Science.gov

Sample records for adolescence participants included

  1. Occult Participation: Its Impact on Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant-Clark, Cynthia M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship between occult participation, substance abuse, and level of self-esteem among 25 clinical (alcohol or drug treatment) and 25 nonclinical adolescents. Results indicated that adolescent substance abuse and occult participation were significantly related. Found significant differences between high versus low occult groups…

  2. Descriptive Epidemiology of Dance Participation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Pate, Russell R.; Liese, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of dance participation in U.S. adolescents and to estimate the contribution of dance to total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The sample was composed of 3,598 adolescents from the 2003-06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Youth reported frequency and duration of…

  3. Childhood and Adolescent Sports Participation as Predictors of Participation in Sports and Physical Fitness Activities during Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Jacobs, Janis E.; Barber, Bonnie L.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether organized sports participation during childhood and adolescence was related to participation in sports and physical fitness activities in young adulthood. The data were from the Michigan Study of Adolescent Life Transitions. The analyses include more than 600 respondents from three waves of data (age 12, age 17, and age…

  4. eParticipation for Adolescent Citizens (in Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    In Austria, two recent eParticipation projects focused on adolescent citizens. The first project, “mitmachen.at - move your future” was to provide initial experiences with an eParticipation tool. The second project, “Jugend2help”, applied the lessons learned from the “mitmachen.at” project to improve the Austrian public administration web portal for adolescent citizens. In both projects, the results indicate that web portals and eParticpation seems to suit the adolescents’ information and communication needs. Involving the users is central to the development of an eParticipation process or platform so that the users’ specific characteristics (age, skills), needs and interests are included appropriately. The target users’ characteristics are also important for developing a marketing strategy which is able to reach them. Other issues which must also be considered in eParticipation are accessibility, inclusion and possibly gender.

  5. Parental, socio and cultural factors associated with adolescents' sports participation in four Danish municipalities.

    PubMed

    Toftegaard-Støckel, J; Nielsen, G A; Ibsen, B; Andersen, L B

    2011-08-01

    Despite the well-documented health effects of physical activity, few studies focus on the correlates of leisure-time sports and exercise participation. The present study examined correlations between adolescent sports participation and demographic factors, socioeconomic status (SES) and sociocultural factors. A school-based cross-sectional cluster sample including 6356 Danish fifth- and ninth-grade adolescents from four municipalities were included. Age (younger) and gender (boy) were associated with adolescents' sports participation. Girls were half as likely [odds ratio (OR) 0.49 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.55] to participate in sports than boys. Adolescents were more likely to participate in sports if they perceived their parents as active in exercise or sports. Adolescents with one or two unemployed parents were 0.75 (95% CI: 0.62-0.89) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.56-1.00), respectively, less likely to participate in sports than adolescents with two employed parents. In a gender-stratified analysis, parents' occupational status was only a predictor of sports participation in girls. Differences between municipalities in adolescents' sports participation remained significant when controlled for individual factors such as gender, age, parents' background or parents' physical activity. The association between sociocultural and SES was stronger for girls than boys. In conclusion, demographics, SES and sociocultural factors were the best determinants of adolescent sport participation. PMID:20459468

  6. Extracurricular participation among adolescents from immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Daisy E; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    Participation in organized after-school activities could be especially beneficial for youth from immigrant backgrounds, whose families often have little knowledge of American school systems. The role of extracurricular involvement in the achievement and motivation of students from immigrant families was examined among 468 eleventh grade (52.4% female) students from Asian American (44.4%), European American (19.0%) and Latino (36.5%) backgrounds who varied in generational status (first: 25%; second: 52.4%, third: 22.6%) and attended high school in the Los Angeles area. Participants completed questionnaires regarding their extracurricular activities, school belonging, and intrinsic motivation. Students' grade point average (GPA) was obtained from official school records. Controls included parental education, ethnicity, generational status, gender, school, and the outcome variables in tenth grade. First generation students were less likely to participate in academic activities than their third generation peers but, overall, there were few generational differences in participation. Participation predicted achievement and engagement after accounting for tenth grade levels of educational adjustment. Most notably, although all students benefitted from participation, the gain in GPA as a function of participation was greater for first generation than third generation students. Results suggest that organized after-school activities are particularly important for students in immigrant families, providing them with additional experiences that contribute to academic achievement. PMID:24599732

  7. Outcomes of Adventure Program Participation by Adolescents Involved in Psychiatric Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witman, Jeffrey P.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of adventure program participation upon adolescents in psychiatric treatment. All adventure programs included goal setting, awareness, cooperative and trust activities, and group and individual problem-solving. Participants' total hours of program participation ranged from 8-22 hours. A random…

  8. Participation in Sports and Sociometric Status of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzic, Aleksandar; Vuckovic, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To examine the relationships between sport participation and sociometric status of adolescent youths. Material and methods: A group of 359 secondary school students from central Serbia (143 male and 216 female) aged 16-19 years participated in the study. The subjects were given questionnaires pertaining to their participation in sports…

  9. Motivations and concerns about adolescent tuberculosis vaccine trial participation in rural Uganda: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Buregyeya, Esther; Kulane, Asli; Kiguli, Juliet; Musoke, Phillipa; Mayanja, Harriet; Mitchell, Ellen Maeve Hanlon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Research is being carried out to develop and test new potentially more effective tuberculosis vaccines. Among the vaccines being developed are those that target adolescents. This study explored the stakeholders’ perceptions about adolescent participation in a hypothetical tuberculosis vaccine trial in Ugandan adolescents. Methods Focus group discussions with adolescents, parents of infants and adolescents, and key informant interviews with community leaders and traditional healers were conducted. Results The majority of the respondents expressed potential willingness to allow their children participate in a tuberculosis vaccine trial. Main motivations for potential participation would be being able to learn about health-related issues. Hesitations included the notion that trial participation would distract the youths from their studies, fear of possible side effects of an investigational product, and potential for being sexually exploited by researchers. In addition, bad experiences from participation in previous research and doubts about the importance of research were mentioned. Suggested ways to motivate participation included: improved clarity on study purpose, risks, benefits and better scheduling of study procedures to minimize disruption to participants’ academic schedules. Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that the community is open to potential participation of adolescents in a tuberculosis vaccine trial. However, there is a need to communicate more effectively with the community about the purpose of the trial and its effects, including safety data, in a low-literacy, readily understood format. This raises a challenge to researchers, who cannot know all the potential effects of a trial product before it is tested. PMID:26834929

  10. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  11. Adolescents' expected civic participation: the role of civic knowledge and efficacy beliefs.

    PubMed

    Manganelli, Sara; Lucidi, Fabio; Alivernini, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    In the present study we examined the role of civic knowledge and efficacy beliefs as factors that can promote adolescents' expectations to participate in civic activities, while also taking into consideration the influences of socio-economic background and gender differences. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to examine data from the International Civic and Citizenship Study, collected from 3352 eighth grade Italian students. Gender was found to significantly moderate some relationships between the variables, while efficacy beliefs, rather than civic knowledge, positively influenced expected civic participation. Socio-economic background influenced all the variables included in the study, but it had a very small direct influence on adolescents' expected civic participation. It therefore appears that adolescents' expected civic participation can be encouraged by making them more confident about their civic and political abilities. These results extend our understanding of civic engagement in adolescents, and can inform policies aiming to promote it. PMID:24931566

  12. Homelessness, Violence Exposure, and School Participation among Urban Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Angie C.

    2007-01-01

    Using a risk and resilience framework, this exploratory study examines the relationships between homelessness, exposure to multiple types of violence, and school participation within a survey sample of poor adolescent mothers living in an urban setting. Participants who were homeless either currently or historically were compared with participants…

  13. Civic Participation and the Development of Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Perkins, Douglas D.; Santinello, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the links between civic participation and adolescent behavior problems (bullying, physical fighting, and alcohol and tobacco use), and whether civic engagement could be a moderator of the negative effects of parent/family detachment. Participants were 7,097 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds (48.6% girls) in a region of Northern Italy.…

  14. Actual leisure participation of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-02-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in individual, structured parent interviews, and added to existing longitudinal data from a project following the sample. Generally, the leisure activity may be viewed as varying along a continuum-reaching from formal, organized, and assisted activity participation outside home, to informal, self-organized, and independent participation at home. Formal leisure activities were either organized "for all" or "adapted for disabled." The adolescents' leisure appears as active and social. However, social participation largely involved parents and family, while socializing with other adolescents mainly took place within formal activities adapted for disabled. Clearly, formal and informal activities provide rather different opportunities for social encounters and assistance. PMID:24515503

  15. Gender differences in youths' political engagement and participation. The role of parents and of adolescents' social and civic participation.

    PubMed

    Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna; Fournier, Bernard; Gavray, Claire; Born, Michel

    2012-06-01

    Research examining youths' political development mostly focused on young people as a general group; comparatively less attention has been devoted to the examination of gender pathways toward citizenship. Two studies were conducted addressing (a) the role of parents' participation and the moderating role of adolescent gender and age group (n = 1419) and (b) the role of adolescent social and civic participation and the moderating role of adolescent gender and type of school (n = 1871). Results confirmed the gender gap in political interest and in the use of the Internet for political participation, while no differences emerged for political activity and voting intentions. Adolescents' political engagement and participation are influenced by parents' participation (especially among girls) and by adolescents' social and civic participation (especially among boys). The impact of adolescents' social and civic participation on conventional participation (voting intentions) is partially mediated by sense of community and institutional trust. PMID:22032976

  16. Rapid Weight Loss Among Adolescents Participating In Competitive Judo.

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Ben-El; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Stark, Aliza Hannah; Sinai, Tali

    2016-06-01

    Athletes competing in individual sports such as judo are categorized by weight. Before competitions, weight cutting is common. This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize and determine the prevalence of rapid weight loss (RWL) among adolescent judo competitors. Male athletes aged 12- to 17-years old (N = 108) were recruited from local judo teams. Each participant completed a validated questionnaire regarding RWL practices. Anthropometric measurements were also performed. Average age was 14.6 ± 1.6 years and all participants were of normal body mass index (BMI). RWL was practiced by 80% of the athletes before competition, beginning at an average age of 12.5 ± 2.2 years with the highest prevalence (~94%) in the oldest group of judoka (16-17.9 years). Precompetition weight loss duration was 8 ± 5.4 days, with an average weight reduction of 1.5 ± 1.1 kg. The number of weight loss efforts per athlete in the past season was 2.8 ± 2.2. RWL was achieved by increased physical activity (82.6%), skipped meals (56.3%), or fasting at least once (47%). Two-thirds of the athletes indicated that their coaches were the most influential figure in their decision to lose weight before competition. RWL is highly prevalent in adolescent judo competitors. The methods used by these athletes can potentially lead to significant health risks including compromised nutritional status, diminished physical performance and impaired growth and development. It is of great importance to insure that those who guide young adults in weight loss for competitive sports have the knowledge and understanding to make safe recommendations and appropriate decisions regarding achieving specific weight goals. PMID:26479490

  17. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  18. Sport Participation among Adolescent Girls: Role Conflict or Multiple Roles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Alan D.; Chandler, Timothy J. L.

    1991-01-01

    Criteria for social status among adolescent females are studied for 627 female high school students (77.5 percent White) in upstate New York, focusing on participation in interscholastic athletics. Subjects exhibit multidimensional identities that differ in relation to their involvement in sports and social groups used as their points of…

  19. Changing Attitudes in Underprivileged Adolescents Participating in Group Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Julia

    Group psychotherapy was used with socio-economically deprived adolescents whose capacity for self-expression was promising. Non-psychotic acting out characters and passive inadequate personalities participated, and discussion, role playing, and psychodrama were the techniques utilized. After one year the following changes were seen: (1) increased…

  20. Outdoor Adventure Program Participation Impacts on Adolescent Self-Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garst, Barry; Scheider, Ingrid; Baker, Dwayne

    2001-01-01

    A study examined the impact of outdoor adventure trips on 37 urban adolescents' self-perception. Results from pretest, posttest, and 4-month followup surveys and interviews indicate that participants' self-perceptions of social acceptance and behavioral conduct improved immediately after the trip, and that some behavioral conduct impacts remained…

  1. Association Between Sports Participation and Sedentary Behavior During School Recess Among Brazilian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; dos Santos Silva, Roberto Jerônimo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between sports participation and sedentary behavior during school recess among Brazilian adolescents. This study included 2,243 adolescents aged 13–18 years (16.2 ± 1.1), 62.2% females and 37.8% males, enrolled in public high schools in Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Sedentary behavior during school recess and sport participation was self-reported. Several factors were examined, including sex, age, skin color, socioeconomic status, maternal education and physical activity level. Sixty percent of adolescents had sedentary behavior during school recess and 57.7% of adolescents reported that they did not participate in any team sport. Additionally, adolescents who did not practice any team sport were 40% more likely (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8) to be sedentary during school recess compared to those who participated in two or more team sports. It is recommended that schools encourage students to engage in sports activities and promote more physical activity during school recess to reduce the sedentary behavior and increase physical activity levels in youth. PMID:25964825

  2. Cultivating Research Pedagogies with Adolescents: Created Spaces, Engaged Participation, and Embodied Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissman, Kelly K.; Staples, Jeanine M.; Vasudevan, Lalitha; Nichols, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes an approach to adolescent literacies research we call "research pedagogies." This approach recognizes the pedagogical features of the research process and includes three dimensions: created spaces, engaged participation, and embodied inquiry. By drawing upon and sometimes recasting foundational anthropological…

  3. The Effects of Sports Participation on Young Adolescents' Emotional Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Sarah J.; Ronan, Kevin R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between children's sports participation and emotional well-being including self-reported emotional and behavioral problems and multidimensional aspects of self-concept. Data were collected from 203 young adolescents using a multitrait-multimethod assessment methodology. Information was obtained using a sports…

  4. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  5. European study of frequency of participation of adolescents with and without cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Michelsen, Susan I.; Flachs, Esben M.; Damsgaard, Mogens T.; Parkes, Jacqueline; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Colver, Allan; Fauconnier, Jerome; Dickinson, Heather O.; Marcelli, Marco; Uldall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy participate less in everyday activities than children in the general populations. During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes occur which may be more difficult for adolescents with impairments. Within the European SPARCLE project we measured frequency of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy by administering the Questionnaire of Young People's Participation to 667 adolescents with cerebral palsy or their parents from nine European regions and to 4666 adolescents from the corresponding general populations. Domains and single items were analysed using respectively linear and logistic regression. Adolescents with cerebral palsy spent less time with friends and had less autonomy in their daily life than adolescents in the general populations. Adolescents with cerebral palsy participated much less in sport but played electronic games at least as often as adolescents in the general populations. Severity of motor and intellectual impairment had a significant impact on frequency of participation, the more severely impaired being more disadvantaged. Adolescents with an only slight impairment participated in some domains as often as adolescents in the general populations. Regional variation existed. For example adolescents with cerebral palsy in central Italy were most disadvantaged according to decisional autonomy, while adolescents with cerebral palsy in east Denmark and northern England played sports as often as their general populations. Participation is an important health outcome. Personal and environmental predictors of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy need to be identified in order to design interventions directed to such predictors; and in order to inform the content of services. PMID:24412031

  6. Domestic violence among adolescents in HIV prevention research in Tanzania: Participant experiences and measurement issues

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women’s Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Methods Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Results Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical/sexual violence and 17% scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15% scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Conclusions Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725

  7. Participation of adolescents in the Family Health Strategy from the theoretical-methodological structure of an enabler to participation

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Roberta Peixoto; Gomes, Sílvia Helena Pereira; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa; Bezerra, Italla Maria Pinheiro; Machado, Caroline Antero

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the participation of adolescents in the Family Health Strategy, from the theoretical-methodological structure of an enabler to participation. Method a quantitative study, conducted from December of 2010 to March of 2011, with 213 professionals in the FHS in the region of Cariri-Ceará-Brazil. Data were collected through a questionnaire and organized in SPSS 18.0. Results the level of normative participation becomes manifest beginning with the adolescent search for health services, motivated by disease (77.9%). Normative participation + independence appear when they seek prenatal care and family planning. Emancipatory participation was identified by the frequency of adolescents in group activities, in the schools, and a move in the direction of the level of transformative participation was observed. Conclusion in this context, it is understood that there exists a need to stimulate the participatory process of the adolescents for a change in health promotion in this group. PMID:26107840

  8. Transitions in Gambling Participation during Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Bethany C.; Lee, Grace P.; Liu, Weiwei; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine transitions in gambling participation from late adolescence into emerging adulthood, and to identify factors (i.e., gender, race, intervention status, lunch status, conduct disorder, parental monitoring, neighborhood environment, and substance use) that might influence these transitions. Methods Markov modeling was used to describe movement between past-year gambling states (i.e., non-gambling and gambling) over five years. Annual data on past-year gambling behavior and substance use were collected from 515 young men and women starting at age 17. Results Past-year gambling declined from 51% prevalence at age 17 to 21% prevalence at age 22. Participants who reported no past-year gambling at a particular annual assessment had more than an 80% probability of also reporting no past-year gambling at the following assessment. Men were 1.07–2.82 times more likely than women to transition from past-year non-gambling to gambling year-to-year, and women were 1.27–5.26 times more likely than men to transition from past-year gambling to non-gambling year-to-year. In addition, gender and past-year tobacco use interacted such that men who used tobacco were most likely (and men who did not use tobacco least likely) to gamble at baseline. Conclusions Transition rates between gambling states appear to be relatively stable over time from late adolescence into emerging adulthood; however, men and those who engage in substance use may be at increased risk for gambling participation. Implications and Contribution The current study provides important information about the naturalistic transitions in gambling behavior during late adolescence and emerging adulthood among an urban, mainly ethnic minority population. The finding that approximately half of past-year gamblers do not gamble during the following year suggests that gambling follows a variable developmental course. PMID:24656449

  9. Using a socioecological approach to examine participation in sport and physical activity among rural adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Casey, Meghan M; Eime, Rochelle M; Payne, Warren R; Harvey, Jack T

    2009-07-01

    Adolescence is a critical time for developing lifelong healthy behaviors, including active lifestyles. Participation in sport and physical activity, however, declines during adolescence, and few studies have comprehensively identified why, particularly among rural girls. This article identifies a range of independent and interacting factors that influence sport and physical activity participation of rural adolescent girls. The socioecological model of health was used to guide four focus group discussions with Grade 7 girls (n = 34). The results showed that adolescent girls were positively influenced when sports or physical activities were fun, when they involved being with friends, and when they were supported by families and teachers through role modeling and positive feedback. A range of intrapersonal and organizational factors affected perceived self-competence, particularly the coeducational nature of school physical education classes and peer teasing, which supported social comparisons of skill level. In promoting sport and physical activity to rural adolescent girls, focus must be directed on developmentally appropriate activities that are fun, offering opportunities for single-sex classes, and generating cultural changes that encourage noncompetitive and self-referencing activities. PMID:19556398

  10. The Role of Gender and Previous Participation in a Summer Program on Gifted Adolescents' Self-Concepts over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Lindy G.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether gifted adolescents' academic, general, and emotional stability self-concepts would increase or decrease during time spent in a residential summer program for the gifted. Gender and previous summer program participation were also examined as potential moderators. Participants included 140 gifted…

  11. Disordered Eating, Compulsive Exercise, and Sport Participation in a UK Adolescent Sample.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Huw; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    The sport literature has produced equivocal results as to whether sport participation is a protective or risk factor for disordered eating. One mechanism by which it could be a risk factor is the increased drive or compulsion to exercise. This study compared the levels of disordered eating and compulsive exercise between adolescent sport and non-sport participants. A sample of 417 male and female adolescents, aged 14-16 years old, was recruited from UK secondary schools. Participants completed questionnaire packs that included: the Eating Disorder Inventory; a measure of exercise behaviour; and the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET). Non-sport participants reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction than sport participants, and this was true for boys and girls. Significant group differences were also reported for many of the CET scales, with sport participants generally reporting greater levels of compulsive exercise than non-sport participants. Implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26892196

  12. Research Knowledge among the Participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Silva, Susan; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Waslick, Bruce; Hughes, Carroll W.; Prentice, Ernest D.; May, Diane E.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    A study examined the extent to which parents and adolescents participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) understood the study. The results concluded that most were well-informed, and also parents were overall better informed than adolescents.

  13. Gender Differences in Adolescent Sport Participation, Teasing, Self-Objectification and Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in adolescent participation in sport and physical activity, in teasing experiences specific to the physical activity domain, and the relationship between adolescent physical activity and body image. A sample of 714 adolescents (332 girls, 382 boys) aged between 12 and 16 years completed measures of…

  14. Determinants of participation in leisure activities among adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Schmitz, Norbert; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Poulin, Chantal; Majnemer, Annette

    2013-09-01

    Studies have identified restrictions in engagement in leisure activities for adolescents with disabilities. Participation is a complex construct and likely influenced by a variety of factors. These potential determinants have not yet been sufficiently explored in the population of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). The objective of this study is to estimate the potential influence of adolescent characteristics and environmental factors as determinants of participation in leisure activities for adolescents with CP. A cross-sectional design was used. Participants were adolescents (12-19 years old) with cerebral palsy. Participants were assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale - II, Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System, Manual Ability Classification System and completed the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Family Environment Scale, the European Child Environment Questionnaire and the Preferences for Activities of Children. The main outcome measure was the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. 187 adolescents (age M=15.4; SD=2.2) completed the study. Multivariate models of participation in leisure revealed associations with factors related to the adolescents' functional characteristics and attitudes, the family environment, socioeconomic status, and contextual factors such as school type, and collectively explained from 28% (diversity of skill-based activities) up to 48% (intensity and diversity of self-improvement activities) of the variance in intensity and diversity in five leisure participation domains (diversity: r(2)=.33 recreational; r(2)=.39 active-physical; r(2)=.33 social activities). Adolescent's mastery motivation, self-perception and behavior were individually associated with participation in different activity domains, but did not strongly predict participation within multivariate models, while preferences

  15. Self-Advocacy Skills as a Predictor of Student IEP Participation among Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Fearon, Danielle D.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of student IEP participation has been indicated by both legislative mandates such as IDEA and research literature. The purpose of the current study was to examine those variables that predict student IEP participation among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders as compared to adolescents with disabilities other than autism…

  16. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Adolescent Risk Behavior Participation and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaar, Nicole R.; Williams, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate emotional intelligence as a predictor of adolescent risk participation and risk perception. While research has suggested that certain personality traits relate to adolescent risk behavior and perception, the extent to which emotional intelligence relates to risk behavior participation and perception is…

  17. Factors Related to Rural Young Adolescents' Participation in Outdoor, Noncompetitive Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiana, Richard W.; Davis, Marsha; Wilson, Mark G.; McCarty, Frances A.; Green, Gary T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Young adolescents who have little interest in participating in competitive team sports are at an increased risk for physical inactivity. Noncompetitive outdoor physical activity can provide young adolescents with increased opportunities to participate in physical activities that appeal to them and have positive health effects. The purpose…

  18. Effects of Sport Participation on the Basketball Skills and Physical Self of Adolescents with Conduct Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Ninot, Gregory; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Bilard, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self-concept of adolescents with conduct disorders (CD). Participants were 24 adolescent males with CD, divided equally into three groups: (a) interestablishment basketball (IEBB), (b) integrated scholastic basketball (ISBB),…

  19. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation. PMID:14669890

  20. The Association between Participation of Adolescents in Community Groups and Dental Caries in a Deprived Area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Teixeira Silva, Catarina; Rebelo Vieira, Janete Maria; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2015-01-01

    There is limited evidence concerning the role of social networks on the oral health of adolescents. This study assessed the association between the participation of adolescents in community groups and dental caries. A cross-sectional household-based study was carried out involving 200 subjects aged 15-19 years living in a deprived area in the state of Amazon, Brazil. Dental caries was assessed through dental examinations using the DMFT index conducted by a single examiner who was previously calibrated. Four dental caries outcomes were investigated, including caries experience (DMFT score), current caries (number of current decayed teeth), missing teeth due to caries, and the care index (ratio between number of filled teeth and DMFT score). Details of participation of adolescents in community groups, demographic and socioeconomic data and information on dental visiting were obtained through individual interviews. All caries measures were significantly higher in adolescents who did not participate in community groups compared to their counterparts. Multivariate Poisson regression showed that participation of adolescents in community groups was independently associated with all dental caries outcomes. After adjusting for confounders, participation in community groups was statistically associated with lower DMFT score (ratio of mean, RM: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.24-0.46), fewer decayed teeth (RM: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.11-0.47), fewer missing teeth (RM: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.47), and higher care index (RM: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24-2.29) than those who did not participate. Participation of adolescents in community activities was related to lower levels of dental caries. PMID:26346951

  1. The Value "Social Responsibility" as a Motivating Factor for Adolescents' Readiness to Participate in Different Types of Political Actions, and Its Socialization in Parent and Peer Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for…

  2. Adolescent Judgments and Reasoning about the Failure to Include Peers with Social Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Li, Zhushan

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder often do not have access to crucial peer social activities. This study examines how typically developing adolescents evaluate decisions not to include a peer based on disability status, and the justifications they apply to these decisions. A clinical interview methodology was used to elicit judgments and…

  3. Maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting as determinants of sport participation of adolescents with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Tiggelman, Dana; van de Ven, Monique O. M.; van Schayck, Onno C. P.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; van Sluijs, Esther M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Few studies have examined determinants of physical activity in patients with chronic illnesses, like asthma. The aim of the present study was to examine whether baseline maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting were associated with changes in sport participation of adolescents with asthma, and investigate the moderating effect of sex. Methods In a population-based cohort study 253 adolescents completed a questionnaire assessing their sport participation during home visits in 2012 and 2013. Both parents reported their sport-specific parenting (support, general and asthma-specific beliefs, self-efficacy to encourage sport participation). The collected data were described using descriptive statistics. Path and multi-group analyses were used to examine whether baseline parental factors predicted change in adolescent sport participation, multi-group analyses examined the moderating effect of sex. For all analyses probability p value less than the accepted level of significance α = 0.05 (p < 0.05) were taken as significant effects. Results Few parental factors associated with changes in sport participation of the adolescents, sex did not moderate the associations. In the fully adjusted models, only maternal asthma-specific beliefs about sport participation was significantly positively associated with change in adolescent sport participation. Conclusion Sport-specific parenting does not appear to be a determinant of sport participation in adolescents with asthma. Future research should consider other individual, social and environmental determinants to inform intervention development. PMID:25402625

  4. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections including HIV in street-connected adolescents in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Susanna E; Chirchir, Amon K; Muthoni, Lauryn N; Ayuku, David; Koech, Julius; Nyandiko, Winstone; Carter, E Jane; Braitstein, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study were to characterise the sexual health of street-connected adolescents in Eldoret, Kenya, analyse gender disparity of risks, estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and identify factors associated with STIs. Methods A cross-sectional study of street-connected adolescents ages 12–21 years was conducted in Eldoret, Kenya. Participants were interviewed and screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus-2, syphilis and HIV. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with having any STI. Results Of the 200 participants, 81 (41%) were female. 70.4% of females and 60.5% of males reported sexual activity. Of those that participated in at least one STI test, 28% (55/194) had ≥1 positive test, including 56% of females; 14% (28/194) had >1 positive test. Twelve females and zero males (6% overall, 14.8% of females) were HIV positive. Among females, those with HIV infection more frequently reported transactional sex (66.7% vs 26.1%, p=0.01), drug use (91.7% vs 56.5%, p=0.02), and reported a prior STI (50.0% vs 14.7%, p<0.01). Having an adult caregiver was less likely among those with HIV infection (33.3% vs 71.0%, p=0.04). Transactional sex (AOR 3.02, 95% CI (1.05 to 8.73)), a previous STI (AOR 3.46 95% CI (1.05 to 11.46)) and ≥2 sexual partners (AOR 5.62 95% (1.67 to 18.87)) were associated with having any STI. Conclusions Street-connected adolescents in Eldoret, Kenya are engaged in high-risk sexual behaviours and females in particular have a substantial burden of STIs and HIV. There is a need for STI interventions targeted to street-connected youth. PMID:25714102

  5. Predictors of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy: A European multi-centre longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Van Mô; Colver, Allan; Dickinson, Heather O.; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether childhood factors that are amenable to intervention (parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain) predicted participation in daily activities and social roles of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). We randomly selected 1174 children aged 8–12 years from eight population-based registers of children with CP in six European countries; 743 (63%) agreed to participate. One further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. These 818 children were visited at home at age 8–12 years, 594 (73%) agreed to follow-up at age 13–17 years. We used the following measures: parent reported stress (Parenting Stress Index Short Form), their child's psychological difficulties (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire) and frequency and severity of pain; either child or parent reported the child's participation (LIFE Habits questionnaire). We fitted a structural equation model to each of the participation domains, regressing participation in childhood and adolescence on parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain, and regressing adolescent factors on the corresponding childhood factors; models were adjusted for impairment, region, age and gender. Pain in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains except Mealtimes and Communication (standardized total indirect effects β −0.05 to −0.18, 0.01 < p < 0.05 to p < 0.001, depending on domain). Psychological problems in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains of social roles, and in Personal Care and Communication (β −0.07 to −0.17, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). Parenting stress in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in Health Hygiene, Mobility and Relationships (β −0.07 to −0.18, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). These childhood factors predicted adolescent participation largely via their effects on childhood participation; though in some domains early psychological

  6. Exploring Issues of Participation among Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: What's Important to Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Michael H.; Stewart, Debra; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine what participation issues are important to adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Two hundred and three adolescents with CP (mean age 16.0 [plus or minus] 1.8 years) were assessed using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). This was done through semistructured interviews by…

  7. Adolescent Expectancy-Value Motivation, Achievement in Physical Education, and Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day…

  8. Social Participation of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: Trade-Offs and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Debra A.; Lawless, John J.; Shimmell, Lorie J.; Palisano, Robert J.; Freeman, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a qualitative study about the experiences and perceptions of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) in relation to social participation. A phenomenological approach was used to interview 10 adolescents with CP, 17 to 20 years of age, selected using purposeful sampling. An iterative process of data collection…

  9. Characteristics and Perceptions of 4-H Participants: Gender and Age Differences across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Randall, Brandy A.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here examined 367 adolescent 4-H participants in terms of demographic, psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics, as well as their perceptions and experiences in 4-H. Overall, participants scored high on all outcome variables except having a diverse population in their club. Older participants were more…

  10. Naturalistic Observations of Schoolyard Social Participation: Marker Variables for Socio-Emotional Functioning in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Ooi, Laura L.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine links between observed social participation in the schoolyard and indices of socio-emotional functioning in early adolescence. Participants were children (N = 290) aged 9 to 12 years. Social participation (e.g., solitary play, dyadic interaction, group interaction) was assessed in the schoolyard during recess…

  11. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  12. Gender Differences in Youths' Political Engagement and Participation. The Role of Parents and of Adolescents' Social and Civic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna; Fournier, Bernard; Gavray, Claire; Born, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Research examining youths' political development mostly focused on young people as a general group; comparatively less attention has been devoted to the examination of gender pathways toward citizenship. Two studies were conducted addressing (a) the role of parents' participation and the moderating role of adolescent gender and age group (n =…

  13. Attitudes and beliefs toward biobehavioural research participation: voices and concerns of urban adolescent females receiving outpatient mental health treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Bridgette M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Stewart, Jennifer M.; Gomes, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biobehavioural research methodology can be invasive and burdensome for participants—particularly adolescents with mental illnesses. Human biological researchers should consider how methodological impositions may hinder adolescent research participation. However, literature on adolescent’s voices and concerns toward biobehavioural research participation is virtually non-existent. Aim This study was designed to determine adolescents’ perceptions of participation in research involving the collection of biomarkers via blood, saliva and/or urine samples. Subjects and methods Urban adolescent females (aged 12–19) receiving outpatient mental health treatment (n = 37) participated in focus groups with concurrent survey administration to explore attitudes, beliefs and willingness/intentions toward biobehavioural research participation. Results Participants had favourable attitudes toward biobehavioural research and were amenable to provide each specimen type. Mistrust for research emerged, however, and concerns related to privacy and confidentiality were expressed. Conclusion Participant recruitment is a critical component in study design and implementation; this includes knowledge of population-specific recruitment barriers and facilitators. This innovative paper provides a context for the research participants’ decision-making process, strategies to allay fears and concerns and concrete areas to target in research-related interventions. Although the findings are from a specific, US-based sample, the implications warrant replication of the research in other geosocial settings. PMID:23822716

  14. Participant roles of bullying in adolescence: Status characteristics, social behavior, and assignment criteria.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, J Loes; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2016-05-01

    This study had three goals. First, we examined the prevalence of the participant roles of bullying in middle adolescence and possible gender differences therein. Second, we examined the behavioral and status characteristics associated with the participant roles in middle adolescence. Third, we compared two sets of criteria for assigning students to the participant roles of bullying. Participants were 1,638 adolescents (50.9% boys, Mage  = 16.38 years, SD =.80) who completed the shortened participant role questionnaire and peer nominations for peer status and behavioral characteristics. Adolescents were assigned to the participant roles according to the relative criteria of Salmivalli, Lagerspetz, Björkqvist, Österman, and Kaukiainen (1996). Next, the students in each role were divided in two subgroups based on an additional absolute criterion: the Relative Only Criterion subgroup (nominated by less than 10% of their classmates) and the Absolute & Relative Criterion subgroup (nominated by at least 10% of their classmates). Adolescents who bullied or reinforced or assisted bullies were highly popular and disliked and scored high on peer-valued characteristics. Adolescents who were victimized held the weakest social position in the peer group. Adolescents who defended victims were liked and prosocial, but average in popularity and peer-valued characteristics. Outsiders held a socially weak position in the peer group, but were less disliked, less aggressive, and more prosocial than victims. The behavior and status profiles of adolescents in the participant roles were more extreme for the Absolute & Relative Criterion subgroup than for the Relative Only Criterion subgroup. Aggr. Behav. 42:239-253, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26350031

  15. Adolescent judgments and reasoning about the failure to include peers with social disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Li, Zhushan

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder often do not have access to crucial peer social activities. This study examines how typically developing adolescents evaluate decisions not to include a peer based on disability status, and the justifications they apply to these decisions. A clinical interview methodology was used to elicit judgments and justifications across four contexts. We found adolescents are more likely to judge the failure to include as acceptable in personal as compared to public contexts. Using logistic regression, we found that adolescents are more likely to provide moral justifications as to why failure to include is acceptable in a classroom as compared to home, lab group, and soccer practice contexts. Implications for intervention are also discussed. PMID:25575622

  16. The relative influence of attitudes and subjective norms from childhood to adolescence: between-participant and within-participant analyses.

    PubMed

    Trafimow, David; Brown, Jennie; Grace, Kristen; Thompson, Laura A; Sheeran, Paschal

    2002-01-01

    Children and adolescents (ages 8-16) were asked to indicate their behavioral intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms for 34 behaviors. Between-participant and within-participant analyses demonstrated that attitudes and subjective norms were good predictors of behavioral intentions both singly and in combination. In addition, attitudes generally were better predictors than were subjective norms both across behaviors and across participants. Most importantly, however, there were no differences in the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms in predicting behavioral intentions across age groups. PMID:12221916

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Religious Identity and Participation during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Anna B.; Huynh, Virginia W.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the development of religious identity during the teenage years, adolescents (N = 477) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds completed questionnaires in the 10th, 11th, and 12th grades (10th grade age: M = 15.81, SD = 0.36). Results indicated that religious identity remained stable across high school whereas religious…

  18. Prospective Relations between Organized Activity Participation and Psychopathology during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Garber, Judy

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined psychopathology as a predictor and outcome of organized activity involvement during high school among 198 adolescents who varied in risk for psychopathology as a function of their mother's depression history. Higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in eighth grade significantly predicted lower…

  19. The value "social responsibility" as a motivating factor for adolescents' readiness to participate in different types of political actions, and its socialization in parent and peer contexts.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for participation in legal protest actions. No relationships with readiness for participation in federal elections or with readiness for participation in illegal protest actions occurred, and a negative relationship with readiness for participation in political violent actions was found. In a second step, the socialization of the value social responsibility in the parents and peer context was the focus. Value similarities between adolescents, their parents and friends, as well as other contextual factors were considered. Multiple regression analyses revealed differential effects for male and female adolescents. In male adolescents, authoritative parenting and political discussions with parents were positively linked to social responsibility. Furthermore, peer-group membership had a negative impact. For female adolescents, significant value similarities with their parents, especially with their mothers, occurred. Value similarities with their friend were found in both gender groups, but appeared to be higher in the female group. Also, in both gender groups, a positive parent-child relationship quality was linked to higher social responsibility. In sum, findings show that parents as well as peer contextual factors were contributing to the adolescents' value acquisition. PMID:22494811

  20. 32 CFR 37.620 - What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What financial management standards do I include... financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants? So as not to force system changes..., your expenditure-based TIA's requirements for the financial management system of any...

