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Sample records for adolescence participants included

  1. Occult Participation: Its Impact on Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant-Clark, Cynthia M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship between occult participation, substance abuse, and level of self-esteem among 25 clinical (alcohol or drug treatment) and 25 nonclinical adolescents. Results indicated that adolescent substance abuse and occult participation were significantly related. Found significant differences between high versus low occult groups…

  2. Descriptive Epidemiology of Dance Participation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Pate, Russell R.; Liese, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of dance participation in U.S. adolescents and to estimate the contribution of dance to total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The sample was composed of 3,598 adolescents from the 2003-06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Youth reported frequency and duration of…

  3. Male Adolescents' Reasons for Participating in Physical Activity, Barriers to Participation, and Suggestions for Increasing Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Kenneth R.; Dwyer, John J. M.; Goldenberg, Ellie; Fein, Allan; Yoshida, Karen K.; Boutilier, Marie

    2005-01-01

    This study explored male adolescents' reasons for participating in moderate and vigorous physical activity, perceived barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity, and suggestions as to what can be done to increase participation in physical activity. A total of 26 male 15- and 16-year-old adolescents participated in focus group sessions,…

  4. eParticipation for Adolescent Citizens (in Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    In Austria, two recent eParticipation projects focused on adolescent citizens. The first project, “mitmachen.at - move your future” was to provide initial experiences with an eParticipation tool. The second project, “Jugend2help”, applied the lessons learned from the “mitmachen.at” project to improve the Austrian public administration web portal for adolescent citizens. In both projects, the results indicate that web portals and eParticpation seems to suit the adolescents’ information and communication needs. Involving the users is central to the development of an eParticipation process or platform so that the users’ specific characteristics (age, skills), needs and interests are included appropriately. The target users’ characteristics are also important for developing a marketing strategy which is able to reach them. Other issues which must also be considered in eParticipation are accessibility, inclusion and possibly gender.

  5. Policy statement—Boxing participation by children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Laura; LeBlanc, Claire M A

    2011-09-01

    Thousands of boys and girls younger than 19 years participate in boxing in North America. Although boxing provides benefits for participants, including exercise, self-discipline, and self-confidence, the sport of boxing encourages and rewards deliberate blows to the head and face. Participants in boxing are at risk of head, face, and neck injuries, including chronic and even fatal neurologic injuries. Concussions are one of the most common injuries that occur with boxing. Because of the risk of head and facial injuries, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Paediatric Society oppose boxing as a sport for children and adolescents. These organizations recommend that physicians vigorously oppose boxing in youth and encourage patients to participate in alternative sports in which intentional head blows are not central to the sport.

  6. Participation in Social Activities among Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shattuck, Paul T.; Orsmond, Gael I.; Wagner, Mary; Cooper, Benjamin P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about patterns of participation in social activities among adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objectives were to report nationally representative (U.S.) estimates of participation in social activities among adolescents with an ASD, to compare these estimates to other groups of adolescents with disabilities, and examine correlates of limited social participation. Methods and Findings We analyzed data from wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, a large cohort study of adolescents enrolled in special education. Three comparison groups included adolescents with learning disabilities, mental retardation, and speech/language impairments. Adolescents with an ASD were significantly more likely never to see friends out of school (43.3%), never to get called by friends (54.4%), and never to be invited to social activities (50.4%) when compared with adolescents from all the other groups. Correlates of limited social participation included low family income and having impairments in conversational ability, social communication, and functional cognitive skills. Conclusions Compared with prior research, our study significantly expands inquiry in this area by broadening the range of social participation indicators examined, increasing the external validity of findings, focusing on the under-studied developmental stage of adolescence, and taking an ecological approach that included many potential correlates of social participation. There were notable differences in social participation by income, a dimension of social context seldom examined in research on ASDs. PMID:22110612

  7. Extracurricular participation among adolescents from immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Daisy E; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    Participation in organized after-school activities could be especially beneficial for youth from immigrant backgrounds, whose families often have little knowledge of American school systems. The role of extracurricular involvement in the achievement and motivation of students from immigrant families was examined among 468 eleventh grade (52.4% female) students from Asian American (44.4%), European American (19.0%) and Latino (36.5%) backgrounds who varied in generational status (first: 25%; second: 52.4%, third: 22.6%) and attended high school in the Los Angeles area. Participants completed questionnaires regarding their extracurricular activities, school belonging, and intrinsic motivation. Students' grade point average (GPA) was obtained from official school records. Controls included parental education, ethnicity, generational status, gender, school, and the outcome variables in tenth grade. First generation students were less likely to participate in academic activities than their third generation peers but, overall, there were few generational differences in participation. Participation predicted achievement and engagement after accounting for tenth grade levels of educational adjustment. Most notably, although all students benefitted from participation, the gain in GPA as a function of participation was greater for first generation than third generation students. Results suggest that organized after-school activities are particularly important for students in immigrant families, providing them with additional experiences that contribute to academic achievement.

  8. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  9. Motivations and concerns about adolescent tuberculosis vaccine trial participation in rural Uganda: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Buregyeya, Esther; Kulane, Asli; Kiguli, Juliet; Musoke, Phillipa; Mayanja, Harriet; Mitchell, Ellen Maeve Hanlon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Research is being carried out to develop and test new potentially more effective tuberculosis vaccines. Among the vaccines being developed are those that target adolescents. This study explored the stakeholders’ perceptions about adolescent participation in a hypothetical tuberculosis vaccine trial in Ugandan adolescents. Methods Focus group discussions with adolescents, parents of infants and adolescents, and key informant interviews with community leaders and traditional healers were conducted. Results The majority of the respondents expressed potential willingness to allow their children participate in a tuberculosis vaccine trial. Main motivations for potential participation would be being able to learn about health-related issues. Hesitations included the notion that trial participation would distract the youths from their studies, fear of possible side effects of an investigational product, and potential for being sexually exploited by researchers. In addition, bad experiences from participation in previous research and doubts about the importance of research were mentioned. Suggested ways to motivate participation included: improved clarity on study purpose, risks, benefits and better scheduling of study procedures to minimize disruption to participants’ academic schedules. Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that the community is open to potential participation of adolescents in a tuberculosis vaccine trial. However, there is a need to communicate more effectively with the community about the purpose of the trial and its effects, including safety data, in a low-literacy, readily understood format. This raises a challenge to researchers, who cannot know all the potential effects of a trial product before it is tested. PMID:26834929

  10. Adolescents' expected civic participation: the role of civic knowledge and efficacy beliefs.

    PubMed

    Manganelli, Sara; Lucidi, Fabio; Alivernini, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    In the present study we examined the role of civic knowledge and efficacy beliefs as factors that can promote adolescents' expectations to participate in civic activities, while also taking into consideration the influences of socio-economic background and gender differences. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to examine data from the International Civic and Citizenship Study, collected from 3352 eighth grade Italian students. Gender was found to significantly moderate some relationships between the variables, while efficacy beliefs, rather than civic knowledge, positively influenced expected civic participation. Socio-economic background influenced all the variables included in the study, but it had a very small direct influence on adolescents' expected civic participation. It therefore appears that adolescents' expected civic participation can be encouraged by making them more confident about their civic and political abilities. These results extend our understanding of civic engagement in adolescents, and can inform policies aiming to promote it.

  11. Homelessness, Violence Exposure, and School Participation among Urban Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Angie C.

    2007-01-01

    Using a risk and resilience framework, this exploratory study examines the relationships between homelessness, exposure to multiple types of violence, and school participation within a survey sample of poor adolescent mothers living in an urban setting. Participants who were homeless either currently or historically were compared with participants…

  12. Actual leisure participation of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-02-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in individual, structured parent interviews, and added to existing longitudinal data from a project following the sample. Generally, the leisure activity may be viewed as varying along a continuum-reaching from formal, organized, and assisted activity participation outside home, to informal, self-organized, and independent participation at home. Formal leisure activities were either organized "for all" or "adapted for disabled." The adolescents' leisure appears as active and social. However, social participation largely involved parents and family, while socializing with other adolescents mainly took place within formal activities adapted for disabled. Clearly, formal and informal activities provide rather different opportunities for social encounters and assistance. PMID:24515503

  13. Adolescent Girls' Participation in Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Janice; Hall, M. Ann

    A longitudinal study of girls from the sixth through tenth grades sought to determine if the extent and type of participation in physical activities changed with age. A sample of 207 girls was selected with 140 completing the survey over 5 years. Participation was measured by activities in interschool teams, intramural activities,…

  14. Low Back Pain in Adolescents: A Comparison of Clinical Outcomes in Sports Participants and Nonparticipants

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Julie M.; Clifford, Shannon N.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Back pain is common in adolescents. Participation in sports has been identified as a risk factor for the development of back pain in adolescents, but the influence of sports participation on treatment outcomes in adolescents has not been adequately examined. Objective: To examine the clinical outcomes of rehabilitation for adolescents with low back pain (LBP) and to evaluate the influence of sports participation on outcomes. Design: Observational study. Setting: Outpatient physical therapy clinics. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-eight adolescents (age  =  15.40 ± 1.44 years; 56.90% female) with LBP referred for treatment. Twenty-three patients (39.66%) had developed back pain from sports participation. Intervention(s): Patients completed the Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire and numeric pain rating before and after treatment. Treatment duration and content were at the clinician's discretion. Adolescents were categorized as sports participants if the onset of back pain was linked to organized sports. Additional data collected included diagnostic imaging before referral, clinical characteristics, and medical diagnosis. Main Outcome Measure(s): Baseline characteristics were compared based on sports participation. The influence of sports participation on outcomes was examined using a repeated-measures analysis of covariance with the Oswestry and pain scores as dependent variables. The number of sessions and duration of care were compared using t tests. Results: Many adolescents with LBP receiving outpatient physical therapy treatment were involved in sports and cited sports participation as a causative factor for their LBP. Some differences in baseline characteristics and clinical treatment outcomes were noted between sports participants and nonparticipants. Sports participants were more likely to undergo magnetic resonance imaging before referral (P  =  .013), attended more sessions (mean difference  =  1.40, 95

  15. Gender differences in youths' political engagement and participation. The role of parents and of adolescents' social and civic participation.

    PubMed

    Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna; Fournier, Bernard; Gavray, Claire; Born, Michel

    2012-06-01

    Research examining youths' political development mostly focused on young people as a general group; comparatively less attention has been devoted to the examination of gender pathways toward citizenship. Two studies were conducted addressing (a) the role of parents' participation and the moderating role of adolescent gender and age group (n = 1419) and (b) the role of adolescent social and civic participation and the moderating role of adolescent gender and type of school (n = 1871). Results confirmed the gender gap in political interest and in the use of the Internet for political participation, while no differences emerged for political activity and voting intentions. Adolescents' political engagement and participation are influenced by parents' participation (especially among girls) and by adolescents' social and civic participation (especially among boys). The impact of adolescents' social and civic participation on conventional participation (voting intentions) is partially mediated by sense of community and institutional trust.

  16. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  17. Outdoor Adventure Program Participation Impacts on Adolescent Self-Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garst, Barry; Scheider, Ingrid; Baker, Dwayne

    2001-01-01

    A study examined the impact of outdoor adventure trips on 37 urban adolescents' self-perception. Results from pretest, posttest, and 4-month followup surveys and interviews indicate that participants' self-perceptions of social acceptance and behavioral conduct improved immediately after the trip, and that some behavioral conduct impacts remained…

  18. Changing Attitudes in Underprivileged Adolescents Participating in Group Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Julia

    Group psychotherapy was used with socio-economically deprived adolescents whose capacity for self-expression was promising. Non-psychotic acting out characters and passive inadequate personalities participated, and discussion, role playing, and psychodrama were the techniques utilized. After one year the following changes were seen: (1) increased…

  19. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  20. Cultivating Research Pedagogies with Adolescents: Created Spaces, Engaged Participation, and Embodied Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissman, Kelly K.; Staples, Jeanine M.; Vasudevan, Lalitha; Nichols, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes an approach to adolescent literacies research we call "research pedagogies." This approach recognizes the pedagogical features of the research process and includes three dimensions: created spaces, engaged participation, and embodied inquiry. By drawing upon and sometimes recasting foundational anthropological…

  1. The Effects of Sports Participation on Young Adolescents' Emotional Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Sarah J.; Ronan, Kevin R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between children's sports participation and emotional well-being including self-reported emotional and behavioral problems and multidimensional aspects of self-concept. Data were collected from 203 young adolescents using a multitrait-multimethod assessment methodology. Information was obtained using a sports…

  2. European study of frequency of participation of adolescents with and without cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Susan I; Flachs, Esben M; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Parkes, Jacqueline; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Colver, Allan; Fauconnier, Jerome; Dickinson, Heather O; Marcelli, Marco; Uldall, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Children with cerebral palsy participate less in everyday activities than children in the general populations. During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes occur which may be more difficult for adolescents with impairments. Within the European SPARCLE project we measured frequency of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy by administering the Questionnaire of Young People's Participation to 667 adolescents with cerebral palsy or their parents from nine European regions and to 4666 adolescents from the corresponding general populations. Domains and single items were analysed using respectively linear and logistic regression. Adolescents with cerebral palsy spent less time with friends and had less autonomy in their daily life than adolescents in the general populations. Adolescents with cerebral palsy participated much less in sport but played electronic games at least as often as adolescents in the general populations. Severity of motor and intellectual impairment had a significant impact on frequency of participation, the more severely impaired being more disadvantaged. Adolescents with an only slight impairment participated in some domains as often as adolescents in the general populations. Regional variation existed. For example adolescents with cerebral palsy in central Italy were most disadvantaged according to decisional autonomy, while adolescents with cerebral palsy in east Denmark and northern England played sports as often as their general populations. Participation is an important health outcome. Personal and environmental predictors of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy need to be identified in order to design interventions directed to such predictors; and in order to inform the content of services.

  3. Participating in sport and music activities in adolescence: the role of activity participation and motivational beliefs during elementary school.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Sandra D; Vest, Andrea E; Becnel, Jennifer N

    2010-11-01

    This investigation examined the precursors of adolescents' participation in sport and music activities in the United States by testing a developmental model across 7 years. Data were drawn from youth questionnaires in the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 594). Findings suggest that patterns of participation across a 3-year period in elementary school predict adolescents' participation through their motivational beliefs. Specifically, children who participated in an activity, children who participated consistently across multiple years, and children who were highly active had higher adolescent motivational beliefs 4 years later than their peers. These motivational beliefs, in turn, positively predicted adolescents' participation 1 year later. Cross-domain analyses suggest that children typically maintain their orientation toward sports and music (e.g., high music-low sport orientation, not oriented toward either domain) as they age. These findings highlight the consistency in children's leisure pursuits and interests from childhood through adolescence.

  4. Adolescent Athletic Participation and Nonmedical Adderall Use: An Exploratory Analysis of a Performance-Enhancing Drug

    PubMed Central

    Veliz, Philip; Boyd, Carol; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A primary motive for adolescents and young adults to nonmedically use prescription stimulants is to help them study. Adolescents and young adults are using prescription stimulants, such as Adderall (amphetamine aspartate, amphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, dextroamphetamine sulfate), as performance enhancers in certain social domains, including academics and sports. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the nonmedical use of Adderall (a commonly prescribed stimulant used nonmedically) among adolescents who participate in competitive sports. Method: The Monitoring the Future survey for 2010 and 2011, a representative sample of 8th- and 10th-grade students, surveyed involvement in competitive sports and nonmedical Adderall use among 21,137 adolescents. Pastyear nonmedical use of Adderall served as the main outcome measure. Logistic regression analyses were run to examine whether sports participation in general and involvement in different types of competitive sports participation were associated with past-year nonmedical use of Adderall among males and females. Results: The odds of past-year nonmedical use of Adderall among males were higher for male respondents who participated in lacrosse (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.52, 95% CI [1.20, 5.29]) and wrestling (AOR = 1.74, 95% CI [1.01, 2.98]). However, no particular sport among females was found to be associated with pastyear nonmedical use of Adderall. Conclusions: Certain extracurricular activities, such as high-contact sports, may influence male participants to misuse prescription stimulants as performance enhancers either on or off the playing field. PMID:23948530

  5. Domestic violence among adolescents in HIV prevention research in Tanzania: Participant experiences and measurement issues

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women’s Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Methods Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Results Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical/sexual violence and 17% scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15% scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Conclusions Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725

  6. Participation of adolescents in the Family Health Strategy from the theoretical-methodological structure of an enabler to participation

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Roberta Peixoto; Gomes, Sílvia Helena Pereira; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa; Bezerra, Italla Maria Pinheiro; Machado, Caroline Antero

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the participation of adolescents in the Family Health Strategy, from the theoretical-methodological structure of an enabler to participation. Method a quantitative study, conducted from December of 2010 to March of 2011, with 213 professionals in the FHS in the region of Cariri-Ceará-Brazil. Data were collected through a questionnaire and organized in SPSS 18.0. Results the level of normative participation becomes manifest beginning with the adolescent search for health services, motivated by disease (77.9%). Normative participation + independence appear when they seek prenatal care and family planning. Emancipatory participation was identified by the frequency of adolescents in group activities, in the schools, and a move in the direction of the level of transformative participation was observed. Conclusion in this context, it is understood that there exists a need to stimulate the participatory process of the adolescents for a change in health promotion in this group. PMID:26107840

  7. Transitions in Gambling Participation during Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Bethany C.; Lee, Grace P.; Liu, Weiwei; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine transitions in gambling participation from late adolescence into emerging adulthood, and to identify factors (i.e., gender, race, intervention status, lunch status, conduct disorder, parental monitoring, neighborhood environment, and substance use) that might influence these transitions. Methods Markov modeling was used to describe movement between past-year gambling states (i.e., non-gambling and gambling) over five years. Annual data on past-year gambling behavior and substance use were collected from 515 young men and women starting at age 17. Results Past-year gambling declined from 51% prevalence at age 17 to 21% prevalence at age 22. Participants who reported no past-year gambling at a particular annual assessment had more than an 80% probability of also reporting no past-year gambling at the following assessment. Men were 1.07–2.82 times more likely than women to transition from past-year non-gambling to gambling year-to-year, and women were 1.27–5.26 times more likely than men to transition from past-year gambling to non-gambling year-to-year. In addition, gender and past-year tobacco use interacted such that men who used tobacco were most likely (and men who did not use tobacco least likely) to gamble at baseline. Conclusions Transition rates between gambling states appear to be relatively stable over time from late adolescence into emerging adulthood; however, men and those who engage in substance use may be at increased risk for gambling participation. Implications and Contribution The current study provides important information about the naturalistic transitions in gambling behavior during late adolescence and emerging adulthood among an urban, mainly ethnic minority population. The finding that approximately half of past-year gamblers do not gamble during the following year suggests that gambling follows a variable developmental course. PMID:24656449

  8. Playing Through Pain: Sports Participation and Nonmedical Use of Opioid Medications Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Carol; McCabe, Sean E.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) among adolescents who participate in competitive sports. Using data from Monitoring the Future, we found that adolescent participants in high-injury sports had 50% higher odds of NMUPO than adolescents who did not participate in these types of sports (i.e., nonparticipants and participants in other sports). Detecting certain subpopulations of youths at risk for NMUPO should be a central concern among health care providers. PMID:23488520

  9. Playing through pain: sports participation and nonmedical use of opioid medications among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Veliz, Philip T; Boyd, Carol; McCabe, Sean E

    2013-05-01

    We assessed the nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) among adolescents who participate in competitive sports. Using data from Monitoring the Future, we found that adolescent participants in high-injury sports had 50% higher odds of NMUPO than adolescents who did not participate in these types of sports (i.e., nonparticipants and participants in other sports). Detecting certain subpopulations of youths at risk for NMUPO should be a central concern among health care providers.

  10. Associations between sports participation, adiposity and obesity-related health behaviors in Australian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organized sports participation, weight status, physical activity, screen time, and important food habits in a large nationally representative sample of Australian adolescents. Methods Nationally representative cross-sectional study of 12,188 adolescents from 238 secondary schools aged between 12 and 17 years (14.47 ± 1.25 y, 53% male, 23% overweight/obese). Participation in organized sports, compliance with national physical activity, screen time, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods were self-reported. Weight status and adiposity (BMI, waist circumference) were measured. Results Organized sports participation was higher among males and those residing in rural/remote areas. Underweight adolescents reported the lowest levels of participation. Higher levels of participation were associated with an increased likelihood of complying with national physical activity (OR = 2.07 [1.67-2.58]), screen time (OR = 1.48 [1.19-1.84]), and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines (OR = 1.32 [1.05-1.67]). There was no association between organized sport participation and weight status, adiposity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages or high-fat foods. Conclusions Participation in organized sports was associated with a greater likelihood to engage in a cluster of health behaviors, including meeting physical activity guidelines, electronic screen time recommendations, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines. However, participation in organized sports was not associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors including the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods. There is no association between participation in organized sports and likelihood to be overweight or obese. The role of sports in promoting healthy weight and energy balance is unclear. PMID:24088327

  11. Disordered Eating, Compulsive Exercise, and Sport Participation in a UK Adolescent Sample.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Huw; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    The sport literature has produced equivocal results as to whether sport participation is a protective or risk factor for disordered eating. One mechanism by which it could be a risk factor is the increased drive or compulsion to exercise. This study compared the levels of disordered eating and compulsive exercise between adolescent sport and non-sport participants. A sample of 417 male and female adolescents, aged 14-16 years old, was recruited from UK secondary schools. Participants completed questionnaire packs that included: the Eating Disorder Inventory; a measure of exercise behaviour; and the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET). Non-sport participants reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction than sport participants, and this was true for boys and girls. Significant group differences were also reported for many of the CET scales, with sport participants generally reporting greater levels of compulsive exercise than non-sport participants. Implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26892196

  12. Research Knowledge among the Participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Silva, Susan; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Waslick, Bruce; Hughes, Carroll W.; Prentice, Ernest D.; May, Diane E.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    A study examined the extent to which parents and adolescents participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) understood the study. The results concluded that most were well-informed, and also parents were overall better informed than adolescents.

  13. Gender Differences in Adolescent Sport Participation, Teasing, Self-Objectification and Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in adolescent participation in sport and physical activity, in teasing experiences specific to the physical activity domain, and the relationship between adolescent physical activity and body image. A sample of 714 adolescents (332 girls, 382 boys) aged between 12 and 16 years completed measures of…

  14. Determinants of participation in leisure activities among adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Schmitz, Norbert; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Poulin, Chantal; Majnemer, Annette

    2013-09-01

    Studies have identified restrictions in engagement in leisure activities for adolescents with disabilities. Participation is a complex construct and likely influenced by a variety of factors. These potential determinants have not yet been sufficiently explored in the population of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). The objective of this study is to estimate the potential influence of adolescent characteristics and environmental factors as determinants of participation in leisure activities for adolescents with CP. A cross-sectional design was used. Participants were adolescents (12-19 years old) with cerebral palsy. Participants were assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale - II, Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System, Manual Ability Classification System and completed the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Family Environment Scale, the European Child Environment Questionnaire and the Preferences for Activities of Children. The main outcome measure was the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. 187 adolescents (age M=15.4; SD=2.2) completed the study. Multivariate models of participation in leisure revealed associations with factors related to the adolescents' functional characteristics and attitudes, the family environment, socioeconomic status, and contextual factors such as school type, and collectively explained from 28% (diversity of skill-based activities) up to 48% (intensity and diversity of self-improvement activities) of the variance in intensity and diversity in five leisure participation domains (diversity: r(2)=.33 recreational; r(2)=.39 active-physical; r(2)=.33 social activities). Adolescent's mastery motivation, self-perception and behavior were individually associated with participation in different activity domains, but did not strongly predict participation within multivariate models, while preferences

  15. Self-Advocacy Skills as a Predictor of Student IEP Participation among Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Fearon, Danielle D.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of student IEP participation has been indicated by both legislative mandates such as IDEA and research literature. The purpose of the current study was to examine those variables that predict student IEP participation among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders as compared to adolescents with disabilities other than autism…

  16. Effects of Sport Participation on the Basketball Skills and Physical Self of Adolescents with Conduct Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Ninot, Gregory; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Bilard, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self-concept of adolescents with conduct disorders (CD). Participants were 24 adolescent males with CD, divided equally into three groups: (a) interestablishment basketball (IEBB), (b) integrated scholastic basketball (ISBB),…

  17. Factors Related to Rural Young Adolescents' Participation in Outdoor, Noncompetitive Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiana, Richard W.; Davis, Marsha; Wilson, Mark G.; McCarty, Frances A.; Green, Gary T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Young adolescents who have little interest in participating in competitive team sports are at an increased risk for physical inactivity. Noncompetitive outdoor physical activity can provide young adolescents with increased opportunities to participate in physical activities that appeal to them and have positive health effects. The purpose…

  18. Tobacco Use and Cessation Behavior Among Adolescents Participating in Organized Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrucci, Brian C.; Gerlach, Karen K.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Orleans, C. Tracy

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the difference in tobacco use between adolescents who participate in organized sports and those who do not. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, this study uses data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents enrolled in public high schools in the United States. Results: Those participating in organized…

  19. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Adolescent Risk Behavior Participation and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaar, Nicole R.; Williams, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate emotional intelligence as a predictor of adolescent risk participation and risk perception. While research has suggested that certain personality traits relate to adolescent risk behavior and perception, the extent to which emotional intelligence relates to risk behavior participation and perception is…

  20. Participating in Sport and Music Activities in Adolescence: The Role of Activity Participation and Motivational Beliefs during Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Vest, Andrea E.; Becnel, Jennifer N.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the precursors of adolescents' participation in sport and music activities in the United States by testing a developmental model across 7 years. Data were drawn from youth questionnaires in the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 594). Findings suggest that patterns of participation across a 3-year…

  1. Predictive Factors of Household Task Participation in Brazilian Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Adriana de França; Gomes, Ana Maria Rabelo; Coster, Wendy J; Mancini, Marisa Cotta

    2015-04-01

    Home environment is an important setting for child participation. This study investigated the participation of Brazilian children and adolescents in household self-care (SC) and family-care (FC) tasks. Interviews were conducted with 109 caregivers of children and adolescents ages 6 to 14 years residing in Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Multiple regression models revealed that a greater number of FC tasks were performed by children and adolescents (R2 = .23) from families who did not have a housekeeper and those in which the mothers did not work outside of the home; children and adolescents from this subgroup also received less assistance from the caregivers (R2 = .21) and showed greater independence in task performance (R2 = .20). On average, Brazilian children and adolescents participate in about half of the SC and 25% the FC household tasks. Factors related to family structure and child's age were associated with task performance, caregiver assistance, and child and adolescent independence in household tasks. PMID:26460473

  2. Legal Barriers to Adolescent Participation in Research About HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Moore, Quianta L; Paul, Mary E; McGuire, Amy L; Majumder, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    Whether adolescents can participate in clinical trials of pharmacologic therapies for HIV prevention, such as preexposure prophylaxis, without parental permission hinges on state minor consent laws. Very few of these laws explicitly authorize adolescents to consent to preventive services for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Unclear state laws may lead to research cessation. We have summarized legal, ethical, and policy considerations related to adolescents' participation in HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention research in the United States, and we have explored strategies for facilitating adolescents' access.

  3. Adolescent Judgments and Reasoning about the Failure to Include Peers with Social Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Li, Zhushan

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder often do not have access to crucial peer social activities. This study examines how typically developing adolescents evaluate decisions not to include a peer based on disability status, and the justifications they apply to these decisions. A clinical interview methodology was used to elicit judgments and…

  4. The Value "Social Responsibility" as a Motivating Factor for Adolescents' Readiness to Participate in Different Types of Political Actions, and Its Socialization in Parent and Peer Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for…

  5. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections including HIV in street-connected adolescents in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Susanna E; Chirchir, Amon K; Muthoni, Lauryn N; Ayuku, David; Koech, Julius; Nyandiko, Winstone; Carter, E Jane; Braitstein, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study were to characterise the sexual health of street-connected adolescents in Eldoret, Kenya, analyse gender disparity of risks, estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and identify factors associated with STIs. Methods A cross-sectional study of street-connected adolescents ages 12–21 years was conducted in Eldoret, Kenya. Participants were interviewed and screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus-2, syphilis and HIV. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with having any STI. Results Of the 200 participants, 81 (41%) were female. 70.4% of females and 60.5% of males reported sexual activity. Of those that participated in at least one STI test, 28% (55/194) had ≥1 positive test, including 56% of females; 14% (28/194) had >1 positive test. Twelve females and zero males (6% overall, 14.8% of females) were HIV positive. Among females, those with HIV infection more frequently reported transactional sex (66.7% vs 26.1%, p=0.01), drug use (91.7% vs 56.5%, p=0.02), and reported a prior STI (50.0% vs 14.7%, p<0.01). Having an adult caregiver was less likely among those with HIV infection (33.3% vs 71.0%, p=0.04). Transactional sex (AOR 3.02, 95% CI (1.05 to 8.73)), a previous STI (AOR 3.46 95% CI (1.05 to 11.46)) and ≥2 sexual partners (AOR 5.62 95% (1.67 to 18.87)) were associated with having any STI. Conclusions Street-connected adolescents in Eldoret, Kenya are engaged in high-risk sexual behaviours and females in particular have a substantial burden of STIs and HIV. There is a need for STI interventions targeted to street-connected youth. PMID:25714102

  6. Predictors of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy: A European multi-centre longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dang, Van Mô; Colver, Allan; Dickinson, Heather O; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme

    2014-11-14

    We investigated whether childhood factors that are amenable to intervention (parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain) predicted participation in daily activities and social roles of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). We randomly selected 1174 children aged 8-12 years from eight population-based registers of children with CP in six European countries; 743 (63%) agreed to participate. One further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. These 818 children were visited at home at age 8-12 years, 594 (73%) agreed to follow-up at age 13-17 years. We used the following measures: parent reported stress (Parenting Stress Index Short Form), their child's psychological difficulties (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire) and frequency and severity of pain; either child or parent reported the child's participation (LIFE Habits questionnaire). We fitted a structural equation model to each of the participation domains, regressing participation in childhood and adolescence on parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain, and regressing adolescent factors on the corresponding childhood factors; models were adjusted for impairment, region, age and gender. Pain in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains except Mealtimes and Communication (standardized total indirect effects β -0.05 to -0.18, 0.01adolescent participation in all domains of social roles, and in Personal Care and Communication (β -0.07 to -0.17, 0.001adolescent participation in Health Hygiene, Mobility and Relationships (β -0.07 to -0.18, 0.001adolescent participation largely via their effects on childhood participation; though in some domains early psychological problems and parenting stress in childhood predicted

  7. Predictors of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy: A European multi-centre longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Van Mô; Colver, Allan; Dickinson, Heather O.; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether childhood factors that are amenable to intervention (parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain) predicted participation in daily activities and social roles of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). We randomly selected 1174 children aged 8–12 years from eight population-based registers of children with CP in six European countries; 743 (63%) agreed to participate. One further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. These 818 children were visited at home at age 8–12 years, 594 (73%) agreed to follow-up at age 13–17 years. We used the following measures: parent reported stress (Parenting Stress Index Short Form), their child's psychological difficulties (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire) and frequency and severity of pain; either child or parent reported the child's participation (LIFE Habits questionnaire). We fitted a structural equation model to each of the participation domains, regressing participation in childhood and adolescence on parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain, and regressing adolescent factors on the corresponding childhood factors; models were adjusted for impairment, region, age and gender. Pain in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains except Mealtimes and Communication (standardized total indirect effects β −0.05 to −0.18, 0.01 < p < 0.05 to p < 0.001, depending on domain). Psychological problems in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains of social roles, and in Personal Care and Communication (β −0.07 to −0.17, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). Parenting stress in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in Health Hygiene, Mobility and Relationships (β −0.07 to −0.18, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). These childhood factors predicted adolescent participation largely via their effects on childhood participation; though in some domains early psychological

  8. Predictors of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy: A European multi-centre longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dang, Van Mô; Colver, Allan; Dickinson, Heather O; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme

    2014-11-14

    We investigated whether childhood factors that are amenable to intervention (parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain) predicted participation in daily activities and social roles of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). We randomly selected 1174 children aged 8-12 years from eight population-based registers of children with CP in six European countries; 743 (63%) agreed to participate. One further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. These 818 children were visited at home at age 8-12 years, 594 (73%) agreed to follow-up at age 13-17 years. We used the following measures: parent reported stress (Parenting Stress Index Short Form), their child's psychological difficulties (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire) and frequency and severity of pain; either child or parent reported the child's participation (LIFE Habits questionnaire). We fitted a structural equation model to each of the participation domains, regressing participation in childhood and adolescence on parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain, and regressing adolescent factors on the corresponding childhood factors; models were adjusted for impairment, region, age and gender. Pain in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains except Mealtimes and Communication (standardized total indirect effects β -0.05 to -0.18, 0.01adolescent participation in all domains of social roles, and in Personal Care and Communication (β -0.07 to -0.17, 0.001adolescent participation in Health Hygiene, Mobility and Relationships (β -0.07 to -0.18, 0.001adolescent participation largely via their effects on childhood participation; though in some domains early psychological problems and parenting stress in childhood predicted

  9. Adolescent Expectancy-Value Motivation, Achievement in Physical Education, and Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day…

  10. Transition in Participation in Sport and Unstructured Physical Activity for Rural Living Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eime, R. M.; Payne, W. R.; Casey, M. M.; Harvey, J. T.

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is important for lifelong health; however, participation is lower in rural compared with metropolitan areas and declines during adolescence, particularly for girls. It is likely that this decline is related to the number of life transitions that occur during adolescence. This qualitative study examined the views of active…

  11. Social Participation of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: Trade-Offs and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Debra A.; Lawless, John J.; Shimmell, Lorie J.; Palisano, Robert J.; Freeman, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a qualitative study about the experiences and perceptions of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) in relation to social participation. A phenomenological approach was used to interview 10 adolescents with CP, 17 to 20 years of age, selected using purposeful sampling. An iterative process of data collection…

  12. Experiences of Adolescents Participating in a Developmental Peer Group Counselling Career Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Janet N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study, part of a larger study that tested 6 counseling workshops based on a "Life Skills" developmental group model, involved a thematic analysis of taped descriptions of experiences of 27 adolescents in relation to their career aspirations and participation in an adolescent developmental peer counseling program at House of Shalom, a youth…

  13. Exploring Issues of Participation among Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: What's Important to Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Michael H.; Stewart, Debra; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine what participation issues are important to adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Two hundred and three adolescents with CP (mean age 16.0 [plus or minus] 1.8 years) were assessed using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). This was done through semistructured interviews by…

  14. Patterns of adolescents' participation in organized activities: are sports best when combined with other activities?

    PubMed

    Linver, Miriam R; Roth, Jodie L; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    Although many adolescents participate in sports and other types of organized activities, little extant research explores how youth development outcomes may vary for youth involved in different combinations of activities. The present study uses the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a large, nationally representative sample, to compare activity patterns of adolescents ages 10-18 years (n = 1,711). A cluster analytic technique revealed 5 activity clusters: sports-focused, sports plus other activities, primarily school-based activities, primarily religious youth groups, and low activity involvement. Activity patterns were examined in conjunction with 5 categories of youth development outcomes, including competence (e.g., academic ability), confidence (e.g., self-concept of ability), connections (e.g., talking with friends), character (e.g., externalizing behavior problems), and caring (e.g., prosocial behavior). Results showed that those who participated only in sports had more positive outcomes compared with those who had little or no involvement in organized activities, but less positive outcomes compared with those who participated in sports plus other activities.

  15. Gender Differences in Youths' Political Engagement and Participation. The Role of Parents and of Adolescents' Social and Civic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna; Fournier, Bernard; Gavray, Claire; Born, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Research examining youths' political development mostly focused on young people as a general group; comparatively less attention has been devoted to the examination of gender pathways toward citizenship. Two studies were conducted addressing (a) the role of parents' participation and the moderating role of adolescent gender and age group (n =…

  16. Naturalistic Observations of Schoolyard Social Participation: Marker Variables for Socio-Emotional Functioning in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Ooi, Laura L.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine links between observed social participation in the schoolyard and indices of socio-emotional functioning in early adolescence. Participants were children (N = 290) aged 9 to 12 years. Social participation (e.g., solitary play, dyadic interaction, group interaction) was assessed in the schoolyard during recess…

  17. Characteristics and Perceptions of 4-H Participants: Gender and Age Differences across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Randall, Brandy A.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here examined 367 adolescent 4-H participants in terms of demographic, psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics, as well as their perceptions and experiences in 4-H. Overall, participants scored high on all outcome variables except having a diverse population in their club. Older participants were more…

  18. 32 CFR 37.620 - What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.620 What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants? So as not to force system changes.... Specifically, the requirements are those in: (a) 32 CFR 33.20 for State and local governments; and (b) 32...

  19. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  20. Attitudes toward political engagement and willingness to participate in politics: trajectories throughout adolescence.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Gniewosz, Burkhard

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on data from a longitudinal cohort-sequential project, the present study examined developmental trajectories of adolescents' attitudes toward political engagement and their willingness to participate in politics from grade 7 to 11 while accounting for the influence of school track and gender. Moreover, stabilities on the dependent variables were assessed. The results revealed differential trajectories regarding adolescents' educational level. Increases were mainly shown for students attending the college-bound school track. Generally, both orientations toward political behaviors were shown to become more stable throughout the adolescent years. Together, the findings confirmed adolescence to be a crucial period in life concerning the emergence, consolidation, and development of political points of view.

  1. Attitudes and beliefs toward biobehavioural research participation: voices and concerns of urban adolescent females receiving outpatient mental health treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Bridgette M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Stewart, Jennifer M.; Gomes, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biobehavioural research methodology can be invasive and burdensome for participants—particularly adolescents with mental illnesses. Human biological researchers should consider how methodological impositions may hinder adolescent research participation. However, literature on adolescent’s voices and concerns toward biobehavioural research participation is virtually non-existent. Aim This study was designed to determine adolescents’ perceptions of participation in research involving the collection of biomarkers via blood, saliva and/or urine samples. Subjects and methods Urban adolescent females (aged 12–19) receiving outpatient mental health treatment (n = 37) participated in focus groups with concurrent survey administration to explore attitudes, beliefs and willingness/intentions toward biobehavioural research participation. Results Participants had favourable attitudes toward biobehavioural research and were amenable to provide each specimen type. Mistrust for research emerged, however, and concerns related to privacy and confidentiality were expressed. Conclusion Participant recruitment is a critical component in study design and implementation; this includes knowledge of population-specific recruitment barriers and facilitators. This innovative paper provides a context for the research participants’ decision-making process, strategies to allay fears and concerns and concrete areas to target in research-related interventions. Although the findings are from a specific, US-based sample, the implications warrant replication of the research in other geosocial settings. PMID:23822716

  2. Positive Self-Beliefs as a Mediator of the Relationship between Adolescents' Sports Participation and Health in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Tonya; Lambert, Sharon F.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between participation in sports during adolescence and physical activity and subjective health in young adulthood. A sample of 8,152 (males = 50.8%, females = 49.2%) adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Results of the study showed that participating in an…

  3. Exercise participation in adolescents and their parents: evidence for genetic and generation specific environmental effects.

    PubMed

    De Moor, Marleen H M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Stubbe, Janine H; De Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-03-01

    Individual differences in adolescent exercise behavior are to a large extent explained by shared environmental factors. The aim of this study was to explore to what extent this shared environment represents effects of cultural transmission of parents to their offspring, generation specific environmental effects or assortative mating. Survey data on leisure-time exercise behavior were available from 3,525 adolescent twins and their siblings (13-18 years) and 3,138 parents from 1,736 families registered at the Netherlands Twin Registry. Data were also available from 5,471 adult twins, their siblings and spouses similar in age to the parents. Exercise participation (No/Yes, using a cut-off criterion of 4 metabolic equivalents and 60 min weekly) was based on questions on type, frequency and duration of exercise. A model to analyze dichotomous data from twins, siblings and parents including differences in variance decomposition across sex and generation was developed. Data from adult twins and their spouses were used to investigate the causes of assortative mating (correlation between spouses = 0.41, due to phenotypic assortment). The heritability of exercise in the adult generation was estimated at 42%. The shared environment for exercise behavior in adolescents mainly represents generation specific shared environmental influences that seem somewhat more important in explaining familial clustering in girls than in boys (52 versus 41%). A small effect of vertical cultural transmission was found for boys only (3%). The remaining familial clustering for exercise behavior was explained by additive genetic factors (42% in boys and 36% in girls). Future studies on adolescent exercise behavior should focus on identification of the generation specific environmental factors.

  4. 32 CFR 37.620 - What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What financial management standards do I include... financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants? So as not to force system changes..., your expenditure-based TIA's requirements for the financial management system of any...

