving this purpose. This information may guide the…
Simpkins, Sandra D; Delgado, Melissa Y; Price, Chara D; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth
The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms by which these macro factors might be related to Mexican-origin adolescents' participation in organized after-school activities. Qualitative data were collected through focus group interviews with 44 adolescents, 50 parents, and 18 activity leaders from 2 neighborhoods that varied in ethnic composition and average family income. Results indicated that family socioeconomic status might be related to adolescents' participation through financial resources and parents' work. Ethnicity was identified as a predictor of participation via experiences with ethnic discrimination, particularly in the neighborhood with a low percentage of Hispanic families. Cultural values and practices were related to participants' preferences for particular activities (e.g., bilingual, church-sponsored) and adolescents' participation in activities. Immigration seemed to be a factor in parents' familiarity with and beliefs about organized activities.
De Meester, An; Maes, Jolien; Stodden, David; Cardon, Greet; Goodway, Jacqueline; Lenoir, Matthieu; Haerens, Leen
The present study identified adolescents' motor competence (MC)-based profiles (e.g., high actual and low perceived MC), and accordingly investigated differences in motivation for physical education (PE), physical activity (PA) levels, and sports participation between profiles by using regression analyses. Actual MC was measured with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Adolescents (n = 215; 66.0% boys; mean age = 13.64 ± .58 years) completed validated questionnaires to assess perceived MC, motivation for PE, PA-levels, and sports participation. Actual and perceived MC were only moderately correlated and cluster analyses identified four groups. Two groups of overestimators (low - overestimation, average - overestimation) were identified (51%), who particularly displayed better motivation for PE when compared to their peers who accurately estimated themselves (low - accurate, average - accurate). Moreover, adolescents with low actual MC, but high perceived MC were significantly more active than adolescents with low actual MC who accurately estimated themselves. Results pointed in the same direction for organised sports participation. Underestimators were not found in the current sample, which is positive as underestimation might negatively influence adolescents' motivation to achieve and persist in PA and sports. In conclusion, results emphasise that developing perceived MC, especially among adolescents with low levels of actual MC, seems crucial to stimulate motivation for PE, and engagement in PA and sports.
Gísladóttir, Thórdís Lilja; Matthíasdóttir, Asrún; Kristjánsdóttir, Hafrún
Sports clubs create conditions for people of all ages to pursue a healthy lifestyle through exercise in sports and attend to constructive pedagogical work which creates much value for society. This study investigates the relationship between adolescents' sports clubs participation and self-reported mental and physical conditions and future expectations. The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (aged 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires administered to students in the classroom relating to health and behaviour. The results indicate that participation in sports clubs influences adolescents positively; adolescents who work hard at sport not only believe they are in better mental and physical condition, they also believe they can succeed in other areas such as their studies. Sports clubs promote positive influence on adolescents' mental and physical conditions and their future expectations toward work and happiness. It can be concluded that participation in organised sports clubs affects the participants in a positive way.
Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert; Poulin, Chantal; Majnemer, Annette
In recent years attention has been paid to the participation levels of children and youth with Cerebral Palsy (CP), particularly the extent to which they have the opportunity to be involved in and enjoy leisure activities. The objective of this study is to describe the level of participation and enjoyment in leisure activities among adolescents with CP and to identify potential differences in participation patterns related to sociodemographic attributes. A cross-sectional design was used. Participants were 175 adolescents 12-20 years old (M=15.3; ±2.2), GMFCS I=55/II=43/III=13/IV=18/V=39 who completed the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). The types of activities participants engaged in most frequently were social and recreational activities, whereas self-improvement and skill-based activities were least frequent. Social activities were the activities they enjoyed most. In general, participation decreases, as youth grow older. Girls engaged in more self-improvement activities than boys. Adolescents who study in special segregated schools experienced a lower diversity and intensity of engagement in all leisure activity domains. Adolescents who were not ambulatory and those presenting with more severe manual ability limitations participated less in all activity types except skill-based activities. Adolescents with CP place a high value on the ability to engage in activities of their own choosing and on interacting with friends. Engagement in a variety of leisure activities is important for a healthy development. Understanding the leisure patterns and preferences of this population, in addition to the contextual factors, may help in the elaboration of interventions and programs to promote a healthy development for this population.
Aman, Michael G.; Handen, Benjamin
The authors' reaction to Dr Teresa Iacono's article "Ethical challenges and complexities of including people with intellectual disability as participants in research" is presented. Among other things, they find that Dr Iacono has done an outstanding job of describing creative solutions for obtaining appropriate informed consent from people with…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of income are included and excluded for participant eligibility determinations? 641.510 Section 641.510 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What types of income are included and excluded for participant eligibility determinations? 641.510 Section 641.510 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY...
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must I include a provision for audits of for-profit participants? 37.640 Section 37.640 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms...
... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Must I include a provision for audits of for-profit participants? 37.640 Section 37.640 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms...
Baptista, Cláudio Aparício Silva; Foronda, Antonio; Baptista, Luciana de Pádua Silva
The growing number of children and adolescents, aged 7 to 17 years, that participate in competitive sports requires preventive medical care. The pre-participation physical examination (PPE) requires appropriate medical knowledge to insure safe medical clearance. Recent sudden death events related to sports practice have raised doubts concerning the need for a medical evaluation based on medical tests, which due to the delay in its implementation may result in demotivation and abandonment of the sports practice. This is a review study, including data collected during a period of 30 years at the Olympic Training and Research Center (COTP) of the Municipal Secretary of Sports of São Paulo, where future athletes are identified, socially included and trained; and the objective of the study was to evaluate the need for the involvement of medical organizations in the preparation of a EPP protocol for the cardiovascular assessment of this population, according to the Brazilian reality. We had no normative standard, and so we relied on data collected from protocols that were established by other countries, but we defined which conduct to be taken with each of our individuals.
Cutler, Andrew J.; Saylor, Keith; Gasior, Maria; Hamdani, Mohamed; Ferreira-Cornwell, M. Celeste; Findling, Robert L.
Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess long-term improvement in quality of life (QOL) in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX). Methods: Adolescents with ADHD treated for ≥3 weeks in a 4 week, placebo-controlled study entered a 1 year, open-label study. After the 4 week dose optimization (30, 50, and 70 mg/day LDX) period, treatment was maintained for 48 additional weeks. Change from baseline (of prior study) to week 52/early termination (ET) (of open-label study) in ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) assessed effectiveness, and the Youth QOL-Research Version (YQOL-R) assessed participant-perceived QOL. Post-hoc analyses described effectiveness and QOL for participants with self-perceived poor QOL at baseline (≥1 SD below the mean) versus all others, and for study completers versus study noncompleters. Results: These post-hoc analyses included 265 participants. Participants with baseline self-perceived poor QOL (n=32) versus all others (n=232) exhibited robust YQOL-R perceptual score changes (improvement) with LDX, emerging by week 28 and maintained to week 52/ET. Week 52/ET mean change score ranged from +9.8 to +17.6 for participants with baseline self-perceived poor QOL and +0.4 to +5.1 for all others; week 52/ET improvements in ADHD-RS-IV total scores were similar, regardless of baseline YQOL-R total score. At week 52/ET, study completers had greater YQOL-R improvements than did noncompleters; ADHD-RS-IV total score changes were also numerically larger at week 52/ET for completers than for noncompleters. Conclusion: Participant-perceived QOL and ADHD symptoms improved from baseline with LDX in adolescents with ADHD; greatest improvements occurred among participants with baseline self-perceived poor QOL. PMID:24815910
The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…
Poulin, Francois; Denault, Anne-Sophie
The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth examination of friendships within organized activities. The prevalence of friendships with co-participants, their quality and characteristics, and their associations with adjustment were investigated. A sample of 281 (60% girls) 8th grade adolescents reported their friendships, activities, and…
Findlay, Leanne C.; Bowker, Anne
The current study explored specific aspects of sports and individuals on 4 domains of the self-system (physical competence and physical appearance self-concept, global physical and general self-esteem). Participants were 351 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.45, SD = 1.25 years, males n = 132) recruited from elite sports and regular school…
Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.
Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis,…
Mahoney, Joseph L.; Vest, Andrea E.
Concern exists that youth who spend a lot of time participating in organized out-of-school activities (e.g., sports) are at-risk for poor developmental outcomes. This concern--called the over-scheduling hypothesis--has primarily been assessed in terms of adolescent adjustment. This longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of 1,115…
Hawkins, Amy; Evangeli, Michael; Sturgeon, Kate; Le Prevost, Marthe; Judd, Ali
ABSTRACT Due to the success of antiretroviral (ART) medications, young people living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV+) are now surviving into adolescence and young adulthood. Understanding factors influencing ART non-adherence in this group is important in developing effective adherence interventions. Most studies of ART adherence in HIV-positive populations assess differences in adherence levels and adherence predictors between participants, over a period of time (global adherence). Many individuals living with HIV, however, including PHIV+ young people, take medication inconsistently. To investigate this pattern of adherence, a within-participants design, focussing on specific episodes of adherence and non-adherence, is suitable (episodic adherence). A within-participants design was used with 29 PHIV+ young people (17 female, median age 17 years, range 14–22 years), enrolled in the UK Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV cohort study. Participants were eligible if they could identify one dose of medication taken and one dose they had missed in the previous two months. For each of the two episodes (one adherent, one non-adherent), behavioural factors (whom they were with, location, routine, day, reminders) and psychological factors at the time of the episode (information about medication, adherence motivation, perceived behavioural skills to adhere to medication – derived from the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) Model – and affect) were assessed in a questionnaire. Non-adherence was significantly associated with weekend days (Friday to Sunday versus Monday to Thursday, p = .001), lack of routine (p = .004), and being out of the home (p = .003), but not with whom the young person was with or whether they were reminded to take medication. Non-adherence was associated with lower levels of behavioural skills (p < .001), and lower positive affect (p = .005). Non-adherence was not significantly associated with
Cheung, Ruth; Cureton, Virginia Young; Canham, Daryl L.
Quality of life in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes is a growing area of interest in pediatric research. The complex diabetes regimen imposes challenges for an adolescent. Adolescents diagnosed with diabetes are a group that appears to be at risk for having a poor health-related quality of life. Although research supports the positive relationship…
The present study, "Mapping Rural Adolescent Girl's Participation in Residential Non- Formal Education Program--A Study in Lunkaransar Block, Rajasthan", was an attempt to understand the dimensions of rural adolescent girls' participation in the "Balika Shivir" Program. It is a six month residential non-formal education program…
Larsen, E C; Loft, A; Holm, K; Müller, J; Brocks, V; Andersen, A N
Female survivors of cancer in childhood and adolescence who have been treated with bone marrow transplantation including total body irradiation (TBI) are at high risk of developing ovarian follicular depletion and infertility. The lack of oocytes may be compensated for by oocyte donation but these patients also seem to have a uterine factor. Even though oestrogen replacement therapy is given, the growth of the uterus during adolescence is impaired. To our knowledge there have been no earlier reports of live births after oocyte donation in such patients. We report three cases of oocyte donation in women who, at a young age, were cured of haematological malignancies with bone marrow transplantation including TBI. In adolescence they developed ovarian failure and uterine volumes were assessed by ultrasonography. One woman with a uterus of almost normal size delivered a healthy child in the 37th week of gestation. Another woman with severely diminished uterine volume miscarried in the 17th week of gestation. The third woman has not yet conceived. Pregnancy achieved by oocyte donation is possible despite TBI in adolescence. However, the uterine factor is a concern and complications during pregnancy and preterm birth may be expected in these patients.
Gardner, Margo; Roth, Jodie; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
In a study of 1,344 urban adolescents, the authors examined the relation between participation in organized sports and juvenile delinquency. They compared youth who participated in sports to those who only participated in nonathletic activities and to those who did not participate in any organized activities. They also examined the indirect…
Wiener, Lori; Viola, Adrienne; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Wendler, David; Grady, Christine
U.S. regulations governing pediatric research do not specify the assent process. To identify best practices, it is important to examine parents' and adolescents' views. The present study focuses on parents' and adolescents' views regarding possible research risks and the influence of financial compensation on their willingness to accept research procedures. Interviews were conducted with 177 adolescents participating in clinical research for a medical or psychiatric illness, or as healthy volunteers, and a parent. Significant discordance was found between how bothered the teen would feel from research-related side effects and procedures compared with parental report. Most teens were willing to accept non-beneficial procedures without compensation. Payment had significantly greater influence on healthy volunteers and their parents compared with those with a medical or psychiatric illness. Discordance between adolescent and parental views about risks recommends obtaining direct input from adolescents during the assent process. Modest payments should not raise concerns of undue inducement, especially in teens with pre-existing conditions.
Anderson, Susannah; Mezuk, Briana
This study investigates the relationship between participating in a high school debate program on college-readiness in the Chicago Public School district over a 10-year period. At-risk school students were identified using an index including 8th grade achievement, poverty status, and enrollment in special education. Regression analyses were used to assess the association between debate participation and graduation and ACT performance. Overall, debaters were 3.1 times more likely to graduate from high school (95% confidence interval: 2.7-3.5) than non-debaters, and more likely to reach the college-readiness benchmarks on the English, Reading, and Science portions of the ACT. This association was similar for both low-risk and at-risk students. Debate intensity was positively related to higher scores on all sections of the ACT. Findings indicate that debate participation is associated with improved academic performance for at-risk adolescents.
Glatz, Terese; Dahl, Viktor
This study used reactance theory as a starting point to explain what role a perceived undemocratic and controlling family has for adolescents' readiness to use illegal political activity. Additionally, we examined whether adolescents' readiness to use illegal political means was related to actual political behaviour, which has been lacking in…
Barber, Carolyn; Wasson, Jillian Woodford
Friendships serve as a source of support and as a context for developing social competence. Although advanced coursework may provide a unique context for the development of friendships, more research is needed to explore exactly what differences exist. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and…
Poulin, François; Denault, Anne-Sophie
The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth examination of friendships within organized activities. The prevalence of friendships with co-participants, their quality and characteristics, and their associations with adjustment were investigated. A sample of 281 (60% girls) 8th grade adolescents reported their friendships, activities, and adjustment. The results showed that 70% of youths have friends who co-participate with them. Friends in individual sports are more academically oriented whereas friends in team sports are more supportive but display higher levels of problem behavior. Finally, having friends in activities is associated with lower problem behavior and better academic functioning.
Knifsend, Casey A.; Graham, Sandra
Although adolescents often participate in multiple extracurricular activities, little research has examined how the breadth of activities in which an adolescent is involved relates to school-related affect and academic performance. Relying on a large, multi-ethnic sample (N = 864; 55.9% female), the current study investigated linear and non-linear…
Bandy, Tawana; Moore, Kristin Anderson
Out-of-school time programs can offer a secure and nurturing environment for children and adolescents, reducing the worries about what they are doing during these most vulnerable hours. For example, research suggests that participation in out-of-school time programs and activities can lessen the likelihood that children and adolescents will engage…
DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical…
Background Overweight or obesity during adolescence affects almost 25% of Australian youth, yet limited research exists regarding recruitment and engagement of adolescents in weight-management or healthy lifestyle interventions, or best-practice for encouraging long-term healthy behaviour change. A sound understanding of community perceptions, including views from adolescents, parents and community stakeholders, regarding barriers and enablers to entering and engaging meaningfully in an intervention is critical to improve the design of such programs. Methods This paper reports findings from focus groups and semi-structured interviews conducted with adolescents (n?=?44), parents (n?=?12) and community stakeholders (n?=?39) in Western Australia. Three major topics were discussed to inform the design of more feasible and effective interventions: recruitment, retention in the program and maintenance of healthy change. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Data were categorised into barriers and enablers across the three main topics. For recruitment, identified barriers included: the stigma associated with overweight, difficulty defining overweight, a lack of current health services and broader social barriers. The enablers for recruitment included: strategic marketing, a positive approach and subsidising program costs. For retention, identified barriers included: location, timing, high level of commitment needed and social barriers. Enablers for retention included: making it fun and enjoyable for adolescents, involving the family, having an on-line component, recruiting good staff and making it easy for parents to attend. For maintenance, identified barriers included: the high degree of difficulty in sustaining change and limited services to support change. Enablers for maintenance included: on-going follow up, focusing on positive change, utilisation of electronic media and transition back to community services. Conclusions This study
Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...
Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott
Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success.
Dawes, Nickki Pearce; Vest, Andrea; Simpkins, Sandra
Involvement in physically active pursuits, such as sports, contributes to achieving and maintaining good emotional and physical health. The central goal of this article was to examine the longitudinal relationships between participation (i.e., time spent in the activities) in organized and informal sports contexts and motivational beliefs, and factors that might impact these relationships, such as developmental stage and gender. The data for the current study were drawn from the childhood and beyond longitudinal study, which utilized a cohort sequential design with data collected on three cohorts across four waves. The current study sample included 986 European American youth (51 % female), who t were mostly from working- and middle-class families. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect data from the youth about their participation in sports and their motivational beliefs (i.e., value and perceptions of competence) about this activity. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between participation and motivational beliefs across childhood and adolescence. The results provide some support for a model of reciprocal relationships between participation and motivational beliefs in organized and informal sports activities. These relationships between participation and motivational beliefs did not vary significantly based on developmental stage or by gender. Overall, the findings suggest that participation in organized and informal sports contexts may be fostered by supporting the development of positive motivational beliefs about the activities across developmental periods.
Diokno, Eugene; Rowe, Dale
The presence of certain medical or orthopedic conditions need not preclude adolescents from being physically active and participating in sports. The benefits of continued physical activity far outweigh any concerns for potential complications for most such conditions. This article reviews sport participation guidelines for adolescents with conditions that include juvenile chronic arthritis, eye injures, solitary kidney, skin conditions, scoliosis, and spondylolysis.
Lazzeri, Giacomo; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Niclasen, Birgit; Pammolli, Andrea; Vereecken, Carine; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Kelly, Colette
Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and children and adolescents can benefit from breakfast consumption in several ways. The purpose of the present study was to describe trends in daily breakfast consumption (DBC) among adolescents across 31 countries participating in the HBSC survey between 2002 to 2010 and to identify socio-demographic (gender, family affluence and family structure) correlates of DBC. Cross-sectional surveys including nationally representative samples of 11-15 year olds (n = 455,391). Multilevel logistic regression analyses modeled DBC over time after adjusting for family affluence, family structure and year of survey. In all countries, children in two-parent families were more likely to report DBC compared to single parent families. In most countries (n = 19), DBC was associated with family affluence. Six countries showed an increase in DBC (Canada, Netherland, Macedonia, Scotland, Wales, England) from 2002. A significant decrease in DBC from 2002 was found in 11 countries (Belgium Fr, France, Germany, Croatia, Spain, Poland, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Norway), while in 5 countries (Portugal, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden) no significant changes were seen. Frequency of DBC among adolescents in European countries and North America showed a more uniform pattern in 2010 as compared to patterns in 2002. DBC increased significantly in only six out of 19 countries from 2002 to 2010. There is need for continued education and campaigns to motivate adolescents to consume DBC. Comparing patterns across HBSC countries can make an important contribution to understanding regional /global trends and to monitoring strategies and development of health promotion programs.
In reform-based science curricula, students' discursive participation is highly encouraged as a means of science learning as well as a goal of science education. However, Asian immigrant students are perceived to be quiet and passive in classroom discursive situations, and this reticence implies that they may face challenges in discourse-rich science classroom learning environments. Given this potentially conflicting situation, the present study aims to understand how and why Asian immigrant students participate in science classroom discourse. Findings from interviews with seven Korean immigrant adolescents illustrate that they are indeed hesitant to speak up in classrooms. Drawing upon cultural historical perspectives on identity and agency, this study shows how immigrant experiences shaped the participants' othered identity and influenced their science classroom participation, as well as how they negotiated their identities and situations to participate in science classroom and peer communities. I will discuss implications of this study for science education research and science teacher education to support classroom participation of immigrant students.
Frisch, Dana; Msall, Michael E.
With medical advances, more individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) syndromes who reside in developed countries are surviving to adolescence and adulthood. However, there continues to be a paucity of research examining long-term health, functional activities, and participatory outcomes over their life-course. This article reviews the current…
Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Hill, Roger B.
Variations in the school-based career exploration activities of Korean high school students were examined. Data represented 5,227 Korean adolescents in Grade 11 contained in the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005, a nationally representative longitudinal database administered by the Korean Educational Development Institute. Latent class…
Rissel, Christopher; And Others
Surveys of adolescent alcohol abuse prevention task force members found that members who were more satisfied with the task force and lived in the community less time spent more time on task force work. Satisfaction was greater for those who perceived more personal and community influence on the task force. (SM)
Nixon, Stephanie A; Casale, Marisa; Flicker, Sarah; Rogan, Michael
It is widely accepted that researchers have an obligation to inform survey participants of research results. However, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of various dissemination strategies. The emerging field of knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) may offer insight given its focus on techniques to enhance the effectiveness of communicating evidence-based information. To date, KTE has focused primarily on information exchange between researchers and policy-makers as opposed to study participants; however, there are principles that may be relevant in this new context. This gap in the literature becomes even more salient in the context of public health research where research results can reveal particular misunderstandings or shortcomings in knowledge that threaten to severely compromise participants' health. The objective of this article is to describe how KTE principles were used to inform dissemination of results of a self-administered sexual health survey to adolescent study participants in a resource-deprived, peri-urban area of South Africa. Strategies for enhancing two-way information exchange included constructing interactive dissemination sessions led by young, isiZulu fieldworkers. We also employed techniques to create a safe space for dialogue, encouraged the shared ownership of results and crafted targeted messages. Particularly noteworthy was the benefit accrued by the research team through this process of exchange, including novel explanations for study findings and new ideas for future research.
Background There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. Conclusion It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a
Hanson, Mark D.; Szatmari, Peter; Eva, Kevin W.
Objective: The authors evaluated the differential impact of clerk interest and participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) clerkship rotation upon psychiatry and pediatrics residency matches. Method: Authors studied clerks from the McMaster University M.D. program graduating years of 2005-2007. Participants were categorized as 1)…
Dawood, Ban B; Lowe, Gillian C; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Bem, Danai; Daly, Martina E; Makris, Mike; Mumford, Andrew; Wilde, Jonathan T; Watson, Steve P
Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) is used worldwide for the investigation of heritable platelet function disorders (PFDs), but interpretation of results is complicated by the feedback effects of ADP and thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) and by the overlap with the response of healthy volunteers. Over 5 years, we have performed lumi-aggregometry on 9 platelet agonists in 111 unrelated research participants with suspected PFDs and in 70 healthy volunteers. Abnormal LTA or ATP secretion test results were identified in 58% of participants. In 84% of these, the patterns of response were consistent with defects in Gi receptor signaling, the TxA(2) pathway, and dense granule secretion. Participants with defects in signaling to Gq-coupled receptor agonists and to collagen were also identified. Targeted genotyping identified 3 participants with function-disrupting mutations in the P2Y(12) ADP and TxA(2) receptors. The results of the present study illustrate that detailed phenotypic analysis using LTA and ATP secretion is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of PFDs. Our data also enable subdivision at the level of platelet-signaling pathways and in some cases to individual receptors. We further demonstrate that most PFDs can be reliably diagnosed using a streamlined panel of key platelet agonists and specified concentrations suitable for testing in most clinical diagnostic laboratories.
Cornick, Shayla L.
Experiences that females have during middle and high school have been found to influence the perceptions that they have of their ability to be successful as an engineer and the value that they place on participating in engineering education. Engineering education continues to suffer from a lack of female participation. Several efforts have been…
Plata, Maximino; Trusty, Jerry; Glasgow, Danny
Fifty-one Anglo American (28 educationally successful, 23 educationally at risk) and 20 African American (10 educationally successful, 10 educationally at risk) high school boys participated in a study to determine their willingness to allow same-sex peers with learning disabilities (LD) participate in a variety of activities. Kruskal-Wallis…
Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.
It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to…
Gilbert, Andrée; Maheux, Brigitte; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Haley, Nancy
OBJECTIVE To investigate how often family physicians see adolescents with mental health problems and how they manage these problems. DESIGN Mailed survey completed anonymously. SETTING Province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS All 358 French-speaking family physicians who practise primarily in local community health centres (CLSCs), including physicians working in CLSC youth clinics, and 749 French-speaking practitioners randomly selected from private practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Frequency with which physicians saw adolescents with mental health problems, such as depression, suicidal thoughts, behavioural disorders, substance abuse, attempted suicide, or suicide, during the last year or since they started practice. RESULTS Response rate was 70%. Most physicians reported having seen adolescents with mental health problems during the last year. About 10% of practitioners not working in youth clinics reported seeing adolescents with these disorders at least weekly. Anxiety was the most frequently seen problem. A greater proportion of physicians working in youth clinics reported often seeing adolescents for all the mental health problems examined in this study. Between 8% and 33% of general practitioners not working in youth clinics said they had not seen any adolescents with depression, behavioural disorders, or substance abuse. More than 80% of physicians had seen adolescents who had attempted suicide, and close to 30% had had adolescent patients who committed suicide. CONCLUSION Family physicians play a role in adolescent mental health care. The prevalence of mental health problems seems higher among adolescents who attend youth clinics. Given the high prevalence of these problems during adolescence, we suggest on the basis of our results that screening for these disorders in primary care could be improved. PMID:17279202
Alarcón, Gabriela; Cservenka, Anita; Nagel, Bonnie J
Risky decision making is prominent during adolescence, perhaps contributed to by heightened sensation seeking and ongoing maturation of reward and dopamine systems in the brain, which are, in part, modulated by sex hormones. In this study, we examined sex differences in the neural substrates of reward sensitivity during a risky decision-making task and hypothesized that compared with girls, boys would show heightened brain activation in reward-relevant regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens, during reward receipt. Further, we hypothesized that testosterone and estradiol levels would mediate this sex difference. Moreover, we predicted boys would make more risky choices on the task. While boys showed increased nucleus accumbens blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response relative to girls, sex hormones did not mediate this effect. As predicted, boys made a higher percentage of risky decisions during the task. Interestingly, boys also self-reported more motivation to perform well and earn money on the task, while girls self-reported higher state anxiety prior to the scan session. Motivation to earn money partially mediated the effect of sex on nucleus accumbens activity during reward. Previous research shows that increased motivation and salience of reinforcers is linked with more robust striatal BOLD response, therefore psychosocial factors, in addition to sex, may play an important role in reward sensitivity. Elucidating neurobiological mechanisms that support adolescent sex differences in risky decision making has important implications for understanding individual differences that lead to advantageous and adverse behaviors that affect health outcomes.
Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya
Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health promotion. Drawing on a review of literature on health promotion for marginalized and out-of-school adolescents, this paper highlights some urgent areas of focus for researchers and policy makers addressing adolescent health. Social determinants of health affecting marginalized adolescents identified by the review were education, gender, identity, homelessness, poverty, family structure, culture, religion and perceived racism, yet there is little solid evidence as to how to best address these factors. More systematic research, evaluation and global debate about long-term solutions to chronic poverty, lack of education and social marginalization are needed to break the cycle of ill health among vulnerable adolescents.
... proposal include, but are not limited to: poverty, unemployment, jobless and job surplus rates; education levels of adults in the service area; availability of and/or accessibility to resources (educational... include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? (a) To assess a Tribe's level of success in meeting its...
... proposal include, but are not limited to: poverty, unemployment, jobless and job surplus rates; education levels of adults in the service area; availability of and/or accessibility to resources (educational... include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? (a) To assess a Tribe's level of success in meeting its...
Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.
Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis, themes from the 12 focus groups were found to be consistent across village, gender, and age groups. Program location or site (e.g., away from the village, hunting, fishing), a group-based format, and inclusion of medication and personal stories were reported to be important attributes of cessation programs. Motivators to quit tobacco were the perceived adverse health effects of tobacco, improved self-image and appearance, and the potential to be a future role model as a non–tobacco user for family and friends. Parents were perceived as potentially supportive to the adolescent in quitting tobacco. The findings will be used to develop tobacco cessation programs for Alaska Native youth. PMID:18048549
Merten, Michael J
This study uses a vignette-based survey design to examine the relationship between both respondent-level and case-level characteristics and the acceptability of violence in dating relationships. Measures of sports participation, competitiveness, and the need to win (respondent characteristics) were administered to 661 male and female late adolescents. Participants also rated the acceptability of violence portrayed in a series of couple interaction vignettes varying along three dimensions: initiator act, recipient reaction, and initator-recipient gender combinations (case characteristics). Results from a multilevel analysis show that with regard to respondent characteristics, only the need to win is related (positively) to the acceptability of dating violence, not sports participation or competitiveness. With regard to case characteristics, recipient reaction has the strongest relationship, suggesting that how a victim of violence reacts may be a more important predictor (negative relationship) of the acceptability of dating violence than the initial act of violence. Overall, case characteristics explain three times more variation in the acceptability of dating violence than respondent characteristics (30% vs. 10%).
Broer, Linda; Raschenberger, Julia; Deelen, Joris; Mangino, Massimo; Codd, Veryan; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J M; Gieger, Christian; Haun, Margot; Henneman, Peter; Herder, Christian; Hovatta, Iiris; Laser, Annika; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kollerits, Barbara; Moilanen, Eeva; Oostra, Ben A; Paulweber, Bernhard; Quaye, Lydia; Rissanen, Aila; Roden, Michael; Surakka, Ida; Valdes, Ana M; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Thorand, Barbara; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Kaprio, Jaakko; Spector, Tim D; Slagboom, P Eline; Samani, Nilesh J; Kronenberg, Florian; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz
Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors to accelerated age-related relative telomere length (RTL) shortening. Both conditions are strongly linked to leptin and adiponectin, the most prominent adipocyte-derived protein hormones. As high leptin levels and low levels of adiponectin have been implicated in inflammation, one expects adiponectin to be positively associated with RTL while leptin should be negatively associated. Within the ENGAGE consortium, we investigated the association of RTL with adiponectin and leptin in seven independent cohorts with a total of 11,448 participants. We performed partial correlation analysis on Z-transformed RTL and LN-transformed leptin/adiponectin, adjusting for age and sex. In extended models we adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Adiponectin showed a borderline significant association with RTL. This appeared to be determined by a single study and when the outlier study was removed, this association disappeared. The association between RTL and leptin was highly significant (r = -0.05; p = 1.81 × 10(-7)). Additional adjustment for BMI or CRP did not change the results. Sex-stratified analysis revealed no difference between men and women. Our study suggests that high leptin levels are associated with short RTL.
DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record
DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friend on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years, nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across two consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point where they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. PMID:26595356
Knifsend, Casey A; Graham, Sandra
Although adolescents often participate in multiple extracurricular activities, little research has examined how the breadth of activities in which an adolescent is involved relates to school-related affect and academic performance. Relying on a large, multi-ethnic sample (N = 864; 55.9% female), the current study investigated linear and non-linear relationships of 11th grade activity participation in four activity domains (academic/leadership groups, arts activities, clubs, and sports) to adolescents' sense of belonging at school, academic engagement, and grade point average, contemporarily and in 12th grade. Results of multiple regression models revealed curvilinear relationships for sense of belonging at school in 11th and 12th grade, grade point average in 11th grade, and academic engagement in 12th grade. Adolescents who were moderately involved (i.e., in two domains) reported a greater sense of belonging at school in 11th and 12th grade, a higher grade point average in 11th grade, and greater academic engagement in 12th grade, relative to those who were more or less involved. Furthermore, adolescents' sense of belonging at school in 11th grade mediated the relationship of domain participation in 11th grade to academic engagement in 12th grade. This study suggests that involvement in a moderate number of activity domains promotes positive school-related affect and greater academic performance. School policy implications and recommendations are discussed.
... Include When Purchasing Goods or Services Under a TIA? E Appendix E to Part 37 National Defense Department... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pt. 37, App. E Appendix E to Part 37—What Provisions May a Participant Need To Include... of any national policy requirements that flow down to their purchases of goods or services...
Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
We examined the linear and nonlinear relations between breadth of extracurricular participation in 11th grade and developmental outcomes at 11th grade and 1 year after high school in an economically diverse sample of African-American and European-American youth. In general, controlling for demographic factors, children's motivation, and the…
Elder, John P.; And Others
This study investigated the usefulness of a telephone-based intervention in circumventing participant biases in school-based tobacco use prevention programs. Researchers attempted to conduct telephone interventions with ninth graders and found it difficult to reach a large portion of targeted individuals. Results provided data on which adolescents…
Sha, Li; Schunn, Christian; Bathgate, Meghan
Cumulatively, participation in optional science learning experiences in school, after school, at home, and in the community may have a large impact on student interest in and knowledge of science. Therefore, interventions can have large long-term effects if they change student choice preferences for such optional science learning experiences. To…
Alfredsson, Elin K; Broberg, Anders G
Leader-led parent support groups, offered universally to parents of adolescents, are increasingly common, yet little is known of the parents who use this support. The study presented here explored the characteristics of parents of 10- to 17-year-olds (N = 192) who had enlisted in universal support groups and their reasons for enrollment. Sociodemographic factors (parents' country of origin, educational level, long-term sick-leave or unemployment, and marital status) were compared to the general population (Statistics Sweden, 2012) and parents' psychological health and children's psychiatric symptoms were compared to a control group (the BITA study). Results showed that support group parents reported more psychosocial difficulties, such as higher frequency of long-term sick-leave or unemployment, more symptoms of anxiety and depression and more psychiatric symptoms in their children than parents in general. While about a fifth of the parents had problem-oriented (targeted) reasons for enrollment, most parents had general (universal) reasons. Thus, the universal approach does seem to reach its intended recipients.
Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Palmer, Paula H.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Cen, Steven; Johnson, C. Anderson
Schools offer a convenient setting for research on adolescents. However, obtaining active written parental consent is difficult. In a 6th-grade smoking study, students were recruited with two consent procedures: active consent (parents must provide written consent for their children to participate) and implied consent (children may participate…
Wilcox, Claire E; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Nakazawa, Masato; Woody, George
Objective measures of drug use are very important in treatment outcome studies of persons with substance use disorders, but obtaining and interpreting them can be challenging and not always practical. Thus, it is important to determine if, and when, drug-use self-reports are valid. To this end we explored the relationships between urine drug screen results and self-reported substance use among adolescents and young adults with opioid dependence participating in a clinical trial of buprenorphine-naloxone. In this study, 152 individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to a 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone (DETOX) or 12weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP), each with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Urine drug screens and self-reported frequency of drug use were obtained weekly, and patients were paid $5 for completing weekly assessments. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, more extensive assessments were done, and participants were reimbursed $75. Self-report data were dichotomized (positive vs. negative), and for each major drug class we computed the kappa statistic and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of self-report using urine drug screens as the "gold standard". Generalized linear mixed models were used to explore the effect of treatment group assignment, compensation amounts, and participant characteristics on self-report. In general, findings supported the validity of self-reported drug use. However, those in the BUP group were more likely to under-report cocaine and opioid use. Therefore, if used alone, self-report would have magnified the treatment effect of the BUP condition.
Wulff, Hagen; Wagner, Petra
To meet the challenge of obesity, effective therapeutic concepts for adolescents focusing on lifestyle changes are necessary. Particularly relevant are nutrition and physical activity patterns associated with media use, which can be influenced by sociodemographic factors. For the optimization of obesity therapy approaches, it is essential to analyze these sociodemographic factors to adjust the aims, content, and methods of interventions, and to use the potential of media in treatment concepts. Thus, the research question is: what are the media and physical activity patterns of 11- to 17-year-old participants in obesity therapy, depending on sociodemographic factors? The national multicenter study was conducted from 2012 to 2013. A questionnaire was administered to 564 participants aged 13.4 ± 1.6 (mean ± standard deviation) years. Standardized instruments were used to assess the variables physical activity, media use, and sociodemographic factors. Participants were physically active for 1 h on 3.3 ± 1.8 days per week, 8.5 % daily. Televisions, mobile phones, and computers were available in all sociodemographic groups and were used for 2 h per day. Sociodemographic differences can be seen in the extent of media usage (h/day). These differences can be found between girls and boys concerning their usage of mobile phones (2.49 vs. 1.90; p < 0.001), between 11- to 13- and 14- to 17-year-old children concerning their usage of game consoles (0.55 vs. 1.65; p = 0.007), and in the correlation analysis of media usage and physical activity. Compared with existing literature, the survey results reveal reduced activity and increased media use, which vary among the groups. Thus, differentiated therapy approaches appear to be reasonable. Future research needs to evaluate to what extent media, despite the risks, can contribute to the methodological support of therapy, training, and aftercare concepts.
Basterfield, Laura; Gardner, Lauren; Reilly, Jessica K; Pearce, Mark S; Parkinson, Kathryn N; Adamson, Ashley J; Reilly, John J; Vella, Stewart A
Background Participation in sports is associated with numerous physical and psychosocial health benefits, however, participation declines with age, and knowledge of perceived barriers to participation in children is lacking. This longitudinal study of children and adolescents aimed to use the ecological model of physical activity to assess changes in barriers to participation in sports clubs to identify age-specific and weight-specific targets for intervention. Methods Longitudinal study—Perceived barriers to sports participation were collected from a birth cohort, the Gateshead Millennium Study (n>500) at ages 9 and 12 years. The open-ended question ‘Do you find it hard to take part in sports clubs for any reason?’ was completed with free text and analysed using content analysis, and the social–ecological model of physical activity. Results Barriers from across the social-ecological model were reported. Barriers at 9 years were predominantly of a physical environmental nature, and required high parental involvement (for transport, money, permission), or were associated with a lack of suitable clubs. At 12 years, perceived barriers were predominantly classed as intrapersonal (‘they're boring’) or social environmental (‘my friends don't go’). Perceived barriers were not associated with weight status. Conclusions Perceived barriers to sports participation change rapidly in childhood and adolescence. Future interventions aiming to increase sports participation in children and adolescents should target specific age groups, should consider the rapid changes which occur in adolescence, and aim to address prominent barriers from across the socioecological model. Perceived barriers may be unrelated to current weight status, allowing for more inclusive solutions. PMID:27900159
... their records and are not willing to grant full access to records pertinent to the award, there is no... participant's records do I include in a TIA? 37.915 Section 37.915 National Defense Department of Defense... Award Terms Related to Other Administrative Matters Records Retention and Access Requirements §...
... their records and are not willing to grant full access to records pertinent to the award, there is no... participant's records do I include in a TIA? 37.915 Section 37.915 National Defense Department of Defense... Award Terms Related to Other Administrative Matters Records Retention and Access Requirements §...
... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What Provisions May a Participant Need To Include When Purchasing Goods or Services Under a TIA? E Appendix E to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS...
... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What Provisions May a Participant Need To Include When Purchasing Goods or Services Under a TIA? E Appendix E to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS...
... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What Provisions May a Participant Need To Include When Purchasing Goods or Services Under a TIA? E Appendix E to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS...
... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What Provisions May a Participant Need To Include When Purchasing Goods or Services Under a TIA? E Appendix E to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS...
Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya
Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health…
McDonough, Meghan H; Crocker, Peter R E
This study examined the factor structure of the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS; Weiss and Smith, 1999) and compared two models in which (a) self-worth mediated the relationship between physical self/friendship quality and sport commitment and (b) friendship quality and physical self-perceptions directly predicted self-worth and sport commitment. Female team sport participants (N = 227) between the ages of 11 and 14 years completed measures of sport commitment, enjoyment, athletic competence, physical attractiveness, self-worth, and friendship qualities. A confirmatory factor analysis found an inadequate fit for the SFQS, mainly due to problems with the loyalty and intimacy subscale. Separating the loyalty and intimacy factor into two subscales provided an adequate fit. Examination of the two structural models indicated that both models provided an adequate overall fit but that self-worth only weakly predicted sport commitment, suggesting the mediator model was impractical. Friendship quality had a weak relationship with self-worth and sport commitment. Results are discussed in light of issues in measuring sport friendship quality and future directions in this developing field.
Wilkerson, J Michael; Schick, Vanessa R; Romijnders, Kim A; Bauldry, Jessica; Butame, Seyram A
Evidence-based interventions that increase social support have the potential to improve the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth. Hatch Youth is a group-level intervention that provides services four nights a week to LGBTQ youth between 13 and 20 years of age. Each Hatch Youth meeting is organized into three 1-hour sections: unstructured social time, consciousness-raising (education), and a youth-led peer support group. Youth attending a Hatch Youth meeting between March and June 2014 (N = 108) completed a cross-sectional survey. Covariate adjusted regression models were used to examine the association between attendance, perceived social support, depressive symptomology, self-esteem, and coping ability. Compared to those who attended Hatch Youth for less than 1 month, participants who attended 1 to 6 months or more than 6 months reported higher social support (β1-6mo. = 0.57 [0.07, 1.07]; β6+mo. = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.14, 0.75], respectively). Increased social support was associated with decreased depressive symptomology (β = -4.84, 95% CI [-6.56, -3.12]), increased self-esteem (β = 0.72, 95% CI [0.38, 1.06]), and improved coping ability (β = 1.00, 95% CI [0.66, 1.35]). Hatch Youth is a promising intervention that has the potential to improve the mental health and reduce risk behavior of LGBTQ youth.
Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.
Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)
Bantjes, Jason; Swartz, Leslie; Conchar, Lauren; Derman, Wayne
Adolescents with disabilities in developing countries frequently have limited access to sporting opportunities and comparatively little is known of their lived experiences and preferences. We set out to understand what a group of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) living in South Africa perceive to be important components of programmes developed…
Li, Zhi Hong; Connolly, Jennifer; Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy
This study compared the romantic involvements of Canadian and Chinese adolescents as well as linkages with friend and parental relationships. Participants were 496 Chinese adolescents and 395 Canadian adolescents, aged 16-17 years. Chinese adolescents were less likely to have any form of romantic involvement, including a romantic relationship,…
McCoy, Stephanie M.; Jakicic, John M.; Barone Gibbs, Bethany
Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were…
Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.
In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…
Kennedy, Angie C; Bennett, Larry
Using a risk and resilience perspective, the authors assessed urban adolescent mothers' exposure to community, family, and partner violence and analyzed the relationships between cumulative violence exposure and multiple school outcomes, within the context of welfare reforms. Positive attitude toward school and social support were examined as moderators of violence exposure on school outcomes. The authors pilot tested the questionnaire with 10 participants, then surveyed 120 adolescent mothers regarding their violence exposure, school performance and participation, positive attitude toward school, and social support. Results indicate very high rates of lifetime exposure to violence; intercorrelations and regression analyses indicate that as violence exposure increases, school outcomes tend to worsen, with positive attitude toward school found to be a significant moderator of the effects of exposure to community violence on behavior problems in school. Implications for researchers, practitioners, school policies and programs, and welfare policies and programs conclude the article.
Pastor, Yolanda; Balaguer, Isabel; Pons, Diana; Garcia-Merita, Marisa
This paper examines the direct and indirect effects of sports participation on perceived health. It is based on a representative sample of middle adolescents aged 15-18 (N=1038, M AGE=16.31, S. D.=0.92; 510 boys and 528 girls) from the Valencian Community (Spain). This study used two different models; Model A is an adaptation of Thorlindsson,…
Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Brody, Gene H; Philibert, Robert A; Rose, Eve
Not everyone exposed to an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intervention will reduce sexual risk behaviors, yet little is known about factors associated with "failure to change" high-risk sexual behaviors post-intervention. History of abuse and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) may be associated with non-change. The current study sought to identify genetic, life history, and psychosocial factors associated with adolescents' failure to change condom use behaviors post-participation in an HIV prevention intervention. A sub-set of participants from a clinic-based sample of adolescent African-American females (N = 254) enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention was utilized for the current study. Forty-four percent did not increase their condom use from baseline levels 6 months after participating in the sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention intervention. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, an interaction between abuse and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with non-change status, along with partner communication frequency scores at follow-up. Follow-up tests found that having a history of abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention for only those with the s allele. For those with ll allele, participants with higher partner communication frequency scores were at decreased odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention. Thus, STI/HIV interventions for adolescent females may consider providing a more in-depth discussion and instruction on how to manage and overcome fear or anxiety related to being assertive in sexual decisions or sexual situations. Doing so may improve the efficacy of STI/HIV prevention programs for adolescent women who have experienced abuse in their lifetime.
Godley, Susan H; Hedges, Kristin; Hunter, Brooke
Increasingly, evidence-based treatments are being implemented by community treatment providers, and it is important to understand whether they can be implemented with similar quality and equivalent effectiveness across gender and racial groups. This study examined whether initiation, engagement, dosage, treatment satisfaction, or outcomes for adolescents who received the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) in a large implementation effort were equivalent by gender or racial group. Analyses of data from 2,141 adolescents representing 33 sites across the United States revealed no significant differences for initiation, engagement, or retention by gender or race. Ninety-six percent of the sample reported being satisfied with treatment; however, male adolescents had significantly higher rates of treatment satisfaction than female adolescents, and African American adolescents had significantly higher rates of treatment satisfaction than Caucasian adolescents. A subset of the initial sample (n = 1,819) was used to investigate outcomes. All racial groups had significant increases in days abstinent from alcohol and other drugs and in the percentage in recovery across the measurement period but did not differ from one another at the six-month follow-up. Female adolescents had a higher percentage of days abstinent from alcohol and other drugs and were more likely to be in recovery at the six-month follow-up than male adolescents. Overall, process indicators suggest the intervention was well implemented across gender and racial groups and equally effective across racial groups, with males having equivalent gains in abstinence and recovery compared with females despite males having greater intake severity and differential outcomes at six months.
Gardner, Margo; Roth, Jodie; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
In a study of 1,344 urban adolescents, the authors examined the relation between participation in organized sports and juvenile delinquency. They compared youth who participated in sports to those who only participated in nonathletic activities and to those who did not participate in any organized activities. They also examined the indirect relations between sports and delinquency via 2 peer-related constructs-deviant peer affiliations and unstructured socializing. Finally, they examined the extent to which gender and prior externalizing problems moderated the direct and indirect relations between sports participation and delinquency. The authors found that the odds of nonviolent delinquency were higher among boys who participated in sports when compared to boys who participated only in nonathletic activities but not when compared to boys who did not participate in any organized activities. Deviant peer affiliations and unstructured socializing mediated the relation between sports participation and boys' nonviolent delinquency. Moreover, prior externalizing problems moderated the mediated path through peer deviance. The authors did not, however, find direct, mediated, or moderated relations between sports and boys' violent delinquency nor between sports and girls' violent or nonviolent delinquency.
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Lin, Gloria
With the growing popularity of Internet communication applications among adolescents, the Internet has become an important social context for their development. This paper examined the relationship between adolescent online activity and well-being. Participants included 156 adolescents between 15 to 18.4 years of age who were surveyed about their…
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Helms, Heather M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Sales, Lara H.
This study examined the nature and correlates of different patterns of perceived control in adolescents' relationships with their best friends. Participants included firstborn adolescents (M = 14.94 years), their younger siblings (M = 12.44 years) and both their mothers and fathers in 163 families as well as a best friend of each adolescent (M =…
Tran, Gui; Smith, Toby O; Grice, Adam; Kingsbury, Sarah R; McCrory, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G
Background To assess the relationship between sport and osteoarthritis (OA), and specifically to determine whether previous participation, in terms of level (elite or non-elite), type of sport, intensity or previous injury, was associated with OA. Methods This systematic review was developed using PRISMA guidelines. Databases were searched (to May 2016). Narrative review and meta-analysis (with risk ratio (RR) and 95% CIs) approaches were undertaken where appropriate. Study quality was assessed using GRADE. Results 46 studies were included. Narratively, 31 studies reported an increased risk of OA, with 19 demonstrating an increased risk in elite athletes. There was an increased risk after sports exposure (irrespective of type; RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.64; 21 studies). It remained uncertain whether there was a difference in risk of OA between elite and non-elite athletes (RR 1.37; 95% CI 0.84 to 2.22; 17 studies). The risk was higher in soccer (RR 1.42; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.77; 15 studies) but lower in runners (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.41; 12 studies). 9 studies showed an association with the intensity of sport undertaken and OA. 5 studies demonstrated a higher prevalence of OA following meniscectomies and anterior cruciate ligament tears. Overall, the evidence was of GRADE ‘very low’ quality. Conclusions There was very low-quality evidence to support an increased relationship between sports participation and OA in elite participants. It is unclear whether there is a difference in risk between elite and non-elite participants with further prospective studies needed to evaluate this. Pooled findings suggested that significant injuries were associated with OA in soccer players. PMID:27683348
Harrison, Patricia A; Narayan, Gopalakrishnan
This study examined whether participation in school team sports, exclusively or in combination with other extracurricular activities, is associated with higher levels of psychosocial functioning and healthy behavior than participation in other extracurricular activities alone or nonparticipation. The study sample includes 50,168 ninth grade public school students who completed an anonymous, voluntary statewide survey in 2001. Students were classified into four groups based on their participation in sports and other activities (such as clubs, volunteer work, band, choir, or music lessons): neither, both, other activities only, and sports only. Odds ratios for the group involved in both types of activities were significantly higher than those for all the other groups for all healthy behaviors and measures of connectedness, and significantly lower for all but one of the unhealthy behaviors. Students involved in sports, alone or in combination with other activities, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for exercise, milk consumption, and healthy self-image, and significantly lower odds for emotional distress, suicidal behavior, family substance abuse, and physical and sexual abuse victimization. Students involved in other activities, alone or in combination with sports, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for doing homework and significantly lower odds for alcohol consumption, marijuana use, and vandalism. The finding that abuse victims appeared to avoid sports but not other group activities raises concern and merits further research. Considering the potential benefits of participation in sports and other activities, more research is needed to identify and overcome barriers or deterrents, particularly for youth from low-income families.
Neumann, David L; Waters, Allison M; Westbury, H Rae
Ethical considerations can prohibit the use of traditional unconditional stimuli (USs), such as electric shocks or loud tones, when children or adolescents participate in aversive Pavlovian conditioning experiments. The present study evaluated whether an unpleasant sound provides a viable alternative. Fifteen boys and girls aged 13 to 17 years completed a differential Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which a conditional stimulus (CS) was followed by the sound of metal scraping on slate. Acquisition of conditioned responses was found in startle blink magnitude, expectancy judgments of the sound, and skin conductance responses. Extinction of conditioned responses was found in all measures when the CS was no longer followed by the unpleasant sound. Subjective ratings and skin conductance responses indicated that the sound was unpleasant because of its qualitative features, rather than its intensity. The results support the use of an unpleasant sound as a low-risk alternative to traditional USs in aversive Pavlovian conditioning experiments with children and adolescents.
Dishman, Rod K; Hales, Derek P; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Felton, Gwen A; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R
The authors tested whether physical self-concept and self-esteem would mediate cross-sectional relations of physical activity and sport participation with depression symptoms among 1,250 girls in 12th grade. There was a strong positive relation between global physical self-concept and self-esteem and a moderate inverse relation between self-esteem and depression symptoms. Physical activity and sport participation each had an indirect, positive relation with global physical self-concept that was independent of objective measures of cardiorespiratory fitness and body fatness. These correlational findings provide initial evidence suggesting that physical activity and sport participation might reduce depression risk among adolescent girls by unique, positive influences on physical self-concept that operate independently of fitness, body mass index, and perceptions of sports competence, body fat, and appearance.
Simpkins, Sandra D.; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Price, Chara D.; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth
The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms…
Hillier, Ashleigh; Greher, Gena; Poto, Nataliya; Dougherty, Margaret
Music interventions are frequently utilized with those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and have shown a range of benefits. However, empirical evaluations are lacking and would be a timely step forward in the field. Here we report the findings of our pilot music program for adolescents and young adults with ASD. Evaluation of the program…
Metzger, Aaron; Crean, Hugh F.; Forbes-Jones, Emma L.
This study examines patterns of organized activity and their concurrent association with academic achievement, problem behavior, and perceived adult support in a sample of urban, early adolescent, middle school students (mean age = 13.01; N = 2,495). Cluster analyses yielded six activity profiles: an uninvolved group (n = 775, 31.1%), a multiply…
Beaver, Kevin M.; Barnes, J. C.; Boutwell, Brian B.
The current study examined the association between playing high school football and involvement in violent behaviors in sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed that youth who played high school football self-reported more violence than those youth who did not play football.…
Symonds, Jenny E.
Developmentally appropriate research techniques were uncovered by involving ten Year 7 pupils as researchers in a four-hour workshop that investigated the effectiveness of multiple methods in gathering sensitive information from early adolescents. The pupils learned about, tried and evaluated the methods of generating interview questions, peer and…
McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly
Given the importance of predicting outcomes for early adolescents, this study examines a multivariate model of parent-adolescent relationship variables, including parenting, family environment, and conflict. Participants, who completed measures assessing these variables, included 710 culturally diverse 11-14-year-olds who were attending a middle…
Participation in sports has been shown to decrease standardized body mass index (zBMI), especially in school settings. Few studies have examined the impact of sports participation in a Mexican American sample. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of sports participation on wei...
Harrison, Patricia A.; Narayan, Gopalakrishnan
Investigated whether 9th graders' participation in school team sports, exclusively or in combination with other extracurricular activities, would relate to higher levels of psychological functioning and healthy behavior than participation in other extracurricular activities alone or nonparticipation. Participants in any type of extracurricular…
Background Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with significant health consequences. Early and successful treatment of this public health issue is necessary. Although several intervention programs for children result in weight loss or stabilisation in the short term, preventing relapse after weight loss remains an important challenge. Weight loss maintenance approaches in childhood are thought to be promising, but a structured overview of these maintenance interventions is lacking. The aim of the systematic review described in this protocol is to provide an overview of reports published about maintenance interventions in childhood overweight and obesity following initial treatment, in order to guide future directions in the development of maintenance programs for childhood obesity. Methods/design The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, and SocINDEX will be searched for this review. Reference lists of eligible study reports will be scanned for relevant references. Article selection including risk of bias assessment will be performed independently in an unblinded standardised manner by three authors. All reports describing a maintenance intervention in overweight or obese children with a mean or median age of <18 years who have followed a treatment program, regardless of the type of intervention, will be included. Data extraction will be performed using a predesigned pilot-tested data extraction sheet that covers participant characteristics, details about the treatment preceding the maintenance intervention, and the maintenance intervention itself. Body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS or BMI-Z-score) will be used to compare studies. If possible, a meta-analysis will be performed using the inverse-variance random-effects method. Studies that are not included in the meta-analysis will be described in a narrative way in tables and/or in the text. Discussion This systematic review will
Spreafico, F; Terenziani, M; Ardissino, G; Calegari, M; Catania, S; Massimino, M
As a result of advances in treatment, almost 90% of children diagnosed with Wilms tumor became long-term survivors, and have a sustainable quality of life. These patients' involvement in sports during their childhood is hopefully increasing too. The cornerstone of renal tumor cure remains radical nephrectomy, however, so survivors live with a solitary kidney. In most European countries and the USA, the involvement in sports of children with a solitary kidney depends on a responsible physician saying a "qualified yes", pending individual assessment. Unlike the case in the rest of Europe, in Italy having only one kidney automatically disqualifies an individual wishing to participate in any organized "competitive" sports carrying some risk of renal trauma, including basketball, soccer and sometime volleyball. This absolute restriction is based on ad hoc Ministerial rulings concerning "Health protection in sport activities". But available data do not seem to support such an absolute limitation on participation in sports based exclusively on the fact of having a single kidney. The sport-specific incidence of kidney injuries has been estimated at 2.3 injuries per million male athlete/exposures for basketball (2.5 for females), and 2.6 for soccer (6.0 for girls). Kidney injuries are significantly more rare than head or spine injuries. This article aims to provide Italian sport medicine specialists and policy-makers with the necessary background so that the current, over-protective "unquestionably no" response can be reconsidered, and converted into a still well-founded, more permissive attitude to the sports activities suitable for any children with a solitary normal kidney.
Dyremyhr, Åse Eriksen; Diaz, Esperanza; Meland, Eivind
Background. Physical exercise has positive effects on health. However, its associations with self-rated health and body image, which are important predictors for adolescents' wellbeing and later morbidity, are complex. Methods. Cross-sectional survey among 2527 Norwegian adolescents. We examined the relations between self-reported gender, body size, amount and type of exercise and measures of self-rated health, drive for thinness, and desire to change body, with binary logistic regression analyses. Results. Girls and overweight students reported to a greater extent than their peers impaired self-rated health, weight concerns, and desire to change their body. Increasing amount of time spent on sports was related to improved self-rated health in a dose-response manner. Both girls and boys who engaged in individual sports with an advantage of leanness, but only girls engaged in team sports, reported an increased desire to change the body. However, weight concern was not related to amount or type of sports. Conclusions. Physical exercise is positively related to self-reported health but has negative associations with body image for many adolescents. Health promotion efforts should consider this paradox and stimulate physical activity and sports along with body acceptance. PMID:25013414
Soto, Claradina; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.
Introduction American Indian (AI) adolescents have the highest prevalence of commercial tobacco use of any ethnic group in the United States. This study examines ethnic identity (EI), participation in cultural activities, and stressful life events (SLEs) as correlates of smoking and examines historical trauma (HT) as a mediator of these associations. Methods California AI youth (N= 969, ages 13–19, recruited from 49 tribal youth organizations and cultural activities in urban and reservation areas in California) completed a tobacco survey. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model examining HT as a potential mediator of the associations of EI, participation in cultural activities, and SLEs with cigarette smoking. Results Model fit was adequate. EI, participation in cultural activities, and SLEs predicted HT. HT mediated the associations of participation in cultural activities and SLEs with past-month smoking. Stronger EI predicted greater past-month smoking and this effect was mediated by greater HT. The direct effects from HT to both smoking outcomes were positive and the direct effect from EI to past-month smoking was negative. Conclusions HT is a risk factor for cigarette smoking both directly and in mediating the links of EI, cultural activities, and SLEs. More efforts are needed to help AI youth to process these thoughts and empower themselves to contribute to their own lives and those of their families and communities without resorting to unhealthy addictive behaviors such as commercial tobacco use. PMID:26103424
Taheri, A.; Perry, A.; Minnes, P.
Background: Participation in social and physical activities has a number of benefits for children with or without disabilities. However, individuals with disabilities are often excluded from taking part in social activities. Most of the research on activity participation has focused on adults or youth with milder disabilities. However, children…
Richman, Erin L.; Shaffer, David R.
Investigated links between female precollege sport participation and college self-esteem. Students surveys indicated that participation in sports positively correlated with body image, perceived physical competencies, gender identity, global self-esteem, and other psychosocial variables, thus predicting college self-esteem. In the absence of such…
Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert; Poulin, Chantal; Majnemer, Annette
In recent years attention has been paid to the participation levels of children and youth with Cerebral Palsy (CP), particularly the extent to which they have the opportunity to be involved in and enjoy leisure activities. The objective of this study is to describe the level of participation and enjoyment in leisure activities among adolescents…
Objectives. We examined the association of adolescents’ beverage consumption with physical activity and studied how their school beverage environment influences the association. Methods. We used nationally representative data from the 2007 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort (n = 8850). We examined nonlinear associations of eighth graders’ self-report of beverage consumption (milk, 100% juices, soft drinks) with moderate to vigorous physical activity and physical education (PE) participation using piecewise linear regression models. Results. We found a nonlinear association of participation in PE class with beverage consumption, especially in schools with vending machines and those selling soft drinks. For students participating in PE less than 3 days per week, beverage consumption was not significantly associated with participation in PE class frequency. For students participating in PE 3 to 5 days per week, 1 more day of participation in PE class was associated with 0.43 (SE = 0.14; P = .002) more times per week of soft drink consumption and 0.41 (SE = 0.17; P = .021) fewer glasses per week of milk consumption. Conclusions. The more soft drink and less milk consumption related to high participation in PE class might be prevented by improving the beverage environment in schools. Systematic environmental interventions are needed to prevent such potential unintended consequences of promoting physical activity. PMID:24028221
Hurd, Noelle M.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at…
Spence, Susan H.; Donovan, Caroline L.; March, Sonja; Gamble, Amanda; Anderson, Renee E.; Prosser, Samantha; Kenardy, Justin
Objective: The study examined the relative efficacy of online (NET) versus clinic (CLIN) delivery of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the treatment of anxiety disorders in adolescents. Method: Participants included 115 clinically anxious adolescents aged 12 to 18 years and their parent(s). Adolescents were randomly assigned to NET, CLIN, or…
Miga, Erin M.; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P.
