Millstein, Susan G.
This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…
Ewald, D. Rose; Haldeman, Lauren A.
Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997
MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.
The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…
Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil
This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…
Kalil, Ariel; Kunz, James
Survey administered to 958 girls studied effects of sociodemographic risk factors for adolescent nonmarital childbearing. Analysis showed adolescents girls who experienced five or more sociodemographic risk factors were 16 times more likely to experience a nonmarital childbirth during their teenage years. Under similar levels of risk, adolescent…
Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A
Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.
Miller-Johnson, Shari; C. Winn, Donna-Marie; Coie, John D.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lochman, John
This study examined childhood and adolescent risk factors for males' reports of getting someone pregnant during adolescence. These questions were examined in an urban sample of 335 African American males involved in a prospective, longitudinal study. Childhood aggression significantly predicted reported pregnancies during adolescence. Boys who…
Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Rosen, Zohn; De la Rosa, Mario; Montoya, Ivan D.; Whiteman, Martin
Objective Violence and homicide are more prevalent in Colombia, South America, than in the United States, but the role of psychosocial factors in the violent behavior of Colombian adolescents remains unclear. The objective of the study was to identify personality, familial, peer, and ecological variables associated with violence in Colombian adolescents. Method A survey of adolescents was conducted in 1995-1996. A standard self-report measure was adapted to ensure linguistic and cultural relevance. A total of 2,837 adolescents ages 12-17 years from various self-reported ethnic groups were randomly selected from the community in three Colombian cities: Bogota, Medellin, and Barranquilla. Eighty percent of eligible adolescents agreed to participate. Data were collected concerning the adolescent's personality attributes, family characteristics, peer characteristics, and ecological/cultural factors, including the availability of illicit drugs and the prevalence of violence in the community. The dependent variable was the adolescent's self-reported frequency of violent behavior. Results Violence directed at the adolescent and the adolescent's own drug use were both more highly correlated with the adolescent's violent behavior than were other risk factors. Significant risk factors of less importance included tolerance of deviance, peer drug use, peer deviance, and exposure to violence on television. Conclusions The results supported a model in which violent behavior was correlated independently with a number of risk factors from several domains. The findings point to the use of specific intervention procedures for adolescents to prevent their own subsequent acts of violent behavior. PMID:12900310
Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra
Significant numbers of adolescents are initiating sexual activity at age 17 and younger. Little is known about this younger population of adolescents. This includes risk or protective factors for sexual activity and sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition. To safeguard all adolescents from the consequences of risky sexual behaviors, and to insure age appropriate and effective interventions, further study is critical to address risky behaviors specific to early adolescents. This study was a retrospective chart review of 155 sexually active adolescent girls. Students were divided into those who never had a documented STI and those who had 1 or more STIs. Data were collected from a sexual history questionnaire. These data were grouped into risk or protective domains. Domains were made up of 5 items of protective factors, 3 items of peer risks, 2 items of family risks, and 7 items of individual risks. STI outcomes were compared to these characteristics. One hundred fifty-five sexually active adolescents were studied. A univariate and multivariate analysis of risk and protective factors for testing positive for an STI demonstrated that high levels of protective factors reduced the risk of STIs. This suggests that STI prevention programs should focus on increasing protective factors among young adolescents in addition to reducing risk factors.
Harter, Susan; Marold, Donna B.
Presents evidence for a model of risk factors, including depression, hopelessness, lack of social support, and negative self-evaluations, that contribute to suicidal ideation among normative and clinically depressed adolescents. (HTH)
Gutierrez, Peter M.
This article briefly reviews key issues in adolescent suicide risk assessment and proposes that assessing risk and protective factors in combination has the best probability of informing the field's understanding of this complex problem. Several newer measures are described along with summaries of their psychometric properties. A recommended…
Julihn, Annika; Ekbom, Anders; Modéer, Thomas
The influence of child and parental migration background on the risk of approximal caries increment in Swedish adolescents was investigated. This retrospective longitudinal register-based cohort study included all 13-yr-old adolescents (n = 18,142) who were resident in the County of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000, and followed them up to 19 yr of age. At follow-up, 15,538 subjects were examined. Caries data [decayed, missing, and filled teeth/surfaces (DMFT/S)], were collected from a dental database. Socio-demographic determinants were collected from Swedish National Registers. After adjustments for socio-demographic confounders, logistic regression analysis revealed that adolescents with foreign-born parents, irrespective of whether the child was born in Sweden or abroad, exhibited a significantly elevated risk for approximal caries increment (DMFSa > 0), and developed, on average, 0.53 and 1.14 more approximal caries lesions, respectively, compared with their counterparts with Swedish-born parents. Furthermore, adolescents born in eastern Europe exhibited an increased risk for approximal caries increment (DMFSa > 0) and developed, on average, 1.06 more approximal caries lesions compared with Swedish-born adolescents. In conclusion, parental migration background must be considered as a risk factor for caries development during adolescence, irrespective of whether or not the adolescent was born in Sweden.
Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa
Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…
de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk
Cid-Monckton, Patricia; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge
This cross-sectional and quantitative study aimed to verify the family's protective and risk factors related to drugs use in adolescents, considering the interaction patterns developed in the family, their degree of adaptability and vulnerability. Participants in this study were 80 female adolescents, from the 1st to 4th grade of high school, who answered a questionnaire. The most relevant risk and protective factors that would influence the situation were established, such as patterns of interaction, degree of adaptability, way of coping with problems, family resources and values. The major risk factors that emerged were the way people confront problems and, within these, lack of religious support and professional support, besides communication difficulties within families. The lowest risks were values, such as personal effort. The results highlight that nurses should assume psychosocial interventions as part of their role, especially among school-age children as, thus, they would be acting as agents in the prevention of drugs use.