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Religious Identity and Participation during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Anna B.; Huynh, Virginia W.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the development of religious identity during the teenage years, adolescents (N = 477) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds completed questionnaires in the 10th, 11th, and 12th grades (10th grade age: M = 15.81, SD = 0.36). Results indicated that religious identity remained stable across high school whereas religious…

  6. Prospective Relations between Organized Activity Participation and Psychopathology during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Garber, Judy

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined psychopathology as a predictor and outcome of organized activity involvement during high school among 198 adolescents who varied in risk for psychopathology as a function of their mother's depression history. Higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in eighth grade significantly predicted lower…

  7. The value "social responsibility" as a motivating factor for adolescents' readiness to participate in different types of political actions, and its socialization in parent and peer contexts.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for participation in legal protest actions. No relationships with readiness for participation in federal elections or with readiness for participation in illegal protest actions occurred, and a negative relationship with readiness for participation in political violent actions was found. In a second step, the socialization of the value social responsibility in the parents and peer context was the focus. Value similarities between adolescents, their parents and friends, as well as other contextual factors were considered. Multiple regression analyses revealed differential effects for male and female adolescents. In male adolescents, authoritative parenting and political discussions with parents were positively linked to social responsibility. Furthermore, peer-group membership had a negative impact. For female adolescents, significant value similarities with their parents, especially with their mothers, occurred. Value similarities with their friend were found in both gender groups, but appeared to be higher in the female group. Also, in both gender groups, a positive parent-child relationship quality was linked to higher social responsibility. In sum, findings show that parents as well as peer contextual factors were contributing to the adolescents' value acquisition. PMID:22494811

  8. The value "social responsibility" as a motivating factor for adolescents' readiness to participate in different types of political actions, and its socialization in parent and peer contexts.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for participation in legal protest actions. No relationships with readiness for participation in federal elections or with readiness for participation in illegal protest actions occurred, and a negative relationship with readiness for participation in political violent actions was found. In a second step, the socialization of the value social responsibility in the parents and peer context was the focus. Value similarities between adolescents, their parents and friends, as well as other contextual factors were considered. Multiple regression analyses revealed differential effects for male and female adolescents. In male adolescents, authoritative parenting and political discussions with parents were positively linked to social responsibility. Furthermore, peer-group membership had a negative impact. For female adolescents, significant value similarities with their parents, especially with their mothers, occurred. Value similarities with their friend were found in both gender groups, but appeared to be higher in the female group. Also, in both gender groups, a positive parent-child relationship quality was linked to higher social responsibility. In sum, findings show that parents as well as peer contextual factors were contributing to the adolescents' value acquisition.

  9. Exploring Social and Environmental Factors Affecting Adolescents' Participation in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagkas, Symeon; Stathi, Afroditi

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the social factors that influence young people's participation in school and out of school physical activities. Fifty-two 16-year-old adolescents from different socioeconomic backgrounds in one suburban and one inner-city secondary school in the Midlands, UK, participated in group interviews which explored their perceptions…

  10. The Impact of Participation in the Rock Eisteddfod Challenge on Adolescent Resiliency and Health Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunstein, Rose; Nutbeam, Don

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine characteristics of resilience among Australian adolescents, the extent to which resilience might be strengthened through participation in a dance/drama competition, the Rock Eisteddfod Challenge (REC), and the impact participation may have on health related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: …

  11. Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Adolescent Adjustment: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    This study extends previous understanding of the association between adolescent extracurricular activity participation and adjustment by asking whether participation in school-based extracurricular activities is associated with lower substance use and depression, higher grades and academic aspirations, and more positive attitude toward school. In…

  12. What Factors Influence Sports Participation among Afro-American Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Veronica

    This study investigates factors influencing participation of Afro-American female adolescents in sports. Following a review of the literature, two topics are addressed. The first of these, "Behavior in Sport," discusses benefits of sports to youth; stereotypes of Afro-American female sports participants; behaviors of female athletes; and the…

  13. Peer Attitudes Towards Adolescent Participants in Male- and Female-Oriented Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Thomas R.; Hicks, Catherine M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in…

  14. Australian Adolescents' Extracurricular Activity Participation and Positive Development: Is the Relationship Mediated by Peer Attributes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomfield, Corey; Barber, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent participation in extracurricular activities is associated with numerous positive outcomes, yet the mechanisms underlying this relationship are largely unknown. This study had two goals: to investigate the association between participation in extracurricular activities and indicators of positive and negative development for Australian…

  15. Why do adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents participate in focus groups?

    PubMed

    Carroll, Aaron E; Marrero, David G; Swenson, Melinda M

    2007-01-01

    Almost all patient-centered research is dependent on voluntary participation by participants. Many forces, however, act to either encourage or inhibit people from deciding to participate. This study explored adolescents' with type 1 diabetes and their parents' reasons for participating in a research study. We recruited adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their parents to participate in a focus group study. Qualitative analysis of the focus group data followed a set procedure: (a) audio review, (b) reading through transcriptions, (c) discussions among investigators regarding key elements of participants' perceptions, (d) determination of conceptual themes, and (e) assignment of relevant responses to appropriate thematic constructs. The 10 focus groups involved 59 participants. The three major themes that developed were giving and receiving, desire for peer socialization, and need for validation. Themes captured the reasons adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents decided to participate in this research. A better understanding of why people participate in research may help us to meet their needs and desires more completely. Designing research to meet these reasons will have the dual affect of increasing participation while also better serving those who choose to be studied.

  16. Participation in Vigorous Sports, Not Moderate Sports, Is Positively Associated With Cardiorespiratory Fitness Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Daniel R.; Pratt, Charlotte; Charneco, Eileen Y.; Dowda, Marsha; Phillips, Jennie A.; Going, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is controversy regarding whether moderately-intense sports can improve physical fitness, which declines throughout adolescence among girls. The objective was to estimate the association between moderate and vigorous sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness in a racially diverse sample of adolescent girls. Methods Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a modified physical work capacity test in 1029 eighth-grade girls participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Girls reported sports in which they participated in the last year on an organized activity questionnaire. Using general linear mixed models, the study regressed absolute and relative fitness on the number of vigorous and moderate sports in which girls participated, race/ethnicity, age, treatment group, fat mass, fat-free mass, and an interaction between race and fat-free mass. Results The number of vigorous sports in which girls participated was positively associated with absolute fitness (β = 10.20, P = .04) and relative fitness (β = 0.17, P = .04). Associations were reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for MET-weighted MVPA. Participation in moderate sports was not associated with either fitness measure. Conclusions Vigorous sports participation is positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Future longitudinal research should analyze whether promoting vigorous sports at an early age can prevent age-related declines in cardiorespiratory fitness among adolescent girls. PMID:23493300

  17. Exploring the Effects of Including Students' Ideas and Concerns on Their Participation in Online Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2011-01-01

    As higher education institutions progressively deliver many more courses through online mode, student retention in courses and ensuring participation in tasks and activities are becoming more a concern to teachers and educational institutions. This pilot study--an action learning project--explored the effect of including students' identified…

  18. Physical Activity Participation and Preferences: Developmental and Oncology-Related Transitions in Adolescents Treated for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe motor function and participation in, barriers to, and preferences for physical activity (PA) in adolescents during and after treatment of cancer and to discuss PA promotion in the context of developmental and cancer transitions. Method: A cross-sectional survey study used the Transfer and Basic Mobility and Sports/Physical Functioning self-report and parent-report scales of the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) and questions about PA participation and preferences to collect information from 80 adolescents and 63 parents. Results: PODCI scores for adolescents receiving treatment were more variable and significantly lower than those of adolescents who had been off treatment for more than 2 years. Fatigue, pain, general health, and doctor's orders were frequently identified as barriers to PA for adolescents receiving treatment. Many did not achieve recommended levels of PA. The adolescents expressed preferences for being active with friends and family, at home or in school, in the afternoon or evening, and through daily recreational and sports activities typical of teenagers. Conclusions: Physical abilities and participation in and barriers to PA vary across the cancer journey. Interventions should be sensitive to variability and acknowledge individual preferences and environments throughout the trajectories and transitions of cancer treatment and youth development to achieve lifelong healthy lifestyles. PMID:26839461

  19. Extracurricular activity availability and participation and substance use among American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Kristin L; Markstrom, Carol A; Jones, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    School-based extracurricular activity involvement has been associated with lower levels of substance use among adolescents from various populations; however, these associations have only been slightly examined among American Indian (AI) adolescents. Building from various theoretical perspectives, it was hypothesized that AI adolescents' perceived access to and the intensity (i.e., frequency) of participation in extracurricular activities would be associated with lower substance use and less engagement in risky substance use behaviors (i.e., being drunk or high at school, riding/driving with an intoxicated driver, and selling drugs). The moderating influences of sex, age, reservation residence, and metropolitan status also were examined. Data from the 2010 Arizona Youth Survey were analyzed for 5,701 8th, 10th, and 12th grade AI adolescents (49.1% female). The expected protective effects of extracurricular participation were demonstrated, such that high levels of perceived availability and intensity of participation consistently predicted low levels of all outcomes. Some of these associations were moderated by one or more demographic factors, with unique patterns emerging for each behavior. Ultimately, the findings suggest that AI adolescents benefit from the availability of extracurricular activities and intensity of participation in them, but the degree of the effect is contingent upon other individual and contextual characteristics.

  20. Stability of leisure participation from school-age to adolescence in individuals with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Schmitz, Norbert; Shevell, Michael; Lach, Lucy

    2015-12-01

    With increasing age, youth with disabilities are at risk for decreased participation in leisure activities, a key component for physical and mental health. This prospective study describes changes in leisure participation and leisure preferences from school-age to adolescence in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants were recruited at school-age (6-12 years) for a study on participation and reassessed for a second study on adolescents (12-19 years) if >12 years. Thirty-eight children (24 males) with CP who could actively participate in the completion of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and the Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC) comprised the sample. Average time between assessments was 5.0 ± 1.3 years. Most children were ambulatory (32/38 Gross Motor Function Classification System I-II). In addition to the CAPE and PAC, children were evaluated using the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 and parents completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. Paired t-tests revealed a significant decline in leisure participation diversity and intensity (CAPE) for recreation (p<.0001), skill-based (p<.0001) and self-improvement (p<.05) activities, whereas social participation remained stable (p>.05). Diversity of active-physical activities increased modestly (p=.06) although intensity of participation in this activity domain decreased (p=.003). There was also a decline in enjoyment of leisure activities. Preferences for these leisure activities remained unchanged between school-age and adolescence, except for recreational activities. Gender, maternal education, family income and gross motor ability were not related to differences in CAPE/PAC scores with increasing age. Findings suggest that over time, children with CP's participation in leisure activities diminishes, which is of concern to their functioning and well-being. Parents may be more involved in early childhood in facilitating participation whereas in adolescence, youth may

  1. [Social participation and vocational integration as an objective of child and adolescent psychiatric rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Voll, Renate

    2009-09-01

    In order to avoid threatening social disintegration, it is important for children and adolescents with chronic mental disorders and also for physically disabled children to diagnose disturbances of social participation in an early stage and to commence rehabilitation measures. The need for rehabilitation, the ability to rehabilitate and the rehabilitation prognosis are important for identifying the individual rehabilitation goals. A multi-axial diagnosis according to the ICF with a determination of adaptability, a behavioural analysis, skills, activity and participation is required. For disabled children, there are only a few ICF check lists for diagnosing social participation. Because of this, the ICF check list CASP (Child & Adolescent Scale of Participation) for measuring social participation according to Bedell was translated, which is shown in the appendix. PMID:19739060

  2. Proximity to Sports Facilities and Sports Participation for Adolescents in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Anne K.; Wagner, Matthias; Alvanides, Seraphim; Steinmayr, Andreas; Reiner, Miriam; Schmidt, Steffen; Woll, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany. Methods A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11–17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities. Results The logisitic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively. Conclusions Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas. PMID:24675689

  3. Availability of sports facilities as moderator of the intention-sports participation relationship among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Prins, Richard G; van Empelen, Pepijn; Te Velde, Saskia J; Timperio, Anna; van Lenthe, Frank J; Tak, Nannah I; Crawford, David; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2010-06-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to identify individual and environmental predictors of adolescents' sports participation and to examine whether availability of sports facilities moderated the intention-behaviour relation. Data were obtained from the ENvironmental Determinants of Obesity in Rotterdam SchoolchildrEn study (2005/2006 to 2007/2008). A total of 247 adolescents (48% boys, mean age at follow-up 15 years) completed the surveys at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, adolescents completed a survey that assessed engagement in sports participation, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and intention towards sports participation. Availability of sports facilities (availability) was assessed using a geographic information system. At follow-up, sports participation was again examined. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to test associations between availability of sports facilities, theory of planned behaviour variables and the interaction of intention by availability of sports facilities, with sports participation at follow-up. Simple slopes analysis was conducted to decompose the interaction effect. A significant availability x intention interaction effect [odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.20] was found. Simple slopes analysis showed that intention was more strongly associated with sports participation when sports facilities were more readily available. The results of this study indicate that the intention-sports participation association appears to be stronger when more facilities are available.

  4. Assessing Caring in Young Adolescent Students Participating in Service Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Deborah; Fusco, Dana; Schine, Joan; Berkson, Nancy

    Using as prompts scenarios of interaction at a preschool and senior center, this study examined student responses concerning the degree of caring exhibited. Data were collected from middle school students before and after participating in a service learning program involving service in a preschool, and from nonservice students. The service…

  5. Why Do Parents Grant or Deny Consent for Adolescent Participation in Sexuality Research?

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Kristin L

    2016-05-01

    To date, there is limited knowledge about how parents make decisions about adolescents' participation in sexuality research. This gap was addressed in the present study, which explored parents' reasons for providing or denying consent and their suggestions for improving the likelihood of consent. 151 parents responded through anonymous internet surveys (85.3 % mothers; 87 % European American). Those who would likely consent were largely motivated by potential benefits and limited risks of participating in the study. Those unlikely to consent expressed discomfort with sexual content, which they viewed as inappropriate for sexually-naïve adolescents. Most were somewhat more likely to consent if researchers engaged in ethical research practices (e.g., protecting confidentiality). As in other adolescent life domains, parents' decisions strongly reflected their desire to protect their teenagers' wellbeing, though respondents' means of pursuing this goal varied. The discussion centers on the findings' implications for theory development and recruitment efforts. PMID:26910523

  6. Perceptions of Physical Activity and Influences of Participation in Young African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shannon; Knight, Candace; Crew-Gooden, Annette

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore African-American adolescent girls' perceptions of physical activity participation, examine how physical activity is defined and identify the most preferred forms of physical activity. Qualitative focus group interviews of a convenience sample (N = 30; Mean age = 14.3 years) were used to identifyfactors that influence African-American girls' physical activity participation as well as to explore how physical activity is defined within this population. Four themes emerged: (a) benefits and motivation to engage in physical activity, (b) behaviors consistent with perceived physical activity, (c) most enjoyable physical activity/activities, and (d) barriers to physical activity. Physical activities that promoted normative adolescent development (i.e., autonomy) were perceived as most beneficial, desirable, and most likely to be sustained. Implications of these findings highlight the importance of the incorporation of socialization and peer engagement in physical activity programs designed for African-American adolescent girls. PMID:27045157

  7. Effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self of adolescents with conduct disorders.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Ninot, Grégory; Morin, Alexandre J S; Bilard, Jean

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self-concept of adolescents with conduct disorders (CD). Participants were 24 adolescent males with CD, divided equally into three groups: (a) inter-establishment basketball (IEBB), (b) integrated scholastic basketball (ISBB), and (c) control-adapted physical activity (APA). The basketball skills tests and physical self-concept were both administrated 4 times over an 18-month period. Results indicated (a) an improvement in basketball skills in both competitive groups (i.e., ISBB, IEBB), (b) a significant curvilinear trend of physical self-worth scale in the three groups, and (c) no significant changes in physical self-concept in the three groups (ISBB, IEBB, and APA). In conclusion, the integrated and segregated competitive programs did not represent an effective means for improving the physical self-concept of adolescents with CD.

  8. 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Sterling, Stacy; Campbell, Cynthia I; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the associations between 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among 419 adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidities. Although level of participation decreased over time for both groups, comorbid adolescents participated in 12-step groups at comparable or higher levels across time points. Results from mixed-effects logistic regression models indicated that for both groups, 12-step participation was associated with both alcohol and drug abstinence at follow-ups, increasing the likelihood of either by at least 3 times. Findings highlight the potential benefits of 12-step participation in maintaining long-term recovery for adolescents with and without psychiatric disorders. PMID:23327502

  9. 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Sterling, Stacy; Campbell, Cynthia I; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the associations between 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among 419 adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidities. Although level of participation decreased over time for both groups, comorbid adolescents participated in 12-step groups at comparable or higher levels across time points. Results from mixed-effects logistic regression models indicated that for both groups, 12-step participation was associated with both alcohol and drug abstinence at follow-ups, increasing the likelihood of either by at least 3 times. Findings highlight the potential benefits of 12-step participation in maintaining long-term recovery for adolescents with and without psychiatric disorders.

  10. Analysis: including visually impaired participants in validation design studies of diabetes technology.

    PubMed

    Uslan, Mark; Blubaugh, Morgan

    2010-09-01

    In an article in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sherwyn Schwartz, M.D., presents a study to validate the design of the ClikSTAR® insulin pen from sanofi-aventis and demonstrates that the device can be used correctly by participants with diabetes. Concern with this article lies with the selection of participants, which was meant to reflect the intended audience for the insulin pen device but does not address the inclusion of visually impaired individuals, who comprise over 20% of the adult diabetes population. Visually impaired individuals need to be included as part of the intended audience for insulin administration technology, and manufacturers of these devices need to design their products for safe use by all people, including those who are visually impaired. The study demonstrated successful use of the ClikSTAR insulin pen in a population that did not include subjects with severe visual impairment. We believe that future validation studies for insulin administration technology should also include samples of visually impaired users and that visually impaired patients will embrace the use of insulin pens designed with their needs in mind.

  11. Adolescent Developmental Experiences and Participation in Extracurricular Activities in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfnifie, Shuaa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined adolescent developmental experiences and participation in extracurricular activities. Providing youth with multiple channels to nurture their development and acknowledge their interests and strengths can play a significant role in their holistic growth. This is a descriptive study of a mixed-methods design (quantitative and…

  12. Extracurricular Activities, Athletic Participation, and Adolescent Alcohol Use: Gender-Differentiated and School-Contextual Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, John P.

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates the effects of extracurricular activities on alcohol use among male (n = 4,495) and female (n = 5,398) adolescents who participated in the 1990-92 National Education Longitudinal Study. Previous studies have assessed the association between extracurricular activities and alcohol use, but none have explored whether the…

  13. Participation in Physical Activity among Normal- and Overweight Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovitz, Steven D.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Boostrom, Ardys

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between weight status and participation in physical activity (PA) among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adolescent boys and girls. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, height and weight were measured and a modified 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to 1302…

  14. Patterns of Adolescents' Participation in Organized Activities: Are Sports Best when Combined with Other Activities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linver, Miriam R.; Roth, Jodie L.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Although many adolescents participate in sports and other types of organized activities, little extant research explores how youth development outcomes may vary for youth involved in different combinations of activities. The present study uses the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a large, nationally…

  15. Effects of Integrated or Segregated Sport Participation on the Physical Self for Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninot, G.; Bilard, J.; Delignieres, D.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic programme (integrated vs. segregated) on the athletic domain of perceived competence and on general self-worth. Methods: Participants were 32 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID), divided equally into four groups: (1) segregated swimming; (2) integrated…

  16. Availability of Sports Facilities as Moderator of the Intention-Sports Participation Relationship among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Richard G.; van Empelen, Pepijn; te Velde, Saskia J.; Timperio, Anna; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Tak, Nannah I.; Crawford, David; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to identify individual and environmental predictors of adolescents' sports participation and to examine whether availability of sports facilities moderated the intention-behaviour relation. Data were obtained from the Environmental Determinants of Obesity in Rotterdam Schoolchildren study (2005/2006 to 2007/2008). A…

  17. Sports Participation in Children and Adolescents with Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manjusha; Lambert, Michele P; Breakey, Vicky; Buchanan, George R; Neier, Michelle; Neufeld, Ellis J; Kempert, Pamela; Neunert, Cindy E; Nottage, Kerri; Klaassen, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    We surveyed 278 pediatric hematologists/oncologists regarding how children with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are counseled for participation in sports. Results show substantial variation in physician perception of contact risk for different sports, and the advice offered about restriction of sport activities of affected children. Many physicians recommend restriction of sports when platelet counts are under 50 × 10(9) /L. Such restriction may affect the child's quality of life despite their having an overall benign disease.

  18. Participation in Clubs and Groups from Childhood to Adolescence and Its Effects on Attachment and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Martin, Jennifer; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    We examined social participation in organized clubs and groups from childhood to adolescence in a sample of young people from Dunedin, New Zealand. Groups were broadly categorized as ''sports'' and ''cultural/youth'' groups. While the results indicated high levels of participation in childhood with a decline over the ensuing adolescent years, path…

  19. Patterns and Predictors of Participation in Leisure Activities outside of School in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Egmar; Badia, Marta; Orgaz, Begona M.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the patterns and predictors of participation in leisure activities outside of school of Spanish children and adolescents with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Children and adolescents with CP (n = 199; 113 males and 86 females) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mean age was 12.11 years (SD = 3.02; range 8-18 years), and…

  20. Social provocation modulates decision making and feedback processing: Examining the trajectory of development in adolescent participants.

    PubMed

    Pincham, Hannah L; Wu, Claire; Killikelly, Clare; Vuillier, Laura; Fearon, R M Pasco

    2015-10-01

    Increasingly, research is turning to the ways in which social context impacts decision making and feedback processing in adolescents. The current study recorded electroencephalography to examine the trajectory of development across adolescence, with a focus on how social context impacts cognition and behaviour. To that end, younger (10-12 years) and older (14-16 years) adolescents played a modified Taylor Aggression Paradigm against two virtual opponents: a low-provoker and a high-provoker. During the task's decision phase (where participants select punishment for their opponent), we examined two event-related potentials: the N2 and the late positive potential (LPP). During the outcome phase (where participants experience win or loss feedback), we measured the feedback related negativity (FRN). Although N2 amplitudes did not vary with provocation, LPP amplitudes were enhanced under high provocation for the younger group, suggesting that emotional reactivity during the decision phase was heightened for early adolescents. During the outcome phase, the FRN was reduced following win outcomes under high provocation for both groups, suggesting that a highly provocative social opponent may influence the reward response. Collectively, the data argue that social context is an important factor modulating neural responses in adolescent behavioural and brain development.

  1. Brief report: Performing on the stage, the field, or both? Australian adolescent extracurricular activity participation and self-concept.

    PubMed

    Blomfield, Corey J; Barber, Bonnie L

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between Australian adolescents' participation in extracurricular activities and their self-concepts was investigated. A total of 1489 adolescents (56% female; mean age 13.8 years) completed measures of social self-concept, academic self-concept, and general self-worth, and reported on their extracurricular activity participation. In general, participation in any type of extracurricular activity was associated with a higher social and academic self-concept, and general self-worth, compared to no participation. Adolescents who participated in both sports and non-sports also reported a more positive social self-concept and general self-worth, compared to those who only participated in one of the activity types. This research provides support for extracurricular activities as a context facilitative of positive self-concept, and demonstrates the importance of a mixed participation profile for an adolescent's self-concept.

  2. Participation in clubs and groups from childhood to adolescence and its effects on attachment and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Martin, Jennifer; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-02-01

    We examined social participation in organized clubs and groups from childhood to adolescence in a sample of young people from Dunedin, New Zealand. Groups were broadly categorized as "sports" and "cultural/youth" groups. While the results indicated high levels of participation in childhood with a decline over the ensuing adolescent years, path analyses suggested strong continuities in participation over time. Both family "active-recreational" orientation (ARO) and "intellectual-cultural" orientation (ICO) predicted participation, and mediated the effects of disadvantage on participation. Participation was significantly related to adolescent attachment to parents, friends and school/workplace, as well as self-perceived strengths, after controlling for early family disadvantage and social support, peer attachment and literacy. The effect of participation in adolescence is to widen the "social convoy" to which young people are exposed as well as strengthening relationships within that convoy.

  3. Sport participation and alcohol and illicit drug use in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Matthew; Bobko, Sarah; Faulkner, Guy; Donnelly, Peter; Cairney, John

    2014-03-01

    Sport participation can play an important and positive role in the health and development of children and youth. One area that has recently been receiving greater attention is the role that sport participation might play in preventing drug and alcohol use among youth. The current study is a systematic review of 17 longitudinal studies examining the relationship between sport participation and alcohol and drug use among adolescents. Results indicated that sport participation is associated with alcohol use, with 82% of the included studies (14/17) showing a significant positive relationship. Sport participation, however, appears to be related to reduced illicit drug use, especially use of non-cannabis related drugs. Eighty percent of the studies found sport participation associated with decreased illicit drug use, while 50% of the studies found negative association between sport participation and marijuana use. Further investigation revealed that participation in sports reduced the risk of overall illicit drug use, but particularly during high school; suggesting that this may be a critical period to reduce or prevent the use of drugs through sport. Future research must better understand what conditions are necessary for sport participation to have beneficial outcomes in terms of preventing alcohol and/or illicit drug use. This has been absent in the extent literature and will be central to intervention efforts in this area.

  4. Trajectories of Organized Activity Participation Among Urban Adolescents: An Analysis of Predisposing Factors.

    PubMed

    Eisman, Andria B; Stoddard, Sarah A; Bauermeister, José A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-01-01

    Organized activity participation provides important opportunities for adolescents to develop assets and resources related to positive youth development. Predisposing factors, in addition to sociodemographics and self-selection factors, may influence how youth participate over time. In this study, we used growth mixture modeling with longitudinal data from African American adolescents attending urban high schools in Flint, MI to identify subgroups of participation trajectories (Wave 1 N = 681, mean age at Wave 1 = 14.86 years, 51% female). We measured activity participation using psychological and behavioral engagement across multiple contexts over the 4 years of high school. We examined how predisposing risk and promotive factors were related to these trajectories, accounting for sociodemographic and self-selection factors. The results indicated three participation trajectories: a low group decreasing over time (74%), a moderate, consistent participation group (21%) and a moderate, increasing group (5%). More substance use was associated with lower odds of being in the moderate/consistent versus low/decreasing participation group. More parental support was associated with lower odds of being in the moderate/increasing versus the moderate/consistent group. Our results suggest that addressing predisposing factors such as substance use may help facilitate participation over time.

  5. Behavioral predictors of attrition in adolescents participating in a multidisciplinary obesity treatment program: EVASYON study.

    PubMed

    De Miguel-Etayo, P; Muro, C; Santabárbara, J; López-Antón, R; Morandé, G; Martín-Matillas, M; Azcona-San Julián, M C; Martí, A; Campoy, C; Marcos, A; Moreno, L A; Garagorri, J M

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the cognitive and behavioral predictors of dropping out and to estimate the attrition rate during different phases of an intervention program to treat overweight and obesity in adolescents. Overweight/obese adolescents (n=156, aged: 13-16 years; 71 male and 85 female subjects) were included in a multicomponent (diet, physical activity and psychological support) family-based group treatment program. At baseline and after 2 months (intensive phase) and 13 months (extensive phase) of follow-up, we measured adolescents' cognitive and behavioral dimensions, together with the parents' perception of their child's behavior. Of the 156 adolescents selected, 112 completed the full program (drop-out rate of 28.2%). The risk of dropping out during the extensive phase increased by 20% for each unit increase in the adolescent's social insecurity score (odds ratio=1.20, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.34, P=0.002). The adolescents who had a high interoceptive awareness showed a significant decrease of 13.0% in the probability of dropping out (odds ratio=0.87, 95% confidence interval=0.77-0.99, P=0.040). Adolescents' social insecurity was the main predictor of drop-out in a multicomponent family-group-based obesity treatment program. To reduce attrition rates in these programs, the individual's social insecurity level needs to be reduced, whereas the family's awareness of eating-related behavior needs adjustment.

  6. White matter microstructural changes in adolescent anorexia nervosa including an exploratory longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Katja; Timmers, Inge; Kumar, Vinod; Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Bastiani, Matteo; Roebroek, Alard; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Goebel, Rainer; Seitz, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) often begins in adolescence, however, the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology at this developmentally important age is scarce, impeding early interventions. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate microstructural white matter (WM) brain changes including an experimental longitudinal follow-up. Methods We acquired whole brain diffusion-weighted brain scans of 22 adolescent female hospitalized patients with AN at admission and nine patients longitudinally at discharge after weight rehabilitation. Patients (10–18 years) were compared to 21 typically developing controls (TD). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were applied to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) across groups and time points. Associations between average FA values of the global WM skeleton and weight as well as illness duration parameters were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results We observed increased FA in bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal areas in AN patients at admission compared to TD. Higher FA of the global WM skeleton at admission was associated with faster weight loss prior to admission. Exploratory longitudinal analysis showed this FA increase to be partially normalized after weight rehabilitation. Conclusions Our findings reveal a markedly different pattern of WM microstructural changes in adolescent AN compared to most previous results in adult AN. This could signify a different susceptibility and reaction to semi-starvation in the still developing brain of adolescents or a time-dependent pathomechanism differing with extend of chronicity. Higher FA at admission in adolescents with AN could point to WM fibers being packed together more closely. PMID:27182488

  7. White potatoes, including french fries, contribute shortfall nutrients to children's and adolescents' diets.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Marjorie R; Keast, Debra R

    2011-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that white potatoes (WP), oven-baked fries (OBF), and french fries (FF) contribute important nutrients within energy needs to children's and adolescents' diets, secondary analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 was conducted. Potato content of survey foods was determined using US Department of Agriculture recipe databases (Standard Reference (SR)-Link files). Nutrient content of potatoes was determined by linking SR codes to US Department of Agriculture food composition data. Daily nutrient intakes from potatoes were determined by applying the composition database to respondent's recall data. Sample-weighted data were analyzed; t tests assessed differences between age and sex groups. Results indicated that approximately 35% of children and adolescents consumed WP + FF + OBF; 18% consumed FF. Intakes were lower in children compared with adolescents (P < .01). Among adolescents, more boys than girls consumed FF (P < .05); boys ate larger amounts of WP + FF + OBF (134 g/d) and FF (100 g/d) (P < .01). Both WP + FF + OBF and FF provided 9% to 12% of total daily energy (but was within energy requirements in the highest consumers); 8% to 15% of daily fat (>75% monounsaturated fatty acids + polyunsaturated fatty acids); ≥ 10% dietary fiber, vitamin B(6), and potassium; 5% or greater thiamin, niacin, vitamin K, phosphorus, magnesium, and copper; and less than 5% sodium intake, for all sex -age groups. The combination WP + FF + OBF provided 5% or greater vitamin C for all sex-age groups and 5% or greater vitamin E and iron for most groups; FF provided 5% or greater vitamin E intakes for all. These cross-sectional data show that WP, including FF, provided shortfall nutrients within energy requirements to children and adolescents and, when consumed in moderate amounts, can be part of healthful diets.

  8. What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention? Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne; Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents are a vulnerable group when it comes to the risk of developing depression. Preventing the onset of depressive episodes in this group is therefore a major public health priority. In the last decades, school-based cognitive-behavioural interventions have been a common primary prevention approach. However, evidence on what girls actually are allocated to such interventions when no researchers are involved is scarce. Objective To explore how a selective cognitive-behavioural program (Depression In Swedish Adolescents) developed to prevent depression in adolescents, was implemented in a naturalistic setting in schools in northern part of Sweden. The focus was on characteristics of participants allocated to the intervention. Design Cross-sectional baseline data on depressive symptoms, school environment and socio-economic factors were collected in 2011 by means of questionnaires in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Intervention participants were identified in a follow-up questionnaire in 2012. Students (n=288) included in the analyses were in the ages of 14–15. Results Sixty-six girls and no boys were identified as intervention participants. They reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower personal relative affluence, more sexual harassment victimization and less peer support compared to female non-participants (n=222). Intervention participants were more likely to attend schools with a higher proportion of low parental education levels and a lower proportion of students graduating with a diploma. Conclusions The developers of the intervention originally intended the program to be universal or selective, but it was implemented as targeted in these schools. It is important for school administrations to adhere to program fidelity when it comes to what students it is aimed for. Implications for effectivenss trials of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the school setting is discussed. PMID:26538463

  9. Committee Opinion No. 646: Ethical Considerations for Including Women as Research Participants.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    Inclusion of women in research studies is necessary for valid inferences about health and disease in women. The generalization of results from trials conducted in men may yield erroneous conclusions that fail to account for the biologic differences between men and women. Although significant changes in research design and practice have led to an increase in the proportion of women included in research trials, knowledge gaps remain because of a continued lack of inclusion of women, especially those who are pregnant, in premarketing research trials. This document provides a historical overview of issues surrounding women as participants in research trials, followed by an ethical framework and discussion of the issues of informed consent, contraception requirements, intimate partner consent, and the appropriate inclusion of pregnant women in research studies. PMID:27548420

  10. Committee Opinion No. 646 Summary: Ethical Considerations for Including Women as Research Participants.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    Inclusion of women in research studies is necessary for valid inferences about health and disease in women. The generalization of results from trials conducted in men may yield erroneous conclusions that fail to account for the biologic differences between men and women. Although significant changes in research design and practice have led to an increase in the proportion of women included in research trials, knowledge gaps remain because of a continued lack of inclusion of women, especially those who are pregnant, in premarketing research trials. This document provides a historical overview of issues surrounding women as participants in research trials, followed by an ethical framework and discussion of the issues of informed consent, contraception requirements, intimate partner consent, and the appropriate inclusion of pregnant women in research studies. PMID:27548418

  11. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 646: Ethical Considerations for Including Women as Research Participants.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Inclusion of women in research studies is necessary for valid inferences about health and disease in women. The generalization of results from trials conducted in men may yield erroneous conclusions that fail to account for the biologic differences between men and women. Although significant changes in research design and practice have led to an increase in the proportion of women included in research trials, knowledge gaps remain because of a continued lack of inclusion of women, especially those who are pregnant, in premarketing research trials. This document provides a historical overview of issues surrounding women as participants in research trials, followed by an ethical framework and discussion of the issues of informed consent, contraception requirements, intimate partner consent, and the appropriate inclusion of pregnant women in research studies.

  12. COMPREHENSIVE ADOLESCENT HEALTH PROGRAMS THAT INCLUDE SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Kågesten, Anna; Parekh, Jenita; Tunçalp, Özge; Turke, Shani; Blum, Robert Wm

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the characteristics and evidence of comprehensive adolescent health (CAH) programs encompassing sexual and reproductive and other health services, educational and social support. Methods Systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on CAH programs (1998-2013). Only programs with experimental, quasi-experimental or pre-post evaluations were included. Two independent reviewers screened 36,119 records and extracted articles using predefined criteria. Data was synthesised into descriptive characteristics; quality was assessed by evidence level (rigorous, strong, modest). Results Data was extracted on 46 programs (181 studies) of which 19 programs were defined as comprehensive; 9 were excluded due to insufficient evaluations. Ten CAH programs met all inclusion criteria. Most were US based; others were implemented in Egypt, Ethiopia and Mexico. Few programs (N=3) displayed rigorous evidence, 5 had strong and 2 had modest evidence. All programs with rigorous/strong evidence directly or indirectly influenced adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Common elements of these programs included: long-term commitment to adolescents, interpersonal connections, community mobilization, and skill-building elements. Conclusion The long term impact of many CAH programs cannot be proven due to insufficient evaluations. Evaluation approaches that take into account the complex operating conditions of many programs are needed to better understand mechanisms behind program effects. PMID:25320876

  13. Is Participation in Organized Leisure-Time Activities Associated with School Performance in Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sirucek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Organized leisure-time activities (OLTA) have been identified as a context suitable for improvement of school performance. This study aimed to assess the associations between participation in OLTA and school engagement, school-related stress, academic achievement and whether these associations differ by specific pattern of OLTA participation, gender and age. Furthermore, it assessed whether OLTA participants are more likely to acquire support for schoolwork from outside the family. Methods The sample concerned 10,483 adolescents (49.2% boys) aged 11, 13 and 15 from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children data collection in 2014 in the Czech Republic. Logistic regressions adjusted for gender and age were used to analyse the associations between participation in OLTA and four education-related outcomes. Results Participation in OLTA was associated with higher school engagement, lower levels of school-related stress and better academic achievement regardless of gender and age. The strongest associations were observed for adolescents involved in various types of OLTA concurrently, with odds ratios ranging from 1.34 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17–1.54) for lower school-related stress to 1.97 (95% CI 1.73–2.25) for above-average academic achievement. OLTA participants were also more likely to have a non-familial person to help them with schoolwork, though this association was weaker in 15-year-olds. Conclusion Youth involvement in OLTA is linked to general better school performance and attachment to school. Adolescents participating in more activities at the same time have the best school performance. PMID:27073841

  14. Influence of Religiosity on 12-Step Participation and Treatment Response Among Substance-Dependent Adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Pagano, Maria E.; Stout, Robert L.; Johnson, Shannon M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Religious practices among adults are associated with more 12-step participation which, in turn, is linked to better treatment outcomes. Despite recommendations for adolescents to participate in mutual-help groups, little is known about how religious practices influence youth 12-step engagement and outcomes. This study examined the relationships among lifetime religiosity, during-treatment 12-step participation, and outcomes among adolescents, and tested whether any observed beneficial relation between higher religiosity and outcome could be explained by increased 12-step participation. Method: Adolescents (n = 195; 52% female, ages 14–18) court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment were assessed at intake and discharge. Lifetime religiosity was assessed with the Religious Background and Behaviors Questionnaire; 12-step assessments measured meeting attendance, step work (General Alcoholics Anonymous Tools of Recovery), and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)/Narcotics Anonymous (NA)-related helping. Substance-related outcomes and psychosocial outcomes were assessed with toxicology screens, the Adolescent–Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale, the Children's Global Assessment Scale, and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Results: Greater lifetime formal religious practices at intake were associated with increased step work and AA/NA-related helping during treatment, which in turn were linked to improved substance outcomes, global functioning, and reduced narcissistic entitlement. Increased step work mediated the effect of religious practices on increased abstinence, whereas AA/NA-related helping mediated the effect of religiosity on reduced craving and entitlement. Conclusions: Findings extend the evidence for the protective effects of lifetime religious behaviors to an improved treatment response among adolescents and provide preliminary support for the 12-step proposition that helping others in recovery may lead to better outcomes. Youth with low or

  15. The relationship between regular sports participation and vigilance in male and female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Rafael; Huertas, Florentino; Yuste, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Francesc; Sanabria, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer) and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36) took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning. PMID:25849873

  16. Less Socially Engaged? Participation in Friendship and Extracurricular Activities Among Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Turney, Kristin; Kao, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Prior research has linked social engagement, such as peer interaction and participation in school activities, to a host of positive outcomes for youth and adolescents. However, little research considers patterns of social engagement among racial/ethnic minority and immigrant adolescents, despite prior research suggesting…

  17. Reasons for and Attitudes toward Follow-Up Research Participation among Adolescents Enrolled in an Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Bryan R.; Passetti, Lora L.; Orndoff, Matt G.; Godley, Susan H.

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining study cohorts over time is crucial to the success of treatment outcome research studies. This paper examines reasons why adolescents with substance use problems continued to participate in follow-up interviews. The sample consisted of 145 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18, who completed an outcome study following out-patient…

  18. 43 CFR 3137.100 - How must I allocate production to the United States when a participating area includes unleased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... production to the United States when a participating area includes unleased Federal lands? (a) When a... United States when a participating area includes unleased Federal lands? 3137.100 Section 3137.100 Public... be determined under the Minerals Management Service's oil and gas product value regulations at 30...

  19. Community participation for transformative action on women's, children's and adolescents' health.

    PubMed

    Marston, Cicely; Hinton, Rachael; Kean, Stuart; Baral, Sushil; Ahuja, Arti; Costello, Anthony; Portela, Anayda

    2016-05-01

    The Global strategy for women's, children's and adolescents' health (2016-2030) recognizes that people have a central role in improving their own health. We propose that community participation, particularly communities working together with health services (co-production in health care), will be central for achieving the objectives of the global strategy. Community participation specifically addresses the third of the key objectives: to transform societies so that women, children and adolescents can realize their rights to the highest attainable standards of health and well-being. In this paper, we examine what this implies in practice. We discuss three interdependent areas for action towards greater participation of the public in health: improving capabilities for individual and group participation; developing and sustaining people-centred health services; and social accountability. We outline challenges for implementation, and provide policy-makers, programme managers and practitioners with illustrative examples of the types of participatory approaches needed in each area to help achieve the health and development goals.