  1. Adolescent Girls' Sex Role Development: Relationship with Sports Participation, Self-Esteem, and Age at Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Janice E.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates development of sex role orientation among adolescent girls, and explores its relationship with sports participation, self-esteem, and age at menarche. Concludes that relationship of sex role orientation with sports participation and self-esteem was not an interactive one, but was reflective of individual differences beginning in late…

  2. The Impact of Participation in the Rock Eisteddfod Challenge on Adolescent Resiliency and Health Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunstein, Rose; Nutbeam, Don

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine characteristics of resilience among Australian adolescents, the extent to which resilience might be strengthened through participation in a dance/drama competition, the Rock Eisteddfod Challenge (REC), and the impact participation may have on health related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: …

  3. Peer Attitudes Towards Adolescent Participants in Male- and Female-Oriented Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Thomas R.; Hicks, Catherine M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in…

  4. Latino Adolescents' Participation in Extracurricular Activities: How Important Are Family Resources and Cultural Orientation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; O'Donnell, Megan; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Becnel, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Latino adolescents often are less likely to participate in extracurricular activities compared to youth from other ethnic groups. This descriptive study examined the differences in activity participation by family resources and markers of cultural orientation for the four largest Latino ethnic groups in the U.S. Findings were based on secondary…

  5. Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Adolescent Adjustment: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    This study extends previous understanding of the association between adolescent extracurricular activity participation and adjustment by asking whether participation in school-based extracurricular activities is associated with lower substance use and depression, higher grades and academic aspirations, and more positive attitude toward school. In…

  6. Religious Identity, Religious Participation, and Psychological Well-Being in Asian American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Davis, Richard F; Kiang, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Religiosity plays a prominent spiritual and social role in adolescents' lives. Yet, despite its developmental salience, few studies have examined normative changes in religiosity or the implications of these changes for psychological well-being. We explored longitudinal variation in and associations between religiosity, as defined by private regard, centrality, and participation in religious activities, and diverse indicators of well-being including self-esteem, depressive symptoms, positive and negative affect, and both the presence of and search for meaning in life. The participants were two cohorts of Asian American high school students (N = 180; 60 % female) followed for 4 years and living in the southeastern US. Using hierarchical linear modelling and controlling for gender and generational status, results revealed that religious identity (i.e., regard, centrality) did not normatively increase or decrease over time, but participation increased. Religious identity was significantly associated with higher self-esteem, greater positive affect, the presence of meaning in life, and reduced depressive symptoms (for females), and participation was positively associated with positive affect and the presence of meaning. Our results and discussion emphasize the utility of further examining how religion plays a role in health and well-being, particularly among immigrant youth. PMID:26346036

  7. Participation in Vigorous Sports, Not Moderate Sports, Is Positively Associated With Cardiorespiratory Fitness Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Daniel R.; Pratt, Charlotte; Charneco, Eileen Y.; Dowda, Marsha; Phillips, Jennie A.; Going, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is controversy regarding whether moderately-intense sports can improve physical fitness, which declines throughout adolescence among girls. The objective was to estimate the association between moderate and vigorous sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness in a racially diverse sample of adolescent girls. Methods Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a modified physical work capacity test in 1029 eighth-grade girls participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Girls reported sports in which they participated in the last year on an organized activity questionnaire. Using general linear mixed models, the study regressed absolute and relative fitness on the number of vigorous and moderate sports in which girls participated, race/ethnicity, age, treatment group, fat mass, fat-free mass, and an interaction between race and fat-free mass. Results The number of vigorous sports in which girls participated was positively associated with absolute fitness (β = 10.20, P = .04) and relative fitness (β = 0.17, P = .04). Associations were reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for MET-weighted MVPA. Participation in moderate sports was not associated with either fitness measure. Conclusions Vigorous sports participation is positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Future longitudinal research should analyze whether promoting vigorous sports at an early age can prevent age-related declines in cardiorespiratory fitness among adolescent girls. PMID:23493300

  8. Acceptance of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods by adolescent participants in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project

    PubMed Central

    Mestad, Renee; Secura, Gina; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Madden, Tessa; Zhao, Qiuhong; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescent women have a high risk of unintended pregnancy. Currently, there are little data about their choice to initiate long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Study Design We evaluated the association of age and preference for a LARC vs. a non-LARC method among adolescent participants in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, comparing those aged 14–17 years to adolescents aged 18–20 years. We then analyzed the association between age and choice of the implant vs. the intrauterine device (IUD) among adolescents. Results Of the 5086 women enrolled, 70% (n=3557) of participants chose a LARC method. Among adolescents aged 14–20 years, 69% of 14–17-year-olds chose LARC, while 61% of 18–20-year-olds chose LARC (relative risk 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.30). Among adolescents choosing a LARC method, 63% (n=93/148) of the 14–17-year-olds chose the implant, whereas 71% (n=364/510) of the 18–20-year-olds chose the IUD. Conclusion Long-acting reversible contraception use is clearly acceptable and common among adolescents enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, with the younger group being most interested in the implant. PMID:22018123

  9. Physical Activity Participation and Preferences: Developmental and Oncology-Related Transitions in Adolescents Treated for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe motor function and participation in, barriers to, and preferences for physical activity (PA) in adolescents during and after treatment of cancer and to discuss PA promotion in the context of developmental and cancer transitions. Method: A cross-sectional survey study used the Transfer and Basic Mobility and Sports/Physical Functioning self-report and parent-report scales of the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) and questions about PA participation and preferences to collect information from 80 adolescents and 63 parents. Results: PODCI scores for adolescents receiving treatment were more variable and significantly lower than those of adolescents who had been off treatment for more than 2 years. Fatigue, pain, general health, and doctor's orders were frequently identified as barriers to PA for adolescents receiving treatment. Many did not achieve recommended levels of PA. The adolescents expressed preferences for being active with friends and family, at home or in school, in the afternoon or evening, and through daily recreational and sports activities typical of teenagers. Conclusions: Physical abilities and participation in and barriers to PA vary across the cancer journey. Interventions should be sensitive to variability and acknowledge individual preferences and environments throughout the trajectories and transitions of cancer treatment and youth development to achieve lifelong healthy lifestyles. PMID:26839461

  10. Exploring the Effects of Including Students' Ideas and Concerns on Their Participation in Online Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2011-01-01

    As higher education institutions progressively deliver many more courses through online mode, student retention in courses and ensuring participation in tasks and activities are becoming more a concern to teachers and educational institutions. This pilot study--an action learning project--explored the effect of including students' identified…

  11. Stability of leisure participation from school-age to adolescence in individuals with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Schmitz, Norbert; Shevell, Michael; Lach, Lucy

    2015-12-01

    With increasing age, youth with disabilities are at risk for decreased participation in leisure activities, a key component for physical and mental health. This prospective study describes changes in leisure participation and leisure preferences from school-age to adolescence in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants were recruited at school-age (6-12 years) for a study on participation and reassessed for a second study on adolescents (12-19 years) if >12 years. Thirty-eight children (24 males) with CP who could actively participate in the completion of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and the Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC) comprised the sample. Average time between assessments was 5.0 ± 1.3 years. Most children were ambulatory (32/38 Gross Motor Function Classification System I-II). In addition to the CAPE and PAC, children were evaluated using the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 and parents completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. Paired t-tests revealed a significant decline in leisure participation diversity and intensity (CAPE) for recreation (p<.0001), skill-based (p<.0001) and self-improvement (p<.05) activities, whereas social participation remained stable (p>.05). Diversity of active-physical activities increased modestly (p=.06) although intensity of participation in this activity domain decreased (p=.003). There was also a decline in enjoyment of leisure activities. Preferences for these leisure activities remained unchanged between school-age and adolescence, except for recreational activities. Gender, maternal education, family income and gross motor ability were not related to differences in CAPE/PAC scores with increasing age. Findings suggest that over time, children with CP's participation in leisure activities diminishes, which is of concern to their functioning and well-being. Parents may be more involved in early childhood in facilitating participation whereas in adolescence, youth may

  12. [Social participation and vocational integration as an objective of child and adolescent psychiatric rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Voll, Renate

    2009-09-01

    In order to avoid threatening social disintegration, it is important for children and adolescents with chronic mental disorders and also for physically disabled children to diagnose disturbances of social participation in an early stage and to commence rehabilitation measures. The need for rehabilitation, the ability to rehabilitate and the rehabilitation prognosis are important for identifying the individual rehabilitation goals. A multi-axial diagnosis according to the ICF with a determination of adaptability, a behavioural analysis, skills, activity and participation is required. For disabled children, there are only a few ICF check lists for diagnosing social participation. Because of this, the ICF check list CASP (Child & Adolescent Scale of Participation) for measuring social participation according to Bedell was translated, which is shown in the appendix. PMID:19739060

  13. African American Participation in Alzheimer’s Disease Research that Includes Brain Donation

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Kathryn R.; McGuire, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Historically, minority groups have been underrepresented in research and clinical trials. The lack of participation by minorities has been attributed to variety of factors including a mistrust of the predominately white research establishments and a lack of education about the purpose of research. The current study was designed to determine African-American interest in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research and to recruit African Americans as normal controls in current AD studies with the goal of eventually gaining consent for brain donation upon death. Participants were 46 African Americans aged 65 or older who were interviewed about knowledge of medical procedures and experience with research. After initial recruitment interviews, 31.7% of participants agreed to yearly testing with eventual brain donation. Study findings suggest a moderate relationship between participants’ knowledge of medical procedures used to prolong life and willingness to donate one’s brain. PMID:22009227

  14. Adapting an evidence-based model to retain adolescent study participants in longitudinal research.

    PubMed

    Davis, Erin; Demby, Hilary; Jenner, Lynne Woodward; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha

    2016-02-01

    Maintaining contact with and collecting outcome data from adolescent study participants can present a significant challenge for researchers conducting longitudinal studies. Establishing an organized and effective protocol for participant follow-up is crucial to reduce attrition and maintain high retention rates. This paper describes our methods in using and adapting the evidence-based Engagement, Verification, Maintenance, and Confirmation (EVMC) model to follow up with adolescents 6 and 12 months after implementation of a health program. It extends previous research by focusing on two key modifications to the model: (1) the central role of cell phones and texting to maintain contact with study participants throughout the EVMC process and, (2) use of responsive two-way communication between staff and participants and flexible administration modes and methods in the confirmation phase to ensure that busy teens not only respond to contacts, but also complete data collection. These strategies have resulted in high overall retention rates (87-91%) with adolescent study participants at each follow-up data collection point without the utilization of other, more involved tracking measures. The methods and findings presented may be valuable for other researchers with limited resources planning for or engaged in collecting follow-up outcome data from adolescents enrolled in longitudinal studies. PMID:26539953

  15. Proximity to Sports Facilities and Sports Participation for Adolescents in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Anne K.; Wagner, Matthias; Alvanides, Seraphim; Steinmayr, Andreas; Reiner, Miriam; Schmidt, Steffen; Woll, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany. Methods A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11–17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities. Results The logisitic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively. Conclusions Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas. PMID:24675689

  16. The Balancing Act: Meeting the Needs of All Children Including an Adolescent with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Cecelia; Mayes, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore parents' experiences and strategies used when meeting the needs of all their children, including an adolescent with disabilities. Materials and methods: A qualitative study design was employed. The study was conducted in two phases. (i) Secondary analysis of ecocultural interviews with 12…

  17. Speed and Accuracy of Rapid Speech Output by Adolescents with Residual Speech Sound Errors Including Rhotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Edwards, Mary Louise

    2009-01-01

    Children with residual speech sound errors are often underserved clinically, yet there has been a lack of recent research elucidating the specific deficits in this population. Adolescents aged 10-14 with residual speech sound errors (RE) that included rhotics were compared to normally speaking peers on tasks assessing speed and accuracy of speech…

  18. 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Sterling, Stacy; Campbell, Cynthia I; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the associations between 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among 419 adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidities. Although level of participation decreased over time for both groups, comorbid adolescents participated in 12-step groups at comparable or higher levels across time points. Results from mixed-effects logistic regression models indicated that for both groups, 12-step participation was associated with both alcohol and drug abstinence at follow-ups, increasing the likelihood of either by at least 3 times. Findings highlight the potential benefits of 12-step participation in maintaining long-term recovery for adolescents with and without psychiatric disorders. PMID:23327502

  19. Perceptions of Physical Activity and Influences of Participation in Young African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shannon; Knight, Candace; Crew-Gooden, Annette

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore African-American adolescent girls' perceptions of physical activity participation, examine how physical activity is defined and identify the most preferred forms of physical activity. Qualitative focus group interviews of a convenience sample (N = 30; Mean age = 14.3 years) were used to identifyfactors that influence African-American girls' physical activity participation as well as to explore how physical activity is defined within this population. Four themes emerged: (a) benefits and motivation to engage in physical activity, (b) behaviors consistent with perceived physical activity, (c) most enjoyable physical activity/activities, and (d) barriers to physical activity. Physical activities that promoted normative adolescent development (i.e., autonomy) were perceived as most beneficial, desirable, and most likely to be sustained. Implications of these findings highlight the importance of the incorporation of socialization and peer engagement in physical activity programs designed for African-American adolescent girls. PMID:27045157

  20. Why Do Parents Grant or Deny Consent for Adolescent Participation in Sexuality Research?

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Kristin L

    2016-05-01

    To date, there is limited knowledge about how parents make decisions about adolescents' participation in sexuality research. This gap was addressed in the present study, which explored parents' reasons for providing or denying consent and their suggestions for improving the likelihood of consent. 151 parents responded through anonymous internet surveys (85.3 % mothers; 87 % European American). Those who would likely consent were largely motivated by potential benefits and limited risks of participating in the study. Those unlikely to consent expressed discomfort with sexual content, which they viewed as inappropriate for sexually-naïve adolescents. Most were somewhat more likely to consent if researchers engaged in ethical research practices (e.g., protecting confidentiality). As in other adolescent life domains, parents' decisions strongly reflected their desire to protect their teenagers' wellbeing, though respondents' means of pursuing this goal varied. The discussion centers on the findings' implications for theory development and recruitment efforts. PMID:26910523

  1. Effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self of adolescents with conduct disorders.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Ninot, Grégory; Morin, Alexandre J S; Bilard, Jean

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self-concept of adolescents with conduct disorders (CD). Participants were 24 adolescent males with CD, divided equally into three groups: (a) inter-establishment basketball (IEBB), (b) integrated scholastic basketball (ISBB), and (c) control-adapted physical activity (APA). The basketball skills tests and physical self-concept were both administrated 4 times over an 18-month period. Results indicated (a) an improvement in basketball skills in both competitive groups (i.e., ISBB, IEBB), (b) a significant curvilinear trend of physical self-worth scale in the three groups, and (c) no significant changes in physical self-concept in the three groups (ISBB, IEBB, and APA). In conclusion, the integrated and segregated competitive programs did not represent an effective means for improving the physical self-concept of adolescents with CD. PMID:17916916

  2. Assessing Caring in Young Adolescent Students Participating in Service Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Deborah; Fusco, Dana; Schine, Joan; Berkson, Nancy

    Using as prompts scenarios of interaction at a preschool and senior center, this study examined student responses concerning the degree of caring exhibited. Data were collected from middle school students before and after participating in a service learning program involving service in a preschool, and from nonservice students. The service…

  3. Patterns of Adolescents' Participation in Organized Activities: Are Sports Best when Combined with Other Activities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linver, Miriam R.; Roth, Jodie L.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Although many adolescents participate in sports and other types of organized activities, little extant research explores how youth development outcomes may vary for youth involved in different combinations of activities. The present study uses the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a large, nationally…

  4. The Role of Adolescent Extracurricular Activities in Adult Political Participation. CIRCLE Working Paper 02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirlin, Mary

    2003-01-01

    This literature review is specifically interested in empirical research addressing the relationship between adolescent participation in extracurricular activities and adult political engagement. Relevant research is found in political science, psychology, education and sociology. In order to capture the literature most directly related to the main…

  5. Attitudes toward Political Engagement and Willingness to Participate in Politics: Trajectories throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Gniewosz, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on data from a longitudinal cohort-sequential project, the present study examined developmental trajectories of adolescents' attitudes toward political engagement and their willingness to participate in politics from grade 7 to 11 while accounting for the influence of school track and gender. Moreover, stabilities on the dependent…

  6. Adolescent Developmental Experiences and Participation in Extracurricular Activities in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfnifie, Shuaa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined adolescent developmental experiences and participation in extracurricular activities. Providing youth with multiple channels to nurture their development and acknowledge their interests and strengths can play a significant role in their holistic growth. This is a descriptive study of a mixed-methods design (quantitative and…

  7. Availability of Sports Facilities as Moderator of the Intention-Sports Participation Relationship among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Richard G.; van Empelen, Pepijn; te Velde, Saskia J.; Timperio, Anna; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Tak, Nannah I.; Crawford, David; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to identify individual and environmental predictors of adolescents' sports participation and to examine whether availability of sports facilities moderated the intention-behaviour relation. Data were obtained from the Environmental Determinants of Obesity in Rotterdam Schoolchildren study (2005/2006 to 2007/2008). A…

  8. Participation in Physical Activity among Normal- and Overweight Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovitz, Steven D.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Boostrom, Ardys

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between weight status and participation in physical activity (PA) among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adolescent boys and girls. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, height and weight were measured and a modified 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to 1302…

  9. Extracurricular Activities, Athletic Participation, and Adolescent Alcohol Use: Gender-Differentiated and School-Contextual Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, John P.

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates the effects of extracurricular activities on alcohol use among male (n = 4,495) and female (n = 5,398) adolescents who participated in the 1990-92 National Education Longitudinal Study. Previous studies have assessed the association between extracurricular activities and alcohol use, but none have explored whether the…

  10. Effects of Integrated or Segregated Sport Participation on the Physical Self for Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninot, G.; Bilard, J.; Delignieres, D.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic programme (integrated vs. segregated) on the athletic domain of perceived competence and on general self-worth. Methods: Participants were 32 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID), divided equally into four groups: (1) segregated swimming; (2) integrated…

  11. Brief Report: Performing on the Stage, the Field, or Both? Australian Adolescent Extracurricular Activity Participation and Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomfield, Corey J.; Barber, Bonnie L.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between Australian adolescents' participation in extracurricular activities and their self-concepts was investigated. A total of 1489 adolescents (56% female; mean age 13.8 years) completed measures of social self-concept, academic self-concept, and general self-worth, and reported on their extracurricular activity participation.…

  12. Patterns and Predictors of Participation in Leisure Activities outside of School in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Egmar; Badia, Marta; Orgaz, Begona M.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the patterns and predictors of participation in leisure activities outside of school of Spanish children and adolescents with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Children and adolescents with CP (n = 199; 113 males and 86 females) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mean age was 12.11 years (SD = 3.02; range 8-18 years), and…

  13. Preferences Regarding Return of Genomic Results to Relatives of Research Participants, Including after Participant Death: Empirical Results from a Cancer Biobank.

    PubMed

    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Petersen, Gloria M; Wolf, Susan M; Chaffee, Kari G; Robinson, Marguerite E; Gordon, Deborah R; Lindor, Noralane M; Koenig, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Data are lacking with regard to participants' perspectives on return of genetic research results to relatives, including after the participant's death. This paper reports descriptive results from 3,630 survey respondents: 464 participants in a pancreatic cancer biobank, 1,439 family registry participants, and 1,727 healthy individuals. Our findings indicate that most participants would feel obligated to share their results with blood relatives while alive and would want results to be shared with relatives after their death. PMID:26479556

  14. Sports Participation in Children and Adolescents with Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manjusha; Lambert, Michele P; Breakey, Vicky; Buchanan, George R; Neier, Michelle; Neufeld, Ellis J; Kempert, Pamela; Neunert, Cindy E; Nottage, Kerri; Klaassen, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    We surveyed 278 pediatric hematologists/oncologists regarding how children with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are counseled for participation in sports. Results show substantial variation in physician perception of contact risk for different sports, and the advice offered about restriction of sport activities of affected children. Many physicians recommend restriction of sports when platelet counts are under 50 × 10(9) /L. Such restriction may affect the child's quality of life despite their having an overall benign disease. PMID:26174203

  15. Trajectories of Organized Activity Participation Among Urban Adolescents: An Analysis of Predisposing Factors.

    PubMed

    Eisman, Andria B; Stoddard, Sarah A; Bauermeister, José A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-01-01

    Organized activity participation provides important opportunities for adolescents to develop assets and resources related to positive youth development. Predisposing factors, in addition to sociodemographics and self-selection factors, may influence how youth participate over time. In this study, we used growth mixture modeling with longitudinal data from African American adolescents attending urban high schools in Flint, MI to identify subgroups of participation trajectories (Wave 1 N = 681, mean age at Wave 1 = 14.86 years, 51% female). We measured activity participation using psychological and behavioral engagement across multiple contexts over the 4 years of high school. We examined how predisposing risk and promotive factors were related to these trajectories, accounting for sociodemographic and self-selection factors. The results indicated three participation trajectories: a low group decreasing over time (74%), a moderate, consistent participation group (21%) and a moderate, increasing group (5%). More substance use was associated with lower odds of being in the moderate/consistent versus low/decreasing participation group. More parental support was associated with lower odds of being in the moderate/increasing versus the moderate/consistent group. Our results suggest that addressing predisposing factors such as substance use may help facilitate participation over time. PMID:25735866

  16. What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention? Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne; Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents are a vulnerable group when it comes to the risk of developing depression. Preventing the onset of depressive episodes in this group is therefore a major public health priority. In the last decades, school-based cognitive-behavioural interventions have been a common primary prevention approach. However, evidence on what girls actually are allocated to such interventions when no researchers are involved is scarce. Objective To explore how a selective cognitive-behavioural program (Depression In Swedish Adolescents) developed to prevent depression in adolescents, was implemented in a naturalistic setting in schools in northern part of Sweden. The focus was on characteristics of participants allocated to the intervention. Design Cross-sectional baseline data on depressive symptoms, school environment and socio-economic factors were collected in 2011 by means of questionnaires in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Intervention participants were identified in a follow-up questionnaire in 2012. Students (n=288) included in the analyses were in the ages of 14–15. Results Sixty-six girls and no boys were identified as intervention participants. They reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower personal relative affluence, more sexual harassment victimization and less peer support compared to female non-participants (n=222). Intervention participants were more likely to attend schools with a higher proportion of low parental education levels and a lower proportion of students graduating with a diploma. Conclusions The developers of the intervention originally intended the program to be universal or selective, but it was implemented as targeted in these schools. It is important for school administrations to adhere to program fidelity when it comes to what students it is aimed for. Implications for effectivenss trials of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the school setting is discussed. PMID:26538463

  17. Behavioral predictors of attrition in adolescents participating in a multidisciplinary obesity treatment program: EVASYON study.

    PubMed

    De Miguel-Etayo, P; Muro, C; Santabárbara, J; López-Antón, R; Morandé, G; Martín-Matillas, M; Azcona-San Julián, M C; Martí, A; Campoy, C; Marcos, A; Moreno, L A; Garagorri, J M

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the cognitive and behavioral predictors of dropping out and to estimate the attrition rate during different phases of an intervention program to treat overweight and obesity in adolescents. Overweight/obese adolescents (n=156, aged: 13-16 years; 71 male and 85 female subjects) were included in a multicomponent (diet, physical activity and psychological support) family-based group treatment program. At baseline and after 2 months (intensive phase) and 13 months (extensive phase) of follow-up, we measured adolescents' cognitive and behavioral dimensions, together with the parents' perception of their child's behavior. Of the 156 adolescents selected, 112 completed the full program (drop-out rate of 28.2%). The risk of dropping out during the extensive phase increased by 20% for each unit increase in the adolescent's social insecurity score (odds ratio=1.20, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.34, P=0.002). The adolescents who had a high interoceptive awareness showed a significant decrease of 13.0% in the probability of dropping out (odds ratio=0.87, 95% confidence interval=0.77-0.99, P=0.040). Adolescents' social insecurity was the main predictor of drop-out in a multicomponent family-group-based obesity treatment program. To reduce attrition rates in these programs, the individual's social insecurity level needs to be reduced, whereas the family's awareness of eating-related behavior needs adjustment. PMID:26381348

  18. White matter microstructural changes in adolescent anorexia nervosa including an exploratory longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Katja; Timmers, Inge; Kumar, Vinod; Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Bastiani, Matteo; Roebroek, Alard; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Goebel, Rainer; Seitz, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) often begins in adolescence, however, the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology at this developmentally important age is scarce, impeding early interventions. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate microstructural white matter (WM) brain changes including an experimental longitudinal follow-up. Methods We acquired whole brain diffusion-weighted brain scans of 22 adolescent female hospitalized patients with AN at admission and nine patients longitudinally at discharge after weight rehabilitation. Patients (10–18 years) were compared to 21 typically developing controls (TD). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were applied to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) across groups and time points. Associations between average FA values of the global WM skeleton and weight as well as illness duration parameters were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results We observed increased FA in bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal areas in AN patients at admission compared to TD. Higher FA of the global WM skeleton at admission was associated with faster weight loss prior to admission. Exploratory longitudinal analysis showed this FA increase to be partially normalized after weight rehabilitation. Conclusions Our findings reveal a markedly different pattern of WM microstructural changes in adolescent AN compared to most previous results in adult AN. This could signify a different susceptibility and reaction to semi-starvation in the still developing brain of adolescents or a time-dependent pathomechanism differing with extend of chronicity. Higher FA at admission in adolescents with AN could point to WM fibers being packed together more closely. PMID:27182488

  19. Characteristics of children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus participating in a summer camp educational program.

    PubMed

    Flori, Y A; Desjeux, J F; Reach, G; Tichet, J; Cahane, M

    1986-06-01

    Clinical, biological and social characteristics were assessed in 456 children and adolescents participating in a summer camp for children with diabetes mellitus. In these subjects, aged from 7 to 18 years, the mean duration of the diabetes was five and a half years. They carried out their usual treatment under parental supervision, 31% of them being of rural origin. Mean glycosylated haemoglobin was approximately twice as high as a reference population (12.2% +/- 2.3, vs. 6.6% +/- 0.7) and was similar to that observed in various specialized hospitals. Factors which correlated with glycosylated haemoglobin included gender, school performance, vacation away from home, time spent watching television and practicing sport and eating patterns. This descriptive analysis gives some insight into the health status of the studied population. It represents the initial phase of a study to assess the efficacy of a diabetes educational programme for children and adolescents. PMID:3525271

  20. Is Participation in Organized Leisure-Time Activities Associated with School Performance in Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sirucek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Organized leisure-time activities (OLTA) have been identified as a context suitable for improvement of school performance. This study aimed to assess the associations between participation in OLTA and school engagement, school-related stress, academic achievement and whether these associations differ by specific pattern of OLTA participation, gender and age. Furthermore, it assessed whether OLTA participants are more likely to acquire support for schoolwork from outside the family. Methods The sample concerned 10,483 adolescents (49.2% boys) aged 11, 13 and 15 from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children data collection in 2014 in the Czech Republic. Logistic regressions adjusted for gender and age were used to analyse the associations between participation in OLTA and four education-related outcomes. Results Participation in OLTA was associated with higher school engagement, lower levels of school-related stress and better academic achievement regardless of gender and age. The strongest associations were observed for adolescents involved in various types of OLTA concurrently, with odds ratios ranging from 1.34 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17–1.54) for lower school-related stress to 1.97 (95% CI 1.73–2.25) for above-average academic achievement. OLTA participants were also more likely to have a non-familial person to help them with schoolwork, though this association was weaker in 15-year-olds. Conclusion Youth involvement in OLTA is linked to general better school performance and attachment to school. Adolescents participating in more activities at the same time have the best school performance. PMID:27073841

  1. Committee Opinion No. 646 Summary: Ethical Considerations for Including Women as Research Participants.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    Inclusion of women in research studies is necessary for valid inferences about health and disease in women. The generalization of results from trials conducted in men may yield erroneous conclusions that fail to account for the biologic differences between men and women. Although significant changes in research design and practice have led to an increase in the proportion of women included in research trials, knowledge gaps remain because of a continued lack of inclusion of women, especially those who are pregnant, in premarketing research trials. This document provides a historical overview of issues surrounding women as participants in research trials, followed by an ethical framework and discussion of the issues of informed consent, contraception requirements, intimate partner consent, and the appropriate inclusion of pregnant women in research studies. PMID:27548418

  2. Committee Opinion No. 646: Ethical Considerations for Including Women as Research Participants.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    Inclusion of women in research studies is necessary for valid inferences about health and disease in women. The generalization of results from trials conducted in men may yield erroneous conclusions that fail to account for the biologic differences between men and women. Although significant changes in research design and practice have led to an increase in the proportion of women included in research trials, knowledge gaps remain because of a continued lack of inclusion of women, especially those who are pregnant, in premarketing research trials. This document provides a historical overview of issues surrounding women as participants in research trials, followed by an ethical framework and discussion of the issues of informed consent, contraception requirements, intimate partner consent, and the appropriate inclusion of pregnant women in research studies. PMID:27548420

  3. COMPREHENSIVE ADOLESCENT HEALTH PROGRAMS THAT INCLUDE SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Kågesten, Anna; Parekh, Jenita; Tunçalp, Özge; Turke, Shani; Blum, Robert Wm

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the characteristics and evidence of comprehensive adolescent health (CAH) programs encompassing sexual and reproductive and other health services, educational and social support. Methods Systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on CAH programs (1998-2013). Only programs with experimental, quasi-experimental or pre-post evaluations were included. Two independent reviewers screened 36,119 records and extracted articles using predefined criteria. Data was synthesised into descriptive characteristics; quality was assessed by evidence level (rigorous, strong, modest). Results Data was extracted on 46 programs (181 studies) of which 19 programs were defined as comprehensive; 9 were excluded due to insufficient evaluations. Ten CAH programs met all inclusion criteria. Most were US based; others were implemented in Egypt, Ethiopia and Mexico. Few programs (N=3) displayed rigorous evidence, 5 had strong and 2 had modest evidence. All programs with rigorous/strong evidence directly or indirectly influenced adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Common elements of these programs included: long-term commitment to adolescents, interpersonal connections, community mobilization, and skill-building elements. Conclusion The long term impact of many CAH programs cannot be proven due to insufficient evaluations. Evaluation approaches that take into account the complex operating conditions of many programs are needed to better understand mechanisms behind program effects. PMID:25320876

  4. Differences in Lifestyles Including Physical Activity According to Sexual Orientation among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    YOON, Jin-Ho; SO, Wi-Young

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in lifestyle factors such as physical activity among homosexual (gay or lesbian), bisexual, and heterosexual Korean adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 74,186 adolescents from grades 7—12 (ages 12—18) who participated in the 8th annual Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey in 2012. Of this sample, only 11,829 provided enough information regarding their romantic and sexual experiences to define them as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or heterosexual. From this information, males were divided into gay (n = 323), bisexual (n = 243), and heterosexual (n = 6,501) groups, and females were divided into lesbian (n = 208), bisexual (n = 113), and heterosexual (n = 4,441) groups. Differences in lifestyle factors according to sexual orientation were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results Males showed significant differences by sexual orientation group in terms of frequency of smoking (P = 0.029), alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), muscular strength exercises (P = 0.020), and walking for at least 10 minutes per week (P < 0.001). Females showed significant differences by sexual orientation group in terms of frequency of smoking (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), vigorous physical exercise (P < 0.001), moderate physical exercise (P < 0.001), and muscular strength exercises (P < 0.001), as well as for self-reported mental stress (P < 0.001). Conclusion We concluded those gay and bisexual males and lesbian and bisexual females had significant lifestyle differences as compared with heterosexual adolescents. This effect was stronger for females than for males. PMID:26060636

  5. Less Socially Engaged? Participation in Friendship and Extracurricular Activities Among Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Turney, Kristin; Kao, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Prior research has linked social engagement, such as peer interaction and participation in school activities, to a host of positive outcomes for youth and adolescents. However, little research considers patterns of social engagement among racial/ethnic minority and immigrant adolescents, despite prior research suggesting…

  6. Reasons for and Attitudes toward Follow-Up Research Participation among Adolescents Enrolled in an Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Bryan R.; Passetti, Lora L.; Orndoff, Matt G.; Godley, Susan H.

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining study cohorts over time is crucial to the success of treatment outcome research studies. This paper examines reasons why adolescents with substance use problems continued to participate in follow-up interviews. The sample consisted of 145 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18, who completed an outcome study following out-patient…

  7. The Relationship between Regular Sports Participation and Vigilance in Male and Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Rafael; Huertas, Florentino; Yuste, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Francesc; Sanabria, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer) and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36) took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning. PMID:25849873

  8. Text Messaging Improves Participation in Laboratory Testing in Adolescent Liver Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Rebecca B.; Berquist, William E.; Foley, Megan A.; Park, KT; Windsheimer, Jered E.; Litt, Iris F.

    2015-01-01

    Background In solid organ transplant patients, non-participation in all aspects of the medical regimen is a prevalent problem associated with adverse consequences particularly in the adolescent and young adult (AYA) age group. This study is the first to evaluate the feasibility, utility and impact of a text messaging (TM) intervention to improve participation in laboratory testing in adolescent liver transplant patients. Methods AYA patients, aged 12 to 21 years, were recruited for a prospective pilot trial evaluating a TM intervention delivered over a 1-year period. The intervention involved automated TM reminders with feedback administered according to a prescribed laboratory testing frequency. Participation rate in laboratory testing after the intervention was compared to the year prior. Patient responses and feedback by text and survey were used to assess feasibility, acceptability and use of the intervention. Results Forty-two patients were recruited and 33 patients remained enrolled for the study duration. Recipients of the TM intervention demonstrated a significant improvement in participation rate in laboratory testing from 58% to 78% (P<.001). This rate was also significantly higher than in non-intervention controls (P=.003). There was a high acceptability, response rate and a significant correlation with reported versus actual completion of laboratory tests by TM. Conclusions TM reminders significantly improved participation in laboratory testing in AYA liver transplant patients. The intervention demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and use with a high proportion of patients who engaged in and perceived a benefit from using this technology. PMID:26213633

  9. Peer attitudes towards adolescent participants in male- and female-oriented sports.

    PubMed

    Alley, Thomas R; Hicks, Catherine M

    2005-01-01

    This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in one of three sports. A total of 12 different descriptive paragraphs were used in a 2 (race) x 2 (sex) x 3 (sport) design. Each of these paragraphs, although short, ascribed a variety of traits that could be seen by raters as the independent variables: name (initials only), age, race, gender, hours of practice per week, number of competitions/performances per year, sport, and self-confidence. For this reason, raters were highly unlikely to surmise that sex and sport were the primary independent variables in the study. As predicted, there was a consistent decrease in rated femininity and increase in masculinity for both male and female adolescent targets as they switched from participating in a "feminine" (ballet) to a neutral (tennis) to a "masculine" (karate) sport. These results suggest that sex stereotypes for certain sports may influence who elects to participate and how participants are viewed by others. PMID:16114591

  10. Community participation for transformative action on women's, children's and adolescents' health.

    PubMed

    Marston, Cicely; Hinton, Rachael; Kean, Stuart; Baral, Sushil; Ahuja, Arti; Costello, Anthony; Portela, Anayda

    2016-05-01

    The Global strategy for women's, children's and adolescents' health (2016-2030) recognizes that people have a central role in improving their own health. We propose that community participation, particularly communities working together with health services (co-production in health care), will be central for achieving the objectives of the global strategy. Community participation specifically addresses the third of the key objectives: to transform societies so that women, children and adolescents can realize their rights to the highest attainable standards of health and well-being. In this paper, we examine what this implies in practice. We discuss three interdependent areas for action towards greater participation of the public in health: improving capabilities for individual and group participation; developing and sustaining people-centred health services; and social accountability. We outline challenges for implementation, and provide policy-makers, programme managers and practitioners with illustrative examples of the types of participatory approaches needed in each area to help achieve the health and development goals. PMID:27152056

  11. Exposure to Peers who Smoke Moderates the Association between Sports Participation and Cigarette Smoking Behavior among Non-White Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Luta, George; Walker, Leslie R.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sports participants are less likely to smoke cigarettes, and sports participation may prevent young people from smoking. Research suggests that the relationship between sports participation and smoking may vary by race/ethnicity and is also possibly moderated by exposure to peer smoking. We investigated these relationships in a sample of 311 adolescents ages 13 – 21 presenting for well-visit medical appointments. Participants completed valid assessments of demographics, sports participation, exposure to peer smoking, and smoking behavior. The primary outcome was smoking status (never smoked, tried smoking, experimental/current smoker). Ordinal logistic regression was used separately for non-Hispanic White (n = 122) and non-White (n = 189; 70.4% Black, 14.3% Hispanic, and 15.3% other) adolescents. Among White adolescents, sports participants had significantly lower odds of smoking than non-sports participants, independent of age, gender, and peer smoking. For non-Whites, the adjusted effect of sports participation on smoking depended upon exposure to peers who smoke. Compared with non-sport participants with no exposure to peer smoking, sports participants with no exposure to peer smoking had significantly lower odds of smoking, whereas sports participants with exposure to peer smoking had significantly higher odds of smoking. Sports appear to be protective against smoking among non-Hispanic White adolescents, but among non-White adolescents exposure to peer smoking influences this protection. Interventions incorporating sports to prevent smoking should consider these racial/ethnic differences to address disparities in smoking-related disease. PMID:22698897

  12. HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC PARTICIPATION AND ADOLESCENT SUICIDE: A Nationwide US Study.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Don; Miller, Kathleen E; Melnick, Merrill J; Farrell, Michael P; Barnes, Grace M

    2005-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among US adolescents aged 15-24, with males incurring higher rates of completion than females. This study used hierarchical logistic regression analysis to test whether athletic participation was associated with lower rates of suicidal ideation and behavior among a nationally representative sample of over 16,000 US public and private high school students. Net of the effects of age, race/ethnicity, parental educational attainment, and urbanicity, high school athletic participation was significantly associated with reduced odds of considering suicide among both females and males, and reduced odds of planning a suicide attempt among females only. Though the results point to favorable health outcomes for athletes, athletic participation was also associated with higher rates of injury to male athletes who actually attempted suicide. PMID:18846245

  13. 32 CFR 37.920 - What requirement for access to a nonprofit participant's records do I include in a TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... include for any nonprofit participant the standard access-to-records requirement at: (a) 32 CFR 33.42(e), for a participant that is a State or local governmental organization. (b) 32 CFR 32.53(e), for a..., even though nonprofit GOCOs and FFRDCs are exempted from the definition of “recipient” in 32 CFR...

  14. 32 CFR 37.920 - What requirement for access to a nonprofit participant's records do I include in a TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... include for any nonprofit participant the standard access-to-records requirement at: (a) 32 CFR 33.42(e), for a participant that is a State or local governmental organization. (b) 32 CFR 32.53(e), for a..., even though nonprofit GOCOs and FFRDCs are exempted from the definition of “recipient” in 32 CFR...

  15. Psychophysiological effects of an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge including participants with spider phobia.

    PubMed

    Notzon, S; Deppermann, S; Fallgatter, A; Diemer, J; Kroczek, A; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Ehlis, A-C

    2015-12-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests beneficial effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on anxiety. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as a form of TMS on acute anxiety provoked by a virtual reality (VR) scenario. Participants with spider phobia (n=41) and healthy controls (n=42) were exposed to a spider scenario in VR after one session of iTBS over the prefrontal cortex or sham treatment. Participants with spider phobia reacted with more anxiety compared to healthy controls. Their heart rate and skin conductance increased compared to baseline. Contrary to expectations, iTBS did not influence these reactions, but modulated heart rate variability (HRV). Sympathetic influence on HRV showed an increase in the active iTBS group only. This study does not support the idea of beneficial effects of a single session of iTBS on anxiety, although other protocols or repeated sessions might be effective. PMID:26476332

  16. 32 CFR 37.640 - Must I include a provision for audits of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.640 Must I include a...

  17. 32 CFR 37.640 - Must I include a provision for audits of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.640 Must I include a...

  18. 20 CFR 641.507 - What types of income are included and excluded for participant eligibility determinations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Services to Participants § 641.507 What types of income are included and excluded...

  19. Environmental resources moderate the relationship between social support and school sports participation among adolescents: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most Americans are not active at recommended levels. Adolescence is a developmental period when physical activity (PA) decreases markedly. Methods This study investigates whether access to environmental PA resources moderates the relationship between psychosocial resources (social support and perceived competence) and PA among 192 adolescents. Results Environmental access to PA resources (determined via GIS-based assessment of the number of gyms, schools, trails, parks and athletic fields within 0.5 miles of each participant's home) moderated the association between social support and PA; among adolescents with high levels of environmental resources, greater social support was associated with students participating in a greater number of sports in school, whereas no such relationship emerged among adolescents with low environmental resources. Conclusions PA-promotion interventions should aim to enhance both social and environmental resources; targeting either one alone may be insufficient. PMID:21501504

  20. 45 CFR 286.80 - What information on minimum work participation requirements must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements must a Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.80 Section 286.80 Public Welfare... Content and Processing § 286.80 What information on minimum work participation requirements must a Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? (a) To assess a Tribe's level of success in meeting its...