Chiu, Eddie Yu-Wai; Woo, Kent
This preliminary study examined the characteristics and risk factors of problem gambling among Chinese American adolescents. A total of 192 Chinese American students (aged 13-19) from 9th to 12th grades were recruited from three high schools in San Francisco, California. Students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for…
Mayton, Daniel M., II; And Others
This study was designed to determine the correlates or potential risk factors which predict whether an adolescent who drinks or uses drugs will refrain from driving under the influence, or will drive in this condition. A group of 426 rural high school seniors completed a questionnaire which assessed drug use patterns and previously identified risk…
PUSTIVŠEK, Suzana; HADŽIĆ, Vedran; DERVIŠEVIĆ, Edvin
Objective Eating disorders (ED) are an important and increasing problem in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors and the prevalence of risk for ED among male adolescent elite athletes and nonathletic controls. Differences between male athletes competing in aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic sports were examined as well. Methods This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted on 351 adolescents (athletes n = 228; controls n = 123). All participants were aged 15–17 at the time of measuring. Risk for ED was determined using a SCOFF questionnaire. Results The overall prevalence of the risk for ED in male adolescents was 24.8%, with no significant differences among athletes and controls or different subgroups of athletes (p>0.05), although the highest prevalence (37.2%) was registered in aerobic subgroup of athletes. Higher number of attempts to lose weight was associated with increased risk of ED in each group (athletes and controls). Other predictors referred to lack of breakfast and body composition in aerobic subgroup of athletes and number of meals and training frequency in anaerobic subgroup. The most common reasons for dieting were improvement of sport results (19.6–44.2%) and better self-esteem (41.5%) in athletes and controls respectively. Conclusions Participation in the competitive sport itself is not associated with the increased risk for ED. It seems that risk factors for ED for adolescent athletes competing in aerobic and anaerobic sports represent a subject that deserves consideration and further investigation in the future. PMID:27646623
de Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla; Guimarães, Armênio Costa
Background Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. Objective To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Methods Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). Results One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW. PMID:23740400
Rosewater, K M; Burr, B H
Increasing rates of adolescent suicide are a significant health concern and the third leading cause of death for this age group. Recent research into psychiatric, gender-related, family, cultural and neurobiologic risk factors is reviewed. The effects of suicide exposure and media influences are also examined. Although many risk factors have been identified, the application of this knowledge to clinical practice requires further study. The limited number of studies on prevention and intervention strategies are discussed. High rates of nonadherence to follow-up remain problematic. More research is needed to develop appropriate treatments, prevention programs and outcome measures.
BORIČIĆ, Katarina; SIMIĆ, Snežana; VASILJEVIĆ, Nađa; MARINKOVIĆ, Jelena
Introduction The pandemic of obesity in adolescents is one of the challenges of public health. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the association of overweight with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors among Serbian adolescents. Method A cross-sectional study of 2139 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years was carried out. Data used in this study were from the 2006 Health Survey. In accordance with the international sex- and age-specific Body Mass Index cut-off points, all participants were classified as being normal weight or overweight, including obese. The association between the risk factors and overweight were examined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results The study showed that 28.9% of boys and 17.0% of girls were overweight, while 14.5% of boys and 8.1% of girls were obese. Boys were more likely to be overweight/obese, compared with girls. Being younger (p< 0.01 for 14 to 15 years) and (p< 0.01, for 16 to 19 years), engaging in physical activities that last less than 7 hours a week, in such a manner that they breathe quickly and become sweaty, (p< 0.01) and skipping breakfast (p< 0.05) were risk factors significantly associated with overweight among adolescents. No significant association was found with wealth index. Conclusion These findings should be an integral part of further preventive interventions, especially oriented towards younger adolescents, who are physically inactive, have a habit of skipping breakfast and are boys. PMID:27669514
Youth Marijuana Use 1 Modifiable Risk Factors for Marijuana Use Among Adolescents in a Youth Development Program Jenny A. Crain, MS, MPH, CPH, Suzanne L...risk for lifetime marijuana use. Keywords: Marijuana use; Risk factors; Youth development programs; Adolescents Modifiable Risk Factors for...negative consequences. Previous research has shown that adolescents with a history of prior marijuana, tobacco, and/or alcohol use are at greater risk of
do Prado Junior, Pedro Paulo; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza
Introducción: los cambios en el estilo de vida están relacionados con la exposición temprana de los adolescentes a las comorbilidades asociadas a la enfermedad cardiovascular. Estas condiciones pueden tener consecuencias en la edad adulta. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de riesgo cardiovascular y factores asociados en las tres fases de la adolescencia. Métodos: estudio transversal que incluye a adolescentes de 10-19 años en la ciudad de Viçosa, distribuidos en tres fases. Se evaluaron las pruebas de laboratorio, el índice de masa corporal clasificadas en Z-score, según el sexo y la edad, y el porcentaje de grasa corporal, clasificados por sexo. Se utilizó la prueba de chi-cuadrado, la partición de chi-cuadrado con corrección de Bonferroni y la regresión de Poisson. El nivel de significación fue < 0,05. El proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la UFV en humanos. Resultados: el sobrepeso, la grasa corporal, el perfil lipídico, el comportamiento sedentario y la historia de enfermedades cardiovasculares en la familia fueron los factores de riesgo cardiovascular más prevalentes entre los adolescentes. Los adolescentes tenían tasas más altas de sobrepeso y grasa. En cuanto a las etapas, la inicial mostró un mayor porcentaje de individuos con comportamiento sedentario, sobrepeso y colesterol total y LDL en comparación con otras fases. Los individuos con cambios en el estado nutricional eran más propensos a desarrollar hipertensión, cambios en el colesterol total, LDL, triglicéridos, insulina, HOMA y HDL bajo, en comparación con los individuos sanos. Conclusiones: los factores de riesgo cardiovascular se han observado en personas cada vez más jóvenes y son factores importantes para identificar una población en riesgo.
Rawal, Adhip; Rice, Frances
Objective: Identifying risk factors for adolescent depression is an important research aim. Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a feature of adolescent depression and a candidate cognitive risk factor for future depression. However, no study has ascertained whether OGM predicts the onset of adolescent depressive disorder. OGM was…
Palmeira, Ástrid Camêlo; Leal, Adriana Amorim de F.; Ramos, Nathaly de Medeiros N.; de Alencar F., José; Simões, Mônica Oliveira da S.; Medeiros, Carla Campos M.
OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES: This systematic review included studies from 2001 to 2011, a ten-year time period. Epidemiological studies with children and/or adolescents published in English, Portuguese or Spanish and fully available online were included. The searches were performed in Science Direct, PubMed/Medline, BVS (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) and Cochrane Library databases, using the following combination of key-words: "lipoprotein a" and "cardiovascular diseases" and "obesity". DATA SYNTHESIS: Overall, 672 studies were obtained but only seven were included. Some studies assessed the family history for CVD. In all of them, Lp(a) levels were increased in patients with family history for CVD. There was also a positive correlation between Lp(a) and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels, suggesting an association between Lp(a) levels and the lipid profile. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence that CVD may originate in childhood and adolescence leads to the need for investigating the risk factors during this period in order to propose earlier and possibly more effective interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:24473960
Li, Xueying; Ochs, Todd; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Xi; Yang, Jinyan; Liu, Ping; Xiong, Zhenyu; Gai, Yong; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang
Background Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is prevalent in children and adolescents and has a great impact on health. But its risk factors have not been fully understood. This study aimed to explore possible risk factors for children and adolescents with POTS. Methods and Findings 600 children and adolescents (test group) aged 7–18 (11.9±3.0) years old, 259 males and 341 females, were recruited for identifying its risk factors. Another 197 subjects aged from 7 to 18 (11.3±2.3) years old were enrolled in the validation group. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were monitored during upright test. Risk factors were analyzed and sensitivity and specificity for predicting POTS were tested via receiver operating characteristic curve. Among 600 subjects, 41 were confirmed with POTS patients (6.8%) based on clinical manifestation and upright test. The results showed a significant difference in daily water intake, the daily sleeping hours, supine HR, HR increment and maximum HR during upright test between POTS and the unaffected children (P<0.05). Likelihood of POTS would increase by 1.583 times if supine HR was increased by 10 beats/min (95%CI 1.184 to 2.116, P<0.01), by 3.877 times if a child's water intake was less than 800 ml/day (95%CI 1.937 to 7.760, P<0.001), or by 5.905 times (95%CI 2.972 to 11.733, P<0.001) if sleeping hours were less than 8 hours/day. Supine HR, daily water intake and sleeping hours showed the capability of predicting POTS in children and adolescents with an AUC of 83.9% (95% CI: 78.6%–89.1%), sensitivity of 80.5% and specificity of 75%. Furthermore, in validation group, predictive sensitivity and specificity were 73.3% and 72.5%. Conclusion Faster supine HR, less water intake and shorter sleeping hours were identified as risk factors for POTS. PMID:25474569
Cooper, Sharon P.; Shipp, Eva M.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Cooper, Charles J.; Bautista, Leonelo E.; Levin, Jeffrey
Objectives Despite a national crisis of increased prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adolescents, especially among Hispanics, there is a paucity of data on health indicators among farmworker adolescents and their peers. The main aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in a population of Hispanic adolescent students in south Texas. The study also aimed to compare the prevalence of these risk factors between students enrolled in the Migrant Education Program (MEP) and other students, and between boys and girls. Methods In partnership with the Weslaco (Texas) Independent School District and the Migrant Education Department, a cohort study was conducted from 2007 to 2010 to estimate the prevalence of overall obesity (body mass index ≥85th percentile for age and sex), abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥75th percentile for age, sex, and ethnicity), acanthosis nigricans (AN), and high blood pressure (HBP; ≥90th percentile for age, height, and sex or systolic/diastolic BP ≥120/80 mm Hg) among MEP students compared with other students from two south Texas high schools. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the relation between sex and our main outcomes of interest while accounting for within-school nesting of participants. Results Among 628 sampled students, 508 (80.9%) completed the consent procedure and participated in the study. Of these, 257 were MEP students and 251 were non-MEP peers. Approximately 96.7% of participants were Hispanic and 50.0% were boys. Analyses of data across the years comparing MEP students and non-MEP students show an average prevalence of 44.8% versus 47.7% for overall obesity, 43.2% versus 43.7% for abdominal obesity, 24.7% versus 24.7% for AN, and 29.2% versus 32.8% for HBP. Across recruitment and follow-up years, the prevalence of overall obesity, abdominal obesity, and HBP was 1.3 to 1.5, 1.2 to 1.8, and 2.9 to 4.6 times higher in boys than in girls
Both the intensity and prevalence of violence and delinquency among children and adolescents have continued to rise during the past fifteen years. Efforts to counteract this development may benefit from recent evidence from developmental psychopathology and neurobiology. A model proposed by Moffitt describes two developmental pathways into antisocial problem behavior: one path characterized by an early onset and a stable course of symptoms ("life-course persistent") and the other by an episodic ("adolescence-limited") occurrence of anti-social behavior. While in the latter the specific developmental tasks and life circumstances of adolescence play a major role in the pathogenesis, persistent antisocial behavior is perceived to be a result of a transactional process between child and environment. Apart from psychosocial factors, biological predispositions (genetic susceptibility) and psychological dispositions (temperament and personality characteristics) are of primary interest. The recent progress in neurobiological and personality research promises significant insights into the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. Integrating these approaches may help in targeting prevention and early intervention programs to high-risk groups and may thus contribute to improving their effectiveness.