This study examined the associations between reasoning during inter-parental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multimethod, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Inter-parental reasoning at adolescent age of 13…
Hurd, Noelle M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; "M" age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and…
McCauley Ohannessian, Christine; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Mark A.; Nurnberger, John I.
The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between parental psychopathology (specifically, alcohol dependence and depression) and adolescent psychopathology, by the gender of the adolescent and the gender of the parent. The sample included 426 13- to 17-year-old adolescents and their parents. All participants were administered…
Espada, Jose P.; Orgiles, Mireia; Morales, Alexandra; Ballester, Rafael; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.
Due to a lack of controlled studies on HIV prevention interventions among Spanish adolescents, COMPAS, a five-session behavioral intervention, was developed and tested on Spanish adolescents aged 15-18. Participants included 827 adolescents from central, east and north Spain. Six hundred and seven students (M = 15.71 years) received the…
Silva, Gustavo; Andersen, Lars Bo; Aires, Luisa; Mota, Jorge; Oliveira, Jose; Ribeiro, José Carlos
The purpose of this study was to analyse the associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The study comprised 310 participants (183 girls and 127 boys) aged 11-18 years. Sports participation was assessed by questionnaire and habitual physical activity (PA) was measured objectively with accelerometers. The 20-m shuttle-run test was used to estimate CRF. Logistic regression analyses were carried out with CRF as the outcome. The odds ratio (OR) for being fit was greater for those who comply with 60 min · day(-1) in MVPA (OR = 2.612; 95%confidence interval [CI] = 1.614-4.225) in comparison with those who do not. Participation in competitive sports at club levels increased the chances of being fit (OR = 13.483; 95%CI = 4.560-39.864), independently of MVPA levels. There were positive and significant trends in CRF and objectively measured PA across the levels of engagement in competitive sports (P < 0.05). Concluding, participation in competitive sports at club level is more effective than other organised or non-organised sports to reach healthier levels of CRF and recommend levels of MVPA.
Merten, Michael J.
This study uses a vignette-based survey design to examine the relationship between both respondent-level and case-level characteristics and the acceptability of violence in dating relationships. Measures of sports participation, competitiveness, and the need to win (respondent characteristics) were administered to 661 male and female late…
Parsons, Helen M.; Harlan, Linda C.; Seibel, Nita L.; Stevens, Jennifer L.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.
Purpose Because adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer have experienced variable improvement in survival over the past two decades, enhancing the quality and timeliness of cancer care in this population has emerged as a priority area. To identify current trends in AYA care, we examined patterns of clinical trial participation, time to treatment, and provider characteristics in a population-based sample of AYA patients with cancer. Methods Using the National Cancer Institute Patterns of Care Study, we used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate demographic and provider characteristics associated with clinical trial enrollment and time to treatment among 1,358 AYA patients with cancer (age 15 to 39 years) identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Results In our study, 14% of patients age 15 to 39 years had enrolled onto a clinical trial; participation varied by type of cancer, with the highest participation in those diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (37%) and sarcoma (32%). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that uninsured, older patients and those treated by nonpediatric oncologists were less likely to enroll onto clinical trials. Median time from pathologic confirmation to first treatment was 3 days, but this varied by race/ethnicity and cancer site. In multivariate analyses, advanced cancer stage and outpatient treatment alone were associated with longer time from pathologic confirmation to treatment. Conclusion Our study identified factors associated with low clinical trial participation in AYA patients with cancer. These findings support the continued need to improve access to clinical trials and innovative treatments for this population, which may ultimately translate into improved survival. PMID:21931022
Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.
This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…
Booker, Cara L.; Skew, Alexandra J.; Kelly, Yvonne J.; Sacker, Amanda
Objectives. We investigated the relationship between selected types of screen-based media (SBM) use, total SBM use, sports participation, and markers of well-being. Methods. Data came from the youth panel (n = 4899) of Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study, conducted in 2009. Well-being was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and markers of happiness in different life domains. Results. The majority of young people used multiple types of SBM for at least 1 hour per day; only 30% participated in sports every day. Overall, young people with heavy SBM use were less happy than moderate users and more likely to have socioemotional difficulties. Chatting on social networking Web sites and game console use were associated with higher odds of socioemotional problems. Higher total SBM use was associated with lower odds of happiness and higher odds of socioemotional difficulties. Greater participation in sports was associated with higher odds of happiness and lower odds of socioemotional difficulties. Conclusions. Further longitudinal research could inform future interventions to reduce sedentary behavior and encourage healthy lifestyles among young people. PMID:25494209
Pastor, Yolanda; Balaguer, Isabel; Pons, Diana; García-Merita, Marisa
This paper examines the direct and indirect effects of sports participation on perceived health. It is based on a representative sample of middle adolescents aged 15-18 (N=1038, M age=16.31, S.D.=0.92; 510 boys and 528 girls) from the Valencian Community (Spain). This study used two different models; Model A is an adaptation of Thorlindsson, Vilhjalmsson and Valgeirsson's (Social Science and Medicine 31 (1990) 551) model which introduces smoking, alcohol use, feelings of anxiety, feelings of depression and psychophysiological symptoms as mediator variables; Model B is an extension of Model A with perceived physical fitness as an added mediator variable. Both models show a good fit to the data. Results showed that, in both models, sports participation affected perceived health directly and indirectly by decreasing smoking and alcohol consumption, feelings of depression and psychophysiological symptoms. In Model B, sport also affected perceived health via increased perceived physical fitness explaining almost 10% more of the variance.
Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Hawkins, Amy J; Warner, Echo L; Boucher, Kenneth M
Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13-17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) for male adolescents ages 13-17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.
Stayton, W R
The health professional can be helpful to the adolescent, the adolescent's family, and the community through participating in and initiating local sex education programs. Religious settings provide a great potential for sexuality education within a value framework. A helpful curriculum will include the meaning of sexuality; developing a positive concept of sexuality, and a healthy sexual identity; present the issues of adolescent sexuality, including the various health issues; and an understanding of quality relationships within the family and among peers. If health professions and the community religious institutions can joint together, they can reach the goals of most programs in human sexuality, namely, "learning to appreciate our sexuality as a positive potential for self-expression, fulfillment and intimacy; respect for the personhood and well-being of others; and responsible decision-making."
Moncloa, Fe; Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Russell, Stephen T.
This study explores perceptions of Mexican mother-adolescent communication about sexuality. Participants interviewed included four mother-expecting son pairs and four mother-pregnant daughter pairs. Our interviews revealed important adolescent gender differences. Pena (shame/embarrassment) played a major role vis-a-vis indirect communication about…
Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.
This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…
Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.
Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…
Hayward, Chris; Wilson, Kimberly A.; Lagle, Kristy; Killen, Joel D.; Taylor, C. Barr
Objective: To identify parent-reported risk factors for adolescent panic attacks. Method: Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from 770 parents of participants in a school-based risk factor study for adolescent panic. Parent-reported risk factors assessed included characteristics of the child (negative affect, separation anxiety disorder…
Anderson, Susannah; Mezuk, Briana
This study investigates the relationship between participating in a high school debate program on college-readiness in the Chicago Public School district over a 10-year period. At-risk school students were identified using an index including 8th grade achievement, poverty status, and enrollment in special education. Regression analyses were used…
Pagano, Maria E.; Kelly, John F.; Scur, Michael D.; Ionescu, Rebecca A.; Stout, Robert N.; Post, Stephen D.
The positive outcomes derived from participation in Alcoholics Anonymous-related helping (AAH) found among adults has spurred study of AAH among minors with addiction. AAH includes acts of good citizenship in AA, formal service positions, public outreach, and transmitting personal experience to another fellow sufferer. Addiction research with…
Punch, Renee; Hyde, Merv
Psychosocial factors, including socioemotional well-being, peer relationships, and social inclusion with hearing and deaf peers, are increasingly becoming a focus of research investigating children with cochlear implants. The study reported here extends the largely quantitative findings of previous research through a qualitative analysis of…
Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Sooyeon; Gopalan, Himanshu
During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a) engagement in meaningful activities; (b) social support; and (c) positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. PMID:23195747
Summary Background Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected women. Methods Individual data from 117 epidemiological studies, including 118 964 women with invasive breast cancer and 306 091 without the disease, none of whom had used menopausal hormone therapy, were included in the analyses. We calculated adjusted relative risks (RRs) associated with menarche and menopause for breast cancer overall, and by tumour histology and by oestrogen receptor expression. Findings Breast cancer risk increased by a factor of 1·050 (95% CI 1·044–1·057; p<0·0001) for every year younger at menarche, and independently by a smaller amount (1·029, 1·025–1·032; p<0·0001), for every year older at menopause. Premenopausal women had a greater risk of breast cancer than postmenopausal women of an identical age (RR at age 45–54 years 1·43, 1·33–1·52, p<0·001). All three of these associations were attenuated by increasing adiposity among postmenopausal women, but did not vary materially by women's year of birth, ethnic origin, childbearing history, smoking, alcohol consumption, or hormonal contraceptive use. All three associations were stronger for lobular than for ductal tumours (p<0·006 for each comparison). The effect of menopause in women of an identical age and trends by age at menopause were stronger for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease (p<0·01 for both comparisons). Interpretation The effects of menarche and menopause on breast cancer risk might not be acting merely by lengthening women's total number of reproductive years. Endogenous ovarian hormones are more relevant for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease and for lobular than
McCullough, Mary Beth; Rancourt, Diana; Barker, David; Jelalian, Elissa
Objective The association between directly observed mother–adolescent weight-related communication quality and adolescent percent overweight within the context of an adolescent weight control study was examined. Methods As part of a larger study examining the impact of a behavioral weight control intervention that included attention to parent–adolescent communication (Standard Behavioral Treatment + Enhanced Parenting, SBT + EP) compared with an efficacious Standard Behavioral Treatment (SBT), 38 mother–adolescent dyads participated in a weight-related videotaped discussion. Discussions were taped and collected pre- and postintervention. Results No significant differences emerged in the quality of mother–adolescent communication between SBT (n = 19) and SBT + EP (n = 19) participants, nor was baseline mother–adolescent communication quality associated with adolescents’ weight loss in either condition. However, a decline in communication quality was associated with better outcomes for adolescents participating in the SBT group. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that a change in mother–adolescent communication is associated with successful weight loss among adolescents. PMID:25214645
Tsitsika, Artemis K; Tzavela, Eleni C; Apostolidou, Eftychia; Antonogeorgos, George; Sakou, Irine-Ikbale; Bakoula, Chryssa
The health effects of eating disorders (EDs) in adolescence have been widely studied, but their impact on present adolescent psychosocial adjustment and development have been overseen. This study aimed to investigate the association between EDs and career aspirations in middle adolescence. The participants were 147 adolescents diagnosed with EDs. Participants reported on their future career aspirations, and these were coded according to the International Standard Classification of Education of 1997. Of the participants, 83 adolescents were followed up longitudinally, and their aspirations were reassessed and compared for stability across the two assessments. Moreover, participants' career aspirations were compared to those of healthy (non-ED) best-friend controls. Health-related and social-behavioral science careers were chosen significantly more by adolescents with an ED as compared to their non-ED counterparts. For adolescents with an ED, career choices were consistent across reassessments. These findings suggest that adolescents with an ED gravitate toward careers associated with their pathology, namely, both facets of their mind-body pathology. This finding may indicate restricted identity development for adolescents with an ED. Suggestions for treatments protocols to include identity exploration are discussed.
Daykin, Norma; Orme, Judy; Evans, David; Salmon, Debra; McEachran, Malcolm; Brain, Sarah
This article reports a systematic review of literature published between 1994 and 2004 on the effects of performing arts for health in young people aged 11-18. The review includes research on music, performance, drama and dance in community settings and non-curricular mainstream education. A total of 17 electronic databases were searched and 3670 papers identified, 104 of which met relevance criteria. Full text scrutiny of 85 papers was undertaken and 14 of these were identified for review. The research was heterogeneous, making overall synthesis of results inappropriate. The review demonstrates that research on the impact of the performing arts on young people is at a relatively early stage.
Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol
Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys.
Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger
Introduction Physical activity (PA) protects against most noncommunicable diseases and has been associated with decreased risk of allergic phenotype, which is increasing worldwide. However, the association is not always present; furthermore it is not clear whether it is strongest for asthma, rhinitis, symptoms of these, or atopic sensitization; which sex is most affected; or whether it can be explained by either avoidance of sport or exacerbation of symptoms by exercise. Interventions are thus difficult to target. Methods PA was measured by one-week accelerometry in 1137 Germans (mean age 15.6 years, 47% boys) from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, and modeled as a correlate of allergic symptoms, sensitization, or reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or rhinitis. Results 8.3% of children had asthma, of the remainder 7.9% had rhinitis, and of the remainder 32% were sensitized to aero-allergens (atopic). 52% were lung-healthy controls. Lung-healthy boys and girls averaged 46.4 min and 37.8 min moderate-to-vigorous PA per day, of which 14.6 and 11.4 min was vigorous. PA in allergic girls was not altered, but boys with asthma got 13% less moderate and 29% less vigorous PA, and those with rhinitis with 13% less moderate PA, than lung-healthy boys. Both sexes participated comparably in sport (70 to 84%). Adolescents with wheezing (up to 68%, in asthma) and/or nose/eye symptoms (up to 88%, in rhinitis) were no less active. Conclusions We found that asthma and rhinitis, but not atopy, were independently associated with low PA in boys, but not in girls. These results indicate that allergic boys remain a high-risk group for physical inactivity even if they participate comparably in sport. Research into the link between PA and allergy should consider population-specific and sex-specific effects, and clinicians, parents, and designers of PA interventions should specifically address PA in allergic boys to ensure full participation. PMID:27560942
Shelton, Katherine H.; Harold, Gordon T.; Fowler, Tom A.; Rice, Frances J.; Neale, Michael C.; Thapar, Anita; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.
This study investigated genetic and environmental influences on the associations between mother-child relationship quality (warmth and hostility) and adolescent conduct problems and cigarette use. Participants included 601 mothers and adolescent twin pairs (aged 12-17 years). Mothers and adolescents provided separate reports of mother-to-child…
Ching, Leong Yin, Ed.; And Others
Attended by participants from 19 nations, this conference focused on six topics related to child and adolescent development. Major topics discussed included child development and related issues, curriculum and the adolescent, the adolescent and technological changes, and the preparation of youth for adulthood. Symposia focusing on child…
Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John
This study investigates the effects of a feedback intervention employing text messaging during 11 weeks on adolescents' behavior, self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding fruit and vegetable intake. A pre- and post-survey was completed by 1488 adolescents school-wise randomly allocated to a control group and two experimental groups. Both…
Background: Many studies have found that there is a low-to-moderate association between exercise during adolescence and exercise habits in adulthood. A question that arises from these earlier studies, with a follow-up period of about five to 20 years, is how children's and adolescents' physical activity affects their inclination to exercise later…
Data on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are limited. Echocardiography was performed in the last year of the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial (median 4.5 yr from diagnosis of T2D, average age 18 yr), incl...
Coyne, Sarah M; Gundersen, Nicola; Nelson, David A; Stockdale, Laura
Ostracism can lead to strong behavioral responses, including diminished prosocial behavior. To date, experimental research examining this effect has only been conducted with adults. The current study consisted of 40 adolescents, half of whom were experimentally ostracized using the Cyberball paradigm. Participants' subsequent levels of pronounced prosocial behavior were measured, and personality traits were examined as possible moderators in participant behavioral responses. Results revealed that, compared to controls, ostracized adolescents showed less prosocial behavior, and this was moderated by having an "open" personality.
Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Rosen, Zohn; De la Rosa, Mario; Montoya, Ivan D.; Whiteman, Martin
Objective Violence and homicide are more prevalent in Colombia, South America, than in the United States, but the role of psychosocial factors in the violent behavior of Colombian adolescents remains unclear. The objective of the study was to identify personality, familial, peer, and ecological variables associated with violence in Colombian adolescents. Method A survey of adolescents was conducted in 1995-1996. A standard self-report measure was adapted to ensure linguistic and cultural relevance. A total of 2,837 adolescents ages 12-17 years from various self-reported ethnic groups were randomly selected from the community in three Colombian cities: Bogota, Medellin, and Barranquilla. Eighty percent of eligible adolescents agreed to participate. Data were collected concerning the adolescent's personality attributes, family characteristics, peer characteristics, and ecological/cultural factors, including the availability of illicit drugs and the prevalence of violence in the community. The dependent variable was the adolescent's self-reported frequency of violent behavior. Results Violence directed at the adolescent and the adolescent's own drug use were both more highly correlated with the adolescent's violent behavior than were other risk factors. Significant risk factors of less importance included tolerance of deviance, peer drug use, peer deviance, and exposure to violence on television. Conclusions The results supported a model in which violent behavior was correlated independently with a number of risk factors from several domains. The findings point to the use of specific intervention procedures for adolescents to prevent their own subsequent acts of violent behavior. PMID:12900310
Mello, Zena R.; Mallett, Robyn K.; Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.
In this study, we extend research on stereotype threat to adolescents and to school belonging. Stereotype threat refers to the impact of societal stereotypes on individual performance. Participants included adolescents from marginalized racial/ethnic minority groups including African Americans, American Indians, and Latinos and nonmarginalized…
Leftwich, Heidi K; Alves, Marcus Vinicius Ortega
Adolescent pregnancy, although on the decline, represents a significant public health concern. Often adolescents present late to prenatal care, either from lack of knowledge, fear of consequences, limited access, stigma, or all of the above. Although multifaceted, there are many risks both to mother and child that are increased in adolescent pregnancy. Many are unintended and are at risk for repeat adolescent pregnancy, especially within the first 2 years. Risks include but are not limited to: low birth weight, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and preeclampsia, as well as feelings of social isolation, delayed or neglected educational goals, and maternal depression.
Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C
Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed.
Research has suggested that the incidence of loneliness peaks at adolescence and decreases with age. Changes in the determinants of loneliness during adolescence were investigated for grade 8, grade 11, and university students. Subjects (N=410) completed a written questionnaire which included ten items from the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the…
Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh
Objectif : Déterminer si les traits psychopathiques évalués à la mi-adolescence prédisent les résultats de santé mentale, psychosociaux, et antisociaux (y compris criminels) 5 ans plus tard et procurent par le fait même des avantages par rapport au diagnostic du trouble des conduites (TC). Méthode : Quatre-vingt-six femmes et 61 hommes ont été évalués à la mi-adolescence lors de leur première visite à une clinique pour abus de substances et ont été réévalués 5 ans plus tard. Les évaluations à l’adolescence comprennent la liste de psychopathie—version pour adolescents (PCL-YV), et selon leur âge, l’échelle des troubles affectifs pour enfants et de schizophrénie pour enfants d’âge scolaire, ou l’entrevue clinique structurée pour le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, 4e édition (SCID). Les évaluations au début de l’âge adulte comprenaient la SCID, les auto-déclarations du fonctionnement psychologique, du comportement agressif, de la criminalité et d’autres casiers judiciaires officiels. Résultats : Le score à l’élément antisocial prédisait positivement le nombre de symptômes d’anxiété et la probabilité de recevoir un traitement pour troubles d’utilisation de substances (TUS). Les scores aux éléments mode de vie et antisocial prédisaient négativement les scores à l’évaluation globale de fonctionnement. Par contre, le score interpersonnel et le sexe masculin prédisaient indépendamment et positivement le nombre de mois de travail ou d’études, tout comme l’interaction du mode de vie avec le sexe indiquait chez les hommes, mais pas chez les femmes, qu’une augmentation du score à l’élément mode de vie était associée à moins de temps de travail ou d’études. Les scores interpersonnel et antisocial prédisaient positivement le décrochage scolaire. Les scores à l’élément antisocial prédisaient le nombre de symptômes du trouble de la personnalité antisociale
Coetzee, Jenny; Dietrich, Janan; Otwombe, Kennedy; Nkala, Busi; Khunwane, Mamakiri; van der Watt, Martin; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Gray, Glenda E
In the HIV context, risky sexual behaviours can be reduced through effective parent-adolescent communication. This study used the Parent Adolescent Communication Scale to determine parent-adolescent communication by ethnicity and identify predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst South African adolescents post-apartheid. A cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey was administered to 822 adolescents from Johannesburg, South Africa. Backward stepwise multivariate regressions were performed. The sample was predominantly Black African (62%, n = 506) and female (57%, n = 469). Of the participants, 57% (n = 471) reported high parent-adolescent communication. Multivariate regression showed that gender was a significant predictor of high parent-adolescent communication (Black African OR:1.47, CI: 1.0-2.17, Indian OR: 2.67, CI: 1.05-6.77, White OR: 2.96, CI: 1.21-7.18). Female-headed households were predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst Black Africans (OR:1.49, CI: 1.01-2.20), but of low parent-adolescent communication amongst Whites (OR:0.36, CI: 0.15-0.89). Overall levels of parent-adolescent communication in South Africa are low. HIV prevention programmes for South African adolescents should include information and skills regarding effective parent-adolescent communication.
Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie
Youth often hold group norms that perpetuate inequality. One way these norms can be changed is by challenging these norms by choosing to include new members into these groups who hold morally just norms. In the current study, children's and adolescents' inclusion decisions and social reasoning about challenging group norms through inclusion were investigated. The sample included 9-10 (children) and 13-14 year-olds (adolescents) (N = 673, 54.4% female). Participants supported including challengers into groups holding norms supporting relational aggression and unequal allocation of resources, but they were less likely to support including a challenger into a physically aggressive group. Age-related differences and gender differences were found: children and female participants were more likely to include challengers than were adolescents and male participants. The findings indicate that youth support including new members who would challenge morally questionable group norms, but that their support depends on the specific norm the group holds.
Marini, Margaret Mooney
Factors influencing levels of adolescent aspiration are reviewed, including socioeconomic background, academic ability, number of siblings, parental encouragement, mother's employment, academic performance, peer aspirations, dating, and participation in school activities. Although sex differences affect the formation of both educational and…
Brausch, Amy M.; Decker, Kristina M.; Hadley, Andrea G.
This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered…
Perfect, Michelle M.; Jaramillo, Evelyn
The current study examined the role that resiliency and diabetes quality of life play in school functioning and glucose control among adolescents with diabetes. Participants included 45 adolescents with diabetes who participated in a larger study evaluating the feasibility of a model of mental health screening, assessment, and referral/service…
Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael
The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence. Participants included 704 adolescents recruited from the community. At baseline, parents provided information on adolescents' temperament and youth reported on their own and their friends' delinquent behavior. Self-reports of adolescents' delinquent behavior were collected again 16 months later. Peer deviance was related to delinquent behavior over time more strongly for adolescents with low levels of task orientation, flexibility, and positive mood, compared to youth with high levels of task orientation, flexibility, and positive mood. Analyses of gender differences indicated that low flexibility increased susceptibility to negative peer influence only for males, but not females. General activity level and sleep rhythmicity did not moderate the effect of peer behavior on delinquency.
Wainright, Jennifer L; Patterson, Charlotte J
This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. On both self-reported and peer-reported measures of relations with peers, adolescents were functioning well, and the quality of their peer relations was not associated with family type. Regardless of family type, adolescents whose parents described closer relationships with them reported higher quality peer relations and more friends in school and were rated as more central in their friendship networks.
Stuparich, Mallory A; Donnellan, Nicole M; Sanfilippo, Joseph S
The recognition and management of endometriosis in the adolescent patient is challenging. A strong clinical suspicion for endometriosis should be maintained in the adolescent who suffers from acyclic pelvic pain as well as absenteeism from school and lack of participation in daily activities. Risk factors include the presence of an obstructive Mullerian anomaly, a family history of endometriosis, and conditions that prolong exposure to endogenous and exogenous estrogens. Empiric medical therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and combined oral contraceptive pills may be considered in most adolescents with endometriosis. Failure of empiric therapy may warrant diagnostic laparoscopy, which affords a concomitant opportunity for treatment via excision of endometriosis. Endometriotic implants in the adolescent tend to be more atypical, appearing red/flame-like, clear/polypoid, or vesicular. Endometriosis tends to recur more often in adolescents when compared with adults, and the role of postoperative medical therapy for the suppression of disease progression is not entirely clear. Current knowledge on the impact of adolescent endometriosis on future fertility is limited but overall reassuring.
This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated included psychosomatic problems and self-esteem. It…
Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia
The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for adolescents with a chronic medical condition. A wide range of coping techniques were studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 176 adolescents participated. They were…
Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Day, Randal D.; Dyer, W. Justin; Black, Brent C.
The current study examined adolescent persistence as a mediator between authoritative parenting and adolescents' school engagement, prosocial behavior, and delinquency. Participants were taken from Time 2, 3, and 4 of the Flourishing Families Project and included 325 two-parent families with a child between the ages of 11 and 14 at Time 2 (mean…
Harris, Mekel S.
As a result of advancements in medical expertise and technology, children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer now have opportunities to participate in many typical activities, including school. To some extent, school reintegration reflects positive adjustment to their illness. Nevertheless, children and adolescents with cancer may experience…
Gross, Candace M.; Rinn, Anne N.; Jamieson, Kelly M.
The current study examined the relationship between gifted adolescents' overexcitabilities and self-concept, while also exploring gender and grade-level differences in overexcitabilities. Participants included 248 gifted adolescents who had completed the sixth through tenth grade during the previous academic year. Overexcitabllities were measured…
Patrick, Renee B.; Gibbs, John C.
Within the fields of socialization and moral development, the relationship of parenting to adolescents' sense of morality and self has been understudied. This study investigated the relationships between perceived parental disciplinary techniques and moral identity among early and middle adolescents. Participants included 93 (54% female) 5th, 8th…
McCarthy, Sherri Nevada; de Souza, Luciana Karine; Jafaar, Jas
This study compares the life events perceived as "rites of passage" from adolescence to adulthood by respondents between the ages of 14 and 23 in 3 countries and discusses the possible influences of culture and globalization on these perceptions. Participants include: (1) 250 adolescents from the US (125 males and 125 females); (2) 191…
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…
Graves, Kelly N.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Shelton, Terri L.; Frabutt, James M.; Willford, Amanda P.
The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge base of adolescent substance use by examining the influences of risk and protective factors for specific substance use, namely alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Participants included 271 adolescents and their primary caregivers referred for mental health services across North Carolina. A…
Newman, Barbara M.; Lohman, Brenda J.; Newman, Philip R.
This study explored three aspects of peer group membership in adolescence: peer group affiliation, the importance of group membership, and a sense of peer group belonging. Each is considered in relationship to adolescents' behavior problems as measured by the Achenbach Youth Self-Report. Participants included an ethnically and socioeconomically…
Shoshani, Anat; Nakash, Ora; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A.
This study aimed to explore the role of school engagement and the mediation effect of acculturation in predicting 1.5 and second-generation migrant adolescents' mental health and risk behaviors. Participants included 448 seventh to tenth grade Israeli students (mean age 14.50, 53% boys): 128 non-Jewish 1.5 generation migrant adolescents (children…
Lucey, Christopher F.; Lam, Sarah K. Y.
This study was designed to identify characteristics of family functioning that relate to suicide potential in an outpatient adolescent population. Participants included 51 adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 who were involved in outpatient counselling. The Family Environment Scale and the Suicide Probability Scale were used to assess…
Louwerse, A.; Eussen, M. L. J. M.; Van der Ende, J.; de Nijs, P. F. A.; Van Gool, A. R.; Dekker, L. P.; Verheij, C.; Verheij, F.; Verhulst, F. C.; Greaves-Lord, K.
The current 7-year follow-up study investigated: (1) the stability of ASD severity, and (2) associations of ASD severity in adolescence with (a) childhood and concurrent psychiatric comorbidity, and (b) concurrent societal functioning. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children were…
Friedman, Alfred S.; Terras, Arlene; Glassman, Kimberly
The primary purpose of this study was to determine, for a court-adjudicated adolescent male sample (N = 160) mandated to a residential program setting, the degree to which their expressed motivation for getting help with their alcohol, illicit drug and illegal behavior problems was found to predict to the outcome of an early intervention treatment…
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Campbell, Cynthya L.; Kesselring, Christine M.; Grant, Kathryn E.
The current study examined coping strategies as mediators of the relation between maternal attachment and depressive symptoms in a sample of urban youth. Participants included 393 adolescents (M age = 12.03, SD = 0.85) participating in a larger study of the impact of stressful life experiences on low-income urban youth. Participants completed…
Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley
Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted by…
Day-Watkins, Jessica; Murray, Rachel; Connell, James E.
This study is a replication and extension of Reeve, Reeve, Townsend, and Poulson (2007) evaluating the effects of a treatment package that included multiple-exemplar training, video modeling, prompting, and reinforcement on helping of 3 adolescents with autism. Results demonstrated that all participants acquired the helping responses. Probes…
Soon, Christine N; Kaida, Angela; Nkala, Busi; Dietrich, Janan; Cescon, Angela; Gray, Glenda; Miller, Cari L
Communication about sexual health between parents and adolescents has been shown to have a protective influence on behaviours that reduce the risk of HIV transmission. This study explored experiences of HIV and sexual health (HSH) communication between parents and/or caregivers and adolescents in an urban HIV-endemic community in Southern Africa. Adolescents (aged 14-19 years) were recruited from the Kganya Motsha Adolescent Centre and the Kliptown community between June and August 2009. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions (n=10 adolescents) and semi-structured interviews (n=31 adolescents). In total, 41 adolescents (56% female, 44% male, mean age=17.2) participated in the study. Adolescent participants identified emotional, physical and sociocultural barriers to initiating HSH communication with parents and caregivers including fear of verbal warnings, threats and physical assault. Adolescents also expressed a desire for mentorship around HSH communication beyond abstinence and peer-based information. Public health interventions need to support adolescents' access to bi-directional HSH information from adult mentors that address the lived realities of adolescents beyond expectations of abstinence.