  1. Higher breakfast glycaemic load is associated with increased metabolic syndrome risk, including lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations and increased TAG concentrations, in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, Analise; du Heaume, Mary; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H; Bremner, Alexandra P; O'Sullivan, Therese A

    2014-12-28

    Almost all previous studies examining the associations between glycaemic load (GL) and metabolic syndrome risk have used a daily GL value. The daily value does not distinguish between peaks of GL intake over the day, which may be more closely associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations between daily and mealtime measures of GL and metabolic syndrome risk, including metabolic syndrome components, in adolescents. Adolescents participating in the 14-year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study completed 3 d food records and metabolic assessments. Breakfast GL, lunch GL, dinner GL and a score representing meal GL peaks over the day were determined in 516 adolescents. Logistic regression models were used to investigate whether GL variables were independent predictors of the metabolic syndrome in this population-based cohort (3.5% prevalence of the metabolic syndrome). Breakfast GL was found to be predictive of the metabolic syndrome in girls (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.27; P <0.01), but not in boys. Other meal GL values and daily GL were found to be not significant predictors of the metabolic syndrome. When breakfast GL was examined in relation to each of the components of the metabolic syndrome in girls, it was found to be negatively associated with fasting HDL-cholesterol concentrations (P= 0.037; β = - 0.004; 95% CI - 0.008, - 0.002) and positively associated with fasting TAG concentrations (P= 0.008; exp(β) = 1.002; 95% CI 1.001, 1.004). he results of the present study suggest that there may be an association between breakfast composition and metabolic syndrome components in adolescent girls. These findings support further investigation into including lower-GL foods as part of a healthy breakfast in adolescence, particularly for girls. PMID:25327283

  2. Picture me playing-a portrait of participation and enjoyment of leisure activities in adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert; Poulin, Chantal; Majnemer, Annette

    2013-03-01

    In recent years attention has been paid to the participation levels of children and youth with Cerebral Palsy (CP), particularly the extent to which they have the opportunity to be involved in and enjoy leisure activities. The objective of this study is to describe the level of participation and enjoyment in leisure activities among adolescents with CP and to identify potential differences in participation patterns related to sociodemographic attributes. A cross-sectional design was used. Participants were 175 adolescents 12-20 years old (M=15.3; ±2.2), GMFCS I=55/II=43/III=13/IV=18/V=39 who completed the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). The types of activities participants engaged in most frequently were social and recreational activities, whereas self-improvement and skill-based activities were least frequent. Social activities were the activities they enjoyed most. In general, participation decreases, as youth grow older. Girls engaged in more self-improvement activities than boys. Adolescents who study in special segregated schools experienced a lower diversity and intensity of engagement in all leisure activity domains. Adolescents who were not ambulatory and those presenting with more severe manual ability limitations participated less in all activity types except skill-based activities. Adolescents with CP place a high value on the ability to engage in activities of their own choosing and on interacting with friends. Engagement in a variety of leisure activities is important for a healthy development. Understanding the leisure patterns and preferences of this population, in addition to the contextual factors, may help in the elaboration of interventions and programs to promote a healthy development for this population. PMID:23291518

  3. Predictors of Adolescent Participation in Organized Activities: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denault, Anne-Sophie; Poulin, Francois

    2009-01-01

    This study examined (a) growth curves of youth participation in sports, performance and fine arts, and youth clubs throughout the high school years and (b) the associations between a series of predictors and the initial participation rates and growth over time. The predictors included individual, friend, and family factors. The moderating effect…

  4. Participant-Perceived Quality of Life in a Long-Term, Open-Label Trial of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Andrew J.; Saylor, Keith; Gasior, Maria; Hamdani, Mohamed; Ferreira-Cornwell, M. Celeste; Findling, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess long-term improvement in quality of life (QOL) in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX). Methods: Adolescents with ADHD treated for ≥3 weeks in a 4 week, placebo-controlled study entered a 1 year, open-label study. After the 4 week dose optimization (30, 50, and 70 mg/day LDX) period, treatment was maintained for 48 additional weeks. Change from baseline (of prior study) to week 52/early termination (ET) (of open-label study) in ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) assessed effectiveness, and the Youth QOL-Research Version (YQOL-R) assessed participant-perceived QOL. Post-hoc analyses described effectiveness and QOL for participants with self-perceived poor QOL at baseline (≥1 SD below the mean) versus all others, and for study completers versus study noncompleters. Results: These post-hoc analyses included 265 participants. Participants with baseline self-perceived poor QOL (n=32) versus all others (n=232) exhibited robust YQOL-R perceptual score changes (improvement) with LDX, emerging by week 28 and maintained to week 52/ET. Week 52/ET mean change score ranged from +9.8 to +17.6 for participants with baseline self-perceived poor QOL and +0.4 to +5.1 for all others; week 52/ET improvements in ADHD-RS-IV total scores were similar, regardless of baseline YQOL-R total score. At week 52/ET, study completers had greater YQOL-R improvements than did noncompleters; ADHD-RS-IV total score changes were also numerically larger at week 52/ET for completers than for noncompleters. Conclusion: Participant-perceived QOL and ADHD symptoms improved from baseline with LDX in adolescents with ADHD; greatest improvements occurred among participants with baseline self-perceived poor QOL. PMID:24815910

  5. 20 CFR 668.370 - What policies govern payments to participants, including wages, training allowances or stipends...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What policies govern payments to participants, including wages, training allowances or stipends, or direct payments for supportive services? 668.370 Section 668.370 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE...

  6. Reactions to "Ethical Challenges and Complexities of Including People with Intellectual Disability as Participants in Research" by Dr Teresa Iacono

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; Handen, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    The authors' reaction to Dr Teresa Iacono's article "Ethical challenges and complexities of including people with intellectual disability as participants in research" is presented. Among other things, they find that Dr Iacono has done an outstanding job of describing creative solutions for obtaining appropriate informed consent from people with…

  7. The Over-Scheduling Hypothesis Revisited: Intensity of Organized Activity Participation during Adolescence and Young Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joseph L.; Vest, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    Concern exists that youth who spend a lot of time participating in organized out-of-school activities (e.g., sports) are at-risk for poor developmental outcomes. This concern--called the over-scheduling hypothesis--has primarily been assessed in terms of adolescent adjustment. This longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of 1,115…

  8. Taking Part Counts: Adolescents' Experiences of the Transition from Inactivity to Active Participation in School-Based Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Fiona; Magnusson, Josefine

    2006-01-01

    Identifying ways to increase and sustain active living among young people represents a priority for health promotion interventions. This qualitative study explored the experiences of adolescent boys and girls in the United Kingdom (aged 14-15 years) who had made the transition from inactivity to active participation in physical education (PE). The…

  9. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis,…

  10. The Link between Competitive Sport Participation and Self-Concept in Early Adolescence: A Consideration of Gender and Sport Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Bowker, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The current study explored specific aspects of sports and individuals on 4 domains of the self-system (physical competence and physical appearance self-concept, global physical and general self-esteem). Participants were 351 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.45, SD = 1.25 years, males n = 132) recruited from elite sports and regular school…

  11. Health Identity, Participation and Knowledge: A Qualitative Study of a Computer Game for Health Education among Adolescents in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the interrelated processes of identity, participation and knowledge in the context of the health educational Lifecalculator computer game. The analysis focuses on if and how this school-based health promotion initiative communicated relevant health knowledge to adolescents. Further development of the concept of health…

  12. Onset of Smoking Behaviors and Participation in Leisure Physical Activities of Turkish Adolescents Attending Vocational Health Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subasi, Feryal; Hey, William; Mumcu, Gonca; Koksal, Leyla; Luleci, Emel; Sur, Haydar

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted with the aim of examining the relationships between smoking behavior and leisure physical activity habits of adolescents (n=170, 85F & 85M, mean age= 15.42 [plus or minus] 0.58, age range=15-17 years) attending vocational health schools in Turkey. Participants were randomly selected from four provinces of…

  13. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  14. Episodic medication adherence in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV: a within-participants approach.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Amy; Evangeli, Michael; Sturgeon, Kate; Le Prevost, Marthe; Judd, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Due to the success of antiretroviral (ART) medications, young people living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV+) are now surviving into adolescence and young adulthood. Understanding factors influencing ART non-adherence in this group is important in developing effective adherence interventions. Most studies of ART adherence in HIV-positive populations assess differences in adherence levels and adherence predictors between participants, over a period of time (global adherence). Many individuals living with HIV, however, including PHIV+ young people, take medication inconsistently. To investigate this pattern of adherence, a within-participants design, focussing on specific episodes of adherence and non-adherence, is suitable (episodic adherence). A within-participants design was used with 29 PHIV+ young people (17 female, median age 17 years, range 14-22 years), enrolled in the UK Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV cohort study. Participants were eligible if they could identify one dose of medication taken and one dose they had missed in the previous two months. For each of the two episodes (one adherent, one non-adherent), behavioural factors (whom they were with, location, routine, day, reminders) and psychological factors at the time of the episode (information about medication, adherence motivation, perceived behavioural skills to adhere to medication - derived from the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) Model - and affect) were assessed in a questionnaire. Non-adherence was significantly associated with weekend days (Friday to Sunday versus Monday to Thursday, p = .001), lack of routine (p = .004), and being out of the home (p = .003), but not with whom the young person was with or whether they were reminded to take medication. Non-adherence was associated with lower levels of behavioural skills (p < .001), and lower positive affect (p = .005). Non-adherence was not significantly associated with negative affect

  15. Episodic medication adherence in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV: a within-participants approach

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Amy; Evangeli, Michael; Sturgeon, Kate; Le Prevost, Marthe; Judd, Ali

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the success of antiretroviral (ART) medications, young people living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV+) are now surviving into adolescence and young adulthood. Understanding factors influencing ART non-adherence in this group is important in developing effective adherence interventions. Most studies of ART adherence in HIV-positive populations assess differences in adherence levels and adherence predictors between participants, over a period of time (global adherence). Many individuals living with HIV, however, including PHIV+ young people, take medication inconsistently. To investigate this pattern of adherence, a within-participants design, focussing on specific episodes of adherence and non-adherence, is suitable (episodic adherence). A within-participants design was used with 29 PHIV+ young people (17 female, median age 17 years, range 14–22 years), enrolled in the UK Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV cohort study. Participants were eligible if they could identify one dose of medication taken and one dose they had missed in the previous two months. For each of the two episodes (one adherent, one non-adherent), behavioural factors (whom they were with, location, routine, day, reminders) and psychological factors at the time of the episode (information about medication, adherence motivation, perceived behavioural skills to adhere to medication – derived from the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) Model – and affect) were assessed in a questionnaire. Non-adherence was significantly associated with weekend days (Friday to Sunday versus Monday to Thursday, p = .001), lack of routine (p = .004), and being out of the home (p = .003), but not with whom the young person was with or whether they were reminded to take medication. Non-adherence was associated with lower levels of behavioural skills (p < .001), and lower positive affect (p = .005). Non-adherence was not significantly associated with

  16. The Fun Integration Theory: Towards Sustaining Children and Adolescents Sport Participation

    PubMed Central

    Visek, Amanda J.; Achrati, Sara M.; Manning, Heather; McDonnell, Karen; Harris, Brandonn S.; DiPietro, Loretta

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children cite ‘fun’ as the primary reason for participation in organized sport and its absence as the number one reason for youth sport attrition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework of fun using a novel mixed-method assessment of participants in sport (FUN MAPS) via concept mapping. METHODS Youth soccer players (n = 142), coaches (n = 37), and parents (n = 57) were stratified by age, sex, and competition level and contributed their “fun” ideas through: (a) qualitative brainstorming, identifying all of the things that make playing sports fun for players; (b) sorting of ideas; and (c) rating each idea on its importance, frequency, and feasibility. RESULTS The FUN MAPS identify the four fundamental tenets of fun in youth sport within 11 fun-dimensions composed of 81 specific fun-determinants, while also establishing the youth sport ethos. CONCLUSION The FUN MAPS provide pictorial evidence-based blueprints for the fun integration theory (FIT), which is a multi-theoretical, multidimensional, and stakeholder derived framework that can be used to maximize fun for children and adolescents in order to promote and sustain an active and healthy lifestyle through sport. PMID:24770788

  17. Quality of Life in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Who Participate in Diabetes Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Ruth; Cureton, Virginia Young; Canham, Daryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Quality of life in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes is a growing area of interest in pediatric research. The complex diabetes regimen imposes challenges for an adolescent. Adolescents diagnosed with diabetes are a group that appears to be at risk for having a poor health-related quality of life. Although research supports the positive relationship…

  18. Prioritizing Participation: Five Things that Every Teacher Needs to Know to Prepare Recent Immigrant Adolescents for Classroom Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patchen, Terri

    2005-01-01

    Any teacher who has worked in a public high school knows the force oral participation holds in a classroom, for a curriculum, and with the students. Few things can make or break educational access, momentum and opportunity like classroom participation. When oral participation is neither present nor cultivated within a classroom, students and…

  19. The Over-Scheduling Hypothesis Revisited: Intensity of Organized Activity Participation During Adolescence and Young Adult Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Joseph L; Vest, Andrea E

    2012-09-01

    Concern exists that youth who spend a lot of time participating in organized out-of-school activities (e.g., sports) are at-risk for poor developmental outcomes. This concern - called the over-scheduling hypothesis - has primarily been assessed in terms of adolescent adjustment. This longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of 1,115 youth (ages 12-18) assessed long-term relations between intensity of participation during adolescence and adjustment at young adulthood (ages 18-24). Time diaries measured intensity as hours per week of participation. Results showed that, controlling for demographic factors and baseline adjustment, intensity was a significant predictor of positive outcomes (e.g., psychological flourishing, civic engagement, educational attainment) and unrelated to indicators of problematic adjustment (e.g., psychological distress, substance use, antisocial behavior) at young adulthood. PMID:23066336

  20. Sports Participation and Juvenile Delinquency: The Role of the Peer Context among Adolescent Boys and Girls with Varied Histories of Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Roth, Jodie; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    In a study of 1,344 urban adolescents, the authors examined the relation between participation in organized sports and juvenile delinquency. They compared youth who participated in sports to those who only participated in nonathletic activities and to those who did not participate in any organized activities. They also examined the indirect…

  1. Participating in a policy debate program and academic achievement among at-risk adolescents in an urban public school district: 1997-2007.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susannah; Mezuk, Briana

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the relationship between participating in a high school debate program on college-readiness in the Chicago Public School district over a 10-year period. At-risk school students were identified using an index including 8th grade achievement, poverty status, and enrollment in special education. Regression analyses were used to assess the association between debate participation and graduation and ACT performance. Overall, debaters were 3.1 times more likely to graduate from high school (95% confidence interval: 2.7-3.5) than non-debaters, and more likely to reach the college-readiness benchmarks on the English, Reading, and Science portions of the ACT. This association was similar for both low-risk and at-risk students. Debate intensity was positively related to higher scores on all sections of the ACT. Findings indicate that debate participation is associated with improved academic performance for at-risk adolescents. PMID:22633913

  2. Reported Sports Participation, Race, Sex, Ethnicity, and Obesity in US Adolescents From NHANES Physical Activity (PAQ_D)

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Eliana M.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Peterson, Camilla J.; Skinner, Asheley C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To understand the relationships between participation in different types of leisure time sport activity and adolescent obesity, and how those relationships might differ based on race, gender, and household income. Methods. Data consisted of 6667 students that took part in the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The authors used adjusted Wald tests to examine differences in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) by sport for boys and girls separately. Results. Among adolescent youth age 12 to 19 years, 16.6% of male leisure time sport participants and 15.3% of female sport participants were obese, compared with 23.6% for male nonathlete participant-in-other-activities and 17.0% obesity rate for female nonathlete/participant-in-other-activities. For both males and females, reported participation in leisure time sports decreased between middle school and high school, and this reduction was associated with higher body mass index. PMID:27335953

  3. Moderating effect of the environment in the relationship between mobility and school participation in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Sheyla R. C.; Sampaio, Rosana F.; Kirkwood, Renata N.; Vaz, Daniela V.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The literature demonstrates that the social participation of children with disabilities is influenced by both their functional skills repertoire and environmental factors. However, it is not yet known whether the effect of functional limitations on social participation is minimized or enhanced by the environmental facilitators and barriers. This study aimed to test this hypothesis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the moderating effect of environmental factors in the relationship between mobility and school participation of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: Participants were 102 elementary school children and adolescents with CP, aged 6 to 17 years, classified as levels I, II, and III according to the Gross Motor Classification System, along with their parents or caregivers and teachers. School participation and parents' perceptions of barriers were evaluated using the School Function Assessment and the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF), respectively. RESULTS: The regression model failed to reveal a moderating effect of environmental factors in the relationship between mobility and school participation. While mobility was a strong predictor of participation, environmental factors demonstrated a weak predictive effect on the latter. The CHIEF subscale school/work showed the factors which were greatest barrier to children's participation, while the subscale attitude/support had the least impact. CONCLUSION: The absence of moderation on the tested relationship suggests that, when investigated under the negative perspective of environmental barriers, the contextual factors do not modify the relationship between mobility and school participation. Factors specific to the school environment might add to the present study's results regarding the effect of school participation in this population. PMID:26443979

  4. Vulnerable Adolescent Participants' Experience in Surveys on Sexuality and Sexual Abuse: Ethical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Backstrom, Martin; Ainsaar, Mare

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to study the discomfort experienced by adolescents when answering questions in a survey about sexuality and sexual abuse and to investigate factors that may determine possible experience of discomfort. The research focused particularly on vulnerable adolescents--sexually abused and sexually inexperienced.…

  5. Participants' Experiences of an Early Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Adolescents with Symptoms of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bru, Lene; Solholm, Roar; Idsoe, Thormod

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been documented to be effective in treating depression in adolescence, but there is great variability in the clinical outcome of CBT trials. This may in part be due to variations in the content of, and emphasis on different CBT components. Moreover, little is known about adolescents' subjective experiences of…

  6. The Role of Family Experiences for Adolescents' Readiness to Use and Participate in Illegal Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatz, Terese; Dahl, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This study used reactance theory as a starting point to explain what role a perceived undemocratic and controlling family has for adolescents' readiness to use illegal political activity. Additionally, we examined whether adolescents' readiness to use illegal political means was related to actual political behaviour, which has been lacking in…

  7. A Comparison of Adolescents' Friendship Networks by Advanced Coursework Participation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Carolyn; Wasson, Jillian Woodford

    2015-01-01

    Friendships serve as a source of support and as a context for developing social competence. Although advanced coursework may provide a unique context for the development of friendships, more research is needed to explore exactly what differences exist. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and…

  8. Predictors of participation in parenting workshops for improving adolescent behavioral and mental health: results from the common sense parenting trial.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Charles B; Mason, W Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P; Thompson, Ronald W; Fernandez, Kate; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Oats, Robert G

    2015-04-01

    Engaging and retaining participants are crucial to achieving adequate implementation of parenting interventions designed to prevent problem behaviors among children and adolescents. This study examined predictors of engagement and retention in a group-based family intervention across two versions of the program: a standard version requiring only parent attendance for six sessions and an adapted version with two additional sessions that required attendance by the son or daughter. Families included a parent and an eighth grader who attended one of five high-poverty schools in an urban Pacific Northwest school district. The adapted version of the intervention had a higher rate of engagement than the standard version, a difference that was statistically significant after adjusting for other variables assessed at enrollment in the study. Higher household income and parent education, younger student age, and poorer affective quality in the parent-child relationship predicted greater likelihood of initial attendance. In the adapted version of the intervention, parents of boys were more likely to engage with the program than those of girls. The variables considered did not strongly predict retention, although retention was higher among parents of boys. Retention did not significantly differ between conditions. Asking for child attendance at workshops may have increased engagement in the intervention, while findings for other predictors of attendance point to the need for added efforts to recruit families who have less socioeconomic resources, as well as families who perceive they have less need for services. PMID:25656381

  9. Predictors of Participation in Parenting Workshops for Improving Adolescent Behavioral and Mental Health: Results from the Common Sense Parenting Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Fernandez, Kate; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Oats, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Engaging and retaining participants are crucial to achieving adequate implementation of parenting interventions designed to prevent problem behaviors among children and adolescents. This study examined predictors of engagement and retention in a group-based family intervention across two versions of the program: a standard version requiring only parent attendance for six sessions and an adapted version with two additional sessions that required attendance by the son or daughter. Families included a parent and an eighth grader who attended one of five high-poverty schools in an urban Pacific Northwest school district. The adapted version of the intervention had a higher rate of engagement than the standard version, a difference that was statistically significant after adjusting for other variables assessed at enrollment in the study. Higher household income and parent education, younger student age, and poorer affective quality in the parent-child relationship predicted greater likelihood of initial attendance. In the adapted version of the intervention, parents of boys were more likely to engage with the program than those of girls. The variables considered did not strongly predict retention, although retention was higher among parents of boys. Retention did not significantly differ between conditions. Asking for child attendance at workshops may have increased engagement in the intervention, while findings for other predictors of attendance point to the need for added efforts to recruit families who have less socioeconomic resources, as well as families who perceive they have less need for services. PMID:25656381

  10. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  11. Too Much of a Good Thing? How Breadth of Extracurricular Participation Relates to School-Related Affect and Academic Outcomes during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Graham, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Although adolescents often participate in multiple extracurricular activities, little research has examined how the breadth of activities in which an adolescent is involved relates to school-related affect and academic performance. Relying on a large, multi-ethnic sample (N = 864; 55.9% female), the current study investigated linear and non-linear…

  12. Adolescent Friend Similarity on Alcohol Abuse as a Function of Participation in Romantic Relationships: Sometimes a New Love Comes between Old Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical…

  13. Non-Participation of Children and Adolescents In Out-of-School Time Programs: Child, Family, and Neighborhood Factors. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Tawana; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Out-of-school time programs can offer a secure and nurturing environment for children and adolescents, reducing the worries about what they are doing during these most vulnerable hours. For example, research suggests that participation in out-of-school time programs and activities can lessen the likelihood that children and adolescents will engage…

  14. Barriers and enablers for participation in healthy lifestyle programs by adolescents who are overweight: a qualitative study of the opinions of adolescents, their parents and community stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight or obesity during adolescence affects almost 25% of Australian youth, yet limited research exists regarding recruitment and engagement of adolescents in weight-management or healthy lifestyle interventions, or best-practice for encouraging long-term healthy behaviour change. A sound understanding of community perceptions, including views from adolescents, parents and community stakeholders, regarding barriers and enablers to entering and engaging meaningfully in an intervention is critical to improve the design of such programs. Methods This paper reports findings from focus groups and semi-structured interviews conducted with adolescents (n?=?44), parents (n?=?12) and community stakeholders (n?=?39) in Western Australia. Three major topics were discussed to inform the design of more feasible and effective interventions: recruitment, retention in the program and maintenance of healthy change. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Data were categorised into barriers and enablers across the three main topics. For recruitment, identified barriers included: the stigma associated with overweight, difficulty defining overweight, a lack of current health services and broader social barriers. The enablers for recruitment included: strategic marketing, a positive approach and subsidising program costs. For retention, identified barriers included: location, timing, high level of commitment needed and social barriers. Enablers for retention included: making it fun and enjoyable for adolescents, involving the family, having an on-line component, recruiting good staff and making it easy for parents to attend. For maintenance, identified barriers included: the high degree of difficulty in sustaining change and limited services to support change. Enablers for maintenance included: on-going follow up, focusing on positive change, utilisation of electronic media and transition back to community services. Conclusions This study

  15. The effects of a prenatal course including PREP for effective family living on self-esteem and parenting attitudes of adolescents: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Emmons, R D; Nystul, M S

    1994-01-01

    Nine adolescent females were enrolled in a prenatal course that included the PREP for Effective Family Living Program (the treatment group). Two comparison groups were utilized in this study; one attended the prenatal group without the PREP program, and the second did not attend either the prenatal course or the PREP program. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Attitude Toward the Freedom of Children Scale (a parental attitude scale) was administered to all participants. No significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of self-concept. A significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of parental attitudes, with the treatment group scoring higher on democratic parenting attitudes than did the two comparison groups. PMID:7892802

  16. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success. PMID:26681427

  17. Association between regular participation in sports and leisure time behaviors in Brazilian adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Júnior, Ismael Forte Freitas; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Vaz Ronque, Enio Ricardo; Loch, Mathias Roberto; de Oliveira, Arli Ramos

    2008-01-01

    Background The belief that adolescents engaged in sports increase their overall physical activity level while simultaneously decreasing physical inactivity has been the foundation of many intervention programs in developing countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between regular participation in sports and both active behaviors and TV viewing during leisure time. Methods A total of 1752 Brazilian adolescents (812 = male and 940 = female) participated in this study. Regular participation in sports, as well as active behaviors (exemplified by walking or cycling) and TV viewing during leisure time were assessed by means of a questionnaire. The chi-square test analyzed the association between sports practice and leisure time behaviors, and the Poisson regression with robust variance indicated the magnitude of these associations. Results The prevalence of regular participation in sports was 14.8% (95% confidence interval 13.2% to 16.5%). After adjustment for all confounders, participation in sports was associated with, at the highest frequency, cycling (PR = 2.55 [1.80–3.60]) and walking (PR = 2.69 [1.98–3.64]) during leisure time. However, there was not an association between the participation in sports and frequency of TV viewing (PR = 1.28 [0.81–2.02]). Conclusion This study presented data indicating that the regular participation in sports is positively associated with a higher frequency of physically active behaviors during leisure time. However, the results did not support the hypothesis that the engagement in sports necessarily decreases leisure time spent in TV viewing. PMID:18811976

  18. Cardiovascular screening in adolescents and young adults: a prospective study comparing the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition and ECG

    PubMed Central

    Fudge, Jessie; Harmon, Kimberly G; Owens, David S; Prutkin, Jordan M; Salerno, Jack C; Asif, Irfan M; Haruta, Alison; Pelto, Hank; Rao, Ashwin L; Toresdahl, Brett G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the accuracy of cardiovascular screening in active adolescents and young adults using a standardised history, physical examination and resting 12-lead ECG. Methods Participants were prospectively screened using a standardised questionnaire based on the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition (PPE-4), physical examination and ECG interpreted using modern standards. Participants with abnormal findings had focused echocardiography and further evaluation. Primary outcomes included disorders associated with sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Results From September 2010 to July 2011, 1339 participants underwent screening: age 13–24 (mean 16) years, 49% male, 68% Caucasian, 17% African-American and 1071 (80%) participating in organised sports. Abnormal history responses were reported on 916 (68%) questionnaires. After physician review, 495/ 916 (54%) participants with positive questionnaires were thought to have non-cardiac symptoms and/or a benign family history and did not warrant additional evaluation. Physical examination was abnormal in 124 (9.3%) participants, and 72 (5.4%) had ECG abnormalities. Echocardiograms were performed in 586 (44%) participants for abnormal history (31%), physical examination (8%) or ECG (5%). Five participants (0.4%) were identified with a disorder associated with SCA, all with ECG-detected Wolff-Parkinson-White. The false-positive rates for history, physical examination and ECG were 31.3%, 9.3% and 5%, respectively. Conclusions A standardised history and physical examination using the PPE-4 yields a high false-positive rate in a young active population with limited sensitivity to identify those at risk for SCA. ECG screening has a low false-positive rate using modern interpretation standards and improves detection of primary electrical disease at risk of SCA. PMID:24948082

  19. Trends from 2002 to 2010 in Daily Breakfast Consumption and its Socio-Demographic Correlates in Adolescents across 31 Countries Participating in the HBSC Study

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Niclasen, Birgit; Pammolli, Andrea; Vereecken, Carine; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Kelly, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and children and adolescents can benefit from breakfast consumption in several ways. The purpose of the present study was to describe trends in daily breakfast consumption (DBC) among adolescents across 31 countries participating in the HBSC survey between 2002 to 2010 and to identify socio-demographic (gender, family affluence and family structure) correlates of DBC. Cross-sectional surveys including nationally representative samples of 11–15 year olds (n = 455,391). Multilevel logistic regression analyses modeled DBC over time after adjusting for family affluence, family structure and year of survey. In all countries, children in two-parent families were more likely to report DBC compared to single parent families. In most countries (n = 19), DBC was associated with family affluence. Six countries showed an increase in DBC (Canada, Netherland, Macedonia, Scotland, Wales, England) from 2002. A significant decrease in DBC from 2002 was found in 11 countries (Belgium Fr, France, Germany, Croatia, Spain, Poland, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Norway), while in 5 countries (Portugal, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden) no significant changes were seen. Frequency of DBC among adolescents in European countries and North America showed a more uniform pattern in 2010 as compared to patterns in 2002. DBC increased significantly in only six out of 19 countries from 2002 to 2010. There is need for continued education and campaigns to motivate adolescents to consume DBC. Comparing patterns across HBSC countries can make an important contribution to understanding regional /global trends and to monitoring strategies and development of health promotion programs. PMID:27027743

  20. Trends from 2002 to 2010 in Daily Breakfast Consumption and its Socio-Demographic Correlates in Adolescents across 31 Countries Participating in the HBSC Study.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Niclasen, Birgit; Pammolli, Andrea; Vereecken, Carine; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Kelly, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and children and adolescents can benefit from breakfast consumption in several ways. The purpose of the present study was to describe trends in daily breakfast consumption (DBC) among adolescents across 31 countries participating in the HBSC survey between 2002 to 2010 and to identify socio-demographic (gender, family affluence and family structure) correlates of DBC. Cross-sectional surveys including nationally representative samples of 11-15 year olds (n = 455,391). Multilevel logistic regression analyses modeled DBC over time after adjusting for family affluence, family structure and year of survey. In all countries, children in two-parent families were more likely to report DBC compared to single parent families. In most countries (n = 19), DBC was associated with family affluence. Six countries showed an increase in DBC (Canada, Netherland, Macedonia, Scotland, Wales, England) from 2002. A significant decrease in DBC from 2002 was found in 11 countries (Belgium Fr, France, Germany, Croatia, Spain, Poland, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Norway), while in 5 countries (Portugal, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden) no significant changes were seen. Frequency of DBC among adolescents in European countries and North America showed a more uniform pattern in 2010 as compared to patterns in 2002. DBC increased significantly in only six out of 19 countries from 2002 to 2010. There is need for continued education and campaigns to motivate adolescents to consume DBC. Comparing patterns across HBSC countries can make an important contribution to understanding regional /global trends and to monitoring strategies and development of health promotion programs. PMID:27027743

  1. Psyllium Supplementation in Adolescents Improves Fat Distribution & Lipid Profile: A Randomized, Participant-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Bock, Martin; Derraik, José G. B.; Brennan, Christine M.; Biggs, Janene B.; Smith, Greg C.; Cameron-Smith, David; Wall, Clare R.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2012-01-01

    Aims We aimed to assess the effects of psyllium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk adolescent population. Methods This study encompassed a participant-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Subjects were 47 healthy adolescent males aged 15–16 years, recruited from secondary schools in lower socio-economic areas with high rates of obesity. Participants received 6 g/day of psyllium or placebo for 6 weeks, with a two-week washout before crossing over. Fasting lipid profiles, ambulatory blood pressure, auxological data, body composition, activity levels, and three-day food records were collected at baseline and after each 6-week intervention. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Matsuda method using glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test. Results 45 subjects completed the study, and compliance was very high: 87% of participants took >80% of prescribed capsules. At baseline, 44% of subjects were overweight or obese. 28% had decreased insulin sensitivity, but none had impaired glucose tolerance. Fibre supplementation led to a 4% reduction in android fat to gynoid fat ratio (p = 0.019), as well as a 0.12 mmol/l (6%) reduction in LDL cholesterol (p = 0.042). No associated adverse events were recorded. Conclusions Dietary supplementation with 6 g/day of psyllium over 6 weeks improves fat distribution and lipid profile (parameters of the metabolic syndrome) in an at risk population of adolescent males. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000888268 PMID:22848584

  2. The Role of Economic Factors, Including the Level of Tuition, in Individual University Participation Decisions in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David R.; Rahman, Fiona T.

    2005-01-01

    The study uses individual data from the Canadian Labour Force Survey to consider economic factors in university participation decisions by persons aged 17-24 from 1976 to 2003. The level of real tuition is one economic factor that may affect the university participation decision. There is also regional variation in the opportunity cost of…

  3. "But at school … I became a bit shy": Korean immigrant adolescents' discursive participation in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Minjung

    2013-09-01

    In reform-based science curricula, students' discursive participation is highly encouraged as a means of science learning as well as a goal of science education. However, Asian immigrant students are perceived to be quiet and passive in classroom discursive situations, and this reticence implies that they may face challenges in discourse-rich science classroom learning environments. Given this potentially conflicting situation, the present study aims to understand how and why Asian immigrant students participate in science classroom discourse. Findings from interviews with seven Korean immigrant adolescents illustrate that they are indeed hesitant to speak up in classrooms. Drawing upon cultural historical perspectives on identity and agency, this study shows how immigrant experiences shaped the participants' othered identity and influenced their science classroom participation, as well as how they negotiated their identities and situations to participate in science classroom and peer communities. I will discuss implications of this study for science education research and science teacher education to support classroom participation of immigrant students.

  4. Health, Functioning, and Participation of Adolescents and Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Review of Outcomes Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Dana; Msall, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    With medical advances, more individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) syndromes who reside in developed countries are surviving to adolescence and adulthood. However, there continues to be a paucity of research examining long-term health, functional activities, and participatory outcomes over their life-course. This article reviews the current…

  5. When Physical Activity Participation Promotes Inactivity: Negative Experiences of Spanish Adolescents in Physical Education and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Brown, David H. K.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses negative experiences in physical education and sport reported during qualitative interviews of a group of inactive adolescent Spanish boys and girls. The purpose of this analysis is twofold. First and most important, it seeks to give voice to these young people reporting negative experiences and connect them to contexts of…

  6. Participation Patterns of Korean Adolescents in School-Based Career Exploration Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Hill, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Variations in the school-based career exploration activities of Korean high school students were examined. Data represented 5,227 Korean adolescents in Grade 11 contained in the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005, a nationally representative longitudinal database administered by the Korean Educational Development Institute. Latent class…

  7. The Differential Impact of Clerk Interest and Participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clerkship Rotation upon Psychiatry and Pediatrics Residency Matches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Szatmari, Peter; Eva, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the differential impact of clerk interest and participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) clerkship rotation upon psychiatry and pediatrics residency matches. Method: Authors studied clerks from the McMaster University M.D. program graduating years of 2005-2007. Participants were categorized as 1)…

  8. Attitude to Physical Education and Participation in Organized Youth Sports during Adolescence Related to Physical Activity in Young Adulthood: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjonniksen, Lise; Fjortoft, Ingunn; Wold, Bente

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between participation in organized youth sport and attitude to physical education (PE) during adolescence and physical activity in young adulthood. The sample comprised 630 participants who completed questionnaires over a 10-year period. Analysis of variance and regression were used to examine the relationship…

  9. Peer Relations among Adolescents with Female Same-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainright, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics …

  10. Assessing Youth Participation in AA-Related Helping: Validity of the Service to Others in Sobriety (SOS) Questionnaire in an Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Kelly, John F.; Scur, Michael D.; Ionescu, Rebecca A.; Stout, Robert L.; Post, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The positive outcomes derived from participation in Alcoholics Anonymous-related helping (AAH) found among adults has spurred study of AAH among minors with addiction. AAH includes acts of good citizenship in AA, formal service positions, public outreach, and transmitting personal experience to another fellow sufferer. Addiction research with adolescents is hindered by few validated assessments of 12-step activity among minors. This study provides psychometric findings of the “Service to Others in Sobriety (SOS)” questionnaire as completed by youths. Methods Multi-informant data was collected prospectively from youth self-reports, clinician-rated assessments, biomarkers, and medical chart records for youths (N = 195) after residential treatment. Results Few youths (7%) did not participate in any AAH during treatment. Results indicated the SOS as a unidimensional scale with adequate psychometric properties, including inter-informant reliability (r = .5), internal consistency (alpha = .90), and convergent validity (rs = −.3 to .3). Programmatic AAH activities distinguished abstinent youths in a random half-sample, and replicated on the other half-sample. The SOS cut-point of 40 indicated high AAH participation. Conclusions and Significance The SOS appears to be a valid measure of AAH, suggesting clinical utility for enhancing treatment and identifying service opportunities salient to sobriety. PMID:23398228

  11. Evaluation of participants with suspected heritable platelet function disorders including recommendation and validation of a streamlined agonist panel

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Gillian C.; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Bem, Danai; Daly, Martina E.; Makris, Mike; Mumford, Andrew; Wilde, Jonathan T.; Watson, Steve P.

    2012-01-01

    Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) is used worldwide for the investigation of heritable platelet function disorders (PFDs), but interpretation of results is complicated by the feedback effects of ADP and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) and by the overlap with the response of healthy volunteers. Over 5 years, we have performed lumi-aggregometry on 9 platelet agonists in 111 unrelated research participants with suspected PFDs and in 70 healthy volunteers. Abnormal LTA or ATP secretion test results were identified in 58% of participants. In 84% of these, the patterns of response were consistent with defects in Gi receptor signaling, the TxA2 pathway, and dense granule secretion. Participants with defects in signaling to Gq-coupled receptor agonists and to collagen were also identified. Targeted genotyping identified 3 participants with function-disrupting mutations in the P2Y12 ADP and TxA2 receptors. The results of the present study illustrate that detailed phenotypic analysis using LTA and ATP secretion is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of PFDs. Our data also enable subdivision at the level of platelet-signaling pathways and in some cases to individual receptors. We further demonstrate that most PFDs can be reliably diagnosed using a streamlined panel of key platelet agonists and specified concentrations suitable for testing in most clinical diagnostic laboratories. PMID:23002116

  12. Sports Participation and Academic Performance: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to…

  13. Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: Are They Allowed to Participate in Activities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plata, Maximino; Trusty, Jerry; Glasgow, Danny

    2005-01-01

    Fifty-one Anglo American (28 educationally successful, 23 educationally at risk) and 20 African American (10 educationally successful, 10 educationally at risk) high school boys participated in a study to determine their willingness to allow same-sex peers with learning disabilities (LD) participate in a variety of activities. Kruskal-Wallis…

  14. African American Adolescent Female Identification with Engineering and Participation in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornick, Shayla L.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences that females have during middle and high school have been found to influence the perceptions that they have of their ability to be successful as an engineer and the value that they place on participating in engineering education. Engineering education continues to suffer from a lack of female participation. Several efforts have been…

  15. The Promotion of Children's and Adolescents' Social Participation in Italy and Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Elisa; Baraldi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical framework, methodology and the main results of a comparative research on the promotion of children's social participation in Italy and Scotland, which was based on politicians', managers' and practitioners' representations. Promotion of participation here is considered a form of social intervention in which…

  16. Alterations in left ventricular, left atrial, and right ventricular structure and function to cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents with type 2 diabetes participating in the TODAY clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Levitt Katz, Lorraine; Gidding, Samuel S; Bacha, Fida; Hirst, Kathryn; McKay, Siripoom; Pyle, Laura; Lima, Joao A C

    2015-02-01

    Data on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are limited. Echocardiography was performed in the last year of the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial (median 4½ yr from diagnosis of T2D, average age 18 yr), including MMode and 2D measurements of left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) dimensions, LV tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). Relationships between cardiac structure and function with demographic characteristics and baseline and change-from-baseline in CVD risk factors were examined in 455 participants. Mean LV mass (LVM) was high/normal and 16.2% had adverse LV geometry (8.1% concentric geometry, 4.5% LV hypertrophy, and 3.6% both). Determinants of higher LVM were male gender, black race, baseline and increasing body mass index (BMI), baseline and increasing systolic blood pressure (SBP), use of blood pressure (BP) medications, maintenance of glycemic control, and smoking; heart rate (HR) was inversely related. LV shortening fraction was high/normal and related to increasing BMI and higher baseline SBP. LV relative wall thickness was related to race-ethnicity, change in BMI, baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and baseline and change in SBP. Mean LA internal dimension was high/normal and gender, baseline and increasing BMI, increasing SBP, and HR (inverse) were related. LV TDI was positively related to obesity (higher with adverse geometry). TAPSE was normal and related to higher baseline BMI and lower HR. There was no effect of T2D treatment on cardiac target organ injury. Adolescents with T2D have adverse measures of cardiac structure and function positively related to BMI and BP. PMID:24450390

  17. Clinical Assessment of Adolescents Involved in Satanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Cynthia M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes Satanism as destructive religion that promises power, dominance, and gratification and that may seduce adolescents who feel alienated, alone, angry, and desperate. Explores psychosocial needs of adolescents that are met by participation in Satanic worship. Includes method for determining adolescents' level of involvement and assessment…

  18. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis, themes from the 12 focus groups were found to be consistent across village, gender, and age groups. Program location or site (e.g., away from the village, hunting, fishing), a group-based format, and inclusion of medication and personal stories were reported to be important attributes of cessation programs. Motivators to quit tobacco were the perceived adverse health effects of tobacco, improved self-image and appearance, and the potential to be a future role model as a non–tobacco user for family and friends. Parents were perceived as potentially supportive to the adolescent in quitting tobacco. The findings will be used to develop tobacco cessation programs for Alaska Native youth. PMID:18048549

  19. Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Froberg, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12–14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer. Results Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance. Conclusions Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the

  20. Participation in organized sport and self-esteem across adolescence: the mediating role of perceived sport competence.