Pollock, Norman K; Bernard, Paul J; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin
Objective To compare bone mass between overweight adolescents with and without cardiometabolic risk factors (CMR). Associations of bone mass with CMR and adiposity were also determined. Study design Overweight adolescents (aged 14–18 years) were classified in Healthy (n=55), 1CMR (n=46) or ≥2CMR (n=42). CMR were measured using standard methods and defined according to pediatric definitions of metabolic syndrome. Total body bone mass, fat mass and fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST) were measured by DXA. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) were assessed using MRI. Results After controlling for age, sex, race, height and FFST, Healthy group had 5.4% and 6.3% greater bone mass than the 1CMR and ≥2CMR groups, respectively (both P<0.04). Multiple linear regression, adjusting for same covariates, revealed that VAT (β=−0.22), waist circumference (β= −0.23), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (β= −0.23) and HDL-cholesterol (β=0.22) were associated with bone mass (all P<0.04). There was a trend towards a significant inverse association between bone mass and fasting glucose (P=0.056). No relations were found between bone mass and fat mass, SAAT, BP or triglycerides. Conclusion Being overweight with metabolic abnormalities, particularly insulin resistance, low HDL-cholesterol and visceral adiposity, may adversely influence adolescent bone mass. PMID:21232765
McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton
The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because the risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that in utero exposures, or those in early childhood, are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolescence and adulthood is also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two adult occupational exposures-fire fighting and aircraft maintenance--and one environmental exposure (to organochlorine pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, seven of the identified factors--diet, types of physical activity, military service, police work as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide--are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures--to heat, polyvinyl chloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use--require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer.
Bao, Lin; Brownlie, E B; Beitchman, Joseph H
Longitudinal research on mental health development beyond adolescence among nonclinical populations is lacking. This study reports on psychiatric disorder trajectories from late adolescence to young adulthood in relation to childhood and adolescent risk factors. Participants were recruited for a prospective longitudinal study tracing a community sample of 5-year-old children with communication disorders and a matched control cohort to age 31. Psychiatric disorders were measured at ages 19, 25, and 31. Known predictors of psychopathology and two school-related factors specifically associated with language disorder (LD) were measured by self-reports and semistructured interviews. The LD cohort was uniquely characterized by a significantly decreasing disorder trajectory in early adulthood. Special education was associated with differential disorder trajectories between LD and control cohorts, whereas maltreatment history, specific learning disorder, family structure, and maternal psychological distress were associated with consistent trajectories between cohorts. From late adolescence to young adulthood, childhood LD was characterized by a developmentally limited course of psychiatric disorder; maltreatment was consistently characterized by an elevated risk of psychiatric disorder regardless of LD history, whereas special education was associated with significantly decreasing risk of psychiatric disorder only in the presence of LD.
Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Rose, Hilary A.
Examines familial and extrafamilial factors associated with adolescent well-being in intact, blended, and divorced single-parent families. Findings indicate that divorced and blended families have some of the same forms of resiliency as intact families. For adolescents in a divorced single-parent family, peer support moderated the effect of low…
Hu, Mei-Chen; Griesler, Pamela; Schaffran, Christine; Kandel, Denise
Background: We investigated the role of psychosocial and proximal contextual factors on nicotine dependence in adolescence. Methods: Data on a multiethnic cohort of 6th to 10th graders from the Chicago public schools were obtained from four household interviews conducted with adolescents over two years and one interview with mothers. Structural…
Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L
The specific aim of this investigation was to map cultural factors associated with aggressive behavior in Latino adolescents. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 481 foreign- and U.S.-born Latino adolescents living in North Carolina and Arizona. Structural Equation Modeling was used to validate a conceptual model linking adolescent and parent culture-of-origin and U.S. cultural involvement, acculturation conflicts, and perceived discrimination to family processes (familism and parent-adolescent conflict) and adolescent aggression. Parent-adolescent conflict was the strongest cultural risk factor followed by perceived discrimination. Familism and adolescent culture-of-origin involvement were key cultural assets associated with less aggressive behavior. Exploratory mediation analyses suggested that familism and parent-adolescent conflict mediated the effects of acculturation conflicts, parent and adolescent culture-of-origin involvement, and parent U.S. cultural involvement on adolescent aggression. Implications for prevention programming were discussed.
Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.
This study examined the effects of cumulative risk and promotive factors on violent behavior across the high school years of adolescence in a sample of predominately African American urban adolescents (N = 750). Cumulative risk and promotive factor indices represented individual characteristics, and peer, parental, and familial influences. Using…
Tandon, Darius S.; Solomon, Barry S.
There is limited understanding of risk and protective factors associated with depression among African American adolescents living in impoverished, urban settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify a range of risk and protective factors associated with depressive symptoms among low-income urban African American adolescents. The…
Elgar, Frank J; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E
Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11-15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions.
Jin, Yuelong; Peng, Baozhen; Li, Yijun; Song, Lei; He, Lianping; Fu, Rui; Wu, Qianqian; Fan, Qingxiu; Yao, Yingshui
In recent years, fatigue is common among adolescents. The aim of this study is to evaluate fatigue status and find related factors of fatigue among students ranged from 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This is a case-control, cross-sectional observational study. The students from six middle schools (high school? 26 years old?) in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Fatigue Scale (SFS) was used to measure the fatigue status among students ranged from 13-26 years, and some demographic characteristics of students also was determined. A total of 726 students are included in our study. A significant difference was observed between fatigue status and grade, a balanced diet, the partial eclipse, picky for food, lack of sleep, excessive fatigue, drinking (P < 0.05). The risk factors of fatigue status include myopia, partial eclipse, picky for food, lacking of sleep, drinking; grade while a balanced diet is the protective factor of fatigue. Therefore, the school should pay more attention to the fatigue among students in middle school in China, and take some properly measures to reduce the fatigue.