González, L M; Peiró-Velert, C; Devís-Devís, J; Valencia-Peris, A; Pérez-Gimeno, E; Pérez-Alenda, S; Querol, F
In recent studies, adolescent haemophilia A patients and healthy adolescents have been encouraged to participate in physical activity (PA) based on its many established health benefits. However, none of the studies to date has used objective measures of PA and sedentary behaviour. The aims of the current study included: (i) to determine the amount and intensity of habitual PA among haemophilia A and healthy adolescents, and in haemophilia A patients with and without bleeding episodes in the previous year, and (ii) to identify the type and determine the time spent in sedentary activities in which both groups participate to obtain a broadened view of their daily activities. A total of 41 adolescent haemophiliacs and 25 healthy adolescents, between the ages of 8 and 18 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure PA and the Adolescent Sedentary Activity Questionnaire to assess sedentary behaviours among members of both groups. Adolescent haemophilia A patients showed a higher daily mean time engaged in light, moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PAs relative to their healthy counterparts (P < 0.001). Patients who had experienced bleeding episodes during the previous year also spent more time participating in vigorous PAs than healthy adolescents (P = 0.002). With regard to sedentary behaviours, healthy adolescents spent more time listening to music than haemophilia A adolescents (P = 0.003), whereas haemophilia A adolescents spent more time watching TV (P < 0.001) and playing videogames (P = 0.003) than healthy counterparts. Findings suggest that increased participation in moderate intensity PAs and reduced sedentary behaviours should be recommended among adolescents with haemophilia A.
Chu, Joanna Ting Wai; Bullen, Pat; Farruggia, Susan P; Dittman, Cassandra K; Sanders, Matthew R
There is growing support for the large-scale implementation of parenting programs for the prevention of child behavior disorders and child maltreatment in younger children. However, there is only limited evidence on the efficacy of parenting programs in modifying risk and protective factors relating to adolescent behavior problems. This study examined the efficacy of Group Teen Triple P (GTTP), an eight-session parenting program specifically designed for parents of young adolescents. Seventy-two families with adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years were randomly assigned to either GTTP (n = 35) or a care as usual (CAU) control condition (n = 37). Compared to CAU parents, parents who received GTTP reported significant improvements in parenting practices, parenting confidence, the quality of family relationships, and fewer adolescent problem behaviors at post-intervention. Several of the parent-reported effects were corroborated by reports from adolescents, including decreases in parent-adolescent conflict and increases in parental monitoring. Adolescents whose parents participated in GTTP also reported significantly fewer behavioral problems than adolescents in the CAU condition. Many of these improvements were maintained at 6-month follow-up.
Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Chavous, Tabbye M; Hurd, Noelle; Varner, Fatima
African American adolescents are faced with the challenge to be successful academically, even though they may experience racial discrimination within school settings. Unfortunately, relatively little scholarship explores how African American adolescents draw on personal and cultural assets to persist and thrive in the face of discriminatory experiences. Additionally, little research has explored the buffering role of assets (e.g., racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance) on the relationship between school-based racial discriminatory experiences and the academic persistence of African American adolescents. Participants in the current study included 220 (58 % girls) socioeconomically diverse African American adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to identify clusters based on participants' racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance. Three cluster groups were identified. The majority of the students belonged to the average group in which adolescents reported average levels of the three study assets. Adolescents in the higher group reported higher assets relative to their peers in the study and those in the lower group reported lower strength-based assets relative to their peers. Results indicated that school-based racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of academic persistence. Additionally, adolescents in the higher assets group reported higher academic persistence in comparison to the average and low group. Our model reflected a promotive but not protective influence of adolescents' assets on their academic persistence.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participating in a uniformed group such as Boy Scouts, which can be seen as a meso-ecosystem, is likely to be beneficial for adolescents' psychosocial competence. The psychosocial competence of a representative sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents who were members of uniformed groups (N = 559) was compared with that of a corresponding sample of adolescents who were not members of uniformed groups (N = 834). Measures of psychosocial competence included social skills, helping attitudes, and leadership. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine how well participation in uniformed groups predicted the 3 measures of psychosocial competence concurrently. Results indicated that participation in uniformed groups was associated with higher levels of social skills, helping attitudes, and leadership. Results are discussed in relation to benefits of uniformed group participation.
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Denning, Donna J.; McHale, Susan M.
This study examined the links between sibling relational aggression and other sibling relationship qualities (i.e., intimacy, negativity, and temporal involvement) and broader parenting dynamics. Participants included 185 adolescent sibling pairs and their mothers and fathers. Data were gathered during home interviews and a series of nightly phone…
Mayberry, Megan L.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian
This study tested a social-ecological model of adolescent substance use. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate how systems, such as parents, peers, schools, and communities, directly influence and interact together to influence adolescent substance use. Participants included 14,548 (50.3% female) middle school students who were 78.6% White,…
You, Jianing; Ma, Congfen; Lin, Min-Pei; Leung, Freedom
This study examined adolescents' experiences associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and compared among the experiences of self-cutting, hitting, and scratching. Participants included 42 Chinese adolescents attending secondary schools. They had at least three NSSI episodes in the preceding year. Information about their experiences of NSSI…
Kaland, Nils; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Smith, Lars
In the present study children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome (N=13) and a matched control group of typically developing children and adolescents were presented with 26 vignettes of daily life situations, including irony, metaphors, contrary emotions, jealousy, social blunders, and understanding intentions. The participants in the AS group…
Donelson, Ken, Ed.
This issue of the Arizona English Bulletin contains articles discussing literature that adolescents read and literature that they might be encouraged to read. Thus there are discussions both of literature specifically written for adolescents and the literature adolescents choose to read. The term adolescent is understood to include young people in…
Horwitz, Briana N; Marceau, Kristine; Narusyte, Jurgita; Ganiban, Jody; Spotts, Erica L; Reiss, David; Lichtenstein, Paul; Neiderhiser, Jenae M
Previous studies have suggested that parental criticism leads to more somatic symptoms in adolescent children. However, this research has not assessed the direction of causation or whether genetic and/or environmental influences explain the association between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. As such, it is impossible to understand the mechanisms that underlie this association. The current study uses the Extended Children of Twins design to examine whether parents' genes, adolescents' genes, and/or environmental factors explain the relationship between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. Participants came from 2 twin samples, including the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (N = 868 pairs of adult twins and each twin's adolescent child) and from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (N = 690 pairs of twin children and their parents). Findings showed that environmental influences account for the association between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. This suggests that parents' critical behaviors exert a direct environmental effect on somatic symptoms in adolescent children. Results support the use of intervention programs focused on parental criticism to help reduce adolescents' somatic symptoms.
Clark, C M
Alienation is a contributing factor in adolescents' participation in Satanism, the neo-Nazi skinhead movement, and violent street gangs. Many of their needs are met by gang and/or cult affiliation, including a sense of belonging, self-worth, companionship, and excitement. Emphasizing prevention may minimize deviant subculture involvement, but some adolescents require clinical intervention, ranging from a few outpatient sessions to lengthy inpatient hospitalization. Therapists must be knowledgeable about adolescents' involvement, empathic to their circumstances, and sophisticated in the approach to treatment.
Pincus, Donna B.; Gallo, Kaitlin P.; Comer, Jonathan S.
The present study investigated whether an 8-day intensive treatment for panic disorder in adolescents conferred a corollary benefit of ameliorating symptoms of depression. Participants included 57 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 18 who were randomly assigned to an intensive panic treatment for adolescents with or without parental involvement. Paired samples t tests and hierarchical linear models (HLM) indicated that participants' total depression score and scores on depression subscales declined from baseline to the 3-month follow-up. Additional HLM analyses indicated that the interaction term between age and parent involvement was a significant moderator in the negative slope for adolescent depression, with younger participants benefitting more from treatment without parent involvement than older participants with regard to depression symptoms. PMID:26715827
Hardway, Christina L; Pincus, Donna B; Gallo, Kaitlin P; Comer, Jonathan S
The present study investigated whether an 8-day intensive treatment for panic disorder in adolescents conferred a corollary benefit of ameliorating symptoms of depression. Participants included 57 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 18 who were randomly assigned to an intensive panic treatment for adolescents with or without parental involvement. Paired samples t tests and hierarchical linear models (HLM) indicated that participants' total depression score and scores on depression subscales declined from baseline to the 3-month follow-up. Additional HLM analyses indicated that the interaction term between age and parent involvement was a significant moderator in the negative slope for adolescent depression, with younger participants benefitting more from treatment without parent involvement than older participants with regard to depression symptoms.
Lanza, H. Isabella; Grella, Christine E.; Chung, Paul J.
Objectives To identify underlying patterns of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use in young adulthood, and ascertain whether adolescent over-weight or obesity status predicts problematic substance use patterns. Methods The study included 15,119 participants from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) at Wave 1 (11-19 years) and Wave 3 (18-26 years). Latent class analysis was conducted. Results Participants were classified into a Low Substance Use (35%), Regular Smokers (12%), High-risk Alcohol use (33%), or High Substance Use (20%) class. Over-weight/obese adolescents had a greater likelihood of belonging to the Regular Smokers class. Conclusions Overweight/obese adolescents are at higher risk of engaging in regular cigarette smoking without problematic alcohol or marijuana use. PMID:24933140
Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor; Rutberg, Stina
Although physical activity (PA) is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents' PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents' experiences of being a part of their adolescents' empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents', but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.
Ott, Mary A; Sucato, Gina S
A working knowledge of contraception will assist the pediatrician in both sexual health promotion as well as treatment of common adolescent gynecologic problems. Best practices in adolescent anticipatory guidance and screening include a sexual health history, screening for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, counseling, and if indicated, providing access to contraceptives. Pediatricians' long-term relationships with adolescents and families allow them to help promote healthy sexual decision-making, including abstinence and contraceptive use. Additionally, medical indications for contraception, such as acne, dysmenorrhea, and heavy menstrual bleeding, are frequently uncovered during adolescent visits. This technical report provides an evidence base for the accompanying policy statement and addresses key aspects of adolescent contraceptive use, including the following: (1) sexual history taking, confidentiality, and counseling; (2) adolescent data on the use and side effects of newer contraceptive methods; (3) new data on older contraceptive methods; and (4) evidence supporting the use of contraceptives in adolescent patients with complex medical conditions.
Chen, Mandy; Johnston, Charlotte; Sheeber, Lisa; Leve, Craig
This study examined whether negative parental attributions for adolescent behaviour mediate the association between parental and adolescent depressive symptoms, and whether this relationship is moderated by adolescent gender. Mothers and fathers and 124 adolescents (76 girls and 48 boys; ages 14 to 18) participated. Adolescents were primarily…
Herbert, Natasha L; Gargano, Lisa M; Painter, Julia E; Sales, Jessica M; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; Diclemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M
Influenza remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Vaccinating school-aged children has been demonstrated to be beneficial to the child and in reducing viral transmission to vulnerable groups such as the elderly. This qualitative study sought to identify reasons parents and students participated in a school-based influenza vaccination clinic and to characterize the decision-making process for vaccination. Eight focus groups were conducted with parents and students. Parents and students who participated in the influenza vaccination clinic stated the educational brochure mailed to their home influenced participation in the program. Parents of non-participating students mentioned barriers, such as the lengthy and complicated consent process and suspicions about the vaccine clinic, as contributing to their decision not to vaccinate their child. Vaccinated students reported initiating influenza vaccine discussion with their parents. Parental attitudes and the educational material influenced parents' decision to allow their child to receive influenza vaccine. This novel study explored reasons for participating in a school-based vaccination clinic and the decision-making process between parents and child(ren). Persons running future school-based vaccination clinics may consider hosting an 'information session with a question and answer session' to address parental concerns and assist with the consent process.
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.
Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers
Gardner, Margo; Roth, Jodie; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, the authors examined relations between educational, civic, and occupational success in young adulthood and the duration and intensity of participation in organized activities during high school. They also examined these relations as a function of sponsorship (i.e., school- vs.…
Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan J. T.; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim
This two-wave multi-informant study examined the bidirectional associations of parental control and solicitation with adolescent disclosure and delinquency. Participants were 289 adolescents (150 females and 139 males, modal age 14) and both parents. Parental solicitation and control did not predict adolescent delinquency, but adolescents'…
Mousa, Tamara Y; Mashal, Rima H; Al-Domi, Hayder A; Jibril, Musa A
The present study has investigated the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Amman, Jordan, and the risk factors that are known to predispose it including individual, familial and social variables. A sample of 326 adolescent girls aged 10-16 years was recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test, and body shape questionnaire. Approximately, 21.2% of participants displayed body image dissatisfaction in which physical changes associated with puberty and exhibiting negative eating attitudes were associated with this dissatisfaction. Additionally, mass media messages, as well as peers and family pressures towards thinness were associated with participants' preoccupation with their body image. In conclusion, negative body image perception was observed in the present sample. Therefore, well-controlled prospective studies and development of intervention programs on body image among adolescent girls in Jordan are needed.
Harville, Emily W; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong
Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994-1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24-32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context.
Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong
Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139
Baker, Jessica H.; Thornton, Laura M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective Early maturing girls are at increased risk for disordered eating. However, it is unclear if the association between puberty and disordered eating continues throughout pubertal development and if a similar association is exhibited in boys. Method Participants included 1340 same- and 624 opposite-sex twins from the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development. Pubertal development was assessed at age 13–14 with the Pubertal Development Scale. General disordered eating, measured with the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI) was assessed at age 16–17, and dieting and purging behaviors were assessed at both ages 16–17 and 19–20. We applied analysis of variance and logistic regression analyses to determine whether pubertal development in early-to-mid adolescence predicted eating disorder-related behaviors in late adolescence and young adulthood Results Pubertal development in early-to-mid adolescence was significantly associated with EDI scores and dieting in late adolescence. No significant association was observed between pubertal development and dieting and purging in young adulthood. Discussion Complex combinations of cultural and biological influences likely converge during pubertal development increasing vulnerability to disordered eating. The impact of pubertal development on disordered eating appears to be limited to the adolescent period. PMID:22522282
Swearer, Susan M.; Turner, Rhonda K.; Givens, Jami E.; Pollack, William S.
This study examined effects of adolescent males' perceptions of being bullied because of verbal taunts related to gender nonconformity (i.e., "They say I'm gay"). Participants included 251 ninth- (n=77), tenth- (n=96), and eleventh- (n=78) grade students in a private, all-male college preparatory school. Participants were divided into two groups…
Ozdemir, Yalcin; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Cok, Figen
The present study examined the direct and indirect relationships between parenting processes (parental closeness, parental monitoring, and parental peer approval), low self-control, and aggression. Participants were 546 adolescents aged 14-18 attending state high schools in Turkey. Participants completed a questionnaire that included measures of…
Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed
The protective role of strength of group identity was examined for youth in a context of protracted political conflict. Participants included 814 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.61, SD = 1.99 at Time 1) participating in a longitudinal study in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, the results show that the effect of…
Chandwani, Sulachni; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J.; Barnes, William; D'Angelo, Lawrence
Secondary prevention programs are needed to help HIV-positive youth reduce risk behavior and improve adherence to HIV medications. This article provides an overview of Adolescent Impact, a secondary HIV prevention intervention, including its description, delivery, and receptivity among the two unique groups of participants. Adolescent Impact, a…
The aim of this study was to define whether, and to what extent identity formation in late adolescence is disability specific. Ninety-eight adolescents participated in this study, including 43 students with motor disability and 55 students without disability. Identity exploration and commitment was measured by the Utrecht-Groningen Identity…
Rinn, Anne N.; Jamieson, Kelly M.; Gross, Candace M.; McQueen, Kand S.
This study examines the effects of social comparison, gender, and grade level on gifted adolescents' multidimensional self-concept. Participants include 248 gifted adolescents who had completed the sixth through tenth grade during the previous academic year. Multidimensional self-concept was measured using the Self Description Questionnaire II…
Woodgate, Roberta Lynn
Adolescents with cancer face many challenges that may impact negatively their psychological well-being. In evaluating the psychosocial functioning of adolescents with cancer, research suggests that an altered self-image may emerge in those who have difficulty adjusting. However, little is known about adolescents' perceptions of how cancer affects their sense of self. Part of a larger study, this article addresses findings specific to understanding the impact that cancer and its symptoms had on adolescents' sense of self. To help discover meaningful interpretations of their experiences, a longitudinal, qualitative study was conducted. Data collection methods included open-ended, individual and focus group interviews and participant observation. The constant comparative method of data analysis yielded theoretical categories that were supported by the adolescents' narratives. Findings revealed that adolescents experienced changes in their lived bodies because of the symptoms and this, in turn, impacted their sense of self and way of being in the world. Six ways of being in the world were identified: life as a klutz; life as a prisoner; life as an invalid; life as an alien; life as a zombie; and life as a kid. In helping adolescents deal with the changes, it was important to family and friends to respond to them like they were the same person, but also to treat them special at times. Although adolescents spoke to the significance that cancer had on their lives, they described themselves as "still being pretty much the same person."
Examined extent to which Scottish adolescents (N=40) were influenced by negative images of adolescence present in the culture, investigating self-images by means of Q sort. Eleven factors emerged from analysis, six of which met criterion that distinguishes common factors. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents were influenced by…
Lambert, Sharon F; Roche, Kathleen M; Saleem, Farzana T; Henry, Jessica S
Parents' racial socialization messages, including messages focused on awareness, preparation, and strategies for managing racial discrimination, are necessary to help African American youth successfully navigate their daily lives. However, mixed findings regarding the utility of preparation for bias messages for African American youth's mental health adjustment raise questions about the conditions under which these protective racial socialization messages are most beneficial to African American youth. The current study examined the degree to which communication and trust as well as anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship moderated associations between 2 types of preparation for bias messages, cultural alertness to discrimination and cultural coping with antagonism, and adolescent mental health. Participants were 106 African American adolescents (57% female; mean age = 15.41) who reported about their receipt of racial socialization messages, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that positive associations between cultural alertness to racial discrimination and youth depressive symptoms were weaker for boys in the context of higher mother-adolescent communication and trust; communication and trust were not similarly protective for girls. For boys, the positive associations between cultural coping with antagonism messages and depressive symptoms were stronger in the context of high anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship. Findings suggest that qualities of the mother-adolescent relationship, in which preparation for bias messages are delivered, are important for understanding the mental health adjustment of African American adolescents.
Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry
ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID
Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry
Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352).
Santos, Teresa; Ferreira, Mafalda; Simões, Maria Celeste; Machado, Maria Céu; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar
Living with a chronic condition (CC) in adolescence has been historically considered protective for risk behaviours. However, research from the last decade suggest that when compared with healthy peers, adolescents living with a chronic condition can engage in risky behaviours in a similar if not higher rate than their counterparts living with out a CC. This study aims to characterize and evaluate the impact of 1) living with a chronic condition (CC), and 2) how the perception of living with a CC affects school participation, and its association with risk/protective behaviours (drunkenness, physical fight, sadness and self-harm). For this purpose 4 groups were identified: adolescents with mostly healthy behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk-internalizing behaviours and adolescents with mostly risk-externalizing behaviours. A large sample was included in this study, composed by 3494 Portuguese adolescents with an average age of 15 years, who participated in the Portuguese Survey of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children/WHO (HBSC). Main results show that adolescents living with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours when compared to adolescents without CC, who present more healthy behaviors. Furthermore, adolescents that report that having a CC affects school participation show more risky behaviours than those not affected by a CC who present more healthy behaviours. Boys with a CC show more healthy behaviours, and those who feel that the CC affects school participation present more risky behaviours. On the other hand, girls with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours and less healthy behaviours It is important to point out that dolescents living with a CC represent a vulnerable group, and may engage in experimental/risky behaviours as likely as their non CC peers. Thus, potential benefits can arise from reinforcing interventions within protective contexts (family/peers/school setting). Health
Lusczakoski, Kathryn D; Rue, Lisa A
Typically, clinical evaluations of adolescents' sexual risk is based on inquiring about past sexual activity, which is limited by not including an adolescent's cognitive decision making regarding their past sexual decisions. This study describes the novel OPTIONS framework for assessing adolescent sexual risk including three general categories of risk (e.g., primary, secondary, and tertiary risk), which is designed to overcome the limitation of action-based assessment of risk and improve practitioners' ability to assess the levels of sexual risk. A convenience sample of 201 older adolescents (18-19 years of age) completed an online version of the Relationship Options Survey (ROS), designed to measure the OPTIONS sexual risk assessment. Bivariate correlation among the subscales functioned in the hypothesized manner, with all correlations being statistically significant. Using the OPTIONS model, 22.4% participants were classified as high risk primary, 7.0% participants were classified as high risk secondary, and 27.4% participants were classified as high risk tertiary. The study provided preliminary evidence for OPTIONS model of sexual assessment, which provides a more tailored evaluation by including cognitive decisions regarding an adolescent's sexual actions.
Hurd, Noelle M; Valerio, Melissa A; Garcia, Nicole M; Scott, Anthony A
This study examined the effectiveness of an adapted 4-session HIV prevention program. Participants included 490 adolescents who participated in either the 8- or the adapted 4-session HIVEd program. Analyses to identify mean changes in HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions between participants in either the 4- (n = 274) or 8-session (n = 216) programs were completed. Findings indicate participants in both programs had positive changes at post interview across all study outcomes. No significant differences in changes between participants in the 4- and 8-session programs were found except that male adolescents in the 4-session program had significantly higher mean changes in condom knowledge (p < .01). The adaptation of the 8-session HIVEd program was undertaken to better reach and accommodate the needs of a high risk incarcerated adolescent population. Findings demonstrate that HIV prevention interventions for high risk populations may be successfully adapted and condensed when based on rigorously evaluated and theoretically driven programs.
Tsitsika, Artemis; Critselis, Elena; Louizou, Amalia; Janikian, Mari; Freskou, Aliki; Marangou, Evgenia; Kormas, Georgios; Kafetzis, Dimitrios
Internet Addiction (IA) is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012) and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p < 0.0001). The proportion of adolescents with poor academic performance (p < 0.0001) and unexcused school absences (p = 0.004) was greater among those with IA. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents with IA were engaged in high-risk behaviors (p < 0.0001). Finally, adolescents with IA were 3.89 times more likely to present with comorbid psychiatric conditions (CI 95%: 1.19-12.70), including depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022). Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression.
Wehmeyer, Michael L., Ed.; Webb, Kristine W., Ed.
Transition from secondary education to adulthood represents a period during which adolescents with disabilities face multiple responsibilities and changing roles that include establishing independence, attending postsecondary education or training, developing social networks, choosing a career, participating in their communities, and managing…
Nyaradi, Anett; Foster, Jonathan K.; Hickling, Siobhan; Li, Jianghong; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Jacques, Angela; Oddy, Wendy H.
Background: The aim of the study was to investigate prospective associations between dietary patterns and cognitive performance during adolescence. Methods: Participants were sourced from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study that includes 2868 children born between 1989 and 1992 in Perth, Western Australia. When the children were…
Dogan, Huseyin; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Bozdas, Canan
This study examined the perceived parenting styles as predictors of Internet addiction in adolescence. The participants of the study were a total of 419 high school students including 238 girl and 181 boy students whose mean age was 16.5. Personal information form, "Internet Addiction Test" and "Perceived Parenting Style Scale"…
The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…
Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi
The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…
Lopez, Estefania Estevez; Perez, Sergio Murgui; Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu; Ruiz, David Moreno
The present study examined the influence of family and classroom environments on the development of particular individual characteristics, including level of empathy, attitude to institutional authority and perceived social reputation, and the role these characteristics may in turn play in school aggression. Participants were 1319 adolescents aged…
Kowal, Amanda Kolburn; Blinn-Pike, Lynn
We examined the role of older siblings in protecting adolescents from engaging in unsafe sexual practices. Participants included 297 midwestern high school students who were approximately 17 years old and who responded to questionnaires assessing their attitudes toward sexual intercourse, self-efficacy for engaging in safe sex, and discussions…
Kreider, Consuelo M.; Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Mann, William C.; Young, Mary Ellen; McCarty, Christopher
The people who regularly interact with an adolescent form that youth's social network, which may impact participation. We investigated the relationship of social networks to participation using personal network analysis and individual interviews. The sample included 36 youth, age 11 – 16 years. Nineteen had diagnoses of learning disability, attention disorder, or high-functioning autism and 17 were typically developing. Network analysis yielded 10 network variables, of which 8 measured network composition and 2 measured network structure, with significant links to at least one measure of participation using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Interviews from youth in the clinical group yielded description of strategies used to negotiate social interactions, as well as processes and reasoning used to remain engaged within social networks. Findings contribute to understanding the ways social networks are linked to youth participation and suggest the potential of social network factors for predicting rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:26594737
Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Conder, Lauren H; Newton, Shannon
Visual concentration impairment after neurologic injury is frequent, making its identification a critical component of neurocognitive concussion assessment. Visual target cancellation tests such as the Penn State University Symbol Cancellation Task (PSUSCT) have been widely used in assessing professional and collegiate athletes. To date, there are no normative studies using the PSUSCT with an adolescent population. Given that 38 million children and adolescents participate in sports and an estimated 5% to 10% are concussed annually, adolescent normative data are critically needed to evaluate concussions in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to provide adolescent normative data on the PSUSCT. Participants included 40 healthy, nonconcussed high school students aged 14 to 19 years old (20 men, 20 women). Participants were administered Forms A and C of the PSUSCT within a 4-day period. Data analysis examined hits, omission errors, and commission errors, with descriptive statistics calculated for the total sample and for subgroups by gender and age. Study 1 provided normative adolescent data on Form A. Study 2 examined practice effects and established reliable change indexes (RCIs) by comparing results on Forms A and C. Neither Study 1 nor Study 2 demonstrated significant group differences for gender or age. In conclusion, this study presents adolescent normative data, apparent practice effects, and RCIs on the PSUSCT. These norms provide data needed to appropriately include the PSUSCT in baseline and postinjury concussion evaluation batteries with adolescent student-athletes. Findings should be replicated with a larger, more heterogeneous sample.
Brose, Sara J; Conry-Murray, Clare; Turiel, Elliot
In an examination of how adolescents reason about several factors related to division of childcare labor, 38 adolescents, including 20 girls (M age = 16.36 years, SD = .50) and 18 boys (M age = 16.59 years, SD = .62) were interviewed about conflicts between a mother and a father over which parent should stay home with the child, the authority of the father, and similar issues in a traditional culture. The relative income of each parent was varied. Participants considered the needs of the child most when reasoning about infants, and the right to work most frequently when reasoning about preschoolers (p < .001, eta2 = .35). The majority (71%) did not endorse the husband's authority over the wife. However, boys were more likely than girls to emphasize the mother's responsibility to the child over her right to work (p < .01, eta2 = .23). Implications for gender equity and adolescents' future goals were discussed.
Wolff, Jennifer C.; Seaboyer, Lourah M.; Hunt, Jeffrey; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Nugent, Nicole; Zlotnick, Caron; Miller, Ivan
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a treatment development study to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of treating depressed, suicidal adolescents and their depressed parent concurrently in a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol (Parent-Adolescent-CBT [PA-CBT]). Methods: A randomized, controlled, repeated measures design was used to test the hypothesis that PA-CBT would lead to greater reductions in suicidality and depression compared with Adolescent Only CBT (AO-CBT). Participants included 24 adolescent and parent dyads in which the adolescent met American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria for current major depressive episode (MDE) and the parent met DSM-IV criteria for current or past MDE. Results: The concurrent protocol was found to be feasible to implement with most depressed adolescents and parents. Adolescent ratings of program satisfaction were somewhat lower in PA-CBT, suggesting that some teens view treatment negatively when they are required to participate with a parent. The concurrent treatment protocol was more effective in reducing depressed mood in the parent–adolescent dyad at the end of maintenance treatment (24 weeks) than treating an adolescent alone for depression; the largest effect was on parental depressed mood. This difference between dyads was no longer significant, however, at the 48 week follow-up. Adolescent and parent suicidal ideation improved equally in both groups during active and maintenance treatment, and remained low at follow-up in both groups. Conclusions: The PA-CBT protocol is feasible to conduct and acceptable to most but not all adolescents. The strongest effect was on parental depressed mood. A larger study that has sufficient power to test efficacy and moderators of treatment outcome is necessary to better understand which adolescents would benefit most from concurrent treatment with a
Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Salerno, Jennifer
Adolescent participation in academic/extracurricular activities is related to fewer diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections during adolescence. The role parents play in motivating participation in such activities is unclear. This mixed-methods study explored parental influences on academic/extracurricular activity participation, and the…
This article provides information on adolescent developmental issues and developmentally appropriate interventions that can help mental health practitioners work with adolescents grieving a death loss. Specific areas that are initially covered include core adolescent developmental issues that must be understood, including adolescent developmental…
Kimber, Melissa; Georgiades, Katholiki; Jack, Susan M; Couturier, Jennifer; Wahoush, Olive
Body dissatisfaction has been linked to a number of poor health outcomes, including eating disorders. However, very few studies have investigated body dissatisfaction among immigrant adolescents. Using inductive qualitative inquiry, this study recruited a purposeful sample of immigrant adolescents (N=18, 78% female) with an eating disorder (n=8) and without an eating disorder (n=10). All adolescents were between 16 and 19 years of age (M=16.80, SD=0.89) and were recruited from three municipalities in Ontario. Each adolescent participated in a face-to-face, qualitative interview. Content analysis revealed descriptions of body image that were similar across the sample. The main themes emerging from this work include (a) the "moderately slim" and "moderately muscular" ideal, (b) the "slim and curvy paradox," (c) "ideal" privilege, (d) having an "expected" appearance, and (e) wishful comparisons. Findings have implications for reducing appearance-related dissatisfaction among immigrant adolescents in Canada.