    PubMed

    Wagnsson, Stefan; Lindwall, Magnus; Gustafsson, Henrik

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to test longitudinal (2 years across three occasions) associations between sport participation (SP) and self-esteem (SE) across adolescence (10-18 years), addressing the mediating role of perceived sport competence (PSC) from a developmental perspective. Three waves of data were collected from three age cohorts (10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 years) of school-aged youth (N = 1358). The results demonstrate that SP and SE are related across time and that PSC has an important mediating role in this relationship, both from a skill development and a self-enhancement perspective. In the skill development model, the mediating role of PSC was significantly stronger in the youngest cohort whereas the effect of PSC on subsequent SP in the self-enhancement model was significantly stronger in the 13-15 age group compared with the youngest age group. PMID:25602141

  1. Adolescent friend similarity on alcohol abuse as a function of participation in romantic relationships: Sometimes a new love comes between old friends.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595356

  2. Too much of a good thing? How breadth of extracurricular participation relates to school-related affect and academic outcomes during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Knifsend, Casey A; Graham, Sandra

    2012-03-01

    Although adolescents often participate in multiple extracurricular activities, little research has examined how the breadth of activities in which an adolescent is involved relates to school-related affect and academic performance. Relying on a large, multi-ethnic sample (N = 864; 55.9% female), the current study investigated linear and non-linear relationships of 11th grade activity participation in four activity domains (academic/leadership groups, arts activities, clubs, and sports) to adolescents' sense of belonging at school, academic engagement, and grade point average, contemporarily and in 12th grade. Results of multiple regression models revealed curvilinear relationships for sense of belonging at school in 11th and 12th grade, grade point average in 11th grade, and academic engagement in 12th grade. Adolescents who were moderately involved (i.e., in two domains) reported a greater sense of belonging at school in 11th and 12th grade, a higher grade point average in 11th grade, and greater academic engagement in 12th grade, relative to those who were more or less involved. Furthermore, adolescents' sense of belonging at school in 11th grade mediated the relationship of domain participation in 11th grade to academic engagement in 12th grade. This study suggests that involvement in a moderate number of activity domains promotes positive school-related affect and greater academic performance. School policy implications and recommendations are discussed. PMID:22160442

  3. The effects of dance team participation on female adolescent physical fitness and self-concept.

    PubMed

    Blackman, L; Hunter, G; Hilyer, J; Harrison, P

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent female physical fitness and self-concept are affected by dance team participation in high school. Eight dancers were tested once prior to and once four months after dance team participation. Eight participants from physical education classes, matched for age, weight, height, grade, and race, were tested once at the same time as the second dance team test. Physiological tests were maximum oxygen uptake, sit-and-reach, one-repetition maximum bench press, skinfolds, and hydrostatic weighing. The self-concept tests were Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and Body Cathexis Scale. Dependent one-tailed t tests were run to determine differences between dance team pre- and posttests and control and dance team posttests. Dance subjects increased maximum oxygen uptake and one-repetition maximum bench press in addition to improving their body composition as evidenced by a significant decrease in total skinfolds and a near significant decrease in percent body fat. The dance team had a significantly higher maximum oxygen uptake than did controls. No other significant differences were seen between groups. Dance team participants significantly improved physical self and social self on the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. No other significant differences were seen. A factor that may have affected the self-concept results in this study was low dance team status, due to a combination of unsuccessful previous dance teams and a losing football season. Within the limitations of this study, these results indicate that physical fitness is improved as a result of dance team participation; however, self-concept seems to be affected only minimally, if at all, as compared with participation in physical education classes. PMID:3407504

  4. Measuring Choice to Participate in Optional Science Learning Experiences during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Li; Schunn, Christian; Bathgate, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Cumulatively, participation in optional science learning experiences in school, after school, at home, and in the community may have a large impact on student interest in and knowledge of science. Therefore, interventions can have large long-term effects if they change student choice preferences for such optional science learning experiences. To…

  5. 32 CFR 37.915 - What requirement for access to a for-profit participant's records do I include in a TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provision of an expenditure-based TIA gives an IPA access to the recipient's financial records for audit... include a provision requiring direct Government access to the recipient's financial records. For both... auditors, your TIA must include for that participant the standard access-to-records requirements at 32...

  6. 32 CFR 37.915 - What requirement for access to a for-profit participant's records do I include in a TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provision of an expenditure-based TIA gives an IPA access to the recipient's financial records for audit... include a provision requiring direct Government access to the recipient's financial records. For both... auditors, your TIA must include for that participant the standard access-to-records requirements at 32...

  7. 32 CFR 37.915 - What requirement for access to a for-profit participant's records do I include in a TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provision of an expenditure-based TIA gives an IPA access to the recipient's financial records for audit... include a provision requiring direct Government access to the recipient's financial records. For both... auditors, your TIA must include for that participant the standard access-to-records requirements at 32...

  8. 32 CFR 37.915 - What requirement for access to a for-profit participant's records do I include in a TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provision of an expenditure-based TIA gives an IPA access to the recipient's financial records for audit... include a provision requiring direct Government access to the recipient's financial records. For both... auditors, your TIA must include for that participant the standard access-to-records requirements at 32...

  9. 32 CFR 37.915 - What requirement for access to a for-profit participant's records do I include in a TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provision of an expenditure-based TIA gives an IPA access to the recipient's financial records for audit... include a provision requiring direct Government access to the recipient's financial records. For both... auditors, your TIA must include for that participant the standard access-to-records requirements at 32...

  10. Friendships with Co-Participants in Organized Activities: Prevalence, Quality, Friends' Characteristics, and Associations with Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin, Francois; Denault, Anne-Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth examination of friendships within organized activities. The prevalence of friendships with co-participants, their quality and characteristics, and their associations with adjustment were investigated. A sample of 281 (60% girls) 8th grade adolescents reported their friendships, activities, and…

  11. Breadth of Extracurricular Participation and Adolescent Adjustment Among African-American and European-American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the linear and nonlinear relations between breadth of extracurricular participation in 11th grade and developmental outcomes at 11th grade and 1 year after high school in an economically diverse sample of African-American and European-American youth. In general, controlling for demographic factors, children's motivation, and the dependent variable measured 3 years earlier, breadth was positively associated with indicators of academic adjustment at 11th grade and at 1 year after high school. In addition, for the three academic outcomes (i.e., grades, educational expectations, and educational status) the nonlinear function was significant; at high levels of involvement the well-being of youth leveled off or declined slightly. In addition, breadth of participation at 11th grade predicted lower internalizing behavior, externalizing behavior, alcohol use, and marijuana use at 11th grade. Finally, the total number of extracurricular activities at 11th grade was associated with civic engagement 2 years later. PMID:22837637

  12. Concordance Between Self-Report and Urine Drug Screen Data in Adolescent Opioid Dependent Clinical Trial Participants

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Nakazawa, Masato; Woody, George

    2013-01-01

    Objective measures of drug use are very important in treatment outcome studies of persons with substance use disorders, but obtaining and interpreting them can be challenging and not always practical. Thus, it is important to determine if, and when, drug-use self-reports are valid. To this end we explored the relationships between urine drug screen results and self-reported substance use among adolescents and young adults with opioid dependence participating in a clinical trial of buprenorphine-naloxone. In this study, 152 individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to a 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone (DETOX) or 12 weeks buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP), each with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Urine drug screens and self-reported frequency of drug use were obtained weekly, and patients were paid $5 for completing weekly assessments. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, more extensive assessments were done, and participants were reimbursed $75. Self-report data were dichotomized (positive vs. negative), and for each major drug class we computed the kappa statistic and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of self-report using urine drug screens as the “gold standard”. Generalized linear mixed models were used to explore the effect of treatment group assignment, compensation amounts, and participant characteristics on self-report. In general, findings supported the validity of self-reported drug use. However, those in the BUP group were more likely to under-report cocaine and opioid use. Therefore, if used alone, self-report would have magnified the treatment effect of the BUP condition. PMID:23811060

  13. Concordance between self-report and urine drug screen data in adolescent opioid dependent clinical trial participants.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Nakazawa, Masato; Woody, George

    2013-10-01

    Objective measures of drug use are very important in treatment outcome studies of persons with substance use disorders, but obtaining and interpreting them can be challenging and not always practical. Thus, it is important to determine if, and when, drug-use self-reports are valid. To this end we explored the relationships between urine drug screen results and self-reported substance use among adolescents and young adults with opioid dependence participating in a clinical trial of buprenorphine-naloxone. In this study, 152 individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to a 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone (DETOX) or 12weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP), each with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Urine drug screens and self-reported frequency of drug use were obtained weekly, and patients were paid $5 for completing weekly assessments. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, more extensive assessments were done, and participants were reimbursed $75. Self-report data were dichotomized (positive vs. negative), and for each major drug class we computed the kappa statistic and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of self-report using urine drug screens as the "gold standard". Generalized linear mixed models were used to explore the effect of treatment group assignment, compensation amounts, and participant characteristics on self-report. In general, findings supported the validity of self-reported drug use. However, those in the BUP group were more likely to under-report cocaine and opioid use. Therefore, if used alone, self-report would have magnified the treatment effect of the BUP condition. PMID:23811060

  14. [Media use and physical activity patterns of adolescent participants in obesity therapy: Analysis of the impact of selected sociodemographic factors].

    PubMed

    Wulff, Hagen; Wagner, Petra

    2016-02-01

    To meet the challenge of obesity, effective therapeutic concepts for adolescents focusing on lifestyle changes are necessary. Particularly relevant are nutrition and physical activity patterns associated with media use, which can be influenced by sociodemographic factors. For the optimization of obesity therapy approaches, it is essential to analyze these sociodemographic factors to adjust the aims, content, and methods of interventions, and to use the potential of media in treatment concepts. Thus, the research question is: what are the media and physical activity patterns of 11- to 17-year-old participants in obesity therapy, depending on sociodemographic factors? The national multicenter study was conducted from 2012 to 2013. A questionnaire was administered to 564 participants aged 13.4 ± 1.6 (mean ± standard deviation) years. Standardized instruments were used to assess the variables physical activity, media use, and sociodemographic factors. Participants were physically active for 1 h on 3.3 ± 1.8 days per week, 8.5 % daily. Televisions, mobile phones, and computers were available in all sociodemographic groups and were used for 2 h per day. Sociodemographic differences can be seen in the extent of media usage (h/day). These differences can be found between girls and boys concerning their usage of mobile phones (2.49 vs. 1.90; p  < 0.001), between 11- to 13- and 14- to 17-year-old children concerning their usage of game consoles (0.55 vs. 1.65; p  = 0.007), and in the correlation analysis of media usage and physical activity. Compared with existing literature, the survey results reveal reduced activity and increased media use, which vary among the groups. Thus, differentiated therapy approaches appear to be reasonable. Future research needs to evaluate to what extent media, despite the risks, can contribute to the methodological support of therapy, training, and aftercare concepts. PMID:26689417

  15. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

  16. How adolescents come to see themselves as more responsible through participation in youth programs.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dustin; Larson, Reed W; Brown, Jane R

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study was aimed at developing theory about the process underlying the development of responsibility grounded in accounts of youth who reported experiencing this change. A total of 108 high-school-aged (M = 16.5) youth from 11 programs were interviewed about their experiences within the program, and 24 reported becoming more responsible through their participation. The youth's accounts suggested that this process was driven largely by successfully fulfilling program expectations. This process was driven by youth's adherence to their commitments and their consideration of the consequences of their actions on others. Youth mentioned changes in responsibility most frequently in three programs, which appeared to differ from the remaining programs in having more structure and placing greater ownership and accountability on youth. PMID:19236407

  17. Comparison of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors between Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Without

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Stephanie M.; Jakicic, John M.; Barone Gibbs, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were…

  18. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 37 - What Provisions May a Participant Need To Include When Purchasing Goods or Services Under a TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adoption at 2 CFR part 1125 of the OMB guidance implementing E.O.s 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189) and... Include When Purchasing Goods or Services Under a TIA? E Appendix E to Part 37 National Defense Department... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pt. 37, App. E Appendix E to Part 37—What Provisions May a Participant Need To...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 37 - What Provisions May a Participant Need To Include When Purchasing Goods or Services Under a TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What Provisions May a Participant Need To Include When Purchasing Goods or Services Under a TIA? E Appendix E to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pt. 37, App. E Appendix E to...

  20. Widening the Aim of Health Promotion to Include the Most Disadvantaged: Vulnerable Adolescents and the Social Determinants of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health…

  1. Developing Programmes to Promote Participation in Sport among Adolescents with Disabilities: Perceptions Expressed by a Group of South African Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantjes, Jason; Swartz, Leslie; Conchar, Lauren; Derman, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with disabilities in developing countries frequently have limited access to sporting opportunities and comparatively little is known of their lived experiences and preferences. We set out to understand what a group of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) living in South Africa perceive to be important components of programmes developed…

  2. Texting your way to healthier eating? Effects of participating in a feedback intervention using text messaging on adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of a feedback intervention employing text messaging during 11 weeks on adolescents' behavior, self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding fruit and vegetable intake. A pre- and post-survey was completed by 1488 adolescents school-wise randomly allocated to a control group and two experimental groups. Both experimental groups set weekly goals on fruit and vegetable intake, reported their consumption daily and subsequently received feedback on their performance via mobile text messaging (Short Message Service [SMS]). The second experimental group also received, in addition, a 45-min nutrition education session from a dietitian during school. The direct effects of the interventions were not significant. However, for adolescents participating in the SMS routines, there were significant effects of the level of engagement in the intervention, reflected in the number of sent text messages, on intervention outcomes. Participants sending more than half of the possible text messages significantly increased their fruit and vegetable intake. Participants sending between 10% and 50% of the possible text messages experienced a significant drop in self-efficacy and those sending less than 10% experienced a significant drop in outcome expectations. The findings suggest that participants' active engagement in an intervention is crucial to its success. Implications for health-promoting interventions are discussed. PMID:26850061

  3. Role Models of Australian Female Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study to Inform Programmes Designed to Increase Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…

  4. Testing Direct and Indirect Effects of Sports Participation on Perceived Health in Spanish Adolescents between 15 and 18 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastor, Yolanda; Balaguer, Isabel; Pons, Diana; Garcia-Merita, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the direct and indirect effects of sports participation on perceived health. It is based on a representative sample of middle adolescents aged 15-18 (N=1038, M AGE=16.31, S. D.=0.92; 510 boys and 528 girls) from the Valencian Community (Spain). This study used two different models; Model A is an adaptation of Thorlindsson,…

  5. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and abuse history on adolescent African-American females' condom use behavior following participation in an HIV prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Brody, Gene H; Philibert, Robert A; Rose, Eve

    2014-06-01

    Not everyone exposed to an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intervention will reduce sexual risk behaviors, yet little is known about factors associated with "failure to change" high-risk sexual behaviors post-intervention. History of abuse and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) may be associated with non-change. The current study sought to identify genetic, life history, and psychosocial factors associated with adolescents' failure to change condom use behaviors post-participation in an HIV prevention intervention. A sub-set of participants from a clinic-based sample of adolescent African-American females (N = 254) enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention was utilized for the current study. Forty-four percent did not increase their condom use from baseline levels 6 months after participating in the sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention intervention. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, an interaction between abuse and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with non-change status, along with partner communication frequency scores at follow-up. Follow-up tests found that having a history of abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention for only those with the s allele. For those with ll allele, participants with higher partner communication frequency scores were at decreased odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention. Thus, STI/HIV interventions for adolescent females may consider providing a more in-depth discussion and instruction on how to manage and overcome fear or anxiety related to being assertive in sexual decisions or sexual situations. Doing so may improve the efficacy of STI/HIV prevention programs for adolescent women who have experienced abuse in their lifetime. PMID:23479192

  6. Spoken Persuasive Discourse Abilities of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Catherine; Kirk, Cecilia; Powell, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the performance of adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) during a spoken persuasive discourse task. Persuasive discourse is frequently used in social and academic settings and is of importance in the study of adolescent language. Method: Participants included 8 adolescents with ABI and 8 peers…

  7. South African Adolescents: Pathways to Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, David W.; Morojele, Neo K.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.

    2006-01-01

    This study tested a developmental model of pathways to risky sexual behavior among South African adolescents. Participants comprised 633 adolescents, 12-17 years old, recruited from households in Durban, South Africa. Data were collected using in-person interviews. Topics included adolescents' sexual behaviors, household poverty levels, vulnerable…

  8. Who's the Boss? Patterns of Perceived Control in Adolescents' Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Helms, Heather M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Sales, Lara H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of different patterns of perceived control in adolescents' relationships with their best friends. Participants included firstborn adolescents (M = 14.94 years), their younger siblings (M = 12.44 years) and both their mothers and fathers in 163 families as well as a best friend of each adolescent (M =…

  9. Brief Report: Coping among Austrian Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated age and gender effects on coping with common stressors among 494 Austrian children and adolescents (age 8-14 years). Participants were subdivided into subgroups of late children comprising third and fourth graders, early adolescents consisting of fifth and sixth graders, and middle adolescents including seventh graders.…

  10. Reliability and construct validity of the Participation in Life Activities Scale for children and adolescents with asthma: an instrument evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Kintner, Eileen K; Sikorskii, Alla

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and construct validity of the Participation in Life Activities Scale, an instrument designed to measure older school-age child and early adolescent level of involvement in chosen pursuits. Methods A cross-sectional design was used. The convenience sample consisted of 313 school-age children and early adolescents with asthma, ages 9–15 years. The self-report summative scale of interest is a 3-indicator survey. Higher scores are reflective of higher levels of participation. Internal consistency reliability and construct validity for the entire sample and sub groups of the sample were evaluated. Results The instrument was deemed sound for the entire sample as well as sub groups based on sex, race, age, socioeconomic status, and severity of illness. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency reliability for the entire sample was .74. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a single component solution (loadings .79–.85) accounting for 66% of the explained variance. Construct validity was established by testing the posed relationship between participation in life activities scores and severity of illness. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit between the data and specified model, χ2(10, n = 302) = 8.074, p = .62. Conclusion This instrument could be used (a) in clinical settings to diagnose restricted participation in desired activities, guide decision-making about treatment plans to increase participation, and motivate behavioral change in the management of asthma; and (b) in research settings to explore factors influencing and consequences of restricted and unrestricted participation, and as an outcome measure to evaluate the effectiveness of programs designed to foster child and early adolescent management of asthma. PMID:18533017

  11. Adolescent decision-making about use of inhaled asthma controller medication: Results from focus groups with participants from a prior longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Bender, Bruce G.; Rankin, Allison E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adherence with inhaled controller medications for asthma is known to be highly variable with many patients taking fewer doses than recommended for consistent control of lung inflammation. Adherence also worsens as children become teenagers, although the exact causes are not well established. Objective To use focus group methodology to examine beliefs, feelings, and behaviors about inhaled asthma controller medication in adolescents and young adults who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of asthma treatment adherence and outcome in order to develop more effective management strategies. Methods Twenty-six subjects participated in 6 focus groups comprised of 3-5 young adults (age range 12-20 years). Verbatim transcripts of these groups were analyzed using the long-table method of content analysis to identify key themes raised by participants. Results A variety of beliefs, feelings and behaviors influence the adolescent’s decision about how to use their asthma medication. Some of the adolescents understood the importance of daily medication and were committed to the treatment plan prescribed by their provider. Poorer adherence was the product of misinformation, incorrect assumptions about their asthma, and current life situations. Conclusions These results, by highlighting potential mechanisms underlying both better and worse adherence inform the development of strategies to improve adherence behavior in adolescents and young adults with asthma. Knowledge of the specific beliefs, feelings and behaviors that underlie adolescents’ use of inhaled asthma controller medication will help providers maximize treatment adherence in this notoriously difficult patient population. PMID:21854323

  12. Development and preliminary evaluation of the participation in life activities scale for children and adolescents with asthma: an instrument development study

    PubMed Central

    Kintner, Eileen K

    2008-01-01

    Background Being able to do things other kids do is the desire of school-age children and adolescents with asthma. In a phenomenology study, adolescents identified participation in life activities as the outcome variable and primary motivator for behavioral changes in coming to accept asthma as a chronic condition. In preparation for testing an acceptance model for older school-age children and early adolescents diagnosed with asthma, the Participation in Life Activities Scale was developed. The purposes of this paper are to describe development, and report on face and content validity of the scale designed to measure one aspect of quality of life defined as level of unrestricted involvement in chosen pursuits. Methods Items generated for the instrument evolved from statements and themes extracted from qualitative interviews. Face and content validity were evaluated by eight lay reviewers and 10 expert reviewers. Rate of accurate completion was computed using a convenience, cross-section sample consisting of 313 children and adolescents with asthma, ages 9–15 years, drawn from three studies. Preliminary cross-group comparisons of scores were assessed using t-tests and analysis of variance. Results Face and content validity were determined to be highly acceptable and relevant, respectively. Completion rate across all three studies was 97%. Although cross-group comparisons revealed no significant differences in overall participation scores based on age, race or residence groupings (p > .05), significant difference were indicated between males and females (p = .02), as well as the highest and lowest socioeconomic groups (p = .002). Conclusion Assessing content validity was the first step in evaluating properties of this newly developed instrument. Once face and content validity were established, psychometric evaluation related to internal consistency reliability and construct validity using factor analysis procedures was begun. Results will be reported elsewhere

  13. Adolescent Participation in Preventive Health Behaviors, Physical Activity, and Nutrition: Differences Across Immigrant Generations for Asians and Latinos Compared With Whites

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Michele L.; Elliott, Marc N.; Morales, Leo S.; Diamant, Allison L.; Hambarsoomian, Katrin; Schuster, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated preventive health behaviors (bicycle helmet, seat belt, and sunscreen use), physical activity, television viewing or video game playing, and nutrition (fruit, vegetable, milk, and soda consumption) among Asian and Latino adolescents living in the United States; assessed trends across generations (first-, second-, and third-generation immigrants or later); and compared each generation with White adolescents. Methods. We used data from 5801 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in the representative 2001 California Health Interview Survey. Results. In multivariate analysis, first-generation Asians measured worse than Whites for preventive health behaviors (lower participation), physical activity (less activity), and television viewing or video game playing (more hours), but improved across generations. For these same behaviors, Latinos were similar to or worse than Whites, and generally showed no improvement across generations. First-generation Asians and Latinos had healthier diets than Whites (higher fruit and vegetable consumption, lower soda consumption). With succeeding generations, Asians’ fruit, vegetable, and soda consumption remained stable, but Latinos’ fruit and vegetable consumption decreased and their soda consumption increased, so that by the third generation Latinos’ nutrition was poorer than Whites’. Conclusions. For the health behaviors we examined, Asian adolescents’ health behaviors either improved with each generation or remained better than that of Whites. Latino adolescents demonstrated generally worse preventive health behaviors than did Whites and, in the case of nutrition, a worsening across generations. Targeted interventions may be needed to address behavioral disparities. PMID:17138919

  14. Differences in behavior, psychological factors, and environmental factors associated with participation in school sports and other activities in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Patricia A; Narayan, Gopalakrishnan

    2003-03-01

    This study examined whether participation in school team sports, exclusively or in combination with other extracurricular activities, is associated with higher levels of psychosocial functioning and healthy behavior than participation in other extracurricular activities alone or nonparticipation. The study sample includes 50,168 ninth grade public school students who completed an anonymous, voluntary statewide survey in 2001. Students were classified into four groups based on their participation in sports and other activities (such as clubs, volunteer work, band, choir, or music lessons): neither, both, other activities only, and sports only. Odds ratios for the group involved in both types of activities were significantly higher than those for all the other groups for all healthy behaviors and measures of connectedness, and significantly lower for all but one of the unhealthy behaviors. Students involved in sports, alone or in combination with other activities, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for exercise, milk consumption, and healthy self-image, and significantly lower odds for emotional distress, suicidal behavior, family substance abuse, and physical and sexual abuse victimization. Students involved in other activities, alone or in combination with sports, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for doing homework and significantly lower odds for alcohol consumption, marijuana use, and vandalism. The finding that abuse victims appeared to avoid sports but not other group activities raises concern and merits further research. Considering the potential benefits of participation in sports and other activities, more research is needed to identify and overcome barriers or deterrents, particularly for youth from low-income families. PMID:12677730

  15. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury among adolescents participating in the Djibouti 2007 Global School-based Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mental health and injury are neglected public health issues especially in low-income nations. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury in the last 12 months. Findings The study used data of the 2007 Djibouti Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations. Of the 1, 777 respondents, 61.1% (63.2% males and 57.8% females) reported having sustained serious injury (SSI). Compared to participants who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied 3-9 days per month were more likely to have sustained serious injury in the last 12 months (AOR = 1.27; 95% CI [1.06, 1.52] for 3-5 days of bullying victimization per month, and AOR = 3.19; 95% CI [2.28, 4.47] for 6-9 days per month. Adolescents who were engaged in physical fighting were 47% (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.40, 1.55] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who were not engaged in the fighting. Meanwhile, adolescents who used substances (cigarettes, other forms of tobacco or drugs) were 30% (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.19, 1.42]) more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who did not use substances. Conclusions Serious injury is common among adolescents in Djibouti, and we suggest that health workers attending to injured adolescents explore the patients' psycho-social environment. Further, we suggest longitudinal studies where reduction of substance use and bullying may be assessed if they have an impact in reducing serious injury among adolescents. PMID:21951721

  16. An impetus to move the field forward: a look at child and adolescent mental health services participants' views of the prospects for change.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Katherine Taylor

    2010-03-01

    In September 2009 key stakeholders convened for the invitation-only Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS): Issues and Solutions conference. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the key high points and issues in children's mental health (CMH) and describes the process by which participants collectively brainstormed the priorities and distilled the four key foci for the new action agenda, and summarizes the key outcomes. In addition, this paper offers participants' perspectives on the conference. Based on observation notes and post-conference qualitative interviews, this paper reports conference participants' feedback on the event, their views on the prospects for change generated by the conference and suggestions for follow-up. PMID:20186568

  17. A Multivariate Model of Parent-Adolescent Relationship Variables in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of predicting outcomes for early adolescents, this study examines a multivariate model of parent-adolescent relationship variables, including parenting, family environment, and conflict. Participants, who completed measures assessing these variables, included 710 culturally diverse 11-14-year-olds who were attending a middle…

  18. The adaptation of Chinese adolescents in two societies: a comparison of Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong and Australia.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cynthia; Karnilowicz, Wally

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the adaptation of two groups of migrant Chinese adolescents with their nonmigrant peers. The migrant adolescents included 55 Chinese migrant adolescents who migrated to Australia (Chinese-Australian) and 111 China-born adolescents who migrated to Hong Kong (Chinese-Hong Kong). The nonmigrant adolescents included 157 Anglo-Australian adolescents residing in Australia and 456 Hong Kong-born Chinese adolescents residing in Hong Kong. There were three research questions in this study. First, would there be any differences in the adaptation of Chinese migrant adolescents in different societies of settlement? Second, would migrant adolescents experience more adaptation problems than nonmigrant adolescents? Third, would there be any differences in the adaptation of adolescents in the two societies, Australia and Hong Kong? It was hypothesized that: (1) mainland Chinese migrant adolescents in Hong Kong would experience more adaptation problems than Chinese migrant adolescents in Australia; (2) migrant adolescents would report better adaptation than nonmigrant adolescents; (3) adolescents in Hong Kong would report poorer adaptation than adolescents in Australia. The participants were requested to complete a questionnaire on various adaptation outcome measures including life satisfaction, self-esteem, psychological symptoms, academic satisfaction, and behaviour problems. The results indicated that Chinese-Australian adolescents reported better psychological adaptation but Chinese-Hong Kong adolescents reported better sociocultural adaptation. Adolescents resident in Australia reported higher psychological adaptation but lower sociocultural adaptation than those in Hong Kong. Migrant adolescents reported better psychological and sociocultural adaptation than their nonmigrant counterparts. The results were discussed in relation to the social and educational systems of the two societies. PMID:22029492

  19. Prenatal recruitment of participants for a birth cohort study including cord blood collection: results of a feasibility study in Bremen, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Günther, Kathrin; Frambach, Torsten; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-01-01

    gynecologist or later on in hospital by the attending obstetricians or project staff. Results: Of the 22 invited primary care gynecologists requested to enroll pregnant women for the study, 8 gynecologists actually collaborated. A total of 200 eligible women were invited to participate in the study, 48 (24%) of whom agreed. 34 women were enrolled by primary care gynecologists, with one gynecologist enrolling 26 women. Twelve of 14 women recruited via hospitals were enrolled by study staff. A total of 41 women consented to the collection of umbilical cord blood and maternal blood samples, and samples could be stored for 54% of them. Reason for non-participation were the uncertainty whether or not the full study would be conducted and the fact that the participants were not willing to decide for their children whether or not genetic information (cord blood) can be stored for research purposes. Conclusion: Enrolling parents in a birth cohort study that includes biosampling is a challenge, but participation can be improved through close collaboration with primary care gynecologists and maternity hospitals. Cord blood collection may impede participation, especially when maternity hospitals offer an alternative option for cord blood donation. PMID:25908931

  20. Evaluation of e-mail contact to conduct follow-up among adolescent women participating in a longitudinal cohort study of contraceptive use☆

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Sadia; Dodge, Laura E.; Brown, Beth A.; Hacker, Michele R.; Raine, Tina R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether e-mail contact is a viable method for gathering information from adolescent women about contraceptive use. Study design Adolescent women initiating contraception followed in a prospective longitudinal cohort study and who had access to the Internet were randomized to the control or intervention arm and were contacted at 3, 6 and 12 months after enrollment. The control arm completed follow-up surveys in-person or by telephone. The intervention arm received Web-based surveys via e-mail. Results There were 46 women in each group. Women in both groups were approximately 20 years old, were sexually active minority women, and were in school or employed. While participants in the intervention group initially had lower response rates than those in the control group (59% vs. 91%, respectively), with the addition of traditional follow-up methods, the overall response rates were comparable (94% vs. 91%, respectively). Conclusions E-mail follow-up with Web-based surveys was effective amongst adolescent women at risk for unintended pregnancy. This indicates that e-mail contact could be used as a preliminary follow-up strategy to capture a substantial proportion of participants and that standard follow-up can be used as a second-line approach. A two-pronged approach with initial e-mail contact and traditional follow-up for participants who do not respond may be a viable method when evaluating sensitive areas such as contraceptive use. PMID:23290427

  1. Strategies for Conducting Adolescent Health Research in the Clinical Setting: The Mount Sinai Adolescent Health Center HPV Experience

    PubMed Central

    Braun-Courville, Debra K.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Burk, Robert D.; Strickler, Howard D.; Rojas, Mary; Lorde-Rollins, Elizabeth; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Hollman, Dominic; Linares, L. Oriana; Diaz, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical research with adolescents can be challenging due to issues of informed consent, parental involvement, institutional review board requirements, and adolescent psychosocial development. This presents a dilemma, particularly in the area of sexual health research, as adolescents are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections such as human papillomavirus (HPV). To successfully conduct adolescent research in the clinical setting, one requires an awareness of state statutes regarding adolescent confidentiality and consent for medical care, and a close partnership with the IRB. Case Study In 2007, the Mount Sinai Adolescent Health Center (MSAHC) in collaboration with the Albert Einstein College of Medicine developed a longitudinal research study to examine the natural history of oral, cervical, and anal HPV in an adolescent female population engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. We use this research project as a case study to explore the ethical, methodological, and clinical issues related to conducting adolescent health research. Summary and Conclusions Several strategies were identified to promote adolescent study participation, including: (1) building a research team that is motivated to work with adolescents; (2) combining research and patient care visits to avoid duplication of services; and (3) establishing a personalized communication network with participants. Using these methods, adolescent sexual health research can successfully be integrated into the clinical setting. While retaining a prospective cohort of adolescents has its challenges, a persistent and multi-disciplinary approach can help improve recruitment, sustain participation, and acquire critical data that will lead to improved healthcare knowledge applicable to understudied populations of adolescents. PMID:24332677

  2. The Effects of Age Composition of 12-Step Groups on Adolescent 12-Step Participation and Substance Use Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.; Myers, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Youth substance use disorder treatment programs frequently advocate integration into 12-Step fellowships to help prevent relapse. However, the effects of the predominantly adult composition of 12-step groups on adolescent involvement and substance use outcome remain unstudied. Greater knowledge could enhance the specificity of treatment…

  3. Patterns of Organized Activity Participation in Urban, Early Adolescents: Associations with Academic Achievement, Problem Behaviors, and Perceived Adult Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Crean, Hugh F.; Forbes-Jones, Emma L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines patterns of organized activity and their concurrent association with academic achievement, problem behavior, and perceived adult support in a sample of urban, early adolescent, middle school students (mean age = 13.01; N = 2,495). Cluster analyses yielded six activity profiles: an uninvolved group (n = 775, 31.1%), a multiply…

  4. Positive Outcomes following Participation in a Music Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Greher, Gena; Poto, Nataliya; Dougherty, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Music interventions are frequently utilized with those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and have shown a range of benefits. However, empirical evaluations are lacking and would be a timely step forward in the field. Here we report the findings of our pilot music program for adolescents and young adults with ASD. Evaluation of the program…

  5. Pupil Researchers Generation X: Educating Pupils as Active Participants--An Investigation into Gathering Sensitive Information from Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Jenny E.

    2008-01-01

    Developmentally appropriate research techniques were uncovered by involving ten Year 7 pupils as researchers in a four-hour workshop that investigated the effectiveness of multiple methods in gathering sensitive information from early adolescents. The pupils learned about, tried and evaluated the methods of generating interview questions, peer and…

  6. School-based sports participation and its effects on weight maintenance in Mexican American adolescents: A two-year analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participation in sports has been shown to decrease standardized body mass index (zBMI), especially in school settings. Few studies have examined the impact of sports participation in a Mexican American sample. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of sports participation on wei...

  7. Neighborhoods, Social Support, and African American Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes: A Multilevel Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; "M" age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and indirect…

  8. Natural Mentors, Racial Identity, and Educational Attainment among African American Adolescents: Exploring Pathways to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at…

  9. Fighting Fair: Adaptive Marital Conflict Strategies as Predictors of Future Adolescent Peer and Romantic Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miga, Erin M.; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between reasoning during inter-parental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multimethod, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Inter-parental reasoning at adolescent age of 13…

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Online versus Clinic-Based CBT for Adolescent Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Susan H.; Donovan, Caroline L.; March, Sonja; Gamble, Amanda; Anderson, Renee E.; Prosser, Samantha; Kenardy, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined the relative efficacy of online (NET) versus clinic (CLIN) delivery of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the treatment of anxiety disorders in adolescents. Method: Participants included 115 clinically anxious adolescents aged 12 to 18 years and their parent(s). Adolescents were randomly assigned to NET, CLIN, or…

  11. Effectiveness of a School HIV/AIDS Prevention Program for Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espada, Jose P.; Orgiles, Mireia; Morales, Alexandra; Ballester, Rafael; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a lack of controlled studies on HIV prevention interventions among Spanish adolescents, COMPAS, a five-session behavioral intervention, was developed and tested on Spanish adolescents aged 15-18. Participants included 827 adolescents from central, east and north Spain. Six hundred and seven students (M = 15.71 years) received the…

  12. Diagnostic Profiles among Urban Adolescents with Unmet Treatment Needs: Comorbidity and Perceived Need for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document comorbidity profiles of psychiatric disorder and perceived need for treatment among urban adolescents with unmet behavioral health needs. Participants were 303 community-referred adolescents and their primary caregivers. Adolescents included both boys (54%) and girls and were primarily Hispanic (58%), African…

  13. The Relationship Between Parental Psychopathology and Adolescent Psychopathology: An Examination of Gender Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley Ohannessian, Christine; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Mark A.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between parental psychopathology (specifically, alcohol dependence and depression) and adolescent psychopathology, by the gender of the adolescent and the gender of the parent. The sample included 426 13- to 17-year-old adolescents and their parents. All participants were administered…

  14. National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A): II. Overview and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Costello, E. Jane; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Heeringa, Steven; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    The national comorbidity survey that seeks to determine the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders among U.S. adolescents is based on a dual-frame design that includes 904 adolescents from a previous household survey and 9,244 adolescent students from a sample of 320 schools. Replacement schools for those that refuse to participate do not…

  15. Adolescent Hope as a Mediator between Parent-Child Connectedness and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Hardy, Sam A.; Christensen, Katherine J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent hope as a mediator between connectedness to mother and father, and positive and negative child outcomes. Participants included 489 adolescents aged 9 to 14 years (M = 11.29; SD = 1.01) and their parents from the "Flourishing Families Project", and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results…

  16. Parental emotion socialization in clinically depressed adolescents: Enhancing, and dampening positive affect

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Allen, Nicholas B.; Davis, Betsy; Hunter, Erin; Leve, Craig; Sheeber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study compared parental socialization of adolescent positive affect in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Participants were 107 adolescents (42 boys) aged 14 - 18 years and their parents. Half of the participants met criteria for major depressive disorder and the others were demographically matched adolescents without emotional or behavioral disorders. Results based on multi-source questionnaire and interview data indicated that mothers and fathers of depressed adolescents were less accepting of adolescents’ positive affect and more likely to use strategies that dampen adolescents’ positive affect than were parents of healthy adolescents. Additionally, fathers of depressed adolescents exhibited fewer responses likely to enhance the adolescents’ positive affect than were fathers of healthy adolescents. These findings build on those of previous work in examining parental responses to adolescent emotions, focusing on positive emotions and including both mothers and fathers. PMID:23942826

  17. Factors Related to Self-Rated Participation in Adolescents and Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability--A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidsson, Patrik; Granlund, Mats; Thyberg, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Background: Self-rated participation is a clinically relevant intervention outcome for people with mild intellectual disability. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse empirical studies that explored relationships between either environmental factors or individual characteristics "and" aspects of participation in young adults with mild…

  18. "If You Let Me Play Sports": How Might Sport Participation Influence the Self-Esteem of Adolescent Females?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Erin L.; Shaffer, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated links between female precollege sport participation and college self-esteem. Students surveys indicated that participation in sports positively correlated with body image, perceived physical competencies, gender identity, global self-esteem, and other psychosocial variables, thus predicting college self-esteem. In the absence of such…

  19. Associations of Participation in Service Activities with Academic, Behavioral, and Civic Outcomes of Adolescents at Varying Risk Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Shumow, Lee; Kackar, Hayal Z.