  20. HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC PARTICIPATION AND ADOLESCENT SUICIDE: A Nationwide US Study.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Don; Miller, Kathleen E; Melnick, Merrill J; Farrell, Michael P; Barnes, Grace M

    2005-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among US adolescents aged 15-24, with males incurring higher rates of completion than females. This study used hierarchical logistic regression analysis to test whether athletic participation was associated with lower rates of suicidal ideation and behavior among a nationally representative sample of over 16,000 US public and private high school students. Net of the effects of age, race/ethnicity, parental educational attainment, and urbanicity, high school athletic participation was significantly associated with reduced odds of considering suicide among both females and males, and reduced odds of planning a suicide attempt among females only. Though the results point to favorable health outcomes for athletes, athletic participation was also associated with higher rates of injury to male athletes who actually attempted suicide. PMID:18846245

  1. 32 CFR 37.620 - What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.620 What.... Specifically, the requirements are those in: (a) 32 CFR 33.20 for State and local governments; and (b) 32 CFR... from the definition of “recipient” in 32 CFR part 32. Although it should occur infrequently, if...

  2. 32 CFR 37.620 - What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.620 What.... Specifically, the requirements are those in: (a) 32 CFR 33.20 for State and local governments; and (b) 32 CFR... from the definition of “recipient” in 32 CFR part 32. Although it should occur infrequently, if...

  3. 32 CFR 37.620 - What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.620 What.... Specifically, the requirements are those in: (a) 32 CFR 33.20 for State and local governments; and (b) 32 CFR... from the definition of “recipient” in 32 CFR part 32. Although it should occur infrequently, if...

  4. Preferences Regarding Return of Genomic Results to Relatives of Research Participants, Including after Participant Death: Empirical Results from a Cancer Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Gloria M.; Wolf, Susan M.; Chaffee, Kari G.; Robinson, Marguerite E.; Gordon, Deborah R.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Data are lacking with regard to participants’ perspectives on return of genetic research results to relatives, including after the participant’s death. This paper reports descriptive results from 3,630 survey respondents: 464 participants in a pancreatic cancer biobank, 1,439 family registry participants, and 1,727 healthy individuals. Our findings indicate that most participants would feel obligated to share their results with blood relatives while alive and would want results to be shared with relatives after their death. PMID:26479556

  5. Psychophysiological effects of an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge including participants with spider phobia.

    PubMed

    Notzon, S; Deppermann, S; Fallgatter, A; Diemer, J; Kroczek, A; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Ehlis, A-C

    2015-12-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests beneficial effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on anxiety. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as a form of TMS on acute anxiety provoked by a virtual reality (VR) scenario. Participants with spider phobia (n=41) and healthy controls (n=42) were exposed to a spider scenario in VR after one session of iTBS over the prefrontal cortex or sham treatment. Participants with spider phobia reacted with more anxiety compared to healthy controls. Their heart rate and skin conductance increased compared to baseline. Contrary to expectations, iTBS did not influence these reactions, but modulated heart rate variability (HRV). Sympathetic influence on HRV showed an increase in the active iTBS group only. This study does not support the idea of beneficial effects of a single session of iTBS on anxiety, although other protocols or repeated sessions might be effective.

  6. Number of Years of Team and Individual Sport Participation During Adolescence and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Jewett, Rachel; Ashdown-Franks, Garcia; Belanger, Mathieu; Brunet, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal and unique association between number of years of team sport and individual sport participation during adolescence and depressive symptoms during early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 860) reported team sport and individual sport participation in each year of secondary school for five years. Participants reported depressive symptoms using the Major Depression Inventory three years after secondary school. Multivariate linear regression was performed to model the associations of sport participation with depressive symptoms while controlling for sex, age, parent education, and baseline depressive symptoms. In the final model, adolescents who consistently participated in team sport during high school reported lower depression scores in early adulthood (β = -.09, p = .02). Number of years of individual sport participation was not statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms in early adulthood. Based on these findings, team sport participation may protect against depressive symptoms in early adulthood. If this finding is replicated, strategies should be implemented to encourage and maintain team sport participation during adolescence. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link team sport participation to lower depression.

  7. 32 CFR 37.640 - Must I include a provision for audits of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.640 Must I include a provision... any periodic audits are to be performed, addressed in § 37.655. (d) Other matters described in §...

  8. 32 CFR 37.640 - Must I include a provision for audits of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.640 Must I include a provision... any periodic audits are to be performed, addressed in § 37.655. (d) Other matters described in §...

  9. 32 CFR 37.640 - Must I include a provision for audits of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.640 Must I include a provision... any periodic audits are to be performed, addressed in § 37.655. (d) Other matters described in §...

  10. 32 CFR 37.640 - Must I include a provision for audits of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.640 Must I include a provision... any periodic audits are to be performed, addressed in § 37.655. (d) Other matters described in §...

  11. 32 CFR 37.640 - Must I include a provision for audits of for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.640 Must I include a provision... any periodic audits are to be performed, addressed in § 37.655. (d) Other matters described in §...

  12. Household task participation of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy, Down syndrome and typical development.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Maíra Ferreira do; Drummond, Adriana de França; Coster, Wendy J; Mancini, Marisa Cotta

    2014-02-01

    This cross-sectional study compared patterns of household task participation (e.g., performance, assistance and independence) of youth with cerebral palsy (CP), Down syndrome (DS) and typical development (TD). Parents of 75 children and adolescents were interviewed to report on their youths' active engagement in daily self-care and family-care tasks, using the children helping out: responsibilities, expectations and supports (CHORES) questionnaire. Groups were equivalent in age (mean=9.3 years; SD=2.2 years), sex (male=39; female=36), respondent education, presence of maid, and number of siblings at home, but differed on child cognitive function and family socioeconomic status, with the DS and the CP groups scoring lower than the TD group but not different from each other. ANOVA revealed group differences on CHORES performance of self-care tasks (p=0.004), on total participation score (p=0.04) and on assistance scores (p<0.02). Post hoc comparisons showed that TD group scored higher than CP and DS groups on performance and assistance in self-care tasks and total assistance; TD and CP groups were similar on total performance and assistance in family-care tasks. The groups also differed on independence indices; the TD index was greater than the CP and DS, and the CP index was greater than the DS. Parents from the three groups did not differ on ratings of importance regarding their children's household participation (p=0.416). In spite of observed differences, children and adolescents with CP and DS are actively engaged in daily self-care and family-care tasks; their participation at home is not prevented by the presence of their disabilities.

  13. [Factors relate to participation in medical checkups in a rural community an analysis including social network scores].

    PubMed

    Okamura, T; Suzuki, R; Nakagawa, Y; Terao, A; Sato, S; Kitamura, A; Naito, Y; Imano, H; Tamura, Y; Iida, M; Komachi, Y

    1999-08-01

    Since 1969, community-based stroke prevention programs have been conducted in N town, Kochi prefecture. To clarify factors related to participation in medical checkups including social networks, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed on 6,704 residents aged 40 and over in N town in 1996. 1. Location of the workplace, types of medical insurance and interest in health were significantly associated with participation in medical checkups. 2. Participation in medical examinations provided at the workplace was significantly, inversely related with participation rates in community checkups in the group aged 40 to 59 years. 3. Low independence level in daily activities was inversely associated with participation rates for medical checkups in groups aged 60 years and older. 4. Visiting medical facilities was inversely associated with the participation rate for medical checkups in female groups. 5. The group with the highest social networks score (5 points) had the highest participation rate for medical checkups. After adjusting for other participation related factors, social networks scores had a significantly positive association with the participation rate for medical checkups provided by the Health Services for the Elderly Act. PMID:10496030

  14. Environmental resources moderate the relationship between social support and school sports participation among adolescents: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most Americans are not active at recommended levels. Adolescence is a developmental period when physical activity (PA) decreases markedly. Methods This study investigates whether access to environmental PA resources moderates the relationship between psychosocial resources (social support and perceived competence) and PA among 192 adolescents. Results Environmental access to PA resources (determined via GIS-based assessment of the number of gyms, schools, trails, parks and athletic fields within 0.5 miles of each participant's home) moderated the association between social support and PA; among adolescents with high levels of environmental resources, greater social support was associated with students participating in a greater number of sports in school, whereas no such relationship emerged among adolescents with low environmental resources. Conclusions PA-promotion interventions should aim to enhance both social and environmental resources; targeting either one alone may be insufficient. PMID:21501504

  15. Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration: examining the potential mechanisms underlying Mexican-origin adolescents' organized activity participation.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Sandra D; Delgado, Melissa Y; Price, Chara D; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms by which these macro factors might be related to Mexican-origin adolescents' participation in organized after-school activities. Qualitative data were collected through focus group interviews with 44 adolescents, 50 parents, and 18 activity leaders from 2 neighborhoods that varied in ethnic composition and average family income. Results indicated that family socioeconomic status might be related to adolescents' participation through financial resources and parents' work. Ethnicity was identified as a predictor of participation via experiences with ethnic discrimination, particularly in the neighborhood with a low percentage of Hispanic families. Cultural values and practices were related to participants' preferences for particular activities (e.g., bilingual, church-sponsored) and adolescents' participation in activities. Immigration seemed to be a factor in parents' familiarity with and beliefs about organized activities. PMID:22545831

  16. The effect of adolescents' sports clubs participation on self-reported mental and physical conditions and future expectations.

    PubMed

    Gísladóttir, Thórdís Lilja; Matthíasdóttir, Asrún; Kristjánsdóttir, Hafrún

    2013-01-01

    Sports clubs create conditions for people of all ages to pursue a healthy lifestyle through exercise in sports and attend to constructive pedagogical work which creates much value for society. This study investigates the relationship between adolescents' sports clubs participation and self-reported mental and physical conditions and future expectations. The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (aged 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires administered to students in the classroom relating to health and behaviour. The results indicate that participation in sports clubs influences adolescents positively; adolescents who work hard at sport not only believe they are in better mental and physical condition, they also believe they can succeed in other areas such as their studies. Sports clubs promote positive influence on adolescents' mental and physical conditions and their future expectations toward work and happiness. It can be concluded that participation in organised sports clubs affects the participants in a positive way. PMID:23428254

  17. The effect of adolescents' sports clubs participation on self-reported mental and physical conditions and future expectations.

    PubMed

    Gísladóttir, Thórdís Lilja; Matthíasdóttir, Asrún; Kristjánsdóttir, Hafrún

    2013-01-01

    Sports clubs create conditions for people of all ages to pursue a healthy lifestyle through exercise in sports and attend to constructive pedagogical work which creates much value for society. This study investigates the relationship between adolescents' sports clubs participation and self-reported mental and physical conditions and future expectations. The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (aged 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires administered to students in the classroom relating to health and behaviour. The results indicate that participation in sports clubs influences adolescents positively; adolescents who work hard at sport not only believe they are in better mental and physical condition, they also believe they can succeed in other areas such as their studies. Sports clubs promote positive influence on adolescents' mental and physical conditions and their future expectations toward work and happiness. It can be concluded that participation in organised sports clubs affects the participants in a positive way.

  18. Comparing patterns of sexual risk among adolescent and young women in a mixed-method study in Tanzania: implications for adolescent participation in HIV prevention trials

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, Elizabeth E; Kaaya, Sylvia; Kaale, Anna; Minja, Anna; Bangapi, Doreen; Kalungura, Happy; Headley, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Joy Noel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the disproportionate impact of HIV on women, and adolescents in particular, those below age 18 years are underrepresented in HIV prevention trials due to ethical, safety and logistical concerns. This study examined and compared the sexual risk contexts of adolescent women aged 15–17 to young adult women aged 18–21 to determine whether adolescents exhibited similar risk profiles and the implications for their inclusion in future trials. Methods We conducted a two-phase, mixed-method study to assess the opportunities and challenges of recruiting and retaining adolescents (aged 15–17) versus young women (18–21) in Tanzania. Phase I, community formative research (CFR), used serial in-depth interviews with 11 adolescent and 12 young adult women from a range of sexual risk contexts in preparation for a mock clinical trial (MCT). For Phase II, 135 HIV-negative, non-pregnant adolescents and young women were enrolled into a six-month MCT to assess and compare differences in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes, including risky sexual behaviour, incident pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and HIV. Results In both research phases, adolescents appeared to be at similar, if not higher, risk than their young adult counterparts. Adolescents reported earlier sexual debut, and similar numbers of lifetime partners, pregnancy and STI/RTI rates, yet had lower perceived risk. Married women in the CFR appeared at particular risk but were less represented in the MCT. In addition, adolescents were less likely than their older counterparts to have accessed HIV testing, obtained gynaecological exams or used protective technologies. Conclusions Adolescent women under 18 are at risk of multiple negative SRH outcomes and they underuse preventive services. Their access to new technologies such as vaginal microbicides or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may similarly be compromised unless greater effort is

  19. Associations of participation in service activities with academic, behavioral, and civic outcomes of adolescents at varying risk levels.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jennifer A; Shumow, Lee; Kackar, Hayal Z

    2012-07-01

    Youth who participate in service activities differ from those who do not on a number of key demographic characteristics like socio-economic status and other indicators of risk; and most studies demonstrating positive outcomes among service participants employ small non-representative samples. Thus, there is little evidence as to whether the outcomes associated with service participation are similar among students with varying levels of risk. The National Household Education Survey of 1999, a large nationally representative cross-sectional data set that focused on community service, was analyzed to investigate associations between the risk status of 4,306 adolescent students (50.2% female; 63.3% European American, M age = 15.9), their participation in community service, and their academic adjustment, behavioral problems, and civic knowledge. Because adolescents who participate in service differ from those who do not with respect to demographic characteristics, propensity score analyses were used to correct for potential selection bias in the examination of these relationships. Analyses tested competing theoretical models of service-protective versus compensatory-among students at varying levels of risk, and suggested that service acts as a compensatory factor with respect to academic, behavioral, and civic outcomes. Propensity score analyses revealed patterns suggesting that, in some cases, students with certain demographic profiles that are themselves related to the likelihood of service participation may benefit from service participation more than others. Findings are discussed in terms of their significance for adolescent development, for planning service programs, and for educational policy.

  20. Competitive sports for children and adolescents: should an electrocardiogram be required in the pre-participation physical examination?

    PubMed

    Baptista, Cláudio Aparício Silva; Foronda, Antonio; Baptista, Luciana de Pádua Silva

    2009-08-01

    The growing number of children and adolescents, aged 7 to 17 years, that participate in competitive sports requires preventive medical care. The pre-participation physical examination (PPE) requires appropriate medical knowledge to insure safe medical clearance. Recent sudden death events related to sports practice have raised doubts concerning the need for a medical evaluation based on medical tests, which due to the delay in its implementation may result in demotivation and abandonment of the sports practice. This is a review study, including data collected during a period of 30 years at the Olympic Training and Research Center (COTP) of the Municipal Secretary of Sports of São Paulo, where future athletes are identified, socially included and trained; and the objective of the study was to evaluate the need for the involvement of medical organizations in the preparation of a EPP protocol for the cardiovascular assessment of this population, according to the Brazilian reality. We had no normative standard, and so we relied on data collected from protocols that were established by other countries, but we defined which conduct to be taken with each of our individuals.

  1. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  2. The Over-Scheduling Hypothesis Revisited: Intensity of Organized Activity Participation during Adolescence and Young Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joseph L.; Vest, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    Concern exists that youth who spend a lot of time participating in organized out-of-school activities (e.g., sports) are at-risk for poor developmental outcomes. This concern--called the over-scheduling hypothesis--has primarily been assessed in terms of adolescent adjustment. This longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of 1,115…

  3. The Link between Competitive Sport Participation and Self-Concept in Early Adolescence: A Consideration of Gender and Sport Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Bowker, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The current study explored specific aspects of sports and individuals on 4 domains of the self-system (physical competence and physical appearance self-concept, global physical and general self-esteem). Participants were 351 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.45, SD = 1.25 years, males n = 132) recruited from elite sports and regular school…

  4. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis,…

  5. Onset of Smoking Behaviors and Participation in Leisure Physical Activities of Turkish Adolescents Attending Vocational Health Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subasi, Feryal; Hey, William; Mumcu, Gonca; Koksal, Leyla; Luleci, Emel; Sur, Haydar

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted with the aim of examining the relationships between smoking behavior and leisure physical activity habits of adolescents (n=170, 85F & 85M, mean age= 15.42 [plus or minus] 0.58, age range=15-17 years) attending vocational health schools in Turkey. Participants were randomly selected from four provinces of…

  6. The Fun Integration Theory: Towards Sustaining Children and Adolescents Sport Participation

    PubMed Central

    Visek, Amanda J.; Achrati, Sara M.; Manning, Heather; McDonnell, Karen; Harris, Brandonn S.; DiPietro, Loretta

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children cite ‘fun’ as the primary reason for participation in organized sport and its absence as the number one reason for youth sport attrition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework of fun using a novel mixed-method assessment of participants in sport (FUN MAPS) via concept mapping. METHODS Youth soccer players (n = 142), coaches (n = 37), and parents (n = 57) were stratified by age, sex, and competition level and contributed their “fun” ideas through: (a) qualitative brainstorming, identifying all of the things that make playing sports fun for players; (b) sorting of ideas; and (c) rating each idea on its importance, frequency, and feasibility. RESULTS The FUN MAPS identify the four fundamental tenets of fun in youth sport within 11 fun-dimensions composed of 81 specific fun-determinants, while also establishing the youth sport ethos. CONCLUSION The FUN MAPS provide pictorial evidence-based blueprints for the fun integration theory (FIT), which is a multi-theoretical, multidimensional, and stakeholder derived framework that can be used to maximize fun for children and adolescents in order to promote and sustain an active and healthy lifestyle through sport. PMID:24770788

  7. Mapping the Rural Adolescent Girls' Participation in Residential Non-Formal Education Program--A Study in Lunkaransar Block, Rajasthan, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shilpa

    2002-01-01

    The present study, "Mapping Rural Adolescent Girl's Participation in Residential Non- Formal Education Program--A Study in Lunkaransar Block, Rajasthan", was an attempt to understand the dimensions of rural adolescent girls' participation in the "Balika Shivir" Program. It is a six month residential non-formal education program being organized by…

  8. Quality of Life in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Who Participate in Diabetes Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Ruth; Cureton, Virginia Young; Canham, Daryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Quality of life in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes is a growing area of interest in pediatric research. The complex diabetes regimen imposes challenges for an adolescent. Adolescents diagnosed with diabetes are a group that appears to be at risk for having a poor health-related quality of life. Although research supports the positive relationship…

  9. Prospective Study of Adolescent Drug Use among Community Samples of ADHD and Non-ADHD Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Gerald J.; Winters, Ken C.; Realmuto, George M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Botzet, Andria; Lee, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the late adolescent drug use outcomes from a relatively large, community-identified sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have been assessed longitudinally from childhood through late adolescence. Method: Adolescent drug use outcomes were compared between ADHD-only (n = 27),…

  10. Prioritizing Participation: Five Things that Every Teacher Needs to Know to Prepare Recent Immigrant Adolescents for Classroom Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patchen, Terri

    2005-01-01

    Any teacher who has worked in a public high school knows the force oral participation holds in a classroom, for a curriculum, and with the students. Few things can make or break educational access, momentum and opportunity like classroom participation. When oral participation is neither present nor cultivated within a classroom, students and…

  11. Sports Participation and Juvenile Delinquency: The Role of the Peer Context among Adolescent Boys and Girls with Varied Histories of Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Roth, Jodie; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    In a study of 1,344 urban adolescents, the authors examined the relation between participation in organized sports and juvenile delinquency. They compared youth who participated in sports to those who only participated in nonathletic activities and to those who did not participate in any organized activities. They also examined the indirect…

  12. Contrasting views of risk perception and influence of financial compensation between adolescent research participants and their parents.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Lori; Viola, Adrienne; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Wendler, David; Grady, Christine

    2015-02-01

    U.S. regulations governing pediatric research do not specify the assent process. To identify best practices, it is important to examine parents' and adolescents' views. The present study focuses on parents' and adolescents' views regarding possible research risks and the influence of financial compensation on their willingness to accept research procedures. Interviews were conducted with 177 adolescents participating in clinical research for a medical or psychiatric illness, or as healthy volunteers, and a parent. Significant discordance was found between how bothered the teen would feel from research-related side effects and procedures compared with parental report. Most teens were willing to accept non-beneficial procedures without compensation. Payment had significantly greater influence on healthy volunteers and their parents compared with those with a medical or psychiatric illness. Discordance between adolescent and parental views about risks recommends obtaining direct input from adolescents during the assent process. Modest payments should not raise concerns of undue inducement, especially in teens with pre-existing conditions.

  13. Developing guidance for pregnancy testing of adolescents participating in research: ethical, legal and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Larcher, Vic; Brierley, Joe

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents need safe effective drugs that have undergone ethically approved testing in clinical trials; such studies often require pregnancy testing in 'women of childbearing age' which includes children/adolescents. There is a lack of consistent standard operating procedures for pregnancy testing in these individuals, in either research or clinical (ie, both preprocedure and clinical emergency) settings. Some harmonisation between a selective or universal testing approach based on a risk analysis of the trial drug or procedure would seem sensible. The need for pregnancy testing and the reasons for the method chosen (universal or selective) should be clearly defined in the research protocol. Research ethics committees (RECs) need to satisfy themselves that the selection of subjects to be tested, the procedures for obtaining consent and the respecting of the young person's confidentiality are appropriate and that management of any positive tests are in accord with local safeguarding policies and procedures. Researchers should have core competencies necessary to manage sensitive questioning and child safeguarding training. Clinical trials of medicinal product (CTIMP) pregnancy testing in females 13-15 years of age requires parental consent and the child's active involvement in the decision-making process ('assent') the implications of a positive test should be discussed in advance Children under 13 years should not normally be subject to pregnancy testing in CTIMPs, unless there are exceptional circumstances, for example, a trial of contraceptive agents of a high teratogenicity risk, as reviewed by a specialist paediatric REC. We analyse the ethical, legal and practical aspects of this issues and supply guidance to support those involved.

  14. Reported Sports Participation, Race, Sex, Ethnicity, and Obesity in US Adolescents From NHANES Physical Activity (PAQ_D).

    PubMed

    Turner, Robert W; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Peterson, Camilla J; Skinner, Asheley C

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To understand the relationships between participation in different types of leisure time sport activity and adolescent obesity, and how those relationships might differ based on race, gender, and household income. Methods. Data consisted of 6667 students that took part in the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The authors used adjusted Wald tests to examine differences in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) by sport for boys and girls separately. Results. Among adolescent youth age 12 to 19 years, 16.6% of male leisure time sport participants and 15.3% of female sport participants were obese, compared with 23.6% for male nonathlete participant-in-other-activities and 17.0% obesity rate for female nonathlete/participant-in-other-activities. For both males and females, reported participation in leisure time sports decreased between middle school and high school, and this reduction was associated with higher body mass index.

  15. Reported Sports Participation, Race, Sex, Ethnicity, and Obesity in US Adolescents From NHANES Physical Activity (PAQ_D)

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Eliana M.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Peterson, Camilla J.; Skinner, Asheley C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To understand the relationships between participation in different types of leisure time sport activity and adolescent obesity, and how those relationships might differ based on race, gender, and household income. Methods. Data consisted of 6667 students that took part in the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The authors used adjusted Wald tests to examine differences in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) by sport for boys and girls separately. Results. Among adolescent youth age 12 to 19 years, 16.6% of male leisure time sport participants and 15.3% of female sport participants were obese, compared with 23.6% for male nonathlete participant-in-other-activities and 17.0% obesity rate for female nonathlete/participant-in-other-activities. For both males and females, reported participation in leisure time sports decreased between middle school and high school, and this reduction was associated with higher body mass index. PMID:27335953

  16. Moderating effect of the environment in the relationship between mobility and school participation in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Sheyla R. C.; Sampaio, Rosana F.; Kirkwood, Renata N.; Vaz, Daniela V.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The literature demonstrates that the social participation of children with disabilities is influenced by both their functional skills repertoire and environmental factors. However, it is not yet known whether the effect of functional limitations on social participation is minimized or enhanced by the environmental facilitators and barriers. This study aimed to test this hypothesis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the moderating effect of environmental factors in the relationship between mobility and school participation of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: Participants were 102 elementary school children and adolescents with CP, aged 6 to 17 years, classified as levels I, II, and III according to the Gross Motor Classification System, along with their parents or caregivers and teachers. School participation and parents' perceptions of barriers were evaluated using the School Function Assessment and the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF), respectively. RESULTS: The regression model failed to reveal a moderating effect of environmental factors in the relationship between mobility and school participation. While mobility was a strong predictor of participation, environmental factors demonstrated a weak predictive effect on the latter. The CHIEF subscale school/work showed the factors which were greatest barrier to children's participation, while the subscale attitude/support had the least impact. CONCLUSION: The absence of moderation on the tested relationship suggests that, when investigated under the negative perspective of environmental barriers, the contextual factors do not modify the relationship between mobility and school participation. Factors specific to the school environment might add to the present study's results regarding the effect of school participation in this population. PMID:26443979

  17. Vulnerable Adolescent Participants' Experience in Surveys on Sexuality and Sexual Abuse: Ethical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Backstrom, Martin; Ainsaar, Mare

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to study the discomfort experienced by adolescents when answering questions in a survey about sexuality and sexual abuse and to investigate factors that may determine possible experience of discomfort. The research focused particularly on vulnerable adolescents--sexually abused and sexually inexperienced.…

  18. Participants' Experiences of an Early Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Adolescents with Symptoms of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bru, Lene; Solholm, Roar; Idsoe, Thormod

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been documented to be effective in treating depression in adolescence, but there is great variability in the clinical outcome of CBT trials. This may in part be due to variations in the content of, and emphasis on different CBT components. Moreover, little is known about adolescents' subjective experiences of…

  19. The Role of Family Experiences for Adolescents' Readiness to Use and Participate in Illegal Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatz, Terese; Dahl, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This study used reactance theory as a starting point to explain what role a perceived undemocratic and controlling family has for adolescents' readiness to use illegal political activity. Additionally, we examined whether adolescents' readiness to use illegal political means was related to actual political behaviour, which has been lacking in…

  20. A Comparison of Adolescents' Friendship Networks by Advanced Coursework Participation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Carolyn; Wasson, Jillian Woodford

    2015-01-01

    Friendships serve as a source of support and as a context for developing social competence. Although advanced coursework may provide a unique context for the development of friendships, more research is needed to explore exactly what differences exist. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and…

  1. Predictors of Participation in Parenting Workshops for Improving Adolescent Behavioral and Mental Health: Results from the Common Sense Parenting Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Fernandez, Kate; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Oats, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Engaging and retaining participants are crucial to achieving adequate implementation of parenting interventions designed to prevent problem behaviors among children and adolescents. This study examined predictors of engagement and retention in a group-based family intervention across two versions of the program: a standard version requiring only parent attendance for six sessions and an adapted version with two additional sessions that required attendance by the son or daughter. Families included a parent and an eighth grader who attended one of five high-poverty schools in an urban Pacific Northwest school district. The adapted version of the intervention had a higher rate of engagement than the standard version, a difference that was statistically significant after adjusting for other variables assessed at enrollment in the study. Higher household income and parent education, younger student age, and poorer affective quality in the parent-child relationship predicted greater likelihood of initial attendance. In the adapted version of the intervention, parents of boys were more likely to engage with the program than those of girls. The variables considered did not strongly predict retention, although retention was higher among parents of boys. Retention did not significantly differ between conditions. Asking for child attendance at workshops may have increased engagement in the intervention, while findings for other predictors of attendance point to the need for added efforts to recruit families who have less socioeconomic resources, as well as families who perceive they have less need for services. PMID:25656381

  2. Non-Participation of Children and Adolescents In Out-of-School Time Programs: Child, Family, and Neighborhood Factors. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Tawana; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Out-of-school time programs can offer a secure and nurturing environment for children and adolescents, reducing the worries about what they are doing during these most vulnerable hours. For example, research suggests that participation in out-of-school time programs and activities can lessen the likelihood that children and adolescents will engage…

  3. Too Much of a Good Thing? How Breadth of Extracurricular Participation Relates to School-Related Affect and Academic Outcomes during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Graham, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Although adolescents often participate in multiple extracurricular activities, little research has examined how the breadth of activities in which an adolescent is involved relates to school-related affect and academic performance. Relying on a large, multi-ethnic sample (N = 864; 55.9% female), the current study investigated linear and non-linear…

  4. Adolescent Friend Similarity on Alcohol Abuse as a Function of Participation in Romantic Relationships: Sometimes a New Love Comes between Old Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical…

  5. Barriers and enablers for participation in healthy lifestyle programs by adolescents who are overweight: a qualitative study of the opinions of adolescents, their parents and community stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight or obesity during adolescence affects almost 25% of Australian youth, yet limited research exists regarding recruitment and engagement of adolescents in weight-management or healthy lifestyle interventions, or best-practice for encouraging long-term healthy behaviour change. A sound understanding of community perceptions, including views from adolescents, parents and community stakeholders, regarding barriers and enablers to entering and engaging meaningfully in an intervention is critical to improve the design of such programs. Methods This paper reports findings from focus groups and semi-structured interviews conducted with adolescents (n?=?44), parents (n?=?12) and community stakeholders (n?=?39) in Western Australia. Three major topics were discussed to inform the design of more feasible and effective interventions: recruitment, retention in the program and maintenance of healthy change. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Data were categorised into barriers and enablers across the three main topics. For recruitment, identified barriers included: the stigma associated with overweight, difficulty defining overweight, a lack of current health services and broader social barriers. The enablers for recruitment included: strategic marketing, a positive approach and subsidising program costs. For retention, identified barriers included: location, timing, high level of commitment needed and social barriers. Enablers for retention included: making it fun and enjoyable for adolescents, involving the family, having an on-line component, recruiting good staff and making it easy for parents to attend. For maintenance, identified barriers included: the high degree of difficulty in sustaining change and limited services to support change. Enablers for maintenance included: on-going follow up, focusing on positive change, utilisation of electronic media and transition back to community services. Conclusions This study

  6. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  7. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success.

  8. The effects of a prenatal course including PREP for effective family living on self-esteem and parenting attitudes of adolescents: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Emmons, R D; Nystul, M S

    1994-01-01

    Nine adolescent females were enrolled in a prenatal course that included the PREP for Effective Family Living Program (the treatment group). Two comparison groups were utilized in this study; one attended the prenatal group without the PREP program, and the second did not attend either the prenatal course or the PREP program. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Attitude Toward the Freedom of Children Scale (a parental attitude scale) was administered to all participants. No significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of self-concept. A significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of parental attitudes, with the treatment group scoring higher on democratic parenting attitudes than did the two comparison groups.

  9. Youth participation in organized and informal sports activities across childhood and adolescence: exploring the relationships of motivational beliefs, developmental stage and gender.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Nickki Pearce; Vest, Andrea; Simpkins, Sandra

    2014-08-01

    Involvement in physically active pursuits, such as sports, contributes to achieving and maintaining good emotional and physical health. The central goal of this article was to examine the longitudinal relationships between participation (i.e., time spent in the activities) in organized and informal sports contexts and motivational beliefs, and factors that might impact these relationships, such as developmental stage and gender. The data for the current study were drawn from the childhood and beyond longitudinal study, which utilized a cohort sequential design with data collected on three cohorts across four waves. The current study sample included 986 European American youth (51 % female), who t were mostly from working- and middle-class families. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect data from the youth about their participation in sports and their motivational beliefs (i.e., value and perceptions of competence) about this activity. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between participation and motivational beliefs across childhood and adolescence. The results provide some support for a model of reciprocal relationships between participation and motivational beliefs in organized and informal sports activities. These relationships between participation and motivational beliefs did not vary significantly based on developmental stage or by gender. Overall, the findings suggest that participation in organized and informal sports contexts may be fostered by supporting the development of positive motivational beliefs about the activities across developmental periods.

  10. Association between regular participation in sports and leisure time behaviors in Brazilian adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Júnior, Ismael Forte Freitas; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Vaz Ronque, Enio Ricardo; Loch, Mathias Roberto; de Oliveira, Arli Ramos

    2008-01-01

    Background The belief that adolescents engaged in sports increase their overall physical activity level while simultaneously decreasing physical inactivity has been the foundation of many intervention programs in developing countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between regular participation in sports and both active behaviors and TV viewing during leisure time. Methods A total of 1752 Brazilian adolescents (812 = male and 940 = female) participated in this study. Regular participation in sports, as well as active behaviors (exemplified by walking or cycling) and TV viewing during leisure time were assessed by means of a questionnaire. The chi-square test analyzed the association between sports practice and leisure time behaviors, and the Poisson regression with robust variance indicated the magnitude of these associations. Results The prevalence of regular participation in sports was 14.8% (95% confidence interval 13.2% to 16.5%). After adjustment for all confounders, participation in sports was associated with, at the highest frequency, cycling (PR = 2.55 [1.80–3.60]) and walking (PR = 2.69 [1.98–3.64]) during leisure time. However, there was not an association between the participation in sports and frequency of TV viewing (PR = 1.28 [0.81–2.02]). Conclusion This study presented data indicating that the regular participation in sports is positively associated with a higher frequency of physically active behaviors during leisure time. However, the results did not support the hypothesis that the engagement in sports necessarily decreases leisure time spent in TV viewing. PMID:18811976

  11. Medical and orthopedic conditions and sports participation.

    PubMed

    Diokno, Eugene; Rowe, Dale

    2010-06-01

    The presence of certain medical or orthopedic conditions need not preclude adolescents from being physically active and participating in sports. The benefits of continued physical activity far outweigh any concerns for potential complications for most such conditions. This article reviews sport participation guidelines for adolescents with conditions that include juvenile chronic arthritis, eye injures, solitary kidney, skin conditions, scoliosis, and spondylolysis.

  12. 20 CFR 641.507 - What types of income are included and excluded for participant eligibility determinations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE... participant eligibility determinations? (a) The prior practice of excluding the first $500 of a participant's... eligibility to no more than 125 percent of the poverty guidelines established by OMB. Therefore, this...

  13. The Role of Economic Factors, Including the Level of Tuition, in Individual University Participation Decisions in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David R.; Rahman, Fiona T.

    2005-01-01

    The study uses individual data from the Canadian Labour Force Survey to consider economic factors in university participation decisions by persons aged 17-24 from 1976 to 2003. The level of real tuition is one economic factor that may affect the university participation decision. There is also regional variation in the opportunity cost of…

  14. Trends from 2002 to 2010 in Daily Breakfast Consumption and its Socio-Demographic Correlates in Adolescents across 31 Countries Participating in the HBSC Study

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Niclasen, Birgit; Pammolli, Andrea; Vereecken, Carine; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Kelly, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and children and adolescents can benefit from breakfast consumption in several ways. The purpose of the present study was to describe trends in daily breakfast consumption (DBC) among adolescents across 31 countries participating in the HBSC survey between 2002 to 2010 and to identify socio-demographic (gender, family affluence and family structure) correlates of DBC. Cross-sectional surveys including nationally representative samples of 11–15 year olds (n = 455,391). Multilevel logistic regression analyses modeled DBC over time after adjusting for family affluence, family structure and year of survey. In all countries, children in two-parent families were more likely to report DBC compared to single parent families. In most countries (n = 19), DBC was associated with family affluence. Six countries showed an increase in DBC (Canada, Netherland, Macedonia, Scotland, Wales, England) from 2002. A significant decrease in DBC from 2002 was found in 11 countries (Belgium Fr, France, Germany, Croatia, Spain, Poland, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Norway), while in 5 countries (Portugal, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden) no significant changes were seen. Frequency of DBC among adolescents in European countries and North America showed a more uniform pattern in 2010 as compared to patterns in 2002. DBC increased significantly in only six out of 19 countries from 2002 to 2010. There is need for continued education and campaigns to motivate adolescents to consume DBC. Comparing patterns across HBSC countries can make an important contribution to understanding regional /global trends and to monitoring strategies and development of health promotion programs. PMID:27027743

  15. Trends from 2002 to 2010 in Daily Breakfast Consumption and its Socio-Demographic Correlates in Adolescents across 31 Countries Participating in the HBSC Study.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Niclasen, Birgit; Pammolli, Andrea; Vereecken, Carine; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Kelly, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and children and adolescents can benefit from breakfast consumption in several ways. The purpose of the present study was to describe trends in daily breakfast consumption (DBC) among adolescents across 31 countries participating in the HBSC survey between 2002 to 2010 and to identify socio-demographic (gender, family affluence and family structure) correlates of DBC. Cross-sectional surveys including nationally representative samples of 11-15 year olds (n = 455,391). Multilevel logistic regression analyses modeled DBC over time after adjusting for family affluence, family structure and year of survey. In all countries, children in two-parent families were more likely to report DBC compared to single parent families. In most countries (n = 19), DBC was associated with family affluence. Six countries showed an increase in DBC (Canada, Netherland, Macedonia, Scotland, Wales, England) from 2002. A significant decrease in DBC from 2002 was found in 11 countries (Belgium Fr, France, Germany, Croatia, Spain, Poland, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Norway), while in 5 countries (Portugal, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden) no significant changes were seen. Frequency of DBC among adolescents in European countries and North America showed a more uniform pattern in 2010 as compared to patterns in 2002. DBC increased significantly in only six out of 19 countries from 2002 to 2010. There is need for continued education and campaigns to motivate adolescents to consume DBC. Comparing patterns across HBSC countries can make an important contribution to understanding regional /global trends and to monitoring strategies and development of health promotion programs. PMID:27027743

  16. "But at school … I became a bit shy": Korean immigrant adolescents' discursive participation in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Minjung

    2013-09-01

    In reform-based science curricula, students' discursive participation is highly encouraged as a means of science learning as well as a goal of science education. However, Asian immigrant students are perceived to be quiet and passive in classroom discursive situations, and this reticence implies that they may face challenges in discourse-rich science classroom learning environments. Given this potentially conflicting situation, the present study aims to understand how and why Asian immigrant students participate in science classroom discourse. Findings from interviews with seven Korean immigrant adolescents illustrate that they are indeed hesitant to speak up in classrooms. Drawing upon cultural historical perspectives on identity and agency, this study shows how immigrant experiences shaped the participants' othered identity and influenced their science classroom participation, as well as how they negotiated their identities and situations to participate in science classroom and peer communities. I will discuss implications of this study for science education research and science teacher education to support classroom participation of immigrant students.

  17. High prevalence of elevated haemoglobin A1C among adolescent blood donors: Results from a voluntary screening programme including 31,546 adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gore, M Odette; Eason, Stephen J; Ayers, Colby R; Turer, Aslan T; Khera, Amit; de Lemos, James A; McGuire, Darren K; Sayers, Merlyn

    2015-07-01

    More than 1 in 10 US adolescents have prediabetes or diabetes, and elevated glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) in youth is associated with increased risk of death before the age of 55 years. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study of 31,546 consecutive volunteer blood donors, 16-19 years of age, who donated blood during school blood drives between 1 September 2011 and 21 December 2012 in Texas. In the overall cohort, the prevalence of elevated HbA1C was 11.5%, including 11.0% in the prediabetes range (HbA1C 5.7%-6.4%) and 0.5% in the diabetes range (HbA1C ⩾ 6.5%). The prevalence of elevated HbA1C was higher in boys compared with girls (15.7% vs. 7.9%, p < 0.001) and was especially high in racial/ethnic minorities (Blacks 32.7%, Asians 19.7%, Hispanics 13.1%) compared with Whites (8.0%, p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in total cholesterol and blood pressure across categories of increasing HbA1C in the overall cohort and stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. Blood donation programmes can serve as unique portals for health screening with potential for intervention in adolescents.