Miga, Erin M.; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P.
This study examined the associations between reasoning during interparental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multi-method, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Interparental reasoning at adolescent age 13 predicted greater autonomy and relatedness in observed adolescent-peer conflict one year later and lower levels of autonomy undermining during observed romantic partner conflict five years later. Interparental reasoning also predicted greater satisfaction and affection in adolescent romantic relationships seven years later. Findings suggest that autonomy promoting behaviors exhibited in the interparental context may influence adolescents’ own more autonomous approaches to subsequent peer and romantic conflict. Possible explanatory models are discussed, including social learning theory and attachment theory. PMID:23087547
Bruce, Barbara K; Harrison, Tracy E; Bee, Susan M; Luedtke, Connie A; Porter, Co-Burn J; Fischer, Philip R; Hayes, Sarah E; Allman, Daniel A; Ale, Chelsea M; Weiss, Karen E
Significant functional impairment and psychological distress have been observed in adolescent patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). Interdisciplinary rehabilitation programs have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of chronic pain in adults and adolescents. Only preliminary data have examined interdisciplinary rehabilitation efforts in patients with POTS. This study evaluated the impact of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation program on the functional impairment and psychological distress in 33 adolescents diagnosed with POTS. Patients included in the study were adolescents ages 11 to 18 diagnosed with POTS. Measures completed at admission and discharge from the program included the Functional Disability Index, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression-Child scale, and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Children. After participation in the 3-week program, adolescents with POTS demonstrated a significant increase in overall functional ability and significant reductions in depression and catastrophizing.
Bagley, Erika J.; Tu, Kelly M.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona
Objective The goal of this study was to examine links between concerns about community violence and objective and subjective sleep parameters in an adolescent sample. Sex was considered as a moderator of effects. Design The study used a cross-sectional design. Participants The community-based sample included 252 adolescents (53% girls) with an average age of 15.79 years (SD = 0.81) from the Southeastern United States. The sample included 34% African American and 66% European American adolescents from a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Measurements Adolescent-reported community violence concerns were assessed using a composite of 3 separate subscales that measured perceived community safety and threats of community and school violence. Sleep duration and quality were assessed using actigraphy, and subjective sleep problems and daytime sleepiness were measured with subscales of the School Sleep Habits Survey. Results Community violence predicted lower sleep efficiency, more long-wake episodes, and more sleep/wake problems and sleepiness. Sex-related moderation effects revealed that girls in the sample were more vulnerable to the effects of violence concerns on their objective sleep quality. Conclusions Findings highlight the role of community violence concerns on adolescents’ sleep, revealing that greater community violence concerns are linked with lower levels of actigraphy-based and subjective reports of sleep quality, particularly for adolescent girls. Consideration of the mechanisms by which violence concerns may affect sleep is discussed. PMID:27695706
Day-Watkins, Jessica; Murray, Rachel; Connell, James E
This study is a replication and extension of Reeve, Reeve, Townsend, and Poulson (2007) evaluating the effects of a treatment package that included multiple-exemplar training, video modeling, prompting, and reinforcement on helping of 3 adolescents with autism. Results demonstrated that all participants acquired the helping responses. Probes before and after intervention also demonstrated generalization of helping across settings and categories of helping behavior.
Ismayilova, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred; Mooers, Elizabeth; Nabunya, Proscovia; Sheshadri, Srividya
AIDS-orphaned children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa have inadequate access to basic services, including health and education. Using a qualitative approach, the study explores the meaning of education in rural Uganda, obstacles faced by AIDS-orphaned adolescents and their caregivers to access secondary education, and the potential of an economic empowerment intervention SEED in addressing the challenges of accessing educational opportunities for AIDS-orphaned adolescents. The findings come from 29 semi-structured interviews conducted with eleven adolescents study participants, four caregivers and fourteen community leaders involved in the pilot SEED intervention. Study participants and community members indicated that the savings accounts offer a unique opportunity for orphaned adolescents to stay in school and imagine the future with optimism. PMID:23543861
De Goede, Irene H A; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J
This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses showed that support declined from early to middle adolescence for boys and girls and increased from middle to late adolescence for girls, while stabilizing for boys. Conflict was found to temporarily increase during middle adolescence. Parental power (relative power and dominance of parents) decreased from early to late adolescence. Results indicated that: (1) parent-adolescent relationships become more egalitarian during adolescence, (2) parents perceived by adolescents as powerful are viewed as supportive, especially in early adolescence, and (3) perceived conflict with parents is related to but not an impetus for changes in parent-adolescent relationships towards more equality.
Klaas, Sara J.
Background: Little is known about depression and anxiety in adolescents with spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective: To examine how depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and usage of treatment differ by age and sex among adolescents with SCI. Method: Youth 12 to 18 years old who had acquired SCI at least 1 year prior were recruited from 3 specialty hospitals. They completed the Children’s Depression Inventory (ages 12-17 years) or Beck Depression Inventory-II (18 years), and Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (12-18 years). Analyses assessed differences between younger and older adolescents and between males and females. Results: The 236 participants were an average age of 15.58 years (SD 1.98), 58% were male, and 60% Caucasian. Average age at injury was 10.57 years (SD 5.50), and 62% had paraplegia. For depression, 5.5% of adolescents ages 12 to 17 years exceeded the clinical cutoff and 12.7% of 18-year-old adolescents fell into a range of moderate or severe depression. For anxiety, 10.6% of adolescents ages 12 to 18 years exceeded the clinical cutoff. Univariate results revealed that older adolescents were more depressed than younger adolescents, and girls were more anxious than boys. An interaction between sex and age emerged, in that older adolescent girls were significantly more anxious than other youth. Older adolescents were also more likely to be taking medications for emotional, psychological, or behavioral reasons. Reports of suicidal ideation did not differ by adolescent age or sex. Conclusion: For these adolescents, depression differed with age, and anxiety differed based on age and sex. Implications for intervention include early identification and treatment for struggling adolescents. PMID:24574818
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Lin, Gloria
With the growing popularity of Internet communication applications among adolescents, the Internet has become an important social context for their development. This paper examined the relationship between adolescent online activity and well-being. Participants included 156 adolescents between 15 to 18.4 years of age who were surveyed about their access to and use of the Internet. Participants also completed measures of loneliness and perceived social support. An ANOVA suggested that loneliness was not related to the total time spent online, nor to the time spent on e-mail, but was related to participants' gender. Regression analyses suggested that gender and participants' perceptions regarding their online relationships were the only variables that predicted loneliness. Adolescents who felt that their relationship with online partners was one that they could turn to in times of need were more lonely. However, perceived support from significant others was not related to time spent online, time on e-mail, participants' relationships with online partners, and to their perceptions about these relationships. The implications of our results for researchers, parents, and other lay persons are discussed.
This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article.
Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Haire, Bridget; Harrison, Abigail; Odetoyingbo, Morolake; Fatusi, Olawunmi; Brown, Brandon
There is increasing interest in the need to address the ethical dilemmas related to the engagement of adolescents in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) research. Research projects, including those that address issues related to STIs and HIV, adverse pregnancy outcomes, violence, and mental health, must be designed and implemented to address the needs of adolescents. Decisions on when an individual has adequate capacity to give consent for research most commonly use age as a surrogate rather than directly assessing capacity to understand the issues and make an informed decision on whether to participate in research or not. There is a perception that adolescents participating in research are more likely to be coerced and may therefore not fully comprehend the risk they may be taking when engaging in research. This paper examines the various ethical issues that may impact stakeholders' decision making when considering engaging adolescents in SRH research in Nigeria. It makes a case for lowering the age of consent for adolescents. While some experts believe it is possible to extrapolate relevant information from adult research, studies on ethical aspects of adolescents' participation in research are still needed, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health where there are often differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices compared to adults. The particular challenges of applying the fundamental principles of research ethics to adolescent research, especially research about sex and sexuality, will only become clear if more studies are conducted.
Yarber, W L; Parrillo, A V
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a serious health problem for adolescents, occurring in an estimated one-quarter of sexually active teen-agers. Many of the health problems--including STDs--result from specific risk-taking behaviors. Determinants of STD risks among adolescents include behavioral, psychological, social, biological, institutional factors. Education is an important component in STD control in adolescents. The goal of education is to increase adolescent self-efficiency in practicing STD prevention and risk-reduction. A comprehensive approach including quality, theory-based education, accessible and effective health clinics, and improved social and economic conditions has the most promise of controlling STDs in adolescents.
Horwitz, BN; Marceau, K; Narusyte, J; Ganiban, J; Spotts, EL; Reiss, D; Lichtenstein, P; Neiderhiser, JM
Previous studies have suggested that parental criticism leads to more somatic symptoms in adolescent children. Yet this research has not assessed the direction of causation or whether genetic and/or environmental influences explain the association between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. As such, it is impossible to understand the mechanisms that underlie this association. The current study uses the Extended Children of Twins design to examine whether parents’ genes, adolescents’ genes, and/or environmental factors explain the relationship between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. Participants came from two twin samples, including the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (N = 868 pairs of adult twins and each twin’s adolescent child) and from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (N = 690 pairs of twin children and their parents). Findings showed that environmental influences account for the association between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. This suggests that parents’ critical behaviors exert a direct environmental effect on somatic symptoms in adolescent children. Results support the use of intervention programs focused on parental criticism to help reduce adolescents’ somatic symptoms. PMID:25844495
King, Serena M.; Keyes, Margaret; Malone, Stephen M.; Elkins, Irene; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Aim To examine the genetic and environmental influences of parental alcoholism on offspring disinhibited behavior. Design We compared the effect of parental alcoholism history on offspring in adoptive and non-adoptive families. In families with a history of parental alcohol dependence, we examined the effect of exposure to parental alcoholism symptoms during the lifetime of the adolescent. Setting Assessments occurred at the University of Minnesota from 1998-2004. Participants Adolescents adopted in infancy were systematically ascertained from records of three private Minnesota adoption agencies; non-adopted adolescents were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Adolescents and their rearing parents participated in in-person assessments. Measurements For adolescents, measures included self- reports of delinquency, deviant peers, substance use, antisocial attitudes, and personality. For parents, we conducted DSM-IV clinical assessments of alcohol abuse and dependence. Findings A history of parental alcohol dependence was associated with higher levels of disinhibition only when adolescents were biologically related to their rearing parents. Within families with a history of parental alcoholism, exposure to parental alcohol misuse during the lifetime of the adolescent was associated with increased odds of using alcohol in adopted adolescents only. Conclusions These findings suggest that the association between a history of parental alcohol dependence and adolescent offspring behavioral disinhibition is largely attributable to genetic rather than environmental transmission. We also obtained some evidence for parental alcohol misuse as a shared environmental risk factor in adoptive families. PMID:19215604
Milevsky, Avidan; Schlechter, Melissa; Netter, Sarah; Keehn, Danielle
Our study examined variations in adolescent adjustment as a function of maternal and paternal parenting styles. Participants included 272 students in grades 9 and 11 from a public high school in a metropolitan area of the Northeastern US. Participants completed measures of maternal and paternal parenting styles and indices of psychological…
Ferreira, Pedro D.; Azevedo, Cristina N.; Menezes, Isabel
A powerful rhetoric regarding the importance of adolescents' civic engagement and political participation is common in contemporary societies, whilst citizens, both adolescent and adults, seem to express a growing scepticism and alienation regarding politics. Even if this disengagement is debatable, as there are simultaneous signs of an increasing…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence adolescent males to enroll in school choir as an elective class and to assess their attitudes about singing in general, self-concept of their own voices, and perception of others' view of adolescent males' participation in choir. Data were obtained from 101 adolescent males…
Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…
Chen, Mei-Yen; Wang, Edward K; Chang, Chee-Jen
This study used cross-validation and discriminant analysis to evaluate the construct and discriminant validity of Adolescent Health Promotion (AHP) scale between the overweight and nonoverweight adolescents in Taiwan. A cross-sectional survey method was used and 660 adolescents participated in this study. Cluster and discriminant analyses were used to analyze the data. Our findings indicate that the AHP is a valid and reliable scale to discriminate between the health-promoting behaviors of overweight and nonoverweight adolescents. For the total scale, cluster analyses revealed two distinct patterns, which we designated the healthy and unhealthy groups. Discriminate analysis supported this clustering as having good discriminant validity, as nonoverweight adolescents tended to be classified as healthy, while the overweight tended to be in the unhealthy group. In general, overweight adolescents practiced health-related behaviors at a significantly lower frequency than the nonoverweight. These included exercise behavior, stress management, life appreciation, health responsibility, and social support. These findings can be used to further develop and refine knowledge of adolescent overweight and related strategies for intervention.
King, Cheryl A; Hill, Ryan M; Wynne, Henry A; Cunningham, Rebecca M
This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up vs. no in-person follow-up) on adolescents' responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13-17; 80% White, 21.6% Black, 9.8% American Indian, 2.9% Asian) seeking medical emergency services. They were randomized to a screening follow-up condition. Screening measures assessed primary risk factors for suicidal behavior, including suicidal thoughts, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and aggressive/delinquent behavior. There was no main effect of follow-up condition on adolescents' screening scores; however, significant interactions between follow-up condition and public assistance status were evident. Adolescents whose families received public assistance were less likely to report aggressive-delinquent behavior if assigned to in-person follow-up. Adolescents whose families did not receive public assistance reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation if assigned to in-person follow-up. Findings suggest that response biases impact some adolescents' responses to suicide risk screenings. Because national policy strongly recommends suicide risk screening in emergency settings, and because screening scores are used to make critical decisions regarding risk management and treatment recommendations, findings indicate the importance of improving the reliability and validity of suicide risk screening for adolescents.
Black, Amanda Y; Fleming, Nathalie A; Rome, Ellen S
Adolescent pregnancy remains a public health issue with significant medical, emotional, and societal consequences for the adolescent mother, her child, and her family. Teenage pregnancies are at higher risk of many adverse outcomes, including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality. Teen pregnancy and motherhood may have detrimental effects on the teen mother and her child; antenatal and postpartum care need to be adapted to meet the special needs of pregnant adolescents because standard obstetrical environments may not do so. This comprehensive review of adolescent pregnancy will highlight global statistics, factors contributing to adolescent pregnancy, social implications of adolescent pregnancy, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, and the importance of multidisciplinary antenatal and postnatal care.
Cunnien, Keith A; Martinrogers, Nicole; Mortimer, Jeylan T
PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER: To assess the relationship between high school work experiences and self-efficacy. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: OLS regressions are applied to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study to examine work experiences and self-efficacy. FINDINGS: The analyses indicate that employment fosters self-efficacy in multiple realms, Occasional and sporadic workers exhibit less self-efficacy than steady workers. Supervisory support may be especially important in enhancing adolescents' confidence as they anticipate their future family lives, community participation, personal health, and economic achievements. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: This research includes only a small set of the work dimensions that may be important for adolescents. Ethnography and in-depth interviews are recommended to further explore the subjective and emotional dimensions of youth work experiences. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In developing policies and guidance, educators, parents, and employers should be aware that steady employment and supervisory support enhance the development of adolescent self-efficacy. ORIGINAL VALUE OF PAPER: This paper finds evidence that adolescent work experiences spill over to influence youth's developing confidence in the realms of family life, community and personal health. It also suggests that sporadic and occasional work patterns can impair the development of self-efficacy in adolescence.
Urošević, Snežana; Luciana, Monica; Jensen, Jonathan B.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Thomas, Kathleen M.
Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD) and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age) associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus), suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development. PMID:27114896
Harris, Allyssa L
Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is a major public health concern with potentially long-lasting consequences, including pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV/AIDS. Researchers have demonstrated that parent-adolescent sexual communication can mitigate adolescent risky sexual behaviors; the development of interventions that support this process are vital. This column examines a recent study that evaluated a parent-adolescent sexual communication intervention.
Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H J; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E
The present study examined the association between adolescents' personality traits and smoking, and tested whether this association was moderated by birth order or gender. Participants were 832 Dutch siblings aged 13 to 17 years participating at baseline assessment (T1) and at follow-up 12 months later (T2). Personality was assessed by applying a variable-centered approach including five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience), and a person-oriented approach using three personality types (i.e., Resilients, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers). Cross-sectional findings indicated that Extraversion (at T1 and T2), Agreeableness (at T2), Conscientiousness (at T2), and Emotional Stability (at T2) were related to adolescent smoking. Longitudinal findings indicated that only Extraversion and Emotional Stability were related to onset of adolescent smoking. Using a person-oriented approach, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers did not differ from Resilients on smoking onset. No indication was found for a moderating effect of birth order on the association between personality and smoking. Additional findings showed that gender moderated the effect of Agreeableness on adolescents' smoking onset. Implications for prevention are also addressed.
De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses…
Forrester, Andrea Brown; Barton-Gooden, Antoinette; Pitter, Cynthia; Lindo, Jascinth L. M.
Aim To explore the lived experiences of adolescents with sickle cell disease, in Kingston, Jamaica. Method A descriptive qualitative design was used for this research. In-depth interviews were conducted with six adolescents with sickle cell disease at a Sickle Cell Unit operated by the University of the West Indies. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and thematically analyzed. Results The majority of the adolescents demonstrated a positive self-concept. They reported strong family, school, and peer support which made them feel accepted. All were actively engaged in social activities such as parties, but had challenges participating in sporting activities. Various coping strategies were utilized to address challenges of the disease including praying, watching television, and surfing the Internet. Conclusion Sickle cell disease can be very challenging for the adolescent, but with positive self-concept and increased social support, especially from family and peers, these adolescents were able to effectively cope with their condition and live productive lives. PMID:26341889
Pialasse, Jean-Philippe; Descarreaux, Martin; Mercier, Pierre; Blouin, Jean; Simoneau, Martin
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a multifactorial disorder including neurological factors. A dysfunction of the sensorimotor networks processing vestibular information could be related to spine deformation. This study investigates whether feed-forward vestibulomotor control or sensory reweighting mechanisms are impaired in adolescent scoliosis patients. Vestibular evoked postural responses were obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation while participants stood with their eyes closed and head facing forward. Lateral forces under each foot and lateral displacement of the upper body of adolescents with mild (n = 20) or severe (n = 16) spine deformation were compared to those of healthy control adolescents (n = 16). Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients demonstrated greater lateral displacement and net lateral forces than controls both during and immediately after vestibular stimulation. Altered sensory reweighting of vestibular and proprioceptive information changed balance control of AIS patients during and after vestibular stimulation. Therefore, scoliosis onset could be related to abnormal sensory reweighting, leading to altered sensorimotor processes. PMID:26580068
Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Galván, Adriana
Insufficient sleep and poor quality sleep are pervasive during adolescence and relate to impairments in cognitive control and increased risk taking. However, the neurobiology underlying the association between sleep and adolescent behavior remains elusive. In the current study, we examine how poor sleep quality relates to cognitive control and reward related brain function during risk taking. Forty-six adolescents participated in a functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) scan during which they completed a cognitive control and risk taking task. Behaviorally, adolescents who reported poorer sleep also exhibited greater risk-taking. This association was paralleled by less recruitment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during cognitive control, greater insula activation during reward processing, and reduced functional coupling between the DLPFC and affective regions including the insula and ventral striatum during reward processing. Collectively, these results suggest that poor sleep may exaggerate the normative imbalance between affective and cognitive control systems, leading to greater risk-taking in adolescents.
Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi
Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…
Robles-Pina, Rebecca A.; DeFrance, Emily; Cox, Deborah; Woodward, April
Depression in urban Hispanic adolescents can have negative influences on their ability to acquire a sound education. This study was conducted on 191 urban Hispanic adolescents ages 13-18. The findings indicated that (a) Hispanic females were more depressed than Hispanic males, (b) 42% of the participants had been retained a grade, (c) 7% had…
Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter
This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP…
Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky
Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.
This document consists of the two 2002 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue includes news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key Points South Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA. Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents. To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782
Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; McCart, Michael R.; Smith, Daniel W.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Resnick, Heidi S.; de Arellano, Michael A.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
We compared the prevalence and correlates of adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts in two nationally representative probability samples of adolescents interviewed in 1995 (National Survey of Adolescents; N = 4,023) and 2005 (National Survey of Adolescents-Replication; N = 3,614). Participants in both samples completed a telephone survey that…
Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; McHale, Susan M; Wheeler, Lorey A; Perez-Brena, Norma J
Drawing from developmental and cultural adaptation perspectives and using a longitudinal design, this study examined: (a) mean-level changes in Mexican-origin adolescents' cultural orientations and adjustment from early to late adolescence and (b) bidirectional associations between cultural orientations and adjustment using a cross-lag panel model. Participants included 246 Mexican-origin, predominantly immigrant families that participated in home interviews and a series of nightly phone calls when target adolescents were 12 and 18years of age. Girls exhibited more pronounced declines in traditional gender role attitudes than did boys, and all youth declined in familism values, time spent with family, and involvement in Mexican culture. Bidirectional relations between cultural orientations and adjustment emerged, and some associations were moderated by adolescent nativity and gender.
Bursch, B.; Lester, P.; Jiang, L.; Rotheram-Borus, M.J.; Weiss, R.
The objective of this study was to identify salient parent and adolescent psychosocial factors related to somatic symptoms in adolescents. As part of a larger intervention study conducted in New York, 409 adolescents were recruited from 269 parents with HIV. A longitudinal model predicted adolescent somatization scores six years after baseline assessment. Adolescent somatic symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 3-month intervals for the first two years and then at 6-month intervals using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Baseline data from adolescents and parents were used to predict adolescent somatic symptoms. Variables related to increased adolescent somatic symptoms over six years included being younger and female; an increased number of adolescent medical hospitalizations; more stressful life events; adolescent perception of a highly rejecting parenting style; more parent-youth conflict; no experience of parental death; and parental distress over their own pain symptoms. Our findings extend the literature by virtue of the longitudinal design; inclusion of both parent and child variables in one statistical model; identification of study participants by their potentially stressful living condition rather than by disease or somatic symptom status; and inclusion of serious parental illness and death in the study. PMID:18576168
Valaitis, Ruta K; Sword, Wendy A
The Internet is an innovative strategy to increase public participation. It is important to include pregnant and parenting teens' perspectives when planning programs to meet their needs. This qualitative study explored online discussions as a strategy to enhance participation by this population. Findings showed that online communication was preferred over face-to-face group discussions. Being anonymous online encouraged open and honest feedback. Participants experienced various forms of social support, however, there was an overall lack of teen involvement online. Strategies to engage adolescents in online discussions and reduce barriers are discussed. Strategies included the use of teen moderators, home computer access, technical support, and engagement in naturally flowing online discussions to meet social support needs. Blending researchers' with teens' needs for social support in an online environment is encouraged. With careful planning and design, online communications can result in mutual benefits for researchers, service providers, and pregnant and parenting adolescents.
Ngadimon, I W; Islahudin, F; Mohamed Shah, N; Md Hatah, E; Makmor-Bakry, M
Background Shared decision-making is vital in achieving desired drug therapy goals, especially with antibiotics, in view of the potential long-term reduction in drug resistance. However, shared decision-making is rarely practiced with adolescent patients. Objectives The aim of the study was to identify the effect antibiotic education has on willingness to engage in shared decision-making among adolescents in Malaysia. Setting Participants from secondary schools in Malaysia were enrolled with ethical approval. Method The adolescents answered a validated questionnaire, which included demographics, antibiotic knowledge, attitude towards antibiotic use, and the Control Preference Scale, which measures willingness to engage in shared decision-making. Afterwards, antibiotic education was delivered to participating students. Main outcome measure Knowledge about and attitude toward antibiotics were investigated. Results A total of 510 adolescents participated in the study. Knowledge of antibiotics significantly increased post education (pre 3.2 ± 1.8 vs. post 6.8 ± 2.1, p < 0.001), as did attitude score (pre 3.3 ± 1.7 vs. post 5.4 ± 1.9, p = 0.003). Interestingly, adolescents were less likely to be passively involved in shared decision-making post education (χ = 36.9, df = 2, p < 0.001). Adolescents who were more collaborative in shared decision-making had a significantly higher total antibiotics knowledge and attitude scores compared to those who were not collaborative (p = 0.003). Conclusion The present work demonstrates that antibiotic education improves knowledge, attitude, and willingness to engage in shared decision-making among adolescents. Antibiotic education can therefore be introduced as a strategy to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use.
Myers, Emily; Davis, Beth Ellen; Stobbe, Gary; Bjornson, Kristie
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are at increased risk for poor psychosocial outcomes as adults. We described community and social participation in adolescents with ASDs as they transitioned from adolescence to adulthood, and identified adolescent factors associated with community and social participation outcomes in adulthood. We…
Masten, Carrie L; Colich, Natalie L; Rudie, Jeffrey D; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Dapretto, Mirella
Peer rejection is particularly pervasive among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, how adolescents with ASD differ from typically developing adolescents in their responses to peer rejection is poorly understood. The goal of the current investigation was to examine neural responses to peer exclusion among adolescents with ASD compared to typically developing adolescents. Nineteen adolescents with ASD and 17 typically developing controls underwent fMRI as they were ostensibly excluded by peers during an online game called Cyberball. Afterwards, participants reported their distress about the exclusion. Compared to typically developing adolescents, those with ASD displayed less activity in regions previously linked with the distressing aspect of peer exclusion, including the subgenual anterior cingulate and anterior insula, as well as less activity in regions previously linked with the regulation of distress responses during peer exclusion, including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Interestingly, however, both groups self-reported equivalent levels of distress. This suggests that adolescents with ASD may engage in differential processing of social experiences at the neural level, but be equally aware of, and concerned about, peer rejection. Overall, these findings contribute new insights about how this population may differentially experience negative social events in their daily lives.
Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Hetherington, E Mavis
The Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development (NEAD) project is a longitudinal study of twins/siblings and parents that has been assessed 3 times: middle adolescence, late adolescence and young adulthood (N=720 families at Time 1). Siblings varied in degree of genetic relatedness including identical twins, fraternal twins, full siblings, half siblings and genetically unrelated (or step) siblings. There were also two family types: nondivorced and step. A multimeasure, multirater approach was taken in NEAD, with data collected from all participants (2 twins or siblings, mother and father) as well as from coded videotaped observations of family interactions. Detailed assessments of family relationships, adolescent adjustment and competence were collected at all 3 times. The original aim of NEAD was to identify systematic sources of nonshared environmental influences that contribute to differences among family members. Although systematic sources of nonshared environmental influences were not found in NEAD, three major sets of findings emerged: (1) genetic influences on family relationships and on associations between family relationships and adolescent adjustment; (2) genetic and environmental influences on adolescent adjustment, comorbidity and stability and change in adolescent adjustment from middle to late adolescence; and (3) genetic influences on relationships outside the family.
Bae, Dayoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.
This study examined pathways through which family socioeconomic status may influence adolescents' academic achievement. We focused on parental monitoring and adolescents' after-school time-use patterns as linking mechanisms. Participants were 441 twelve- to fourteen-year-old Korean adolescents who participated in the Korea Welfare Panel Study.…
Robinson, Melissa L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Paikoff, Roberta
A sample of 146 African American adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods with high HIV rates participated in the Chicago HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP), a longitudinal study of adolescent HIV risk exposure. The current study examined self-reported reasons why African American adolescents may participate in…
Seymour, Karen E; Jones, Richard N; Cushman, Grace K; Galvan, Thania; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P
Little is known about the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying and differentiating suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Adolescents who attempt suicide or engage in NSSI often report significant interpersonal and social difficulties. Emotional face recognition ability is a fundamental skill required for successful social interactions, and deficits in this ability may provide insight into the unique brain-behavior interactions underlying suicide attempts versus NSSI in adolescents. Therefore, we examined emotional face recognition ability among three mutually exclusive groups: (1) inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide (SA, n = 30); (2) inpatient adolescents engaged in NSSI (NSSI, n = 30); and (3) typically developing controls (TDC, n = 30) without psychiatric illness. Participants included adolescents aged 13-17 years, matched on age, gender and full-scale IQ. Emotional face recognition was evaluated using the diagnostic assessment of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA-2). Compared to TDC youth, adolescents with NSSI made more errors on child fearful and adult sad face recognition while controlling for psychopathology and medication status (ps < 0.05). No differences were found on emotional face recognition between NSSI and SA groups. Secondary analyses showed that compared to inpatients without major depression, those with major depression made fewer errors on adult sad face recognition even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Further, compared to inpatients without generalized anxiety, those with generalized anxiety made fewer recognition errors on adult happy faces even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Adolescent inpatients engaged in NSSI showed greater deficits in emotional face recognition than TDC, but not inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide. Further results suggest the importance of psychopathology in emotional face recognition. Replication of these preliminary results and examination of the role
Halfond, Raquel; Corona, Rosalie; Moon, Anya
The authors examined Latino parent and adolescent reports of hoped-for and feared possible selves for adolescents. Twenty-nine Latino parents (18 mothers, 11 fathers) and their 18 adolescents participated in semistructured individual interviews. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded for themes via content analysis. Themes that…
Williams, Susan Lee; Mummery, W. Kerry
Identification of the relationships between adolescent overweight and obesity and physical activity and a range of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors is necessary to develop relevant interventions which target the health needs of adolescents. This study examined adolescent body mass index (BMI) and participation in moderate and vigorous…
In 1972 Sidney Stringer Community School and College was established in the inner city of Coventry. Its aims directed attention to community participation and the enlargement of the decision making process. Discusses the problems with delegating educational responsibility to the community. (Author/RK)
Joffe, A; Radius, S M
Health counseling is a fundamental aspect of health care for adolescents and is a natural extension of the concept of anticipatory guidance. It is a dynamic process involving active participation by adolescents. Pediatricians are a valued source of health-relevant information, but must also recognize how their attitudes and beliefs can affect the counseling process. Knowledge of the multitude of changes occurring during adolescence and an understanding of the role of health-risking behaviors in meeting various developmental needs are critical to successful counseling. Particular attention must be focused on ways to help adolescents develop the skills necessary to maintain health-promoting lifestyles and to resist peer pressure to engage in health-risking behaviors.