    2012-01-01

    Youth who participate in service activities differ from those who do not on a number of key demographic characteristics like socio-economic status and other indicators of risk; and most studies demonstrating positive outcomes among service participants employ small non-representative samples. Thus, there is little evidence as to whether the…

  20. Examining the Social Participation of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Relation to Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheri, A.; Perry, A.; Minnes, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Participation in social and physical activities has a number of benefits for children with or without disabilities. However, individuals with disabilities are often excluded from taking part in social activities. Most of the research on activity participation has focused on adults or youth with milder disabilities. However, children…

  1. Picture Me Playing--A Portrait of Participation and Enjoyment of Leisure Activities in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert; Poulin, Chantal; Majnemer, Annette

    2013-01-01

    In recent years attention has been paid to the participation levels of children and youth with Cerebral Palsy (CP), particularly the extent to which they have the opportunity to be involved in and enjoy leisure activities. The objective of this study is to describe the level of participation and enjoyment in leisure activities among adolescents…

  2. The private adolescent: privacy needs of adolescents in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Alison

    2002-02-01

    This report is based on an interpretative study that explored the meaning of space to adolescents in the hospital environment. Through designing their own adolescent ward and discussing their designs in an interview, participants articulated their spatial needs in the ward environment. This paper addresses the private space issues of the adolescent patient in the ward environment. Issues that are discussed include the use of the telephone, the bathroom, and the bedroom, and additional facilities needed to enhance privacy in the ward. PMID:11891498

  3. Social Information Processing in Deaf Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jesús; Saldaña, David; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Isabel R

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge's (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74-101) reformulated six-stage model. It consisted of a structured interview after watching 18 scenes of situations depicting participation in a peer group or provocations by peers. Participants included 32 deaf and 20 hearing adolescents and young adults aged between 13 and 21 years. Deaf adolescents and adults had lower scores than hearing participants in all the steps of the SIP model (coding, interpretation, goal formulation, response generation, response decision, and representation). However, deaf girls and women had better scores on social adjustment and on some SIP skills than deaf male participants. PMID:27143715

  4. Ovarian cancer and smoking: individual participant meta-analysis including 28 114 women with ovarian cancer from 51 epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Smoking has been linked to mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear, and the findings from most studies with relevant data are unpublished. To assess these associations, we review the published and unpublished evidence. Methods Eligible epidemiological studies were identified by electronic searches, review articles, and discussions with colleagues. Individual participant data for 28 114 women with and 94 942 without ovarian cancer from 51 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally, yielding adjusted relative risks (RRs) of ovarian cancer in smokers compared with never smokers. Findings After exclusion of studies with hospital controls, in which smoking could have affected recruitment, overall ovarian cancer incidence was only slightly increased in current smokers compared with women who had never smoked (RR 1·06, 95% CI 1·01–1·11, p=0·01). Of 17 641 epithelial cancers with specified histology, 2314 (13%) were mucinous, 2360 (13%) endometrioid, 969 (5%) clear-cell, and 9086 (52%) serous. Smoking-related risks varied substantially across these subtypes (pheterogeneity<0·0001). For mucinous cancers, incidence was increased in current versus never smokers (1·79, 95% CI 1·60–2·00, p<0·0001), but the increase was mainly in borderline malignant rather than in fully malignant tumours (2·25, 95% CI 1·91–2·65 vs 1·49, 1·28–1·73; pheterogeneity=0·01; almost half the mucinous tumours were only borderline malignant). Both endometrioid (0·81, 95% CI 0·72–0·92, p=0·001) and clear-cell ovarian cancer risks (0·80, 95% CI 0·65–0·97, p=0·03) were reduced in current smokers, and there was no significant association for serous ovarian cancers (0·99, 95% CI 0·93–1·06, p=0·8). These associations did not vary significantly by 13 sociodemographic and personal characteristics of women including their body-mass index, parity, and use of

  5. Translation and validation of the Child and the Adolescent HARDSHIP (Headache-attributed restriction, disability, social handicap and impaired participation) questionnaire into Danish language

    PubMed Central

    McGirr, Kate A.; Korsgaard, Hanne Oertved; Rathleff, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of headaches among children and adolescents varies considerably between countries. This may be due to a lack of appropriate instruments to capture the prevalence. The purpose of this study was to translate the Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaires from English into Danish language, conduct cross-cultural adaptation, face validation by cognitive interviewing and conduct a pilot study exploring time requirements. Methods. The questionnaire was translated using the guidelines proposed by “The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache.” A total of 25 children from 6 to 12 years of age completed the questionnaire with 24 h between test and retest to assess reliability. A total of 169 children and adolescents from 6 to 17 years of age completed the translated questionnaire to assess time requirements for completing it. Results. Only minor discrepancies were observed in the translation process. Test-retest reliability of the translated questionnaire showed substantial agreement (kappa: 0.65–0.78). The questionnaires were completed within 30 min (age 6–11 years of age) and within 15 min (age 12–17 years of age) respectively. Discussion. No major problems were observed in the forward translations of the questionnaires. The face validation prompted no major changes in the questionnaire. The face-to-face interviews showed that pupils of different ethnic backgrounds than Danish and pupils in the age group of 6–11 had more difficulty in understanding a minority of the questions. The Danish Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire therefore complies with the intentions of the originators, aiming at a maximal completion time of 45 min and in comparison with actual completion time. The test-retest study showed substantial agreement between test and retest in the headache, migraine and MOH domains and questions referring to time.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire, includes a section specifically recording a four

  6. Translation and validation of the Child and the Adolescent HARDSHIP (Headache-attributed restriction, disability, social handicap and impaired participation) questionnaire into Danish language.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Jens Erik; McGirr, Kate A; Korsgaard, Hanne Oertved; Rathleff, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of headaches among children and adolescents varies considerably between countries. This may be due to a lack of appropriate instruments to capture the prevalence. The purpose of this study was to translate the Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaires from English into Danish language, conduct cross-cultural adaptation, face validation by cognitive interviewing and conduct a pilot study exploring time requirements. Methods. The questionnaire was translated using the guidelines proposed by "The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache." A total of 25 children from 6 to 12 years of age completed the questionnaire with 24 h between test and retest to assess reliability. A total of 169 children and adolescents from 6 to 17 years of age completed the translated questionnaire to assess time requirements for completing it. Results. Only minor discrepancies were observed in the translation process. Test-retest reliability of the translated questionnaire showed substantial agreement (kappa: 0.65-0.78). The questionnaires were completed within 30 min (age 6-11 years of age) and within 15 min (age 12-17 years of age) respectively. Discussion. No major problems were observed in the forward translations of the questionnaires. The face validation prompted no major changes in the questionnaire. The face-to-face interviews showed that pupils of different ethnic backgrounds than Danish and pupils in the age group of 6-11 had more difficulty in understanding a minority of the questions. The Danish Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire therefore complies with the intentions of the originators, aiming at a maximal completion time of 45 min and in comparison with actual completion time. The test-retest study showed substantial agreement between test and retest in the headache, migraine and MOH domains and questions referring to time.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire, includes a section specifically recording a four-week period

  7. Latino Adolescents' Adjustment, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…

  8. The Parent Participation Engagement Measure (PPEM): Reliability and Validity in Child and Adolescent Community Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Roesch, Scott C; Trask, Emily V; Fawley-King, Kya; Ganger, William C; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-09-01

    Parent participation in community-based child mental health services is an important yet understudied process associated with treatment effectiveness. This paper describes the development and psychometrics of the Parent Participation Engagement Measure in a sample of 1374 parents and 563 youth receiving publicly-funded mental health services. Analyses indicated excellent internal consistency, and model fit indices/factor loadings supported a one-factor model. Convergent and discriminant validity were supported, although some coefficients were modest in magnitude. Psychometric results were consistent for Caucasian versus Hispanic, parent versus youth, and English versus Spanish-language respondents. The clinical and research utility of this measure are discussed. PMID:26520104

  9. Thirty-Year Trends in U.S. Adolescents' Civic Engagement: A Story of Changing Participation and Educational Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syvertsen, Amy K.; Wray-Lake, Laura; Flanagan, Constance A.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Briddell, Laine

    2011-01-01

    Using annual cross-sectional data from Monitoring the Future, the present study examined trends in high school seniors' current and anticipated civic participation and beliefs over a 30-year period. We examined overall trends and patterns based on youths' post-high school educational plans. Findings point to declines in recent cohorts' involvement…

  10. The Effect of Participation in the Neighborhood Academic Program on the Autophotographic Self-Concepts of Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    The current research investigates the effect of participation in the Neighborhood Academic Initiative Scholars Program (NAI) on the students' sense of self as viewed through autophotography. The NAI is designed to prepare inner-city middle school students, composed mainly of African-Americans and Hispanics, for entry into a four year university.…

  11. Acceptability of Dating Violence among Late Adolescents: The Role of Sports Participation, Competitive Attitudes, and Selected Dynamics of Relationship Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses a vignette-based survey design to examine the relationship between both respondent-level and case-level characteristics and the acceptability of violence in dating relationships. Measures of sports participation, competitiveness, and the need to win (respondent characteristics) were administered to 661 male and female late…

  12. Clinical Trial Participation and Time to Treatment Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: Does Age at Diagnosis or Insurance Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Helen M.; Harlan, Linda C.; Seibel, Nita L.; Stevens, Jennifer L.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Because adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer have experienced variable improvement in survival over the past two decades, enhancing the quality and timeliness of cancer care in this population has emerged as a priority area. To identify current trends in AYA care, we examined patterns of clinical trial participation, time to treatment, and provider characteristics in a population-based sample of AYA patients with cancer. Methods Using the National Cancer Institute Patterns of Care Study, we used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate demographic and provider characteristics associated with clinical trial enrollment and time to treatment among 1,358 AYA patients with cancer (age 15 to 39 years) identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Results In our study, 14% of patients age 15 to 39 years had enrolled onto a clinical trial; participation varied by type of cancer, with the highest participation in those diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (37%) and sarcoma (32%). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that uninsured, older patients and those treated by nonpediatric oncologists were less likely to enroll onto clinical trials. Median time from pathologic confirmation to first treatment was 3 days, but this varied by race/ethnicity and cancer site. In multivariate analyses, advanced cancer stage and outpatient treatment alone were associated with longer time from pathologic confirmation to treatment. Conclusion Our study identified factors associated with low clinical trial participation in AYA patients with cancer. These findings support the continued need to improve access to clinical trials and innovative treatments for this population, which may ultimately translate into improved survival. PMID:21931022

  13. Relationship types among adolescent parents participating in a home-visiting program: A latent-transition analysis.

    PubMed

    Raskin, Maryna; Fosse, Nathan E; Fauth, Rebecca C; Bumgarner, Erin; Easterbrooks, M Ann

    2016-04-01

    Young parents (less than 25 years of age) have been shown to have especially low rates of father involvement and union stability. However, research has also shown that parenting experiences of young fathers may not be uniform. There is a need for more research that assesses both the multidimensionality of relationship typologies and their temporality. Using a large longitudinal sample of low-income, young mothers enrolled in a randomized control study of a home-visitation program (n = 704; 61% program, 39% control), we evaluated how mother-father relationship dynamics changed over time. Ten mother-reported indicators of relationships (e.g., coresidence, marital status, types of father support) were used to conduct a latent-class analysis of relationship types. A 4-class solution was identified at each time point: Single Parent, Supportive Nonresident Partner, Supportive Resident Partner, and Questioning/Ambivalent Coupling. Latent-transition analyses were used to evaluate stability of relationships across 2 years. At each transition, a large proportion of women moved from one relationship class to another, indicating heterogeneity in relationship dynamics of adolescent parents. Results revealed the potential of a home-visiting program targeted at young parents to favorably promote more stable and supportive mother-father relationships and coparenting arrangements. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26571197

  14. Direct access to potential research participants for a cohort study using a confidentiality waiver included in UK National Health Service legal statutes

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Rachel M; Fern, Lorna A; Aslam, Natasha; Whelan, Jeremy S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe our experience of using a confidentiality waiver (Section 251) in the National Health Service (NHS) Act to identify and recruit potential research participants to a cohort study and consider its use in a wider research context. Design Methodological discussion. Setting NHS Trusts in England. Methods We established a research recruitment process with quality health (QH), administrators of the National Cancer Patient Experience Survey, after an amendment to a Section 251 approval (reference number ECC-8-05d-2011). NHS Trusts agreeing to implement the process were requested to send the details of 16–24-year-olds, identified by a relevant ICD-10 code indicating a cancer diagnosis within a specified time period to QH. QH sent study information and a consent-to-be-contacted form which allowed QH to send details to BRIGHTLIGHT, for BRIGHTLIGHT to contact the treating team confirming eligibility and for an interviewer from Ipsos MORI to contact them. Written consent was to be obtained at interview. Results The method was implemented in 98 trusts; 75 supplied patient details. QH sent information to 441 young people, of whom 64 (15%) responded. Of these, 23 had already consented to participate. Adverse events were reported by 6 (1%) invitees: 4 were distressed because they did not have cancer, their details being submitted to QH due to incorrect hospital coding, and 1 young person was distressed about their diagnosis and requested no further contact and 1 young person found out they had cancer from the invitation. Conclusions Application of Section 251 of the NHS Act (2006) to directly approach participants can facilitate recruitment to research projects where routinely collected NHS data are available to select eligible patients. The benefits of this method are that it requires fewer resources to recruit across multiple sites, and is quicker. Further information on the impact on bias and adverse event profile are required. PMID:27481623

  15. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Hawkins, Amy J; Warner, Echo L; Boucher, Kenneth M

    2016-12-01

    Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13-17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) for male adolescents ages 13-17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes. PMID:27413668

  16. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  17. Parent Report of Conversations with Their Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer L.; Oseland, Lauren M.; Morris, Kathryn L.; Larzelere, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine parent report of conversations about difference and disability in families of adolescents with intellectual disability. Materials and Methods: Participants included 50 parents (44 mothers, four fathers, and two other caregivers) and their adolescents with intellectual disability (M age = 15.9).…

  18. Parent-Reported Predictors of Adolescent Panic Attacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Chris; Wilson, Kimberly A.; Lagle, Kristy; Killen, Joel D.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify parent-reported risk factors for adolescent panic attacks. Method: Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from 770 parents of participants in a school-based risk factor study for adolescent panic. Parent-reported risk factors assessed included characteristics of the child (negative affect, separation anxiety disorder…

  19. "Cuidate Sin Pena": Mexican Mother-Adolescent Sexuality Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncloa, Fe; Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of Mexican mother-adolescent communication about sexuality. Participants interviewed included four mother-expecting son pairs and four mother-pregnant daughter pairs. Our interviews revealed important adolescent gender differences. Pena (shame/embarrassment) played a major role vis-a-vis indirect communication about…

  20. Adolescent Responsibility, Parent-Child Relations, and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; Elmen, Julie D.

    Examined are the relationships of student responsibility and parent-adolescent relations to the school performance of middle-school-age youth. A total of 120 families with a first-born child between 11 and 16 years of age participated in the study. Assessment of adolescent responsibility included measures of self-reliance, work orientation,…

  1. Adolescents' Experience with Workplace Aggression: School Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…

  2. Factor Structure of the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Berres, Ashley K.; Sim, Leslie; Friedrich, William N.

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine if the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory-Self-Report conformed to the five-factor scale format that was initially used with a clinical sample that included adolescents referred for sexual abuse evaluations. Participants were 141 teenagers, ages 12-19 (M = 15.11, SD = 1.4), and their…

  3. Impact of aberrant DNA methylation patterns including CYP1B1 methylation in adolescents and young adults with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    DiNardo, CD; Gharibyan, V; Yang, H; Wei, Y; Pierce, S; Kantarjian, HM; Garcia-Manero, G; Rytting, M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aberrant promoter DNA methylation is a well-described mechanism of leukemogenesis within hematologic malignancies, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, the importance of methylation patterns among the adolescent and young adult (AYA) ALL population has not been well established. Methods DNA methylation of 18 candidate genes in 33 AYA ALL patients was analyzed at diagnosis and during treatment, to evaluate the frequency and clinical relevance of aberrant methylation in an AYA population treated on a uniform therapeutic regimen. Results Of 16 informative genes, there was a median of 6 methylated genes per AYA ALL patient. Correlations were identified between increasing number of methylated genes with male sex (p=0.04), increased white blood cell (WBC) count (p=0.04) and increased bone-marrow blast percentage (p=0.04). Increasing age was associated with EPHA5 methylation (p=0.05). Overall, patients experienced favorable outcomes with median survival that was not reached. On univariate analysis, methylation of CYP1B1 was associated with worse overall survival (HR 10.7, 95% CI 1.3–87.6, p=0.03), disease-free survival (HR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1–9.2, p=0.04) and correlated with decreased CYP1B1 gene expression. Conclusions A significant incidence of methylation within the AYA ALL population was identified, with increased methylation associated with distinct clinicopathologic features including male gender and elevated WBC count. Our results suggest aberrant methylation among AYA patients is frequent, and may provide a common pathogenic mechanism. The inferior outcome identified with methylation of the cytochrome p450 gene CYP1B1, an enzyme involved in drug metabolism and steroid synthesis, warrants further investigation. PMID:23757320

  4. Agreement among Adolescents, Parents, and Teachers on Adolescent Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidra, Kaia; Allik, Juri; Harro, Maarike; Merenakk, Liis; Harro, Jaanus

    2006-01-01

    Agreement between adolescents, mothers, fathers, and teachers on adolescents' personality traits was investigated in a longitudinal study. The targets for personality ratings were the adolescents who participated in the European Youth Heart Study in Estonia. There were 593 participants in the first wave and 480 participants in the follow-up study…

  5. Older adolescents’ views regarding participation in Facebook research

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A; Grant, Alison; Kacvinsky, Lauren; Moreno, Peter; Fleming, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Facebook continues to grow in popularity among adolescents as well as adolescent researchers. Guidance on conducting this research with appropriate attention to privacy and ethics is scarce. To inform such research efforts, the purpose of this study was to determine older adolescents’ responses after learning that they were participants in a research study that involved identification of participants using Facebook. Methods Public Facebook profiles of older adolescents age 18 to 19 years from a large state university were examined. Profile owners were then interviewed. During the interview participants were informed that they were identified by examining publicly available Facebook profiles. Participants were asked to discuss their views on this research method. Results A total of 132 participants completed the interview (70% response rate), the average age was 18.4 years (SD=0.5) and our sample included 64 males (48.5%). Participant responses included: endorsement (19.7%), fine (36.4%), neutral (28.8%), uneasy (9.1%) and concerned (6.1%). Among participants who were uneasy or concerned, the majority voiced confusion regarding their current profile security settings (p=0.00). Conclusion The majority of adolescent participants viewed the use of Facebook for research positively. These findings are consistent with the approach taken by many US courts. Researchers may consider these findings when developing research protocols involving Facebook. PMID:23084164

  6. Shaking Up the System: The Role of Change in Maternal-Adolescent Communication Quality and Adolescent Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Mary Beth; Rancourt, Diana; Barker, David; Jelalian, Elissa

    2015-01-01

    Objective The association between directly observed mother–adolescent weight-related communication quality and adolescent percent overweight within the context of an adolescent weight control study was examined. Methods As part of a larger study examining the impact of a behavioral weight control intervention that included attention to parent–adolescent communication (Standard Behavioral Treatment + Enhanced Parenting, SBT + EP) compared with an efficacious Standard Behavioral Treatment (SBT), 38 mother–adolescent dyads participated in a weight-related videotaped discussion. Discussions were taped and collected pre- and postintervention. Results No significant differences emerged in the quality of mother–adolescent communication between SBT (n = 19) and SBT + EP (n = 19) participants, nor was baseline mother–adolescent communication quality associated with adolescents’ weight loss in either condition. However, a decline in communication quality was associated with better outcomes for adolescents participating in the SBT group. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that a change in mother–adolescent communication is associated with successful weight loss among adolescents. PMID:25214645

  7. Parent-Child Relations, Conduct Problems and Cigarette Use in Adolescence: Examining the Role of Genetic and Environmental Factors on Patterns of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Harold, Gordon T.; Fowler, Tom A.; Rice, Frances J.; Neale, Michael C.; Thapar, Anita; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated genetic and environmental influences on the associations between mother-child relationship quality (warmth and hostility) and adolescent conduct problems and cigarette use. Participants included 601 mothers and adolescent twin pairs (aged 12-17 years). Mothers and adolescents provided separate reports of mother-to-child…

  8. Preparation for Adulthood. Proceedings of the Asian Workshop on Child and Adolescent Development (3rd, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 9-14, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Leong Yin, Ed.; And Others

    Attended by participants from 19 nations, this conference focused on six topics related to child and adolescent development. Major topics discussed included child development and related issues, curriculum and the adolescent, the adolescent and technological changes, and the preparation of youth for adulthood. Symposia focusing on child…

  9. Coping strategies to manage acculturative stress: Meaningful activity participation, social support, and positive emotion among Korean immigrant adolescents in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Sooyeon; Gopalan, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a) engagement in meaningful activities; (b) social support; and (c) positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. PMID:23195747

  10. Social Participation of Children and Adolescents with Cochlear Implants: A Qualitative Analysis of Parent, Teacher, and Child Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punch, Renee; Hyde, Merv

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial factors, including socioemotional well-being, peer relationships, and social inclusion with hearing and deaf peers, are increasingly becoming a focus of research investigating children with cochlear implants. The study reported here extends the largely quantitative findings of previous research through a qualitative analysis of…

  11. Individuals with Primary Osteoarthritis Have Different Phenotypes Depending on the Affected Joint - A Case Control Study from Southern Sweden Including 514 Participants

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Karlsson, Caroline; Magnusson, Håkan; Cöster, Maria; von Schewelov, Tord; Nilsson, Jan Åke; Brudin, Lars; Rosengren, Björn E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether primary osteoarthritis (OA), independent of affected joint, is associated with a phenotype that is different from the phenotype in a normative cohort. Material and Methods: We included 274 patients with primary OA, 30 women and 32 men (mean age 66 years, range 42-84) with primary hip OA, 38 women and 74 men (mean age 61 years; range 34-85) with primary knee OA, 42 women and 19 men (men age 64 years, range 42-87) with primary ankle or foot OA and 20 women and 19 men (mean age 66 years, range 47-88) with primary hand or finger OA. Of all patients included with OA, 23% had hip OA, 41% knee OA, 22% ankle or foot OA and 14% hand or finger OA. Serving as references were 122 women and 118 men of the same ages who were population-based, included as a control cohort. We measured total body BMD (g/cm2) and proportion of fat and lean mass (%) with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight and BMI (kg/m2) were also assessed. We then calculated Z-scores (number of standard deviations difference from the mean value of the control cohort) in the OA patients and compared these between the groups. Results: Individuals with hand OA and controls had similar phenotype. Individuals with lower extremity OA, irrespective of the affected joint, had similar weight, BMI and BMD, but higher than in individuals with hand OA and controls (all p<0.05). Individuals with lower extremity OA had higher fat and lower lean mass than individuals with hand OA and controls (all p<0.001). Conclusion: Individuals with primary OA in the lower extremity have a phenotype with higher BMD, higher BMI, proportionally higher fat content and lower lean body mass content. The different skeletal phenotypes in our patients with OA in the lower extremity and patients with hand OA indicate that separate pathophysiologic pathways may be responsible for primary OA in different joints PMID:25614774

  12. Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected women. Methods Individual data from 117 epidemiological studies, including 118 964 women with invasive breast cancer and 306 091 without the disease, none of whom had used menopausal hormone therapy, were included in the analyses. We calculated adjusted relative risks (RRs) associated with menarche and menopause for breast cancer overall, and by tumour histology and by oestrogen receptor expression. Findings Breast cancer risk increased by a factor of 1·050 (95% CI 1·044–1·057; p<0·0001) for every year younger at menarche, and independently by a smaller amount (1·029, 1·025–1·032; p<0·0001), for every year older at menopause. Premenopausal women had a greater risk of breast cancer than postmenopausal women of an identical age (RR at age 45–54 years 1·43, 1·33–1·52, p<0·001). All three of these associations were attenuated by increasing adiposity among postmenopausal women, but did not vary materially by women's year of birth, ethnic origin, childbearing history, smoking, alcohol consumption, or hormonal contraceptive use. All three associations were stronger for lobular than for ductal tumours (p<0·006 for each comparison). The effect of menopause in women of an identical age and trends by age at menopause were stronger for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease (p<0·01 for both comparisons). Interpretation The effects of menarche and menopause on breast cancer risk might not be acting merely by lengthening women's total number of reproductive years. Endogenous ovarian hormones are more relevant for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease and for lobular than

  13. Asthma and Rhinitis Are Associated with Less Objectively-Measured Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity, but Similar Sport Participation, in Adolescent German Boys: GINIplus and LISAplus Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) protects against most noncommunicable diseases and has been associated with decreased risk of allergic phenotype, which is increasing worldwide. However, the association is not always present; furthermore it is not clear whether it is strongest for asthma, rhinitis, symptoms of these, or atopic sensitization; which sex is most affected; or whether it can be explained by either avoidance of sport or exacerbation of symptoms by exercise. Interventions are thus difficult to target. Methods PA was measured by one-week accelerometry in 1137 Germans (mean age 15.6 years, 47% boys) from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, and modeled as a correlate of allergic symptoms, sensitization, or reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or rhinitis. Results 8.3% of children had asthma, of the remainder 7.9% had rhinitis, and of the remainder 32% were sensitized to aero-allergens (atopic). 52% were lung-healthy controls. Lung-healthy boys and girls averaged 46.4 min and 37.8 min moderate-to-vigorous PA per day, of which 14.6 and 11.4 min was vigorous. PA in allergic girls was not altered, but boys with asthma got 13% less moderate and 29% less vigorous PA, and those with rhinitis with 13% less moderate PA, than lung-healthy boys. Both sexes participated comparably in sport (70 to 84%). Adolescents with wheezing (up to 68%, in asthma) and/or nose/eye symptoms (up to 88%, in rhinitis) were no less active. Conclusions We found that asthma and rhinitis, but not atopy, were independently associated with low PA in boys, but not in girls. These results indicate that allergic boys remain a high-risk group for physical inactivity even if they participate comparably in sport. Research into the link between PA and allergy should consider population-specific and sex-specific effects, and clinicians, parents, and designers of PA interventions should specifically address PA in allergic boys to ensure full participation. PMID:27560942

  14. Stereotype Threat and School Belonging in Adolescents from Diverse Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Mallett, Robyn K.; Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we extend research on stereotype threat to adolescents and to school belonging. Stereotype threat refers to the impact of societal stereotypes on individual performance. Participants included adolescents from marginalized racial/ethnic minority groups including African Americans, American Indians, and Latinos and nonmarginalized…

  15. Early Risk Factors for Violence in Colombian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Rosen, Zohn; De la Rosa, Mario; Montoya, Ivan D.; Whiteman, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Objective Violence and homicide are more prevalent in Colombia, South America, than in the United States, but the role of psychosocial factors in the violent behavior of Colombian adolescents remains unclear. The objective of the study was to identify personality, familial, peer, and ecological variables associated with violence in Colombian adolescents. Method A survey of adolescents was conducted in 1995-1996. A standard self-report measure was adapted to ensure linguistic and cultural relevance. A total of 2,837 adolescents ages 12-17 years from various self-reported ethnic groups were randomly selected from the community in three Colombian cities: Bogota, Medellin, and Barranquilla. Eighty percent of eligible adolescents agreed to participate. Data were collected concerning the adolescent's personality attributes, family characteristics, peer characteristics, and ecological/cultural factors, including the availability of illicit drugs and the prevalence of violence in the community. The dependent variable was the adolescent's self-reported frequency of violent behavior. Results Violence directed at the adolescent and the adolescent's own drug use were both more highly correlated with the adolescent's violent behavior than were other risk factors. Significant risk factors of less importance included tolerance of deviance, peer drug use, peer deviance, and exposure to violence on television. Conclusions The results supported a model in which violent behavior was correlated independently with a number of risk factors from several domains. The findings point to the use of specific intervention procedures for adolescents to prevent their own subsequent acts of violent behavior. PMID:12900310

  16. The impact of participation in performing arts on adolescent health and behaviour: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Daykin, Norma; Orme, Judy; Evans, David; Salmon, Debra; McEachran, Malcolm; Brain, Sarah

    2008-03-01

    This article reports a systematic review of literature published between 1994 and 2004 on the effects of performing arts for health in young people aged 11-18. The review includes research on music, performance, drama and dance in community settings and non-curricular mainstream education. A total of 17 electronic databases were searched and 3670 papers identified, 104 of which met relevance criteria. Full text scrutiny of 85 papers was undertaken and 14 of these were identified for review. The research was heterogeneous, making overall synthesis of results inappropriate. The review demonstrates that research on the impact of the performing arts on young people is at a relatively early stage. PMID:18375630

  17. Alterations in left ventricular, left atrial, and right ventricular structure and function to cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents with type 2 diabetes participating in the TODAY clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are limited. Echocardiography was performed in the last year of the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial (median 4.5 yr from diagnosis of T2D, average age 18 yr), incl...

  18. Who Is Physically Active? Cultural Capital and Sports Participation from Adolescence to Middle Age--A 38-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Lars-Magnus

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many studies have found that there is a low-to-moderate association between exercise during adolescence and exercise habits in adulthood. A question that arises from these earlier studies, with a follow-up period of about five to 20 years, is how children's and adolescents' physical activity affects their inclination to exercise later…

  19. Texting Your Way to Healthier Eating? Effects of Participating in a Feedback Intervention Using Text Messaging on Adolescents' Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a feedback intervention employing text messaging during 11 weeks on adolescents' behavior, self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding fruit and vegetable intake. A pre- and post-survey was completed by 1488 adolescents school-wise randomly allocated to a control group and two experimental groups. Both…

  20. Like Father, Like Son: The Intergenerational Cycle of Adolescent Fatherhood

    PubMed Central

    Sipsma, Heather; Biello, Katie Brooks; Cole-Lewis, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Strong evidence exists to support an intergenerational cycle of adolescent fatherhood, yet such a cycle has not been studied. We examined whether paternal adolescent fatherhood (i.e., father of study participant was age 19 years or younger when his first child was born) and other factors derived from the ecological systems theory predicted participant adolescent fatherhood. Methods. Data included 1496 young males who were interviewed annually from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Cox regression survival analysis was used to determine the effect of paternal adolescent fatherhood on participant adolescent fatherhood. Results. Sons of adolescent fathers were 1.8 times more likely to become adolescent fathers than were sons of older fathers, after other risk factors were accounted for. Additionally, factors from each ecological domain—individual (delinquency), family (maternal education), peer (early adolescent dating), and environment (race/ethnicity, physical risk environment)—were independent predictors of adolescent fatherhood. Conclusions. These findings support the need for pregnancy prevention interventions specifically designed for young males who may be at high risk for continuing this cycle. Interventions that address multiple levels of risk will likely be most successful at reducing pregnancies among partners of young men. PMID:20075312

  1. Clinical assessment of adolescents involved in Satanism.

    PubMed

    Clark, C M

    1994-01-01

    Satanism is a destructive religion that promises power, dominance, and gratification to its practitioners. Unfortunately, some adolescents are seduced by these promises, often because they feel alienated, alone, angry, and desperate. This article explores the psychosocial needs of adolescents that are often met by participation in Satanic worship. Gratification of these needs, when met, may make leaving the cult a difficult and lengthy process. Included is a method for determining the adolescents' level of involvement and an assessment strategy for the therapeutic evaluation process. A brief overview of clinical intervention is also discussed. PMID:8085495

  2. Social Capital, Savings, and Educational Performance of Orphaned Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ssewamala, Fred M.; Karimli, Leyla; Chang-Keun, Han; Ismayilova, Leyla

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of social capital on savings and educational performance of orphaned adolescents participating in a family-level economic strengthening program in Uganda. Findings indicate that if given the opportunity, poor families in Uganda will use financial institutions to save for the education of their adolescent youth. Moreover, although the results are mixed, overall, adolescents with higher levels of social capital and social support, including participation in youth groups, are likely to report better saving performance compared to their counterparts with lower levels of social capital and social support. The results point to: (1) the role for family-economic strengthening programs specifically focused on improving the educational outcomes of orphaned adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, and (2) the need for adolescents to be encouraged to participate in youth groups since these groups seem to offer the much needed supportive informal institutional structure for positive adolescent outcomes. PMID:20948971

  3. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities: links with parental attachment style and adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-04-01

    Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. PMID:25730406

  4. Adolescents' experiences with uxoricide.

    PubMed

    Steeves, Richard H; Parker, Barbara; Laughon, Kathryn; Knopp, Andrea; Thompson, Mary E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of individuals who survived the loss of one or both parents through parental homicide or homicide/suicide as adolescents. Participants (N = 34) were aged between 12 and 19 years at the time of the death and were aged between 29 and 64 years at the time of the interview. Participants were interviewed twice and asked to tell the story of their lives. Data were analyzed in the hermeneutic phenomenological tradition using a stepwise process of developing categories and then a single complex theme. Common categories of participants' childhoods included abuse both before and after the uxoricide and vivid memories of the homicide. As adults, most participants reported difficulties with intimate relationships, legal problems, and substance use. Integrity was an overarching theme for these participants. Among those who had integrated the story of the homicide into their adult lives, some believed that they were doing well whereas others did not. Some participants had isolated the event and considered that they were doing well as a result. These findings are limited by the convenience sample but offer a rich portrait of the lives of individuals who experienced uxoricide as adolescents. Clinicians might be advised to tread carefully if individuals report that they have isolated rather than integrated the uxoricide into their adult lives. No evidence exists in support that either stance is preferable. PMID:21659301

  5. Predictors of Parent-Adolescent Communication in Post-apartheid South Africa: A Protective Factor in Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Jenny; Dietrich, Janan; Otwombe, Kennedy; Nkala, Busi; Khunwane, Mamakiri; van der Watt, Martin; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Gray, Glenda E

    2014-01-01

    In the HIV context, risky sexual behaviours can be reduced through effective parent-adolescent communication. This study used the Parent Adolescent Communication Scale to determine parent-adolescent communication by ethnicity and identify predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst South African adolescents post-apartheid. A cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey was administered to 822 adolescents from Johannesburg, South Africa. Backward stepwise multivariate regressions were performed. The sample was predominantly Black African (62%, n=506) and female (57%, n=469). Of the participants, 57% (n=471) reported high parent-adolescent communication. Multivariate regression showed that gender was a significant predictor of high parent-adolescent communication (Black African OR:1.47,CI:1.0-2.17, Indian OR:2.67,CI:1.05-6.77, White OR:2.96,CI:1.21-7.18). Female-headed households were predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst Black Africans (OR:1.49,CI:1.01-2.20), but of low parent-adolescent communication amongst Whites (OR:0.36,CI: 0.15-0.89). Overall levels of parent-adolescent communication in South Africa are low. HIV prevention programmes for South African adolescents should include information and skills regarding effective parent-adolescent communication. PMID:24636691

  6. Relations between Resiliency, Diabetes-Related Quality of Life, and Disease Markers to School-Related Outcomes in Adolescents with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfect, Michelle M.; Jaramillo, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the role that resiliency and diabetes quality of life play in school functioning and glucose control among adolescents with diabetes. Participants included 45 adolescents with diabetes who participated in a larger study evaluating the feasibility of a model of mental health screening, assessment, and referral/service…

  7. Risk of Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents with Both Self-Asphyxial Risk-Taking Behavior and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brausch, Amy M.; Decker, Kristina M.; Hadley, Andrea G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered…

  8. ASD Symptom Severity in Adolescence of Individuals Diagnosed with PDD-NOS in Childhood: Stability and the Relation with Psychiatric Comorbidity and Societal Participation.

    PubMed

    Louwerse, A; Eussen, M L J M; Van der Ende, J; de Nijs, P F A; Van Gool, A R; Dekker, L P; Verheij, C; Verheij, F; Verhulst, F C; Greaves-Lord, K

    2015-12-01

    The current 7-year follow-up study investigated: (1) the stability of ASD severity, and (2) associations of ASD severity in adolescence with (a) childhood and concurrent psychiatric comorbidity, and (b) concurrent societal functioning. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children were administered in childhood (ages 6-12) and in adolescence (ages 12-20) to 72 individuals with a pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). ADOS calibrated severity scores showed a large stability (r = .51). Psychiatric comorbidity in childhood and adolescence were not associated with ASD severity in adolescence. Mental health care use (87 %) and special education needs were high (71 %). Reevaluation of ASD severity and psychiatric comorbidity later in life seem useful when PDD-NOS is diagnosed in childhood. PMID:26395112

  9. Sex Differences in the Determination of Adolescent Aspirations: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Margaret Mooney

    1978-01-01

    Factors influencing levels of adolescent aspiration are reviewed, including socioeconomic background, academic ability, number of siblings, parental encouragement, mother's employment, academic performance, peer aspirations, dating, and participation in school activities. Although sex differences affect the formation of both educational and…

  10. A qualitative, exploratory study of predominantly female parental perceptions of consumer health technology use by their overweight and/or obese female adolescent participating in a fee-based 4-week weight-management intervention.

    PubMed

    Knoblock-Hahn, Amy L; LeRouge, Cynthia M

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health technologies (CHTs) are a growing part of the continuum of care for self-management of overweight and obesity. Parents positively or negatively influence adolescent weight-management efforts and are especially important throughout continuum of care settings. User-centered design (UCD) applications have been developed to assist primary users, such as adolescents, with their weight management, but less is known about the influence of parents as secondary users across many socio-ecological environments. The purpose of this study was to use the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to inform the design of a UCD application in a qualitative study that sought to determine parental views on how technology can support previously learned behaviors that require ongoing management and support beyond formal lifestyle interventions. Parents of overweight and obese adolescents (n=14) were interviewed about perceived usefulness and planned user-intent of CHT that was designed for adolescents. UTAUT provided theoretical parental constructs (intention, performance and effort expectancy, and social influence) interactions within several socio-ecological contexts, including the home food environment and restaurant dining experiences. Although generalizations of this qualitative study are limited by a small sample size with predominantly mothers (n=13) of overweight and obese daughters (n=12), the exploratory inquiry using a parent as a secondary consumer user can complement the adoption of applications designed by adolescents. PMID:24507626

  11. Peer Group Membership and a Sense of Belonging: Their Relationship to Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Barbara M.; Lohman, Brenda J.; Newman, Philip R.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored three aspects of peer group membership in adolescence: peer group affiliation, the importance of group membership, and a sense of peer group belonging. Each is considered in relationship to adolescents' behavior problems as measured by the Achenbach Youth Self-Report. Participants included an ethnically and socioeconomically…

  12. Factors Associated with Self-Concept: Adolescents with Intellectual and Development Disabilities Share Their Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    How one perceives the self is critical to long-term development. The purpose of this study was to explore the self-perceptions of adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Participants included 51 adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities, their parents (n = 50), and teachers (n = 12). A mixed-methods design…

  13. Psychosocial Adjustment, School Outcomes, and Romantic Relationships of Adolescents With Same-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainright, Jennifer L.; Russell, Stephen T.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and relationship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents…

  14. Rites of Passage: A Comparison of US, Malaysian and Brazilian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Sherri Nevada; de Souza, Luciana Karine; Jafaar, Jas

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the life events perceived as "rites of passage" from adolescence to adulthood by respondents between the ages of 14 and 23 in 3 countries and discusses the possible influences of culture and globalization on these perceptions. Participants include: (1) 250 adolescents from the US (125 males and 125 females); (2) 191 adolescents…

  15. Peer Victimization and Social Anxiety in Adolescents: Prospective and Reciprocal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Rebecca S.; La Greca, Annette M.; Harrison, Hannah M.