  18. Health, Functioning, and Participation of Adolescents and Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Review of Outcomes Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Dana; Msall, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    With medical advances, more individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) syndromes who reside in developed countries are surviving to adolescence and adulthood. However, there continues to be a paucity of research examining long-term health, functional activities, and participatory outcomes over their life-course. This article reviews the current…

  19. Participation Patterns of Korean Adolescents in School-Based Career Exploration Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Hill, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Variations in the school-based career exploration activities of Korean high school students were examined. Data represented 5,227 Korean adolescents in Grade 11 contained in the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005, a nationally representative longitudinal database administered by the Korean Educational Development Institute. Latent class…

  20. Diversity, Discussion, and Participation: Comparing Web-Based and Campus-Based Adolescent Literature Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Explores differences in the range and types of graduate students in a campus-based and a Web-based graduate course on teaching adolescent literature. Finds useful discussion in all class settings, with spontaneity and surprise being more apparent in face-to-face classes and in-depth discussion more apparent in electronic discussion on the issue of…

  1. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. Conclusion It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a

  2. The Differential Impact of Clerk Interest and Participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clerkship Rotation upon Psychiatry and Pediatrics Residency Matches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Szatmari, Peter; Eva, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the differential impact of clerk interest and participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) clerkship rotation upon psychiatry and pediatrics residency matches. Method: Authors studied clerks from the McMaster University M.D. program graduating years of 2005-2007. Participants were categorized as 1)…

  3. Exit Interviews from Adolescent Girls who Participated in a Sexual Risk-Reduction Intervention: Implications for Community-Based, Health Education Promotion for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Passmore, Denise; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to invite girls who participated in a gender-specific, sexual risk-reduction intervention to describe their experiences and identify program characteristics most or least beneficial to their involvement. Method Semi-structured interviews were completed with 26 African American, low income girls ages 15–19 who had participated in a sexual risk reduction intervention as part of a randomized controlled trial. The girls were interviewed after completing a 12-month post-intervention survey. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed for categories. Results Analyses of the interview data identified six categories: 1) reasons for participating, 2) strategies for maintaining behavior changes, 3) interacting with others, 4) communicating with mothers, 5) disseminating information to friends and family, and 6) disseminating information to the males in the community. Implications and Conclusions Many of the girls participating in the theory-based behavior change intervention reported selecting from a “menu” of strategies learned through the intervention to reduce their sexual risk. Having the opportunity to discuss sexual health with peers and trained facilitators, particularly in an all-female environment, was cited as a positive benefit. Community health organizations and clinicians who care for adolescent girls can adapt many aspects of this intervention to help reduce their sexual risk. PMID:23758719

  4. Predicting hypothetical willingness to participate (WTP) in a future phase III HIV vaccine trial among high-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Giocos, Georgina; Kagee, Ashraf; Swartz, Leslie

    2008-11-01

    The present study sought to determine whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted stated hypothetical willingness to participate (WTP) in future Phase III HIV vaccine trials among South African adolescents. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) significantly predicted WTP. Of all the predictors, Subjective norms significantly predicted WTP (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.06-1.34). A stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that Subjective Norms (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.07-1.34) and Attitude towards participation in an HIV vaccine trial (OR = 1.32, 95% C.I. = 1.00-1.74) were significant predictors of WTP. The addition of Knowledge of HIV vaccines and HIV vaccine trials, Perceived self-risk of HIV infection, Health-promoting behaviours and Attitudes towards HIV/AIDS yielded non-significant results. These findings provide support for the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and suggest that psychosocial factors may play an important role in WTP in Phase III HIV vaccine trials among adolescents.

  5. Predicting Adolescent Self-Esteem from Participation in School Sports among Latino Subgroups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkut, Sumru; Tracy, Allison J.

    2002-01-01

    Data from a national longitudinal survey of secondary school students showed that participation in a school sport was associated with self-esteem among Mexican American boys and girls, Puerto Rican girls, and Cuban American boys. School attachment and physical well-being mediated the relationship between sports participation and self-esteem.…

  6. The Promotion of Children's and Adolescents' Social Participation in Italy and Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Elisa; Baraldi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical framework, methodology and the main results of a comparative research on the promotion of children's social participation in Italy and Scotland, which was based on politicians', managers' and practitioners' representations. Promotion of participation here is considered a form of social intervention in which…

  7. Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: Are They Allowed to Participate in Activities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plata, Maximino; Trusty, Jerry; Glasgow, Danny

    2005-01-01

    Fifty-one Anglo American (28 educationally successful, 23 educationally at risk) and 20 African American (10 educationally successful, 10 educationally at risk) high school boys participated in a study to determine their willingness to allow same-sex peers with learning disabilities (LD) participate in a variety of activities. Kruskal-Wallis…

  8. African American Adolescent Female Identification with Engineering and Participation in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornick, Shayla L.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences that females have during middle and high school have been found to influence the perceptions that they have of their ability to be successful as an engineer and the value that they place on participating in engineering education. Engineering education continues to suffer from a lack of female participation. Several efforts have been…

  9. Sports Participation and Academic Performance: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to…

  10. Widening the aim of health promotion to include the most disadvantaged: vulnerable adolescents and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya

    2010-06-01

    Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health promotion. Drawing on a review of literature on health promotion for marginalized and out-of-school adolescents, this paper highlights some urgent areas of focus for researchers and policy makers addressing adolescent health. Social determinants of health affecting marginalized adolescents identified by the review were education, gender, identity, homelessness, poverty, family structure, culture, religion and perceived racism, yet there is little solid evidence as to how to best address these factors. More systematic research, evaluation and global debate about long-term solutions to chronic poverty, lack of education and social marginalization are needed to break the cycle of ill health among vulnerable adolescents.

  11. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis, themes from the 12 focus groups were found to be consistent across village, gender, and age groups. Program location or site (e.g., away from the village, hunting, fishing), a group-based format, and inclusion of medication and personal stories were reported to be important attributes of cessation programs. Motivators to quit tobacco were the perceived adverse health effects of tobacco, improved self-image and appearance, and the potential to be a future role model as a non–tobacco user for family and friends. Parents were perceived as potentially supportive to the adolescent in quitting tobacco. The findings will be used to develop tobacco cessation programs for Alaska Native youth. PMID:18048549

  12. Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Froberg, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12–14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer. Results Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance. Conclusions Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the

  13. Participation in organized sport and self-esteem across adolescence: the mediating role of perceived sport competence.

    PubMed

    Wagnsson, Stefan; Lindwall, Magnus; Gustafsson, Henrik

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to test longitudinal (2 years across three occasions) associations between sport participation (SP) and self-esteem (SE) across adolescence (10-18 years), addressing the mediating role of perceived sport competence (PSC) from a developmental perspective. Three waves of data were collected from three age cohorts (10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 years) of school-aged youth (N = 1358). The results demonstrate that SP and SE are related across time and that PSC has an important mediating role in this relationship, both from a skill development and a self-enhancement perspective. In the skill development model, the mediating role of PSC was significantly stronger in the youngest cohort whereas the effect of PSC on subsequent SP in the self-enhancement model was significantly stronger in the 13-15 age group compared with the youngest age group. PMID:25602141

  14. Factors which explain amount of participation in rural adolescent alcohol use prevention task forces.

    PubMed

    Rissel, C; Finnegan, J; Wolfson, M; Perry, C

    1995-01-01

    Project Northland task force members are typically female, have children, and belong to a number of other community or social groups. Members were likely to participate more in the task forces if they were relative newcomers to the community and if they got satisfaction from their participation. While explaining only a modest amount of the variance (15.5%), the explanatory power of the results are comparable to other studies of this nature, where 23% of explained variance predicting participation has been considered informative. Future models will need to consider other factors to increase the explained variance. Satisfaction with being a task force member was associated with the amount of control and ownership each member felt and the extent of agreement with the direction of the task force. These variables explained 26% of the variance. It may be that relative newcomers to the community, who tended to participate more, have lived elsewhere and been exposed to environments where alcohol was less frequently used, and this contrast contributed to their motivation and preparedness to work towards change. They may not be as integrated into the community as task force members who have lived in their communities for their entire lives, and may not be part of the dominant "alcohol culture" that exists in the region. If membership in community or social groups is an indicator of integration into the community, then the results suggest less integrated task force members were more active participants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Clinical Assessment of Adolescents Involved in Satanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Cynthia M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes Satanism as destructive religion that promises power, dominance, and gratification and that may seduce adolescents who feel alienated, alone, angry, and desperate. Explores psychosocial needs of adolescents that are met by participation in Satanic worship. Includes method for determining adolescents' level of involvement and assessment…

  16. Adolescent friend similarity on alcohol abuse as a function of participation in romantic relationships: Sometimes a new love comes between old friends.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Adolescent friend similarity on alcohol abuse as a function of participation in romantic relationships: Sometimes a new love comes between old friends.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595356

  18. 20 CFR 668.370 - What policies govern payments to participants, including wages, training allowances or stipends...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Services to Customers § 668.370..., including wages, training allowances or stipends, or direct payments for supportive services? 668.370... direct payments for supportive services? (a) INA grantees may pay training allowances or stipends...

  19. 32 CFR 37.915 - What requirement for access to a for-profit participant's records do I include in a TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... auditors, your TIA must include for that participant the standard access-to-records requirements at 32 CFR 34.42(e). If the agreement is a fixed-support TIA, the language in 32 CFR 34.42(e) may be modified to... set requirement to include a provision in your TIA for Government access to records. If the...

  20. Patterns of Early Adolescents' Participation in Youth Development Programs Having Positive Youth Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsano, Aida B.; Phelps, Erin; Theokas, Christina; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Theory and research suggest that structured, out-of-school-time activities, and in particular youth development programs aimed at promoting positive youth development (PYD), are key developmental assets for such development. Using longitudinal data from 945 fifth and sixth graders participating in the 4-H Study of PYD, initial descriptive…

  1. Measuring Choice to Participate in Optional Science Learning Experiences during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Li; Schunn, Christian; Bathgate, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Cumulatively, participation in optional science learning experiences in school, after school, at home, and in the community may have a large impact on student interest in and knowledge of science. Therefore, interventions can have large long-term effects if they change student choice preferences for such optional science learning experiences. To…

  2. Breadth of Extracurricular Participation and Adolescent Adjustment among African-American and European-American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the linear and nonlinear relations between breadth of extracurricular participation in 11th grade and developmental outcomes at 11th grade and 1 year after high school in an economically diverse sample of African-American and European-American youth. In general, controlling for demographic factors, children's motivation, and the…

  3. Friendships with Co-Participants in Organized Activities: Prevalence, Quality, Friends' Characteristics, and Associations with Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin, Francois; Denault, Anne-Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth examination of friendships within organized activities. The prevalence of friendships with co-participants, their quality and characteristics, and their associations with adjustment were investigated. A sample of 281 (60% girls) 8th grade adolescents reported their friendships, activities, and…

  4. [Media use and physical activity patterns of adolescent participants in obesity therapy: Analysis of the impact of selected sociodemographic factors].

    PubMed

    Wulff, Hagen; Wagner, Petra

    2016-02-01

    To meet the challenge of obesity, effective therapeutic concepts for adolescents focusing on lifestyle changes are necessary. Particularly relevant are nutrition and physical activity patterns associated with media use, which can be influenced by sociodemographic factors. For the optimization of obesity therapy approaches, it is essential to analyze these sociodemographic factors to adjust the aims, content, and methods of interventions, and to use the potential of media in treatment concepts. Thus, the research question is: what are the media and physical activity patterns of 11- to 17-year-old participants in obesity therapy, depending on sociodemographic factors? The national multicenter study was conducted from 2012 to 2013. A questionnaire was administered to 564 participants aged 13.4 ± 1.6 (mean ± standard deviation) years. Standardized instruments were used to assess the variables physical activity, media use, and sociodemographic factors. Participants were physically active for 1 h on 3.3 ± 1.8 days per week, 8.5 % daily. Televisions, mobile phones, and computers were available in all sociodemographic groups and were used for 2 h per day. Sociodemographic differences can be seen in the extent of media usage (h/day). These differences can be found between girls and boys concerning their usage of mobile phones (2.49 vs. 1.90; p  < 0.001), between 11- to 13- and 14- to 17-year-old children concerning their usage of game consoles (0.55 vs. 1.65; p  = 0.007), and in the correlation analysis of media usage and physical activity. Compared with existing literature, the survey results reveal reduced activity and increased media use, which vary among the groups. Thus, differentiated therapy approaches appear to be reasonable. Future research needs to evaluate to what extent media, despite the risks, can contribute to the methodological support of therapy, training, and aftercare concepts.

  5. Widening the Aim of Health Promotion to Include the Most Disadvantaged: Vulnerable Adolescents and the Social Determinants of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health…

  6. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

  7. Developing Programmes to Promote Participation in Sport among Adolescents with Disabilities: Perceptions Expressed by a Group of South African Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantjes, Jason; Swartz, Leslie; Conchar, Lauren; Derman, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with disabilities in developing countries frequently have limited access to sporting opportunities and comparatively little is known of their lived experiences and preferences. We set out to understand what a group of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) living in South Africa perceive to be important components of programmes developed…

  8. Comparison of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors between Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Without

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Stephanie M.; Jakicic, John M.; Barone Gibbs, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were…

  9. Texting your way to healthier eating? Effects of participating in a feedback intervention using text messaging on adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of a feedback intervention employing text messaging during 11 weeks on adolescents' behavior, self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding fruit and vegetable intake. A pre- and post-survey was completed by 1488 adolescents school-wise randomly allocated to a control group and two experimental groups. Both experimental groups set weekly goals on fruit and vegetable intake, reported their consumption daily and subsequently received feedback on their performance via mobile text messaging (Short Message Service [SMS]). The second experimental group also received, in addition, a 45-min nutrition education session from a dietitian during school. The direct effects of the interventions were not significant. However, for adolescents participating in the SMS routines, there were significant effects of the level of engagement in the intervention, reflected in the number of sent text messages, on intervention outcomes. Participants sending more than half of the possible text messages significantly increased their fruit and vegetable intake. Participants sending between 10% and 50% of the possible text messages experienced a significant drop in self-efficacy and those sending less than 10% experienced a significant drop in outcome expectations. The findings suggest that participants' active engagement in an intervention is crucial to its success. Implications for health-promoting interventions are discussed. PMID:26850061

  10. Role Models of Australian Female Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study to Inform Programmes Designed to Increase Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…

  11. Testing Direct and Indirect Effects of Sports Participation on Perceived Health in Spanish Adolescents between 15 and 18 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastor, Yolanda; Balaguer, Isabel; Pons, Diana; Garcia-Merita, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the direct and indirect effects of sports participation on perceived health. It is based on a representative sample of middle adolescents aged 15-18 (N=1038, M AGE=16.31, S. D.=0.92; 510 boys and 528 girls) from the Valencian Community (Spain). This study used two different models; Model A is an adaptation of Thorlindsson,…

  12. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and abuse history on adolescent African-American females' condom use behavior following participation in an HIV prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Brody, Gene H; Philibert, Robert A; Rose, Eve

    2014-06-01

    Not everyone exposed to an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intervention will reduce sexual risk behaviors, yet little is known about factors associated with "failure to change" high-risk sexual behaviors post-intervention. History of abuse and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) may be associated with non-change. The current study sought to identify genetic, life history, and psychosocial factors associated with adolescents' failure to change condom use behaviors post-participation in an HIV prevention intervention. A sub-set of participants from a clinic-based sample of adolescent African-American females (N = 254) enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention was utilized for the current study. Forty-four percent did not increase their condom use from baseline levels 6 months after participating in the sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention intervention. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, an interaction between abuse and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with non-change status, along with partner communication frequency scores at follow-up. Follow-up tests found that having a history of abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention for only those with the s allele. For those with ll allele, participants with higher partner communication frequency scores were at decreased odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention. Thus, STI/HIV interventions for adolescent females may consider providing a more in-depth discussion and instruction on how to manage and overcome fear or anxiety related to being assertive in sexual decisions or sexual situations. Doing so may improve the efficacy of STI/HIV prevention programs for adolescent women who have experienced abuse in their lifetime. PMID:23479192

  13. Reliability and construct validity of the Participation in Life Activities Scale for children and adolescents with asthma: an instrument evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Kintner, Eileen K; Sikorskii, Alla

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and construct validity of the Participation in Life Activities Scale, an instrument designed to measure older school-age child and early adolescent level of involvement in chosen pursuits. Methods A cross-sectional design was used. The convenience sample consisted of 313 school-age children and early adolescents with asthma, ages 9–15 years. The self-report summative scale of interest is a 3-indicator survey. Higher scores are reflective of higher levels of participation. Internal consistency reliability and construct validity for the entire sample and sub groups of the sample were evaluated. Results The instrument was deemed sound for the entire sample as well as sub groups based on sex, race, age, socioeconomic status, and severity of illness. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency reliability for the entire sample was .74. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a single component solution (loadings .79–.85) accounting for 66% of the explained variance. Construct validity was established by testing the posed relationship between participation in life activities scores and severity of illness. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit between the data and specified model, χ2(10, n = 302) = 8.074, p = .62. Conclusion This instrument could be used (a) in clinical settings to diagnose restricted participation in desired activities, guide decision-making about treatment plans to increase participation, and motivate behavioral change in the management of asthma; and (b) in research settings to explore factors influencing and consequences of restricted and unrestricted participation, and as an outcome measure to evaluate the effectiveness of programs designed to foster child and early adolescent management of asthma. PMID:18533017

  14. Adolescent decision-making about use of inhaled asthma controller medication: Results from focus groups with participants from a prior longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Bender, Bruce G.; Rankin, Allison E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adherence with inhaled controller medications for asthma is known to be highly variable with many patients taking fewer doses than recommended for consistent control of lung inflammation. Adherence also worsens as children become teenagers, although the exact causes are not well established. Objective To use focus group methodology to examine beliefs, feelings, and behaviors about inhaled asthma controller medication in adolescents and young adults who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of asthma treatment adherence and outcome in order to develop more effective management strategies. Methods Twenty-six subjects participated in 6 focus groups comprised of 3-5 young adults (age range 12-20 years). Verbatim transcripts of these groups were analyzed using the long-table method of content analysis to identify key themes raised by participants. Results A variety of beliefs, feelings and behaviors influence the adolescent’s decision about how to use their asthma medication. Some of the adolescents understood the importance of daily medication and were committed to the treatment plan prescribed by their provider. Poorer adherence was the product of misinformation, incorrect assumptions about their asthma, and current life situations. Conclusions These results, by highlighting potential mechanisms underlying both better and worse adherence inform the development of strategies to improve adherence behavior in adolescents and young adults with asthma. Knowledge of the specific beliefs, feelings and behaviors that underlie adolescents’ use of inhaled asthma controller medication will help providers maximize treatment adherence in this notoriously difficult patient population. PMID:21854323

  15. Sports participation and juvenile delinquency: the role of the peer context among adolescent boys and girls with varied histories of problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Margo; Roth, Jodie; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    In a study of 1,344 urban adolescents, the authors examined the relation between participation in organized sports and juvenile delinquency. They compared youth who participated in sports to those who only participated in nonathletic activities and to those who did not participate in any organized activities. They also examined the indirect relations between sports and delinquency via 2 peer-related constructs-deviant peer affiliations and unstructured socializing. Finally, they examined the extent to which gender and prior externalizing problems moderated the direct and indirect relations between sports participation and delinquency. The authors found that the odds of nonviolent delinquency were higher among boys who participated in sports when compared to boys who participated only in nonathletic activities but not when compared to boys who did not participate in any organized activities. Deviant peer affiliations and unstructured socializing mediated the relation between sports participation and boys' nonviolent delinquency. Moreover, prior externalizing problems moderated the mediated path through peer deviance. The authors did not, however, find direct, mediated, or moderated relations between sports and boys' violent delinquency nor between sports and girls' violent or nonviolent delinquency.

  16. Development and preliminary evaluation of the participation in life activities scale for children and adolescents with asthma: an instrument development study

    PubMed Central

    Kintner, Eileen K

    2008-01-01

    Background Being able to do things other kids do is the desire of school-age children and adolescents with asthma. In a phenomenology study, adolescents identified participation in life activities as the outcome variable and primary motivator for behavioral changes in coming to accept asthma as a chronic condition. In preparation for testing an acceptance model for older school-age children and early adolescents diagnosed with asthma, the Participation in Life Activities Scale was developed. The purposes of this paper are to describe development, and report on face and content validity of the scale designed to measure one aspect of quality of life defined as level of unrestricted involvement in chosen pursuits. Methods Items generated for the instrument evolved from statements and themes extracted from qualitative interviews. Face and content validity were evaluated by eight lay reviewers and 10 expert reviewers. Rate of accurate completion was computed using a convenience, cross-section sample consisting of 313 children and adolescents with asthma, ages 9–15 years, drawn from three studies. Preliminary cross-group comparisons of scores were assessed using t-tests and analysis of variance. Results Face and content validity were determined to be highly acceptable and relevant, respectively. Completion rate across all three studies was 97%. Although cross-group comparisons revealed no significant differences in overall participation scores based on age, race or residence groupings (p > .05), significant difference were indicated between males and females (p = .02), as well as the highest and lowest socioeconomic groups (p = .002). Conclusion Assessing content validity was the first step in evaluating properties of this newly developed instrument. Once face and content validity were established, psychometric evaluation related to internal consistency reliability and construct validity using factor analysis procedures was begun. Results will be reported elsewhere

  17. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Abuse History on Adolescent African-American Females’ Condom Use Behavior Following Participation in an HIV Prevention Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Brody, Gene H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Rose, Eve

    2013-01-01

    Not everyone exposed to an efficacious HIV intervention will reduce sexual risk behaviors, yet little is known about factors associated with “failure to change” high risk sexual behaviors post-intervention. History of abuse and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) may be associated with non-change. The current study sought to identify genetic, life history, and psychosocial factors associated with adolescents’ failure to change condom use behaviors post-participation in an HIV prevention intervention. A sub-set of participants from a clinic-based sample of adolescent African-American females (N = 254) enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention was utilized for the current study. 44.1% did not increase their condom use from baseline levels 6 months after participating in the STI/HIV prevention intervention. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, an interaction between abuse and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with non-change status, along with partner communication frequency scores at follow-up. Follow-up tests found that having a history of abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention for only those with the s allele. For those with ll allele, participants with higher partner communication frequency scores were at decreased odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention. Thus, STI/HIV interventions for adolescent females may consider providing a more in-depth discussion and instruction on how to manage and overcome fear or anxiety related to being assertive in sexual decisions or sexual situations. Doing so may improve the efficacy of STI/HIV prevention programs for adolescent women who have experienced abuse in their lifetime. PMID:23479192

  18. Differences in behavior, psychological factors, and environmental factors associated with participation in school sports and other activities in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Patricia A; Narayan, Gopalakrishnan

    2003-03-01

    This study examined whether participation in school team sports, exclusively or in combination with other extracurricular activities, is associated with higher levels of psychosocial functioning and healthy behavior than participation in other extracurricular activities alone or nonparticipation. The study sample includes 50,168 ninth grade public school students who completed an anonymous, voluntary statewide survey in 2001. Students were classified into four groups based on their participation in sports and other activities (such as clubs, volunteer work, band, choir, or music lessons): neither, both, other activities only, and sports only. Odds ratios for the group involved in both types of activities were significantly higher than those for all the other groups for all healthy behaviors and measures of connectedness, and significantly lower for all but one of the unhealthy behaviors. Students involved in sports, alone or in combination with other activities, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for exercise, milk consumption, and healthy self-image, and significantly lower odds for emotional distress, suicidal behavior, family substance abuse, and physical and sexual abuse victimization. Students involved in other activities, alone or in combination with sports, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for doing homework and significantly lower odds for alcohol consumption, marijuana use, and vandalism. The finding that abuse victims appeared to avoid sports but not other group activities raises concern and merits further research. Considering the potential benefits of participation in sports and other activities, more research is needed to identify and overcome barriers or deterrents, particularly for youth from low-income families.

  19. Differences in behavior, psychological factors, and environmental factors associated with participation in school sports and other activities in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Patricia A; Narayan, Gopalakrishnan

    2003-03-01

    This study examined whether participation in school team sports, exclusively or in combination with other extracurricular activities, is associated with higher levels of psychosocial functioning and healthy behavior than participation in other extracurricular activities alone or nonparticipation. The study sample includes 50,168 ninth grade public school students who completed an anonymous, voluntary statewide survey in 2001. Students were classified into four groups based on their participation in sports and other activities (such as clubs, volunteer work, band, choir, or music lessons): neither, both, other activities only, and sports only. Odds ratios for the group involved in both types of activities were significantly higher than those for all the other groups for all healthy behaviors and measures of connectedness, and significantly lower for all but one of the unhealthy behaviors. Students involved in sports, alone or in combination with other activities, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for exercise, milk consumption, and healthy self-image, and significantly lower odds for emotional distress, suicidal behavior, family substance abuse, and physical and sexual abuse victimization. Students involved in other activities, alone or in combination with sports, had significantly higher odds than the other two groups for doing homework and significantly lower odds for alcohol consumption, marijuana use, and vandalism. The finding that abuse victims appeared to avoid sports but not other group activities raises concern and merits further research. Considering the potential benefits of participation in sports and other activities, more research is needed to identify and overcome barriers or deterrents, particularly for youth from low-income families. PMID:12677730

  20. The use of an unpleasant sound as the unconditional stimulus in aversive Pavlovian conditioning experiments that involve children and adolescent participants.

    PubMed

    Neumann, David L; Waters, Allison M; Westbury, H Rae

    2008-05-01

    Ethical considerations can prohibit the use of traditional unconditional stimuli (USs), such as electric shocks or loud tones, when children or adolescents participate in aversive Pavlovian conditioning experiments. The present study evaluated whether an unpleasant sound provides a viable alternative. Fifteen boys and girls aged 13 to 17 years completed a differential Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which a conditional stimulus (CS) was followed by the sound of metal scraping on slate. Acquisition of conditioned responses was found in startle blink magnitude, expectancy judgments of the sound, and skin conductance responses. Extinction of conditioned responses was found in all measures when the CS was no longer followed by the unpleasant sound. Subjective ratings and skin conductance responses indicated that the sound was unpleasant because of its qualitative features, rather than its intensity. The results support the use of an unpleasant sound as a low-risk alternative to traditional USs in aversive Pavlovian conditioning experiments with children and adolescents.

  1. Prenatal recruitment of participants for a birth cohort study including cord blood collection: results of a feasibility study in Bremen, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Günther, Kathrin; Frambach, Torsten; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-01-01

    gynecologist or later on in hospital by the attending obstetricians or project staff. Results: Of the 22 invited primary care gynecologists requested to enroll pregnant women for the study, 8 gynecologists actually collaborated. A total of 200 eligible women were invited to participate in the study, 48 (24%) of whom agreed. 34 women were enrolled by primary care gynecologists, with one gynecologist enrolling 26 women. Twelve of 14 women recruited via hospitals were enrolled by study staff. A total of 41 women consented to the collection of umbilical cord blood and maternal blood samples, and samples could be stored for 54% of them. Reason for non-participation were the uncertainty whether or not the full study would be conducted and the fact that the participants were not willing to decide for their children whether or not genetic information (cord blood) can be stored for research purposes. Conclusion: Enrolling parents in a birth cohort study that includes biosampling is a challenge, but participation can be improved through close collaboration with primary care gynecologists and maternity hospitals. Cord blood collection may impede participation, especially when maternity hospitals offer an alternative option for cord blood donation. PMID:25908931

  2. BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Tanja; Hughes, Maria; Tuovinen, Tarja; Schillert, Arne; Conrads-Frank, Annette; Ruijter, Hester den; Schnabel, Renate B; Kee, Frank; Salomaa, Veikko; Siebert, Uwe; Thorand, Barbara; Ziegler, Andreas; Breek, Heico; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Koenig, Wolfgang; Blankenberg, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Biomarkers are considered as tools to enhance cardiovascular risk estimation. However, the value of biomarkers on risk estimation beyond European risk scores, their comparative impact among different European regions and their role towards personalised medicine remains uncertain. Biomarker for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) is an European collaborative research project with the primary objective to assess the value of established and emerging biomarkers for cardiovascular risk prediction. BiomarCaRE integrates clinical and epidemiological biomarker research and commercial enterprises throughout Europe to combine innovation in biomarker discovery for cardiovascular disease prediction with consecutive validation of biomarker effectiveness in large, well-defined primary and secondary prevention cohorts including over 300,000 participants from 13 European countries. Results from this study will contribute to improved cardiovascular risk prediction across different European populations. The present publication describes the rationale and design of the BiomarCaRE project.

  3. A Multivariate Model of Parent-Adolescent Relationship Variables in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of predicting outcomes for early adolescents, this study examines a multivariate model of parent-adolescent relationship variables, including parenting, family environment, and conflict. Participants, who completed measures assessing these variables, included 710 culturally diverse 11-14-year-olds who were attending a middle…

  4. The Effects of Age Composition of 12-Step Groups on Adolescent 12-Step Participation and Substance Use Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.; Myers, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Youth substance use disorder treatment programs frequently advocate integration into 12-Step fellowships to help prevent relapse. However, the effects of the predominantly adult composition of 12-step groups on adolescent involvement and substance use outcome remain unstudied. Greater knowledge could enhance the specificity of treatment…

  5. Pupil Researchers Generation X: Educating Pupils as Active Participants--An Investigation into Gathering Sensitive Information from Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Jenny E.

    2008-01-01

    Developmentally appropriate research techniques were uncovered by involving ten Year 7 pupils as researchers in a four-hour workshop that investigated the effectiveness of multiple methods in gathering sensitive information from early adolescents. The pupils learned about, tried and evaluated the methods of generating interview questions, peer and…

  6. Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, Culture, and Immigration: Examining the Potential Mechanisms Underlying Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Organized Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Price, Chara D.; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms…

  7. Patterns of Organized Activity Participation in Urban, Early Adolescents: Associations with Academic Achievement, Problem Behaviors, and Perceived Adult Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Crean, Hugh F.; Forbes-Jones, Emma L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines patterns of organized activity and their concurrent association with academic achievement, problem behavior, and perceived adult support in a sample of urban, early adolescent, middle school students (mean age = 13.01; N = 2,495). Cluster analyses yielded six activity profiles: an uninvolved group (n = 775, 31.1%), a multiply…

  8. Positive Outcomes following Participation in a Music Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Greher, Gena; Poto, Nataliya; Dougherty, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Music interventions are frequently utilized with those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and have shown a range of benefits. However, empirical evaluations are lacking and would be a timely step forward in the field. Here we report the findings of our pilot music program for adolescents and young adults with ASD. Evaluation of the program…

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Violent Behavior and Participation in Football during Adolescence: Findings From a Sample of Sibling Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Barnes, J. C.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the association between playing high school football and involvement in violent behaviors in sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed that youth who played high school football self-reported more violence than those youth who did not play football.…

  10. School-based sports participation and its effects on weight maintenance in Mexican American adolescents: A two-year analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participation in sports has been shown to decrease standardized body mass index (zBMI), especially in school settings. Few studies have examined the impact of sports participation in a Mexican American sample. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of sports participation on wei...

  11. Sports Participation and Problem Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; DePadilla, Lara; Thompson, Nancy J.; Kushner, Howard I.; Windle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Sports participation, though offering numerous developmental benefits for youths, has been associated with adolescent alcohol use. Differences also exist between men/boys and women/girls in both sports participation and patterns of alcohol-related behaviors, but there are few longitudinal investigations of this relationship. Purpose This study investigated the relationship between school-based sports participation and alcohol-related behaviors using data from a multiwave national study of adolescent men/boys and women/girls. Methods Nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, collected between 1994 and 2001, were analyzed in 2009 (n = 8271). Latent growth modeling, accommodating the complex sampling design, was applied to examine whether participation in school-based sports was associated with initial levels and change in problem alcohol use over three waves of data collection. Results After taking into account time-invariant covariates including demographics and other predictors of alcohol use, greater involvement in sports during adolescence was associated with faster average acceleration in problem alcohol use over time among youths who took part in only sports. The findings suggest, however, that the relationship between sports participation and problem alcohol use depends on participation in sports in combination with other activities, but it does not differ between men/boys and women/girls. Conclusions Sports may represent an important and efficient context for selective interventions to prevent problem alcohol use and negative consequences of alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:20409498

  12. [Differences in sports participation for children and adolescents with solitary kidney due to renal tumors across Europe. Time for harmonization].

    PubMed

    Spreafico, F; Terenziani, M; Ardissino, G; Calegari, M; Catania, S; Massimino, M

    2015-02-01

    As a result of advances in treatment, almost 90% of children diagnosed with Wilms tumor became long-term survivors, and have a sustainable quality of life. These patients' involvement in sports during their childhood is hopefully increasing too. The cornerstone of renal tumor cure remains radical nephrectomy, however, so survivors live with a solitary kidney. In most European countries and the USA, the involvement in sports of children with a solitary kidney depends on a responsible physician saying a "qualified yes", pending individual assessment. Unlike the case in the rest of Europe, in Italy having only one kidney automatically disqualifies an individual wishing to participate in any organized "competitive" sports carrying some risk of renal trauma, including basketball, soccer and sometime volleyball. This absolute restriction is based on ad hoc Ministerial rulings concerning "Health protection in sport activities". But available data do not seem to support such an absolute limitation on participation in sports based exclusively on the fact of having a single kidney. The sport-specific incidence of kidney injuries has been estimated at 2.3 injuries per million male athlete/exposures for basketball (2.5 for females), and 2.6 for soccer (6.0 for girls). Kidney injuries are significantly more rare than head or spine injuries. This article aims to provide Italian sport medicine specialists and policy-makers with the necessary background so that the current, over-protective "unquestionably no" response can be reconsidered, and converted into a still well-founded, more permissive attitude to the sports activities suitable for any children with a solitary normal kidney.

  13. A multivariate model of parent-adolescent relationship variables in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-08-01

    Given the importance of predicting outcomes for early adolescents, this study examines a multivariate model of parent-adolescent relationship variables, including parenting, family environment, and conflict. Participants, who completed measures assessing these variables, included 710 culturally diverse 11-14-year-olds who were attending a middle school in a Southeastern state. The parents of a subset of these adolescents (i.e., 487 mother-father pairs) participated in this study as well. Correlational analyses indicate that authoritative and authoritarian parenting, family cohesion and adaptability, and conflict are significant predictors of early adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. Structural equation modeling analyses indicate that fathers' parenting may not predict directly externalizing problems in male and female adolescents but instead may act through conflict. More direct relationships exist when examining mothers' parenting. The impact of parenting, family environment, and conflict on early adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems and the importance of both gender and cross-informant ratings are emphasized.

  14. Examining the Social Participation of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Relation to Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheri, A.; Perry, A.; Minnes, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Participation in social and physical activities has a number of benefits for children with or without disabilities. However, individuals with disabilities are often excluded from taking part in social activities. Most of the research on activity participation has focused on adults or youth with milder disabilities. However, children…

  15. Factors Related to Self-Rated Participation in Adolescents and Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability--A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidsson, Patrik; Granlund, Mats; Thyberg, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Background: Self-rated participation is a clinically relevant intervention outcome for people with mild intellectual disability. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse empirical studies that explored relationships between either environmental factors or individual characteristics "and" aspects of participation in young adults with mild…

  16. "If You Let Me Play Sports": How Might Sport Participation Influence the Self-Esteem of Adolescent Females?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Erin L.; Shaffer, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated links between female precollege sport participation and college self-esteem. Students surveys indicated that participation in sports positively correlated with body image, perceived physical competencies, gender identity, global self-esteem, and other psychosocial variables, thus predicting college self-esteem. In the absence of such…

  17. Picture Me Playing--A Portrait of Participation and Enjoyment of Leisure Activities in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert; Poulin, Chantal; Majnemer, Annette

    2013-01-01

    In recent years attention has been paid to the participation levels of children and youth with Cerebral Palsy (CP), particularly the extent to which they have the opportunity to be involved in and enjoy leisure activities. The objective of this study is to describe the level of participation and enjoyment in leisure activities among adolescents…

  18. Adolescent Hope as a Mediator between Parent-Child Connectedness and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Hardy, Sam A.; Christensen, Katherine J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent hope as a mediator between connectedness to mother and father, and positive and negative child outcomes. Participants included 489 adolescents aged 9 to 14 years (M = 11.29; SD = 1.01) and their parents from the "Flourishing Families Project", and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results…

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Online versus Clinic-Based CBT for Adolescent Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Susan H.; Donovan, Caroline L.; March, Sonja; Gamble, Amanda; Anderson, Renee E.; Prosser, Samantha; Kenardy, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined the relative efficacy of online (NET) versus clinic (CLIN) delivery of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the treatment of anxiety disorders in adolescents. Method: Participants included 115 clinically anxious adolescents aged 12 to 18 years and their parent(s). Adolescents were randomly assigned to NET, CLIN, or…

  20. Neighborhoods, Social Support, and African American Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes: A Multilevel Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; "M" age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and indirect…

  1. Diagnostic Profiles among Urban Adolescents with Unmet Treatment Needs: Comorbidity and Perceived Need for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document comorbidity profiles of psychiatric disorder and perceived need for treatment among urban adolescents with unmet behavioral health needs. Participants were 303 community-referred adolescents and their primary caregivers. Adolescents included both boys (54%) and girls and were primarily Hispanic (58%), African…

  2. Natural Mentors, Racial Identity, and Educational Attainment among African American Adolescents: Exploring Pathways to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at…

  3. Effectiveness of a School HIV/AIDS Prevention Program for Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espada, Jose P.; Orgiles, Mireia; Morales, Alexandra; Ballester, Rafael; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a lack of controlled studies on HIV prevention interventions among Spanish adolescents, COMPAS, a five-session behavioral intervention, was developed and tested on Spanish adolescents aged 15-18. Participants included 827 adolescents from central, east and north Spain. Six hundred and seven students (M = 15.71 years) received the…

  4. The Relationship Between Parental Psychopathology and Adolescent Psychopathology: An Examination of Gender Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley Ohannessian, Christine; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Mark A.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between parental psychopathology (specifically, alcohol dependence and depression) and adolescent psychopathology, by the gender of the adolescent and the gender of the parent. The sample included 426 13- to 17-year-old adolescents and their parents. All participants were administered…

  5. Influence of School Beverage Environment on the Association of Beverage Consumption With Physical Education Participation Among US Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of adolescents’ beverage consumption with physical activity and studied how their school beverage environment influences the association. Methods. We used nationally representative data from the 2007 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort (n = 8850). We examined nonlinear associations of eighth graders’ self-report of beverage consumption (milk, 100% juices, soft drinks) with moderate to vigorous physical activity and physical education (PE) participation using piecewise linear regression models. Results. We found a nonlinear association of participation in PE class with beverage consumption, especially in schools with vending machines and those selling soft drinks. For students participating in PE less than 3 days per week, beverage consumption was not significantly associated with participation in PE class frequency. For students participating in PE 3 to 5 days per week, 1 more day of participation in PE class was associated with 0.43 (SE = 0.14; P = .002) more times per week of soft drink consumption and 0.41 (SE = 0.17; P = .021) fewer glasses per week of milk consumption. Conclusions. The more soft drink and less milk consumption related to high participation in PE class might be prevented by improving the beverage environment in schools. Systematic environmental interventions are needed to prevent such potential unintended consequences of promoting physical activity. PMID:24028221

  6. Using the health belief model to explain parents' participation in adolescents' at-home sexuality education activities.

    PubMed

    Brock, G C; Beazley, R P

    1995-04-01

    The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used to study parents' involvement in six at-home sexuality education activities for nine grade students. These activities are part of Skills for Healthy Relationships: A Program About Sexuality, AIDS, and Other STD (SHR). Some 216 parents, 62% of the population, completed and returned a self-administered questionnaire. Perceived barriers correlated most strongly with lack of parents' involvement in SHR. Additionally, perceived barriers and perceived self-efficacy were the most significant factors differentiating parents involved in SHR at-home activities from those who were uninvolved. Compared with highly involved parents, noninvolved parents were: 1) less confident their children wanted to do the activities with them (F[4,204] = 19.58, p < .0005), 2) less sure of their children's desire to talk with them about sex-related issues (F[4,213] = 7.03, p < .0005), and 3) less certain their AIDS-related facts were current (F[4,213] = 2.39, p = .05). Parents highly involved in SHR reported becoming more comfortable talking with their adolescents about STDs (F[4,205] = 4.04, p = .004) and felt their children talked a little more openly with them about AIDS and STDs (F[4,205] = 2.54, p = .04). In contrast, uninvolved parents reported no changes relative to communicating with their children about sexuality. For these reasons, SHR's inclusion of at-home activities shows promise for increasing parent-adolescent communication about sexuality.