The proportion of women aged 15-19 in Colombia who are mothers declined from 14% in 1985 to 10% in 1990, but the actual number of cases increased due to population growth. Some 1,780,000 adolescents who have had children or are pregnant require family planning services. An additional, unknown number of adolescent pregnancies are terminated by abortion. It is estimated that 95% of adolescent pregnancies diagnosed or followed by PROFAMILIA's center for young people were unwanted. Reasons for making family planning services available to adolescents include the ever young age at initiation of sexual activity, the very low rates of contraceptive usage among sexually active adolescents, the lack of information of adolescents concerning reproduction and contraception, and their fear and guilt surrounding their sexual activity and contraceptive usage. Obstetrical services appear reluctant to furnish adolescent mothers with information on contraception, and the pharmacists and their employees who provide such information may not be aware of contraindications for this age group or whether adolescents are adequately instructed in use of the method. The rising age at marriage increases the span of time that adolescents are at risk of unwanted pregnancy. Adolescents who are well informed about sexuality and contraception and trained in decision making, self-esteem, and responsible parenthood are likely to postpone sexual activity. Information on contraception and family planning services needs to be made available to adolescents in a way that will actually motivate use. Information on sex and contraception should be made available at puberty and should include the form of use, contraindications, and advantages and disadvantages of all methods appropriate to adolescents. Orientation and assistance in selecting the best method should be individually tailored and should be provided in schools or other places accessible to young people, in a language they can understand. Rhythm and
Schwartz, Tatiane; Vieira, Renata; Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter
This descriptive-exploratory study using a qualitative approach was undertaken to describe the perceptions of pregnant adolescents in relation to social support provided during pregnancy. Twelve adolescents in their first pregnancy who frequented the outpatient health service in Passo Fundo in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) participated in the study. The data was obtained by semi-structured interviews, genograms and ecomaps and was assessed by thematic analysis. It highlighted the need for support to overcome the fears and challenges of motherhood. The mothers and partners were perceived as the main sources of support in affective and material terms. Common sense knowledge prevailed in the information dimension and pregnancy as a mediator in the reconciliation with the father fulfilled the emotional dimension. The perception of the dimension of positive social interaction was blurred by self-imposed isolation. Thus the adolescent's perception of the social support received is clear in relation to the family nucleus and includes the people in the family circle. The network of care outside the family, including the healthcare services, is tenuous and generated the perception of psychosocial difficulties. This reveals the need for greater investment of primary healthcare professionals in the inclusion of first-time-pregnancy adolescents in social care groups, which ensure the healthy progress of the pregnancy.
Day, Emma; Jones, Louise; Langner, Richard; Bluebond-Langner, Myra
Background: Policy guidance and bioethical literature urge the involvement of adolescents in decisions about their healthcare. It is uncertain how roles and expectations of adolescents, parents and healthcare professionals influence decision-making and to what extent this is considered in guidance. Aims: To identify recent empirical research on decision-making regarding care and treatment in adolescent cancer: (1) to synthesise evidence to define the role of adolescents, parents and healthcare professionals in the decision-making process and (2) to identify gaps in research. Design: A narrative systematic review of qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods research. We adopted a textual approach to synthesis, using a theoretical framework of interactionism to interpret findings. Data Sources: The databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, EMBASE and CINHAL were searched from 2001 through May 2015 for publications on decision-making for adolescents (13–19 years) with cancer. Results: Twenty-eight articles were identified. Adolescents and parents initially find it difficult to participate in decision-making due to a lack of options in the face of protocol-driven care. Parent and adolescent preferences for information and response to loss of control vary between individuals and over time. No studies indicate parental or adolescent preference for a high degree of independence in decision-making. Conclusion: Striving to make parents and adolescents fully informed or urge them towards more independence than they prefer may add to distress and confusion. This may interfere with their ability to participate in their preferred way in decisions about care and treatment. Future research should include analysis of on-ground interactions among parents, adolescents and clinicians across the trajectory. PMID:27160700
Rand, Cynthia M; Humiston, Sharon G; Schaffer, Stanley J; Albertin, Christina S; Shone, Laura P; Blumkin, Aaron K; Stokley, Shannon; Szilagyi, Peter G
We surveyed parents of adolescents (n=430) and their adolescents ages 15-17 years (n=208) in 9 primary-care settings in Monroe County, NY to assess perceptions about adolescent vaccine delivery. Parents and adolescents most wanted to discuss vaccine side effects and the diseases prevented with the adolescents' provider. Those who perceived vaccines as very safe were more accepting of adolescent vaccines. Most participants agreed with vaccinating the teen during a mild illness and with providing multiple vaccines concomitantly. Participants most preferred medical, as opposed to other settings, for receipt of adolescent vaccines. For parents and adolescents who are wary of vaccination, strategies are needed to enhance communication about risks and benefits of vaccinations.
Shieh, Wann-Yun; Ju, Yan-Ying; Yu, Yu-Chun; Lin, Che-Kuan; Lin, Yen-Tzu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy
Most individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) demonstrate problems in learning and movement coordination. Consequently, they usually have difficulties in activities such as standing, walking, and stair climbing. To monitor the physical impairments of these children, regular gross motor evaluation is crucial. Straight-line level walking is the most frequently used test of their mobility. However, numerous studies have found that unless the children have multiple disabilities, no significant differences can be found between the children with ID and typically-developed children in this test. Stair climbing presents more challenges than level walking because it is associated with numerous physical factors, including lower extremity strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, vision, balance, and fear of falling. Limited ability in those factors is one of the most vital markers for children with ID. In this paper, we propose a sensor-based approach for measuring stair-walking performance, both upstairs and downstairs, for adolescents with ID. Particularly, we address the problem of sensor calibration to ensure measurement accuracy. In total, 62 participants aged 15 to 21 years, namely 32 typically-developed (TD) adolescents, 20 adolescents with ID, and 10 adolescents with multiple disabilities (MD), participated. The experimental results showed that stair-walking is more sensitive than straight-line level walking in capturing gait characteristics for adolescents with ID. PMID:27409621
Meiring, Meagan; Seabi, Joseph; Amod, Zaytoon; Vorster, Adri; Kern, Anwynne
Adolescents with autism and their families experience a significant increase in the number of challenges encountered when leaving the structure of the formal education system. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the factors parents and professionals regard as important in preparing for transition of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to adulthood, vocational, and residential arrangements. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 participants (i.e., 7 parents and 7 professionals) who were involved with adolescents with ASD in Johannesburg, South Africa. The findings revealed that there was a need for advocacy on behalf of learners with ASD transitioning into adult working and living environments. The responses of the participants highlighted needs for curriculum transformation from basic literacy skills to development and teaching of functional self-help and daily living skills. The results also indicated lack of planning and the absence of service facilities for adolescents with autism post-school. There was a general feeling of fear and uncertainty when the participants thought about transition of adolescents with autism and their future. However, there was also a sense of hope and optimism. Transition of adolescents with autism into adulthood is a challenging and stressful time for parents and professionals involved in trying to prepare them. With appropriate attention and support structures, individuals with autism can attain a reasonable quality of life, including residential, employment, and social opportunities. PMID:27375502
Emery, Merrelyn, Ed.
This four-part volume addresses design principles for introducing democratic forms in workplaces, educational institutions, and social institutions, based on a trend toward participative democracy in Australia. Following an introduction, part I sets the context with two papers: "The Agenda for the Next Wave" and "Educational…
Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona
The present study examined multiple indices of sleep as moderators of the association between peer victimization and adjustment among typically developing adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66 % European American, 34 % African American) and their parents. A multi-method, multi-informant design was employed to address the research questions. Sleep was assessed objectively with actigraphy (sleep minutes and sleep efficiency) and subjectively with self-reports. Adolescents reported on peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Externalizing behaviors were examined with mother and father reports. Subjective sleep/wake problems moderated the associations between peer victimization and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A stronger relation emerged between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms among adolescents who reported higher versus lower levels of sleep/wake problems. Adolescents with elevated sleep/wake problems had higher levels of externalizing symptoms across the range of peer victimization. However, for those with fewer sleep/wake problems, a positive relation between peer victimization and externalizing symptoms was observed. Actigraphy-based sleep minutes and sleep efficiency also moderated the relations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Although peer victimization was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms for all youth, those who reported the lowest levels of such symptoms had longer and more efficient sleep in conjunction with low levels of peer victimization. Findings are novel and highlight the importance of considering both bioregulatory processes and peer relations in the prediction of adolescents' adjustment.
Spurr, Shelley; Berry, Lois; Walker, Keith
The purpose of this article is to present findings from two parallel qualitative studies that used focus groups to explore adolescent views of psychological wellness and healthy bodies. Nine focus groups were held with 46 adolescents aged 16-19 years from two Mid-Western Canadian high schools. Both studies were designed with an interpretive humanist perspective and then a 6-step thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Common themes emerging in the focus group discussions in both studies included the negative impact of media on adolescent body image and pressure to conform to the Western views of physical appearance. These findings illustrate the need for nurses to understand the influence of the media on adolescents' views of their body image and to incorporate protocols for assessment, education, and counseling of adolescents on the healthy usage of media into their pediatric clinical practice. Through consistent participation in the development and implementation of health policies, nurses play a critical role in supporting adolescents to develop healthy views of body image.
Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young
Sun, Wenqiang; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Yanhui
In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescents' resilience as a potential protective factor in the development of their internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 1,419 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.38 years, SD = 1.79) and their primary caregivers. After controlling for covariates (age, gender, location of family residence, and primary caregiver), we found that parental depression and negative parenting mediated the association between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. Furthermore, the adolescent resilience moderated the relationship between negative parenting and internalizing problems in a protective-stabilizing pattern; in addition, a protective-reactive pattern also emerged when adolescent resilience was examined as a moderator of the relationship between negative parenting and externalizing problems. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of risk and resilience in youth development. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the prevention of adolescent problem behaviors.
Mason, Michael J; Schmidt, Christopher; Abraham, Anisha; Walker, Leslie; Tercyak, Kenneth
The present study examined components of adolescents' social environment (social network, extracurricular activities, and family relationships) in association with depression. A total of 332 adolescents presenting for a routine medical check-up were self-assessed for social network risk (i.e., smoking habits of best male and female friends), extracurricular activity level (i.e., participation in organized sports teams, clubs, etc.), family relationship quality (i.e., cohesion and conflict), and symptoms of depression (i.e., minimal, mild, moderate/severe). Results of a forward linear regression modeling indicate that social environment components were associated with a significant proportion of the variance in adolescent depression (Adjusted R (2) = .177, p < or = .05). Specifically, adolescent females (beta = .166, p < .01) and those having more smokers in their social network (beta = .107, p < .05) presented with significantly greater depression symptoms. Conversely, adolescents who engaged in more extracurricular activities (beta = -.118, p < .05) and experienced higher quality family relationships (beta = -.368, p < .001) presented with significantly lower depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the important role that the social environment plays in adolescent depression, as well as yields new insights into socially-based intervention targets that may ameliorate adolescent depression. These intervention targets may be gender-specific, include positive social network skills training, increase adolescents' engagement in organized activities, and attend to the quality of their family relationships.
Orzech, Kathryn M
Adolescents in the United States are known to be sleep deprived; early school start times, a biological propensity to stay up late, and a variety of wake-inducing activities lead to teens who often do not sleep enough. This chronic lack of sleep has measurable negative effects on health and well-being for adolescents. Though research has documented adolescent sleep behavior, few studies have addressed perceptions of sleep. The purpose of this study was to identify common sources of sleep information for a sample of Southwestern adolescents and examine general message content delivered to adolescents by each source. A convenience sample of 51 adolescents (mean age 14.5) completed a semi-structured, in-person interview between October 2006 and November 2007 in a Tucson, Arizona high school. Participant observation and a brief questionnaire regarding parent behavior were used to triangulate results. Parents, teachers, and in some cases the media stressed the importance of sleep for teens, while friends typically complained of tiredness. Individual experiences of sleep were reported to shape future sleep behavior. Rationales for adequate sleep included value placed on alertness, health, and achievement. Improving sleep in adolescents will not only require further education of the "sleep messengers" about the negative health consequences of inadequate sleep, but a larger cultural shift in how healthy sleep for teenagers is conceived and prioritized by schools, families and adolescents themselves.
Volpe, Ellen M; Morales-Alemán, Mercedes M; Teitelman, Anne M
The purpose of this paper was to describe romantic relationships from the perspective of urban, adolescent girls, to address gaps in our understanding of their relationship dimensions. Minority adolescent girls (n = 17) participated in private semi-structured interviews aimed to elicit the understanding of the adolescents' perspectives on their own relationship experiences and dynamics. The research team conducted conventional content analysis of the interview transcripts. Four major themes emerged about romantic relationships: (1) influence of male pursuit and social norms on relationship initiation factors; (2) a romantic partner is a confidant, friend, and companion; (3) negotiating intimacy respectfully; and (4) relationship conflict through control and abuse. Adolescents described sub-themes of social norms of male pursuit and relationship pressures that dictated relationship initiation. Relationships were depicted by emotional support, caring, and companionship. Adolescents described positive negotiation skills. However, relationship conflict, including controlling behaviors and violence, was illustrated in these same relationships. This study provides a rich description of romantic relationships from the perspectives of urban, adolescent girls. Most salient findings included social pressures and a combination of both positive and negative attributes. Implications include the need for intervention development at the community level to address social pressures, recognition of positive adolescent relationship attributes, and facilitation of skills to identify and address low-quality relationship characteristics.
Heiney, S P; Wells, L M; Coleman, B; Swygert, E; Ruffin, J
Adolescents with cancer undergo numerous stresses due to their disease, its treatment, and its potential late effects. These patients may experience delayed mastery of developmental tasks, intimacy, and independence and may have long-term psychological sequelae. Parents of adolescents with cancer also encounter many stresses related to coping with their child's illness. Lasting Impressions, a support program for adolescent cancer patients and their parents, was developed to help overcome these problems. The purpose of the program is to promote positive mental health and adaptation in participants. This article describes the program's goals and methods for accomplishing them, including components and therapeutic activities. The activities include a scrapbook, a newsletter, peer visitation, and a speakers' bureau. The most recent project is a video that is shown to newly diagnosed cancer patients. This program could be easily replicated by other oncology nurses who work with adolescents or young adults with cancer.
Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Hakizimana, Leonce; Tugenberg, Toni; Currie, Madeleine; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Wagner, Maureen; Polutnik, Chloe; Wulu, Jacqueline
Background Adolescent refugees face many challenges but also have the potential to become resilient. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the protective agents, resources, and mechanisms that promote their psychosocial well-being. Methods Participants included a purposively sampled group of 73 Burundian and Liberian refugee adolescents and their families who had recently resettled in Boston and Chicago. The adolescents, families, and their service providers participated in a two-year longitudinal study using ethnographic methods and grounded theory analysis with Atlas/ti software. A grounded theory model was developed which describes those persons or entities who act to protect adolescents (Protective Agents), their capacities for doing so (Protective Resources), and how they do it (Protective Mechanisms). Protective agents are the individuals, groups, organizations, and systems that can contribute either directly or indirectly to promoting adolescent refugees’ psychosocial well-being. Protective resources are the family and community capacities that can promote psychosocial well-being in adolescent refugees. Protective mechanisms are the processes fostering adolescent refugees’ competencies and behaviors that can promote their psychosocial well-being. Results Eight family and community capacities were identified that appeared to promote psychosocial well-being in the adolescent refugees. These included 1) finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) social support networks; 4) engaged parenting; 5) family cohesion; 6) cultural adherence and guidance; 7) educational support; and 8) faith and religious involvement. Nine protective mechanisms identified were identified and grouped into three categories: 1) Relational (supporting, connecting, belonging); 2) Informational (informing, preparing), and; 3) Developmental (defending, promoting, adapting). Conclusions To further promote the psychosocial well-being of adolescent refugees
Purpose The purpose of this review was to examine the conceptualization and measurement of coping in adolescent research. Design A review of the literature published and abstracted in four scientific databases was undertaken between July 2008 and June 2009 with the following key words: adolescent(s), cope/coping, stress(ors), and adaptation/psychological. Methods A total of 367 articles were initially identified, and review of published abstracts yielded 104 empirical articles to retrieve and examine more closely for inclusion. Criteria for inclusion in the review were that the study (a) measured coping, (b) presented original data, (c) primarily targeted adolescent participants, (d) was reported in English, and (e) was published between 1998 and June 2009. Fifty-nine subsequent articles were organized using a matrix approach that facilitated cross-study comparisons of purpose, sample, and dependent variables. Findings Fewer than half of the studies reviewed included a specific statement defining coping. Instead, many authors described coping in the context of stress response by identifying particular types or ways of coping or naming specific coping strategies used. The theoretical frameworks guiding examination of coping varied across studies. A range of measures, congruent with adolescent developmental processes, were used to assess adolescent coping. A wide range of stress-related risks or conditions were examined, including psychological stressors such as eating disorders, suicidal ideation, and depression; physical stressors such as chronic illness, HIV infection, sports participation, violence, or sexual abuse; familial stressors such as domestic violence or interparental conflict; social stressors such as romantic relationships or difficulties in settings such as school, prison, or a homeless shelter; and societal stressors such as discrimination. Conclusions Coping is an important construct in understanding how adolescents react to the extensive stressors
Brausch, Amy M; Decker, Kristina M; Hadley, Andrea G
This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered eating, and substance use. Using a large community-based sample, results revealed preliminary associations between SAB and other risk-taking behaviors. Adolescents who had engaged in both SAB and NSSI reported more concurrent risk behaviors than adolescents who participated in only one of the behaviors or neither behavior. Results indicate that greater awareness of SAB is important, and continued research can evaluate the possible link between the behavior and risk for suicide.
Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James; Stockdale, Laura
This study examined the relationship between parent-child social networking, connection, and outcomes for adolescents. Participants (491 adolescents and their parents) completed a number of questionnaires on social networking use, feelings of connection, and behavioral outcomes. Social networking with parents was associated with increased connection between parents and adolescents. Feelings of connection then mediated the relationship between social networking with parents and behavioral outcomes, including higher prosocial behavior and lower relational aggression and internalizing behavior. Conversely, adolescent social networking use without parents was associated with negative outcomes, such as increased relational aggression, internalizing behaviors, delinquency, and decreased feelings of connection. These results indicate that although high levels of social networking use may be problematic for some individuals, social networking with parents may potentially strengthen parent-child relationships and then lead to positive outcomes for adolescents.
Cheah, Charissa S L; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Leung, Christy Y Y
The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants included 122 Chinese adolescents (M = 13.14 years; SD = 2.22) in Malaysia. Adolescents' perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and warmth and support from each parent were positively, and age was negatively associated with their filial behaviors. No gender differences were found. Perceived maternal warmth and support significantly mediated the effect of age, perceived investments from, and filial emotions toward mothers on adolescents' filial behaviors, but perceived paternal warmth and support did not have a mediating role. The present study sheds light on the unique maternal versus paternal filial role, and important familial processes in Chinese-Malaysian children and adolescents from a cultural perspective.
Spitalnick, Joshua S; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sales, Jessica M; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a clinic-based sample of African-American adolescent females (N=715) enrolled in an STD/HIV prevention intervention. Participants (ages 15-21) endorsing higher levels of sexual sensation seeking reported higher levels of sexual risk-taking behaviours (e.g. frequency of vaginal intercourse, number of sexual partners, and poorer condom use). Results remained significant after controlling for known covariates associated with sexual risk-taking behaviours. Results are consistent with the adult literature and highlight the need for future investigations examining sexual sensation seeking among adolescents. These results, though preliminary, could be used to better inform prevention interventions and clinicians/health educators who provide direct services to adolescents.
Rowe, Susan L; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Hood, Michelle
Guided by Bronfenbrenner's (1977) ecological framework, we investigated the correlates of changes in early adolescents' emotional, conduct, social and academic difficulties over a 2-year period of time. A representative sample of Australian early adolescents (N = 3797, 51% boys) completed questionnaires and interviews when they were age 10 (T1) and two years later at age 12 (T2). Parents also participated. Adolescents' difficulties increased over time, but there was no difference in academic difficulties between T1 and T2. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that temperamental factors of persistence and reactivity accounted for the most unique variance in adolescents' difficulties. Factors at each ecological level, including neighbourhood advantage, school connection, and family factors, were also uniquely associated with adolescents' change in difficulties over time. Although ecological effects were small, the study highlights the significant unique roles that proximal and distal social contexts play in the development of difficulties.
Dever, Bridget V; Schulenberg, John E; Dworkin, Jodi B; O'Malley, Patrick M; Kloska, Deborah D; Bachman, Jerald G
Risk-taking is statistically normative during adolescence, yet is associated with adverse outcomes including substance use. The present study draws the distinction between protective factors (effective for those identified as high risk takers) and promotive factors (effective for all) against substance use, focusing on parental monitoring, school bonding, and sports participation. A total of 36,514 8th and 10th grade participants in the national Monitoring the Future study were included. Although parental monitoring was associated with lower alcohol and marijuana use among all adolescents (i.e., promotive effect), these effects were strongest among the highest risk takers (i.e., protective effect) and females. School bonding was associated with lower levels of both alcohol and marijuana use among all groups of adolescents, but these promotive effects were weak. Sports participation was associated with higher levels of alcohol use among all males and among 8th grade females who did not identify as high risk takers. Despite being a risk factor for alcohol use, sports participation did demonstrate a promotive effect against marijuana use among 10th grade females only, and especially so for high risk-taking females (i.e., protective effect). Overall, these findings suggest that of the three mechanisms studied, parental monitoring emerged as the most promising entry point for substance use prevention and intervention across groups, particularly for females and high risk-taking adolescents.
Valdés, Wendy; Díaz-Perera, Georgia; Espinosa, Tania M
INTRODUCTION Atherosclerosis is the common underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases; the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. It is a major contributor to disability and poorer quality of life and is costly to health systems, individuals, families and society. Early signs of atherogenesis are manifestations of atherosclerosis and known atherogenic risk factors occurring at young ages and detectable by health professionals. Early detection of such signs in children and adolescents enables actions to prevent short- and long-term complications. OBJECTIVE Detect early signs of atherogenesis in adolescents in Family Doctor-and-Nurse Office No. 13 of the Raúl Gómez García Polyclinic in Havana's 10 de Octubre Municipality. METHODS An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted: the universe consisted of 110 adolescents and, once exclusion criteria were applied, the sample was made up of 96 adolescents in the office's geographical catchment area. Variables included sociodemographic data; measurements from physical and anthropometric examinations (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, presence of acanthosis nigricans); maternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, smoking during pregnancy; birth weight and duration of exclusive breastfeeding; lifestyle (physical activity, dietary habits by frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables, salt intake, and smoking); and a history of atherogenic risk factors and atherosclerotic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and chronic kidney disease) in adolescents and their families. The number of early signs of atherogenesis was determined. Descriptive statistics and a chi-square test, with significance threshold set at p = 0.05, were used to examine differences by sex and age. RESULTS A total of 62.5% of participating adolescents were female and the same percent of the total
Sanger, Dixie; Ritzman, Mitzi; LaCost, Barbara; Stofer, Keri; Long, Amie; Grady, Marilyn
This qualitative study explored the meanings of chat room conversations through observations of teenagers using the Internet. Adolescent girls were a focus because of their shaky sense of self. Participants in ten chat rooms included 534 individuals. Six themes, emerging from analyzing 2526 utterances [descriptive statements], included (a)…
This study deals with birth order and its impact on intergenerational transmission of parental attitudes to adolescent sons in Israeli society. The sample included 294 participants (including 98 mothers, 98 fathers, and 98 sons). The attitudes chosen were key issues of concern in Israeli society: gender role attitudes, ethnic stereotypes, and…
Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Fraser, Ashley M
The current study examined bidirectional relations between adolescents' moral personality (prosocial values, self-regulation, and sympathy) and low- and high-cost prosocial behavior toward strangers. Participants included 682 adolescents (M age of child = 14.31, SD = 1.07, 50% female) who participated at two time points, approximately one year apart. Cross-lag analyses suggested that adolescents' values were associated with both low- and high-cost prosocial behavior one year later, self-regulation was associated with high-cost prosocial behavior, and sympathy was associated with low-cost prosocial behavior. Findings also suggested that low-cost prosocial behavior was associated with sympathy one year later, and high-cost prosocial behavior was associated with values. Discussion focuses on reciprocal relations between moral personality and prosocial behavior, and the need to consider a more multidimensional approach to prosocial development during adolescence.
Graves, Kelly N; Sentner, Annette; Workman, Jean; Mackey, Wanda
In response to the public health epidemic of teenage pregnancy, the present study investigated a new, gender-specific, school-based approach to adolescent pregnancy prevention for middle school girls called Smart Girls Life Skills Training(©) (Smart Girls). Participants included 854 students (633, experimental group; 221, control group) across three time points to assess change in social sexuality expectations, personal/self sexuality expectations, perceived susceptibility, and parent-adolescent communication. Girls who received the Smart Girls curriculum increased their personal/self sexuality expectations and improved some aspects of their parent-adolescent communication compared to control group participants. The evaluation provides initial evidence that Smart Girls is at least partially effective at changing personal/self sexuality expectations and parent-adolescent communication for middle school girls. Implications, recommendations, and next steps for school-based teen pregnancy prevention programs are offered.
Hand, Cynthia G; Archer, Robert P; Handel, Richard W; Forbey, Johnathan D
Numerous studies have reported that the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) produces a high frequency of within-normal-limits basic scale profiles for adolescents with significant clinical pathology (e.g., Archer, 2005). The current study builds on the observation that the MMPI-A normative sample included participants who reported a recent history of referral for counseling or therapy services. The 193 adolescents who reported referral for counseling were removed from the normative sample and uniform T-score values were recalculated for basic clinical scale raw scores. The frequency of within-normal-limits profiles was only marginally reduced by using the revised MMPI-A norms. Furthermore, the overall hit rate, positive predictive power, and sensitivity were only slightly improved by removing normative participants referred for counseling and basing norms on the remaining 1,427 adolescents.
Madsen, Stephanie D.
This study examined parents' rules concerning their late adolescents' dating activities. Participants were mostly European-American, including 165 mothers or fathers and 103 of their children (ages 17-19; 28 sons and 75 daughters). Parents provided information regarding their use of dating rules; rules were coded by type (i.e., supervision,…
Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Fraser, Ashley M.; Harper, James M.
The current study longitudinally examined adolescents' internalization of values in four domains (drug use, prosocial, school, friends), and how these values were differentially related to behaviors (delinquency, prosocial behavior, school engagement, and deviant peer association) as a function of proactive parenting. Participants included 335…
Yu, Jeong Jin; Gamble, Wendy C.
Using social control theory and attachment theory as guides, this study examined how qualities of young adolescents' social relationships (i.e., mother, sibling, and friend) and dynamic interactions among characteristics of those relationships are associated with school involvement and delinquency. The participants included older siblings (M age =…
Rinn, Anne N.; Reynolds, Marilyn J.; McQueen, Kand S.
This study investigated the relationship between perceived social support and the multidimensional self-concepts of gifted adolescents. Participants included 217 gifted students who had completed grades 5 through 10 and were attending a summer program for the gifted. Self-concept was measured using the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ-II; H.…
Gangi, Jennifer; Darling, Carol A.
Despite the heterogeneity of posttreatment outcomes, the likelihood of relapse is often dependent on several factors, including participation in continuing care services such as self-help groups. However, few studies have examined the use of self-help groups among adolescent outpatients. Therefore, in this study, investigators examined self-help…
Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Hetler, Joel; Edwall, Glenace; Wright, Catherine; Edwards, Anne; Borowsky, Iris W.
Primary care providers were surveyed to determine how prepared they feel to address nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, their interest in training on NSSI, and factors associated with routinely asking about NSSI when providing health supervision. Participants included family medicine physicians ("n" = 260), pediatricians…
Knecht, Andrea B.; Burk, William J.; Weesie, Jeroen; Steglich, Christian
This study applies multilevel social network analytic techniques to examine processes of homophilic selection and social influence related to alcohol use among friends in early adolescence. Participants included 3,041 Dutch youth (M age =12 years, 49% female) from 120 classrooms in 14 schools. Three waves with 3-month intervals of friendship…
Eakle, A. Jonathan
In this article, museum literacies are examined. Data collected during a qualitative study of adolescents in out-of-school and in-school groups in a museum demonstrate how participants used museum literacies. Resources for teachers' uses of museum literacies are described and provided, including museum podcasts, virtual museum Internet sites, and…
Jessar, Allison J.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.
The present study examined whether emotional abuse and neglect differentially predicted decreases in emotional clarity, and whether emotional clarity, in turn, predicted increases in depressive symptoms. Participants included 204 early adolescents (52% African American; 54% female; M age = 12.85 years) who completed four assessments with measures…
Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
This study charted the course of parent-child and sibling relationships from early adolescence to early adulthood and examined how these relationships changed following firstborns' departure from their parents' home for the first time. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants included mothers,…
Sariçam, Hakan; Yaman, Erkan; Çelik, Ismail
The purpose of this research was to examine whether loneliness might play a mediating role between perceived social competence and cyberbullying in Turkish adolescents. The participants were 326 high school students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Cyberbullying Scale, the Perceived Social Competence Scale, and the UCLA…
Wang, Ming-Te; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
The current study used a multidimensional approach to examine developmental trajectories of three dimension of school engagement (school participation, sense of school belonging, and self-regulated learning) from grades 7 to 11 and their relationships to changes in adolescents' academic outcomes over time. The sample includes 1,148 African…
Boys, Annabel; Marsden, John; Stillwell, Garry; Hatchings, Kevin; Griffiths, Paul; Farrell, Michael
Discusses the methods used to maximize retention in a longitudinal study of adolescent drinking. Strategies to minimize attrition included the collection of detailed contact information, incentives for participation, postcard and telephone reminders and telephone interviews. Ninety-six percent of the original sample completed the first follow-up…
Taylor, Nicole L.