    2009-01-01

    This study used a 2-month prospective research design to examine the bi-directional interplay between peer victimization and social anxiety among adolescents. Participants included 228 adolescents (58% female) in grades 10-12. Three types of peer victimization were examined: "overt" (physical aggression or verbal threats), "relational" (malicious…

  16. Predicting Suicide Risks among Outpatient Adolescents Using the Family Environment Scale: Implications for Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucey, Christopher F.; Lam, Sarah K. Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to identify characteristics of family functioning that relate to suicide potential in an outpatient adolescent population. Participants included 51 adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 who were involved in outpatient counselling. The Family Environment Scale and the Suicide Probability Scale were used to assess…

  17. Correlates of Anxiety Sensitivity among African American Adolescents Living in Urban Public Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebbitt, Von E.; Lambert, Sharon F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines individual, social, and contextual correlates of anxiety sensitivity among African American adolescents living in public housing. The study also reports prevalence of anxiety sensitivity among this population of youth. Participants included 238 African American adolescents (mean age = 15.6) living in three public housing…

  18. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Kelly N.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Shelton, Terri L.; Frabutt, James M.; Willford, Amanda P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge base of adolescent substance use by examining the influences of risk and protective factors for specific substance use, namely alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Participants included 271 adolescents and their primary caregivers referred for mental health services across North Carolina. A…

  19. Inductive Discipline, Parental Expression of Disappointed Expectations, and Moral Identity in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Renee B.; Gibbs, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Within the fields of socialization and moral development, the relationship of parenting to adolescents' sense of morality and self has been understudied. This study investigated the relationships between perceived parental disciplinary techniques and moral identity among early and middle adolescents. Participants included 93 (54% female) 5th, 8th…

  20. Cognitive and Parenting Pathways in the Transmission of Antisocial Behavior from Parents to Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Shannon J.; Conger, Rand D.; Kim, Kee Jeong; Masyn, Katherine E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescent perceptions of parental behavior and disrupted parenting in the continuity of antisocial behavior across generations. Participants included 430 adolescents and their biological parents assessed during the period from the 9th to 12th grades (9th grade age in years: M=15.09, SD=0.43). Structural equation…

  1. School Reintegration for Children and Adolescents with Cancer: The Role of School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mekel S.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of advancements in medical expertise and technology, children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer now have opportunities to participate in many typical activities, including school. To some extent, school reintegration reflects positive adjustment to their illness. Nevertheless, children and adolescents with cancer may experience…

  2. School Engagement, Acculturation, and Mental Health among Migrant Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoshani, Anat; Nakash, Ora; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of school engagement and the mediation effect of acculturation in predicting 1.5 and second-generation migrant adolescents' mental health and risk behaviors. Participants included 448 seventh to tenth grade Israeli students (mean age 14.50, 53% boys): 128 non-Jewish 1.5 generation migrant adolescents (children…

  3. Coping and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with a Chronic Medical Condition: A Search for Intervention Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for adolescents with a chronic medical condition. A wide range of coping techniques were studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 176 adolescents participated. They were…

  4. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…

  5. Child Attachment and Family Environment Differences of Adolescent Children with ADHD and/or Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, Jennifer; Thompson, Bruce

    This study explored the development of attachment bonds in adolescents with diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or conduct disorder (CD). Participants included 102 mother/adolescent-child dyads from both rural and metropolitan areas and from six states. Subjects had received an ADHD diagnosis, a CD diagnosis, or a…

  6. Adolescents' Psychological Health and Experiences with Unwanted Sexual Behavior at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, Greetje

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated included psychosomatic problems and self-esteem. It…

  7. Suppressor Effects in Coping Research with African American Adolescents from Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…

  8. Adolescent Prostitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Bernie; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Explores the conditions which lead to teenagers' becoming prostitutes, including alienation, abuse, lack of education and employment, and family problems. Discusses the role of the justice system and institutions and the need for improving adolescents' self-image. (JAC)

  9. Adolescent fertility programs: responding to the needs of today's youth.

    PubMed

    Galang, M L; Jamias, E G; Silayan-go, A

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 conference on Adolescent Fertility Management in Asia and the Pacific provided a forum for sharing information and experiences. The project was designed to stimulate interest in and strengthen existing programs on adolescent fertility in participating countries, i.e., Bangladesh, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri lanka, and Thailand. Specifically, the conference sought to identify adolescent fertility problems and share experiences in managing adolescent fertility programs, identify gaps in the development and implementation of adolescent fertility programs and projects, and formulate plans to meet the adolescent fertility needs of the participating countries. Capsule presentations of the experiences of the participating countries are presented. Focus is on the projects they have undertaken and proposed activities. In Bangladesh Jatio Tarum Sangha, the national youth organization, seeks to get youth involved in family planning activities through information/education/motivation programs and community development projects. Fiji proposes to establish a youth center to be operated by the Ministry of Health to reduce the incidence of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents and to make them more aware of sex-related health problems and the importance of responsible sex. India's Family Planning Association has initiated population education programs for youth. Several projects have been launched in Jakarta to cope with adolescent fertility problems including the adolescent health project, the Consultation Center for Adolescents, and the university-based family health project. The Family Planning Association of Nepal has completed some major programs under its youth project. The Philippines' proposed youth centers are planned to respond to the fertility related needs and problems of Filipino adolescents. Innovations of the center are: the operation of several youth-serving government and private agencies under 1 roof

  10. Maternal Attachment and Depressive Symptoms in Urban Adolescents: The Influence of Coping Strategies and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Campbell, Cynthya L.; Kesselring, Christine M.; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined coping strategies as mediators of the relation between maternal attachment and depressive symptoms in a sample of urban youth. Participants included 393 adolescents (M age = 12.03, SD = 0.85) participating in a larger study of the impact of stressful life experiences on low-income urban youth. Participants completed…

  11. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  12. Teaching Helping to Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Watkins, Jessica; Murray, Rachel; Connell, James E.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a replication and extension of Reeve, Reeve, Townsend, and Poulson (2007) evaluating the effects of a treatment package that included multiple-exemplar training, video modeling, prompting, and reinforcement on helping of 3 adolescents with autism. Results demonstrated that all participants acquired the helping responses. Probes…

  13. Sequelae of Aggression in Acutely Suicidal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Washburn, Jason J.; Feingold, Alan; Kramer, Anne C.; Ivey, Asha Z.; King, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of aggression on problem course and suicide risk were examined in 270 acutely suicidal adolescents (ages 12-17 years; 184 girls). Participants were assessed during psychiatric hospitalization (T1), 6-months post-hospitalization (T2), and 15 or more months post-hospitalization (T3). Study variables included self- and…

  14. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted…

  15. Comparison of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors Between Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders and Without.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Stephanie M; Jakicic, John M; Gibbs, Bethany Barone

    2016-07-01

    Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were more likely to be overweight and obese, and less likely to engage in regular PA versus typically developing adolescents (p's < 0.05). Increased odds for overweight and obesity were attenuated after adjustment for PA. Higher autism severity was associated with increased odds of overweight and obesity and decreased odds of PA, sport, and club participation. These findings suggest adolescents with ASD are in need of targeted programs to decrease obesity and increase physical activity. PMID:26936162

  16. Viral suppression in adolescents on antiretroviral treatment: A review of the literature and critical appraisal of methodological challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ferrand, Rashida A; Briggs, Datonye; Ferguson, Jane; Penazzato, Martina; Armstrong, Alice; MacPherson, Peter; Ross, David A; Kranzer, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Background Medication adherence is often sub-optimal for adolescents with HIV, and establishing correct weight-based antiretroviral therapy dosing is difficult, contributing to virological failure. This review aimed to determine the proportion of adolescents achieving virological suppression after initiating ART. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases were searched. Studies published between January 2004 and September 2014 including ≥ 50 adolescents taking ART and reporting on the proportion of virological suppressed participants were included. Results From a total of 5316 potentially relevant citations, 20 studies were included. Only 8 studies reported the proportion of adolescents that were virologically suppressed at a specified time point. The proportion of adolescents with virological suppression at 12 months ranged from 27%-89%. Conclusion Adolescent achievement of HIV virological suppression was highly variable. Improved reporting of virological outcomes from a wider range of settings is required to support efforts to improve HIV care and treatment for adolescents. PMID:26681359

  17. Comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviours between young haemophilia A patients and healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    González, L M; Peiró-Velert, C; Devís-Devís, J; Valencia-Peris, A; Pérez-Gimeno, E; Pérez-Alenda, S; Querol, F

    2011-07-01

    In recent studies, adolescent haemophilia A patients and healthy adolescents have been encouraged to participate in physical activity (PA) based on its many established health benefits. However, none of the studies to date has used objective measures of PA and sedentary behaviour. The aims of the current study included: (i) to determine the amount and intensity of habitual PA among haemophilia A and healthy adolescents, and in haemophilia A patients with and without bleeding episodes in the previous year, and (ii) to identify the type and determine the time spent in sedentary activities in which both groups participate to obtain a broadened view of their daily activities. A total of 41 adolescent haemophiliacs and 25 healthy adolescents, between the ages of 8 and 18 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure PA and the Adolescent Sedentary Activity Questionnaire to assess sedentary behaviours among members of both groups. Adolescent haemophilia A patients showed a higher daily mean time engaged in light, moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PAs relative to their healthy counterparts (P < 0.001). Patients who had experienced bleeding episodes during the previous year also spent more time participating in vigorous PAs than healthy adolescents (P = 0.002). With regard to sedentary behaviours, healthy adolescents spent more time listening to music than haemophilia A adolescents (P = 0.003), whereas haemophilia A adolescents spent more time watching TV (P < 0.001) and playing videogames (P = 0.003) than healthy counterparts. Findings suggest that increased participation in moderate intensity PAs and reduced sedentary behaviours should be recommended among adolescents with haemophilia A. PMID:21299746

  18. ASD Symptom Severity in Adolescence of Individuals Diagnosed with PDD-NOS in Childhood: Stability and the Relation with Psychiatric Comorbidity and Societal Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louwerse, A.; Eussen, M. L. J. M.; Van der Ende, J.; de Nijs, P. F. A.; Van Gool, A. R.; Dekker, L. P.; Verheij, C.; Verheij, F.; Verhulst, F. C.; Greaves-Lord, K.

    2015-01-01

    The current 7-year follow-up study investigated: (1) the stability of ASD severity, and (2) associations of ASD severity in adolescence with (a) childhood and concurrent psychiatric comorbidity, and (b) concurrent societal functioning. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children were…

  19. Urban Adolescent Mothers Exposed to Community, Family, and Partner Violence: Is Cumulative Violence Exposure a Barrier to School Performance and Participation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Angie C.; Bennett, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Using a risk and resilience perspective, the authors assessed urban adolescent mothers' exposure to community, family, and partner violence and analyzed the relationships between cumulative violence exposure and multiple school outcomes, within the context of welfare reforms. Positive attitude toward school and social support were examined as…

  20. The Role of Participant Motivation in the Outcome of a Prevention/Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Substance Use Problems and Illegal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alfred S.; Terras, Arlene; Glassman, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine, for a court-adjudicated adolescent male sample (N = 160) mandated to a residential program setting, the degree to which their expressed motivation for getting help with their alcohol, illicit drug and illegal behavior problems was found to predict to the outcome of an early intervention treatment…

  1. Victim Age and the Generalist Versus Specialist Distinction in Adolescent Sexual Offending.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Elisabeth J; Pullman, Lesleigh E; Motayne, Gregory; Seto, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    More knowledge is needed about the etiology and treatment needs of adolescent sex offenders. The current study compared adolescents who had offended against children (defined as below the age of 12 and at least 5 years younger than the adolescent), adolescents who have offended against peers or adults, and adolescents who had victims in both age groups. Based on Seto and Lalumière's meta-analytic findings, participants were compared on theoretically derived factors, including childhood sexual abuse, atypical sexual interests, sexual experience, social competence, psychiatric history, and general delinquency factors (past criminal history, substance abuse history, and offense characteristics). The study sample consisted of 162 court-referred male adolescent sexual offenders aged 12 to 17 years. Of the six identified domains, groups significantly differed on five of them; the exceptions were variables reflecting social competence. The results further support the validity of distinguishing adolescent sex offenders by victim age. PMID:24906363

  2. Characteristics of Violence among High Risk Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann; Sieving, Renee; Seppelt, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recent evidence demonstrates increasing rates of violence involvement among adolescent girls. The objective of this study was to describe the types and sources of violence experienced within social contexts of adolescent girls at high risk for pregnancy. Method Qualitative data for this analysis are drawn from intervention summary reports of 116 girls participating in Prime Time, a youth development intervention for adolescent girls. Descriptive content analysis techniques were used to identify types and sources of violence experienced by girls within their daily contexts. Results Types of violence included physical fighting, witnessing violence, physical abuse, gang-related violence, verbal fighting, verbal abuse and sexual abuse. Sources of violence included family, peers and friends, romantic partners, community violence, and self-perpetrated. Many girls in this study experienced violence in multiple contexts. Discussion It is imperative that efforts to assess and prevent violence among adolescent girls pay attention to the social contexts in which these adolescents live. PMID:23623540

  3. Adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    in their lives with varying and varied attempts to master, or cope with, the inevitable change in their existential status. Some try but fail and some fail to try, with resulting despair that can lead those adolescents to believe that suicide is the only choice they have to end their suffering. We described how psychodynamics can influence motivation, relationships, and behaviors, and how these may contribute to an outcome of suicide. Existing psychopathological conditions contribute. These include anxiety, dysthymia, posttraumatic stress disorders, acute reactive disorders, major affective disorders, severe conduct disorders, and psychotic disorders. We considered the possible lethal interplay between psychodynamic and psychopathological factors. This led to the crux of this report, a full discussion of prevention and treatment. The first and most important aspect of suicide prevention is early recognition of the adolescent at risk. It is of high priority to detect and treat those psychiatric disorders accompanied by greatest suicidal risk; depression, conduct disorders, substance abuse disorders, borderline conditions, and schizoaffective disorders. With all adolescents, threats of suicide must be taken seriously. There should be an immediate, complete psychiatric workup preferably before specific treatment begins. If crisis intervention must precede diagnostic study, the workup should not be delayed longer than necessary. Education of health care professionals, educators, families, and peers about warning signs can emphasize early intervention and thereby enable a skilled psychiatrist to assess suicidal thoughts, plans, means, and previous attempts, past and current life stresses, and available family and environmental support. All of this information will lead to a decision regarding hospitalization and treatment for the adolescent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:8721288

  4. Parent and adolescent effects of a universal group program for the parenting of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chu, Joanna Ting Wai; Bullen, Pat; Farruggia, Susan P; Dittman, Cassandra K; Sanders, Matthew R

    2015-05-01

    There is growing support for the large-scale implementation of parenting programs for the prevention of child behavior disorders and child maltreatment in younger children. However, there is only limited evidence on the efficacy of parenting programs in modifying risk and protective factors relating to adolescent behavior problems. This study examined the efficacy of Group Teen Triple P (GTTP), an eight-session parenting program specifically designed for parents of young adolescents. Seventy-two families with adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years were randomly assigned to either GTTP (n = 35) or a care as usual (CAU) control condition (n = 37). Compared to CAU parents, parents who received GTTP reported significant improvements in parenting practices, parenting confidence, the quality of family relationships, and fewer adolescent problem behaviors at post-intervention. Several of the parent-reported effects were corroborated by reports from adolescents, including decreases in parent-adolescent conflict and increases in parental monitoring. Adolescents whose parents participated in GTTP also reported significantly fewer behavioral problems than adolescents in the CAU condition. Many of these improvements were maintained at 6-month follow-up. PMID:25373684

  5. Becoming an adolescent father: precursors and parenting.

    PubMed

    Fagot, B I; Pears, K C; Capaldi, D M; Crosby, L; Leve, C S

    1998-11-01

    Precursors and outcomes of adolescent pregnancy receive considerable research attention; however, most studies deal with adolescent mothers. This study examined whether risk factors that are precursors to adolescent fatherhood would be consistent with the family coercion model (G. R. Patterson, 1976) of the development of antisocial behavior in childhood. Hypotheses were tested in the Oregon Youth Study (OYS) sample of 206 at-risk boys who were first seen at 9 or 10 years of age. At 18-20 years of age, the profiles for the 35 adolescent fathers included more arrests and substance use than the other OYS participants. At around 2 years of age, 40% of the children had no contact with their fathers. The children, compared with a normative control sample, had somewhat greater health risks. The at-risk parents, compared with a control sample, were observed to show higher levels of negative reactions when their children were working on a puzzle task. PMID:9823506

  6. African American adolescents' academic persistence: a strengths-based approach.

    PubMed

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Chavous, Tabbye M; Hurd, Noelle; Varner, Fatima

    2013-09-01

    African American adolescents are faced with the challenge to be successful academically, even though they may experience racial discrimination within school settings. Unfortunately, relatively little scholarship explores how African American adolescents draw on personal and cultural assets to persist and thrive in the face of discriminatory experiences. Additionally, little research has explored the buffering role of assets (e.g., racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance) on the relationship between school-based racial discriminatory experiences and the academic persistence of African American adolescents. Participants in the current study included 220 (58 % girls) socioeconomically diverse African American adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to identify clusters based on participants' racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance. Three cluster groups were identified. The majority of the students belonged to the average group in which adolescents reported average levels of the three study assets. Adolescents in the higher group reported higher assets relative to their peers in the study and those in the lower group reported lower strength-based assets relative to their peers. Results indicated that school-based racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of academic persistence. Additionally, adolescents in the higher assets group reported higher academic persistence in comparison to the average and low group. Our model reflected a promotive but not protective influence of adolescents' assets on their academic persistence. PMID:23700259

  7. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…

  8. "Keep on Keeping on, Even When It's Hard!": Predictors and Outcomes of Adolescent Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Day, Randal D.; Dyer, W. Justin; Black, Brent C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined adolescent persistence as a mediator between authoritative parenting and adolescents' school engagement, prosocial behavior, and delinquency. Participants were taken from Time 2, 3, and 4 of the Flourishing Families Project and included 325 two-parent families with a child between the ages of 11 and 14 at Time 2…

  9. Social Communication Impairments in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: Slow Response Time and the Impact of Prompting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaland, Nils; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Smith, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In the present study children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome (N=13) and a matched control group of typically developing children and adolescents were presented with 26 vignettes of daily life situations, including irony, metaphors, contrary emotions, jealousy, social blunders, and understanding intentions. The participants in the AS group…

  10. Attachment Representations in Mothers, Fathers, Adolescents, and Clinical Groups: A Meta-analytic Search for Normative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    1996-01-01

    This meta-analysis on 33 studies, including more than 2,000 Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications, presents distributions of AAI classifications in samples of nonclinical fathers and mothers, in adolescents, in samples from different cultures, and in clinical groups. Fathers, adolescents, and participants from different countries show…

  11. Comparing among the Experiences of Self-Cutting, Hitting, and Scratching in Chinese Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Jianing; Ma, Congfen; Lin, Min-Pei; Leung, Freedom

    2015-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' experiences associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and compared among the experiences of self-cutting, hitting, and scratching. Participants included 42 Chinese adolescents attending secondary schools. They had at least three NSSI episodes in the preceding year. Information about their experiences of NSSI…

  12. Multilevel Modeling of Direct Effects and Interactions of Peers, Parents, School, and Community Influences on Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Megan L.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a social-ecological model of adolescent substance use. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate how systems, such as parents, peers, schools, and communities, directly influence and interact together to influence adolescent substance use. Participants included 14,548 (50.3% female) middle school students who were 78.6% White,…

  13. Weight Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: Are There Differences in Meeting Recommended Health Behavior Guidelines for Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minges, Karl E.; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from…

  14. Relational Aggression in Adolescents' Sibling Relationships: Links to Sibling and Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Denning, Donna J.; McHale, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the links between sibling relational aggression and other sibling relationship qualities (i.e., intimacy, negativity, and temporal involvement) and broader parenting dynamics. Participants included 185 adolescent sibling pairs and their mothers and fathers. Data were gathered during home interviews and a series of nightly phone…

  15. An examination of psychopathology and daily impairment in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C; Bunnell, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group

  16. Association between Family Structure and Physical Activity of Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Qi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study examines the association between family structure and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescents in China. Methods. The participants included 612 adolescents (317 boys and 295 girls) from Shanghai with ages ranging from 10 to 16 years. Accelerometers were used to measure the duration of MVPA of adolescents, and questionnaires on family structure were completed by the parents of these adolescents. Results. Findings suggested that family structure significantly increased the likelihood of adolescents engaging in physical activity (PA) and explained 6% of MPVA variance. Adolescents living in single-parent households and step families were more physically active than those living in two-parent homes and with biological parents, respectively. However, adolescents residing with grandparents were less active than those living with neither grandparent. No significant difference was found in MVPA time between adolescents living with one sibling and those without siblings. Conclusion. Family environment may be considered in the development of PA interventions and policies, and adolescents living with their grandparents may be targeted in PA promotion. PMID:27123446

  17. Parental Knowledge of Adolescent Activities: Links with Parental Attachment Style and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason D.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, C. W.; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-01-01

    Parents’ knowledge of their adolescents’ whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents’ attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents’ alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (mean age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in two-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers’ and fathers’ insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all three reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers’ and fathers’ attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. PMID:25730406

  18. Longitudinal associations between television viewing patterns and adolescent body satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Deborah; Trinh, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study addressed profiles of adolescent television use and associations between television viewing profiles and the development of body satisfaction. A sample of 841 adolescent boys and girls, ages 11-17, was recruited for participation in a longitudinal study of adolescent media use. Prior research established eight adolescent television profiles among this sample, reflecting unique patterns of consumption of certain genres, character types, and themes (e.g., romance). This study examined whether an adolescent's television profile predicted Time 2 body satisfaction, after controlling for Time 1 body satisfaction. Among boys, television viewing was unrelated to Time 2 body satisfaction. After controlling for initial body satisfaction, hours spent watching television marginally predicted lower Time 2 body satisfaction among girls. After including television profiles alongside television hours, however, television profile emerged as the stronger predictor. Specifically, a group of girls who watched television frequently and indiscriminately reported the most severe drop in body satisfaction. PMID:21050831

  19. Beliefs in the legitimacy of decision authority among Chinese adolescents and parents: a person-centered approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yudan Chen; Faldowski, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined Chinese parents' and adolescents' beliefs in the legitimacy of decision authority with reference to specific issues from the prudential, conventional, multifaceted, and personal domains. The sample included 698 adolescents aged 12-15 and their parents from southern China. Parents and adolescents reported on their own beliefs respectively. Subgroups of parent and adolescent participants characterized by distinct patterns of beliefs across issues were identified with latent class analyses (LCA). Further, configural frequency analyses (CFA) were conducted to examine the match between parent subgroups and adolescent subgroups. In addition, the LCA-derived subgroups varied across residency status, sibling status, and child gender, and were linked to adolescent depressive symptoms and school misconduct. These associations with external variables provided evidence for the distinctiveness of the latent classes. Results were discussed in light of social domain theory and the socio-historical context where the participants were situated. PMID:25150893

  20. Brazilian Adolescents' Conceptions of Autonomy and Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milnitsky-Sapiro, Clary; Turiel, Elliot; Nucci, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two middle class and 32 lower class southern Brazilian pre-adolescent (M=12.8 years) and adolescent (M=15.7 years) participants were individually interviewed regarding their perceptions of who (adolescent or parent) should determine the adolescent's actions in cases where the parents and adolescent disagree over the action choice.…

  1. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ott, Mary A; Sucato, Gina S

    2014-10-01

    A working knowledge of contraception will assist the pediatrician in both sexual health promotion as well as treatment of common adolescent gynecologic problems. Best practices in adolescent anticipatory guidance and screening include a sexual health history, screening for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, counseling, and if indicated, providing access to contraceptives. Pediatricians' long-term relationships with adolescents and families allow them to help promote healthy sexual decision-making, including abstinence and contraceptive use. Additionally, medical indications for contraception, such as acne, dysmenorrhea, and heavy menstrual bleeding, are frequently uncovered during adolescent visits. This technical report provides an evidence base for the accompanying policy statement and addresses key aspects of adolescent contraceptive use, including the following: (1) sexual history taking, confidentiality, and counseling; (2) adolescent data on the use and side effects of newer contraceptive methods; (3) new data on older contraceptive methods; and (4) evidence supporting the use of contraceptives in adolescent patients with complex medical conditions. PMID:25266435

  2. Concurrent Trajectories of Change in Adolescent and Maternal Depressive Symptoms in the TORDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers

  3. Physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adults who suffer from psychiatric disorders report low levels of physical activity and the activity levels differ between disorders. Less is known regarding physical activity across psychiatric disorders in adolescence. We investigate the frequency and type of physical activity in adolescent psychiatric patients, compared with adolescents in the general population. Methods A total of 566 adolescent psychiatric patients aged 13–18 years who participated in the CAP survey, Norway, were compared to 8173 adolescents aged 13–19 years who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Young-HUNT 3, Norway. All adolescents completed a questionnaire, including questions about physical activity and participation in team and individual sports. Results Approximately 50% of adolescents with psychiatric disorders and 25% of the population sample reported low levels of physical activity. Within the clinical sample, those with mood disorders (62%) and autism spectrum disorders (56%) were the most inactive and those with eating disorders (36%) the most active. This pattern was the same in individual and team sports. After multivariable adjustment, adolescents with a psychiatric disorder had a three-fold increased risk of lower levels of physical activity, and a corresponding risk of not participating in team and individual sports compared with adolescents in the general population. Conclusions Levels of physical activity were low in adolescent psychiatric patients compared with the general population, yet activity levels differed considerably between various disorders. The findings underscore the importance of assessing physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and providing early intervention to promote mental as well as physical health in this early stage of life. PMID:24450542

  4. The Impact of Economic Pressure on Parent Positivity, Parenting, and Adolescent Positivity into Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Shinyoung; Schofield, Thomas J.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes how positivity can be incorporated into the Family Stress Model to explain resilience to disrupted family processes in the face of economic distress. Prospective, longitudinal data came from 451 mothers, fathers, and youth participating from their adolescence through early adulthood. Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Information regarding economic pressure, parental positivity, and parenting were collected during early adolescence, positivity was collected in late adolescence and emerging adulthood. Results indicated that economic pressure was indirectly associated with adolescent positivity through parental positivity. Economic pressure was negatively associated with parent positivity, whereas parental positivity was positively associated with parenting. Moreover, parental positivity and parenting were both related to positivity in adolescence. Results suggest that personal resources linked to a positive outlook can foster nurturant parenting, even in times of economic strain. Such parenting seems to positively influence adolescent development into emerging adulthood. PMID:25678730

  5. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...

  6. Reciprocal Effects between Parental Solicitation, Parental Control, Adolescent Disclosure, and Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan J. T.; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim

    2010-01-01

    This two-wave multi-informant study examined the bidirectional associations of parental control and solicitation with adolescent disclosure and delinquency. Participants were 289 adolescents (150 females and 139 males, modal age 14) and both parents. Parental solicitation and control did not predict adolescent delinquency, but adolescents'…

  7. Adolescent Marital Expectations and Romantic Experiences: Associations with Perceptions about Parental Conflict and Adolescent Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Sara J.; Davila, Joanne; Fincham, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This study tested associations between adolescent perceptions of interparental conflict, adolescent attachment security with parents, and adolescent marital expectations and romantic experiences. Participants were 96 early adolescent females from 2 parent families. Insecurity was examined as a mediator of the association between negative…

  8. Understanding reasons for participating in a school-based influenza vaccination program and decision-making dynamics among adolescents and parents

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Natasha L.; Gargano, Lisa M.; Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Hughes, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Vaccinating school-aged children has been demonstrated to be beneficial to the child and in reducing viral transmission to vulnerable groups such as the elderly. This qualitative study sought to identify reasons parents and students participated in a school-based influenza vaccination clinic and to characterize the decision-making process for vaccination. Eight focus groups were conducted with parents and students. Parents and students who participated in the influenza vaccination clinic stated the educational brochure mailed to their home influenced participation in the program. Parents of non-participating students mentioned barriers, such as the lengthy and complicated consent process and suspicions about the vaccine clinic, as contributing to their decision not to vaccinate their child. Vaccinated students reported initiating influenza vaccine discussion with their parents. Parental attitudes and the educational material influenced parents’ decision to allow their child to receive influenza vaccine. This novel study explored reasons for participating in a school-based vaccination clinic and the decision-making process between parents and child(ren). Persons running future school-based vaccination clinics may consider hosting an ‘information session with a question and answer session’ to address parental concerns and assist with the consent process. PMID:23727620

  9. Predictors of Birth Weight and Gestational Age Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-01-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139

  10. "You're So Gay!:" Do Different Forms of Bullying Matter for Adolescent Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swearer, Susan M.; Turner, Rhonda K.; Givens, Jami E.; Pollack, William S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined effects of adolescent males' perceptions of being bullied because of verbal taunts related to gender nonconformity (i.e., "They say I'm gay"). Participants included 251 ninth- (n=77), tenth- (n=96), and eleventh- (n=78) grade students in a private, all-male college preparatory school. Participants were divided into two groups…

  11. Parenting Processes and Aggression: The Role of Self-Control among Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Cok, Figen

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the direct and indirect relationships between parenting processes (parental closeness, parental monitoring, and parental peer approval), low self-control, and aggression. Participants were 546 adolescents aged 14-18 attending state high schools in Turkey. Participants completed a questionnaire that included measures of…

  12. The Protective Role of Group Identity: Sectarian Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Emotion Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The protective role of strength of group identity was examined for youth in a context of protracted political conflict. Participants included 814 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.61, SD = 1.99 at Time 1) participating in a longitudinal study in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, the results show that the effect of…

  13. Urban, Suburban, and Rural: Adolescents' Use and Preferences for Fitness Promotion Technologies across Communities

    PubMed Central

    Mikulec, Erika; Goniu, Natalie; Moreno, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. An understanding of adolescents' use of technology across ages and communities could allow for future targeted obesity intervention strategies. Methods. Focus groups of adolescents from rural, suburban, and urban cities in three states were conducted. Focus groups were led by a trained facilitator to explore how participants used technologies and whether they applied them for fitness purposes. All focus groups were audio recorded and manually transcribed. Analysis was conducted by three investigators using an iterative process. Results. Five focus groups included adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years (20 females and 8 males.) Three themes were derived from our data. First, we found age differences regarding technology applied to fitness. Younger participants described technology as a complement to fitness; older participants viewed technology as a motivator for fitness. Second, differences in fitness approaches existed between rural and urban adolescents. Adolescents in rural communities reported focusing on the outdoors for fitness, while urban adolescents relied on fitness-oriented video games. Both rural and urban teens related having a lack of fitness-focused resources in their communities. Conclusions. Our findings indicate differences in adolescents' application of technology for fitness. Despite adolescents' differing uses of technology across communities, a common need exists to expand their resources. PMID:24533221

  14. Risk factors for adolescent marijuana use across cultures and across time.

    PubMed

    Brook, J S; Brook, D W; Arencibia-Mireles, O; Richter, L; Whiteman, M

    2001-09-01

    An integrated analysis of the data from 3 different studies was conducted to examine the early psychosocial predictors of later marijuana use among adolescents. Longitudinal analysis of interview data was performed. The data used in the analysis were derived from (a) a sample of 739 predominantly White adolescents representative of the northeastern United States, (b) a sample of 1,190 minority adolescents from the East Harlem section of New York City, and (c) a sample of 1,374 Colombian adolescents from two cities in Colombia, South America. In 2 of the samples, participants were interviewed in their homes, and in the 3rd study, participants were assessed in school. The predictors included a number of variables from (a) the personality domain, reflecting the adolescents' conventionality and intrapsychic functioning; (b) the family domain, representing the parent-child mutual attachment relationship and parental substance use; (c) the peer domain, reflecting the peer group's delinquency and substance use; and (d) the adolescents' own use of legal drugs. The dependent variable was adolescent marijuana use. The results of the analysis demonstrated remarkable consistency in the risk and protective factors for later marijuana use across the 3 samples, attesting to the robust nature of these predictors and their generalizability across gender, time, location, and ethnic/cultural background. These findings have important implications for designing intervention programs. Programs aimed at preventing adolescent marijuana use can be designed to incorporate universal features and still incorporate specific components that address the unique needs of adolescents from different groups. PMID:11678369

  15. A Multimodal Behavioral Intervention to Impact Adherence and Risk Behavior among Perinatally and Behaviorally HIV-Infected Youth: Description, Delivery, and Receptivity of Adolescent Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandwani, Sulachni; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J.; Barnes, William; D'Angelo, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Secondary prevention programs are needed to help HIV-positive youth reduce risk behavior and improve adherence to HIV medications. This article provides an overview of Adolescent Impact, a secondary HIV prevention intervention, including its description, delivery, and receptivity among the two unique groups of participants. Adolescent Impact, a…

  16. A Canonical Correlation Analysis of the Influence of Social Comparison, Gender, and Grade Level on the Multidimensional Self-Concepts of Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinn, Anne N.; Jamieson, Kelly M.; Gross, Candace M.; McQueen, Kand S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of social comparison, gender, and grade level on gifted adolescents' multidimensional self-concept. Participants include 248 gifted adolescents who had completed the sixth through tenth grade during the previous academic year. Multidimensional self-concept was measured using the Self Description Questionnaire II…

  17. A Preliminary Examination of Identity Exploration and Commitment among Polish Adolescents with and without Motor Disability: Does Disability Constitute Diversity in Identity Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominiak-Kochanek, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define whether, and to what extent identity formation in late adolescence is disability specific. Ninety-eight adolescents participated in this study, including 43 students with motor disability and 55 students without disability. Identity exploration and commitment was measured by the Utrecht-Groningen Identity…

  18. Parental Influence on Substance Use in Adolescent Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Holly B.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Both peer and parental influences have been associated with the use of addictive substances in adolescence. We evaluated the relationship between the parenting style of an adolescent’s peers’ parents and an adolescent’s substance use. Design Longitudinal survey Setting Adolescents across the United States were interviewed at school and at home Participants Nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States Main Exposure Authoritative versus neglectful parenting style of adolescent’s parents and adolescent’s friends parents; adolescent substance use Main Outcome Measures Adolescent alcohol abuse, smoking, marijuana use, and binge drinking Results If an adolescent has a friend whose mother is authoritative, that adolescent is 40% (95% CI 12%–58%) less likely to drink to the point of drunkenness, 38% (95% CI 5%–59%) less likely to binge drink, 39% (95% CI 12%–58%) less likely to smoke cigarettes, and 43% (95% CI 1%–67%) less likely to use marijuana than an adolescent whose friend’s mother is neglectful, controlling for the parenting style of the adolescent’s own mother, school level fixed effects, and demographics. These results are only partially mediated by peer substance use. Conclusion Social network influences may extend beyond the homogeneous dimensions of own-peer or own-parent to include extra-dyadic influences of the wider network. The value of parenting interventions should be re-assessed to take into account these spillover effects in the greater network. PMID:23045157

  19. A different way of being: adolescents' experiences with cancer.

    PubMed

    Woodgate, Roberta Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents with cancer face many challenges that may impact negatively their psychological well-being. In evaluating the psychosocial functioning of adolescents with cancer, research suggests that an altered self-image may emerge in those who have difficulty adjusting. However, little is known about adolescents' perceptions of how cancer affects their sense of self. Part of a larger study, this article addresses findings specific to understanding the impact that cancer and its symptoms had on adolescents' sense of self. To help discover meaningful interpretations of their experiences, a longitudinal, qualitative study was conducted. Data collection methods included open-ended, individual and focus group interviews and participant observation. The constant comparative method of data analysis yielded theoretical categories that were supported by the adolescents' narratives. Findings revealed that adolescents experienced changes in their lived bodies because of the symptoms and this, in turn, impacted their sense of self and way of being in the world. Six ways of being in the world were identified: life as a klutz; life as a prisoner; life as an invalid; life as an alien; life as a zombie; and life as a kid. In helping adolescents deal with the changes, it was important to family and friends to respond to them like they were the same person, but also to treat them special at times. Although adolescents spoke to the significance that cancer had on their lives, they described themselves as "still being pretty much the same person." PMID:15681977

  20. Chronic Condition and Risk Behaviours in Portuguese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Teresa; Ferreira, Mafalda; Simões, Maria Celeste; Machado, Maria Céu; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2014-01-01

    Living with a chronic condition (CC) in adolescence has been historically considered protective for risk behaviours. However, research from the last decade suggest that when compared with healthy peers, adolescents living with a chronic condition can engage in risky behaviours in a similar if not higher rate than their counterparts living with out a CC. This study aims to characterize and evaluate the impact of 1) living with a chronic condition (CC), and 2) how the perception of living with a CC affects school participation, and its association with risk/protective behaviours (drunkenness, physical fight, sadness and self-harm). For this purpose 4 groups were identified: adolescents with mostly healthy behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk-internalizing behaviours and adolescents with mostly risk-externalizing behaviours. A large sample was included in this study, composed by 3494 Portuguese adolescents with an average age of 15 years, who participated in the Portuguese Survey of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children/WHO (HBSC). Main results show that adolescents living with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours when compared to adolescents without CC, who present more healthy behaviors. Furthermore, adolescents that report that having a CC affects school participation show more risky behaviours than those not affected by a CC who present more healthy behaviours. Boys with a CC show more healthy behaviours, and those who feel that the CC affects school participation present more risky behaviours. On the other hand, girls with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours and less healthy behaviours It is important to point out that dolescents living with a CC represent a vulnerable group, and may engage in experimental/risky behaviours as likely as their non CC peers. Thus, potential benefits can arise from reinforcing interventions within protective contexts (family/peers/school setting). Health

  1. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841

  2. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID

  3. Mother-adolescent relationship quality as a moderator of associations between racial socialization and adolescent psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sharon F; Roche, Kathleen M; Saleem, Farzana T; Henry, Jessica S

    2015-09-01

    Parents' racial socialization messages, including messages focused on awareness, preparation, and strategies for managing racial discrimination, are necessary to help African American youth successfully navigate their daily lives. However, mixed findings regarding the utility of preparation for bias messages for African American youth's mental health adjustment raise questions about the conditions under which these protective racial socialization messages are most beneficial to African American youth. The current study examined the degree to which communication and trust as well as anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship moderated associations between 2 types of preparation for bias messages, cultural alertness to discrimination and cultural coping with antagonism, and adolescent mental health. Participants were 106 African American adolescents (57% female; mean age = 15.41) who reported about their receipt of racial socialization messages, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that positive associations between cultural alertness to racial discrimination and youth depressive symptoms were weaker for boys in the context of higher mother-adolescent communication and trust; communication and trust were not similarly protective for girls. For boys, the positive associations between cultural coping with antagonism messages and depressive symptoms were stronger in the context of high anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship. Findings suggest that qualities of the mother-adolescent relationship, in which preparation for bias messages are delivered, are important for understanding the mental health adjustment of African American adolescents. PMID:26460701

  4. A randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of the ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program: rationale and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The transition to adolescence is a time of increased vulnerability for risk taking and poor health, social and academic outcomes. Parents have an important role in protecting their children from these potential harms. While the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing problem behavior has been demonstrated, it is not known if parenting programs that target families prior to the onset of significant behavioral difficulties in early adolescence (9-14 years) improve the wellbeing of adolescents and their parents. This paper describes the rationale and methodology of a randomised controlled trial testing the efficacy of a parenting program for the promotion of factors known to be associated with positive adolescent outcomes, such as positive parenting practices, parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent behavior. Methods/Design One hundred and eighty parents were randomly allocated to an intervention or wait list control group. Parents in the intervention group participated in the ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program, a 6-session behavioral family intervention program which also incorporates acceptance-based strategies. Participants in the Wait List control group did not receive the intervention during a six month waiting period. The study was designed to comply with recommendations of the CONSORT statement. The primary outcome measures were reduction in parent-adolescent conflict and improvements in parent-adolescent relationships. Secondary outcomes included improvements in parent psychosocial wellbeing, parenting self-efficacy and perceived effectiveness, parent-adolescent communication and adolescent behavior. Conclusions Despite the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing child behavioral difficulties, very few parenting programs for preventing problems in adolescents have been described in the peer reviewed literature. This study will provide data which can be used to examine the efficacy of a universal parenting interventions

  5. Leadership and adolescent girls: a qualitative study of leadership development.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Michael A; Kennedy, Cara L

    2008-12-01

    This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based leadership program. This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see themselves included within their concepts of leadership. Following the program their view of leadership expanded and diversified in a manner that allowed for inclusion of themselves within it. They spoke with greater strength and confidence and felt better positioned and inspired to act as leaders. Participants identified having examples of women leaders, adopting multiple concepts of leadership, and participating in an environment of mutual respect and trust as factors that contributed to their expanded conceptualization. PMID:18931906

  6. Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Lynda Y.; Johnson, Norbert

    1983-01-01

    Explores the causes and symptoms of adolescent suicide including depression, loss of parent, alienation from family, and a mystical concept of death. Treatment procedures with unsuccessful suicide attempters and their parents are described and prevention strategies are discussed which involve teachers and counselors as well as parents. (JAC)

  7. Determinants of Internet addiction among adolescents: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Critselis, Elena; Louizou, Amalia; Janikian, Mari; Freskou, Aliki; Marangou, Evgenia; Kormas, Georgios; Kafetzis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Internet Addiction (IA) is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012) and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p < 0.0001). The proportion of adolescents with poor academic performance (p < 0.0001) and unexcused school absences (p = 0.004) was greater among those with IA. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents with IA were engaged in high-risk behaviors (p < 0.0001). Finally, adolescents with IA were 3.89 times more likely to present with comorbid psychiatric conditions (CI 95%: 1.19-12.70), including depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022). Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression. PMID:21516283

  8. Prospective Associations between Dietary Patterns and Cognitive Performance during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyaradi, Anett; Foster, Jonathan K.; Hickling, Siobhan; Li, Jianghong; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Jacques, Angela; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate prospective associations between dietary patterns and cognitive performance during adolescence. Methods: Participants were sourced from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study that includes 2868 children born between 1989 and 1992 in Perth, Western Australia. When the children were…

  9. Woodland Adventure for Marginalized Adolescents: Environmental Attitudes, Identity and Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Joe

    2011-01-01

    The present study was concerned with the effects of a residential woodland education program, incorporating both educational and adventure elements, on proenvironmental attitudes and aspects of well-being. Specifically, adolescent participants (N = 25) from a broad range of backgrounds, including some with challenging behavioral characteristics,…

  10. Perceived Parenting Styles as Predictor of Internet Addiction in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Huseyin; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Bozdas, Canan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceived parenting styles as predictors of Internet addiction in adolescence. The participants of the study were a total of 419 high school students including 238 girl and 181 boy students whose mean age was 16.5. Personal information form, "Internet Addiction Test" and "Perceived Parenting Style Scale"…

  11. Paternal Psychopathology: Relationship to Adolescent Substance Abuse and Deviant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Research has documented the genetic contribution of paternal alcoholism and Antisocial Personality Disorder as risk factors for adolescent deviant behavior, including substance abuse. Teens (n=147) between the ages of 12 and 19 years and their parents participated in the study. The sample consisted of 74 substance abusing teens/families drawn from…

  12. American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…

  13. Handbook of Adolescent Transition Education for Youth with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L., Ed.; Webb, Kristine W., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Transition from secondary education to adulthood represents a period during which adolescents with disabilities face multiple responsibilities and changing roles that include establishing independence, attending postsecondary education or training, developing social networks, choosing a career, participating in their communities, and managing…

  14. How Do Finnish Pre-Adolescents Perceive Religion and Spirituality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…

  15. Preliminary Normative Data on the Penn State University Symbol Cancellation Task With Nonconcussed Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Conder, Lauren H; Newton, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Visual concentration impairment after neurologic injury is frequent, making its identification a critical component of neurocognitive concussion assessment. Visual target cancellation tests such as the Penn State University Symbol Cancellation Task (PSUSCT) have been widely used in assessing professional and collegiate athletes. To date, there are no normative studies using the PSUSCT with an adolescent population. Given that 38 million children and adolescents participate in sports and an estimated 5% to 10% are concussed annually, adolescent normative data are critically needed to evaluate concussions in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to provide adolescent normative data on the PSUSCT. Participants included 40 healthy, nonconcussed high school students aged 14 to 19 years old (20 men, 20 women). Participants were administered Forms A and C of the PSUSCT within a 4-day period. Data analysis examined hits, omission errors, and commission errors, with descriptive statistics calculated for the total sample and for subgroups by gender and age. Study 1 provided normative adolescent data on Form A. Study 2 examined practice effects and established reliable change indexes (RCIs) by comparing results on Forms A and C. Neither Study 1 nor Study 2 demonstrated significant group differences for gender or age. In conclusion, this study presents adolescent normative data, apparent practice effects, and RCIs on the PSUSCT. These norms provide data needed to appropriately include the PSUSCT in baseline and postinjury concussion evaluation batteries with adolescent student-athletes. Findings should be replicated with a larger, more heterogeneous sample. PMID:25072106