  7. Parental emotion socialization in clinically depressed adolescents: Enhancing, and dampening positive affect

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Allen, Nicholas B.; Davis, Betsy; Hunter, Erin; Leve, Craig; Sheeber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study compared parental socialization of adolescent positive affect in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Participants were 107 adolescents (42 boys) aged 14 - 18 years and their parents. Half of the participants met criteria for major depressive disorder and the others were demographically matched adolescents without emotional or behavioral disorders. Results based on multi-source questionnaire and interview data indicated that mothers and fathers of depressed adolescents were less accepting of adolescents’ positive affect and more likely to use strategies that dampen adolescents’ positive affect than were parents of healthy adolescents. Additionally, fathers of depressed adolescents exhibited fewer responses likely to enhance the adolescents’ positive affect than were fathers of healthy adolescents. These findings build on those of previous work in examining parental responses to adolescent emotions, focusing on positive emotions and including both mothers and fathers. PMID:23942826

  8. Adolescent Substance Use Following Participation in a Universal Drug Prevention Program: Examining Relationships with Program Recall and Baseline Use Status

    PubMed Central

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Duncan, Robert; Lewis, Kendra M.; Miao, Alicia; Washburn, Isaac J.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined whether adolescents receiving a universal, school-based, drug-prevention program in grade 7 varied, by student profile, in substance use behaviors post-program implementation. Profiles were a function of recall of program receipt and substance use at baseline. Methods We analyzed data from the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, a large, geographically diverse, longitudinal school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial of the Take Charge of Your Life drug-prevention program. Profiles were created using self-reported substance use (pre-intervention) and program recall (post-intervention) at Grade 7. We first examined characteristics of each of the four profiles of treatment students who varied by program recall and baseline substance use. Using multilevel logistic regression analyses, we examined differences in the odds of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) among student profiles at the six additional study waves (Time 2 (Grade 7) through Time 7 (Grade 11)). Results Pearson’s chi-square tests showed sample characteristics varied by student profile. Multilevel logistic regression results were consistent across all examined substance use behaviors at all time points. Namely, as compared to students who had no baseline substance use and had program recall (No Use, Recall), each of the remaining three profiles (No Use, No Recall; Use, Recall; Use, No Recall) were more likely to engage in substance use. Post-hoc analyses showed that for the two sub-profiles of baseline substance users, there were only two observed, and inconsistent, differences in the odds of subsequent substance use by recall status. Conclusions Findings suggest that for students who were not baseline substance users, program recall significantly decreased the likelihood of subsequent substance use. For students who were baseline substance users, program recall did not generally influence subsequent substance use. Implications for school-based drug

  9. The private adolescent: privacy needs of adolescents in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Alison

    2002-02-01

    This report is based on an interpretative study that explored the meaning of space to adolescents in the hospital environment. Through designing their own adolescent ward and discussing their designs in an interview, participants articulated their spatial needs in the ward environment. This paper addresses the private space issues of the adolescent patient in the ward environment. Issues that are discussed include the use of the telephone, the bathroom, and the bedroom, and additional facilities needed to enhance privacy in the ward. PMID:11891498

  10. Translation and validation of the Child and the Adolescent HARDSHIP (Headache-attributed restriction, disability, social handicap and impaired participation) questionnaire into Danish language.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Jens Erik; McGirr, Kate A; Korsgaard, Hanne Oertved; Rathleff, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of headaches among children and adolescents varies considerably between countries. This may be due to a lack of appropriate instruments to capture the prevalence. The purpose of this study was to translate the Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaires from English into Danish language, conduct cross-cultural adaptation, face validation by cognitive interviewing and conduct a pilot study exploring time requirements. Methods. The questionnaire was translated using the guidelines proposed by "The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache." A total of 25 children from 6 to 12 years of age completed the questionnaire with 24 h between test and retest to assess reliability. A total of 169 children and adolescents from 6 to 17 years of age completed the translated questionnaire to assess time requirements for completing it. Results. Only minor discrepancies were observed in the translation process. Test-retest reliability of the translated questionnaire showed substantial agreement (kappa: 0.65-0.78). The questionnaires were completed within 30 min (age 6-11 years of age) and within 15 min (age 12-17 years of age) respectively. Discussion. No major problems were observed in the forward translations of the questionnaires. The face validation prompted no major changes in the questionnaire. The face-to-face interviews showed that pupils of different ethnic backgrounds than Danish and pupils in the age group of 6-11 had more difficulty in understanding a minority of the questions. The Danish Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire therefore complies with the intentions of the originators, aiming at a maximal completion time of 45 min and in comparison with actual completion time. The test-retest study showed substantial agreement between test and retest in the headache, migraine and MOH domains and questions referring to time.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire, includes a section specifically recording a four-week period

  11. Adolescent images of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Falchikov, N

    1989-06-01

    This study examines the extent to which a group of Scottish adolescents are influenced by negative images of adolescence present in our culture, and investigates their self-image by means of a Q sort. Forty 15- and 16-year-old school students took part in the study, half of whom were female. Half of the sample were staying on at school to take higher examinations, the other half being school leavers. Eleven factors emerged from the analysis, the first six of which met the criterion that distinguishes common factors. Participants defining common factors were re-interviewed, and their responses to factor interpretations noted. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents are influenced by newspaper images. Some descriptions hint at conflict, while others do not. If the results of the present study were to be replicated, a more pluralistic view of adolescence may be required.

  12. The Parent Participation Engagement Measure (PPEM): Reliability and Validity in Child and Adolescent Community Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Roesch, Scott C; Trask, Emily V; Fawley-King, Kya; Ganger, William C; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-09-01

    Parent participation in community-based child mental health services is an important yet understudied process associated with treatment effectiveness. This paper describes the development and psychometrics of the Parent Participation Engagement Measure in a sample of 1374 parents and 563 youth receiving publicly-funded mental health services. Analyses indicated excellent internal consistency, and model fit indices/factor loadings supported a one-factor model. Convergent and discriminant validity were supported, although some coefficients were modest in magnitude. Psychometric results were consistent for Caucasian versus Hispanic, parent versus youth, and English versus Spanish-language respondents. The clinical and research utility of this measure are discussed.

  13. Social Information Processing in Deaf Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jesús; Saldaña, David; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Isabel R

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge's (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74-101) reformulated six-stage model. It consisted of a structured interview after watching 18 scenes of situations depicting participation in a peer group or provocations by peers. Participants included 32 deaf and 20 hearing adolescents and young adults aged between 13 and 21 years. Deaf adolescents and adults had lower scores than hearing participants in all the steps of the SIP model (coding, interpretation, goal formulation, response generation, response decision, and representation). However, deaf girls and women had better scores on social adjustment and on some SIP skills than deaf male participants. PMID:27143715

  14. Acceptability of Dating Violence among Late Adolescents: The Role of Sports Participation, Competitive Attitudes, and Selected Dynamics of Relationship Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses a vignette-based survey design to examine the relationship between both respondent-level and case-level characteristics and the acceptability of violence in dating relationships. Measures of sports participation, competitiveness, and the need to win (respondent characteristics) were administered to 661 male and female late…

  15. Thirty-Year Trends in U.S. Adolescents' Civic Engagement: A Story of Changing Participation and Educational Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syvertsen, Amy K.; Wray-Lake, Laura; Flanagan, Constance A.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Briddell, Laine

    2011-01-01

    Using annual cross-sectional data from Monitoring the Future, the present study examined trends in high school seniors' current and anticipated civic participation and beliefs over a 30-year period. We examined overall trends and patterns based on youths' post-high school educational plans. Findings point to declines in recent cohorts' involvement…

  16. The Effect of Participation in the Neighborhood Academic Program on the Autophotographic Self-Concepts of Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    The current research investigates the effect of participation in the Neighborhood Academic Initiative Scholars Program (NAI) on the students' sense of self as viewed through autophotography. The NAI is designed to prepare inner-city middle school students, composed mainly of African-Americans and Hispanics, for entry into a four year university.…

  17. Clinical Trial Participation and Time to Treatment Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: Does Age at Diagnosis or Insurance Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Helen M.; Harlan, Linda C.; Seibel, Nita L.; Stevens, Jennifer L.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Because adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer have experienced variable improvement in survival over the past two decades, enhancing the quality and timeliness of cancer care in this population has emerged as a priority area. To identify current trends in AYA care, we examined patterns of clinical trial participation, time to treatment, and provider characteristics in a population-based sample of AYA patients with cancer. Methods Using the National Cancer Institute Patterns of Care Study, we used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate demographic and provider characteristics associated with clinical trial enrollment and time to treatment among 1,358 AYA patients with cancer (age 15 to 39 years) identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Results In our study, 14% of patients age 15 to 39 years had enrolled onto a clinical trial; participation varied by type of cancer, with the highest participation in those diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (37%) and sarcoma (32%). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that uninsured, older patients and those treated by nonpediatric oncologists were less likely to enroll onto clinical trials. Median time from pathologic confirmation to first treatment was 3 days, but this varied by race/ethnicity and cancer site. In multivariate analyses, advanced cancer stage and outpatient treatment alone were associated with longer time from pathologic confirmation to treatment. Conclusion Our study identified factors associated with low clinical trial participation in AYA patients with cancer. These findings support the continued need to improve access to clinical trials and innovative treatments for this population, which may ultimately translate into improved survival. PMID:21931022

  18. Latino Adolescents' Adjustment, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…

  19. Direct access to potential research participants for a cohort study using a confidentiality waiver included in UK National Health Service legal statutes

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Rachel M; Fern, Lorna A; Aslam, Natasha; Whelan, Jeremy S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe our experience of using a confidentiality waiver (Section 251) in the National Health Service (NHS) Act to identify and recruit potential research participants to a cohort study and consider its use in a wider research context. Design Methodological discussion. Setting NHS Trusts in England. Methods We established a research recruitment process with quality health (QH), administrators of the National Cancer Patient Experience Survey, after an amendment to a Section 251 approval (reference number ECC-8-05d-2011). NHS Trusts agreeing to implement the process were requested to send the details of 16–24-year-olds, identified by a relevant ICD-10 code indicating a cancer diagnosis within a specified time period to QH. QH sent study information and a consent-to-be-contacted form which allowed QH to send details to BRIGHTLIGHT, for BRIGHTLIGHT to contact the treating team confirming eligibility and for an interviewer from Ipsos MORI to contact them. Written consent was to be obtained at interview. Results The method was implemented in 98 trusts; 75 supplied patient details. QH sent information to 441 young people, of whom 64 (15%) responded. Of these, 23 had already consented to participate. Adverse events were reported by 6 (1%) invitees: 4 were distressed because they did not have cancer, their details being submitted to QH due to incorrect hospital coding, and 1 young person was distressed about their diagnosis and requested no further contact and 1 young person found out they had cancer from the invitation. Conclusions Application of Section 251 of the NHS Act (2006) to directly approach participants can facilitate recruitment to research projects where routinely collected NHS data are available to select eligible patients. The benefits of this method are that it requires fewer resources to recruit across multiple sites, and is quicker. Further information on the impact on bias and adverse event profile are required. PMID:27481623

  20. Relationship types among adolescent parents participating in a home-visiting program: A latent-transition analysis.

    PubMed

    Raskin, Maryna; Fosse, Nathan E; Fauth, Rebecca C; Bumgarner, Erin; Easterbrooks, M Ann

    2016-04-01

    Young parents (less than 25 years of age) have been shown to have especially low rates of father involvement and union stability. However, research has also shown that parenting experiences of young fathers may not be uniform. There is a need for more research that assesses both the multidimensionality of relationship typologies and their temporality. Using a large longitudinal sample of low-income, young mothers enrolled in a randomized control study of a home-visitation program (n = 704; 61% program, 39% control), we evaluated how mother-father relationship dynamics changed over time. Ten mother-reported indicators of relationships (e.g., coresidence, marital status, types of father support) were used to conduct a latent-class analysis of relationship types. A 4-class solution was identified at each time point: Single Parent, Supportive Nonresident Partner, Supportive Resident Partner, and Questioning/Ambivalent Coupling. Latent-transition analyses were used to evaluate stability of relationships across 2 years. At each transition, a large proportion of women moved from one relationship class to another, indicating heterogeneity in relationship dynamics of adolescent parents. Results revealed the potential of a home-visiting program targeted at young parents to favorably promote more stable and supportive mother-father relationships and coparenting arrangements. PMID:26571197

  1. Media Use, Sports Participation, and Well-Being in Adolescence: Cross-Sectional Findings From the UK Household Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Booker, Cara L; Skew, Alexandra J; Kelly, Yvonne J; Sacker, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the relationship between selected types of screen-based media (SBM) use, total SBM use, sports participation, and markers of well-being. Methods. Data came from the youth panel (n = 4899) of Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study, conducted in 2009. Well-being was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and markers of happiness in different life domains. Results. The majority of young people used multiple types of SBM for at least 1 hour per day; only 30% participated in sports every day. Overall, young people with heavy SBM use were less happy than moderate users and more likely to have socioemotional difficulties. Chatting on social networking Web sites and game console use were associated with higher odds of socioemotional problems. Higher total SBM use was associated with lower odds of happiness and higher odds of socioemotional difficulties. Greater participation in sports was associated with higher odds of happiness and lower odds of socioemotional difficulties. Conclusions. Further longitudinal research could inform future interventions to reduce sedentary behavior and encourage healthy lifestyles among young people. PMID:25494209

  2. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Hawkins, Amy J; Warner, Echo L; Boucher, Kenneth M

    2016-12-01

    Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13-17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) for male adolescents ages 13-17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.

  3. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Hawkins, Amy J; Warner, Echo L; Boucher, Kenneth M

    2016-12-01

    Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13-17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) for male adolescents ages 13-17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes. PMID:27413668

  4. Parent Report of Conversations with Their Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer L.; Oseland, Lauren M.; Morris, Kathryn L.; Larzelere, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine parent report of conversations about difference and disability in families of adolescents with intellectual disability. Materials and Methods: Participants included 50 parents (44 mothers, four fathers, and two other caregivers) and their adolescents with intellectual disability (M age = 15.9).…

  5. Adolescents' Experience with Workplace Aggression: School Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…

  6. Parent-Reported Predictors of Adolescent Panic Attacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Chris; Wilson, Kimberly A.; Lagle, Kristy; Killen, Joel D.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify parent-reported risk factors for adolescent panic attacks. Method: Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from 770 parents of participants in a school-based risk factor study for adolescent panic. Parent-reported risk factors assessed included characteristics of the child (negative affect, separation anxiety disorder…

  7. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  8. Participating in a Policy Debate Program and Academic Achievement among At-Risk Adolescents in an Urban Public School District: 1997-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susannah; Mezuk, Briana

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between participating in a high school debate program on college-readiness in the Chicago Public School district over a 10-year period. At-risk school students were identified using an index including 8th grade achievement, poverty status, and enrollment in special education. Regression analyses were used…

  9. Social Participation of Children and Adolescents with Cochlear Implants: A Qualitative Analysis of Parent, Teacher, and Child Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punch, Renee; Hyde, Merv

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial factors, including socioemotional well-being, peer relationships, and social inclusion with hearing and deaf peers, are increasingly becoming a focus of research investigating children with cochlear implants. The study reported here extends the largely quantitative findings of previous research through a qualitative analysis of…

  10. Coping strategies to manage acculturative stress: Meaningful activity participation, social support, and positive emotion among Korean immigrant adolescents in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Sooyeon; Gopalan, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a) engagement in meaningful activities; (b) social support; and (c) positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. PMID:23195747

  11. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-04-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys.

  12. The impact of participation in performing arts on adolescent health and behaviour: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Daykin, Norma; Orme, Judy; Evans, David; Salmon, Debra; McEachran, Malcolm; Brain, Sarah

    2008-03-01

    This article reports a systematic review of literature published between 1994 and 2004 on the effects of performing arts for health in young people aged 11-18. The review includes research on music, performance, drama and dance in community settings and non-curricular mainstream education. A total of 17 electronic databases were searched and 3670 papers identified, 104 of which met relevance criteria. Full text scrutiny of 85 papers was undertaken and 14 of these were identified for review. The research was heterogeneous, making overall synthesis of results inappropriate. The review demonstrates that research on the impact of the performing arts on young people is at a relatively early stage.

  13. Preparation for Adulthood. Proceedings of the Asian Workshop on Child and Adolescent Development (3rd, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 9-14, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Leong Yin, Ed.; And Others

    Attended by participants from 19 nations, this conference focused on six topics related to child and adolescent development. Major topics discussed included child development and related issues, curriculum and the adolescent, the adolescent and technological changes, and the preparation of youth for adulthood. Symposia focusing on child…

  14. Parent-Child Relations, Conduct Problems and Cigarette Use in Adolescence: Examining the Role of Genetic and Environmental Factors on Patterns of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Harold, Gordon T.; Fowler, Tom A.; Rice, Frances J.; Neale, Michael C.; Thapar, Anita; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated genetic and environmental influences on the associations between mother-child relationship quality (warmth and hostility) and adolescent conduct problems and cigarette use. Participants included 601 mothers and adolescent twin pairs (aged 12-17 years). Mothers and adolescents provided separate reports of mother-to-child…

  15. Asthma and Rhinitis Are Associated with Less Objectively-Measured Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity, but Similar Sport Participation, in Adolescent German Boys: GINIplus and LISAplus Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) protects against most noncommunicable diseases and has been associated with decreased risk of allergic phenotype, which is increasing worldwide. However, the association is not always present; furthermore it is not clear whether it is strongest for asthma, rhinitis, symptoms of these, or atopic sensitization; which sex is most affected; or whether it can be explained by either avoidance of sport or exacerbation of symptoms by exercise. Interventions are thus difficult to target. Methods PA was measured by one-week accelerometry in 1137 Germans (mean age 15.6 years, 47% boys) from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, and modeled as a correlate of allergic symptoms, sensitization, or reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or rhinitis. Results 8.3% of children had asthma, of the remainder 7.9% had rhinitis, and of the remainder 32% were sensitized to aero-allergens (atopic). 52% were lung-healthy controls. Lung-healthy boys and girls averaged 46.4 min and 37.8 min moderate-to-vigorous PA per day, of which 14.6 and 11.4 min was vigorous. PA in allergic girls was not altered, but boys with asthma got 13% less moderate and 29% less vigorous PA, and those with rhinitis with 13% less moderate PA, than lung-healthy boys. Both sexes participated comparably in sport (70 to 84%). Adolescents with wheezing (up to 68%, in asthma) and/or nose/eye symptoms (up to 88%, in rhinitis) were no less active. Conclusions We found that asthma and rhinitis, but not atopy, were independently associated with low PA in boys, but not in girls. These results indicate that allergic boys remain a high-risk group for physical inactivity even if they participate comparably in sport. Research into the link between PA and allergy should consider population-specific and sex-specific effects, and clinicians, parents, and designers of PA interventions should specifically address PA in allergic boys to ensure full participation. PMID:27560942

  16. Who Is Physically Active? Cultural Capital and Sports Participation from Adolescence to Middle Age--A 38-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Lars-Magnus

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many studies have found that there is a low-to-moderate association between exercise during adolescence and exercise habits in adulthood. A question that arises from these earlier studies, with a follow-up period of about five to 20 years, is how children's and adolescents' physical activity affects their inclination to exercise later…

  17. Alterations in left ventricular, left atrial, and right ventricular structure and function to cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents with type 2 diabetes participating in the TODAY clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are limited. Echocardiography was performed in the last year of the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial (median 4.5 yr from diagnosis of T2D, average age 18 yr), incl...

  18. Texting Your Way to Healthier Eating? Effects of Participating in a Feedback Intervention Using Text Messaging on Adolescents' Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a feedback intervention employing text messaging during 11 weeks on adolescents' behavior, self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding fruit and vegetable intake. A pre- and post-survey was completed by 1488 adolescents school-wise randomly allocated to a control group and two experimental groups. Both…

  19. Stereotype Threat and School Belonging in Adolescents from Diverse Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Mallett, Robyn K.; Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we extend research on stereotype threat to adolescents and to school belonging. Stereotype threat refers to the impact of societal stereotypes on individual performance. Participants included adolescents from marginalized racial/ethnic minority groups including African Americans, American Indians, and Latinos and nonmarginalized…

  20. Clinical assessment of adolescents involved in Satanism.

    PubMed

    Clark, C M

    1994-01-01

    Satanism is a destructive religion that promises power, dominance, and gratification to its practitioners. Unfortunately, some adolescents are seduced by these promises, often because they feel alienated, alone, angry, and desperate. This article explores the psychosocial needs of adolescents that are often met by participation in Satanic worship. Gratification of these needs, when met, may make leaving the cult a difficult and lengthy process. Included is a method for determining the adolescents' level of involvement and an assessment strategy for the therapeutic evaluation process. A brief overview of clinical intervention is also discussed.

  1. Social Capital, Savings, and Educational Performance of Orphaned Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ssewamala, Fred M.; Karimli, Leyla; Chang-Keun, Han; Ismayilova, Leyla

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of social capital on savings and educational performance of orphaned adolescents participating in a family-level economic strengthening program in Uganda. Findings indicate that if given the opportunity, poor families in Uganda will use financial institutions to save for the education of their adolescent youth. Moreover, although the results are mixed, overall, adolescents with higher levels of social capital and social support, including participation in youth groups, are likely to report better saving performance compared to their counterparts with lower levels of social capital and social support. The results point to: (1) the role for family-economic strengthening programs specifically focused on improving the educational outcomes of orphaned adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, and (2) the need for adolescents to be encouraged to participate in youth groups since these groups seem to offer the much needed supportive informal institutional structure for positive adolescent outcomes. PMID:20948971

  2. Functional communication as a predictor of depression and anxiety symptoms among adolescents seeking bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Curran, J L; Datto, G

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether functional communication and parent-adolescent relations prospectively predict anxiety and depression symptoms among severely obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery. Participants included 30 adolescents and their primary caregivers, who presented for enrolment in a study assessing the safety and efficacy of the laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. Adolescents and their caregivers completed questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression symptoms, functional communication, and parent-adolescent relations at baseline and immediately prior to having bariatric surgery. Regression analyses revealed that poorer parent reported functional communication at baseline predicted increases in adolescent reported anxiety and depression symptoms immediately prior to surgery (on average 8.8 months later), above and beyond baseline symptoms. Anxiety and depression symptoms did not predict functional communication over time. Parent-adolescent relations, as reported by the adolescent, were concurrently associated with adolescent reported depression symptoms at baseline, and were concurrently associated with adolescent reported anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as parent reported depression symptoms, immediately prior to surgery. Functional communication may be an important prospective risk factor for the development of anxiety and depression symptoms among severely obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery, whereas adolescent report of the parent-adolescent relationship appears to be concurrently related to anxiety and depression symptoms. Future research should examine whether specifically targeting communication skills and family relationships within psychological treatment would improve psychosocial functioning among severely obese adolescents.

  3. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities: links with parental attachment style and adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-04-01

    Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed.

  4. Adolescents' experiences with uxoricide.

    PubMed

    Steeves, Richard H; Parker, Barbara; Laughon, Kathryn; Knopp, Andrea; Thompson, Mary E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of individuals who survived the loss of one or both parents through parental homicide or homicide/suicide as adolescents. Participants (N = 34) were aged between 12 and 19 years at the time of the death and were aged between 29 and 64 years at the time of the interview. Participants were interviewed twice and asked to tell the story of their lives. Data were analyzed in the hermeneutic phenomenological tradition using a stepwise process of developing categories and then a single complex theme. Common categories of participants' childhoods included abuse both before and after the uxoricide and vivid memories of the homicide. As adults, most participants reported difficulties with intimate relationships, legal problems, and substance use. Integrity was an overarching theme for these participants. Among those who had integrated the story of the homicide into their adult lives, some believed that they were doing well whereas others did not. Some participants had isolated the event and considered that they were doing well as a result. These findings are limited by the convenience sample but offer a rich portrait of the lives of individuals who experienced uxoricide as adolescents. Clinicians might be advised to tread carefully if individuals report that they have isolated rather than integrated the uxoricide into their adult lives. No evidence exists in support that either stance is preferable.

  5. ASD Symptom Severity in Adolescence of Individuals Diagnosed with PDD-NOS in Childhood: Stability and the Relation with Psychiatric Comorbidity and Societal Participation.

    PubMed

    Louwerse, A; Eussen, M L J M; Van der Ende, J; de Nijs, P F A; Van Gool, A R; Dekker, L P; Verheij, C; Verheij, F; Verhulst, F C; Greaves-Lord, K

    2015-12-01

    The current 7-year follow-up study investigated: (1) the stability of ASD severity, and (2) associations of ASD severity in adolescence with (a) childhood and concurrent psychiatric comorbidity, and (b) concurrent societal functioning. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children were administered in childhood (ages 6-12) and in adolescence (ages 12-20) to 72 individuals with a pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). ADOS calibrated severity scores showed a large stability (r = .51). Psychiatric comorbidity in childhood and adolescence were not associated with ASD severity in adolescence. Mental health care use (87 %) and special education needs were high (71 %). Reevaluation of ASD severity and psychiatric comorbidity later in life seem useful when PDD-NOS is diagnosed in childhood. PMID:26395112

  6. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years?

    PubMed

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Déterminer si les traits psychopathiques évalués à la mi-adolescence prédisent les résultats de santé mentale, psychosociaux, et antisociaux (y compris criminels) 5 ans plus tard et procurent par le fait même des avantages par rapport au diagnostic du trouble des conduites (TC). Méthode : Quatre-vingt-six femmes et 61 hommes ont été évalués à la mi-adolescence lors de leur première visite à une clinique pour abus de substances et ont été réévalués 5 ans plus tard. Les évaluations à l’adolescence comprennent la liste de psychopathie—version pour adolescents (PCL-YV), et selon leur âge, l’échelle des troubles affectifs pour enfants et de schizophrénie pour enfants d’âge scolaire, ou l’entrevue clinique structurée pour le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, 4e édition (SCID). Les évaluations au début de l’âge adulte comprenaient la SCID, les auto-déclarations du fonctionnement psychologique, du comportement agressif, de la criminalité et d’autres casiers judiciaires officiels. Résultats : Le score à l’élément antisocial prédisait positivement le nombre de symptômes d’anxiété et la probabilité de recevoir un traitement pour troubles d’utilisation de substances (TUS). Les scores aux éléments mode de vie et antisocial prédisaient négativement les scores à l’évaluation globale de fonctionnement. Par contre, le score interpersonnel et le sexe masculin prédisaient indépendamment et positivement le nombre de mois de travail ou d’études, tout comme l’interaction du mode de vie avec le sexe indiquait chez les hommes, mais pas chez les femmes, qu’une augmentation du score à l’élément mode de vie était associée à moins de temps de travail ou d’études. Les scores interpersonnel et antisocial prédisaient positivement le décrochage scolaire. Les scores à l’élément antisocial prédisaient le nombre de symptômes du trouble de la personnalité antisociale

  7. Predictors of parent-adolescent communication in post-apartheid South Africa: a protective factor in adolescent sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Jenny; Dietrich, Janan; Otwombe, Kennedy; Nkala, Busi; Khunwane, Mamakiri; van der Watt, Martin; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Gray, Glenda E

    2014-04-01

    In the HIV context, risky sexual behaviours can be reduced through effective parent-adolescent communication. This study used the Parent Adolescent Communication Scale to determine parent-adolescent communication by ethnicity and identify predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst South African adolescents post-apartheid. A cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey was administered to 822 adolescents from Johannesburg, South Africa. Backward stepwise multivariate regressions were performed. The sample was predominantly Black African (62%, n = 506) and female (57%, n = 469). Of the participants, 57% (n = 471) reported high parent-adolescent communication. Multivariate regression showed that gender was a significant predictor of high parent-adolescent communication (Black African OR:1.47, CI: 1.0-2.17, Indian OR: 2.67, CI: 1.05-6.77, White OR: 2.96, CI: 1.21-7.18). Female-headed households were predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst Black Africans (OR:1.49, CI: 1.01-2.20), but of low parent-adolescent communication amongst Whites (OR:0.36, CI: 0.15-0.89). Overall levels of parent-adolescent communication in South Africa are low. HIV prevention programmes for South African adolescents should include information and skills regarding effective parent-adolescent communication.

  8. Predictors of Parent-Adolescent Communication in Post-apartheid South Africa: A Protective Factor in Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Jenny; Dietrich, Janan; Otwombe, Kennedy; Nkala, Busi; Khunwane, Mamakiri; van der Watt, Martin; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Gray, Glenda E

    2014-01-01

    In the HIV context, risky sexual behaviours can be reduced through effective parent-adolescent communication. This study used the Parent Adolescent Communication Scale to determine parent-adolescent communication by ethnicity and identify predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst South African adolescents post-apartheid. A cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey was administered to 822 adolescents from Johannesburg, South Africa. Backward stepwise multivariate regressions were performed. The sample was predominantly Black African (62%, n=506) and female (57%, n=469). Of the participants, 57% (n=471) reported high parent-adolescent communication. Multivariate regression showed that gender was a significant predictor of high parent-adolescent communication (Black African OR:1.47,CI:1.0-2.17, Indian OR:2.67,CI:1.05-6.77, White OR:2.96,CI:1.21-7.18). Female-headed households were predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst Black Africans (OR:1.49,CI:1.01-2.20), but of low parent-adolescent communication amongst Whites (OR:0.36,CI: 0.15-0.89). Overall levels of parent-adolescent communication in South Africa are low. HIV prevention programmes for South African adolescents should include information and skills regarding effective parent-adolescent communication. PMID:24636691

  9. A qualitative, exploratory study of predominantly female parental perceptions of consumer health technology use by their overweight and/or obese female adolescent participating in a fee-based 4-week weight-management intervention.

    PubMed

    Knoblock-Hahn, Amy L; LeRouge, Cynthia M

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health technologies (CHTs) are a growing part of the continuum of care for self-management of overweight and obesity. Parents positively or negatively influence adolescent weight-management efforts and are especially important throughout continuum of care settings. User-centered design (UCD) applications have been developed to assist primary users, such as adolescents, with their weight management, but less is known about the influence of parents as secondary users across many socio-ecological environments. The purpose of this study was to use the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to inform the design of a UCD application in a qualitative study that sought to determine parental views on how technology can support previously learned behaviors that require ongoing management and support beyond formal lifestyle interventions. Parents of overweight and obese adolescents (n=14) were interviewed about perceived usefulness and planned user-intent of CHT that was designed for adolescents. UTAUT provided theoretical parental constructs (intention, performance and effort expectancy, and social influence) interactions within several socio-ecological contexts, including the home food environment and restaurant dining experiences. Although generalizations of this qualitative study are limited by a small sample size with predominantly mothers (n=13) of overweight and obese daughters (n=12), the exploratory inquiry using a parent as a secondary consumer user can complement the adoption of applications designed by adolescents. PMID:24507626

  10. A qualitative, exploratory study of predominantly female parental perceptions of consumer health technology use by their overweight and/or obese female adolescent participating in a fee-based 4-week weight-management intervention.

    PubMed

    Knoblock-Hahn, Amy L; LeRouge, Cynthia M

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health technologies (CHTs) are a growing part of the continuum of care for self-management of overweight and obesity. Parents positively or negatively influence adolescent weight-management efforts and are especially important throughout continuum of care settings. User-centered design (UCD) applications have been developed to assist primary users, such as adolescents, with their weight management, but less is known about the influence of parents as secondary users across many socio-ecological environments. The purpose of this study was to use the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to inform the design of a UCD application in a qualitative study that sought to determine parental views on how technology can support previously learned behaviors that require ongoing management and support beyond formal lifestyle interventions. Parents of overweight and obese adolescents (n=14) were interviewed about perceived usefulness and planned user-intent of CHT that was designed for adolescents. UTAUT provided theoretical parental constructs (intention, performance and effort expectancy, and social influence) interactions within several socio-ecological contexts, including the home food environment and restaurant dining experiences. Although generalizations of this qualitative study are limited by a small sample size with predominantly mothers (n=13) of overweight and obese daughters (n=12), the exploratory inquiry using a parent as a secondary consumer user can complement the adoption of applications designed by adolescents.

  11. Risk of Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents with Both Self-Asphyxial Risk-Taking Behavior and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brausch, Amy M.; Decker, Kristina M.; Hadley, Andrea G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered…

  12. Relations between Resiliency, Diabetes-Related Quality of Life, and Disease Markers to School-Related Outcomes in Adolescents with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfect, Michelle M.; Jaramillo, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the role that resiliency and diabetes quality of life play in school functioning and glucose control among adolescents with diabetes. Participants included 45 adolescents with diabetes who participated in a larger study evaluating the feasibility of a model of mental health screening, assessment, and referral/service…

  13. Inductive Discipline, Parental Expression of Disappointed Expectations, and Moral Identity in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Renee B.; Gibbs, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Within the fields of socialization and moral development, the relationship of parenting to adolescents' sense of morality and self has been understudied. This study investigated the relationships between perceived parental disciplinary techniques and moral identity among early and middle adolescents. Participants included 93 (54% female) 5th, 8th…

  14. Predicting Suicide Risks among Outpatient Adolescents Using the Family Environment Scale: Implications for Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucey, Christopher F.; Lam, Sarah K. Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to identify characteristics of family functioning that relate to suicide potential in an outpatient adolescent population. Participants included 51 adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 who were involved in outpatient counselling. The Family Environment Scale and the Suicide Probability Scale were used to assess…

  15. Rites of Passage: A Comparison of US, Malaysian and Brazilian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Sherri Nevada; de Souza, Luciana Karine; Jafaar, Jas

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the life events perceived as "rites of passage" from adolescence to adulthood by respondents between the ages of 14 and 23 in 3 countries and discusses the possible influences of culture and globalization on these perceptions. Participants include: (1) 250 adolescents from the US (125 males and 125 females); (2) 191 adolescents…

  16. School Reintegration for Children and Adolescents with Cancer: The Role of School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mekel S.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of advancements in medical expertise and technology, children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer now have opportunities to participate in many typical activities, including school. To some extent, school reintegration reflects positive adjustment to their illness. Nevertheless, children and adolescents with cancer may experience…

  17. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…

  18. Just Another Club? The Distinctiveness of the Relation between Religious Service Attendance and Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena; Fritjers, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This study used hierarchical linear modeling to compare longitudinal patterns of adolescent religious service attendance and club attendance, and to contrast the longitudinal relations between adolescent adjustment and religious service versus club attendance. Participants included 1050 students (47% girls) encompassing a school district in…

  19. Coping and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with a Chronic Medical Condition: A Search for Intervention Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for adolescents with a chronic medical condition. A wide range of coping techniques were studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 176 adolescents participated. They were…

  20. Factors Associated with Self-Concept: Adolescents with Intellectual and Development Disabilities Share Their Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    How one perceives the self is critical to long-term development. The purpose of this study was to explore the self-perceptions of adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Participants included 51 adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities, their parents (n = 50), and teachers (n = 12). A mixed-methods design…

  1. Cognitive and Parenting Pathways in the Transmission of Antisocial Behavior from Parents to Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Shannon J.; Conger, Rand D.; Kim, Kee Jeong; Masyn, Katherine E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescent perceptions of parental behavior and disrupted parenting in the continuity of antisocial behavior across generations. Participants included 430 adolescents and their biological parents assessed during the period from the 9th to 12th grades (9th grade age in years: M=15.09, SD=0.43). Structural equation…

  2. Gifted Adolescents' Overexcitabilities and Self-Concepts: "An Analysis of Gender and Grade Level"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Candace M.; Rinn, Anne N.; Jamieson, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between gifted adolescents' overexcitabilities and self-concept, while also exploring gender and grade-level differences in overexcitabilities. Participants included 248 gifted adolescents who had completed the sixth through tenth grade during the previous academic year. Overexcitabllities were measured…

  3. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Kelly N.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Shelton, Terri L.; Frabutt, James M.; Willford, Amanda P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge base of adolescent substance use by examining the influences of risk and protective factors for specific substance use, namely alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Participants included 271 adolescents and their primary caregivers referred for mental health services across North Carolina. A…

  4. School Engagement, Acculturation, and Mental Health among Migrant Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoshani, Anat; Nakash, Ora; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of school engagement and the mediation effect of acculturation in predicting 1.5 and second-generation migrant adolescents' mental health and risk behaviors. Participants included 448 seventh to tenth grade Israeli students (mean age 14.50, 53% boys): 128 non-Jewish 1.5 generation migrant adolescents (children…

  5. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  6. Adolescents' experience with workplace aggression: school health implications.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carolyn R; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gillespie, Gordon L; Beery, Theresa A; Gates, Donna M

    2013-12-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future workplace aggression. Semistructured interviews were used to gather participants' proposed responses to a series of hypothetical aggressive incidents in the workplace. Conventional content analysis identified patterns and themes among the participants' responses. Results indicated adolescent employees' proposed responses to workplace aggression are similar to other forms of aggression such as peer-bullying and teen dating violence. Education and training are needed within the school setting to promote appropriate responses to various forms of aggression encountered by adolescents. Implications for school health professionals' involvement in addressing responses to such aggression and further research opportunities are explored.

  7. Adapting an HIV Prevention Intervention for High-Risk, Incarcerated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Garcia, Nicole M.; Scott, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an adapted 4-session HIV prevention program. Participants included 490 adolescents who participated in either the 8- or the adapted 4-session HIVEd program. Analyses to identify mean changes in HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions between participants in either the 4-…

  8. ASD Symptom Severity in Adolescence of Individuals Diagnosed with PDD-NOS in Childhood: Stability and the Relation with Psychiatric Comorbidity and Societal Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louwerse, A.; Eussen, M. L. J. M.; Van der Ende, J.; de Nijs, P. F. A.; Van Gool, A. R.; Dekker, L. P.; Verheij, C.; Verheij, F.; Verhulst, F. C.; Greaves-Lord, K.

    2015-01-01

    The current 7-year follow-up study investigated: (1) the stability of ASD severity, and (2) associations of ASD severity in adolescence with (a) childhood and concurrent psychiatric comorbidity, and (b) concurrent societal functioning. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children were…

  9. Teaching Helping to Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Watkins, Jessica; Murray, Rachel; Connell, James E.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a replication and extension of Reeve, Reeve, Townsend, and Poulson (2007) evaluating the effects of a treatment package that included multiple-exemplar training, video modeling, prompting, and reinforcement on helping of 3 adolescents with autism. Results demonstrated that all participants acquired the helping responses. Probes…

  10. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted…

  11. Adolescent experiences of HIV and sexual health communication with parents and caregivers in Soweto, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Soon, Christine N; Kaida, Angela; Nkala, Busi; Dietrich, Janan; Cescon, Angela; Gray, Glenda; Miller, Cari L

    2013-01-01

    Communication about sexual health between parents and adolescents has been shown to have a protective influence on behaviours that reduce the risk of HIV transmission. This study explored experiences of HIV and sexual health (HSH) communication between parents and/or caregivers and adolescents in an urban HIV-endemic community in Southern Africa. Adolescents (aged 14-19 years) were recruited from the Kganya Motsha Adolescent Centre and the Kliptown community between June and August 2009. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions (n=10 adolescents) and semi-structured interviews (n=31 adolescents). In total, 41 adolescents (56% female, 44% male, mean age=17.2) participated in the study. Adolescent participants identified emotional, physical and sociocultural barriers to initiating HSH communication with parents and caregivers including fear of verbal warnings, threats and physical assault. Adolescents also expressed a desire for mentorship around HSH communication beyond abstinence and peer-based information. Public health interventions need to support adolescents' access to bi-directional HSH information from adult mentors that address the lived realities of adolescents beyond expectations of abstinence. PMID:24809230

  12. Parent and adolescent effects of a universal group program for the parenting of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chu, Joanna Ting Wai; Bullen, Pat; Farruggia, Susan P; Dittman, Cassandra K; Sanders, Matthew R

    2015-05-01

    There is growing support for the large-scale implementation of parenting programs for the prevention of child behavior disorders and child maltreatment in younger children. However, there is only limited evidence on the efficacy of parenting programs in modifying risk and protective factors relating to adolescent behavior problems. This study examined the efficacy of Group Teen Triple P (GTTP), an eight-session parenting program specifically designed for parents of young adolescents. Seventy-two families with adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years were randomly assigned to either GTTP (n = 35) or a care as usual (CAU) control condition (n = 37). Compared to CAU parents, parents who received GTTP reported significant improvements in parenting practices, parenting confidence, the quality of family relationships, and fewer adolescent problem behaviors at post-intervention. Several of the parent-reported effects were corroborated by reports from adolescents, including decreases in parent-adolescent conflict and increases in parental monitoring. Adolescents whose parents participated in GTTP also reported significantly fewer behavioral problems than adolescents in the CAU condition. Many of these improvements were maintained at 6-month follow-up.

  13. Becoming an adolescent father: precursors and parenting.

    PubMed

    Fagot, B I; Pears, K C; Capaldi, D M; Crosby, L; Leve, C S

    1998-11-01

    Precursors and outcomes of adolescent pregnancy receive considerable research attention; however, most studies deal with adolescent mothers. This study examined whether risk factors that are precursors to adolescent fatherhood would be consistent with the family coercion model (G. R. Patterson, 1976) of the development of antisocial behavior in childhood. Hypotheses were tested in the Oregon Youth Study (OYS) sample of 206 at-risk boys who were first seen at 9 or 10 years of age. At 18-20 years of age, the profiles for the 35 adolescent fathers included more arrests and substance use than the other OYS participants. At around 2 years of age, 40% of the children had no contact with their fathers. The children, compared with a normative control sample, had somewhat greater health risks. The at-risk parents, compared with a control sample, were observed to show higher levels of negative reactions when their children were working on a puzzle task. PMID:9823506

  14. General Reading on Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Center for Early Adolescence.

    This brief resource list of books and articles on early adolescent physical, social, and intellectual development mentions materials relating to psychology, religion, employment, and parent participation. (BJD)

  15. African American adolescents' academic persistence: a strengths-based approach.

    PubMed

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Chavous, Tabbye M; Hurd, Noelle; Varner, Fatima

    2013-09-01

    African American adolescents are faced with the challenge to be successful academically, even though they may experience racial discrimination within school settings. Unfortunately, relatively little scholarship explores how African American adolescents draw on personal and cultural assets to persist and thrive in the face of discriminatory experiences. Additionally, little research has explored the buffering role of assets (e.g., racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance) on the relationship between school-based racial discriminatory experiences and the academic persistence of African American adolescents. Participants in the current study included 220 (58 % girls) socioeconomically diverse African American adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to identify clusters based on participants' racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance. Three cluster groups were identified. The majority of the students belonged to the average group in which adolescents reported average levels of the three study assets. Adolescents in the higher group reported higher assets relative to their peers in the study and those in the lower group reported lower strength-based assets relative to their peers. Results indicated that school-based racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of academic persistence. Additionally, adolescents in the higher assets group reported higher academic persistence in comparison to the average and low group. Our model reflected a promotive but not protective influence of adolescents' assets on their academic persistence.