Young, Brennan J.; Furman, Wyndol
Being a victim of sexual aggression from a peer is a common experience among adolescents and poses a significant risk for various forms of psychopathology. Unfortunately, little is known concerning specific interpersonal factors that increase an adolescent's risk for experiencing sexual aggression. The current study assessed the contribution made…
Secades-Villa, Roberto; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose Ramon; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo
The main objective of this research was to analyze the influence and the differential weight of certain family factors in Spanish adolescent substance abuse. A representative sample of 1,680 students of both sexes from all over Spain took part in the study. The results show that the variables associated with drug consumption are: male,…
Alimoradi, Zainab; Kariman, Nourossadat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
ABSTRACT Background: Adolescence is a period of overwhelming changes and challenges, which expose the adolescents to high-risk behaviors. Risky sexual relationship is one of these behaviors that entails physical risks and psychosocial harms. Various factors have been recognized to shape sexual behaviors in adolescents. This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods: A literature review of the research published by Iranian authors, in Farsi or English language in local and foreign journals, was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, IranDoc, and Google Scholar. The search in each database included all the years covered at that time using keywords such as “sexual, adolescents, and Iran”, and continued using other keywords such as “sexual behavior, high-risk behavior, sexual risk and reproductive behavior” individually and in combination Results: Sixteen published articles were identified. Factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in girls can be divided into four general groups including personal, family, peer, school and community. Conclusion: Regarding the identified risk and protective factors, appropriate individual, family and school-based interventions can be designed and implemented to strengthen protective factors. While individual and family factors are considered more in research, factors related to peers, school and community have received less attention. Since social values, beliefs and norms are important factors in formation of sexual behaviors, further research regarding these factors is suggested. PMID:28097173
Werner, Mark J.
The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…
Parra, Gilbert R.; DuBois, David L.; Sher, Kenneth J.
Latent variable mixture modeling was used to identify subgroups of adolescents with distinct profiles of risk factors from individual, family, peer, and broader contextual domains. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Four-class models provided the most theoretically meaningful solutions for both 7th (n = 907;…
Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.
Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood…
Graves, Kelly N.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Shelton, Terri L.; Frabutt, James M.; Willford, Amanda P.
The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge base of adolescent substance use by examining the influences of risk and protective factors for specific substance use, namely alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Participants included 271 adolescents and their primary caregivers referred for mental health services across North Carolina. A…
Lejuez, Carl W.
Rates of substance use and comorbid psychopathology peak during adolescence, highlighting the need to identify transdiagnostic risk processes that cut across conditions and elucidate early embedded risk factors for comorbidity across development. The current review highlights emotion regulation deficits as a core transdiagnostic risk factor underlying the development of substance use, addiction, and comorbid psychopathology in adolescence. We present the dual systems model of neurological development to highlight adolescence as a critical period of increased risk for emotion regulation difficulties, corresponding risk behaviors, and psychopathology. We describe malfunction in the neurobiological regulation system underlying the relationship between emotion regulation and risk for addiction and comorbidity. We pull from two established developmental theories including both the externalizing pathway and the internalizing pathway to substance use disorders, which together highlight how early embedded risk in the form of emotion regulation deficits can explain mechanisms underlying the development of addiction and comorbid psychiatric disorders. PMID:26889402
McKnight, Lela Renee'; Loper, Ann Booker
Describes two studies conducted with samples of adolescent girls to determine whether resilience factors could distinguish at risk characteristics as delinquent or non-delinquent. Resiliency was shown to determine delinquency levels. Suggests that intervention programs designed to remediate the effects of risk factors should include components…
The effects of single parenting are explored in this paper. Single parenting is viewed in the overall framework of the risk and protective factor model, in which single parenting is viewed as one risk factor that can lead to unsuccessful adolescent academic outcomes. A historical perspective of single parenting is offered, with a focus on how such…
Shanahan, Lilly; Copeland, William; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
Background: Most psychosocial risk factors appear to have general rather than specific patterns of association with common childhood and adolescence disorders. However, previous research has typically failed to 1) control for comorbidity among disorders, 2) include a wide range of risk factors, and 3) examine sex by developmental stage effects on…
Wills, Thomas Ashby; Sandy, James M.; Yaeger, Alison; Shinar, Ori
Tested for moderation in the relation of family risk factors to adolescent substance use. Surveyed 1,810 participants at 11.5 years and followed with 2 yearly assessments. Found that impact of parental risk factors was decreased among participants with higher task attentional orientation and positive emotionality (resilience) and was increased…
Lin, Shiyng-Yu; Su, Chien-Tien; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Li, Yu-Ling; Chen, Yih-Ru; Cheng, Shu-Yun; Hu, Chien-Ming; Chen, Yi-Hua; Hsieh, Fang-I; Chiou, Hung-Yi
The study aims to discover risk factors significantly correlated with insulin resistance among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 339 study subjects were recruited in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire and physical examinations including anthropometrics and biochemistry profiles were collected. Insulin resistance was assessed using homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Study subjects had a significantly increased risk of IR for those with abnormal level of body mass index (odds ratio [OR] = 3.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.81-6.91), body fat (OR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.25-5.88), and waist circumference (OR = 25.04; 95% CI = 2.93-214.14) when compared with those who have normal values. Furthermore, a significantly joint effect of 10.86-fold risk for HOMA-IR abnormality among body fat, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure was observed. The identification of risk factors significantly correlated with IR will be important to prevent metabolic syndrome-related diseases and complications for adolescents in their future life.
Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.
This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…
Koleva, Hristina; Stuart, Scott
Depression in adolescent pregnancy is common but underrecognized and can be associated with negative medical outcomes. This brief report examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and various demographic and obstetrical risk factors, as well as the use of antidepressants in pregnant adolescents of late teenage years. Data were derived from a relatively large sample (506 women) recruited from university-based and community mental health centers in Iowa. A cross-sectional analysis did not reveal significant statistical associations between the risk factors and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory). Antidepressant use was very low (3.7 %), and adolescents with higher depression scores were more likely to take medications. In conclusion, screening for depression in pregnant adolescents should be universal, regardless of demographic and obstetrical risk factors, and promptly addressed.
Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan
Objective Although several prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating disorders, little is known about when these risk factors emerge and escalate, or when they begin to predict future eating disorder onset. The objective of this report was to address these key research gaps. Method Data were examined from a prospective study of 496 community female adolescents (M = 13.5, SD = 0.7 at baseline) who completed eight annual assessments of potential risk factors and eating disorders from preadolescence to young adulthood. Results Three variables exhibited positive linear increases: Perceived pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization and body dissatisfaction; three were best characterized as quadratic effects: dieting (essentially little change); negative affectivity (overall decrease), and BMI (overall increase). Elevated body dissatisfaction at ages 13, 14, 15, and 16 predicted DSM-5 eating disorders onset in the 4 year period after each assessment, but the predictive effects of other risk factors were largely confined to age 14; BMI did not predict eating disorders at any age. Discussion The results imply that these risk factors are present by early adolescence, though eating disorders tend to emerge in late adolescence and early adulthood. These findings emphasize the need for efficacious eating disorder prevention programs for early adolescent girls, perhaps targeting 14 year olds, when risk factors appear to be most predictive. In early adolescence, it might be fruitful to target girls with body dissatisfaction, as this was the most consistent predictor of early eating disorder onset in this study. PMID:24599841
Herrenkohl, Todd I.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Toumbourou, John W.
Analyses examined risk factors for seventh- and ninth-grade youth categorized as nonoffenders, physically violent, relationally aggressive, and both violent and relationally aggressive. Bivariate and multivariate results showed that relationally aggressive youth were elevated on most risks above levels for nonoffenders but lower than those for…
Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam
The adolescence period of life comes along with changes and challenges in terms of physical and cognitive development. In this hectic period, many adolescents may suffer more from various risk factors such as low socioeconomic status, substance abuse, sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicate that such disadvantaged backgrounds of Malaysian adolescent students lead to failure or underachievement in their academic performance. This narrative review scrutinises how some of these students are able to demonstrate academic resilience, which is satisfactory performance in cognitive or academic tasks in spite of their disadvantaged backgrounds. The review stresses the need for developing a caregiving relationship model for at-risk adolescent students in Malaysia. Such a model would allow educators to meet the students' needs for enhancing thinking skills, counteracting risk factors and demonstrating academic resilience.
Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam
The adolescence period of life comes along with changes and challenges in terms of physical and cognitive development. In this hectic period, many adolescents may suffer more from various risk factors such as low socioeconomic status, substance abuse, sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicate that such disadvantaged backgrounds of Malaysian adolescent students lead to failure or underachievement in their academic performance. This narrative review scrutinises how some of these students are able to demonstrate academic resilience, which is satisfactory performance in cognitive or academic tasks in spite of their disadvantaged backgrounds. The review stresses the need for developing a caregiving relationship model for at-risk adolescent students in Malaysia. Such a model would allow educators to meet the students' needs for enhancing thinking skills, counteracting risk factors and demonstrating academic resilience. PMID:25663734
Milan, Stephanie; Zona, Kate; Acker, Jenna; Turcios-Cotto, Viana
There are two types of risk factors for developing PTSD: factors that increase the likelihood of experiencing a potentially traumatizing event and factors that increase the likelihood of developing symptoms following such events. Using prospective data over a two-year period from a large, diverse sample of urban adolescents (n = 1242, Mean age =…
López Larrosa, Silvia; Rodríguez-Arias Palomo, José Luis
Adolescents' drug use has huge social and personal implications, so it is essential to identify risk and protective factors. In this research, the CTCYS was used with 2440 adolescents to detect risk and protective factors for drug use in the community, family, school and peers/individual; differences in risk and protective factors by age and sex; and relationships between risk and protective factors and substance use. Protective factors are high. Risk factors are high in the community, the school and the individual. Older adolescents have more risks and less protection than the youngest; and there are sex differences, because males have less protection and more risks. The risk factors more closely related to drug use are availability of drugs in the community, family attitudes favourable to drug use, family history of antisocial behaviour, early start and use of drugs by friends, perceived risk and attitudes favourable to drug use. In the protective factors, the role played by social skills for alcohol use is important.
Vakalahi, Halaevalu F.
Family influence has been established as one of the strongest sources of risk and protection when considering adolescent substance abuse. Theories used to view the family influence include family systems theory; social cognitive theory; social control theory; and strain theory. Specific family-based risk and protective factors include family…
Fernández Santos, Diana M.; Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I.; María de los, A. Gómez; Maysonet-Cruz, Johanna; Miranda-Díaz, Christine; Sepúlveda-Santiago, Mario; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.
Introduction Teenagers are the fastest growing group of newly HIV-infected persons. Consequently, a support model for HIV risk reduction was designed and implemented for early adolescents in Puerto Rico. Objective The purpose of this article is to assess changes in developmental factors and HIV risk behaviors among early adolescents after three years of follow-up of an intervention and a non-intervention group. Methods This prospective cohort study followed 135 early adolescents who were enrolled in the ASUMA (A Supportive Model for HIV Risk Reduction in Early Adolescents) Project. The study was performed in two public and two private junior schools. Baseline and three follow-up self-administered questionnaires were given. We examined sociodemographic factors, HIV risk behavior and developmental factors. Results 48% were in the intervention group and 51.1% were controls. Most adolescents were aged 12 years; 47.4% were males; 75.6% reported not having risk behaviors and 24.4% reported having risk behaviors at anytime in their lifespan. A significant decrease in the HIV risk behaviors median was observed among the intervention group (P<.05), while a non-significant increase was found among adolescents in the control group. At the end of the implementation phase, positive improvement in the developmental factors were observed in the intervention group (P<.05). Conclusions Our study suggests that the ASUMA project curriculum had a positive effect on developmental factors and HIV risk behaviors, as proposed in our conceptual framework. Also, this study illustrates the importance of the creation of culturally appropriate instruments and interventions to reach the goal of HIV/AIDS reduction. PMID:20521399
Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cooper, Brittany R.; Bray, Bethany C.