  16. Keeping Adolescents Busy with Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Salerno, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent participation in academic/extracurricular activities is related to fewer diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections during adolescence. The role parents play in motivating participation in such activities is unclear. This mixed-methods study explored parental influences on academic/extracurricular activity participation, and the…

  17. Adolescent Pregnancy: A Medical Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborn, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the medical and social consequences of adolescent pregnancy, including maternal and infant mortality, and low birth weight. Discusses why pregnant adolescents do not seek prenatal care and implications for health providers. (FMW)

  18. Mixed-method Exploration of Social Network Links to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Consuelo M.; Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Mann, William C.; Young, Mary Ellen; McCarty, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The people who regularly interact with an adolescent form that youth's social network, which may impact participation. We investigated the relationship of social networks to participation using personal network analysis and individual interviews. The sample included 36 youth, age 11 – 16 years. Nineteen had diagnoses of learning disability, attention disorder, or high-functioning autism and 17 were typically developing. Network analysis yielded 10 network variables, of which 8 measured network composition and 2 measured network structure, with significant links to at least one measure of participation using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Interviews from youth in the clinical group yielded description of strategies used to negotiate social interactions, as well as processes and reasoning used to remain engaged within social networks. Findings contribute to understanding the ways social networks are linked to youth participation and suggest the potential of social network factors for predicting rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:26594737

  19. Political Efficacy and Expected Political Participation among Lower and Upper Secondary Students. A Comparative Analysis with Data from the IEA Civic Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    The process of political socialisation of adolescents includes more than the acquisition of knowledge about society, citizenship and the political system. In a democracy, citizens are expected to participate actively in the political process. Active participation, however, requires citizens to believe in their own ability to influence the course…

  20. Body image and appearance perceptions from immigrant adolescents in Canada: An interpretive description.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Melissa; Georgiades, Katholiki; Jack, Susan M; Couturier, Jennifer; Wahoush, Olive

    2015-09-01

    Body dissatisfaction has been linked to a number of poor health outcomes, including eating disorders. However, very few studies have investigated body dissatisfaction among immigrant adolescents. Using inductive qualitative inquiry, this study recruited a purposeful sample of immigrant adolescents (N=18, 78% female) with an eating disorder (n=8) and without an eating disorder (n=10). All adolescents were between 16 and 19 years of age (M=16.80, SD=0.89) and were recruited from three municipalities in Ontario. Each adolescent participated in a face-to-face, qualitative interview. Content analysis revealed descriptions of body image that were similar across the sample. The main themes emerging from this work include (a) the "moderately slim" and "moderately muscular" ideal, (b) the "slim and curvy paradox," (c) "ideal" privilege, (d) having an "expected" appearance, and (e) wishful comparisons. Findings have implications for reducing appearance-related dissatisfaction among immigrant adolescents in Canada. PMID:26363357

  1. Creative Counseling Interventions for Grieving Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slyter, Marty

    2012-01-01

    This article provides information on adolescent developmental issues and developmentally appropriate interventions that can help mental health practitioners work with adolescents grieving a death loss. Specific areas that are initially covered include core adolescent developmental issues that must be understood, including adolescent developmental…

  2. Randomized Trial of a Broad Preventive Intervention for Mexican American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, N.A.; Dumka, L.E.; Millsap, R.E.; Gottschall, A.; McClain, D.B.; Wong, J.J.; Germán, M.; Mauricio, A.M.; Wheeler, L.; Carpentier, F.D.; Kim, S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This randomized trial of a family-focused preventive intervention for Mexican American (MA) adolescents evaluated intervention effects on adolescent substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and school discipline and grade records in 8th grade, one year after completion of the intervention. The study also examined hypothesized mediators and moderators of intervention effects. Method Stratified by language of program delivery (English vs. Spanish), the trial included a sample of 516 MA adolescents (50.8% female; M =12.3 years, SD=.54) and at least one caregiver that were randomized to receive a low dosage control group workshop or the 9-week group intervention that included parenting, adolescent coping, and conjoint family sessions. Results Positive program effects were found on all five outcomes at one-year posttest, but varied depending on whether adolescents, parents, or teachers reported on the outcome. Intervention effects were mediated by posttest changes in effective parenting, adolescent coping efficacy, adolescent school engagement, and family cohesion. The majority of direct and mediated effects were moderated by language, with a larger number of significant effects for families that participated in Spanish. Intervention effects also were moderated by baseline levels of mediators and outcomes, with the majority showing stronger effects for families with poorer functioning at baseline. Conclusion Findings support the efficacy of the intervention to decrease multiple problem outcomes for MA adolescents, but also demonstrate differential effects for parents and adolescents receiving the intervention in Spanish vs. English, and depending on their baseline levels of functioning. PMID:22103956

  3. Vaccination coverage among adolescents and risk factors associated with incomplete immunization.

    PubMed

    Sakou, Irine-Ikbale; Tsitsika, Artemis K; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Tzavela, Eleni C; Greydanus, Donald E; Tsolia, Maria N

    2011-11-01

    The compliance with vaccination recommendations in adolescence has not been well documented in Greece. The aims of the present study were to estimate the vaccination coverage in a sample of adolescents and to identify risk factors associated with incomplete immunization. Α total of 1,005 adolescents aged 11 to 19 years who were outpatient visitors at an Adolescent Health Unit were included in this study. Participation required parental presence and consent and presentation of the official Child Health Booklet, from which immunizations were transcribed. The highest coverage rates were observed for childhood immunizations: poliomyelitis and hepatitis B (both 96%), measles/mumps/rubella (MMR; 93.1%), and meningitidis C (MenC; 83.4%). By contrast, lower rates were shown for the booster dose of tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis (39.6%), for hepatitis A (HAV; 59.1%), for the varicella vaccine (13.8% among adolescents without disease history), and among girls for the human papillomavirus vaccine (11.9%). We found a significant association between age and series completion for MMR, MenC, and HAV, with lower uptake among older adolescents . Overall, 22.7% of study participants were fully vaccinated according to criteria employed. In particular, non-urban residents, non-nationals, and females had lower likelihood of being fully vaccinated. In conclusion, our findings suggest suboptimal vaccination coverage among our sample's adolescents, mandating that every effort should be made to increase uptake, particularly among the geographically dispersed and the culturally diverse and female adolescents. PMID:21465121

  4. [Discussion paper participation research].

    PubMed

    Farin, Erik

    2012-12-01

    This contribution introduces the "Diskussionspapier Teilhabeforschung" (discussion paper participation research) of the German Association for Rehabilitation (DVfR) and German Society for Rehabilitation Science (DGRW). The aim of this paper is to more clearly define current scientific research activity on the subject of participation and the significance of interdisciplinary participation research. The authors emphasise the desirability of a stronger scientific basis for instruments designed to improve the participation of disabled individuals. The paper is meant to be understood as an initial basis for the discussion about participation research development, and the authors are open to suggestions and elaboration.Participation research is understood in this discussion paper as an interdisciplinary research field with 7 goals and characteristics: 1. focussing on participation and self-determination; 2. contextual approach (taking environmental and personal factors into consideration that affect participation); 3. the participation of disabled persons in participation research; 4. interdisciplinary cooperation; 5. involving organisations and institutions whose approaches to participation research overlap; 6. referring to social and healthcare policies; 7. national and international orientations.The authors discuss the rationale behind increasing the support for participation research and theoretical models thereof. Fundamental concepts with high relevance to participation research include the biopsychosocial model of the International Classification of Functionality, Disability and Health (ICF), the inclusion concept, empowerment concept, and capabilities concept. The authors conclude their paper with recommendations for strengthening the research funding for participation research, and specify concrete steps toward greater participation research. PMID:23235948

  5. Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles in Adolescents: Associations with Self-Esteem, Depression and Life-Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milevsky, Avidan; Schlechter, Melissa; Netter, Sarah; Keehn, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Our study examined variations in adolescent adjustment as a function of maternal and paternal parenting styles. Participants included 272 students in grades 9 and 11 from a public high school in a metropolitan area of the Northeastern US. Participants completed measures of maternal and paternal parenting styles and indices of psychological…

  6. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-04-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys. PMID:19447351

  7. Nutrition in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R

    1999-02-01

    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article. PMID:10036686

  8. Adolescents' view and experiences of living with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Michelle; Jayarajah, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    This literature review explores the perceptions and experiences of adolescents living with type 1 diabetes. The number of adolescents living with this condition is growing in Western societies. It is important to understand their views and experiences to ensure they receive optimum support. A systematic database search identified studies conducted between 2004 and 2014 undertaken in five countries. Most participants were aged 13-17 years, although some studies included participants aged 11-18 years. Key findings identified were: striving for autonomy; parental conflict; yearning for social acceptance; and concerns about diabetes education. Thematic analysis identified psychosocial, management, and knowledge of type 1 diabetes as the main themes. The review also identified that the psychosocial effects of living with type 1 diabetes were significant. Adolescents would benefit from more in-depth research on this subject and more innovative ways to help them cope better with their condition. PMID:27387634

  9. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…

  10. Career Salience of Institutionalized Adolescent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Wayne W.; Strauss, Christine F.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated self-esteem and career salience of institutionalized male adolescent offenders (n=185) in context of Super's lifespan career development theory. Results indicated that participation, commitment, and values expectations in home-family roles contributed significantly to self-esteem in adolescent offenders. Adolescent offenders differed…

  11. Adolescent suicide risk screening: the effect of communication about type of follow-up on adolescents' screening responses.

    PubMed

    King, Cheryl A; Hill, Ryan M; Wynne, Henry A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up vs. no in-person follow-up) on adolescents' responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13-17; 80% White, 21.6% Black, 9.8% American Indian, 2.9% Asian) seeking medical emergency services. They were randomized to a screening follow-up condition. Screening measures assessed primary risk factors for suicidal behavior, including suicidal thoughts, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and aggressive/delinquent behavior. There was no main effect of follow-up condition on adolescents' screening scores; however, significant interactions between follow-up condition and public assistance status were evident. Adolescents whose families received public assistance were less likely to report aggressive-delinquent behavior if assigned to in-person follow-up. Adolescents whose families did not receive public assistance reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation if assigned to in-person follow-up. Findings suggest that response biases impact some adolescents' responses to suicide risk screenings. Because national policy strongly recommends suicide risk screening in emergency settings, and because screening scores are used to make critical decisions regarding risk management and treatment recommendations, findings indicate the importance of improving the reliability and validity of suicide risk screening for adolescents. PMID:22540534

  12. Age associations with neural processing of reward anticipation in adolescents with bipolar disorders

    PubMed Central

    Urošević, Snežana; Luciana, Monica; Jensen, Jonathan B.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD) and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age) associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus), suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development. PMID:27114896

  13. Multifinality of peer victimization: maladjustment patterns and transitions from early to mid-adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Tina; Barker, Edward D; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Veenstra, René

    2015-10-01

    Peer victimization is a common and pervasive experience in childhood and adolescence and is associated with various maladjustment symptoms, including internalizing, externalizing, and somatic problems. This variety suggests that peer victimization is multifinal where exposure to the same risk leads to different outcomes. However, very little is known about the relative likelihood of each form of maladjustment. We used a latent profile approach to capture multiple possible outcomes and examined prediction by peer victimization. We also examined the role of peer victimization with regard to stability and change in maladjustment. Maladjustment symptoms and peer victimization were assessed from the participants of the large cohort study TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey in early and mid-adolescence. Latent profile and latent transition analyses were conducted to examine associations between victimization and maladjustment profile and to test the role of victimization in maladjustment profile transitions. Four maladjustment profiles were identified for early adolescence (Low, Internalizing, Externalizing, Comorbid) and three profiles (Low, Internalizing, Externalizing) were identified for mid-adolescence. Internalizing problems were more likely in victimized adolescents than low symptom levels or externalizing problems. Victimized adolescents were at greater risk to develop internalizing problems between early and mid-adolescence than non-victimized adolescents. Peer victimization is multifinal mostly when outcomes are examined separately. If multiple outcomes are tested simultaneously, internalizing problems seem to be the most likely outcome. PMID:25540123

  14. Effects of Brief Wilderness Programs in Relation to Adolescents' Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orren, Pamela M.; Werner, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    This research assessed effects of brief wilderness programs on adolescents' self-concepts, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, and environmental attitudes and contrasted effects for adolescents in five racial groups. A pretest-posttest design compared adolescents who participated in wilderness outings (n = 67) with adolescents on a waiting…

  15. Developmental Changes in Adolescents' Perceptions of Relationships with Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses…

  16. Adolescents' Heightened Risk-Seeking in a Probabilistic Gambling Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Stephanie; Bault, Nadege; Coricelli, Giorgio; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated adolescent males' decision-making under risk, and the emotional response to decision outcomes, using a probabilistic gambling task designed to evoke counterfactually mediated emotions (relief and regret). Participants were 20 adolescents (aged 9-11), 26 young adolescents (aged 12-15), 20 mid-adolescents (aged 15-18) and 17…

  17. Improving Online Collaborative Learning for Teachers: How Changes to Design Features of the Adolescent Literacy Collaboratory Influenced Participant Retention, Overall Satisfaction, and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettschneider, Allison; Mather, Mary Anne

    2005-01-01

    Key elements of effective teacher development include a focus on curriculum and job-situated problems, hands-on opportunities to apply learning, and collaboration among teachers (Garet, Porter, Desimone, Birman, & Yoon, 2001; Hiebert, Gallimore, & Stigler, 2002; National Staff Development Council, 2001). Program developers at The Education…

  18. Impact of school-based educational programs on sexual behaviors among adolescents in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Cromi, Antonella; Serati, Maurizio; Monti, Zelia; Apolloni, Chiara; Nardelli, Federica; Di Naro, Edoardo; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This article aimed to determine sexual behaviors among female and male adolescents in northern Italy. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire evaluating sexual attitudes was distributed in middle and high schools in northern Italy. Adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age were asked to participate at the survey. The study group included 664 participants. Overall, 164 (25%) adolescents had had at least one sexual intercourse. Among adolescents who have had sexual intercourse, 90 (55%) use condoms, 25 (15%) use hormonal contraception, and 49 (30%) do not use any contraception method. A total of 559 adolescents (84%) participated in school-based sexual education programs. This group had better knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases and contraception methods in comparison with adolescents who have never participated in such educational programs (p <.05), and no difference in high-risk sexual behaviors was observed (p = 1.0). School-based sexual education programs improve knowledge of sexual transmitted diseases and contraception methods. However, this knowledge does not correlate to high-risk sexual behaviors reduction. PMID:25189401

  19. Association between personality and adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H J; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2006-02-01

    The present study examined the association between adolescents' personality traits and smoking, and tested whether this association was moderated by birth order or gender. Participants were 832 Dutch siblings aged 13 to 17 years participating at baseline assessment (T1) and at follow-up 12 months later (T2). Personality was assessed by applying a variable-centered approach including five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience), and a person-oriented approach using three personality types (i.e., Resilients, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers). Cross-sectional findings indicated that Extraversion (at T1 and T2), Agreeableness (at T2), Conscientiousness (at T2), and Emotional Stability (at T2) were related to adolescent smoking. Longitudinal findings indicated that only Extraversion and Emotional Stability were related to onset of adolescent smoking. Using a person-oriented approach, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers did not differ from Resilients on smoking onset. No indication was found for a moderating effect of birth order on the association between personality and smoking. Additional findings showed that gender moderated the effect of Agreeableness on adolescents' smoking onset. Implications for prevention are also addressed. PMID:15953689

  20. The Vestibular-Evoked Postural Response of Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis Is Altered

    PubMed Central

    Pialasse, Jean-Philippe; Descarreaux, Martin; Mercier, Pierre; Blouin, Jean; Simoneau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a multifactorial disorder including neurological factors. A dysfunction of the sensorimotor networks processing vestibular information could be related to spine deformation. This study investigates whether feed-forward vestibulomotor control or sensory reweighting mechanisms are impaired in adolescent scoliosis patients. Vestibular evoked postural responses were obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation while participants stood with their eyes closed and head facing forward. Lateral forces under each foot and lateral displacement of the upper body of adolescents with mild (n = 20) or severe (n = 16) spine deformation were compared to those of healthy control adolescents (n = 16). Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients demonstrated greater lateral displacement and net lateral forces than controls both during and immediately after vestibular stimulation. Altered sensory reweighting of vestibular and proprioceptive information changed balance control of AIS patients during and after vestibular stimulation. Therefore, scoliosis onset could be related to abnormal sensory reweighting, leading to altered sensorimotor processes. PMID:26580068

  1. The Vestibular-Evoked Postural Response of Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis Is Altered.

    PubMed

    Pialasse, Jean-Philippe; Descarreaux, Martin; Mercier, Pierre; Blouin, Jean; Simoneau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a multifactorial disorder including neurological factors. A dysfunction of the sensorimotor networks processing vestibular information could be related to spine deformation. This study investigates whether feed-forward vestibulomotor control or sensory reweighting mechanisms are impaired in adolescent scoliosis patients. Vestibular evoked postural responses were obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation while participants stood with their eyes closed and head facing forward. Lateral forces under each foot and lateral displacement of the upper body of adolescents with mild (n = 20) or severe (n = 16) spine deformation were compared to those of healthy control adolescents (n = 16). Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients demonstrated greater lateral displacement and net lateral forces than controls both during and immediately after vestibular stimulation. Altered sensory reweighting of vestibular and proprioceptive information changed balance control of AIS patients during and after vestibular stimulation. Therefore, scoliosis onset could be related to abnormal sensory reweighting, leading to altered sensorimotor processes. PMID:26580068

  2. The lived experiences of adolescents with sickle cell disease in Kingston, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, Andrea Brown; Barton-Gooden, Antoinette; Pitter, Cynthia; Lindo, Jascinth L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To explore the lived experiences of adolescents with sickle cell disease, in Kingston, Jamaica. Method A descriptive qualitative design was used for this research. In-depth interviews were conducted with six adolescents with sickle cell disease at a Sickle Cell Unit operated by the University of the West Indies. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and thematically analyzed. Results The majority of the adolescents demonstrated a positive self-concept. They reported strong family, school, and peer support which made them feel accepted. All were actively engaged in social activities such as parties, but had challenges participating in sporting activities. Various coping strategies were utilized to address challenges of the disease including praying, watching television, and surfing the Internet. Conclusion Sickle cell disease can be very challenging for the adolescent, but with positive self-concept and increased social support, especially from family and peers, these adolescents were able to effectively cope with their condition and live productive lives. PMID:26341889

  3. Are parental attitudes related to adolescent juvenile offenders' readiness to change?

    PubMed

    Snyder, Benjamin D H; Glaser, Brian A; Calhoun, Georgia B

    2015-05-01

    Contemporary research suggests that many factors contribute to adolescent problematic and delinquent behaviors; however, there is little discussion in the literature related to factors that contribute to an adolescent's willingness to change these maladaptive behaviors. The current study examines the role parental attitudes play in the adolescent juvenile offender's readiness to change. Ninety-five adjudicated adolescents and their parent or legal guardian completed the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) and the Juvenile Offender Parent Questionnaire (JOPQ), respectively. Participants fell into one of two URICA groups: Precontemplative or Contemplative. Parental attitudes (JOPQ) of Exasperation in Regard to the Child and Fear of the Child significantly predicted membership in two of the URICA stages of change groups (Precontemplative and Contemplative) when gender was included in the model. This study has important implications for practitioners developing effective treatments for adjudicated adolescents. PMID:24391125

  4. Executive summary--nutritional care of HIV-infected adolescents and adults, including pregnant and lactating women: what do we know, what can we do, and where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Raiten, Daniel J; Mulligan, Kathleen; Papathakis, Peggy; Wanke, Christine

    2011-12-01

    The HIV pandemic continues to place an unbearable burden on the international community, with disease prevalence remaining highest in resource-limited settings in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. HIV is most often imposed on conditions of food insecurity and consequent malnutrition, poor sanitation, and chronic exposure to a myriad of infectious (eg, malaria, tuberculosis, and diarrheal) and noncommunicable (eg, obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular) diseases. Women and children continue to bear the greatest burden. Two essential tenets underpin our approach to HIV: 1) antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are essential to prolong lives and to halt the spread of HIV and AIDS and 2) food and sound nutrition are essential to human health. The challenge is to apply sound principles of clinical care and nutrition science to the safe and efficacious implementation of ARVs and for long-term care for people living with HIV and AIDS. The WHO has played a leading role in developing guidelines to support this goal with the generation of general recommendations regarding nutritional needs of people living with HIV and AIDS and specific guidelines for the nutritional care of HIV-infected infants and children (<14 y of age). These proceedings represent a summary of the work accomplished at a workshop sponsored by the NIH to review the existing evidence to support changes in the recommendations regarding nutrient requirements for people living with HIV and AIDS; to support development of new WHO guidelines for adolescents and adults, including for pregnant and lactating women; and to identify a research agenda to address outstanding knowledge gaps. PMID:22089438

  5. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management Based Smoking Cessation Program.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Dana A; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S; Smith, Anne E; Liss, Thomas B; McFetridge, Amanda K; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-09-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a questionnaire about spending in a number of categories, including cigarettes, other addictive substances, durable goods, and disposable goods. Our preliminary results indicate that participation in a CM based program for smoking cessation did not lead to greater spending on cigarettes and other substances and may have produced more socially acceptable spending. PMID:20802850

  6. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569

  7. The Developmental Quality of Participation Experiences: Beyond the Rhetoric that "Participation Is Always Good!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Pedro D.; Azevedo, Cristina N.; Menezes, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    A powerful rhetoric regarding the importance of adolescents' civic engagement and political participation is common in contemporary societies, whilst citizens, both adolescent and adults, seem to express a growing scepticism and alienation regarding politics. Even if this disengagement is debatable, as there are simultaneous signs of an increasing…

  8. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key Points South Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA. Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents. To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782

  9. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kang-Ok

    2014-12-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key PointsSouth Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA.Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents.To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782

  10. Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2016-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is a major public health concern with potentially long-lasting consequences, including pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV/AIDS. Researchers have demonstrated that parent-adolescent sexual communication can mitigate adolescent risky sexual behaviors; the development of interventions that support this process are vital. This column examines a recent study that evaluated a parent-adolescent sexual communication intervention. PMID:27067937

  11. Aspects of Spirituality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP questionnaire…

  12. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  13. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  14. Has Adolescent Suicidality Decreased in the United States? Data from Two National Samples of Adolescents Interviewed in 1995 and 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; McCart, Michael R.; Smith, Daniel W.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Resnick, Heidi S.; de Arellano, Michael A.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the prevalence and correlates of adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts in two nationally representative probability samples of adolescents interviewed in 1995 (National Survey of Adolescents; N = 4,023) and 2005 (National Survey of Adolescents-Replication; N = 3,614). Participants in both samples completed a telephone survey that…

  15. School-Based Mentoring for Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Sarah; Mayo-Wilson, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of school-based mentoring for adolescents (11-18 years) on academic performance, attendance, attitudes, behavior, and self-esteem. Method: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The authors searched 12 databases from 1980 to 2011. Eight studies with 6,072 participants were included, 6 were included in…

  16. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of the two 2002 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue includes news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  17. A process evaluation of an adolescent weight management intervention: findings and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; O'Connor, Janice; Lau, Christine; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Hill, Andrew J; Baur, Louise A

    2015-06-01

    Process evaluation is valuable in guiding development of effective intervention programmes but rare in adolescent weight management. This paper presents a process evaluation of the Loozit(®) randomized controlled trial, a community-based behavioural lifestyle intervention for obese 13-16 year olds. Adolescents were randomized to receive the two-phase Loozit(®) group programme, with (n = 73) or without (n = 78), additional therapeutic contact (telephone coaching, short message service and/or emails) in Phase 2. Quantitative and qualitative process data were collected. Facilitators used a standardized evaluation form to document participant attendance, and comment on lesson adherence and process delivery. Adolescents and parents completed satisfaction questionnaires at 2-, 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Following the intervention, 14 adolescents who provided informed written consent were interviewed about their experience with additional therapeutic contact. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, parametric and non-parametric tests to compare group means, and thematic analyses. Group attendance rates averaged 85 and 47% during Phases 1 (0-2 months) and 2 (3-24 months), respectively. Facilitators frequently noted that participants reported making healthy lifestyle changes. Elements enjoyed in the sessions included practical activities, fun active games, resistance training and forming new friendships. Adolescents struggled with setting specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timely (SMART) goals. Overall, participants were satisfied with the help received including the telephone and electronic contact. More than 80% of participants found the programme changed adolescents' eating and physical activity habits, and 89% of parents reported changing parenting strategies. Future adolescent group-based programmes may enhance participant engagement and programme effectiveness by including more interactive and frequent telephone and electronic contact. PMID

  18. Employee Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarratt, Alex

    1975-01-01

    The article presents another approach to individual motivation--participative management--which concerns an emotional rather than financial commitment to the job through involvement and job satisfaction. The author favors within this approach: employee participation in decision-making, entitlement to information, and the establishment of…

  19. [Physiological adolescence, pathological adolescence].

    PubMed

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Gourion, David; Canceil, Olivier; Lôo, Henri

    2006-11-01

    The uncertainties of looming adulthood, nostalgia for childhood, and a general malaise explain the crisis of adolescence. Rebellion, conflict, occasional failure at school or in society, and at-risk behaviors are not always signs of future psychiatric illness. In contrast, the physician must be in a position to identify tell-tale signs such as dysmorphophobia, existential anxiety, a feeling of emptiness, and school or social breakdown. Most psychiatric disorders that begin in adolescence are only diagnosed several years after onset. Yet early diagnosis is of utmost importance, as treatment becomes less effective and the long-term prognosis worsens with time. Suicide is the second cause of death during adolescence. All signs of suicidal behavior require hospitalization and evaluation in a psychiatric unit. Antidepressants may be necessary in adolescence. The recent controversy concerning a possible increase in the suicidal risk during antidepressant treatment should not mask the fact that the real public health issue is depression, and not antidepressants. Eating disorders are especially frequent among adolescent girls; it is important to identify psychiatric comorbidities such as schizophrenia, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders, and to assess the vital risk. Illicit drug and alcohol consumption are frequent during adolescence; for example, close to half of all French adolescents have tried cannabis at least once. Once again, it is important to detect psychiatric comorbidities in substance-abusing adolescents. Phobia is an underdiagnosed anxiety disorder among adolescents; it may become chronic if proper treatment is not implemented, leading to suffering and disability. Finally, two major psychiatric disorders--schizophrenia and bipolar disorder--generally begin in adolescence. Treatment efficacy and the long-term prognosis both depend on early diagnosis. Treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. "Borderline" states are over

  20. An fMRI investigation of responses to peer rejection in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Carrie L.; Colich, Natalie L.; Rudie, Jeffrey D.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2011-01-01

    Peer rejection is particularly pervasive among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, how adolescents with ASD differ from typically developing adolescents in their responses to peer rejection is poorly understood. The goal of the current investigation was to examine neural responses to peer exclusion among adolescents with ASD compared to typically developing adolescents. Nineteen adolescents with ASD and 17 typically developing controls underwent fMRI as they were ostensibly excluded by peers during an online game called Cyberball. Afterwards, participants reported their distress about the exclusion. Compared to typically developing adolescents, those with ASD displayed less activity in regions previously linked with the distressing aspect of peer exclusion, including the subgenual anterior cingulate and anterior insula, as well as less activity in regions previously linked with the regulation of distress responses during peer exclusion, including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Interestingly, however, both groups self-reported equivalent levels of distress. This suggests that adolescents with ASD may engage in differential processing of social experiences at the neural level, but be equally aware of, and concerned about, peer rejection. Overall, these findings contribute new insights about how this population may differentially experience negative social events in their daily lives. PMID:22318914

  1. Community and Social Participation among Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder Transitioning to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Emily; Davis, Beth Ellen; Stobbe, Gary; Bjornson, Kristie

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are at increased risk for poor psychosocial outcomes as adults. We described community and social participation in adolescents with ASDs as they transitioned from adolescence to adulthood, and identified adolescent factors associated with community and social participation outcomes in adulthood. We…

  2. Family Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement among Korean Adolescents: Linking Mechanisms of Family Processes and Adolescents' Time Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Dayoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined pathways through which family socioeconomic status may influence adolescents' academic achievement. We focused on parental monitoring and adolescents' after-school time-use patterns as linking mechanisms. Participants were 441 twelve- to fourteen-year-old Korean adolescents who participated in the Korea Welfare Panel Study.…

  3. Self-Esteem Enhancing Reasons for Having Sex and the Sexual Behaviors of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Melissa L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Paikoff, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 146 African American adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods with high HIV rates participated in the Chicago HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP), a longitudinal study of adolescent HIV risk exposure. The current study examined self-reported reasons why African American adolescents may participate in…

  4. Psychopathology in Adolescence: Does Development Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.; Ebata, Aaron T.

    Thos paper discusses myths about adolescent psychopathology, including the beliefs that psychopathology is a normal state in adolescence; that adolescents grow out of their psychopathology; and that with regard to psychopathology, adolescents are either like adults or like children. Key features of adolescent development are summarized, the life…

  5. Emotional face recognition in adolescent suicide attempters and adolescents engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Karen E; Jones, Richard N; Cushman, Grace K; Galvan, Thania; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying and differentiating suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Adolescents who attempt suicide or engage in NSSI often report significant interpersonal and social difficulties. Emotional face recognition ability is a fundamental skill required for successful social interactions, and deficits in this ability may provide insight into the unique brain-behavior interactions underlying suicide attempts versus NSSI in adolescents. Therefore, we examined emotional face recognition ability among three mutually exclusive groups: (1) inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide (SA, n = 30); (2) inpatient adolescents engaged in NSSI (NSSI, n = 30); and (3) typically developing controls (TDC, n = 30) without psychiatric illness. Participants included adolescents aged 13-17 years, matched on age, gender and full-scale IQ. Emotional face recognition was evaluated using the diagnostic assessment of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA-2). Compared to TDC youth, adolescents with NSSI made more errors on child fearful and adult sad face recognition while controlling for psychopathology and medication status (ps < 0.05). No differences were found on emotional face recognition between NSSI and SA groups. Secondary analyses showed that compared to inpatients without major depression, those with major depression made fewer errors on adult sad face recognition even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Further, compared to inpatients without generalized anxiety, those with generalized anxiety made fewer recognition errors on adult happy faces even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Adolescent inpatients engaged in NSSI showed greater deficits in emotional face recognition than TDC, but not inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide. Further results suggest the importance of psychopathology in emotional face recognition. Replication of these preliminary results and examination

  6. Changes in Perceptions of Adolescents and of Adolescence from Course Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskirch, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    One hundred fifty-five college students, enrolled in course on adolescent development, completed a specially designed questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the semester assessing their attitudes toward contemporary adolescents and about their own memories of their adolescence. Participants changed their stereotyped beliefs on views of…

  7. Links between Adolescent Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Adolescent and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan Lee; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the relationships between adolescent overweight and obesity and physical activity and a range of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors is necessary to develop relevant interventions which target the health needs of adolescents. This study examined adolescent body mass index (BMI) and participation in moderate and vigorous…

  8. Latino Parent and Adolescent Perceptions of Hoped-for and Feared Possible Selves for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfond, Raquel; Corona, Rosalie; Moon, Anya

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined Latino parent and adolescent reports of hoped-for and feared possible selves for adolescents. Twenty-nine Latino parents (18 mothers, 11 fathers) and their 18 adolescents participated in semistructured individual interviews. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded for themes via content analysis. Themes that…

  9. Do Adolescents and Parents Reconstruct Memories about Their Conflict as a Function of Adolescent Attachment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykas, Matthew J.; Woodhouse, Susan S.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Cassidy, Jude

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether 17-year-old adolescents (n = 189) and their parents reconstructed their memory for an adolescent-parent laboratory conflict over a 6-week period as a function of adolescent attachment organization. It also compared participants' perceptions of conflict over time to observational ratings of the conflict to further…

  10. Disinhibited eating in obese adolescents is associated with orbitofrontal volume reductions and executive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Maayan, L; Hoogendoorn, C; Sweat, V; Convit, A.

    2011-01-01

    In adults, obesity has been associated with disinhibited eating, decreased cortical gray matter volume, and lower performance on cognitive assessments. Much less is known about these relationships in adolescence and there are no studies assessing behavioral, cognitive, and neurostructural measures in the same group of study participants. This study examined the relationship between obesity, executive function, disinhibition, and brain volumes in relatively healthy youth. Participants included 54 obese and 37 lean adolescents. Participants received a cognitive battery, questionnaires of eating behaviors, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neuropsychological assessments included tasks targeting frontal lobe function. Eating behaviors were determined using the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and structural MRIs were performed on a 1.5 T Siemens Avanto MRI System (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) to determine brain gray matter volumes. Lean and obese adolescents were matched on age, years of education, gender, and socioeconomic status. Relative to lean adolescents, obese participants had significantly higher ratings of disinhibition on the TFEQ, lower performance on the cognitive tests, and lower orbitofrontal cortex volume. Disinhibition significantly correlated with Body Mass Index, Stroop Color-Word score, and orbitofrontal cortex volume. This is the first report of these associations in adolescents and point to the importance of better understanding the associations between neurostructural deficits and obesity. PMID:21350433

  11. Life Events, Coping, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Chinese Adolescents Exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuhong; Fan, Fang; Liu, Xianchen; Mo, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between negative life events, coping styles, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adolescent survivors exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China. Methods A survey was conducted in a sample of 2250 adolescent students from two schools in Dujiangyan District, a seriously damaged area, 20 kilometers away from the epicenter, 6 months after the earthquake. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographics, negative life events, coping styles, and PTSD symptoms. Results Academic pressure was the strongest predictor of adolescents' PTSD symptoms among all negative life events. Main effects of negative life events, positive coping and negative coping on PTSD symptoms were significant in both younger adolescents and older adolescents, while the moderator effects of two coping styles were found significant only within older adolescents. Conclusions Coping may play a role to moderate the relationship between post-earthquake negative life events and PTSD symptom, but the function seems to depend on the age of participants. Psychosocial coping skills training may be important in the prevention and intervention of mental health problems in adolescent survivors of traumatic earthquake. PMID:22295059

  12. [Contraception in adolescents].