Ethnographic research, including individual interviews, focus groups, and participant observation, was conducted to examine how adolescents defined and negotiated the boundaries between normal/acceptable weight and overweight through direct and indirect teasing. In particular, this article focuses on gender differences in weight-based teasing and…
Reinke, Diane C.
The general purpose of this study was to examine the proportions of children and adolescents identified with behavioral, emotional and cognitive clinical findings and disabilities. Data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) were used in this study. Participants in this study included 7672 children aged 0 to 15…
Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Lee, Antoinette Marie
The present study examined Chinese early adolescents' expectations and experiences of their first menstruation. It included 952 participants, 476 premenarcheal and 476 postmenarcheal girls matched by age and by grade level. Results showed that compared to experiences of postmenarcheal girls, premenarcheal girls anticipated more negative emotional…
Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the process of adolescent choral singers' social identity development within three midsized, midwestern high school mixed choirs. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 36 different participants. Secondary data sources included memoing, observations, and interviews with the choir…
Gniewosz, Burkhard; Noack, Peter; Buhl, Monika
The present study examined how parental political attitudes, parenting styles, and classroom characteristics predict adolescents' political alienation, as feelings about the individual's ability to affect the political system's performance at the individual level. Participants were 463 families that included mothers, fathers, and their adolescent…
Hilt, Lori M.; Cha, Christine B.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
This study examined nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of young adolescent girls. Potential moderators of the relationships between different types of distress (internal and interpersonal) and particular functions of NSSI (emotion-regulation and interpersonal) were explored. Participants included 94 girls (49% Hispanic; 25%…
Alvarado, Melissa; Ricard, Richard J.
This study examined the confluence of developmental assets, ethnic identity, and acculturative stress in the prediction of thriving among Hispanic adolescents. Thriving is used to encompass youth who are not only doing well now but who are also on the trajectory toward overall success. Study participants included 130 self-reported Hispanic middle…
Adler-Bock, Marcy; Bernhardt, Barbara May; Gick, Bryan; Bacsfalvi, Penelope
Purpose: Ultrasound can provide images of the tongue during speech production. The present study set out to examine the potential utility of ultrasound in remediation of North American English /r/. Method: The participants were 2 Canadian English-speaking adolescents who had not yet acquired /r/. The study included an initial period without…
Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Martinique; Johnson, Samoan
The purpose of this study was to examine academic disidentification along with demographic and psychological factors related to the academic achievement of African American adolescents. Participants included 96 African American students (41 males, 55 females) in an urban high school setting located in the Southwest. Consistent with previous…
Cunnien, Keith A.; MartinRogers, Nicole; Mortimer, Jeylan T.
Purpose of this paper To assess the relationship between high school work experiences and self-efficacy. Design/methodology/approach OLS regressions are applied to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study to examine work experiences and self-efficacy. Findings The analyses indicate that employment fosters self-efficacy in multiple realms, Occasional and sporadic workers exhibit less self-efficacy than steady workers. Supervisory support may be especially important in enhancing adolescents’ confidence as they anticipate their future family lives, community participation, personal health, and economic achievements. Research limitations/Implications This research includes only a small set of the work dimensions that may be important for adolescents. Ethnography and in-depth interviews are recommended to further explore the subjective and emotional dimensions of youth work experiences. Practical implications In developing policies and guidance, educators, parents, and employers should be aware that steady employment and supervisory support enhance the development of adolescent self-efficacy. Original value of paper This paper finds evidence that adolescent work experiences spill over to influence youth’s developing confidence in the realms of family life, community and personal health. It also suggests that sporadic and occasional work patterns can impair the development of self-efficacy in adolescence. PMID:19750144
Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.
Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018
Hesse, Toni; Holmes, Laura G.; Kennedy-Overfelt, Vicki; Kerr, Lynne M.; Giles, Lisa L.
Recurrent headaches cause significant burden for adolescents and their families. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to reduce stress and alter the experience of pain, reduce pain burden, and improve quality of life. Research indicates that MBIs can benefit adults with chronic pain conditions including headaches. A pilot nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted with 20 adolescent females with recurrent headaches. Median class attendance was 7 of 8 total sessions; average class attendance was 6.10 ± 2.6. Adherence to home practice was good, with participants reporting an average of 4.69 (SD = 1.84) of 6 practices per week. Five participants dropped out for reasons not inherent to the group (e.g., extracurricular scheduling); no adverse events were reported. Parents reported improved quality of life and physical functioning for their child. Adolescent participants reported improved depression symptoms and improved ability to accept their pain rather than trying to control it. MBIs appear safe and feasible for adolescents with recurrent headaches. Although participants did not report decreased frequency or severity of headache following treatment, the treatment had a beneficial effect for depression, quality of life, and acceptance of pain and represents a promising adjunct treatment for adolescents with recurrent headaches. PMID:26798398
Purpose The reproductive health needs of unmarried adolescents in Bangladesh are largely unmet. This study aimed to explore treatment-seeking behaviour of unmarried female adolescents for selected reproductive health (RH) concerns in two low-performing areas of Bangladesh. Methods As part of a large community based-project, a cross-sectional survey was conducted from November 2006 to March 2007. From each of two select study areas, 800 unmarried female adolescents aged 12–19 years were selected for participation by simple random sampling through household listing and were recruited into the study. Trained interviewers administered a structured questionnaire to participating female adolescents. Descriptive and bivariate analytic methods were used compare RH conditions and healthcare seeking behaviour of adolescents across urban and rural settings. Results Approximately 50% of the sample reported experiencing menstrual problems in the last year. The predominant problems reported by participants included: lower abdominal pain, back pain, irregular menstruation, and excessive bleeding during menstruation. Irrespective of study area, only 40% of the female adolescents with menstrual problems sought treatment from qualified physicians. Otherwise, utilization of healthcare facilities and care providers for reported problems varied significantly by rural and urban areas. Higher proportions of adolescents in the urban setting (15%) also reported recent symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), compared to those in the rural setting (9%; p < 0.001). Across sites, however, self-treatment was the most commonly reported method of care for those who experienced any symptoms of STI. Conclusions In general, treatment-seeking behaviours by unmarried female adolescents was low for menstrual problems. A vast majority of unmarried female adolescents practiced self-care for symptoms of STIs while only small proportions sought treatment from qualified physicians. These
Keith, Joanne; And Others
This document contains the final report from the Michigan Early Adolescent Survey, a study undertaken to: (1) develop a profile of Michigan early adolescents that focused on out-of-school time and included biological, psychological, and sociological information; (2) develop a profile of families which included early adolescents; (3) assess the…
Lieberman, Kate; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Perry, Deborah F
Poor, adolescent, racial/ethnic minority women are at great risk for developing perinatal depression. However, little research has been conducted evaluating interventions for this population. We conducted a systematic review of preventive and treatment interventions for perinatal depression tested with adolescents, with a focus on low income, minority populations. Nine research-based articles (including one that reported on two studies) were reviewed systematically, and quality ratings were assigned based on a validated measure assessing randomization, double-blinding, and reporting of participant withdrawals. Two treatment studies were identified, both of which were successful in reducing depression. Eight prevention studies were located, of which four were more efficacious than control conditions in preventing depression. Studies sampled mostly minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents. No consistent characteristics across efficacious interventions could be identified. This review underscores the need for researchers to further investigate and build an evidence base.
Neshat Doost, Hamid Taher; Yule, William; Kalantari, Mehrdad; Rezvani, Sayed Rohollah; Dyregrov, Atle; Jobson, Laura
This study investigated the effect of bereavement (father death due to war in Afghanistan) on autobiographical memory specificity in Afghan adolescents living in Iran. Participants consisted of bereaved (n=70) and non-bereaved (n=33) Afghan adolescents. The measures included Farsi versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test, Mood and Feeling Questionnaire, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and Impact of Event Scale. Results indicated that the bereaved group retrieved a significantly lower proportion of specific memories and a significantly greater proportion of extended and categoric memories than the non-bereaved group. Additionally, depression symptoms and reduced autobiographical memory specificity were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that bereaved adolescents have impaired autobiographical memory specificity.
Sewell, William H.
Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)
Buchanan, Christy M.; Hughes, Johna L.
This study examines whether mothers' or adolescents' expectations concerning "storm and stress" behaviors at adolescence predict subsequent real or perceived adolescent behavior and attributes during the early years of adolescence. The study used a short-term longitudinal design. Participants were 6th- and 7th-grade adolescents and their mothers…
McDaniel, Larry W.; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura
Participation in strength training is important for older children or young adolescences who wish to improve fitness or participate in sports. When designing strength training programs for our youth this age group is immature anatomically, physiologically, and psychologically. For the younger or inexperienced group the strength training activities…
Nkala, Busisiwe; Dietrich, Janan; Collins, Alexandra; Closson, Kalysha; Cui, Zishan; Kanters, Steve; Chia, Jason; Barhafuma, Bernard; Palmer, Alexis; Kaida, Angela; Gray, Glenda; Miller, Cari
Purpose We examined adolescents’ knowledge regarding the origin of HIV/AIDS and correlates of beliefs surrounding conspiracy theories in Soweto, South Africa. Now, a decade post-AIDS denialism, South Africa has the largest antiretroviral therapy roll-out worldwide. However, conspiracy theories stemming from past AIDS denialism may impact HIV prevention and treatment efforts. Methods Study participants were recruited through the Kganya Motsha Adolescent Health Centre and the Perinatal HIV Research Unit’s Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Study (BBAHS). Adolescents were eligible to participate if aged 14–19 years and living in Soweto. We calculated the proportion of adolescents who correctly believed that HIV originated from non-human primates, and used contingency table analysis and logistic regression modeling to describe correlates associated with accurate knowledge and beliefs in conspiracy theories. Results Of 830 adolescents, 168 (20.2%) participants correctly identified HIV as originating from chimpanzees and one third (n = 71, 8.6%) believed in a conspiracy theory about the origins of HIV, including that it originated from the US government (2.3%), the pharmaceutical industry (2.2%), a vaccine (2.1%), space (1.5%), and a scientist (0.6%). Participants who were more likely to correctly identify the origin of HIV were older, men, and unemployed. Participants who were men, unemployed or students, and who had a parent or close relative who had died of HIV, were more likely to believe in a conspiracy theory regarding the origins of HIV. Conclusions Adolescents living in Soweto did not have high levels of accurate knowledge regarding the origins of HIV/AIDS and conspiracy beliefs were present among a small minority of participants. Accurate knowledge of the origins of HIV and debunking myths are important for improving uptake of HIV prevention tools in this population. PMID:28151937
Gerteis, Jessie; Chartrand, Molinda; Martin, Brett; Cabral, Howard J.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Frank, Deborah A.
Objective To ascertain whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) is associated with early adolescent delinquent behavior, after accounting for prenatal exposures to other psychoactive substances and relevant psychosocial factors. Methods Ninety-three early adolescents (12.5–14.5 years old) participating since birth in a longitudinal study of IUCE reported delinquent acts via an audio computer assisted self interview (ACASI). Level of IUCE and exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana were determined by maternal report, maternal and infant urine assays, and infant meconium assays at birth. Participants reported their exposure to violence on the Violence Exposure Scale for Children – Revised (VEX-R) at ages 8.5, 9.5, 11 years and during early adolescence, and the strictness of supervision by their caregivers during early adolescence. Results Of the 93 participants, 24 (26%) reported ≥3 delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. In the final multivariate model (including level of IUCE and cigarette exposure, childhood exposure to violence, and caregiver strictness/supervision) ≥ 3 delinquent behaviors were not significantly associated with level of IUCE but were significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to half a pack or more of cigarettes per day and higher levels of childhood exposure to violence, effects substantially unchanged after control for early adolescent violence exposure. Conclusions In this cohort, prospectively ascertained prenatal exposure to cigarettes and childhood exposure to violence are associated with self-reported delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. Contrary to initial popular predictions, intrauterine cocaine is not a strong predictor of adolescent delinquent behaviors in this cohort. PMID:21558951
Parker, Edith A.; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Objectives We examined the interactions between three dopamine gene alleles (DAT1, DRD2, DRD4) previously associated with violent behavior and two components of the adolescent environment (exposure to violence, school social environment) to predict adulthood physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among white men and women. Methods We used data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort study following individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Based on the prior literature, we categorized participants as at risk for each of the three dopamine genes using this coding scheme: two 10-R alleles for DAT1; at least one A-1 allele for DRD2; at least one 7-R or 8-R allele for DRD4. Adolescent exposure to violence and school social environment was measured in 1994 and 1995 when participants were in high school or middle school. Intimate partner violence perpetration was measured in 2008 when participants were 24 to 32 years old. We used simple and multivariable logistic regression models, including interactions of genes and the adolescent environments for the analysis. Results Presence of risk alleles was not independently associated with IPV perpetration but increasing exposure to violence and disconnection from the school social environment was associated with physical IPV perpetration. The effects of these adolescent experiences on physical IPV perpetration varied by dopamine risk allele status. Among individuals with non-risk dopamine alleles, increased exposure to violence during adolescence and perception of disconnection from the school environment were significantly associated with increased odds of physical IPV perpetration, but individuals with high risk alleles, overall, did not experience the same increase. Conclusion Our results suggested the effects of adolescent environment on adulthood physical IPV perpetration varied by genetic factors. This analysis did not find a direct link between risk alleles
Gudonis-Miller, Lauren C; Lewis, Lisa; Tong, Yan; Tu, Wanzhu; Aalsma, Matthew C
Research has demonstrated that adolescent peer group affiliations are consistent predictors of substance use initiation and maintenance; it is less clear how adolescent romantic relationships influence substance use behavior. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants in the final dataset for the current study included adolescents (321 males and 321 females) who were identified in reciprocated romantic relationships at Wave 1 (1994-1995; mean age 16.7 years) that were followed into young adulthood and reassessed at two different time points (Wave 2 in 1996, mean age 17.7, and Wave 3 in 2001-2002, mean age 23.1). Data were gathered from both partners, and included demographic variables, longitudinal measures of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana), and relationship seriousness. Hierarchical linear modeling using SAS PROC MIXED were utilized to test for individual versus partner influences. Results revealed individual and partner effects for the prediction of alcohol and tobacco, although individual effects were generally greater than partner influences. For marijuana use, as self-reported relationship seriousness increased, future marijuana use decreased. These findings suggest the developmental significance of adolescent romantic relationships on the prediction of future substance use behavior during young adulthood.
Manz, K; Schlack, R; Poethko-Müller, C; Mensink, G; Finger, J; Lampert, T
Physical activity during childhood and adolescence has numerous health benefits, while sedentary behavior, especially electronic media use, is associated with the development of overweight. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity during childhood and adolescence is an integral part of national public health efforts. The aim of this article is to describe the physical activity behavior of German children and adolescents based on the nationwide data of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS wave 1). Furthermore, the association between physical activity and sports participation and use of screen-based media in youth aged 11 to 17 years was analyzed. The analyses included data from 10,426 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years collected by telephone interviews. Children older than 11 years answered the questions by themselves, whereas a parent was interviewed for younger children. The descriptive analyses were performed under consideration of social and demographic factors. According to the results of KiGGS wave 1 a total of 77.5% (95% Cl 76.0-78.9 %) of the children and adolescents participated in sports activities, and 59.7% (58.1-61.3 %) were members of a sports club. The recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) to be physically active at least 60 min per day was achieved by 27.5% (26.0-28.9 %). Children and adolescents with a low socioeconomic status (SES) participated less in sports activities than children of higher SES groups. Excessive use of screen-based media was more likely to be associated with lack of sports participation than with a lack of physical activity. In the future, preventive measures should promote the daily physical activity of children and adolescents and additionally encourage children and adolescents with low SES to participate in sports activities.
Pierce, Alexandra Sandi
The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation, violence, and addiction. Evaluation results indicate frequent exposure to sex traffickers and suggest that harm reduction methods can help girls reduce risk of commercial sexual exploitation.
Perrino, Tatiana; Estrada, Yannine; Huang, Shi; St George, Sara; Pantin, Hilda; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Prado, Guillermo
The Familias Unidas intervention is an efficacious family-based preventive intervention for reducing substance use and other health risks among Hispanic youth. A current randomized controlled trial (RCT) is examining this intervention's efficacy when delivered via the Internet (eHealth). eHealth interventions can overcome logistical barriers to participation, yet there is limited information about the feasibility of these interventions, especially among ethnic minorities. This paper examines participation and predictors of participation in the eHealth Familias Unidas intervention in a sample of 113 Hispanic families whose adolescent had behavioral problems. Analyses examined multidimensional ways of characterizing participation, including the following: (1) total intervention participation, (2) initial engagement (participating in at least one of the first three intervention sessions), (3) completing the pre-recorded, eHealth parent group sessions, and (4) participating in the live, facilitator-led, eHealth family sessions. Participation in this eHealth intervention was comparable to, and in most cases higher than, previous, face-to-face Familias Unidas interventions. High levels of baseline family stress were associated with lower initial engagement and lower family session participation. Greater parental Hispanicism was associated with more participation in eHealth parent group sessions and across the total intervention. Higher levels of baseline effective parenting, in other words less intervention need, were significantly associated with lower levels of total intervention participation and lower levels of family session participation. Implications for preventive interventions delivered via Internet are discussed.
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri; Rantanen, Päivi; Rimpelä, Matti
This study set out to assess the relationship between pubertal timing and emotional and behavioural problems in middle adolescence. The study involved a school based survey of health, health behaviour and behaviour in school as well as questions about emotional and behavioural problems (the School Health Promotion Study). Secondary schools in four regions and 13 towns in Finland participated in the study in 1998. The respondents were 36,549 adolescents aged 14-16. The study included questions on depression, bulimia nervosa, psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety, drinking, substance use, smoking, bullying and truancy. Among girls, both internalising and externalising symptoms were more common the earlier puberty occurred. Among boys, externalising symptoms only were associated with early puberty. It is concluded that early pubertal timing is associated with increased mental health problems. Professionals working with adolescents should consider the mental health needs of early maturing adolescents.
Kao, Tsui-Sui; Gibbs, Marilyn Beth; Clemen-Stone, Susan; Duffy, Sonia
The purpose of this integrative review is to describe, compare, and synthesize traditional and computer-based family interventions that aim to change adolescents' risky sexual behaviors and substance abuse. Family interventions have been shown to generate protective effects for preventing adolescents from risky behaviors. It is not clear, however, whether there are significant differences or similarities in the designs and effects of traditional and computer-based family interventions. An integrative literature review was conducted to describe and compare the designs and effects of traditional and computer-based family interventions. Both interventions have generated significant effects on reducing risky behavior among adolescents. Interventions guided by theory, tailored to participants' culture/gender, and which included sufficient boosting dosages in their designs demonstrated significant short- or long-term effects in terms of reducing adolescents' risky behaviors. Regardless of delivery method, well-designed family interventions are noted to maximize familial protective effects and reduce risky behaviors.
Hosseini, Seyyed Vahide; Anoosheh, Monireh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Mohammad
Parents are likely to be key influences on children's physical activity behaviors, although it is not clear how. This study was designed to explore parents' roles in Iranian adolescent girls' physical activity habit development. A qualitative study was conducted by means of semistructured one-to-one interviews with 25 participants, including 16 adolescent girls (10-19 years of age), seven mothers, and two fathers. Content analysis was applied. Two main themes emerged as parental role in adolescent girls' physical activity behavior: developing interest in physical activity (making children familiar with physical activity, discovering talents, and role modeling) and providing support to adolescents for physical activity (material and immaterial). This study provided a better understanding of how Iranian parents influence their children's physical activity behavior. This will enable nurses to design more effective family-based interventions.
Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Fraser, Ashley M; Harper, James M
The current study longitudinally examined adolescents' internalization of values in four domains (drug use, prosocial, school, friends), and how these values were differentially related to behaviors (delinquency, prosocial behavior, school engagement, and deviant peer association) as a function of proactive parenting. Participants included 335 adolescents (M age of child at Time 2 = 12.28, SD = .99, 51% female) and their parents. Analyses examined associations between adolescents' values at Time 3 and corresponding behaviors at Time 4, and the moderating role of proactive parenting (assessed at Time 2 using cluster analysis). Results suggested that adolescents with the most consistent value-congruent behavior had parents who used deference or reasoned deference as an approach to proactive parenting, highlighting the importance of autonomy supportive parenting in the encouragement of self-generated values and corresponding behaviors. Discussion focused on value-congruent behaviors and associations between values and behaviors across domains.
Liu, Cong; Ang, Rebecca P; Lwin, May O
The current study aims to understand the factors that influence adolescents' disclosure of personally identifiable information (PII) on social networking sites (SNSs). A survey was conducted among 780 adolescent participants (between 13 and 18) who were Facebook users. Structural equation modeling was used for analyzing the data and obtaining an overarching model that include cognitive, personality, and social factors that influence adolescents' PII disclosure. Results showed privacy concern as the cognitive factor reduces adolescents' PII disclosure and it serves as a potential mediator for personality and social factors. Amongst personality factors, narcissism was found to directly increase PII disclosure, and social anxiety indirectly decreases PII disclosure by increasing privacy concern. Amongst social factors, active parental mediation decreases PII disclosure directly and indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Restrictive parental mediation decreases PII disclosure only indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Implications of the findings to parents, educators, and policy makers were discussed.
Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J
This study examined whether Mexican-American parents' experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parents' ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14-16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a 2-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescents 1 year later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents' increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them.
Wagner, Clara; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B
Deficits in executive functions (EFs) have been documented among individuals with unipolar depression, but controversy exists as to whether such deficits are state-dependent or are trait markers that precede disorder onset. The present study examined whether maternal history of unipolar depression was associated with deficits in EFs in early adolescent offspring, a finding that would support a trait marker conceptualization of EF deficits. Participants were a diverse sample (N = 493) of adolescents and their mothers recruited through local schools. Measures included semi-structured diagnostic interviews of mother and adolescent, mother-report forms assessing demographic information, and tests of executive function. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between maternal depression diagnosis and adolescent offspring performance on tests of EF. Maternal lifetime history of depression was not associated with offspring EF task performance. Findings are not consistent with the conceptualization of impaired executive functions as trait markers of unipolar depression.
Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya
Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population.
Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Hagewen, Kellie J
Research on adolescent self-esteem indicates that adolescence is a time in which individuals experience important changes in their physical, cognitive, and social identities. Prior research suggests that there is a positive relationship between an adolescent's participation in structured extracurricular activities and well-being in a variety of domains, and some research indicates that these relationships may be dependent on the type of activities in which adolescents participate. Building on previous research, a growth-curve analysis was utilized to examine self-esteem trajectories from adolescence (age 14) to young adulthood (age 26). Using 3 waves of data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 5,399; 47.8% male), the analysis estimated a hierarchical growth-curve model emphasizing the effects of age and type of school-based extracurricular activity portfolio, including sports and school clubs, on self-esteem. The results indicated that age had a linear relationship with self-esteem over time. Changes in both the initial level of self-esteem and the growth of self-esteem over time were significantly influenced by the type of extracurricular activity portfolio. The findings were consistent across race and sex. The results support the utility of examining the longitudinal impact of portfolio type on well-being outcomes.
Meisel, Samuel N.; Colder, Craig R.
Background The literature distinguishes two types of social normative influences on adolescent alcohol use, descriptive norms (perceived peer alcohol use) and injunctive norms (perceived approval of drinking). Although theoretical formulations suggest variability in the salience and influence of descriptive and injunctive norms, little is understood regarding for whom and when social norms influence adolescent drinking. Strong agentic and communal social goals were hypothesized to moderate the influence of descriptive and injunctive norms on early adolescent alcohol use, respectively. Developmental changes were also expected, such that these moderating effects were expected to get stronger at later grades. Methods This longitudinal study included 387 adolescents and 4 annual assessments (spanning 6th to 10th grade). Participants completed questionnaire measures of social goals, social norms, and alcohol use at each wave. Results Multilevel logistic regressions were used to test prospective associations. As hypothesized, descriptive norms predicted increases in the probability of alcohol use for adolescents with strong agentic goals, but only in later grades. Injunctive norms were associated with increases in the probability of drinking for adolescents with low communal goals at earlier grades, whereas injunctive norms were associated with an increased probability of drinking for adolescents with either low or high communal goals at later grades. Although not hypothesized, descriptive norms predicted increases in the probability of drinking for adolescents high in communal goals in earlier grades whereas descriptive norms predicted drinking for adolescents characterized by low communal goals in later grades. Conclusions The current study highlights the importance of social goals when considering social normative influences on alcohol use in early and middle adolescence. These findings have implications for whom and when normative feedback interventions might be most
Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S
The present study investigated longitudinal associations between behavioral and cognitive dimensions of parental social coaching (i.e., advice about how to behave or think about peer challenges) and young adolescents' peer acceptance, and whether such associations are moderated by youths' social skills. Time 1 (T1) participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years; 50% boys; 58.5% European American). Parents gave open-ended reports about their social coaching to hypothetical peer stress scenarios, which were coded from low to high quality on behavioral and cognitive dimensions. Parents and teachers reported on adolescent prosocial behavior (i.e., social-behavioral skills), and adolescents reported on their social appraisals and social self-efficacy (i.e., social-cognitive skills). At T1 (before the first year of middle school) and Time 2 (approximately 10 months later, after the first year of middle school), parents and teachers rated adolescent peer acceptance. Analyses revealed that parents' prosocial behavioral advice and benign cognitive framing independently predicted adolescents' higher peer acceptance prospectively (controlling for earlier levels of peer acceptance). Furthermore, adolescent social skills moderated links between coaching and peer acceptance. Specifically, adolescents with higher, but not lower, social-cognitive skills became more accepted in the context of higher-quality coaching, supporting a "capitalization" pattern, such that these youth may be better able to utilize coaching suggestions. Results underscore the utility of parents' behavioral advice and cognitive framing for adolescent peer adjustment across the middle school transition and suggest that optimal social-coaching strategies may depend in part on adolescent social skill level. (PsycINFO Database Record
Kreider, Consuelo M.; Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Young, Mary Ellen; Prudencio, Stephanie M.; McCarty, Christopher; Mann, William C.
Background Social participation involves activities and roles providing interactions with others, including those within their social networks. Purpose Characterize social networks and participation with others for 36 adolescents, ages 11-16 years, with (n = 19) and without (n = 17) learning disability, attention disorder or high-functioning autism. Methods Social networks were measured using methods of personal network analysis. The Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment With Whom dimension scores was used to measure participation with others. Youth from the clinical group were interviewed regarding their experiences within their social networks. Findings Group differences were observed for six social network variables and in the proportion of overall, physical, recreational, social and informal activities engaged with family and/or friends. Qualitative findings explicated strategies used in building, shaping and maintaining their social networks. Implications Social network factors should be considered when seeking to understand social participation. PMID:26755040
Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A
Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The
Bayer, Angela M; Alburqueque, Mónica
Peru's approach to its 5.7 million 10- to 19-year-olds has shifted toward positive youth development. Following that trend, our objective was to facilitate Peruvian adolescents' use of photovoice to better understand the factors affecting their health, well-being, and sexuality and to work with adolescents to present policy and programmatic recommendations. Photovoice sessions were carried out with low-income 12- to 16-year-olds (n = 13) from Lima. Sessions included basic photography and ethics, photo taking, and descriptions and discussions using the SHOWeD (What do you See here? What is really Happening? How does this relate to Our lives? Why does this problem or strength exist? What can we Do about it?) method. Participants grouped their photos into a "photo story." Each section of the story consisted of a message and 4 to 10 photos. Each photo had a caption that answered the SHOWeD questions. Messages were (a) "health and well-being in danger of extinction," (b) "with some signs of hope," (c) "innocence in spite of everything," (d) "what we as adolescents have," and (e) "but we lack opportunities to live a better life and a responsible sexuality." Participants presented the photo story to program planners, policy makers, and community members. Results underscore the value of including adolescents in program and policy planning and affirm that photovoice can achieve such inclusion. Photovoice provides a concrete method for adolescents to speak their mind through image and word.
Bruening, Meg; MacLehose, Richard; Eisenberg, Marla E; Nanney, Marilyn S.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective To assess associations between adolescents and their friends with regard to sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB)/diet soda intake, and fast food (FF) restaurant visits. Design Population-based, cross-sectional survey study with direct measures from friends. Setting Twenty Minneapolis/St. Paul schools during 2009–2010. Participants Adolescents (n=2,043; mean age=14.2±1.9; 46.2% female; 80% non-white). Main outcome measures Adolescent SSB/diet soda intake and FF visits. Analysis Generalized estimating equation logistic models were used to examine associations between adolescents’ SSB/diet soda intake and FF visits and similar behaviors in nominated friends (friend groups, best friends). School-level (middle vs. high school) interactions were assessed. Results Significant associations were found between adolescents and friends behaviors for each of the beverages assessed (P<0.05), but varied by friendship type and school level. Five of six models of FF visits (including all FF visits) were significantly associated (P <0.05) among adolescents and their friends. Significant interactions by school level were present among adolescents’ and friends’ FF visits, with associations generally for high school participants compared to middle school participants (P <0.05). Conclusions and implications Findings suggest for many beverages and FF restaurant types, friends’ behaviors are associated, especially FF visits for older adolescents. Nutrition education efforts may benefit by integrating the knowledge of the impact of adolescents’ friends on FF visits. PMID:24735768
Addressing complex adolescent health problems such as youth violence and teen pregnancy requires innovative strategies to promote protective social environments, increase healthier behaviors, and reduce the impact of health risk behaviors into adulthood. Multilevel, interdisciplinary, and translational approaches are needed to address these challenges in adolescent health. In May 2012, a group of adolescent health researchers participated in a 1-day research symposium titled "From Genes to Community: Exploring Translational Science in Adolescent Health Research," sponsored by the Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) of the University of Pittsburgh and the Division of Adolescent Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The research symposium offered opportunities for adolescent health researchers to share examples of translational research as well as to identify potential collaborations to promote translational research. This and subsequent issues of Clinical and Translational Science will include papers from this symposium. The studies and reviews presented range from how basic biobehavioral sciences such as functional neuroimaging and decision science can be made relevant for intervention development as well as improving strategies for community-partnered knowledge transfer of cutting-edge research findings to promote adolescent health and well-being.