Purpose To present mixture regression analysis as an alternative to more standard regression analysis for predicting adolescent delinquency. We demonstrate how mixture regression analysis allows for the identification of population subgroups defined by the salience of multiple risk factors. Methods We identified population subgroups (i.e., latent classes) of individuals based on their coefficients in a regression model predicting adolescent delinquency from eight previously established risk indices drawn from the community, school, family, peer, and individual levels. The study included N = 37,763 tenth-grade adolescents who participated in the Communities that Care Youth Survey. Standard, zero-inflated, and mixture Poisson and negative binomial regression models are considered. Results Standard and mixture negative binomial regression models are selected as optimal. The five-class regression model is interpreted based on the class-specific regression coefficients, indicating that risk factors have varying salience across classes of adolescents. Conclusions Standard regression shows that all risk factors are significantly associated with delinquency. Mixture regression provides more nuanced information, suggesting a unique set of risk factors that are salient for different subgroups of adolescents. Implications for the design of subgroup-specific interventions are discussed. PMID:24231260
Lewinsohn, Peter M.; And Others
Examined psychosocial risk factors for attempting suicide in 1,508 high school students, 26 of whom attempted suicide during year following entry into study. Strongest predictors of future suicide attempt were history of past attempt, current suicidal ideation and depression, recent attempt by friend, low self-esteem, and having been born to…
Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.
There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…
Riesch, Susan K.; Kedrowski, Karen; Brown, Roger L.; Temkin, Barbara Myers; Wang, Kevin; Henriques, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Gloria; Giustino-Kluba, Nina
Background Children as young as 10 years old report curiosity and participation in health-risk behaviors, yet most studies focus upon adolescent samples. Objective To document the types and frequencies of health risk behavior among pre-adolescents and to examine the child, family, and environment factors that predict them. Method A sample of 297 pre-adolescents (mean age = 10.5, SD = 0.6) from two Midwestern US cities and their parents (child-parent dyads) provided data about demographic characteristics, health risk behavior participation, child self-esteem, child pubertal development, child and adult perception of their neighborhood, and parent monitoring. Their participation was at intake to a 5-year clustered randomized controlled trial. Results Pre-adolescents participated in an average of 3.7 health-risk behaviors (SD = 2.0), primarily those that lead to unintentional (helmet and seatbelt use) and intentional (feeling unsafe, having something stolen, and physical fighting) injury. Factors predictive of unintentional injury risk behavior were self-esteem, pubertal development, parent monitoring, and parent perception of the neighborhood environment. Boys were 1.8 times less likely than girls to use helmets and seatbelts. Pre-adolescents whose parents were not partnered were 2.8 times more likely than pre-adolescents whose parents were partnered to report intentional risk behavior. Recommendations These data demonstrate trends that cannot be ignored. We recommend, focused specifically upon boys and non-partnered families, that (a) developmentally-appropriate, appealing prevention messages be developed and delivered for parents and pre-adolescents and community interventions targeting both parent and pre-adolescent together be provided to help them establish and monitor behavioral expectations and (b) organized nursing endorse policy in the US and globally that assures adequate family environments for children. PMID:23177901
Barney, David D.
A study examined whether protective factors reduce the effects of depression in American Indian and Alaska Native adolescents. Surveys of 2,034 Native high school students from 33 states indicated that depression moderately influenced self-perceived health status and that caring and connectedness counteracted the risk factors from depression that…
Pagani, Linda S.; Tremblay, Richard E.; Nagin, Daniel; Zoccolillo, Mark; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre
Contributing to the family violence and conflict literature, we examine prospective and concurrent risk factors associated with verbal and physical aggression toward mothers by 15/16 year-old adolescent sons and daughters. Data from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children is used to examine the influence of socioeconomic factors,…
Wolfgang, James; Dennison, Darwin
A study was conducted to analyze high school students' self-reports and to determine biomedical cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adolescent population. Factors evaluated included smoking frequency, dietary fat intake, saturated fat intake, and cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio. (JN)
Byrd, Amy L; Hawes, Samuel W; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A
Youth with a callous interpersonal style, consistent with features of adult psychopathy (e.g., lack of guilt, deceitful), are at risk for exhibiting severe and protracted antisocial behaviors. However, no studies have examined changes that occur in interpersonal callousness (IC) from childhood to adolescence, and little is known about the influence of early child, social, and contextual factors on trajectories of IC. The current study examined distinct patterns of IC across childhood and adolescence and associations with early risk factors. Participants were an at-risk sample of 503 boys (56% African American) assessed annually from around ages 7-15. Analyses examined child (anger dysregulation, fearfulness), social (peer, family, maltreatment), and contextual (psychosocial adversity) factors associated with teacher-reported IC trajectories across childhood and adolescence. Using latent class growth analysis, five trajectories of IC were identified (early-onset chronic, childhood-limited, adolescent-onset, moderate, low). Approximately 10% of boys followed an early-onset chronic trajectory, and a roughly equal percent of youth followed childhood-limited trajectory (10%) or an adolescent-onset trajectory (12%) of IC across development. Specifically, half of the boys with high IC in childhood did not continue to exhibit significant levels of these features into adolescence, whereas an equal proportion of youth with low IC in childhood demonstrated increasing levels during the transition to adolescence. Boys in the early-onset chronic group were characterized by the most risk factors and were differentiated from those with childhood-limited and adolescent-onset IC only by higher conduct problems, fearlessness, and emotional abuse/neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental models of IC and several avenues for early targeted interventions.
Smokowski, Paul; Buchanan, Rachel L.; Bacallao, Martica L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among risk factors, cultural assets, and Latino adolescent mental health outcomes. We extend past research by using a longitudinal design and evaluating direct and moderated acculturation effects across a range of internalizing, externalizing, and academic engagement outcomes. The sample…
Chun, Heejung; Mobley, Michael
We investigated the "immigrant paradox" phenomenon by examining differences in problem behavior engagement and exposure to risk factors across four adolescent groups: 1,157 first-generation, 1,498 second-generation, and 3,316 White and minority third or higher generations. Latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement (i.e., academic failure, aggression, and substance use) and risk factors (i.e., low socioeconomic status, poor family relationship, and low sense of school belonging) were associated with significant differences across adolescent groups. Results supported the generational status effect by demonstrating sequentially greater adolescent problem behavior engagement. However, the difference in exposure to risk factors across adolescent groups only partially supported the immigrant paradox. Further, the multiple group analysis of the relationships between risk factors and engagement in problem behaviors showed increased susceptibility among second generation immigrants for substance use, White natives for academic failure and substance use, and minority natives for physical aggression. Study findings have implications for understanding how the immigrant paradox leads to different adjustment patterns and problem behavior manifestations among immigrant and native adolescents.