  16. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…

  17. Relational Aggression in Adolescents' Sibling Relationships: Links to Sibling and Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Denning, Donna J.; McHale, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the links between sibling relational aggression and other sibling relationship qualities (i.e., intimacy, negativity, and temporal involvement) and broader parenting dynamics. Participants included 185 adolescent sibling pairs and their mothers and fathers. Data were gathered during home interviews and a series of nightly phone…

  18. Comparing among the Experiences of Self-Cutting, Hitting, and Scratching in Chinese Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Jianing; Ma, Congfen; Lin, Min-Pei; Leung, Freedom

    2015-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' experiences associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and compared among the experiences of self-cutting, hitting, and scratching. Participants included 42 Chinese adolescents attending secondary schools. They had at least three NSSI episodes in the preceding year. Information about their experiences of NSSI…

  19. Weight Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: Are There Differences in Meeting Recommended Health Behavior Guidelines for Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minges, Karl E.; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from…

  20. "Keep on Keeping on, Even When It's Hard!": Predictors and Outcomes of Adolescent Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Day, Randal D.; Dyer, W. Justin; Black, Brent C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined adolescent persistence as a mediator between authoritative parenting and adolescents' school engagement, prosocial behavior, and delinquency. Participants were taken from Time 2, 3, and 4 of the Flourishing Families Project and included 325 two-parent families with a child between the ages of 11 and 14 at Time 2…

  1. Attachment Representations in Mothers, Fathers, Adolescents, and Clinical Groups: A Meta-analytic Search for Normative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    1996-01-01

    This meta-analysis on 33 studies, including more than 2,000 Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications, presents distributions of AAI classifications in samples of nonclinical fathers and mothers, in adolescents, in samples from different cultures, and in clinical groups. Fathers, adolescents, and participants from different countries show…

  2. An Examination of Psychopathology and Daily Impairment in Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C.; Bunnell, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this

  3. An examination of psychopathology and daily impairment in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C; Bunnell, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group

  4. Adolescent Literature, Adolescent Reading and the English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Ken, Ed.

    1972-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona English Bulletin contains articles discussing literature that adolescents read and literature that they might be encouraged to read. Thus there are discussions both of literature specifically written for adolescents and the literature adolescents choose to read. The term adolescent is understood to include young people in…

  5. Association between Family Structure and Physical Activity of Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Qi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study examines the association between family structure and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescents in China. Methods. The participants included 612 adolescents (317 boys and 295 girls) from Shanghai with ages ranging from 10 to 16 years. Accelerometers were used to measure the duration of MVPA of adolescents, and questionnaires on family structure were completed by the parents of these adolescents. Results. Findings suggested that family structure significantly increased the likelihood of adolescents engaging in physical activity (PA) and explained 6% of MPVA variance. Adolescents living in single-parent households and step families were more physically active than those living in two-parent homes and with biological parents, respectively. However, adolescents residing with grandparents were less active than those living with neither grandparent. No significant difference was found in MVPA time between adolescents living with one sibling and those without siblings. Conclusion. Family environment may be considered in the development of PA interventions and policies, and adolescents living with their grandparents may be targeted in PA promotion. PMID:27123446

  6. Parental Knowledge of Adolescent Activities: Links with Parental Attachment Style and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason D.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, C. W.; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-01-01

    Parents’ knowledge of their adolescents’ whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents’ attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents’ alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (mean age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in two-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers’ and fathers’ insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all three reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers’ and fathers’ attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. PMID:25730406

  7. Depression and Political Participation*

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857

  8. Longitudinal associations between television viewing patterns and adolescent body satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Deborah; Trinh, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study addressed profiles of adolescent television use and associations between television viewing profiles and the development of body satisfaction. A sample of 841 adolescent boys and girls, ages 11-17, was recruited for participation in a longitudinal study of adolescent media use. Prior research established eight adolescent television profiles among this sample, reflecting unique patterns of consumption of certain genres, character types, and themes (e.g., romance). This study examined whether an adolescent's television profile predicted Time 2 body satisfaction, after controlling for Time 1 body satisfaction. Among boys, television viewing was unrelated to Time 2 body satisfaction. After controlling for initial body satisfaction, hours spent watching television marginally predicted lower Time 2 body satisfaction among girls. After including television profiles alongside television hours, however, television profile emerged as the stronger predictor. Specifically, a group of girls who watched television frequently and indiscriminately reported the most severe drop in body satisfaction. PMID:21050831

  9. Deviant adolescent subcultures: assessment strategies and clinical interventions.

    PubMed

    Clark, C M

    1992-01-01

    Alienation is a contributing factor in adolescents' participation in Satanism, the neo-Nazi skinhead movement, and violent street gangs. Many of their needs are met by gang and/or cult affiliation, including a sense of belonging, self-worth, companionship, and excitement. Emphasizing prevention may minimize deviant subculture involvement, but some adolescents require clinical intervention, ranging from a few outpatient sessions to lengthy inpatient hospitalization. Therapists must be knowledgeable about adolescents' involvement, empathic to their circumstances, and sophisticated in the approach to treatment.

  10. Beliefs in the legitimacy of decision authority among Chinese adolescents and parents: a person-centered approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yudan Chen; Faldowski, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined Chinese parents' and adolescents' beliefs in the legitimacy of decision authority with reference to specific issues from the prudential, conventional, multifaceted, and personal domains. The sample included 698 adolescents aged 12-15 and their parents from southern China. Parents and adolescents reported on their own beliefs respectively. Subgroups of parent and adolescent participants characterized by distinct patterns of beliefs across issues were identified with latent class analyses (LCA). Further, configural frequency analyses (CFA) were conducted to examine the match between parent subgroups and adolescent subgroups. In addition, the LCA-derived subgroups varied across residency status, sibling status, and child gender, and were linked to adolescent depressive symptoms and school misconduct. These associations with external variables provided evidence for the distinctiveness of the latent classes. Results were discussed in light of social domain theory and the socio-historical context where the participants were situated.

  11. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ott, Mary A; Sucato, Gina S

    2014-10-01

    A working knowledge of contraception will assist the pediatrician in both sexual health promotion as well as treatment of common adolescent gynecologic problems. Best practices in adolescent anticipatory guidance and screening include a sexual health history, screening for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, counseling, and if indicated, providing access to contraceptives. Pediatricians' long-term relationships with adolescents and families allow them to help promote healthy sexual decision-making, including abstinence and contraceptive use. Additionally, medical indications for contraception, such as acne, dysmenorrhea, and heavy menstrual bleeding, are frequently uncovered during adolescent visits. This technical report provides an evidence base for the accompanying policy statement and addresses key aspects of adolescent contraceptive use, including the following: (1) sexual history taking, confidentiality, and counseling; (2) adolescent data on the use and side effects of newer contraceptive methods; (3) new data on older contraceptive methods; and (4) evidence supporting the use of contraceptives in adolescent patients with complex medical conditions. PMID:25266435

  12. Brazilian Adolescents' Conceptions of Autonomy and Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milnitsky-Sapiro, Clary; Turiel, Elliot; Nucci, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two middle class and 32 lower class southern Brazilian pre-adolescent (M=12.8 years) and adolescent (M=15.7 years) participants were individually interviewed regarding their perceptions of who (adolescent or parent) should determine the adolescent's actions in cases where the parents and adolescent disagree over the action choice.…

  13. Concurrent Trajectories of Change in Adolescent and Maternal Depressive Symptoms in the TORDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers

  14. Understanding reasons for participating in a school-based influenza vaccination program and decision-making dynamics among adolescents and parents

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Natasha L.; Gargano, Lisa M.; Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Hughes, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Vaccinating school-aged children has been demonstrated to be beneficial to the child and in reducing viral transmission to vulnerable groups such as the elderly. This qualitative study sought to identify reasons parents and students participated in a school-based influenza vaccination clinic and to characterize the decision-making process for vaccination. Eight focus groups were conducted with parents and students. Parents and students who participated in the influenza vaccination clinic stated the educational brochure mailed to their home influenced participation in the program. Parents of non-participating students mentioned barriers, such as the lengthy and complicated consent process and suspicions about the vaccine clinic, as contributing to their decision not to vaccinate their child. Vaccinated students reported initiating influenza vaccine discussion with their parents. Parental attitudes and the educational material influenced parents’ decision to allow their child to receive influenza vaccine. This novel study explored reasons for participating in a school-based vaccination clinic and the decision-making process between parents and child(ren). Persons running future school-based vaccination clinics may consider hosting an ‘information session with a question and answer session’ to address parental concerns and assist with the consent process. PMID:23727620

  15. Maternal responses to adolescent positive affect are associated with adolescents' reward neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Sarah; Yap, Marie B H; Yücel, Murat; Sheeber, Lisa; Simmons, Julian G; Pantelis, Christos; Allen, Nicholas B

    2009-09-01

    The development of reward-based learning and decision-making, and the neural circuitry underlying these processes, appears to be influenced negatively by adverse child-rearing environments characterized by abuse and other forms of maltreatment. No research to-date has investigated whether normative variations in the child-rearing environment have effects on adolescent brain structure. We examined whether normative variations in maternal responses to adolescents' positive affective behavior were associated with morphometric measures of the adolescents' affective neural circuitry, namely the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Healthy adolescents (N = 113) participated in laboratory-based interaction tasks with their mothers, and underwent high-resolution (3T) structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The mother-adolescent interactions included a pleasant event-planning interaction (EPI) and a conflictual problem-solving interaction (PSI). Adolescents, whose mothers displayed more punishing responses to their positive affective behavior during both tasks, and only during the PSI, had larger left dorsal ACC and bilateral OFC volumes, respectively. In addition, boys whose mothers evidenced this pattern of behavior during the EPI had larger right amygdala volumes. These results suggest that normative variations in maternal responses to affective behavior are associated with the structural characteristics of adolescents' affective neural circuitry, which may have implications for the development of their social, cognitive and affective functioning.

  16. Peers increase adolescent risk taking by enhancing activity in the brain’s reward circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; O’Brien, Lia; Uckert, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    The presence of peers increases risk taking among adolescents but not adults. We posited that the presence of peers may promote adolescent risk taking by sensitizing brain regions associated with the anticipation of potential rewards. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in adolescents, young adults, and adults as they made decisions in a simulated driving task. Participants completed one task block while alone, and one block while their performance was observed by peers in an adjacent room. During peer observation blocks, adolescents selectively demonstrated greater activation in reward-related brain regions, including the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, and activity in these regions predicted subsequent risk taking. Brain areas associated with cognitive control were less strongly recruited by adolescents than adults, but activity in the cognitive control system did not vary with social context. Results suggest that the presence of peers increases adolescent risk taking by heightening sensitivity to the potential reward value of risky decisions. PMID:21499511

  17. Reciprocal Effects between Parental Solicitation, Parental Control, Adolescent Disclosure, and Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan J. T.; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim

    2010-01-01

    This two-wave multi-informant study examined the bidirectional associations of parental control and solicitation with adolescent disclosure and delinquency. Participants were 289 adolescents (150 females and 139 males, modal age 14) and both parents. Parental solicitation and control did not predict adolescent delinquency, but adolescents'…

  18. Body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Tamara Y; Mashal, Rima H; Al-Domi, Hayder A; Jibril, Musa A

    2010-01-01

    The present study has investigated the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Amman, Jordan, and the risk factors that are known to predispose it including individual, familial and social variables. A sample of 326 adolescent girls aged 10-16 years was recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test, and body shape questionnaire. Approximately, 21.2% of participants displayed body image dissatisfaction in which physical changes associated with puberty and exhibiting negative eating attitudes were associated with this dissatisfaction. Additionally, mass media messages, as well as peers and family pressures towards thinness were associated with participants' preoccupation with their body image. In conclusion, negative body image perception was observed in the present sample. Therefore, well-controlled prospective studies and development of intervention programs on body image among adolescent girls in Jordan are needed. PMID:19910269

  19. Predictors of Birth Weight and Gestational Age Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-01-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139

  20. Risk factors for adolescent marijuana use across cultures and across time.

    PubMed

    Brook, J S; Brook, D W; Arencibia-Mireles, O; Richter, L; Whiteman, M

    2001-09-01

    An integrated analysis of the data from 3 different studies was conducted to examine the early psychosocial predictors of later marijuana use among adolescents. Longitudinal analysis of interview data was performed. The data used in the analysis were derived from (a) a sample of 739 predominantly White adolescents representative of the northeastern United States, (b) a sample of 1,190 minority adolescents from the East Harlem section of New York City, and (c) a sample of 1,374 Colombian adolescents from two cities in Colombia, South America. In 2 of the samples, participants were interviewed in their homes, and in the 3rd study, participants were assessed in school. The predictors included a number of variables from (a) the personality domain, reflecting the adolescents' conventionality and intrapsychic functioning; (b) the family domain, representing the parent-child mutual attachment relationship and parental substance use; (c) the peer domain, reflecting the peer group's delinquency and substance use; and (d) the adolescents' own use of legal drugs. The dependent variable was adolescent marijuana use. The results of the analysis demonstrated remarkable consistency in the risk and protective factors for later marijuana use across the 3 samples, attesting to the robust nature of these predictors and their generalizability across gender, time, location, and ethnic/cultural background. These findings have important implications for designing intervention programs. Programs aimed at preventing adolescent marijuana use can be designed to incorporate universal features and still incorporate specific components that address the unique needs of adolescents from different groups. PMID:11678369

  1. The Protective Role of Group Identity: Sectarian Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Emotion Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The protective role of strength of group identity was examined for youth in a context of protracted political conflict. Participants included 814 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.61, SD = 1.99 at Time 1) participating in a longitudinal study in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, the results show that the effect of…

  2. "You're So Gay!:" Do Different Forms of Bullying Matter for Adolescent Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swearer, Susan M.; Turner, Rhonda K.; Givens, Jami E.; Pollack, William S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined effects of adolescent males' perceptions of being bullied because of verbal taunts related to gender nonconformity (i.e., "They say I'm gay"). Participants included 251 ninth- (n=77), tenth- (n=96), and eleventh- (n=78) grade students in a private, all-male college preparatory school. Participants were divided into two groups…

  3. Parenting Processes and Aggression: The Role of Self-Control among Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Cok, Figen

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the direct and indirect relationships between parenting processes (parental closeness, parental monitoring, and parental peer approval), low self-control, and aggression. Participants were 546 adolescents aged 14-18 attending state high schools in Turkey. Participants completed a questionnaire that included measures of…

  4. A Multimodal Behavioral Intervention to Impact Adherence and Risk Behavior among Perinatally and Behaviorally HIV-Infected Youth: Description, Delivery, and Receptivity of Adolescent Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandwani, Sulachni; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J.; Barnes, William; D'Angelo, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Secondary prevention programs are needed to help HIV-positive youth reduce risk behavior and improve adherence to HIV medications. This article provides an overview of Adolescent Impact, a secondary HIV prevention intervention, including its description, delivery, and receptivity among the two unique groups of participants. Adolescent Impact, a…

  5. A Preliminary Examination of Identity Exploration and Commitment among Polish Adolescents with and without Motor Disability: Does Disability Constitute Diversity in Identity Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominiak-Kochanek, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define whether, and to what extent identity formation in late adolescence is disability specific. Ninety-eight adolescents participated in this study, including 43 students with motor disability and 55 students without disability. Identity exploration and commitment was measured by the Utrecht-Groningen Identity…

  6. A Canonical Correlation Analysis of the Influence of Social Comparison, Gender, and Grade Level on the Multidimensional Self-Concepts of Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinn, Anne N.; Jamieson, Kelly M.; Gross, Candace M.; McQueen, Kand S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of social comparison, gender, and grade level on gifted adolescents' multidimensional self-concept. Participants include 248 gifted adolescents who had completed the sixth through tenth grade during the previous academic year. Multidimensional self-concept was measured using the Self Description Questionnaire II…

  7. Parental Influence on Substance Use in Adolescent Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Holly B.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Both peer and parental influences have been associated with the use of addictive substances in adolescence. We evaluated the relationship between the parenting style of an adolescent’s peers’ parents and an adolescent’s substance use. Design Longitudinal survey Setting Adolescents across the United States were interviewed at school and at home Participants Nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States Main Exposure Authoritative versus neglectful parenting style of adolescent’s parents and adolescent’s friends parents; adolescent substance use Main Outcome Measures Adolescent alcohol abuse, smoking, marijuana use, and binge drinking Results If an adolescent has a friend whose mother is authoritative, that adolescent is 40% (95% CI 12%–58%) less likely to drink to the point of drunkenness, 38% (95% CI 5%–59%) less likely to binge drink, 39% (95% CI 12%–58%) less likely to smoke cigarettes, and 43% (95% CI 1%–67%) less likely to use marijuana than an adolescent whose friend’s mother is neglectful, controlling for the parenting style of the adolescent’s own mother, school level fixed effects, and demographics. These results are only partially mediated by peer substance use. Conclusion Social network influences may extend beyond the homogeneous dimensions of own-peer or own-parent to include extra-dyadic influences of the wider network. The value of parenting interventions should be re-assessed to take into account these spillover effects in the greater network. PMID:23045157

  8. A different way of being: adolescents' experiences with cancer.

    PubMed

    Woodgate, Roberta Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents with cancer face many challenges that may impact negatively their psychological well-being. In evaluating the psychosocial functioning of adolescents with cancer, research suggests that an altered self-image may emerge in those who have difficulty adjusting. However, little is known about adolescents' perceptions of how cancer affects their sense of self. Part of a larger study, this article addresses findings specific to understanding the impact that cancer and its symptoms had on adolescents' sense of self. To help discover meaningful interpretations of their experiences, a longitudinal, qualitative study was conducted. Data collection methods included open-ended, individual and focus group interviews and participant observation. The constant comparative method of data analysis yielded theoretical categories that were supported by the adolescents' narratives. Findings revealed that adolescents experienced changes in their lived bodies because of the symptoms and this, in turn, impacted their sense of self and way of being in the world. Six ways of being in the world were identified: life as a klutz; life as a prisoner; life as an invalid; life as an alien; life as a zombie; and life as a kid. In helping adolescents deal with the changes, it was important to family and friends to respond to them like they were the same person, but also to treat them special at times. Although adolescents spoke to the significance that cancer had on their lives, they described themselves as "still being pretty much the same person." PMID:15681977

  9. Mother-adolescent relationship quality as a moderator of associations between racial socialization and adolescent psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sharon F; Roche, Kathleen M; Saleem, Farzana T; Henry, Jessica S

    2015-09-01

    Parents' racial socialization messages, including messages focused on awareness, preparation, and strategies for managing racial discrimination, are necessary to help African American youth successfully navigate their daily lives. However, mixed findings regarding the utility of preparation for bias messages for African American youth's mental health adjustment raise questions about the conditions under which these protective racial socialization messages are most beneficial to African American youth. The current study examined the degree to which communication and trust as well as anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship moderated associations between 2 types of preparation for bias messages, cultural alertness to discrimination and cultural coping with antagonism, and adolescent mental health. Participants were 106 African American adolescents (57% female; mean age = 15.41) who reported about their receipt of racial socialization messages, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that positive associations between cultural alertness to racial discrimination and youth depressive symptoms were weaker for boys in the context of higher mother-adolescent communication and trust; communication and trust were not similarly protective for girls. For boys, the positive associations between cultural coping with antagonism messages and depressive symptoms were stronger in the context of high anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship. Findings suggest that qualities of the mother-adolescent relationship, in which preparation for bias messages are delivered, are important for understanding the mental health adjustment of African American adolescents. PMID:26460701

  10. Mother-adolescent relationship quality as a moderator of associations between racial socialization and adolescent psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sharon F; Roche, Kathleen M; Saleem, Farzana T; Henry, Jessica S

    2015-09-01

    Parents' racial socialization messages, including messages focused on awareness, preparation, and strategies for managing racial discrimination, are necessary to help African American youth successfully navigate their daily lives. However, mixed findings regarding the utility of preparation for bias messages for African American youth's mental health adjustment raise questions about the conditions under which these protective racial socialization messages are most beneficial to African American youth. The current study examined the degree to which communication and trust as well as anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship moderated associations between 2 types of preparation for bias messages, cultural alertness to discrimination and cultural coping with antagonism, and adolescent mental health. Participants were 106 African American adolescents (57% female; mean age = 15.41) who reported about their receipt of racial socialization messages, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that positive associations between cultural alertness to racial discrimination and youth depressive symptoms were weaker for boys in the context of higher mother-adolescent communication and trust; communication and trust were not similarly protective for girls. For boys, the positive associations between cultural coping with antagonism messages and depressive symptoms were stronger in the context of high anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship. Findings suggest that qualities of the mother-adolescent relationship, in which preparation for bias messages are delivered, are important for understanding the mental health adjustment of African American adolescents.

  11. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID

  12. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841

  13. Chronic Condition and Risk Behaviours in Portuguese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Teresa; Ferreira, Mafalda; Simões, Maria Celeste; Machado, Maria Céu; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2014-01-01

    Living with a chronic condition (CC) in adolescence has been historically considered protective for risk behaviours. However, research from the last decade suggest that when compared with healthy peers, adolescents living with a chronic condition can engage in risky behaviours in a similar if not higher rate than their counterparts living with out a CC. This study aims to characterize and evaluate the impact of 1) living with a chronic condition (CC), and 2) how the perception of living with a CC affects school participation, and its association with risk/protective behaviours (drunkenness, physical fight, sadness and self-harm). For this purpose 4 groups were identified: adolescents with mostly healthy behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk-internalizing behaviours and adolescents with mostly risk-externalizing behaviours. A large sample was included in this study, composed by 3494 Portuguese adolescents with an average age of 15 years, who participated in the Portuguese Survey of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children/WHO (HBSC). Main results show that adolescents living with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours when compared to adolescents without CC, who present more healthy behaviors. Furthermore, adolescents that report that having a CC affects school participation show more risky behaviours than those not affected by a CC who present more healthy behaviours. Boys with a CC show more healthy behaviours, and those who feel that the CC affects school participation present more risky behaviours. On the other hand, girls with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours and less healthy behaviours It is important to point out that dolescents living with a CC represent a vulnerable group, and may engage in experimental/risky behaviours as likely as their non CC peers. Thus, potential benefits can arise from reinforcing interventions within protective contexts (family/peers/school setting). Health

  14. The OPTIONS model of sexual risk assessment for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lusczakoski, Kathryn D; Rue, Lisa A

    2012-03-01

    Typically, clinical evaluations of adolescents' sexual risk is based on inquiring about past sexual activity, which is limited by not including an adolescent's cognitive decision making regarding their past sexual decisions. This study describes the novel OPTIONS framework for assessing adolescent sexual risk including three general categories of risk (e.g., primary, secondary, and tertiary risk), which is designed to overcome the limitation of action-based assessment of risk and improve practitioners' ability to assess the levels of sexual risk. A convenience sample of 201 older adolescents (18-19 years of age) completed an online version of the Relationship Options Survey (ROS), designed to measure the OPTIONS sexual risk assessment. Bivariate correlation among the subscales functioned in the hypothesized manner, with all correlations being statistically significant. Using the OPTIONS model, 22.4% participants were classified as high risk primary, 7.0% participants were classified as high risk secondary, and 27.4% participants were classified as high risk tertiary. The study provided preliminary evidence for OPTIONS model of sexual assessment, which provides a more tailored evaluation by including cognitive decisions regarding an adolescent's sexual actions.

  15. Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    This volume presents an overview of contemporary black adolescents from social, psychological, economic, educational, medical, historical, and comparative perspectives, with most emphasizing the roles that race, socioeconomic status, and environmental forces play in this critical period. The volume includes 19 chapters by various authors arranged…

  16. Leadership and adolescent girls: a qualitative study of leadership development.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Michael A; Kennedy, Cara L

    2008-12-01

    This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based leadership program. This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see themselves included within their concepts of leadership. Following the program their view of leadership expanded and diversified in a manner that allowed for inclusion of themselves within it. They spoke with greater strength and confidence and felt better positioned and inspired to act as leaders. Participants identified having examples of women leaders, adopting multiple concepts of leadership, and participating in an environment of mutual respect and trust as factors that contributed to their expanded conceptualization.

  17. Unsafe abortion in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Olukoya, A A; Kaya, A; Ferguson, B J; AbouZahr, C

    2001-11-01

    Every year, an estimated 2.0-4.4 million adolescents resort to abortion. In comparison with adults, adolescents are more likely to delay the abortion, resort to unskilled persons to perform it, use dangerous methods and present late when complications arise. Adolescents are also more likely to experience complications. Consequently, adolescents seeking abortion or presenting with complications of abortion should be considered as a medical emergency. Issues requiring special attention in the management of abortion complications in adolescents are identified. Approaches to adolescent abortion should involve all levels of the health care system, as well as the community, and should include not only management of the consequences of unsafe abortion, but also post-abortion contraception and counseling. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy by providing information on sexuality, ensuring that reproductive health services are adolescent-friendly, creating a supportive environment, building young people's social and decision-making skills, and offering counseling in times of crisis are highlighted.

  18. Determinants of Internet addiction among adolescents: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Critselis, Elena; Louizou, Amalia; Janikian, Mari; Freskou, Aliki; Marangou, Evgenia; Kormas, Georgios; Kafetzis, Dimitrios

    2011-04-19

    Internet Addiction (IA) is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012) and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p < 0.0001). The proportion of adolescents with poor academic performance (p < 0.0001) and unexcused school absences (p = 0.004) was greater among those with IA. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents with IA were engaged in high-risk behaviors (p < 0.0001). Finally, adolescents with IA were 3.89 times more likely to present with comorbid psychiatric conditions (CI 95%: 1.19-12.70), including depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022). Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression.

  19. Perceived Parenting Styles as Predictor of Internet Addiction in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Huseyin; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Bozdas, Canan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceived parenting styles as predictors of Internet addiction in adolescence. The participants of the study were a total of 419 high school students including 238 girl and 181 boy students whose mean age was 16.5. Personal information form, "Internet Addiction Test" and "Perceived Parenting Style Scale"…

  20. Paternal Psychopathology: Relationship to Adolescent Substance Abuse and Deviant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Research has documented the genetic contribution of paternal alcoholism and Antisocial Personality Disorder as risk factors for adolescent deviant behavior, including substance abuse. Teens (n=147) between the ages of 12 and 19 years and their parents participated in the study. The sample consisted of 74 substance abusing teens/families drawn from…

  1. American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…

  2. Prospective Associations between Dietary Patterns and Cognitive Performance during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyaradi, Anett; Foster, Jonathan K.; Hickling, Siobhan; Li, Jianghong; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Jacques, Angela; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate prospective associations between dietary patterns and cognitive performance during adolescence. Methods: Participants were sourced from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study that includes 2868 children born between 1989 and 1992 in Perth, Western Australia. When the children were…

  3. How Do Finnish Pre-Adolescents Perceive Religion and Spirituality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…

  4. Handbook of Adolescent Transition Education for Youth with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L., Ed.; Webb, Kristine W., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Transition from secondary education to adulthood represents a period during which adolescents with disabilities face multiple responsibilities and changing roles that include establishing independence, attending postsecondary education or training, developing social networks, choosing a career, participating in their communities, and managing…

  5. Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; χ2 = 17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

  6. Reducing premature osteoarthritis in the adolescent through appropriate screening.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Shannon; Dickman, Kathy; Maradiegue, Ann

    2009-02-01

    Osteoarthritis affects all ages. The etiology of this debilitating disease is multifactorial; however, several genes are linked to osteoarthritis. Sports participation, injury to the joint, obesity, and genetic susceptibility predispose adolescent athletes to the development of premature osteoarthritis. Assessment for the risk of osteoarthritis includes obtaining a family history to detect any genetic predisposition, obtaining body weight and body mass index, and identifying the patient's exercise regime and sports participation. Strategies to prevent the development of osteoarthritis in the adolescent include patient education, exercises to build quadriceps strength, low-impact activities, and the maintenance of a healthy weight. The devastating effects of premature osteoarthritis can be reduced if an assessment for risk of the disease is performed during adolescence.

  7. Mixed-method Exploration of Social Network Links to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Consuelo M.; Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Mann, William C.; Young, Mary Ellen; McCarty, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The people who regularly interact with an adolescent form that youth's social network, which may impact participation. We investigated the relationship of social networks to participation using personal network analysis and individual interviews. The sample included 36 youth, age 11 – 16 years. Nineteen had diagnoses of learning disability, attention disorder, or high-functioning autism and 17 were typically developing. Network analysis yielded 10 network variables, of which 8 measured network composition and 2 measured network structure, with significant links to at least one measure of participation using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Interviews from youth in the clinical group yielded description of strategies used to negotiate social interactions, as well as processes and reasoning used to remain engaged within social networks. Findings contribute to understanding the ways social networks are linked to youth participation and suggest the potential of social network factors for predicting rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:26594737

  8. Mixed-Method Exploration of Social Network Links to Participation.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Consuelo M; Bendixen, Roxanna M; Mann, William C; Young, Mary Ellen; McCarty, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The people who regularly interact with an adolescent form that youth's social network (SN), which may impact participation. We investigated the relationship of SNs to participation using personal network analysis and individual interviews. The sample included 36 youth, aged 11 to 16 years. Nineteen had diagnoses of learning disability, attention disorder, or high-functioning autism, and 17 were typically developing. Network analysis yielded 10 network variables, of which 8 measured network composition and 2 measured network structure, with significant links to at least I measure of participation using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Interviews from youth in the clinical group yielded description of strategies used to negotiate social interactions, as well as processes and reasoning used to remain engaged within SNs. Findings contribute to understanding the ways SNs are linked to youth participation and suggest the potential of SN factors for predicting rehabilitation outcomes.

  9. Preliminary Normative Data on the Penn State University Symbol Cancellation Task With Nonconcussed Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Conder, Lauren H; Newton, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Visual concentration impairment after neurologic injury is frequent, making its identification a critical component of neurocognitive concussion assessment. Visual target cancellation tests such as the Penn State University Symbol Cancellation Task (PSUSCT) have been widely used in assessing professional and collegiate athletes. To date, there are no normative studies using the PSUSCT with an adolescent population. Given that 38 million children and adolescents participate in sports and an estimated 5% to 10% are concussed annually, adolescent normative data are critically needed to evaluate concussions in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to provide adolescent normative data on the PSUSCT. Participants included 40 healthy, nonconcussed high school students aged 14 to 19 years old (20 men, 20 women). Participants were administered Forms A and C of the PSUSCT within a 4-day period. Data analysis examined hits, omission errors, and commission errors, with descriptive statistics calculated for the total sample and for subgroups by gender and age. Study 1 provided normative adolescent data on Form A. Study 2 examined practice effects and established reliable change indexes (RCIs) by comparing results on Forms A and C. Neither Study 1 nor Study 2 demonstrated significant group differences for gender or age. In conclusion, this study presents adolescent normative data, apparent practice effects, and RCIs on the PSUSCT. These norms provide data needed to appropriately include the PSUSCT in baseline and postinjury concussion evaluation batteries with adolescent student-athletes. Findings should be replicated with a larger, more heterogeneous sample. PMID:25072106

  10. Adolescent Pregnancy: A Medical Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborn, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the medical and social consequences of adolescent pregnancy, including maternal and infant mortality, and low birth weight. Discusses why pregnant adolescents do not seek prenatal care and implications for health providers. (FMW)

  11. Adolescent shoulder injuries: consensus and controversies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Dean C; Krasinski, Kevin L

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent participation in sports is at an all-time high. Younger patients also are competing with a greater intensity level, frequently playing organized sports throughout the year. Players are putting greater demands on their shoulders, making them more prone to injuries. Because these players are in the process of skeletal development, certain considerations are needed for this patient population. There is controversy regarding the appropriate treatment of these adolescent athletes- including debate on injury prevention; nonsurgical treatment versus surgical treatment; overuse injuries; and return to play after shoulder fractures, dislocations, and instability. It is valuable to review evidence in the current literature regarding recommendations for the treatment of shoulder injuries in adolescent athletes.

  12. Political Efficacy and Expected Political Participation among Lower and Upper Secondary Students. A Comparative Analysis with Data from the IEA Civic Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    The process of political socialisation of adolescents includes more than the acquisition of knowledge about society, citizenship and the political system. In a democracy, citizens are expected to participate actively in the political process. Active participation, however, requires citizens to believe in their own ability to influence the course…

  13. Keeping Adolescents Busy with Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Salerno, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent participation in academic/extracurricular activities is related to fewer diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections during adolescence. The role parents play in motivating participation in such activities is unclear. This mixed-methods study explored parental influences on academic/extracurricular activity participation, and the…

  14. Body image and appearance perceptions from immigrant adolescents in Canada: An interpretive description.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Melissa; Georgiades, Katholiki; Jack, Susan M; Couturier, Jennifer; Wahoush, Olive

    2015-09-01

    Body dissatisfaction has been linked to a number of poor health outcomes, including eating disorders. However, very few studies have investigated body dissatisfaction among immigrant adolescents. Using inductive qualitative inquiry, this study recruited a purposeful sample of immigrant adolescents (N=18, 78% female) with an eating disorder (n=8) and without an eating disorder (n=10). All adolescents were between 16 and 19 years of age (M=16.80, SD=0.89) and were recruited from three municipalities in Ontario. Each adolescent participated in a face-to-face, qualitative interview. Content analysis revealed descriptions of body image that were similar across the sample. The main themes emerging from this work include (a) the "moderately slim" and "moderately muscular" ideal, (b) the "slim and curvy paradox," (c) "ideal" privilege, (d) having an "expected" appearance, and (e) wishful comparisons. Findings have implications for reducing appearance-related dissatisfaction among immigrant adolescents in Canada. PMID:26363357

  15. Creative Counseling Interventions for Grieving Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slyter, Marty

    2012-01-01

    This article provides information on adolescent developmental issues and developmentally appropriate interventions that can help mental health practitioners work with adolescents grieving a death loss. Specific areas that are initially covered include core adolescent developmental issues that must be understood, including adolescent developmental…

  16. Community violence concerns and adolescent sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Erika J.; Tu, Kelly M.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to examine links between concerns about community violence and objective and subjective sleep parameters in an adolescent sample. Sex was considered as a moderator of effects. Design The study used a cross-sectional design. Participants The community-based sample included 252 adolescents (53% girls) with an average age of 15.79 years (SD = 0.81) from the Southeastern United States. The sample included 34% African American and 66% European American adolescents from a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Measurements Adolescent-reported community violence concerns were assessed using a composite of 3 separate subscales that measured perceived community safety and threats of community and school violence. Sleep duration and quality were assessed using actigraphy, and subjective sleep problems and daytime sleepiness were measured with subscales of the School Sleep Habits Survey. Results Community violence predicted lower sleep efficiency, more long-wake episodes, and more sleep/wake problems and sleepiness. Sex-related moderation effects revealed that girls in the sample were more vulnerable to the effects of violence concerns on their objective sleep quality. Conclusions Findings highlight the role of community violence concerns on adolescents’ sleep, revealing that greater community violence concerns are linked with lower levels of actigraphy-based and subjective reports of sleep quality, particularly for adolescent girls. Consideration of the mechanisms by which violence concerns may affect sleep is discussed.

  17. Community violence concerns and adolescent sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Erika J.; Tu, Kelly M.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to examine links between concerns about community violence and objective and subjective sleep parameters in an adolescent sample. Sex was considered as a moderator of effects. Design The study used a cross-sectional design. Participants The community-based sample included 252 adolescents (53% girls) with an average age of 15.79 years (SD = 0.81) from the Southeastern United States. The sample included 34% African American and 66% European American adolescents from a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Measurements Adolescent-reported community violence concerns were assessed using a composite of 3 separate subscales that measured perceived community safety and threats of community and school violence. Sleep duration and quality were assessed using actigraphy, and subjective sleep problems and daytime sleepiness were measured with subscales of the School Sleep Habits Survey. Results Community violence predicted lower sleep efficiency, more long-wake episodes, and more sleep/wake problems and sleepiness. Sex-related moderation effects revealed that girls in the sample were more vulnerable to the effects of violence concerns on their objective sleep quality. Conclusions Findings highlight the role of community violence concerns on adolescents’ sleep, revealing that greater community violence concerns are linked with lower levels of actigraphy-based and subjective reports of sleep quality, particularly for adolescent girls. Consideration of the mechanisms by which violence concerns may affect sleep is discussed. PMID:27695706

  18. Adolescents' perceptions and experiences of family meals.

    PubMed

    Prior, Amie-Louise; Limbert, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Benefits of family meals include diet quality, social interaction and wellbeing, yet previous research indicates only one in four adolescents eats a meal with their family every day. This study identified factors relating to the frequency and importance of family meals. A focus group conducted with seven adolescents was analysed thematically. The themes and findings of past research were used to develop a Family Meals Questionnaire (FMQ), completed by 76 adolescents. Regular engagement in healthy family meals eaten around the table was reported, with the majority of participants reporting that their meals included a variety of foods and portions of vegetables. Frequency of family meals was associated with increased family togetherness for both males and females. The nutritional value of meals was found to be most important to females, whereas the impact of family meals on mood was more salient for males. Findings suggest that the views and behaviour of other family members may influence adolescents' enjoyment and perceptions of the importance of family meals, and therefore impact on their frequency. These findings may inform the development of future interventions aimed at increasing adolescent engagement in family meals by adopting a family systems approach to improve the frequency and experience of family meals.

  19. Randomized Trial of a Broad Preventive Intervention for Mexican American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, N.A.; Dumka, L.E.; Millsap, R.E.; Gottschall, A.; McClain, D.B.; Wong, J.J.; Germán, M.; Mauricio, A.M.; Wheeler, L.; Carpentier, F.D.; Kim, S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This randomized trial of a family-focused preventive intervention for Mexican American (MA) adolescents evaluated intervention effects on adolescent substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and school discipline and grade records in 8th grade, one year after completion of the intervention. The study also examined hypothesized mediators and moderators of intervention effects. Method Stratified by language of program delivery (English vs. Spanish), the trial included a sample of 516 MA adolescents (50.8% female; M =12.3 years, SD=.54) and at least one caregiver that were randomized to receive a low dosage control group workshop or the 9-week group intervention that included parenting, adolescent coping, and conjoint family sessions. Results Positive program effects were found on all five outcomes at one-year posttest, but varied depending on whether adolescents, parents, or teachers reported on the outcome. Intervention effects were mediated by posttest changes in effective parenting, adolescent coping efficacy, adolescent school engagement, and family cohesion. The majority of direct and mediated effects were moderated by language, with a larger number of significant effects for families that participated in Spanish. Intervention effects also were moderated by baseline levels of mediators and outcomes, with the majority showing stronger effects for families with poorer functioning at baseline. Conclusion Findings support the efficacy of the intervention to decrease multiple problem outcomes for MA adolescents, but also demonstrate differential effects for parents and adolescents receiving the intervention in Spanish vs. English, and depending on their baseline levels of functioning. PMID:22103956

  20. Gender differences in reasons to quit smoking among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Struik, Laura L; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Bottorff, Joan L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires in 2010-2011 from 113 female and 83 male smokers aged 14-19 years participating in AdoQuest, a longitudinal cohort study of the natural course of the co-occurrence of health-compromising behaviors in children. Overall, the findings indicate that reasons to quit in boys and girls appear to be generally similar, although this finding may relate to a lack of gender-oriented items in the ARFQ scale. There is a need for continued research to develop and test reasons to quit scales for adolescents that include gender-oriented items.

  1. Developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of relationships with their parents.

    PubMed

    De Goede, Irene H A; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2009-01-01

    This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses showed that support declined from early to middle adolescence for boys and girls and increased from middle to late adolescence for girls, while stabilizing for boys. Conflict was found to temporarily increase during middle adolescence. Parental power (relative power and dominance of parents) decreased from early to late adolescence. Results indicated that: (1) parent-adolescent relationships become more egalitarian during adolescence, (2) parents perceived by adolescents as powerful are viewed as supportive, especially in early adolescence, and (3) perceived conflict with parents is related to but not an impetus for changes in parent-adolescent relationships towards more equality.