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    The proportion of women aged 15-19 in Colombia who are mothers declined from 14% in 1985 to 10% in 1990, but the actual number of cases increased due to population growth. Some 1,780,000 adolescents who have had children or are pregnant require family planning services. An additional, unknown number of adolescent pregnancies are terminated by abortion. It is estimated that 95% of adolescent pregnancies diagnosed or followed by PROFAMILIA's center for young people were unwanted. Reasons for making family planning services available to adolescents include the ever young age at initiation of sexual activity, the very low rates of contraceptive usage among sexually active adolescents, the lack of information of adolescents concerning reproduction and contraception, and their fear and guilt surrounding their sexual activity and contraceptive usage. Obstetrical services appear reluctant to furnish adolescent mothers with information on contraception, and the pharmacists and their employees who provide such information may not be aware of contraindications for this age group or whether adolescents are adequately instructed in use of the method. The rising age at marriage increases the span of time that adolescents are at risk of unwanted pregnancy. Adolescents who are well informed about sexuality and contraception and trained in decision making, self-esteem, and responsible parenthood are likely to postpone sexual activity. Information on contraception and family planning services needs to be made available to adolescents in a way that will actually motivate use. Information on sex and contraception should be made available at puberty and should include the form of use, contraindications, and advantages and disadvantages of all methods appropriate to adolescents. Orientation and assistance in selecting the best method should be individually tailored and should be provided in schools or other places accessible to young people, in a language they can understand. Rhythm and

  13. Natural mentors, racial identity, and educational attainment among african american adolescents: exploring pathways to success.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Noelle M; Sánchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at Time 1 was 17.8 (SD = .64) and slightly over half (54%) of study participants were female. Results of the current study indicated that relationships with natural mentors promoted more positive long-term educational attainment among participants through increased private regard (a dimension of racial identity) and stronger beliefs in the importance of doing well in school for future success. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22537308

  14. Transition for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: South African Parent and Professional Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Meiring, Meagan; Seabi, Joseph; Amod, Zaytoon; Vorster, Adri; Kern, Anwynne

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents with autism and their families experience a significant increase in the number of challenges encountered when leaving the structure of the formal education system. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the factors parents and professionals regard as important in preparing for transition of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to adulthood, vocational, and residential arrangements. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 participants (i.e., 7 parents and 7 professionals) who were involved with adolescents with ASD in Johannesburg, South Africa. The findings revealed that there was a need for advocacy on behalf of learners with ASD transitioning into adult working and living environments. The responses of the participants highlighted needs for curriculum transformation from basic literacy skills to development and teaching of functional self-help and daily living skills. The results also indicated lack of planning and the absence of service facilities for adolescents with autism post-school. There was a general feeling of fear and uncertainty when the participants thought about transition of adolescents with autism and their future. However, there was also a sense of hope and optimism. Transition of adolescents with autism into adulthood is a challenging and stressful time for parents and professionals involved in trying to prepare them. With appropriate attention and support structures, individuals with autism can attain a reasonable quality of life, including residential, employment, and social opportunities. PMID:27375502

  15. Transition for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: South African Parent and Professional Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Meiring, Meagan; Seabi, Joseph; Amod, Zaytoon; Vorster, Adri; Kern, Anwynne

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents with autism and their families experience a significant increase in the number of challenges encountered when leaving the structure of the formal education system. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the factors parents and professionals regard as important in preparing for transition of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to adulthood, vocational, and residential arrangements. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 participants (i.e., 7 parents and 7 professionals) who were involved with adolescents with ASD in Johannesburg, South Africa. The findings revealed that there was a need for advocacy on behalf of learners with ASD transitioning into adult working and living environments. The responses of the participants highlighted needs for curriculum transformation from basic literacy skills to development and teaching of functional self-help and daily living skills. The results also indicated lack of planning and the absence of service facilities for adolescents with autism post-school. There was a general feeling of fear and uncertainty when the participants thought about transition of adolescents with autism and their future. However, there was also a sense of hope and optimism. Transition of adolescents with autism into adulthood is a challenging and stressful time for parents and professionals involved in trying to prepare them. With appropriate attention and support structures, individuals with autism can attain a reasonable quality of life, including residential, employment, and social opportunities. PMID:27375502

  16. Stair-Walking Performance in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Ju, Yan-Ying; Yu, Yu-Chun; Lin, Che-Kuan; Lin, Yen-Tzu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Most individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) demonstrate problems in learning and movement coordination. Consequently, they usually have difficulties in activities such as standing, walking, and stair climbing. To monitor the physical impairments of these children, regular gross motor evaluation is crucial. Straight-line level walking is the most frequently used test of their mobility. However, numerous studies have found that unless the children have multiple disabilities, no significant differences can be found between the children with ID and typically-developed children in this test. Stair climbing presents more challenges than level walking because it is associated with numerous physical factors, including lower extremity strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, vision, balance, and fear of falling. Limited ability in those factors is one of the most vital markers for children with ID. In this paper, we propose a sensor-based approach for measuring stair-walking performance, both upstairs and downstairs, for adolescents with ID. Particularly, we address the problem of sensor calibration to ensure measurement accuracy. In total, 62 participants aged 15 to 21 years, namely 32 typically-developed (TD) adolescents, 20 adolescents with ID, and 10 adolescents with multiple disabilities (MD), participated. The experimental results showed that stair-walking is more sensitive than straight-line level walking in capturing gait characteristics for adolescents with ID. PMID:27409621

  17. Lost in the shuffle: culture of homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joanne O'sullivan; Burke, Pamela J

    2009-01-01

    Estimates indicate that approximately 1.7 million youth are homeless in the United States. Many associated risk factors have been identified for adolescent homelessness, including family conflict, leaving foster care, running away or being thrown away, physical or sexual abuse, and coming out to parents as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, or questioning one's sexual identity (GLBTQ). The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the culture of homelessness for adolescents. Nineteen homeless adolescents from a major urban area in the northeast U.S. were observed and interviewed over an 18-month period. The elements of the street culture of homeless adolescents were identified by study participants' stories. For many study participants, the decision to live on the streets was a logical and rational alternative to remaining in possibly dangerous and unstable home environments. It provided a means to their generating social capital. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that existing programs and policies relative to adolescents who are at risk for homelessness or already living on the streets should be re-examined and redesigned to meet the unique needs of vulnerable youth so they do not get lost in the shuffle. PMID:19681376

  18. Stair-Walking Performance in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Ju, Yan-Ying; Yu, Yu-Chun; Lin, Che-Kuan; Lin, Yen-Tzu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Most individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) demonstrate problems in learning and movement coordination. Consequently, they usually have difficulties in activities such as standing, walking, and stair climbing. To monitor the physical impairments of these children, regular gross motor evaluation is crucial. Straight-line level walking is the most frequently used test of their mobility. However, numerous studies have found that unless the children have multiple disabilities, no significant differences can be found between the children with ID and typically-developed children in this test. Stair climbing presents more challenges than level walking because it is associated with numerous physical factors, including lower extremity strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, vision, balance, and fear of falling. Limited ability in those factors is one of the most vital markers for children with ID. In this paper, we propose a sensor-based approach for measuring stair-walking performance, both upstairs and downstairs, for adolescents with ID. Particularly, we address the problem of sensor calibration to ensure measurement accuracy. In total, 62 participants aged 15 to 21 years, namely 32 typically-developed (TD) adolescents, 20 adolescents with ID, and 10 adolescents with multiple disabilities (MD), participated. The experimental results showed that stair-walking is more sensitive than straight-line level walking in capturing gait characteristics for adolescents with ID. PMID:27409621

  19. Parents, adolescents, and consent for research participation.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S

    2013-06-01

    Decisions concerning children in the health care setting have engendered significant controversy and sparked ethics policies and statements, legal action, and guidelines regarding who ought to make decisions involving children and how such decisions ought to be made. Traditionally, parents have been the default decision-makers for children not only with regard to health care but with regard to other matters, such as religious practice and education. In recent decades, there has been a steady trend away from the view that parents are in authority over their children and toward the view that children are rights-bearers who should be granted greater authority over themselves. The mature minor doctrine refers to the decision to grant mature minors the authority to make decisions traditionally reserved for their parents. This essay (1) documents the trend towards expanding the understanding of some minors as "mature" and hence as having the right and authority to give informed consent, (2) examines the reasons for which some commentators have a special interest in expanding the mature minor doctrine to the research setting and allowing minors to enroll in research without parental permission, and (3) defends the view that the mature minor doctrine, regardless of its application to clinical health care decisions, ought to be set aside in the research setting in favor of greater parental involvement. PMID:23607974

  20. Bidirectional Influences Between Dimensions of Coparenting and Adolescent Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    McHale, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on coparenting documents that mothers' and fathers' coordination and mutual support in their parenting roles is linked to their offspring's adjustment in childhood, but we know much less about the coparenting of adolescents. Taking a family systems perspective, this study assessed two dimensions of coparenting, parents' shared decision-making and joint involvement in activities with their adolescents, and examined bidirectional associations between these coparenting dimensions and boys' and girls' risky behaviors and depressive symptoms across four time points (6 years) in adolescence. Participants were 201 mothers, fathers, and adolescents (M = 11.83, SD = .55 years of age at Time 1; 51 % female). Parents of sons shared more decisions, on average, than parents of daughters. On average, shared decision-making followed an inverted U shaped pattern of change, and parents' joint involvement in their adolescents' activities declined. Cross-lagged findings revealed that risky behavior predicted less shared decision-making, and shared decision-making protected against increased risky behavior for boys. For girls and boys, parents' joint involvement predicted fewer risky behaviors, and lower levels of risky behavior predicted higher levels of joint involvement. In contrast, boys' and girls' depressive symptoms predicted less joint involvement. The discussion centers on the nature and correlates of coparenting during adolescence, including the role of child effects, and directions for future research on coparenting during this developmental period. PMID:23539238

  1. The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Chris; Wilson, Kimberly A; Lagle, Kristy; Kraemer, Helena C; Killen, Joel D; Taylor, C Barr

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate a developmental psychopathology approach for understanding adolescent social anxiety, parent-reported predictors of social anxiety were examined in a nonclinical sample of adolescents. Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from biological parents of 770 participants. Potential risk factors assessed included child characteristics: negative affect, shyness, separation anxiety disorder, and childhood chronic illness, as well as parent characteristics: major depression, panic disorder, and agoraphobia. Adolescent social anxiety was measured multiple times during high school. Findings indicate stability in social anxiety symptoms across time. Parent-reported, childhood negative affect, shyness, and chronic illness as well as parental panic disorder or agoraphobia were associated with adolescent social anxiety. Interactions were observed between parent-reported childhood shyness and gender and between parent-reported childhood shyness and parent-reported childhood chronic illness in the prediction of social anxiety. Parent-reported childhood shyness was a stronger predictor of adolescent social anxiety in females compared to males. The combined effect of subjects being positive for both parent-reported childhood shyness and parent-reported childhood chronic illness was greater than would be expected based on additive effects. This study provides support for a multifactorial and developmentally informed understanding of adolescent social anxiety. PMID:17348001

  2. Adolescent Alcohol Use in Spain: Connections with Friends, School, and Other Delinquent Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Sánchez-SanSegundo, Miriam; Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia; Perrin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the connections between adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and variables reflecting adolescents' academic problems, potentially delinquent behaviors, friends' alcohol consumption, and friendship quality. Information about alcohol use and a number of school and social variables was collected from adolescent students (N = 567) who completed the National Students School-Based Drug Survey in a classroom setting. Results suggested that gender was not significantly associated with alcohol use, although alcohol use increased with age and was more likely for adolescents enrolled in public schools compared to private. After controlling for age and type of school (public vs. private), academic problems explained 5.1% of the variance in adolescents' alcohol use, potentially delinquent behaviors explained 29.0%, friends' alcohol use 16.8%, and friendship quality 1.6%. When all unique predictors from these four models were included in a comprehensive model, they explained 32.3% of the variance in adolescents' alcohol use. In this final model, getting expelled, participating in a fight, going out at night, the hour at which one returns, and the number of friends who have consumed alcohol were uniquely and positively associated with adolescents' alcohol use. These results provide important information about multi-system influences on adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and suggest potential areas of focus for intervention research. PMID:26973567

  3. Family material hardship and chinese adolescents' problem behaviors: a moderated mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenqiang; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescents' resilience as a potential protective factor in the development of their internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 1,419 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.38 years, SD = 1.79) and their primary caregivers. After controlling for covariates (age, gender, location of family residence, and primary caregiver), we found that parental depression and negative parenting mediated the association between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. Furthermore, the adolescent resilience moderated the relationship between negative parenting and internalizing problems in a protective-stabilizing pattern; in addition, a protective-reactive pattern also emerged when adolescent resilience was examined as a moderator of the relationship between negative parenting and externalizing problems. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of risk and resilience in youth development. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the prevention of adolescent problem behaviors. PMID:26010256

  4. Physiological reactivity moderates the association between parental directing and young adolescent friendship adjustment.

    PubMed

    Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-12-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress. Participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years at Time [T]1; 50% boys; 58.5% European Americans). At T1 (summer before the transition to middle school), parents reported on the extent to which they directed adolescents toward or away from certain peers, and adolescents' SCLR was assessed during a lab-based peer evaluation task. At T1 and T2 (spring of the first year of middle school), adolescents reported on the quality of their friendships and positive peer affiliations. Controlling for T1 friendship adjustment, parental directing predicted higher friendship quality and more positive peer affiliations, but only among young adolescents with lower SCLR, which was conceptualized as a marker of underarousal and insensitivity to stress. Results are discussed with reference to the developmental period of early adolescence and related research on interactions between parental control and child characteristics as predictors of adolescent adjustment. PMID:25365119

  5. Colloquium Participants Speak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafe, Joanne

    1996-01-01

    Presents a summary and interpretation of responses from the participants of the Catholic-Jewish Colloquium. The participants reflect on a number of issues including the changing nature of the relationship between Judaism and Christianity, the rationale and impact of this changed relationship, the particular elements involved in the…

  6. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira da; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young people

  7. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  8. Perceived parenting style and adolescent adjustment: revisiting directions of effects and the role of parental knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan; Ozdemir, Metin

    2012-11-01

    In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have used measures of parental behavioral control that are questionable because they include measures of parental knowledge. The goals of this study were to determine whether including knowledge items might have affected results of past studies and to test the unidirectional assumption. Data were from 978 adolescents participating in a longitudinal study. Parenting-style and adolescent adjustment measures at 2 time points were used, with a 2-year interval between time points. A variety of internal and external adjustment measures were used. Results showed that including knowledge items in measures of parental behavioral control elevated links between behavioral control and adjustment. Thus, the results and conclusions of many of the most highly cited studies are likely to have been stronger than if the measures had focused strictly on parental behavior. In addition, adolescent adjustment predicted changes in authoritative and neglectful parenting styles more robustly than these styles predicted changes in adolescent adjustment. Adolescent adjustment also predicted changes in authoritativeness more robustly than authoritativeness predicted changes in adjustment. Thus, parenting style cannot be seen as independent of the adolescent. In summary, both the theoretical premises of parenting-style research and the prior findings should be revisited. PMID:22448987

  9. "Life grows between the rocks": Latino adolescents' and parents' perspectives on mental health stressors.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carolyn; Lindgren, Sandi

    2009-04-01

    Latino adolescents, an increasingly larger proportion of youth in the US, are at special risk for mental health problems, including depression and suicidal ideation. Little is known about the meaning of mental health stressors for Latino adolescents and their parents. We conducted a descriptive study to elicit Latino adolescents' and parents' perspectives regarding mental health stressors as a basis for future preventive interventions. Eight focus groups were conducted with 53 Latino participants, 2 per sub-group (boys, girls, mothers, fathers). Three categories of mental health stressors included discrimination, immigration, and familial disconnection. Findings support the need for collaborative interventions and multi-level strategies (individual, family, and community) to address stressors in Latino adolescents' experiences. PMID:19170104

  10. Fostering Resilience: Protective Agents, Resources, and Mechanisms for Adolescent Refugees’ Psychosocial Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Hakizimana, Leonce; Tugenberg, Toni; Currie, Madeleine; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Wagner, Maureen; Polutnik, Chloe; Wulu, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent refugees face many challenges but also have the potential to become resilient. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the protective agents, resources, and mechanisms that promote their psychosocial well-being. Methods Participants included a purposively sampled group of 73 Burundian and Liberian refugee adolescents and their families who had recently resettled in Boston and Chicago. The adolescents, families, and their service providers participated in a two-year longitudinal study using ethnographic methods and grounded theory analysis with Atlas/ti software. A grounded theory model was developed which describes those persons or entities who act to protect adolescents (Protective Agents), their capacities for doing so (Protective Resources), and how they do it (Protective Mechanisms). Protective agents are the individuals, groups, organizations, and systems that can contribute either directly or indirectly to promoting adolescent refugees’ psychosocial well-being. Protective resources are the family and community capacities that can promote psychosocial well-being in adolescent refugees. Protective mechanisms are the processes fostering adolescent refugees’ competencies and behaviors that can promote their psychosocial well-being. Results Eight family and community capacities were identified that appeared to promote psychosocial well-being in the adolescent refugees. These included 1) finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) social support networks; 4) engaged parenting; 5) family cohesion; 6) cultural adherence and guidance; 7) educational support; and 8) faith and religious involvement. Nine protective mechanisms identified were identified and grouped into three categories: 1) Relational (supporting, connecting, belonging); 2) Informational (informing, preparing), and; 3) Developmental (defending, promoting, adapting). Conclusions To further promote the psychosocial well-being of adolescent refugees

  11. [Adolescent sexuality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M

    1987-01-01

    22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined. PMID:12269059

  12. Smoking and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Hee

    2011-10-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  13. Worker Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    The philosophy and workability of the concept of worker participation in management decisions is discussed in the context of British society. It is recommended that four interests be represented in any kind of Workers' Council: management, workers, shareholders, and consumers. (AG)

  14. A friend request from dear old dad: associations between parent-child social networking and adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James; Stockdale, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child social networking, connection, and outcomes for adolescents. Participants (491 adolescents and their parents) completed a number of questionnaires on social networking use, feelings of connection, and behavioral outcomes. Social networking with parents was associated with increased connection between parents and adolescents. Feelings of connection then mediated the relationship between social networking with parents and behavioral outcomes, including higher prosocial behavior and lower relational aggression and internalizing behavior. Conversely, adolescent social networking use without parents was associated with negative outcomes, such as increased relational aggression, internalizing behaviors, delinquency, and decreased feelings of connection. These results indicate that although high levels of social networking use may be problematic for some individuals, social networking with parents may potentially strengthen parent-child relationships and then lead to positive outcomes for adolescents. PMID:23845157

  15. From the child to the neighbourhood: Longitudinal ecological correlates of young adolescents' emotional, social, conduct, and academic difficulties.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Susan L; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Hood, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Guided by Bronfenbrenner's (1977) ecological framework, we investigated the correlates of changes in early adolescents' emotional, conduct, social and academic difficulties over a 2-year period of time. A representative sample of Australian early adolescents (N = 3797, 51% boys) completed questionnaires and interviews when they were age 10 (T1) and two years later at age 12 (T2). Parents also participated. Adolescents' difficulties increased over time, but there was no difference in academic difficulties between T1 and T2. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that temperamental factors of persistence and reactivity accounted for the most unique variance in adolescents' difficulties. Factors at each ecological level, including neighbourhood advantage, school connection, and family factors, were also uniquely associated with adolescents' change in difficulties over time. Although ecological effects were small, the study highlights the significant unique roles that proximal and distal social contexts play in the development of difficulties. PMID:27111893

  16. Implicit Motivational Processes Underlying Smoking in American and Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Helle; Kong, Grace; Becker, Daniela; Cousijn, Janna; Boendermaker, Wouter; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Wiers, Reinout

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Research demonstrates that cognitive biases toward drug-related stimuli are correlated with substance use. This study aimed to investigate differences in cognitive biases (i.e., approach bias, attentional bias, and memory associations) between smoking and non-smoking adolescents in the US and the Netherlands. Within the group of smokers, we examined the relative predictive value of the cognitive biases and impulsivity related constructs (including inhibition skills, working memory, and risk taking) on daily smoking and nicotine dependence. Method: A total of 125 American and Dutch adolescent smokers (n = 67) and non-smokers (n = 58) between 13 and 18 years old participated. Participants completed the smoking approach–avoidance task, the classical and emotional Stroop task, brief implicit associations task, balloon analog risk task, the self-ordering pointing task, and a questionnaire assessing level of nicotine dependence and smoking behavior. Results: The analytical sample consisted of 56 Dutch adolescents (27 smokers and 29 non-smokers) and 37 American adolescents (19 smokers and 18 non-smokers). No differences in cognitive biases between smokers and non-smokers were found. Generally, Dutch adolescents demonstrated an avoidance bias toward both smoking and neutral stimuli whereas the American adolescents did not demonstrate a bias. Within the group of smokers, regression analyses showed that stronger attentional bias and weaker inhibition skills predicted greater nicotine dependence while weak working memory predicted more daily cigarette use. Conclusion: Attentional bias, inhibition skills, and working memory might be important factors explaining smoking in adolescence. Cultural differences in approach–avoidance bias should be considered in future research. PMID:24904435

  17. Trajectories of Adolescent Mother–Grandmother Psychological Conflict During Early Parenting and Children's Problem Behaviors at Age 7

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Fitzmaurice, Shannon; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    This study extends the determinants of parenting model to adolescent mothers by examining how adolescent mother–grandmother psychological conflict and perceptions of infant fussiness from birth through age 2 years relate to children's problem behaviors at age 7. Participants were 181 adolescent mother, child, and grandmother triads living in multigenerational households and recruited at delivery. Psychological conflict was characterized by two stable trajectories. In multivariate models that included maternal depression, both psychological conflict and perceptions of infant fussiness predicted externalizing behavior at age 7. Perceptions of infant fussiness, but not psychological conflict, predicted internalizing behavior at age 7. PMID:21534055

  18. Smoking cessation treatment for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Julie P; Timpe, Erin M; Lubsch, Lisa

    2010-10-01

    Cigarette smoking in the adolescent population remains a public health concern. A significant portion of the adolescent population currently uses tobacco. Nicotine is particularly addicting in adolescents, and quitting is difficult. The goals for adolescent cigarette smoking efforts must include both primary prevention and smoking cessation. Bupropion and nicotine replacement therapies-including nicotine patches, gum, and nasal spray-have been studied to a limited extent in the adolescent population. Varenicline has not been evaluated as a treatment modality in adolescents. Long-term quit rates in the pharmacotherapy trials have not been optimal; however, decreases in cigarettes smoked per day have been observed. Several evidencebased guidelines include recommendations for smoking cessation in adolescents that include counseling and pharmacotherapy. Pharmacotherapy may be instituted for some adolescents in addition to counseling and behavioral interventions. Therapy should be individualized, based on smoking patterns, patient preferences, and concomitant disease states. Smoking cessation support for parents should be instituted as well. The pharmacist can play a large role in helping the adolescent quit smoking. Further studies evaluating pharmacotherapy options for smoking cessation in adolescents are necessary. If pharmacotherapy is used, it should be individualized and combined with psychosocial and behavioral interventions. PMID:22477813

  19. Early Signs of Atherogenesis in Adolescents in a Havana Family Medicine Catchment Area.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Wendy; Díaz-Perera, Georgia; Espinosa, Tania M

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Atherosclerosis is the common underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases; the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. It is a major contributor to disability and poorer quality of life and is costly to health systems, individuals, families and society. Early signs of atherogenesis are manifestations of atherosclerosis and known atherogenic risk factors occurring at young ages and detectable by health professionals. Early detection of such signs in children and adolescents enables actions to prevent short- and long-term complications. OBJECTIVE Detect early signs of atherogenesis in adolescents in Family Doctor-and-Nurse Office No. 13 of the Raúl Gómez García Polyclinic in Havana's 10 de Octubre Municipality. METHODS An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted: the universe consisted of 110 adolescents and, once exclusion criteria were applied, the sample was made up of 96 adolescents in the office's geographical catchment area. Variables included sociodemographic data; measurements from physical and anthropometric examinations (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, presence of acanthosis nigricans); maternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, smoking during pregnancy; birth weight and duration of exclusive breastfeeding; lifestyle (physical activity, dietary habits by frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables, salt intake, and smoking); and a history of atherogenic risk factors and atherosclerotic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and chronic kidney disease) in adolescents and their families. The number of early signs of atherogenesis was determined. Descriptive statistics and a chi-square test, with significance threshold set at p = 0.05, were used to examine differences by sex and age. RESULTS A total of 62.5% of participating adolescents were female and the same percent of the total

  20. The Impact of Birth Order on Intergenerational Transmission of Attitudes from Parents to Adolescent Sons: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Liat

    2004-01-01

    This study deals with birth order and its impact on intergenerational transmission of parental attitudes to adolescent sons in Israeli society. The sample included 294 participants (including 98 mothers, 98 fathers, and 98 sons). The attitudes chosen were key issues of concern in Israeli society: gender role attitudes, ethnic stereotypes, and…

  1. Observations of Chat Room Conversations on the Internet: Implications for Educators Addressing the Needs of Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Dixie; Ritzman, Mitzi; LaCost, Barbara; Stofer, Keri; Long, Amie; Grady, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the meanings of chat room conversations through observations of teenagers using the Internet. Adolescent girls were a focus because of their shaky sense of self. Participants in ten chat rooms included 534 individuals. Six themes, emerging from analyzing 2526 utterances [descriptive statements], included (a)…

  2. Parental Level of Education: Associations with Psychological Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Reasons for Pursuing Higher Education in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…

  3. Adolescent and Young Adult Perceptions of Hookah and Little Cigars/Cigarillos: Implications for Risk Messages.

    PubMed

    Cornacchione, Jennifer; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Wiseman, Kimberly D; Kelley, Dannielle; Noar, Seth M; Smith, Margaret H; Sutfin, Erin L

    2016-07-01

    Use of hookah and little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs) is high among adolescents and young adults. Although these products have health effects similar to cigarettes, adolescents and young adults believe them to be safer. This study examined adolescent and young adult perceptions of hookah and LCCs to develop risk messages aimed at discouraging use among users and at-risk nonusers. Ten focus groups with 77 adolescents and young adults were conducted to explore their perceptions about the perceived risks and benefits of hookah and LCC use. Participants were users of other (non-cigarette) tobacco products (n = 47) and susceptible nonusers (n = 30). Transcripts were coded for emergent themes on participants' perceptions of hookah and LCCs. Participants did not perceive health effects associated with hookah and LCC use to be serious or likely to happen given their infrequency of use and perceptions that they are less harmful than cigarettes. Participants generally had positive associations with smoking hookah and LCCs for several reasons, including that they are used in social gatherings, come in various flavors, and can be used to perform smoke tricks. Because adolescents and young adults underestimate and discount the long-term risks associated with hookah and LCC use, effective messages may be those that focus on the acute/immediate health and cosmetic effects. PMID:27337629

  4. Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Adolescents with Recurrent Headaches: A Pilot Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Toni; Holmes, Laura G; Kennedy-Overfelt, Vicki; Kerr, Lynne M; Giles, Lisa L

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent headaches cause significant burden for adolescents and their families. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to reduce stress and alter the experience of pain, reduce pain burden, and improve quality of life. Research indicates that MBIs can benefit adults with chronic pain conditions including headaches. A pilot nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted with 20 adolescent females with recurrent headaches. Median class attendance was 7 of 8 total sessions; average class attendance was 6.10 ± 2.6. Adherence to home practice was good, with participants reporting an average of 4.69 (SD = 1.84) of 6 practices per week. Five participants dropped out for reasons not inherent to the group (e.g., extracurricular scheduling); no adverse events were reported. Parents reported improved quality of life and physical functioning for their child. Adolescent participants reported improved depression symptoms and improved ability to accept their pain rather than trying to control it. MBIs appear safe and feasible for adolescents with recurrent headaches. Although participants did not report decreased frequency or severity of headache following treatment, the treatment had a beneficial effect for depression, quality of life, and acceptance of pain and represents a promising adjunct treatment for adolescents with recurrent headaches. PMID:26798398

  5. Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Adolescents with Recurrent Headaches: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Toni; Holmes, Laura G.; Kennedy-Overfelt, Vicki; Kerr, Lynne M.; Giles, Lisa L.

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent headaches cause significant burden for adolescents and their families. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to reduce stress and alter the experience of pain, reduce pain burden, and improve quality of life. Research indicates that MBIs can benefit adults with chronic pain conditions including headaches. A pilot nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted with 20 adolescent females with recurrent headaches. Median class attendance was 7 of 8 total sessions; average class attendance was 6.10 ± 2.6. Adherence to home practice was good, with participants reporting an average of 4.69 (SD = 1.84) of 6 practices per week. Five participants dropped out for reasons not inherent to the group (e.g., extracurricular scheduling); no adverse events were reported. Parents reported improved quality of life and physical functioning for their child. Adolescent participants reported improved depression symptoms and improved ability to accept their pain rather than trying to control it. MBIs appear safe and feasible for adolescents with recurrent headaches. Although participants did not report decreased frequency or severity of headache following treatment, the treatment had a beneficial effect for depression, quality of life, and acceptance of pain and represents a promising adjunct treatment for adolescents with recurrent headaches. PMID:26798398

  6. Parents' Management of Adolescents' Romantic Relationships through Dating Rules: Gender Variations and Correlates of Relationship Qualities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Stephanie D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined parents' rules concerning their late adolescents' dating activities. Participants were mostly European-American, including 165 mothers or fathers and 103 of their children (ages 17-19; 28 sons and 75 daughters). Parents provided information regarding their use of dating rules; rules were coded by type (i.e., supervision,…

  7. "Guys, She's Humongous!": Gender and Weight-Based Teasing in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    Ethnographic research, including individual interviews, focus groups, and participant observation, was conducted to examine how adolescents defined and negotiated the boundaries between normal/acceptable weight and overweight through direct and indirect teasing. In particular, this article focuses on gender differences in weight-based teasing and…

  8. Adolescents' Internet Search Strategies: Drawing upon Familiar Cognitive Paradigms when Accessing Electronic Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinee, Kathleen; Eagleton, Maya B.; Hall, Tracey E.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate and describe the Internet search strategies of adolescent learners. Participants were 161 middle and high school students. Collected data included students' descriptions of the search process, observations of student searching behaviors, and audit trail lists of search strings used by students. The students…

  9. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  10. Political Alienation in Adolescence: Associations with Parental Role Models, Parenting Styles, and Classroom Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gniewosz, Burkhard; Noack, Peter; Buhl, Monika

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined how parental political attitudes, parenting styles, and classroom characteristics predict adolescents' political alienation, as feelings about the individual's ability to affect the political system's performance at the individual level. Participants were 463 families that included mothers, fathers, and their adolescent…

  11. A Meta-Analysis of the Distinction between Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polman, Hanneke; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Koops, Willem; van Boxtel, Herman W.; Merk, Welmoet W.

    2007-01-01

    The present meta-analytic review aimed to clarify divergent findings concerning the relation between reactive and proactive aggression in children and adolescents. Fifty-one studies with 17,965 participants were included in the analysis. A significant correlation between reactive and proactive aggression was found. The strength of this relation…

  12. The Role of Sense of School Belonging and Gender in the Academic Adjustment of Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Bernadette; Colon, Yari; Esparza, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the roles of sense of belonging and gender in the academic outcomes of urban, Latino adolescents. It was expected that sense of belonging would play a different role in males' and females' academic adjustment. Participants (N = 143) included mostly Mexican and Puerto Rican seniors from a large, urban high…

  13. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Young Adolescent Girls: Moderators of the Distress-Function Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Lori M.; Cha, Christine B.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study examined nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of young adolescent girls. Potential moderators of the relationships between different types of distress (internal and interpersonal) and particular functions of NSSI (emotion-regulation and interpersonal) were explored. Participants included 94 girls (49% Hispanic; 25%…

  14. Family Relationships from Adolescence to Early Adulthood: Changes in the Family System following Firstborns' Leaving Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2011-01-01

    This study charted the course of parent-child and sibling relationships from early adolescence to early adulthood and examined how these relationships changed following firstborns' departure from their parents' home for the first time. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants included mothers,…

  15. Walking the Walk: The Moderating Role of Proactive Parenting on Adolescents' Value-Congruent Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Fraser, Ashley M.; Harper, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study longitudinally examined adolescents' internalization of values in four domains (drug use, prosocial, school, friends), and how these values were differentially related to behaviors (delinquency, prosocial behavior, school engagement, and deviant peer association) as a function of proactive parenting. Participants included 335…

  16. The Use of Ultrasound in Remediation of North American English /r/ in 2 Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler-Bock, Marcy; Bernhardt, Barbara May; Gick, Bryan; Bacsfalvi, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound can provide images of the tongue during speech production. The present study set out to examine the potential utility of ultrasound in remediation of North American English /r/. Method: The participants were 2 Canadian English-speaking adolescents who had not yet acquired /r/. The study included an initial period without…

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of Academic Disidentification, Racial Identity, and Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Martinique; Johnson, Samoan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine academic disidentification along with demographic and psychological factors related to the academic achievement of African American adolescents. Participants included 96 African American students (41 males, 55 females) in an urban high school setting located in the Southwest. Consistent with previous…

  18. Moderators of Negative Peer Influence on Early Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors: Individual Behavior, Parenting, and School Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which antisocial behavior, parenting, and school connectedness moderated the association between peer deviancy in preadolescence and externalizing problems in early adolescence. The participants included 500 boys and girls, most of them African Americans. Peer deviancy was measured with teacher reports of…

  19. Friendship and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence: A Multilevel Social Network Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knecht, Andrea B.; Burk, William J.; Weesie, Jeroen; Steglich, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This study applies multilevel social network analytic techniques to examine processes of homophilic selection and social influence related to alcohol use among friends in early adolescence. Participants included 3,041 Dutch youth (M age =12 years, 49% female) from 120 classrooms in 14 schools. Three waves with 3-month intervals of friendship…

  20. The Process of Social Identity Development in Adolescent High School Choral Singers: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the process of adolescent choral singers' social identity development within three midsized, midwestern high school mixed choirs. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 36 different participants. Secondary data sources included memoing, observations, and interviews with the choir…

  1. Museum Literacies and Adolescents Using Multiple Forms of Texts "On Their Own"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakle, A. Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In this article, museum literacies are examined. Data collected during a qualitative study of adolescents in out-of-school and in-school groups in a museum demonstrate how participants used museum literacies. Resources for teachers' uses of museum literacies are described and provided, including museum podcasts, virtual museum Internet sites, and…

  2. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury among Adolescents: A Training Priority for Primary Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Hetler, Joel; Edwall, Glenace; Wright, Catherine; Edwards, Anne; Borowsky, Iris W.

    2013-01-01

    Primary care providers were surveyed to determine how prepared they feel to address nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, their interest in training on NSSI, and factors associated with routinely asking about NSSI when providing health supervision. Participants included family medicine physicians ("n" = 260), pediatricians…

  3. Direct and Moderating Effects of Social Affordances on School Involvement and Delinquency among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Jeong Jin; Gamble, Wendy C.

    2010-01-01

    Using social control theory and attachment theory as guides, this study examined how qualities of young adolescents' social relationships (i.e., mother, sibling, and friend) and dynamic interactions among characteristics of those relationships are associated with school involvement and delinquency. The participants included older siblings (M age =…

  4. Adolescent Behavioral, Emotional, and Cognitive Engagement Trajectories in School and Their Differential Relations to Educational Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    The current study used a multidimensional approach to examine developmental trajectories of three dimension of school engagement (school participation, sense of school belonging, and self-regulated learning) from grades 7 to 11 and their relationships to changes in adolescents' academic outcomes over time. The sample includes 1,148 African…

  5. Dimensions of Adolescent Subjective Social Status within the School Community: Description and Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Young, Robert; Kelly, Shona

    2011-01-01

    School pupils strive to meet both school-defined and social goals, and the structure of adolescent self-concept is multidimensional, including both academic and non-academic self-perceptions. However, subjective social status within the school community has been represented as a single dimension. Scottish 15-year olds participating in a…

  6. Developmental Assets and Ethnic Identity as Predictors of Thriving in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Melissa; Ricard, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the confluence of developmental assets, ethnic identity, and acculturative stress in the prediction of thriving among Hispanic adolescents. Thriving is used to encompass youth who are not only doing well now but who are also on the trajectory toward overall success. Study participants included 130 self-reported Hispanic middle…

  7. The Mediator Effect of Loneliness between Perceived Social Competence and Cyber Bullying in Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sariçam, Hakan; Yaman, Erkan; Çelik, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether loneliness might play a mediating role between perceived social competence and cyberbullying in Turkish adolescents. The participants were 326 high school students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Cyberbullying Scale, the Perceived Social Competence Scale, and the UCLA…

  8. A Comparison of Premenarcheal Expectations and Postmenarcheal Experiences in Chinese Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Lee, Antoinette Marie

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined Chinese early adolescents' expectations and experiences of their first menstruation. It included 952 participants, 476 premenarcheal and 476 postmenarcheal girls matched by age and by grade level. Results showed that compared to experiences of postmenarcheal girls, premenarcheal girls anticipated more negative emotional…

  9. The Legacy of Early Insecurity Histories in Shaping Adolescent Adaptation to Interparental Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Patrick T.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Bascoe, Sonnette M.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the mediational pathway involving interparental conflict, adolescent emotional insecurity, and their psychological problems was altered by their earlier childhood histories of insecurity. Participants included 230 families, with the first of the five measurement occasions occurring when children were in first grade…

  10. Adolescent Substance-Use Frequency following Self-Help Group Attendance and Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Jennifer; Darling, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the heterogeneity of posttreatment outcomes, the likelihood of relapse is often dependent on several factors, including participation in continuing care services such as self-help groups. However, few studies have examined the use of self-help groups among adolescent outpatients. Therefore, in this study, investigators examined self-help…

  11. Perceived Social Support and the Self-Concepts of Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinn, Anne N.; Reynolds, Marilyn J.; McQueen, Kand S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between perceived social support and the multidimensional self-concepts of gifted adolescents. Participants included 217 gifted students who had completed grades 5 through 10 and were attending a summer program for the gifted. Self-concept was measured using the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ-II; H.…

  12. Predicting Risk-Taking With and Without Substance Use: The Effects of Parental Monitoring, School Bonding, and Sports Participation

    PubMed Central

    Dever, Bridget V.; Schulenberg, John E.; Dworkin, Jodi B.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Kloska, Deborah D.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2013-01-01

    Risk-taking is statistically normative during adolescence, yet is associated with adverse outcomes including substance use. The present study draws the distinction between protective factors (effective for those identified as high risk takers) and promotive factors (effective for all) against substance use, focusing on parental monitoring, school bonding, and sports participation. A total of 36,514 8th and 10th grade participants in the national Monitoring the Future study were included. Although parental monitoring was associated with lower alcohol and marijuana use among all adolescents (i.e., promotive effect), these effects were strongest among the highest risk takers (i.e., protective effect) and females. School bonding was associated with lower levels of both alcohol and marijuana use among all groups of adolescents, but these promotive effects were weak. Sports participation was associated with higher levels of alcohol use among all males and among 8th grade females who did not identify as high risk takers. Despite being a risk factor for alcohol use, sports participation did demonstrate a promotive effect against marijuana use among 10th grade females only, and especially so for high risk-taking females (i.e., protective effect). Overall, these findings suggest that of the three mechanisms studied, parental monitoring emerged as the most promising entry point for substance use prevention and intervention across groups, particularly for females and high risk-taking adolescents. PMID:22960940

  13. Agreement between parents and adolescents on emotional and behavioral problems and its associated factors among Chinese school adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most studies about informant agreements on adolescents’ emotional and behavioral problems have been conducted in Western countries, but this subject has not been well researched in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of parent–adolescent agreement on adolescents’ problems and its associated factors among school-age adolescents in China. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2010. A questionnaire including the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Youth Self-Report (YSR), the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the characteristics of the child (age and gender), parents (parent–adolescent relationship and parental expectations) and family (family structure, negative life events) was distributed to our study population. A total of 2,199 Chinese adolescents (aged 11–18) from 15 public schools in Liaoning Province, who completed the questionnaire, became our final participants. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess parent–adolescent agreement, and linear regression analysis was used to explore the associated factors of parent–adolescent discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems. Results The parent–adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was high (mean r = 0.6). The scores of YSR were higher than those of CBCL. Factors that increased informant discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems were boys, older age, the experience of negative life events, low levels of cohesion and organization, and high levels of conflict in the family. Conclusions A high level of parent–adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was found. Adolescents reported more problems than their parents did. Family environment is an important factor to be considered when interpreting informant discrepancies on the mental health of Chinese adolescents. PMID:24735388

  14. Short-term and long-term influences of family arguments and gender difference on developing psychological well-being in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fu-Gong; Chou, Yu-Ching; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Jing-Ding

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent mental health is crucial for social competence and accomplishment in later life. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 20% of adolescents suffer from psychological symptoms. However, improving family risk and school environments can largely promote adolescent mental health. A longitudinal survey was conducted to investigate adolescent psychological well-being (PWB) status and associated factors in adolescents 15-20 years of age. Family and school context variables were interviewed and recorded. A total of 2896 participants were included from high, middle, and less urbanized resident areas in Northern Taiwan with completed interview data. Using multivariate regression analysis, factors associated with adolescent PWB at various stages included quarrelsome parents, quarrels with parents, severed friendships, and cigarette and alcohol use. In all three adolescent stages, females yielded higher psychological symptom scores than did males, and diverse weights of risk factors on PWB were observed between genders. Family arguments and cigarette and alcohol use were found to have more pronounced effects on outcomes among females than males. Whereas males are more sensitive to severed friendships than females, cigarette and alcohol use showed more harmful effects on mental health in earlier adolescence than in later life. Moreover, family arguments and severed friendships in earlier adolescence were found to have lasting effects on PWB in later adolescence. In this study, gender differences were observed in the temporal relationship on adolescent mental health. Variables of family arguments and severed friendships exhibited short-term and long-term effects on adolescent mental health across the early to late developmental stages. The family argument environment and regulating cigarette and alcohol use are worthy of focus to promote adolescent mental health. PMID:25077832

  15. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  16. Participative Design for Participative Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Merrelyn, Ed.

    This four-part volume addresses design principles for introducing democratic forms in workplaces, educational institutions, and social institutions, based on a trend toward participative democracy in Australia. Following an introduction, part I sets the context with two papers: "The Agenda for the Next Wave" and "Educational Paradigms: An…

  17. Adolescent Outcomes of Children With Early Speech Sound Disorders With and Without Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Freebairn, Lisa; Tag, Jessica; Ciesla, Allison A.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Stein, Catherine M.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors determined adolescent speech, language, and literacy outcomes of individuals with histories of early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without comorbid language impairment (LI) and examined factors associated with these outcomes. Method This study used a prospective longitudinal design. Participants with SSD (n = 170), enrolled at early childhood (4–6 years) were followed at adolescence (11–18 years) and were compared to individuals with no histories of speech or language impairment (no SSD; n = 146) on measures of speech, language, and literacy. Comparisons were made between adolescents with early childhood histories of no SSD, SSD only, and SSD plus LI as well as between adolescents with no SSD, resolved SSD, and persistent SSD. Results Individuals with early childhood SSD with comorbid LI had poorer outcomes than those with histories of SSD only or no SSD. Poorer language and literacy outcomes in adolescence were associated with multiple factors, including persistent speech sound problems, lower nonverbal intelligence, and lower socioeconomic status. Adolescents with persistent SSD had higher rates of comorbid LI and reading disability than the no SSD and resolved SSD groups. Conclusion Risk factors for language and literacy problems in adolescence include an early history of LI, persistent SSD, lower nonverbal cognitive ability, and social disadvantage. PMID:25569242

  18. Exploring mediating factors in the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Campoy, Eric; Chaix, Basile; Chauvin, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Parental psychopathology is associated with increased psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents. We examined, from a psychosocial perspective, the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents and assessed the mediating role of psychosocial covariates. This is a cross-sectional survey and the setting include representative sample of Quebec adolescents in 1999. The participants of the study include 13- and 16-year-old children (N = 2,346) in the Social and Health Survey of Quebec Children and Adolescents. The main outcome measures are internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, substance use, and alcohol consumption. For statistical analysis, we used structural equation modeling to test for mediation. Internalizing and externalizing disorders were significantly associated with parental psychological distress, but not substance use or alcohol consumption. The higher the parental distress, the higher the risk of adolescent mental health disorders. The association between parental psychological distress and internalizing disorders was mediated by adolescent self-esteem, parental emotional support and extrafamilial social support. As for externalizing disorders, these variables only had an independent effect. In conclusion, A family’s well being is a necessary condition for psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. Beyond the psychiatric approach, psychosocial considerations need to be taken into consideration to prevent negative mental health outcomes in children living in homes with distressed parents. PMID:20127380

  19. Michigan Early Adolescent Survey: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Joanne; And Others

    This document contains the final report from the Michigan Early Adolescent Survey, a study undertaken to: (1) develop a profile of Michigan early adolescents that focused on out-of-school time and included biological, psychological, and sociological information; (2) develop a profile of families which included early adolescents; (3) assess the…

  20. Parenting and adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values.

    PubMed

    Knafo, Ariel; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2003-01-01

    What determines adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values? The current study examined potential predictors including parental value communication, family value agreement, and parenting styles. In the study, 547 Israeli adolescents (aged 16 to 18) of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds participated with their parents. Adolescents reported the values they perceive their parents want them to hold. Parents reported their socialization values. Accuracy in perceiving parents' overall value system correlated positively with parents' actual and perceived value agreement and perceived parental warmth and responsiveness, but negatively with perceived value conflict, indifferent parenting, and autocratic parenting in all gender compositions of parent-child dyads. Other associations varied by dyad type. Findings were similar for predicting accuracy in perceiving two specific values: tradition and hedonism. The article discusses implications for the processes that underlie accurate perception, gender differences, and other potential influences on accuracy in value perception. PMID:12705575