Ewing, Brett A; Osilla, Karen Chan; Pedersen, Eric R; Hunter, Sarah B; Miles, Jeremy NV; D’Amico, Elizabeth J
Objective Adult and peer factors may influence whether adolescents use alcohol and other drugs (AOD). This longitudinal study examined the direct effects of adult monitoring, perceived adult AOD use, and cultural values on adolescent AOD use. Methods Participants were 193 at-risk adolescents referred to a California diversion program called Teen Court for a first-time AOD offense. We assessed youth reports of past 30 day AOD use (any alcohol use, heavy drinking, marijuana use), demographics, changes in parental monitoring and family values (from baseline to follow-up 180 days later), as well as family structure and perceived adult substance use at follow-up. Results Adolescents who reported that a significant adult in their life used marijuana were more likely to have increased days of drinking, heavy drinking, and marijuana use at follow-up. Higher levels of familism (importance the teen places on their family’s needs over their own needs) and being in a nuclear family served as protective factors for future alcohol use. Additionally, poor family management was associated with increased alcohol use and heavy drinking. Conclusion Findings highlight how family management and perceptions of adult marijuana use influence subsequent adolescent AOD use, and how an increase in familism over time is associated with a decrease in adolescent drinking. Tailoring interventions, by including the teen’s family and/or providing support to adults who use AOD may be crucial for improving interventions for adolescent AOD use. PMID:25452064
Thomas, Kendra J; Napolitano, Patricia H
The purpose of this study is to understand the development of Brazilian adolescents' justice perceptions across different contexts of educational privilege. Past research has found that, in adolescence, the belief in a just world (BJW) differentiates between personal and general and declines. However, prior research has not included adolescents from various socioeconomic statuses, samples in Latin America, or focused on the role of the educational context on the developmental trajectory. Participants were 385 adolescents from 3 schools (private, public and military) in Southern Brazil between 9th and 11th grade. Students completed the personal and general BJW survey. Results revealed a significant interaction of school and grade level of adolescents' personal BJW. Contrary to previous research, personal and general BJW was not always lower in higher grades. Among privileged educational contexts, data indicated that personal BJW may even increase, with the decrease notable in the lower resourced school. In contrast, general BJW was relatively consistent across all Brazilian adolescents. Results provide important insight into the role that privilege and education play across adolescents' development of BJW. This research questions the generalizability of previous studies on the development of BJW and indicates that the trajectory may be dependent upon educational and cultural context.
Turpyn, Caitlin C.; Chaplin, Tara M.
Mindful parenting is associated with greater adjustment and fewer behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, the mechanisms by which mindful parenting functions to mitigate risk in adolescence is not well understood. This study investigated parent emotional expression as a potential mechanism in the relationship between low mindful parenting and adolescent risk behaviors. A sample of 157 12-14 year old adolescents (49% female) and their primary caregivers (99% female) participated in an emotionally-arousing conflict interaction. Parents reported on their mindful parenting practices, and parents’ emotion expressions during the conflict interaction were coded including negative emotion, positive emotion, and shared parent-youth positive emotion. Adolescent substance use and sex behaviors were assessed through self-report, interview, and physical toxicology screens. Results indicated that mindful parenting was associated with less parental negative emotion and greater shared positive emotion during the parent-adolescent conflict. Further, results revealed a significant indirect effect of mindful parenting on youth's substance use through shared parent-adolescent positive emotion. Findings highlight the relevance of emotional functioning in the context of stressful parenting situations in mindful parenting. PMID:27087861
Gargano, Lisa M; Herbert, Natasha L; Painter, Julia E; Sales, Jessica M; Vogt, Tara M; Morfaw, Christopher; Jones, LaDawna M; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for adolescents includes three vaccines (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis [Tdap]; human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccine; and meningococcal conjugate vaccine [MCV4]) and an annual influenza vaccination. Given the increasing number of recommended vaccines for adolescents and health and economic costs associated with nonvaccination, it is imperative that effective strategies for increasing vaccination rates among adolescents are developed. This article describes the development, theoretical framework, and initial first-year evaluation of an intervention designed to promote vaccine acceptance among a middle and high school-based sample of adolescents and their parents in eastern Georgia. Adolescents, parents, and teachers were active participants in the development of the intervention. The intervention, which consisted of a brochure for parents and a teacher-delivered curriculum for adolescents, was guided by constructs from the health belief model and theory of reasoned action. Evaluation results indicated that our intervention development methods were successful in creating a brochure that met cultural relevance and the literacy needs of parents. We also demonstrated an increase in student knowledge of and positive attitudes toward vaccines. To our knowledge, this study is the first to extensively engage middle and high school students, parents, and teachers in the design and implementation of key theory-based educational components of a school-based, teacher-delivered adolescent vaccination intervention.
Weeks, Murray; Ploubidis, George B; Cairney, John; Wild, T Cameron; Naicker, Kiyuri; Colman, Ian
This study examined longitudinal pathways through three domains of adaptation from ages 4-5 to 14-15 (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic competence) towards depressive symptoms at age 16-17. Participants were 6425 Canadian children followed bi-annually as part of the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth. Within-domain (i.e., stability) effects were moderate in strength. We found longitudinal cross-domain effects across one time point (i.e., one-lag cascades) between internalizing and externalizing in early childhood (positive associations), and between academic competence and externalizing in later childhood and adolescence (negative associations). We also found cascade effects over multiple time points (i.e., multi-lag cascades); lower academic competence at age 4-5 and greater internalizing at age 6-7 predicted greater age 12-13 externalizing, and greater age 6-7 externalizing predicted greater age 16-17 depression. Important pathways towards adolescent depression include a stability path through childhood and adolescent internalizing, as well as a number of potential paths involving all domains of adaptation, highlighting the multifactorial nature of adolescent depression.
Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley
This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…
De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
This 5-wave longitudinal study examines linkages over time between adolescents' perceptions of relationships with parents and friends with respect to support, negative interaction, and power. A total of 575 early adolescents (54.1% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Path analyses mainly showed bidirectional associations…
Derkman, Marleen M. S.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; van der Vorst, Haske; Scholte, Ron H. J.
Sibling relationships and parental support are important for adolescents' development and well-being, yet both are likely to change during adolescence. Since adolescents participate in both the sibling relationship and the parent-child relationship, we can expect sibling relationships and parental support to be associated with each other.…
Gudonis-Miller, Lauren C.; Lewis, Lisa; Tong, Yan; Tu, Wanzhu; Aalsma, Matthew C.
Research has demonstrated that adolescent peer group affiliations are consistent predictors of substance use initiation and maintenance; it is less clear how adolescent "romantic" relationships influence substance use behavior. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants in the final dataset…
When readers of contemporary adolescent literature are encouraged to participate in conversations about what is considered canonical literature, the literary value of adolescent reading expands past narrowly defined borders. Several recent adolescent novels provide access to the classics and may generate interest among middle school students in…
Romi, Shlomo; Marom, Doron
This study examined differences in intelligence between dropout delinquent adolescents and nondelinquent adolescents in Israel. It was part of research aimed at using psychological tests to characterize dropout delinquents. The participants, 215 adolescents at a psychoeducational center, were divided into three groups and were tested using the…
Phillips, Tommy M.
The influences of the fatalism frequently associated with Appalachian culture on adolescent identity processes were explored. The sample consisted of 91 Appalachian adolescents and 87 non-Appalachian adolescents. Participants completed measures of fatalism (operationalized in terms of higher hopelessness and lower optimism/efficacy scores) and…
Kean, Emily Millikan; Kelsay, Kimberly; Wamboldt, Frederick; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.
Objective: To assess posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in adolescents with and without asthma and their parents and the relationship between PTS symptoms and asthma morbidity. Method: Three groups of adolescents (12-18 years) participated: adolescents who had experienced a life-threatening asthma episode (n = 49), asthma controls (n = 71), and…
Jolly, Kim; Archibald, Cynthia; Liehr, Patricia
School nurses are well positioned to address risk-taking behaviors for adolescents in their care. The purpose of this mixed-method exploratory study was to explore risk taking in Afro-Caribbean adolescents in South Florida, comparing first- to second-generation adolescents. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from an immigrant group using the adolescent risk-taking instrument to evaluate risk-taking attitudes, behaviors, and self-described riskiest activities. One-hundred and six adolescents participated; 44% were first generation Afro-Caribbean. Data analysis included analysis of variance, frequencies, and content analysis. There were no differences in risk-taking attitudes; smaller percentages of first generation Afro-Caribbean adolescents reported sexual activity, substance use, and violence. Over one third of the sample, regardless of generational status, reported alcohol use, but did not note alcohol or other health-compromising behaviors as "riskiest" activities. It is important to better understand Afro-Caribbean adolescents' perspectives about risky behaviors, and school-based venues offer the best promise for reaching these adolescents.
Játiva, Raquel; Cerezo, M Angeles
The objectives of the present study were to analyze the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment in adolescents and the role of self-compassion as a mediator in this relationship. The sample was composed of 109 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years old with poor school performance. The participants filled out a battery of questionnaires made up of: a socio-demographic data questionnaire; the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ); the Youth Self-Report (YSR); and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Results indicated that victimization was positively associated with psychological maladjustment. Moreover, adolescents reporting poly-victimization showed significantly higher level of psychological maladjustment and different types of victimization show different effects on adolescents' psychological maladjustment. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment and reduced negative consequences in adolescents who reported having been victimized. Adolescence is a time of development and search for identity in which strengthening personal protective factors could help overcome any traumas experienced. Therefore, developing self-compassion in adolescence could be a good way to help young people recover from bad experiences and protect themselves against future negative experiences. As self-compassion can be improved with practice it could be included in adolescent intervention and prevention programs.
O'Handley, Roderick D; Ford, W Blake; Radley, Keith C; Helbig, Kate A; Wimberly, Joy K
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) often demonstrate impairments in social functioning, with deficits becoming more apparent during adolescence. This study evaluated the effects of the Superheroes Social Skills program, a program that combines behavioral skills training and video modeling to teach target social skills, on accurate demonstration of three target social skills in adolescents with ID. Skills taught in the present study include Expressing Wants and Needs, Conversation, and Turn Taking. Four adolescents with ID participated in a 3-week social skills intervention, with the intervention occurring twice per week. A multiple baseline across skills design was used to determine the effect of the intervention on social skill accuracy in both a training and generalization setting. All participants demonstrated substantial improvements in skill accuracy in both settings, with teacher ratings of social functioning further suggesting generalization of social skills to nontraining settings.
Oberlander, Sarah E; Black, Maureen M
The United States continues to have the highest incidence of adolescent births among industrialized nations. This study used transactional and life span theories of development to examine whether caregiving patterns assessed over the first 24 months postpartum predicted children's behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. Participants included 120 primiparous, urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers who participated in a randomized controlled trial of home intervention. Group-based trajectories were used to examine the pattern of caregiving involvement over time. Two distinct, consistent trajectories of caregiving involvement were found: maternal and shared. Maternal caregiving involvement over the first 24 months postpartum predicted positive child behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. In keeping with both transactional and life span theories, findings suggest that adoption of the parent role may lead to positive long-term outcomes for children of adolescent mothers.
Curtis, Sarah V; Wodarski, John S
The Assertive Adolescent Family Treatment Program targeted adolescents defined as age 12 to 17 years and transition age youth (age 18-24) who were served by the Helen Ross McNabb Center Regional Mental Health System. Most of the participating individuals met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(IV-TR) criteria for substance abuse or substance dependence and co-occurring mental health disorder. Significant findings in the study included a decrease in illegal drug use, decrease in alcohol consumption, decrease in criminal activity, decrease in violent behaviors, and an increase in cognitive ability. Other findings indicated a decrease in risky sexual behaviors and an increase in participant interaction with supportive friends and family. This study indicates success of the Assertive Adolescent Family Treatment Program and the intervention models used. More research is needed in East Tennessee to generalize the findings and establish a stronger evidence base.
McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Cranford, James A.; Ross-Durow, Paula; Young, Amy; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.
Objectives To determine the past-year medical misuse prevalence for 4 controlled medication classes (pain, stimulant, sleeping, and antianxiety) among adolescents, and to assess substance use outcomes among adolescents who report medical misuse. Design A Web-based survey was self-administered by 2744 secondary school students in 2009-2010. Setting Two southeastern Michigan school districts. Participants The sample had a mean age of 14.8 years and was 51.1% female. The racial/ethnic distribution was 65.0% white, 29.5% African American, 3.7% Asian, 1.3% Hispanic, and 0.5% other. Main Outcome Measures Past-year medical use and misuse of 4 controlled medication classes. Results Eighteen percent of the sample reported past-year medical use of at least 1 prescribed controlled medication. Among past-year medical users, 22.0% reported misuse of their controlled medications, including taking too much, intentionally getting high, or using to increase alcohol or other drug effects. Medical misusers were more likely than nonmisusers to divert their controlled medications and to abuse other substances. The odds of a positive screening result for drug abuse were substantially higher among medical misusers (adjusted odds ratio, 7.8; 95% confidence interval, 4.3-14.2) compared with medical users who used their controlled medications appropriately. The odds of drug abuse did not differ between medical users who used their controlled medications appropriately and nonusers. Conclusions Most adolescents who used controlled medications took their medications appropriately. Substance use and diversion of controlled medications were more prevalent among adolescents who misused their controlled medications. Careful therapeutic monitoring could reduce medical misuse and diversion of controlled medications among adolescents. PMID:21810634
Kaminer, Yifrah; Litt, Mark D; Burke, Rebecca H; Burleson, Joseph A
In order to understand predictors of relapse among adolescents treated for alcohol use disorders (AUD), it is important to accurately assess the daily circumstances associated with use. This pilot study investigates the feasibility and acceptability of an interactive voice response (IVR) system in adolescents with AOSUD. Twenty-six adolescents 14 to 19 years old, with a mean age of 16.8, who were enrolled into an adolescent treatment program for AUD consented to make phone calls for 14 successive evenings to an IVR system and answer 14 questions pertaining to daily use of alcohol and other drugs. The subjects were compensated for their participation. A satisfaction questionnaire was administered at the end of the study. Participants completed 72% of scheduled recordings, with an average of 10.1 calls per subject. Most participants reported that they answered the questions honestly and accurately and were very much satisfied with the IVR system. The preliminary data presented here suggests that the use of IVR for the purpose of generating daily reports in youth is feasible and acceptable. The utilization of IVR systems should be explored to improve efficacy and attainment of generalizability to heterogeneous adolescent populations and lifestyles including for other psychiatric disorders.
Gonzales, C; Mulligan, D; Kaufman, A; Davis, S; Hunt, K; Kalishman, N; Wallerstein, N
Participants in this discussion of the potential of school-based health care services for adolescents included family medicine physicians, school health coordinators, a school nurse, and a community worker. It was noted that health care for adolescents tends to be either inaccessible or underutilized, largely because of a lack of sensitivity to adolescent culture and values. An ideal service for adolescents would offer immediate services for crises, strict confidentiality, ready access to prescribed medications, a sliding-scale scheme, and a staff that is tolerant of divergent values and life-styles. School-based pilot adolescent clinics have been established by the University of New Mexico's Department of Family, Community, and Emergency Medicine to test the community-oriented health care model. On-site clinics provide urgent medical care, family planning, pregnancy testing, psychological counseling, alcohol and drug counseling, and classroom health education. Experience with these programs has demonstrated the necessity for an alliance among the health team and the school administration, parents, and students. Financial, ethical, and political factors can serve as constraints to school-based programs. In some cases, school administrators have been resistant to the provision of contraception to students on school grounds and parents have been unwilling to accept the adolescent's right to confidentiality. These problems in part stem from having 2 separate systems, each with its own values, orientation, and responsibilities, housed in 1 facility. In addition, there have been problems generating awareness of the school-based clinic among students. Health education theater groups, peer counseling, and student-run community services have been effective, however, in increasing student participation. It has been helpful to mold clinic services to meet the needs identified by teenagers themselves. There is an interest not only in curative services, but in services focused
Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.
This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with adolescent clients and TCs. Papers include: (1) Preliminary Consideration on "Adolescence and the TC" (David Deitch); (2) "Daytop's Full Service Adolescent Treatment Program" (Charles Devlin and Lois Morris); (3)…
Donelson, Ken, Ed.
The articles collected in this bulletin survey a wide range of topics concerning adolescent literature. Some of the titles included are "Seven Myths about Adolescent Literature" (Paul B. Janeczko), "The Book as Enemy" (Thomas Weaver), "Popular Non-Fiction Titles for Adolescents" (Noma Russell), "Values and Paperback Power" (Nel Ward), "An Approach…
Moore, Kristin A., Comp.
This fact sheet reports the most recent information available on adolescent fertility in the United States. The following information is included: (1) the number of births to all adolescents, except those 14 years old and younger, has declined between 1980 and 1986; (2) the smaller number of births is due to a smaller number of adolescents and a…
Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.
Adolescent pregnancy has occurred throughout America's history. Only in recent years has it been deemed an urgent crisis, as more young adolescent mothers give birth outside of marriage. At-risk circumstances associated with adolescent pregnancy include medical and health complications, less schooling and higher dropout rates, lower career…
Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir
The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from…
Volpe, Ellen M.; Morales-Alemán, Mercedes M.; Teitelman, Anne M.
The purpose of this paper was to describe romantic relationships from the perspective of urban, adolescent girls, to address gaps in our understanding of their relationship dimensions. Minority adolescent girls (n = 17) participated in private semi-structured interviews aimed to elicit the understanding of the adolescents’ perspectives on their own relationship experiences and dynamics. The research team conducted conventional content analysis of the interview transcripts. Four major themes emerged about romantic relationships: (1) influence of male pursuit and social norms on relationship initiation factors; (2) a romantic partner is a confidant, friend, and companion; (3) negotiating intimacy respectfully; and (4) relationship conflict through control and abuse. Adolescents described sub-themes of social norms of male pursuit and relationship pressures that dictated relationship initiation. Relationships were depicted by emotional support, caring, and companionship. Adolescents described positive negotiation skills. However, relationship conflict, including controlling behaviors and violence, was illustrated in these same relationships. This study provides a rich description of romantic relationships from the perspectives of urban, adolescent girls. Most salient findings included social pressures and a combination of both positive and negative attributes. Implications include the need for intervention development at the community level to address social pressures, recognition of positive adolescent relationship attributes, and facilitation of skills to identify and address low-quality relationship characteristics. PMID:25259641
Abel, Regina A.; Cho, Esther; Chadwick-Mansker, Kelley R.; D’Souza, Natalia; Housten, Ashley J.
OBJECTIVE. This article describes how adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD) perceive their ability to perform everyday tasks required for transition to adult health care and independent living. METHOD. The Adolescent Autonomy Checklist (AAC) was adapted to include skills associated with managing SCD (AAC–SCD) and was administered to adolescents during clinic visits. Participants indicated “can do already” or “needs practice” for 100 activities in 12 categories. RESULTS. Of 122 patients, the percentage of adolescents who needed practice was greatest in living arrangements (38.7%), money management (35.8%), vocational skills (29.6%), and health care skills (25.5%). We found a significant effect of age and of cerebrovascular injury on the percentage of those who reported “needs practice” in multiple categories. We found no effect of gender and limited effect of hemoglobin phenotype on any skill category. CONCLUSION. Findings support the need for educational intervention to improve transition skills in adolescents with SCD. PMID:26122692
Shomaker, Lauren B.; Furman, Wyndol
Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys’ and girls’ symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16–19 years of age (N = 199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents’, mothers’ and friends’ reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents’ perceptions and friends’ reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys. PMID:19447351
Collins, Charles C; Lippmann, Brad M; Lo, Suzanne J; Moolchan, Eric T
Although the relationship between parental and adolescent smoking has been linked to health consequences of smoking, limited study has explored the specific association between exposure to smoking and adolescent smoking topography (the way a cigarette is smoked). As a first step in this line of enquiry, smoking topography measures were collected from 67 adolescent dependent smokers. Participants smoked one cigarette of their own brand while being monitored by a computer-based smoking-topography unit and completed questionnaires about their time spent daily with parents who smoke. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that time spent daily with parents who smoke was significantly associated with maximum puff velocity (r=0.285, p=.019), a parameter predicting later pulmonary morbidity. ANOVAs, after a median split, were consistent with correlation analyses. There was a significant group effect on puff velocity (F(2,66)=5.197, p=.008); no significant relationship was found with puff volume (F(2,66)=.617) or puff duration (F(2,66)=.776). A post hoc Tukey HSD test indicated puff velocity was higher in the "high time spent" (M=54.37, SD=12.03) than in the "low time spent" group (M=45.59, SD=9.91) and in the group with non-smoking parents (M=44.96, SD=10.17). Future research with a larger non-treatment seeking sample of adolescents aimed at preventing tobacco smoking related diseases should further examine parental influences on adolescent smoking, including potential modeling effects.
Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona
The present study examined multiple indices of sleep as moderators of the association between peer victimization and adjustment among typically developing adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American) and their parents. A multi-method, multi-informant design was employed to address the research questions. Sleep was assessed objectively with actigraphy (sleep minutes and sleep efficiency) and subjectively with self-reports. Adolescents reported on peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Externalizing behaviors were examined with mother and father reports. Subjective sleep/wake problems moderated the associations between peer victimization and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A stronger relation emerged between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms among adolescents who reported higher versus lower levels of sleep/wake problems. Adolescents with elevated sleep/wake problems had higher levels of externalizing symptoms across the range of peer victimization. However, for those with fewer sleep/wake problems, a positive relation between peer victimization and externalizing symptoms was observed. Actigraphy-based sleep minutes and sleep efficiency also moderated the relations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Although peer victimization was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms for all youth, those who reported the lowest levels of such symptoms had longer and more efficient sleep in conjunction with low levels of peer victimization. Findings are novel and highlight the importance of considering both bioregulatory processes and peer relations in the prediction of adolescents’ adjustment. PMID:26002848
Fuentes, María C; García, Fernando; Gracia, Enrique; Lila, Marisol
This study analyzes the relationship between a multidimensional measure of self-concept, the Self-concept Form-5 Questionnaire (AF5), and drug use among adolescents. From the responses of 632 participants (47.5% females) aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.88 years, SD = 1.71 years), results showed negative relationships between family, academic and physical self-concept, and drug use. Although a positive relationship between social self-concept and drug use was found, this significant relationship disappeared once the age and sex of adolescents was controlled statistically. Moreover, the study includes other adjustment indicators in adolescence (psychological adjustment, personal competence, antisocial behavior and parenting). Results support the idea of self-concept as an important correlate of psychological well-being and a basic theoretical construct for explaining adjusted and adaptive behaviors in adolescence. Likewise, our results underline the need for statistical control of the effect of a third variable (sex), which could explain some contradictory results reported in the literature (a positive relationship between social self-concept and drug use), so as to avoid reaching conclusions based on spurious relationships. self-concept, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, adolescence, psychosocial adjustment, drug use.
Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Neilands, Torsten B; Chan, Shu-Min; Lightfoot, Marguerita
This study examined parental, peer, and media influences on Taiwanese adolescents' attitudes toward premarital sex and intent to engage in sexual behavior. Participants included a convenience sample of 186 adolescents aged 13-15 recruited from two middle schools in Taiwan. Parental influence was indicated by perceived parental disapproval toward premarital sex and perceived peer sexual behavior was used to measure peer influence. Media influence was measured by the adolescents' perception of whether the media promotes premarital sex. We conducted structural equation modeling to test a hypothesized model. The findings suggested that the perceived sexual behavior of peers had the strongest effect on Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent, while parental disapproval and media influence also significantly contributed to adolescents' sexual attitudes and intent to engage in sex. School nurses are in an ideal position to coordinate essential resources and implement evidence-based sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address issues associated with the influence of parents, peers, and media.
Lodato, Francesca; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla; Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Ramos, Elisabete
In our study, we hypothesized that higher caffeine intake would be associated with lower sleep duration among 13-year-old adolescents. In addition, we aimed to identify food sources of caffeine intake in this sample. Eligible participants were adolescents who were born in 1990 and attended school in Porto, Portugal, in 2003/2004. Self-administered questionnaires were used, and diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. From the 2160 eligible participants, only 1522 with valid information regarding their diet were included in this study. In our sample, the median intake of caffeine was 23.1 mg/d, with soft drinks being the major source. Ice tea presented the highest median (25th-75th percentiles) contribution (33.1% [14.0-52.1]), followed by cola (21.1% [6.4-37.6]). Regarding cocoa products, chocolate bars presented a median contribution of 5.1% (1.0-14.0), and snacks containing chocolate had a contribution of 3.0% (0.5-7.2). Coffee and tea presented a negligible contribution. Adolescents who reported less sleep duration and those who spent more time watching TV during the weekend had a significantly higher caffeine intake. Overall, boys had higher intakes of caffeine from soft drinks, and private school attendees, those who had parents with more education, who reported less television viewing time and had lower body mass index presented higher intakes of caffeine from chocolate. Considering sleeping more than 9.5 hours as a reference class, for each increase of 10 mg/d in caffeine intake, we found that the odds ratio of sleeping 8.5 hours or less was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19). Our results support the hypothesis that caffeine intake was inversely associated with sleep duration in adolescents.
Miranda, Valter Paulo Neves; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Laus, Maria Fernanda; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo
The scope of this article is to evaluate the body image of adolescents from rural cities and its relationship with nutritional status, sex and the adolescent phase. Adolescents of both sexes participated in the cross-sectional study. Body image was evaluated through the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Figure Rating Scale (FRS) for adolescents. Weight and height were measured for the evaluation of body mass index (BMI). Stages of adolescence were classified by age. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Four hundred and forty-five adolescents (190 boys and 255 girls), with a mean age of 16.44 comprised the sample. Higher risk of body dissatisfaction was found among overweight and obese participants (BSQ: OR = 3.359 p < 0.001; ESA: OR = 1.572 p = 0.387) and the female sex (BSQ: OR = 3.694 p < 0.001; ESA: OR = 0.922, p = 0.840). Participants from the intermediary and final stages of adolescence revealed a lesser risk of dissatisfaction compared to those from the initial phase. Body dissatisfaction was related to overweight and obesity, to the female sex and to the initial period of adolescence. Intervention research is required to control the factors that influence excessive adolescent body dissatisfaction.
Fersch-Podrat, Rachael K.; Rivera, Maribel; Axelson, David A.; Merranko, John; Yu, Haifeng; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) versus psychosocial treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BP). Methods: We recruited participants 12–18 years of age with a primary BP diagnosis (I, II, or operationalized not otherwise specified [NOS] criteria) from a pediatric specialty clinic. Eligible patients were assigned using a 2:1 randomization structure to either DBT (n=14) or psychosocial TAU (n=6). All patients received medication management from a study-affiliated psychiatrist. DBT included 36 sessions (18 individual, 18 family skills training) over 1 year. TAU was an eclectic psychotherapy approach consisting of psychoeducational, supportive, and cognitive behavioral techniques. An independent evaluator, blind to treatment condition, assessed outcomes including affective symptoms, suicidal ideation and behavior, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, and emotional dysregulation, quarterly over 1 year. Results: Adolescents receiving DBT attended significantly more therapy sessions over 1 year than did adolescents receiving TAU, possibly reflecting greater engagement and retention; both treatments were rated as highly acceptable by adolescents and parents. As compared with adolescents receiving TAU, adolescents receiving DBT demonstrated significantly less severe depressive symptoms over follow-up, and were nearly three times more likely to demonstrate improvement in suicidal ideation. Models indicate a large effect size, for more weeks being euthymic, over follow-up among adolescents receiving DBT. Although there were no between-group differences in manic symptoms or emotional dysregulation with treatment, adolescents receiving DBT, but not those receiving TAU, evidenced improvement from pre- to posttreatment in both manic symptoms and emotional dysregulation. Conclusions: DBT may offer promise as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in the treatment
Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor; Rutberg, Stina
Although physical activity (PA) is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based. PMID:26282870
Gonzálvez, María T; Espada, José P; Guillon-Riquelme, Alejandro; Secades, Roberto; Orgilés, Mireia
Substance use is considered one of the most frequent risk behaviors during adolescence. Personality factors are linked to consumption during adolescence. Although there are studies on personality and consumption among Spanish adolescents, some outcomes are contradictory, and more studies including larger samples and using validated measures are needed. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between different personality factors and substance use among Spanish adolescents. Participants were 1,455 students aged between 13-18 years. The adaptation of the 16PF-IPIP Personality Inventory was applied to assess Warmth, Stability, Gregariousness, Friendliness, Sensitivity, Trust, Openness to experience, Sociability, Perfectionism, and Calmness. Participants were asked about their different consumption substances during their lifetime. Results provide evidence for a relationship between personality factors and psychoactive substance use. There are different distributions of alcohol use regarding personality traits. Furthermore, personality factors have some influence on consumption of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine.Trust and Calmness influence average alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine consumption, whereas Sociability had no statistically significant influence on any of the three substances. The results from this study are highly useful in the design of preventive programs, as they provide more evidence of the role of personality traits as a risk factor.
De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan; van Duin, Jet; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim
This five-wave longitudinal study examines linkages between adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationship commitment and the development of adolescents' perceptions of commitment to parents and friends. A total of 218 early-to-middle adolescents (39.0 percent boys) and 185 middle-to-late adolescents (30.8 percent boys) participated.…