  2. Vaccination coverage among adolescents and risk factors associated with incomplete immunization.

    PubMed

    Sakou, Irine-Ikbale; Tsitsika, Artemis K; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Tzavela, Eleni C; Greydanus, Donald E; Tsolia, Maria N

    2011-11-01

    The compliance with vaccination recommendations in adolescence has not been well documented in Greece. The aims of the present study were to estimate the vaccination coverage in a sample of adolescents and to identify risk factors associated with incomplete immunization. Α total of 1,005 adolescents aged 11 to 19 years who were outpatient visitors at an Adolescent Health Unit were included in this study. Participation required parental presence and consent and presentation of the official Child Health Booklet, from which immunizations were transcribed. The highest coverage rates were observed for childhood immunizations: poliomyelitis and hepatitis B (both 96%), measles/mumps/rubella (MMR; 93.1%), and meningitidis C (MenC; 83.4%). By contrast, lower rates were shown for the booster dose of tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis (39.6%), for hepatitis A (HAV; 59.1%), for the varicella vaccine (13.8% among adolescents without disease history), and among girls for the human papillomavirus vaccine (11.9%). We found a significant association between age and series completion for MMR, MenC, and HAV, with lower uptake among older adolescents . Overall, 22.7% of study participants were fully vaccinated according to criteria employed. In particular, non-urban residents, non-nationals, and females had lower likelihood of being fully vaccinated. In conclusion, our findings suggest suboptimal vaccination coverage among our sample's adolescents, mandating that every effort should be made to increase uptake, particularly among the geographically dispersed and the culturally diverse and female adolescents. PMID:21465121

  3. Understanding attitudes toward adolescent vaccination and the decision-making dynamic among adolescents, parents and providers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With several new vaccine recommendations specifically targeting adolescents, improving adolescent vaccination rates has become a major health priority. Vaccination attitudes are an important, modifiable target for new interventions. Prior research has examined primarily the attitudes and beliefs of adolescents, parents or healthcare providers separately without exploring the decision-making dynamic among these stakeholders. We sought to identify potentially modifiable barriers in the vaccine decision process among adolescents, parents and healthcare providers that could be addressed through interventions implemented within the adolescent’s medical home. Methods We conducted a qualitative study of adolescents, their parents and healthcare providers, recruited from four primary care practices in Michigan. For each practice, three separate focus group discussions (adolescents, parents and healthcare providers, for a total of 12 focus groups) were conducted to explore vaccination attitudes, possible interventions to improve vaccine uptake and access to and use of technology for vaccination interventions. Themes that emerged from the focus group discussions were categorized using an inductive, iterative process, and analysis focused on highlighting similarities and differences among the three perspectives. Results Participants included 32 adolescents, 33 parents and 28 providers. The majority of parents and adolescents were female. Lack of knowledge about recommended adolescent vaccinations was universally recognized among the three groups and was perceived to be the underlying driver of low immunization rates. Notably, each group did not appear to fully appreciate the challenges faced by the other stakeholders with respect to adolescent vaccination. Adolescents were seen as having a greater role in the vaccine decision-making dynamic than previously suggested. Provider-based interventions such as educational tools and reminder-recall notices were

  4. Parental Criticism is an Environmental Influence on Adolescent Somatic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, BN; Marceau, K; Narusyte, J; Ganiban, J; Spotts, EL; Reiss, D; Lichtenstein, P; Neiderhiser, JM

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that parental criticism leads to more somatic symptoms in adolescent children. Yet this research has not assessed the direction of causation or whether genetic and/or environmental influences explain the association between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. As such, it is impossible to understand the mechanisms that underlie this association. The current study uses the Extended Children of Twins design to examine whether parents’ genes, adolescents’ genes, and/or environmental factors explain the relationship between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. Participants came from two twin samples, including the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (N = 868 pairs of adult twins and each twin’s adolescent child) and from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (N = 690 pairs of twin children and their parents). Findings showed that environmental influences account for the association between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. This suggests that parents’ critical behaviors exert a direct environmental effect on somatic symptoms in adolescent children. Results support the use of intervention programs focused on parental criticism to help reduce adolescents’ somatic symptoms. PMID:25844495

  5. Adolescents and sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Yarber, W L; Parrillo, A V

    1992-09-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a serious health problem for adolescents, occurring in an estimated one-quarter of sexually active teen-agers. Many of the health problems--including STDs--result from specific risk-taking behaviors. Determinants of STD risks among adolescents include behavioral, psychological, social, biological, institutional factors. Education is an important component in STD control in adolescents. The goal of education is to increase adolescent self-efficiency in practicing STD prevention and risk-reduction. A comprehensive approach including quality, theory-based education, accessible and effective health clinics, and improved social and economic conditions has the most promise of controlling STDs in adolescents. PMID:1434562

  6. Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles in Adolescents: Associations with Self-Esteem, Depression and Life-Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milevsky, Avidan; Schlechter, Melissa; Netter, Sarah; Keehn, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Our study examined variations in adolescent adjustment as a function of maternal and paternal parenting styles. Participants included 272 students in grades 9 and 11 from a public high school in a metropolitan area of the Northeastern US. Participants completed measures of maternal and paternal parenting styles and indices of psychological…

  7. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…

  8. The Developmental Quality of Participation Experiences: Beyond the Rhetoric that "Participation Is Always Good!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Pedro D.; Azevedo, Cristina N.; Menezes, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    A powerful rhetoric regarding the importance of adolescents' civic engagement and political participation is common in contemporary societies, whilst citizens, both adolescent and adults, seem to express a growing scepticism and alienation regarding politics. Even if this disengagement is debatable, as there are simultaneous signs of an increasing…

  9. Adolescent suicide risk screening: the effect of communication about type of follow-up on adolescents' screening responses.

    PubMed

    King, Cheryl A; Hill, Ryan M; Wynne, Henry A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up vs. no in-person follow-up) on adolescents' responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13-17; 80% White, 21.6% Black, 9.8% American Indian, 2.9% Asian) seeking medical emergency services. They were randomized to a screening follow-up condition. Screening measures assessed primary risk factors for suicidal behavior, including suicidal thoughts, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and aggressive/delinquent behavior. There was no main effect of follow-up condition on adolescents' screening scores; however, significant interactions between follow-up condition and public assistance status were evident. Adolescents whose families received public assistance were less likely to report aggressive-delinquent behavior if assigned to in-person follow-up. Adolescents whose families did not receive public assistance reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation if assigned to in-person follow-up. Findings suggest that response biases impact some adolescents' responses to suicide risk screenings. Because national policy strongly recommends suicide risk screening in emergency settings, and because screening scores are used to make critical decisions regarding risk management and treatment recommendations, findings indicate the importance of improving the reliability and validity of suicide risk screening for adolescents.

  10. Pregnancy in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda Y; Fleming, Nathalie A; Rome, Ellen S

    2012-04-01

    Adolescent pregnancy remains a public health issue with significant medical, emotional, and societal consequences for the adolescent mother, her child, and her family. Teenage pregnancies are at higher risk of many adverse outcomes, including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality. Teen pregnancy and motherhood may have detrimental effects on the teen mother and her child; antenatal and postpartum care need to be adapted to meet the special needs of pregnant adolescents because standard obstetrical environments may not do so. This comprehensive review of adolescent pregnancy will highlight global statistics, factors contributing to adolescent pregnancy, social implications of adolescent pregnancy, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, and the importance of multidisciplinary antenatal and postnatal care.

  11. Age associations with neural processing of reward anticipation in adolescents with bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Urošević, Snežana; Luciana, Monica; Jensen, Jonathan B; Youngstrom, Eric A; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD) and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age) associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus), suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development. PMID:27114896

  12. Age associations with neural processing of reward anticipation in adolescents with bipolar disorders

    PubMed Central

    Urošević, Snežana; Luciana, Monica; Jensen, Jonathan B.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD) and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age) associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus), suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development. PMID:27114896

  13. Multifinality of peer victimization: maladjustment patterns and transitions from early to mid-adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Tina; Barker, Edward D; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Veenstra, René

    2015-10-01

    Peer victimization is a common and pervasive experience in childhood and adolescence and is associated with various maladjustment symptoms, including internalizing, externalizing, and somatic problems. This variety suggests that peer victimization is multifinal where exposure to the same risk leads to different outcomes. However, very little is known about the relative likelihood of each form of maladjustment. We used a latent profile approach to capture multiple possible outcomes and examined prediction by peer victimization. We also examined the role of peer victimization with regard to stability and change in maladjustment. Maladjustment symptoms and peer victimization were assessed from the participants of the large cohort study TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey in early and mid-adolescence. Latent profile and latent transition analyses were conducted to examine associations between victimization and maladjustment profile and to test the role of victimization in maladjustment profile transitions. Four maladjustment profiles were identified for early adolescence (Low, Internalizing, Externalizing, Comorbid) and three profiles (Low, Internalizing, Externalizing) were identified for mid-adolescence. Internalizing problems were more likely in victimized adolescents than low symptom levels or externalizing problems. Victimized adolescents were at greater risk to develop internalizing problems between early and mid-adolescence than non-victimized adolescents. Peer victimization is multifinal mostly when outcomes are examined separately. If multiple outcomes are tested simultaneously, internalizing problems seem to be the most likely outcome.

  14. De-Marginalizing Adolescent Literacy: Seven Constructions of Textual Multiplicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Julie Christine

    2010-01-01

    In adolescent literacy research, there is a gap in literature relating to adolescent constructions of reading. It is not possible to gather significant research on the topic without hearing from the adolescents themselves. The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover what the adolescent participants consider to be "reading" and how they…

  15. Evaluation of Developmentally Appropriate Programs for Adolescent Tobacco Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman-Wallace, Debbie; Lee, Jerry W.; Montgomery, Susanne; Blix, Glen; Wang, Dongqing Terry

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated two adolescent tobacco-cessation programs based on stages of change: an educational program for adolescents not yet thinking about quitting and a cessation program for adolescents ready to quit. Participant evaluation indicated that both interventions successfully helped reduce adolescent smoking. The educational program was the most…

  16. Developmental Changes in Adolescents' Perceptions of Relationships with Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses…

  17. Adolescents' Heightened Risk-Seeking in a Probabilistic Gambling Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Stephanie; Bault, Nadege; Coricelli, Giorgio; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated adolescent males' decision-making under risk, and the emotional response to decision outcomes, using a probabilistic gambling task designed to evoke counterfactually mediated emotions (relief and regret). Participants were 20 adolescents (aged 9-11), 26 young adolescents (aged 12-15), 20 mid-adolescents (aged 15-18) and 17…

  18. Association between personality and adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H J; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2006-02-01

    The present study examined the association between adolescents' personality traits and smoking, and tested whether this association was moderated by birth order or gender. Participants were 832 Dutch siblings aged 13 to 17 years participating at baseline assessment (T1) and at follow-up 12 months later (T2). Personality was assessed by applying a variable-centered approach including five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience), and a person-oriented approach using three personality types (i.e., Resilients, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers). Cross-sectional findings indicated that Extraversion (at T1 and T2), Agreeableness (at T2), Conscientiousness (at T2), and Emotional Stability (at T2) were related to adolescent smoking. Longitudinal findings indicated that only Extraversion and Emotional Stability were related to onset of adolescent smoking. Using a person-oriented approach, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers did not differ from Resilients on smoking onset. No indication was found for a moderating effect of birth order on the association between personality and smoking. Additional findings showed that gender moderated the effect of Agreeableness on adolescents' smoking onset. Implications for prevention are also addressed.

  19. The effects of poor quality sleep on brain function and risk taking in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Telzer, Eva H.; Fuligni, Andrew J.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Galván, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep and poor quality sleep are pervasive during adolescence and relate to impairments in cognitive control and increased risk taking. However, the neurobiology underlying the association between sleep and adolescent behavior remains elusive. In the current study, we examine how poor sleep quality relates to cognitive control and reward related brain function during risk taking. Forty-six adolescents participated in a functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) scan during which they completed a cognitive control and risk taking task. Behaviorally, adolescents who reported poorer sleep also exhibited greater risk-taking. This association was paralleled by less recruitment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during cognitive control, greater insula activation during reward processing, and reduced functional coupling between the DLPFC and affective regions including the insula and ventral striatum during reward processing. Collectively, these results suggest that poor sleep may exaggerate the normative imbalance between affective and cognitive control systems, leading to greater risk-taking in adolescents. PMID:23376698

  20. The Vestibular-Evoked Postural Response of Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis Is Altered

    PubMed Central

    Pialasse, Jean-Philippe; Descarreaux, Martin; Mercier, Pierre; Blouin, Jean; Simoneau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a multifactorial disorder including neurological factors. A dysfunction of the sensorimotor networks processing vestibular information could be related to spine deformation. This study investigates whether feed-forward vestibulomotor control or sensory reweighting mechanisms are impaired in adolescent scoliosis patients. Vestibular evoked postural responses were obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation while participants stood with their eyes closed and head facing forward. Lateral forces under each foot and lateral displacement of the upper body of adolescents with mild (n = 20) or severe (n = 16) spine deformation were compared to those of healthy control adolescents (n = 16). Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients demonstrated greater lateral displacement and net lateral forces than controls both during and immediately after vestibular stimulation. Altered sensory reweighting of vestibular and proprioceptive information changed balance control of AIS patients during and after vestibular stimulation. Therefore, scoliosis onset could be related to abnormal sensory reweighting, leading to altered sensorimotor processes. PMID:26580068

  1. The lived experiences of adolescents with sickle cell disease in Kingston, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, Andrea Brown; Barton-Gooden, Antoinette; Pitter, Cynthia; Lindo, Jascinth L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To explore the lived experiences of adolescents with sickle cell disease, in Kingston, Jamaica. Method A descriptive qualitative design was used for this research. In-depth interviews were conducted with six adolescents with sickle cell disease at a Sickle Cell Unit operated by the University of the West Indies. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and thematically analyzed. Results The majority of the adolescents demonstrated a positive self-concept. They reported strong family, school, and peer support which made them feel accepted. All were actively engaged in social activities such as parties, but had challenges participating in sporting activities. Various coping strategies were utilized to address challenges of the disease including praying, watching television, and surfing the Internet. Conclusion Sickle cell disease can be very challenging for the adolescent, but with positive self-concept and increased social support, especially from family and peers, these adolescents were able to effectively cope with their condition and live productive lives. PMID:26341889

  2. The effects of poor quality sleep on brain function and risk taking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Galván, Adriana

    2013-05-01

    Insufficient sleep and poor quality sleep are pervasive during adolescence and relate to impairments in cognitive control and increased risk taking. However, the neurobiology underlying the association between sleep and adolescent behavior remains elusive. In the current study, we examine how poor sleep quality relates to cognitive control and reward related brain function during risk taking. Forty-six adolescents participated in a functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) scan during which they completed a cognitive control and risk taking task. Behaviorally, adolescents who reported poorer sleep also exhibited greater risk-taking. This association was paralleled by less recruitment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during cognitive control, greater insula activation during reward processing, and reduced functional coupling between the DLPFC and affective regions including the insula and ventral striatum during reward processing. Collectively, these results suggest that poor sleep may exaggerate the normative imbalance between affective and cognitive control systems, leading to greater risk-taking in adolescents.

  3. Adolescent risk factors for child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Thornberry, Terence P; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L; Smith, Carolyn A; Ireland, Timothy O

    2014-04-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment.

  4. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569

  5. The relationship between suicidal behaviors and atopic dermatitis in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hye-Mi; Cho, Jung Jin; Park, Yong Soon; Kim, Jeong-Hyeon

    2016-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disease in adolescents, which may have a negative effect on the mental and emotional health. We investigated the relationship between atopic dermatitis and suicidal behaviors in Korean adolescents. Participants included 74,186 adolescents (38,221 boys and 35,965 girls) in middle and high school who completed the Eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. There were significant associations between atopic dermatitis and suicidal behaviors for girls. The overestimation of weight perception might have an additive impact on suicidal risk among girls. However, there were no significant associations between atopic dermatitis and suicidal behaviors in boys.

  6. Development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of the parent report version of the Bath Adolescent Pain Questionnaire (BAPQ-P): A multidimensional parent report instrument to assess the impact of chronic pain on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Eccleston, Christopher; McCracken, Lance M; Jordan, Abbie; Sleed, Michelle

    2007-09-01

    Assessing the experience and impact of pain in adolescents with chronic pain is necessary to guide both individual treatment and to inform treatment development. Ideally, to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the impact of pain, assessment should be multidimensional, should be sensitive to contextual variables, and should allow for multiple informants (in particular, parents). The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized parent-report measure of chronic pain in adolescents, the Bath Adolescent Pain Questionnaire - Parent report (BAPQ-P). Participants included 222 adolescents with chronic pain and their parents recruited from two specialty clinics in the UK. The adolescents completed a battery of self-report inventories related to their pain and daily functioning whilst parents completed the BAPQ-P and additional measures of adolescent functioning. Scales of the BAPQ-P emerged to be internally consistent and temporally stable over a 17-day period. Validity was examined in relation to existing validated child report measures of anxiety, depression, catastrophizing, disability, family, and social functioning and parent report measures of disability and family functioning. Psychometric evaluation suggests that the BAPQ-P is a reliable and valid parental report tool for assessing the multidimensional impact of adolescent chronic pain. It can be used in conjunction with the previously established adolescent self-report measure, the BAPQ, alone where adolescent self report is not possible, in studies where parent report is the focus, or in studies where concordance between parent and adolescent reports is of interest.

  7. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  8. Aspects of Spirituality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP questionnaire…

  9. Depression in Urban Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles-Pina, Rebecca A.; DeFrance, Emily; Cox, Deborah; Woodward, April

    2005-01-01

    Depression in urban Hispanic adolescents can have negative influences on their ability to acquire a sound education. This study was conducted on 191 urban Hispanic adolescents ages 13-18. The findings indicated that (a) Hispanic females were more depressed than Hispanic males, (b) 42% of the participants had been retained a grade, (c) 7% had…

  10. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  11. Abortion in Adolescence: The Ethical Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    This essay, addressed to medical personnel and counselors, presents a bioethical approach to adolescent abortion. Topics include an overview of abortion in the U.S., related medical issues, data pertinent to adolescent abortions, ethical theory, adolescent moral development, and moral aspects of treatment of adolescents. (Author/DB)

  12. Has Adolescent Suicidality Decreased in the United States? Data from Two National Samples of Adolescents Interviewed in 1995 and 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; McCart, Michael R.; Smith, Daniel W.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Resnick, Heidi S.; de Arellano, Michael A.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the prevalence and correlates of adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts in two nationally representative probability samples of adolescents interviewed in 1995 (National Survey of Adolescents; N = 4,023) and 2005 (National Survey of Adolescents-Replication; N = 3,614). Participants in both samples completed a telephone survey that…

  13. Dans la presse pour adolescents (In the Adolescent Press).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit-Barnet, Marie-Paule; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A professional conference exercise for teachers of French as a second language is described, in which participants analyzed the cultural content and linguistic form of headlines in adolescent mass literature. Two examples of this kind of analysis are given. (MSE)

  14. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of the two 2002 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue includes news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  15. A process evaluation of an adolescent weight management intervention: findings and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; O'Connor, Janice; Lau, Christine; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Hill, Andrew J; Baur, Louise A

    2015-06-01

    Process evaluation is valuable in guiding development of effective intervention programmes but rare in adolescent weight management. This paper presents a process evaluation of the Loozit(®) randomized controlled trial, a community-based behavioural lifestyle intervention for obese 13-16 year olds. Adolescents were randomized to receive the two-phase Loozit(®) group programme, with (n = 73) or without (n = 78), additional therapeutic contact (telephone coaching, short message service and/or emails) in Phase 2. Quantitative and qualitative process data were collected. Facilitators used a standardized evaluation form to document participant attendance, and comment on lesson adherence and process delivery. Adolescents and parents completed satisfaction questionnaires at 2-, 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Following the intervention, 14 adolescents who provided informed written consent were interviewed about their experience with additional therapeutic contact. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, parametric and non-parametric tests to compare group means, and thematic analyses. Group attendance rates averaged 85 and 47% during Phases 1 (0-2 months) and 2 (3-24 months), respectively. Facilitators frequently noted that participants reported making healthy lifestyle changes. Elements enjoyed in the sessions included practical activities, fun active games, resistance training and forming new friendships. Adolescents struggled with setting specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timely (SMART) goals. Overall, participants were satisfied with the help received including the telephone and electronic contact. More than 80% of participants found the programme changed adolescents' eating and physical activity habits, and 89% of parents reported changing parenting strategies. Future adolescent group-based programmes may enhance participant engagement and programme effectiveness by including more interactive and frequent telephone and electronic contact.

  16. A process evaluation of an adolescent weight management intervention: findings and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; O'Connor, Janice; Lau, Christine; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Hill, Andrew J; Baur, Louise A

    2015-06-01

    Process evaluation is valuable in guiding development of effective intervention programmes but rare in adolescent weight management. This paper presents a process evaluation of the Loozit(®) randomized controlled trial, a community-based behavioural lifestyle intervention for obese 13-16 year olds. Adolescents were randomized to receive the two-phase Loozit(®) group programme, with (n = 73) or without (n = 78), additional therapeutic contact (telephone coaching, short message service and/or emails) in Phase 2. Quantitative and qualitative process data were collected. Facilitators used a standardized evaluation form to document participant attendance, and comment on lesson adherence and process delivery. Adolescents and parents completed satisfaction questionnaires at 2-, 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Following the intervention, 14 adolescents who provided informed written consent were interviewed about their experience with additional therapeutic contact. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, parametric and non-parametric tests to compare group means, and thematic analyses. Group attendance rates averaged 85 and 47% during Phases 1 (0-2 months) and 2 (3-24 months), respectively. Facilitators frequently noted that participants reported making healthy lifestyle changes. Elements enjoyed in the sessions included practical activities, fun active games, resistance training and forming new friendships. Adolescents struggled with setting specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timely (SMART) goals. Overall, participants were satisfied with the help received including the telephone and electronic contact. More than 80% of participants found the programme changed adolescents' eating and physical activity habits, and 89% of parents reported changing parenting strategies. Future adolescent group-based programmes may enhance participant engagement and programme effectiveness by including more interactive and frequent telephone and electronic contact. PMID

  17. Community and Social Participation among Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder Transitioning to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Emily; Davis, Beth Ellen; Stobbe, Gary; Bjornson, Kristie

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are at increased risk for poor psychosocial outcomes as adults. We described community and social participation in adolescents with ASDs as they transitioned from adolescence to adulthood, and identified adolescent factors associated with community and social participation outcomes in adulthood. We…

  18. The role of cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic pain in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zagustin, Tamara K

    2013-08-01

    Chronic pain is frequently experienced in adolescents; it affects functionality and requires interventions to decrease the impairments caused by pain. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been analyzed in numerous studies that evaluated its effects on reducing the different types of chronic pain in children and adolescents. Interestingly, the outcome of CBT was initially focused on pain intensity, but, because there is no correspondence between children's pain intensity and level of disability, the ability to participate in school and social and recreational activities have been the primary focus of recent studies. There are innovative methods of CBT (such as the third generation of CBT) with and without the use of technology that facilitates the availability of this psychological treatment to adolescents with chronic pain, optimizing its accessibility and comprehensiveness, and maintaining its effectiveness. In the future, specific types of CBT could be specific to the diagnosis of chronic pain in the adolescent, sociodemographics, and other unique features. Parents of children with chronic pain are usually included in these programs, either as coaches in the intervention or as recipients of psychological therapies (including CBT) to optimize benefits. CBT has no adverse effect on chronic pain in adolescents, and there is no literature that makes reference to the effectiveness of CBT in preventing chronic pain in adolescents. A review of the role of CBT in chronic pain in adolescents via a PubMed database search was performed to identify the role of CBT in the management of chronic pain in adolescents.

  19. An fMRI investigation of responses to peer rejection in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Carrie L.; Colich, Natalie L.; Rudie, Jeffrey D.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2011-01-01

    Peer rejection is particularly pervasive among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, how adolescents with ASD differ from typically developing adolescents in their responses to peer rejection is poorly understood. The goal of the current investigation was to examine neural responses to peer exclusion among adolescents with ASD compared to typically developing adolescents. Nineteen adolescents with ASD and 17 typically developing controls underwent fMRI as they were ostensibly excluded by peers during an online game called Cyberball. Afterwards, participants reported their distress about the exclusion. Compared to typically developing adolescents, those with ASD displayed less activity in regions previously linked with the distressing aspect of peer exclusion, including the subgenual anterior cingulate and anterior insula, as well as less activity in regions previously linked with the regulation of distress responses during peer exclusion, including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Interestingly, however, both groups self-reported equivalent levels of distress. This suggests that adolescents with ASD may engage in differential processing of social experiences at the neural level, but be equally aware of, and concerned about, peer rejection. Overall, these findings contribute new insights about how this population may differentially experience negative social events in their daily lives. PMID:22318914

  20. Participation in Extracurricular Activities in the Middle School Years: Are There Developmental Benefits for African American and European American Youth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the associations between organized activity participation during early adolescence and adjustment in a large and economically diverse sample of African American and European American youth. The sample included 1,047 youth (51% female and 49% male and 67% African American and 33% European American). We used analysis of…

  1. Family Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement among Korean Adolescents: Linking Mechanisms of Family Processes and Adolescents' Time Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Dayoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined pathways through which family socioeconomic status may influence adolescents' academic achievement. We focused on parental monitoring and adolescents' after-school time-use patterns as linking mechanisms. Participants were 441 twelve- to fourteen-year-old Korean adolescents who participated in the Korea Welfare Panel Study.…

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents at the time of Diagnosis with Osteosarcoma or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Pamela S.; Billups, Catherine A.; Cao, Xueyuan; Gattuso, Jami S.; Burghen, Elizabeth; West, Nancy; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Daw, Najat C.

    2014-01-01

    Although measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents with cancer helps clinicians to personalize care for their patients, no previous studies have included HRQoL measurement at the time of diagnosis of osteosarcoma (OS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of measuring adolescents' HRQoL at the time of their diagnosis of OS or AML, and to compare their ratings with those of their parents and of similarly diagnosed but younger patients aged 8- to 12- years. Participants included 126 patients (79 adolescents) and 130 parents (78 parents of adolescents); most completed the HRQoL instrument/s within 48 hours of the first chemotherapy cycle. Ninety-three percent of adolescents diagnosed with OS and 93% of those diagnosed with AML completed the HRQoL instruments. Agreement between the adolescents and their parents ranged from 0.29 to 0.71 (OS) and 0.44 to 0.62 (AML). In all domains, OS adolescents had significantly lower PedsQL v.4.0 scores than adolescents with AML. Our findings demonstrates the feasibility of measuring HRQoL in adolescents with OS or AML (and their parents) at the time of diagnosis, and thus their HRQoL ratings can be used to inform their cancer care from diagnosis forward. PMID:18926773

  3. Self-Esteem Enhancing Reasons for Having Sex and the Sexual Behaviors of African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Melissa L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Paikoff, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 146 African American adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods with high HIV rates participated in the Chicago HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP), a longitudinal study of adolescent HIV risk exposure. The current study examined self-reported reasons why African American adolescents may participate in…

  4. Emotional face recognition in adolescent suicide attempters and adolescents engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Karen E; Jones, Richard N; Cushman, Grace K; Galvan, Thania; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying and differentiating suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Adolescents who attempt suicide or engage in NSSI often report significant interpersonal and social difficulties. Emotional face recognition ability is a fundamental skill required for successful social interactions, and deficits in this ability may provide insight into the unique brain-behavior interactions underlying suicide attempts versus NSSI in adolescents. Therefore, we examined emotional face recognition ability among three mutually exclusive groups: (1) inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide (SA, n = 30); (2) inpatient adolescents engaged in NSSI (NSSI, n = 30); and (3) typically developing controls (TDC, n = 30) without psychiatric illness. Participants included adolescents aged 13-17 years, matched on age, gender and full-scale IQ. Emotional face recognition was evaluated using the diagnostic assessment of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA-2). Compared to TDC youth, adolescents with NSSI made more errors on child fearful and adult sad face recognition while controlling for psychopathology and medication status (ps < 0.05). No differences were found on emotional face recognition between NSSI and SA groups. Secondary analyses showed that compared to inpatients without major depression, those with major depression made fewer errors on adult sad face recognition even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Further, compared to inpatients without generalized anxiety, those with generalized anxiety made fewer recognition errors on adult happy faces even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Adolescent inpatients engaged in NSSI showed greater deficits in emotional face recognition than TDC, but not inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide. Further results suggest the importance of psychopathology in emotional face recognition. Replication of these preliminary results and examination of the role

  5. The Dating Anxiety Scale for Adolescents: Scale Development and Associations with Adolescent Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickman, Alissa R.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2004-01-01

    Given the importance of romantic and dating relationships during adolescence, the purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dating Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (DAS-A). Participants were 757 high school students (56% girls, ages 15 to 18 years). Adolescents completed the DAS-A, the Social Anxiety Scale…

  6. Latino Parent and Adolescent Perceptions of Hoped-for and Feared Possible Selves for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfond, Raquel; Corona, Rosalie; Moon, Anya

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined Latino parent and adolescent reports of hoped-for and feared possible selves for adolescents. Twenty-nine Latino parents (18 mothers, 11 fathers) and their 18 adolescents participated in semistructured individual interviews. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded for themes via content analysis. Themes that…

  7. Do Adolescents and Parents Reconstruct Memories about Their Conflict as a Function of Adolescent Attachment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykas, Matthew J.; Woodhouse, Susan S.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Cassidy, Jude

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether 17-year-old adolescents (n = 189) and their parents reconstructed their memory for an adolescent-parent laboratory conflict over a 6-week period as a function of adolescent attachment organization. It also compared participants' perceptions of conflict over time to observational ratings of the conflict to further…

  8. The Influence of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Acculturation on North American Chinese Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, D. Russell; Ngai, So Wa; Larson, Jeffry H.; Hafen, McArthur, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the associations between family functioning, acculturation between parents and their adolescents, and adolescent adjustment problems. Chinese adolescents and their parents (N=41) living in the United States and Canada participated in this study. Results showed that differences in acculturation between parents and…

  9. Links between Adolescent Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Adolescent and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan Lee; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the relationships between adolescent overweight and obesity and physical activity and a range of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors is necessary to develop relevant interventions which target the health needs of adolescents. This study examined adolescent body mass index (BMI) and participation in moderate and vigorous…

  10. Parents, adolescents, and consent for research participation.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S

    2013-06-01

    Decisions concerning children in the health care setting have engendered significant controversy and sparked ethics policies and statements, legal action, and guidelines regarding who ought to make decisions involving children and how such decisions ought to be made. Traditionally, parents have been the default decision-makers for children not only with regard to health care but with regard to other matters, such as religious practice and education. In recent decades, there has been a steady trend away from the view that parents are in authority over their children and toward the view that children are rights-bearers who should be granted greater authority over themselves. The mature minor doctrine refers to the decision to grant mature minors the authority to make decisions traditionally reserved for their parents. This essay (1) documents the trend towards expanding the understanding of some minors as "mature" and hence as having the right and authority to give informed consent, (2) examines the reasons for which some commentators have a special interest in expanding the mature minor doctrine to the research setting and allowing minors to enroll in research without parental permission, and (3) defends the view that the mature minor doctrine, regardless of its application to clinical health care decisions, ought to be set aside in the research setting in favor of greater parental involvement.

  11. Adolescent Political Education and Political Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewellen, James R.

    This research report studies the impact of informal extracurricular activities and formal social studies curriculum on the political socialization process of high school students. The hypothesis is that involvement in extracurricular activities, school partisan political activities, and exposure to formal course work in social studies is…

  12. [Contraception in adolescents].

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    The proportion of women aged 15-19 in Colombia who are mothers declined from 14% in 1985 to 10% in 1990, but the actual number of cases increased due to population growth. Some 1,780,000 adolescents who have had children or are pregnant require family planning services. An additional, unknown number of adolescent pregnancies are terminated by abortion. It is estimated that 95% of adolescent pregnancies diagnosed or followed by PROFAMILIA's center for young people were unwanted. Reasons for making family planning services available to adolescents include the ever young age at initiation of sexual activity, the very low rates of contraceptive usage among sexually active adolescents, the lack of information of adolescents concerning reproduction and contraception, and their fear and guilt surrounding their sexual activity and contraceptive usage. Obstetrical services appear reluctant to furnish adolescent mothers with information on contraception, and the pharmacists and their employees who provide such information may not be aware of contraindications for this age group or whether adolescents are adequately instructed in use of the method. The rising age at marriage increases the span of time that adolescents are at risk of unwanted pregnancy. Adolescents who are well informed about sexuality and contraception and trained in decision making, self-esteem, and responsible parenthood are likely to postpone sexual activity. Information on contraception and family planning services needs to be made available to adolescents in a way that will actually motivate use. Information on sex and contraception should be made available at puberty and should include the form of use, contraindications, and advantages and disadvantages of all methods appropriate to adolescents. Orientation and assistance in selecting the best method should be individually tailored and should be provided in schools or other places accessible to young people, in a language they can understand. Rhythm and

  13. Life Events, Coping, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Chinese Adolescents Exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuhong; Fan, Fang; Liu, Xianchen; Mo, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between negative life events, coping styles, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adolescent survivors exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China. Methods A survey was conducted in a sample of 2250 adolescent students from two schools in Dujiangyan District, a seriously damaged area, 20 kilometers away from the epicenter, 6 months after the earthquake. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographics, negative life events, coping styles, and PTSD symptoms. Results Academic pressure was the strongest predictor of adolescents' PTSD symptoms among all negative life events. Main effects of negative life events, positive coping and negative coping on PTSD symptoms were significant in both younger adolescents and older adolescents, while the moderator effects of two coping styles were found significant only within older adolescents. Conclusions Coping may play a role to moderate the relationship between post-earthquake negative life events and PTSD symptom, but the function seems to depend on the age of participants. Psychosocial coping skills training may be important in the prevention and intervention of mental health problems in adolescent survivors of traumatic earthquake. PMID:22295059

  14. The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Spilsbury, James C.; Drotar, Dennis; Rosen, Carol L.; Redline, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: Developed the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ), a brief, self-completed instrument to measure excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Participants: A subsample of 411 adolescents 11–17 years of age recruited from area schools, churches, and “control” participants in a sleep disordered breathing cohort study; a second subsample of 62 adolescents with diagnosed sleep disordered breathing also participating in the sleep disordered breathing study. Measurements: Participants completed the CASQ along with two other available measures of daytime sleepiness and other sleep parameters (sleep duration on school nights, sleep duration on non-school nights, and sleep debt, defined as non-school night sleep duration minus school-night sleep duration). Demographic information was obtained from a caregiver-completed questionnaire. The CASQ was developed using exploratory factor analysis, followed by confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling techniques. Results: Goodness-of-fit measures for the final 16-item scale structure ranged from good to excellent. The CASQ's internal consistency was good (α = 0.89). Correlations between the CASQ, two other measures of daytime sleepiness, and sleep parameters gave preliminary evidence of the CASQ's construct validity. Conclusion: The CASQ shows promise as a valid measure of daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Citation: Spilsbury JC; Drotar D; Rosen CL et al. The cleveland adolescent sleepiness questionnaire: a new measure to assess excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. PMID:17993042

  15. Suggested Services and Policies Related to Adolescent Parenthood. A Report of the Adolescent Parenthood Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Sharon J.

    Aimed at both policy makers and service providers, this report assesses services and policies regarding adolescent parents and pregnant adolescents and recommends a number of additions and changes. The first chapter examines the services already offered to pregnant adolescents and adolescent parents, including counseling, family planning,…

  16. Stair-Walking Performance in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Ju, Yan-Ying; Yu, Yu-Chun; Lin, Che-Kuan; Lin, Yen-Tzu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Most individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) demonstrate problems in learning and movement coordination. Consequently, they usually have difficulties in activities such as standing, walking, and stair climbing. To monitor the physical impairments of these children, regular gross motor evaluation is crucial. Straight-line level walking is the most frequently used test of their mobility. However, numerous studies have found that unless the children have multiple disabilities, no significant differences can be found between the children with ID and typically-developed children in this test. Stair climbing presents more challenges than level walking because it is associated with numerous physical factors, including lower extremity strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, vision, balance, and fear of falling. Limited ability in those factors is one of the most vital markers for children with ID. In this paper, we propose a sensor-based approach for measuring stair-walking performance, both upstairs and downstairs, for adolescents with ID. Particularly, we address the problem of sensor calibration to ensure measurement accuracy. In total, 62 participants aged 15 to 21 years, namely 32 typically-developed (TD) adolescents, 20 adolescents with ID, and 10 adolescents with multiple disabilities (MD), participated. The experimental results showed that stair-walking is more sensitive than straight-line level walking in capturing gait characteristics for adolescents with ID. PMID:27409621

  17. Lost in the shuffle: culture of homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joanne O'sullivan; Burke, Pamela J

    2009-01-01

    Estimates indicate that approximately 1.7 million youth are homeless in the United States. Many associated risk factors have been identified for adolescent homelessness, including family conflict, leaving foster care, running away or being thrown away, physical or sexual abuse, and coming out to parents as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, or questioning one's sexual identity (GLBTQ). The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the culture of homelessness for adolescents. Nineteen homeless adolescents from a major urban area in the northeast U.S. were observed and interviewed over an 18-month period. The elements of the street culture of homeless adolescents were identified by study participants' stories. For many study participants, the decision to live on the streets was a logical and rational alternative to remaining in possibly dangerous and unstable home environments. It provided a means to their generating social capital. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that existing programs and policies relative to adolescents who are at risk for homelessness or already living on the streets should be re-examined and redesigned to meet the unique needs of vulnerable youth so they do not get lost in the shuffle.

  18. Stair-Walking Performance in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Ju, Yan-Ying; Yu, Yu-Chun; Lin, Che-Kuan; Lin, Yen-Tzu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Most individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) demonstrate problems in learning and movement coordination. Consequently, they usually have difficulties in activities such as standing, walking, and stair climbing. To monitor the physical impairments of these children, regular gross motor evaluation is crucial. Straight-line level walking is the most frequently used test of their mobility. However, numerous studies have found that unless the children have multiple disabilities, no significant differences can be found between the children with ID and typically-developed children in this test. Stair climbing presents more challenges than level walking because it is associated with numerous physical factors, including lower extremity strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, vision, balance, and fear of falling. Limited ability in those factors is one of the most vital markers for children with ID. In this paper, we propose a sensor-based approach for measuring stair-walking performance, both upstairs and downstairs, for adolescents with ID. Particularly, we address the problem of sensor calibration to ensure measurement accuracy. In total, 62 participants aged 15 to 21 years, namely 32 typically-developed (TD) adolescents, 20 adolescents with ID, and 10 adolescents with multiple disabilities (MD), participated. The experimental results showed that stair-walking is more sensitive than straight-line level walking in capturing gait characteristics for adolescents with ID. PMID:27409621

  19. Transition for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: South African Parent and Professional Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Meiring, Meagan; Seabi, Joseph; Amod, Zaytoon; Vorster, Adri; Kern, Anwynne

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents with autism and their families experience a significant increase in the number of challenges encountered when leaving the structure of the formal education system. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the factors parents and professionals regard as important in preparing for transition of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to adulthood, vocational, and residential arrangements. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 participants (i.e., 7 parents and 7 professionals) who were involved with adolescents with ASD in Johannesburg, South Africa. The findings revealed that there was a need for advocacy on behalf of learners with ASD transitioning into adult working and living environments. The responses of the participants highlighted needs for curriculum transformation from basic literacy skills to development and teaching of functional self-help and daily living skills. The results also indicated lack of planning and the absence of service facilities for adolescents with autism post-school. There was a general feeling of fear and uncertainty when the participants thought about transition of adolescents with autism and their future. However, there was also a sense of hope and optimism. Transition of adolescents with autism into adulthood is a challenging and stressful time for parents and professionals involved in trying to prepare them. With appropriate attention and support structures, individuals with autism can attain a reasonable quality of life, including residential, employment, and social opportunities. PMID:27375502

  20. Adolescent first lapse following smoking cessation: situation characteristics, precipitants and proximal influences.

    PubMed

    Myers, Mark G; Gwaltney, Chad J; Strong, David R; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A; Monti, Peter M; Colby, Suzanne M

    2011-12-01

    Despite increased attention to adolescent smoking cessation, little is known about adolescent relapse following a quit attempt. To address this issue, the present study was designed to provide initial information regarding the characteristics of adolescent lapses to smoking following abstinence. Included in the present study were 204 adolescent participants in four independent smoking cessation trials. For the full sample, participants averaged 15.99 (1.27) years of age; 56% were female and 78% were white. Lapse characteristics and precipitants were assessed using the Adolescent Smoking Relapse Review. Three domains of the lapse experience were assessed: lapse situation characteristics, precipitants of use in the situation, and proximal influences (i.e., potential precipitants occurring on the same day, prior to the lapse situation). Participant reports indicated that the modal lapse situation occurred in the evening while socializing with friends at home. Urges or cravings and social pressure were commonly endorsed as occurring in lapse situations. The most frequently reported proximal influence was desire for a cigarette, followed by abstinence-violation cognitions (okay to smoke occasionally, wanted to see what it would be like) and negative emotions. The findings indicate that a broad range of factors appear to influence adolescent smoking lapse and commend the value of incorporating content relevant to managing social and affective cues, strategies for inhibiting the prepotent response to ask for a cigarette, addressing cognitions regarding the difficulty of not smoking (i.e., cessation expectancies) and combating perceptions of the ability to smoke occasionally.

  1. The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study: Design and Baseline Results

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Jean; Chen, Vincent; Perry, Cheryl; Oswald, John; Willmorth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study is a population-based, longitudinal study that enrolled 3636 youth from Minnesota and 605 youth from comparison states age 12 to 16 years in 2000–2001. Participants have been surveyed by telephone semi-annually about their tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. The goals of the study are to evaluate the effects of the Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative and its shutdown on youth smoking patterns, and to better define the patterns of development of tobacco use in adolescents. A multilevel sample was constructed representing individuals, local jurisdictions and the entire state, and data are collected to characterize each of these levels. This paper presents the details of the multilevel study design. We also provide baseline information about MACC participants including demographics and tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. This paper describes smoking prevalence at the local level, and compares MACC participants to the state as a whole. PMID:21360063

  2. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Sleep.

    PubMed

    Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined multiple indices of sleep as moderators of the association between peer victimization and adjustment among typically developing adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66 % European American, 34 % African American) and their parents. A multi-method, multi-informant design was employed to address the research questions. Sleep was assessed objectively with actigraphy (sleep minutes and sleep efficiency) and subjectively with self-reports. Adolescents reported on peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Externalizing behaviors were examined with mother and father reports. Subjective sleep/wake problems moderated the associations between peer victimization and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A stronger relation emerged between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms among adolescents who reported higher versus lower levels of sleep/wake problems. Adolescents with elevated sleep/wake problems had higher levels of externalizing symptoms across the range of peer victimization. However, for those with fewer sleep/wake problems, a positive relation between peer victimization and externalizing symptoms was observed. Actigraphy-based sleep minutes and sleep efficiency also moderated the relations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Although peer victimization was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms for all youth, those who reported the lowest levels of such symptoms had longer and more efficient sleep in conjunction with low levels of peer victimization. Findings are novel and highlight the importance of considering both bioregulatory processes and peer relations in the prediction of adolescents' adjustment.

  3. Exploring adolescent views of body image: the influence of media.

    PubMed

    Spurr, Shelley; Berry, Lois; Walker, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present findings from two parallel qualitative studies that used focus groups to explore adolescent views of psychological wellness and healthy bodies. Nine focus groups were held with 46 adolescents aged 16-19 years from two Mid-Western Canadian high schools. Both studies were designed with an interpretive humanist perspective and then a 6-step thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Common themes emerging in the focus group discussions in both studies included the negative impact of media on adolescent body image and pressure to conform to the Western views of physical appearance. These findings illustrate the need for nurses to understand the influence of the media on adolescents' views of their body image and to incorporate protocols for assessment, education, and counseling of adolescents on the healthy usage of media into their pediatric clinical practice. Through consistent participation in the development and implementation of health policies, nurses play a critical role in supporting adolescents to develop healthy views of body image.

  4. Parents’ role in adolescent depression care: primary care provider perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Radovic, Ana; Reynolds, Kerry; McCauley, Heather L.; Sucato, Gina S.; Stein, Bradley D.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand how primary care providers (PCPs) perceive barriers to adolescent depression care to inform strategies to increase treatment engagement. Study design We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 PCPs recruited from community pediatric offices with access to integrated behavioral health services (i.e., low system-level barriers to care) who participated in a larger study on treating adolescent depression. Interviews addressed PCP perceptions of barriers to adolescents’ uptake of care for depression. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for key themes. Results Although PCPs mentioned several adolescent barriers to care, they thought parents played a critical role in assisting adolescents in accessing mental health services. Important aspects of the parental role in accessing treatment included transportation, financial support, and social support. PCP’s perceived that parental unwillingness to accept the depression diagnosis, family dysfunction and trauma were common barriers. PCPs contrasted this with examples of good family support they believed would enable adolescents to attend follow-up appointments and have a “life coach” at home to help monitor for side effects and watch for increased suicidality when starting antidepressants. Conclusions In this PCP population, which had enhanced access to mental health specialists, PCPs primarily reported attitudinal barriers to adolescent depression treatment, focusing mainly on perceived parent barriers. The results of these qualitative interviews provide a framework for understanding PCP perceptions of parental barriers to care, identifying that addressing complex parental barriers to care may be important for future interventions. PMID:26143382

  5. Models of Substance Use in Adolescents With and Without Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Pencer, Alissa; Addington, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The use of substances is a major concern with adolescents with psychotic disorders, as it can have detrimental effects on psychotic symptoms and other aspects of functioning. The purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of the association between substance use and psychosis in adolescents by testing three models of substance use: the normative development model, the deviance-prone model, and the affect regulation model. Methods Participants were 35 adolescents with a psychotic disorder, and 35 typically developing adolescents. Measures used: Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire, Youth Self-Report, Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results The normative development model, hypothesizing that mild substance use leads to better socio-emotional adjustment, was not supported for either group. The deviance-prone model was supported for both groups, indicating that rule-breaking behaviour and aggression significantly predicted substance use. The affect-regulation model was supported for adolescents with psychosis only, indicating that negative affect significantly predicted substance use. Conclusions The treatment of substance misuse in adolescents with psychosis may be complicated by a number of factors including deviant behaviour and negative affective symptoms. Thus, the current results point to the importance of integrated treatments to help reduce substance misuse and associated problems. PMID:19018323

  6. Occupational level of the father and alcohol consumption during adolescence; patterns and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Droomers, M; Schrijvers, C; Casswell, S; Mackenbach, J

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: This paper describes and attempts to explain the association between occupational level of the father and high alcohol consumption among a cohort of New Zealand adolescents from age 11 to 21. Design: Data were obtained from the longitudinal Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. At each measurement wave, those who then belonged to the quartile that reported the highest usual amount of alcohol consumed on a typical drinking occasion were categorised as high alcohol consumers. Potential predictors of high alcohol consumption included environmental factors, individual factors, and educational achievement measured at age 9, 11, or 13. Longitudinal logistic GEE analyses described and explained the relation between father's occupation and adolescent alcohol consumption. Setting: Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants: About 1000 children were followed up from birth in 1972 until adulthood. Main results: A significant association between fathers' occupation and adolescent alcohol consumption emerged at age 15. Overall adolescents from the lowest occupational group had almost twice the odds of being a large consumer than the highest occupational group. The association between father's occupation and high alcohol consumption during adolescence was explained by the higher prevalence of familial alcohol problems and friends approving of alcohol consumption, lower intelligence scores, and lower parental attachment among adolescents from lower occupational groups. Conclusions: Socioeconomic background affects adolescent alcohol consumption substantially. This probably contributes to cumulation of disadvantage. Prevention programmes should focus on adolescents from lower socioeconomic groups and make healthier choices the easier choices by means of environmental change. PMID:12933777

  7. Physiological reactivity moderates the association between parental directing and young adolescent friendship adjustment.

    PubMed

    Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-12-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress. Participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years at Time [T]1; 50% boys; 58.5% European Americans). At T1 (summer before the transition to middle school), parents reported on the extent to which they directed adolescents toward or away from certain peers, and adolescents' SCLR was assessed during a lab-based peer evaluation task. At T1 and T2 (spring of the first year of middle school), adolescents reported on the quality of their friendships and positive peer affiliations. Controlling for T1 friendship adjustment, parental directing predicted higher friendship quality and more positive peer affiliations, but only among young adolescents with lower SCLR, which was conceptualized as a marker of underarousal and insensitivity to stress. Results are discussed with reference to the developmental period of early adolescence and related research on interactions between parental control and child characteristics as predictors of adolescent adjustment.

  8. A qualitative exploration of adolescent perceptions of healthy sleep in Tucson, Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Orzech, Kathryn M

    2013-02-01

    Adolescents in the United States are known to be sleep deprived; early school start times, a biological propensity to stay up late, and a variety of wake-inducing activities lead to teens who often do not sleep enough. This chronic lack of sleep has measurable negative effects on health and well-being for adolescents. Though research has documented adolescent sleep behavior, few studies have addressed perceptions of sleep. The purpose of this study was to identify common sources of sleep information for a sample of Southwestern adolescents and examine general message content delivered to adolescents by each source. A convenience sample of 51 adolescents (mean age 14.5) completed a semi-structured, in-person interview between October 2006 and November 2007 in a Tucson, Arizona high school. Participant observation and a brief questionnaire regarding parent behavior were used to triangulate results. Parents, teachers, and in some cases the media stressed the importance of sleep for teens, while friends typically complained of tiredness. Individual experiences of sleep were reported to shape future sleep behavior. Rationales for adequate sleep included value placed on alertness, health, and achievement. Improving sleep in adolescents will not only require further education of the "sleep messengers" about the negative health consequences of inadequate sleep, but a larger cultural shift in how healthy sleep for teenagers is conceived and prioritized by schools, families and adolescents themselves.

  9. Family material hardship and chinese adolescents' problem behaviors: a moderated mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenqiang; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescents' resilience as a potential protective factor in the development of their internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 1,419 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.38 years, SD = 1.79) and their primary caregivers. After controlling for covariates (age, gender, location of family residence, and primary caregiver), we found that parental depression and negative parenting mediated the association between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. Furthermore, the adolescent resilience moderated the relationship between negative parenting and internalizing problems in a protective-stabilizing pattern; in addition, a protective-reactive pattern also emerged when adolescent resilience was examined as a moderator of the relationship between negative parenting and externalizing problems. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of risk and resilience in youth development. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the prevention of adolescent problem behaviors. PMID:26010256

  10. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  11. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young people

  12. Perceived parenting style and adolescent adjustment: revisiting directions of effects and the role of parental knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan; Ozdemir, Metin

    2012-11-01

    In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have used measures of parental behavioral control that are questionable because they include measures of parental knowledge. The goals of this study were to determine whether including knowledge items might have affected results of past studies and to test the unidirectional assumption. Data were from 978 adolescents participating in a longitudinal study. Parenting-style and adolescent adjustment measures at 2 time points were used, with a 2-year interval between time points. A variety of internal and external adjustment measures were used. Results showed that including knowledge items in measures of parental behavioral control elevated links between behavioral control and adjustment. Thus, the results and conclusions of many of the most highly cited studies are likely to have been stronger than if the measures had focused strictly on parental behavior. In addition, adolescent adjustment predicted changes in authoritative and neglectful parenting styles more robustly than these styles predicted changes in adolescent adjustment. Adolescent adjustment also predicted changes in authoritativeness more robustly than authoritativeness predicted changes in adjustment. Thus, parenting style cannot be seen as independent of the adolescent. In summary, both the theoretical premises of parenting-style research and the prior findings should be revisited.

  13. Urban adolescent girls' perspectives on romantic relationships: initiation, involvement, negotiation, and conflict.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Ellen M; Morales-Alemán, Mercedes M; Teitelman, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe romantic relationships from the perspective of urban, adolescent girls, to address gaps in our understanding of their relationship dimensions. Minority adolescent girls (n  =  17) participated in private semi-structured interviews aimed to elicit the understanding of the adolescents' perspectives on their own relationship experiences and dynamics. The research team conducted conventional content analysis of the interview transcripts. Four major themes emerged about romantic relationships: (1) influence of male pursuit and social norms on relationship initiation factors; (2) a romantic partner is a confidant, friend, and companion; (3) negotiating intimacy respectfully; and (4) relationship conflict through control and abuse. Adolescents described sub-themes of social norms of male pursuit and relationship pressures that dictated relationship initiation. Relationships were depicted by emotional support, caring, and companionship. Adolescents described positive negotiation skills. However, relationship conflict, including controlling behaviors and violence, was illustrated in these same relationships. This study provides a rich description of romantic relationships from the perspectives of urban, adolescent girls. Most salient findings included social pressures and a combination of both positive and negative attributes. Implications include the need for intervention development at the community level to address social pressures, recognition of positive adolescent relationship attributes, and facilitation of skills to identify and address low-quality relationship characteristics.

  14. Urban adolescent girls' perspectives on romantic relationships: initiation, involvement, negotiation, and conflict.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Ellen M; Morales-Alemán, Mercedes M; Teitelman, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe romantic relationships from the perspective of urban, adolescent girls, to address gaps in our understanding of their relationship dimensions. Minority adolescent girls (n  =  17) participated in private semi-structured interviews aimed to elicit the understanding of the adolescents' perspectives on their own relationship experiences and dynamics. The research team conducted conventional content analysis of the interview transcripts. Four major themes emerged about romantic relationships: (1) influence of male pursuit and social norms on relationship initiation factors; (2) a romantic partner is a confidant, friend, and companion; (3) negotiating intimacy respectfully; and (4) relationship conflict through control and abuse. Adolescents described sub-themes of social norms of male pursuit and relationship pressures that dictated relationship initiation. Relationships were depicted by emotional support, caring, and companionship. Adolescents described positive negotiation skills. However, relationship conflict, including controlling behaviors and violence, was illustrated in these same relationships. This study provides a rich description of romantic relationships from the perspectives of urban, adolescent girls. Most salient findings included social pressures and a combination of both positive and negative attributes. Implications include the need for intervention development at the community level to address social pressures, recognition of positive adolescent relationship attributes, and facilitation of skills to identify and address low-quality relationship characteristics. PMID:25259641

  15. Identity development in adolescents with mental problems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), “Identity” is an essential diagnostic criterion for personality disorders (self-related personality functioning) in the alternative approach to the diagnosis of personality disorders in Section III of DSM-5. Integrating a broad range of established identity concepts, AIDA (Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence) is a new questionnaire to assess pathology-related identity development in healthy and disturbed adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Aim of the present study is to investigate differences in identity development between adolescents with different psychiatric diagnoses. Methods Participants were 86 adolescent psychiatric in- and outpatients aged 12 to 18 years. The test set includes the questionnaire AIDA and two semi-structured psychiatric interviews (SCID-II, K-DIPS). The patients were assigned to three diagnostic groups (personality disorders, internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders). Differences were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA. Results In line with our hypotheses, patients with personality disorders showed the highest scores in all AIDA scales with T>70. Patients with externalizing disorders showed scores in an average range compared to population norms, while patients with internalizing disorders lay in between with scores around T=60. The AIDA total score was highly significant between the groups with a remarkable effect size of f= 0.44. Conclusion Impairment of identity development differs between adolescent patients with different forms of mental disorders. The AIDA questionnaire is able to discriminate between these groups. This may help to improve assessment and treatment of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems. PMID:23899433

  16. Participative Design for Participative Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Merrelyn, Ed.

    This four-part volume addresses design principles for introducing democratic forms in workplaces, educational institutions, and social institutions, based on a trend toward participative democracy in Australia. Following an introduction, part I sets the context with two papers: "The Agenda for the Next Wave" and "Educational Paradigms: An…

  17. "Life grows between the rocks": Latino adolescents' and parents' perspectives on mental health stressors.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carolyn; Lindgren, Sandi

    2009-04-01

    Latino adolescents, an increasingly larger proportion of youth in the US, are at special risk for mental health problems, including depression and suicidal ideation. Little is known about the meaning of mental health stressors for Latino adolescents and their parents. We conducted a descriptive study to elicit Latino adolescents' and parents' perspectives regarding mental health stressors as a basis for future preventive interventions. Eight focus groups were conducted with 53 Latino participants, 2 per sub-group (boys, girls, mothers, fathers). Three categories of mental health stressors included discrimination, immigration, and familial disconnection. Findings support the need for collaborative interventions and multi-level strategies (individual, family, and community) to address stressors in Latino adolescents' experiences. PMID:19170104

  18. [Adolescent sexuality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M

    1987-01-01

    22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined.

  19. [Adolescent sexuality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M

    1987-01-01

    22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined. PMID:12269059

  20. Smoking and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  1. Fostering Resilience: Protective Agents, Resources, and Mechanisms for Adolescent Refugees’ Psychosocial Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Hakizimana, Leonce; Tugenberg, Toni; Currie, Madeleine; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Wagner, Maureen; Polutnik, Chloe; Wulu, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent refugees face many challenges but also have the potential to become resilient. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the protective agents, resources, and mechanisms that promote their psychosocial well-being. Methods Participants included a purposively sampled group of 73 Burundian and Liberian refugee adolescents and their families who had recently resettled in Boston and Chicago. The adolescents, families, and their service providers participated in a two-year longitudinal study using ethnographic methods and grounded theory analysis with Atlas/ti software. A grounded theory model was developed which describes those persons or entities who act to protect adolescents (Protective Agents), their capacities for doing so (Protective Resources), and how they do it (Protective Mechanisms). Protective agents are the individuals, groups, organizations, and systems that can contribute either directly or indirectly to promoting adolescent refugees’ psychosocial well-being. Protective resources are the family and community capacities that can promote psychosocial well-being in adolescent refugees. Protective mechanisms are the processes fostering adolescent refugees’ competencies and behaviors that can promote their psychosocial well-being. Results Eight family and community capacities were identified that appeared to promote psychosocial well-being in the adolescent refugees. These included 1) finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) social support networks; 4) engaged parenting; 5) family cohesion; 6) cultural adherence and guidance; 7) educational support; and 8) faith and religious involvement. Nine protective mechanisms identified were identified and grouped into three categories: 1) Relational (supporting, connecting, belonging); 2) Informational (informing, preparing), and; 3) Developmental (defending, promoting, adapting). Conclusions To further promote the psychosocial well-being of adolescent refugees

  2. Risk of suicidal ideation in adolescents with both self-asphyxial risk-taking behavior and non-suicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Brausch, Amy M; Decker, Kristina M; Hadley, Andrea G

    2011-08-01

    This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered eating, and substance use. Using a large community-based sample, results revealed preliminary associations between SAB and other risk-taking behaviors. Adolescents who had engaged in both SAB and NSSI reported more concurrent risk behaviors than adolescents who participated in only one of the behaviors or neither behavior. Results indicate that greater awareness of SAB is important, and continued research can evaluate the possible link between the behavior and risk for suicide.

  3. Predicting the filial behaviors of Chinese-Malaysian adolescents from perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and parental warmth and support.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Charissa S L; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Leung, Christy Y Y

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants included 122 Chinese adolescents (M = 13.14 years; SD = 2.22) in Malaysia. Adolescents' perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and warmth and support from each parent were positively, and age was negatively associated with their filial behaviors. No gender differences were found. Perceived maternal warmth and support significantly mediated the effect of age, perceived investments from, and filial emotions toward mothers on adolescents' filial behaviors, but perceived paternal warmth and support did not have a mediating role. The present study sheds light on the unique maternal versus paternal filial role, and important familial processes in Chinese-Malaysian children and adolescents from a cultural perspective.

  4. Peer-related loneliness across early to late adolescence: normative trends, intra-individual trajectories, and links with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Gary W; Ettekal, Idean

    2013-12-01

    Study aims were to: (a) describe normative levels and person-oriented developmental trends in loneliness across adolescence, and (2) examine the association between loneliness and depressive symptoms during this same epoch. Participants included 478 youth (239 males and females; 80% Caucasian, 16% African American, and 4% other). Measures of loneliness and multiple indicators of depressive symptoms were gathered yearly across grades 6 through 12 (ages 12-18). Findings implied that most adolescents experience loneliness more strongly during early rather than later adolescence, but not all adolescents traverse the same loneliness trajectories. Youth followed one of five distinct trajectories, characterized as: (a) stable non-lonely, (b) stable low lonely, (c) stable high (chronic) lonely, (d) moderate decliners, and (e) steep decliners. Adolescents following stable high and moderate loneliness trajectories displayed the most depressive symptoms and, although informant differences were found, these youth also manifest the largest gains in depressive symptoms over time.

  5. A friend request from dear old dad: associations between parent-child social networking and adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James; Stockdale, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child social networking, connection, and outcomes for adolescents. Participants (491 adolescents and their parents) completed a number of questionnaires on social networking use, feelings of connection, and behavioral outcomes. Social networking with parents was associated with increased connection between parents and adolescents. Feelings of connection then mediated the relationship between social networking with parents and behavioral outcomes, including higher prosocial behavior and lower relational aggression and internalizing behavior. Conversely, adolescent social networking use without parents was associated with negative outcomes, such as increased relational aggression, internalizing behaviors, delinquency, and decreased feelings of connection. These results indicate that although high levels of social networking use may be problematic for some individuals, social networking with parents may potentially strengthen parent-child relationships and then lead to positive outcomes for adolescents.

  6. Pedestrian-bridge dynamic interaction, including human participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, J. W.; Law, S. S.; Yang, Q. S.; Yang, N.

    2013-02-01

    The pedestrian-bridge dynamic interaction problem based on bipedal walking model and damped compliant legs is presented in this work. A time-variant damper is modeled at a given walking speed. A control force is applied by the pedestrian to compensate for energy dissipated with the system damping in walking and to regulate the walking performance of the pedestrian. The effects of stiffness, damping of the leg and the landing angle of attack are investigated in the numerical studies. Simulation results show that the dynamic interaction will increase with a larger vibration level of structure. More external energy must be input to maintain steady walking and uniform dynamic behavior of the pedestrian in the process. The simple bipedal walking model could well describe the human-structure dynamic interaction.

  7. Predicting risk-taking with and without substance use: the effects of parental monitoring, school bonding, and sports participation.

    PubMed

    Dever, Bridget V; Schulenberg, John E; Dworkin, Jodi B; O'Malley, Patrick M; Kloska, Deborah D; Bachman, Jerald G

    2012-12-01

    Risk-taking is statistically normative during adolescence, yet is associated with adverse outcomes including substance use. The present study draws the distinction between protective factors (effective for those identified as high risk takers) and promotive factors (effective for all) against substance use, focusing on parental monitoring, school bonding, and sports participation. A total of 36,514 8th and 10th grade participants in the national Monitoring the Future study were included. Although parental monitoring was associated with lower alcohol and marijuana use among all adolescents (i.e., promotive effect), these effects were strongest among the highest risk takers (i.e., protective effect) and females. School bonding was associated with lower levels of both alcohol and marijuana use among all groups of adolescents, but these promotive effects were weak. Sports participation was associated with higher levels of alcohol use among all males and among 8th grade females who did not identify as high risk takers. Despite being a risk factor for alcohol use, sports participation did demonstrate a promotive effect against marijuana use among 10th grade females only, and especially so for high risk-taking females (i.e., protective effect). Overall, these findings suggest that of the three mechanisms studied, parental monitoring emerged as the most promising entry point for substance use prevention and intervention across groups, particularly for females and high risk-taking adolescents.

  8. Early Signs of Atherogenesis in Adolescents in a Havana Family Medicine Catchment Area.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Wendy; Díaz-Perera, Georgia; Espinosa, Tania M

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Atherosclerosis is the common underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases; the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. It is a major contributor to disability and poorer quality of life and is costly to health systems, individuals, families and society. Early signs of atherogenesis are manifestations of atherosclerosis and known atherogenic risk factors occurring at young ages and detectable by health professionals. Early detection of such signs in children and adolescents enables actions to prevent short- and long-term complications. OBJECTIVE Detect early signs of atherogenesis in adolescents in Family Doctor-and-Nurse Office No. 13 of the Raúl Gómez García Polyclinic in Havana's 10 de Octubre Municipality. METHODS An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted: the universe consisted of 110 adolescents and, once exclusion criteria were applied, the sample was made up of 96 adolescents in the office's geographical catchment area. Variables included sociodemographic data; measurements from physical and anthropometric examinations (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, presence of acanthosis nigricans); maternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, smoking during pregnancy; birth weight and duration of exclusive breastfeeding; lifestyle (physical activity, dietary habits by frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables, salt intake, and smoking); and a history of atherogenic risk factors and atherosclerotic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and chronic kidney disease) in adolescents and their families. The number of early signs of atherogenesis was determined. Descriptive statistics and a chi-square test, with significance threshold set at p = 0.05, were used to examine differences by sex and age. RESULTS A total of 62.5% of participating adolescents were female and the same percent of the total

  9. Parental Level of Education: Associations with Psychological Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Reasons for Pursuing Higher Education in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…

  10. Perceptions of Intrapsychic and Extrapsychic Functioning as Bases of Adolescent Ego Identity Statuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    Ranging between 15 to 20 years of age, 178 subjects participated in a study designed to assess whether adolescents' perceptions of intrapsychic and extrapsychic functioning could be used to discriminate between pure identity statuses. Intrapsychic functioning was conceptualized to include degree of self-conscious reasoning and quality of the…

  11. The Mediator Effect of Loneliness between Perceived Social Competence and Cyber Bullying in Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sariçam, Hakan; Yaman, Erkan; Çelik, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether loneliness might play a mediating role between perceived social competence and cyberbullying in Turkish adolescents. The participants were 326 high school students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Cyberbullying Scale, the Perceived Social Competence Scale, and the UCLA…

  12. Political Alienation in Adolescence: Associations with Parental Role Models, Parenting Styles, and Classroom Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gniewosz, Burkhard; Noack, Peter; Buhl, Monika

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined how parental political attitudes, parenting styles, and classroom characteristics predict adolescents' political alienation, as feelings about the individual's ability to affect the political system's performance at the individual level. Participants were 463 families that included mothers, fathers, and their adolescent…

  13. The Use of Ultrasound in Remediation of North American English /r/ in 2 Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler-Bock, Marcy; Bernhardt, Barbara May; Gick, Bryan; Bacsfalvi, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound can provide images of the tongue during speech production. The present study set out to examine the potential utility of ultrasound in remediation of North American English /r/. Method: The participants were 2 Canadian English-speaking adolescents who had not yet acquired /r/. The study included an initial period without…

  14. The Intersection of Middle-Grade Teachers' Beliefs regarding Mathematics and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Lisa Ann

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain an enhanced understanding of middle-grade teachers' beliefs about adolescents and teaching mathematics. The participants were three veteran middle-grade teachers in different school districts who were purposively selected by the researcher. Data collection methods included semi-structured interviews, observations…

  15. Developmental Assets and Ethnic Identity as Predictors of Thriving in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Melissa; Ricard, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the confluence of developmental assets, ethnic identity, and acculturative stress in the prediction of thriving among Hispanic adolescents. Thriving is used to encompass youth who are not only doing well now but who are also on the trajectory toward overall success. Study participants included 130 self-reported Hispanic middle…

  16. A Comparison of Premenarcheal Expectations and Postmenarcheal Experiences in Chinese Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Lee, Antoinette Marie

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined Chinese early adolescents' expectations and experiences of their first menstruation. It included 952 participants, 476 premenarcheal and 476 postmenarcheal girls matched by age and by grade level. Results showed that compared to experiences of postmenarcheal girls, premenarcheal girls anticipated more negative emotional…

  17. The Legacy of Early Insecurity Histories in Shaping Adolescent Adaptation to Interparental Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Patrick T.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Bascoe, Sonnette M.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the mediational pathway involving interparental conflict, adolescent emotional insecurity, and their psychological problems was altered by their earlier childhood histories of insecurity. Participants included 230 families, with the first of the five measurement occasions occurring when children were in first grade…

  18. Perceived Social Support and the Self-Concepts of Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinn, Anne N.; Reynolds, Marilyn J.; McQueen, Kand S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between perceived social support and the multidimensional self-concepts of gifted adolescents. Participants included 217 gifted students who had completed grades 5 through 10 and were attending a summer program for the gifted. Self-concept was measured using the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ-II; H.…

  19. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Young Adolescent Girls: Moderators of the Distress-Function Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Lori M.; Cha, Christine B.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study examined nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of young adolescent girls. Potential moderators of the relationships between different types of distress (internal and interpersonal) and particular functions of NSSI (emotion-regulation and interpersonal) were explored. Participants included 94 girls (49% Hispanic; 25%…

  20. The Process of Social Identity Development in Adolescent High School Choral Singers: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the process of adolescent choral singers' social identity development within three midsized, midwestern high school mixed choirs. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 36 different participants. Secondary data sources included memoing, observations, and interviews with the choir…

  1. "Guys, She's Humongous!": Gender and Weight-Based Teasing in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    Ethnographic research, including individual interviews, focus groups, and participant observation, was conducted to examine how adolescents defined and negotiated the boundaries between normal/acceptable weight and overweight through direct and indirect teasing. In particular, this article focuses on gender differences in weight-based teasing and…

  2. Family Relationships from Adolescence to Early Adulthood: Changes in the Family System following Firstborns' Leaving Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2011-01-01

    This study charted the course of parent-child and sibling relationships from early adolescence to early adulthood and examined how these relationships changed following firstborns' departure from their parents' home for the first time. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants included mothers,…

  3. Dimensions of Adolescent Subjective Social Status within the School Community: Description and Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Young, Robert; Kelly, Shona

    2011-01-01

    School pupils strive to meet both school-defined and social goals, and the structure of adolescent self-concept is multidimensional, including both academic and non-academic self-perceptions. However, subjective social status within the school community has been represented as a single dimension. Scottish 15-year olds participating in a…

  4. Friendship and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence: A Multilevel Social Network Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knecht, Andrea B.; Burk, William J.; Weesie, Jeroen; Steglich, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This study applies multilevel social network analytic techniques to examine processes of homophilic selection and social influence related to alcohol use among friends in early adolescence. Participants included 3,041 Dutch youth (M age =12 years, 49% female) from 120 classrooms in 14 schools. Three waves with 3-month intervals of friendship…

  5. Parents' Management of Adolescents' Romantic Relationships through Dating Rules: Gender Variations and Correlates of Relationship Qualities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Stephanie D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined parents' rules concerning their late adolescents' dating activities. Participants were mostly European-American, including 165 mothers or fathers and 103 of their children (ages 17-19; 28 sons and 75 daughters). Parents provided information regarding their use of dating rules; rules were coded by type (i.e., supervision,…

  6. Direct and Moderating Effects of Social Affordances on School Involvement and Delinquency among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Jeong Jin; Gamble, Wendy C.

    2010-01-01

    Using social control theory and attachment theory as guides, this study examined how qualities of young adolescents' social relationships (i.e., mother, sibling, and friend) and dynamic interactions among characteristics of those relationships are associated with school involvement and delinquency. The participants included older siblings (M age =…

  7. A Meta-Analysis of the Distinction between Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polman, Hanneke; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Koops, Willem; van Boxtel, Herman W.; Merk, Welmoet W.

    2007-01-01

    The present meta-analytic review aimed to clarify divergent findings concerning the relation between reactive and proactive aggression in children and adolescents. Fifty-one studies with 17,965 participants were included in the analysis. A significant correlation between reactive and proactive aggression was found. The strength of this relation…

  8. Adolescents' Internet Search Strategies: Drawing upon Familiar Cognitive Paradigms when Accessing Electronic Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinee, Kathleen; Eagleton, Maya B.; Hall, Tracey E.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate and describe the Internet search strategies of adolescent learners. Participants were 161 middle and high school students. Collected data included students' descriptions of the search process, observations of student searching behaviors, and audit trail lists of search strings used by students. The students…

  9. Depression and Delinquency Covariation in an Accelerated Longitudinal Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofler, Michael J.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The current study tested opposing predictions stemming from the failure and acting out theories of depression-delinquency covariation. Method: Participants included a nationwide longitudinal sample of adolescents (N = 3,604) ages 12 to 17. Competing models were tested with cohort-sequential latent growth curve modeling to determine…

  10. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury among Adolescents: A Training Priority for Primary Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Hetler, Joel; Edwall, Glenace; Wright, Catherine; Edwards, Anne; Borowsky, Iris W.

    2013-01-01

    Primary care providers were surveyed to determine how prepared they feel to address nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, their interest in training on NSSI, and factors associated with routinely asking about NSSI when providing health supervision. Participants included family medicine physicians ("n" = 260), pediatricians…

  11. Adolescent Substance-Use Frequency following Self-Help Group Attendance and Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Jennifer; Darling, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the heterogeneity of posttreatment outcomes, the likelihood of relapse is often dependent on several factors, including participation in continuing care services such as self-help groups. However, few studies have examined the use of self-help groups among adolescent outpatients. Therefore, in this study, investigators examined self-help…

  12. Walking the Walk: The Moderating Role of Proactive Parenting on Adolescents' Value-Congruent Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Fraser, Ashley M.; Harper, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study longitudinally examined adolescents' internalization of values in four domains (drug use, prosocial, school, friends), and how these values were differentially related to behaviors (delinquency, prosocial behavior, school engagement, and deviant peer association) as a function of proactive parenting. Participants included 335…

  13. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  14. Museum Literacies and Adolescents Using Multiple Forms of Texts "On Their Own"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakle, A. Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In this article, museum literacies are examined. Data collected during a qualitative study of adolescents in out-of-school and in-school groups in a museum demonstrate how participants used museum literacies. Resources for teachers' uses of museum literacies are described and provided, including museum podcasts, virtual museum Internet sites, and…

  15. Adolescent and Young Adult Perceptions of Hookah and Little Cigars/Cigarillos: Implications for Risk Messages.

    PubMed

    Cornacchione, Jennifer; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Wiseman, Kimberly D; Kelley, Dannielle; Noar, Seth M; Smith, Margaret H; Sutfin, Erin L

    2016-07-01

    Use of hookah and little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs) is high among adolescents and young adults. Although these products have health effects similar to cigarettes, adolescents and young adults believe them to be safer. This study examined adolescent and young adult perceptions of hookah and LCCs to develop risk messages aimed at discouraging use among users and at-risk nonusers. Ten focus groups with 77 adolescents and young adults were conducted to explore their perceptions about the perceived risks and benefits of hookah and LCC use. Participants were users of other (non-cigarette) tobacco products (n = 47) and susceptible nonusers (n = 30). Transcripts were coded for emergent themes on participants' perceptions of hookah and LCCs. Participants did not perceive health effects associated with hookah and LCC use to be serious or likely to happen given their infrequency of use and perceptions that they are less harmful than cigarettes. Participants generally had positive associations with smoking hookah and LCCs for several reasons, including that they are used in social gatherings, come in various flavors, and can be used to perform smoke tricks. Because adolescents and young adults underestimate and discount the long-term risks associated with hookah and LCC use, effective messages may be those that focus on the acute/immediate health and cosmetic effects. PMID:27337629

  16. Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Adolescents with Recurrent Headaches: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Toni; Holmes, Laura G.; Kennedy-Overfelt, Vicki; Kerr, Lynne M.; Giles, Lisa L.

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent headaches cause significant burden for adolescents and their families. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to reduce stress and alter the experience of pain, reduce pain burden, and improve quality of life. Research indicates that MBIs can benefit adults with chronic pain conditions including headaches. A pilot nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted with 20 adolescent females with recurrent headaches. Median class attendance was 7 of 8 total sessions; average class attendance was 6.10 ± 2.6. Adherence to home practice was good, with participants reporting an average of 4.69 (SD = 1.84) of 6 practices per week. Five participants dropped out for reasons not inherent to the group (e.g., extracurricular scheduling); no adverse events were reported. Parents reported improved quality of life and physical functioning for their child. Adolescent participants reported improved depression symptoms and improved ability to accept their pain rather than trying to control it. MBIs appear safe and feasible for adolescents with recurrent headaches. Although participants did not report decreased frequency or severity of headache following treatment, the treatment had a beneficial effect for depression, quality of life, and acceptance of pain and represents a promising adjunct treatment for adolescents with recurrent headaches. PMID:26798398

  17. Adolescent and Young Adult Perceptions of Hookah and Little Cigars/Cigarillos: Implications for Risk Messages.

    PubMed

    Cornacchione, Jennifer; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Wiseman, Kimberly D; Kelley, Dannielle; Noar, Seth M; Smith, Margaret H; Sutfin, Erin L

    2016-07-01

    Use of hookah and little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs) is high among adolescents and young adults. Although these products have health effects similar to cigarettes, adolescents and young adults believe them to be safer. This study examined adolescent and young adult perceptions of hookah and LCCs to develop risk messages aimed at discouraging use among users and at-risk nonusers. Ten focus groups with 77 adolescents and young adults were conducted to explore their perceptions about the perceived risks and benefits of hookah and LCC use. Participants were users of other (non-cigarette) tobacco products (n = 47) and susceptible nonusers (n = 30). Transcripts were coded for emergent themes on participants' perceptions of hookah and LCCs. Participants did not perceive health effects associated with hookah and LCC use to be serious or likely to happen given their infrequency of use and perceptions that they are less harmful than cigarettes. Participants generally had positive associations with smoking hookah and LCCs for several reasons, including that they are used in social gatherings, come in various flavors, and can be used to perform smoke tricks. Because adolescents and young adults underestimate and discount the long-term risks associated with hookah and LCC use, effective messages may be those that focus on the acute/immediate health and cosmetic effects.

  18. Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Adolescents with Recurrent Headaches: A Pilot Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Toni; Holmes, Laura G; Kennedy-Overfelt, Vicki; Kerr, Lynne M; Giles, Lisa L

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent headaches cause significant burden for adolescents and their families. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to reduce stress and alter the experience of pain, reduce pain burden, and improve quality of life. Research indicates that MBIs can benefit adults with chronic pain conditions including headaches. A pilot nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted with 20 adolescent females with recurrent headaches. Median class attendance was 7 of 8 total sessions; average class attendance was 6.10 ± 2.6. Adherence to home practice was good, with participants reporting an average of 4.69 (SD = 1.84) of 6 practices per week. Five participants dropped out for reasons not inherent to the group (e.g., extracurricular scheduling); no adverse events were reported. Parents reported improved quality of life and physical functioning for their child. Adolescent participants reported improved depression symptoms and improved ability to accept their pain rather than trying to control it. MBIs appear safe and feasible for adolescents with recurrent headaches. Although participants did not report decreased frequency or severity of headache following treatment, the treatment had a beneficial effect for depression, quality of life, and acceptance of pain and represents a promising adjunct treatment for adolescents with recurrent headaches.

  19. Adolescent Work Experience and Self-efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Cunnien, Keith A.; MartinRogers, Nicole; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of this paper To assess the relationship between high school work experiences and self-efficacy. Design/methodology/approach OLS regressions are applied to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study to examine work experiences and self-efficacy. Findings The analyses indicate that employment fosters self-efficacy in multiple realms, Occasional and sporadic workers exhibit less self-efficacy than steady workers. Supervisory support may be especially important in enhancing adolescents’ confidence as they anticipate their future family lives, community participation, personal health, and economic achievements. Research limitations/Implications This research includes only a small set of the work dimensions that may be important for adolescents. Ethnography and in-depth interviews are recommended to further explore the subjective and emotional dimensions of youth work experiences. Practical implications In developing policies and guidance, educators, parents, and employers should be aware that steady employment and supervisory support enhance the development of adolescent self-efficacy. Original value of paper This paper finds evidence that adolescent work experiences spill over to influence youth’s developing confidence in the realms of family life, community and personal health. It also suggests that sporadic and occasional work patterns can impair the development of self-efficacy in adolescence. PMID:19750144

  20. Adolescent confidentiality: Understanding and practices of health care providers

    PubMed Central

    Wadman, Ruth; Thul, Deborah; Elliott, April S; Kennedy, Andrea Pritchard; Mitchell, Ian; Pinzon, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent confidentiality may present practice challenges for health care providers related to family, medical, ethical, legal, social and bureaucratic processes. It is unclear how health care providers understand and practice confidentiality with adolescents in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge and practice of health care providers at Alberta Children’s Hospital (Calgary, Alberta), and to inform practice about the adolescent’s right to confidentiality. METHODS: The present study was a voluntary, anonymous online survey. Invitations to participate were sent through the paediatric facility’s electronic mailing list to all currently employed health care providers who potentially engaged in caregiving interactions with adolescents. The survey consisted of 15 closed items and seven open comment items. Closed items were analyzed using descriptive statistics and open comments were analyzed using manifest thematic coding. RESULTS: A total of 389 responses were received, representing health care providers in many disciplines. A variety of practices related to adolescent confidentiality and widespread misunderstanding of this issue were apparent. Respondents’ comments revealed individual and team knowledge gaps regarding adolescent and parent/guardian rights, and the difference between the constructs of consent to treatment and the provision of confidential health care for adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: While health care providers regard confidentiality as paramount, the present survey revealed a wide variation in understanding and practices regarding confidential care for adolescents. This was revealed in both the qualitative and quantitative data. The authors’ recommended strategies to improve the understanding and practice of adolescent confidentiality include: encouraging individuals’ examination of beliefs; postsecondary instruction; knowledge-translation strategies within programs; and institution-directed guidelines and policy. PMID