Petersen, Anne C.; And Others
This study examined the relation between family variables and the mental health outcomes of adolescents. Family members' feelings about one another were assessed when the children were in grades 6 and 8. Family members' closeness to one another was assessed when children were in grades 8 and 12, and in a 4-year follow-up study. Adolescents' mental…
McGlynn, Katherine A.; Trabert, Britton
The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that exposures in utero or in early childhood are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolecence and adulthood are also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two occupational exposures—firefighting and aircraft maintenance—and one environmental exposure (to organochloride pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, six of the identified factors—diet, types of physical activity, military service as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide—are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures—to heat, polyvinylchloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use—require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459
Cuenca-García, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; González-Gross, M; Labayen, I; Jago, R; Martínez-Gómez, D; Dallongeville, J; Bel-Serrat, S; Marcos, A; Manios, Y; Breidenassel, C; Widhalm, K; Gottrand, F; Ferrari, M; Kafatos, A; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S; Castillo, M J; Sjöström, M
To investigate the combined influence of diet quality and physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, adolescents (n = 1513; 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study were studied. Dietary intake was registered using a 24-h recall and a diet quality index was calculated. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. Lifestyle groups were computed as: healthy diet and active, unhealthy diet but active, healthy diet but inactive, and unhealthy diet and inactive. CVD risk factor measurements included cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity indicators, blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and insulin resistance. A CVD risk score was computed. The healthy diet and active group had a healthier cardiorespiratory profile, fat mass index (FMI), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio (all P ≤ 0.05). Overall, active adolescents showed higher cardiorespiratory fitness, lower FMI, TC/HDL-C ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index and healthier blood pressure than their inactive peers with either healthy or unhealthy diet (all P ≤ 0.05). Healthy diet and active group had healthier CVD risk score compared with the inactive groups (all P ≤ 0.02). Thus, a combination of healthy diet and active lifestyle is associated with decreased CVD risk in adolescents. Moreover, an active lifestyle may reduce the adverse consequences of an unhealthy diet.
Cotter, Katie L; Smokowski, Paul R
Despite growing trends in adolescent female aggression, much adolescent aggression research has focused on males to the exclusion of their female counterparts. Using relational-cultural and social role theories, the current study identifies the risk and promotive factors associated with adolescent female aggression. Using data from the Rural Adaptation Project (a 5 year longitudinal panel study of youth from two rural, ethnically diverse, low income counties in North Carolina), a 2-level hierarchical linear model was estimated (N = 3580). Internalizing symptoms, association with delinquent friends, peer pressure, and parent-child conflict emerged as risk factors whereas teacher support was a significant promotive factor. Results suggest that interventions should focus on negative relationships in both the parent and peer domains and underscore the need for mental health services for aggressive girls.
Guijarro, S; Naranjo, J; Padilla, M; Gutiérez, R; Lammers, C; Blum, R W
This paper presents the study on the family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy among adolescent girls and their families in Quito, Ecuador. The study aimed to identify characteristics within the family associated with adolescent pregnancy. A total of 135 female adolescents (aged 12-19 years) and their families were separately interviewed. 47 were pregnant and attending prenatal care at an inner city hospital in Quito, and 88 were nonpregnant students from schools located within the same geographical area. Results showed that when compared to their pregnant peers, more nonpregnant adolescents lived with their biological parents (p 0.002); they showed higher school performance (p 0.001); and more values and religiosity (p 0.0001). Pregnant adolescents reported lower mother-daughter and father-daughter communication (p 0.02), lesser life satisfaction in general, and more school and economic difficulties (p 0.001). Moreover, they were less likely to find support for their problems in or outside the family (p 0.0001) and showed higher levels of depression (68.8%) and sexual abuse (14.9%). Parental education was higher in the families of nonpregnant adolescents and both parents worked to provide financial support for the family.
de Moraes, A C F; Musso, C; Graffigna, M N; Soutelo, J; Migliano, M; Carvalho, H B; Berg, G
High blood pressure (HBP) and obesity is a well-established major risk factor for stroke and coronary heart disease. However, the literatures are scarce about these informations in adolescents from low-and-middle income countries. This school-based survey was carried out among students from Maringá (Brazil) and Buenos Aires (Argentina) selected random sampling. We studied 991 Brazilian adolescents (54.5% girls) in the age range of 14-18 years. In Argentina, we studied 933 adolescents (45.9% female) in the age range of 11-17 years. The outcomes of this study are general obesity, abdominal obesity and HBP. The associated factors analysed were gender, age and health behaviours. The prevalence of obesity was 5.8% in Brazil and 2.8% in Argentina, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 32.7% in Brazil and 11.1% in Argentina, the prevalence of HBP was 14.9% in Brazil and 13.5% in Argentina. The multilevel analysis showed that older adolescents (>14 years old) have a little likelihood of being overweight, whereas male adolescents are more likely to be obese and have HBP. The abdominal obesity in both indicators were not associated with the independent variables. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is high in Latin American adolescents independent of each country, and was associated with male gender.
Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.
Little is known about the adolescent risk factors and young adult health-related outcomes associated with running away from home. We examined these correlates of running away using longitudinal data from 4,329 youth (48% female, 85% white) who were followed from Grade 9 to age 21. Nearly 14% of the sample reported running away in the past year at…
Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Erdley, Cynthia; Lisa, Ludmila; Sim, Leslie
The purpose of this study was to examine a model of factors that place psychiatrically hospitalized girls at risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The role of familial and peer interpersonal difficulties, as well as emotional dysregulation, were examined in relationship to NSSI behaviors. Participants were 99 adolescent girls (83.2% Caucasian;…
Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul
Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…
Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.
Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…
Corrigan, Matthew J.; Loneck, Barry; Videka, Lynn; Brown, M. Craig
The field of substance abuse prevention has evolved towards a risk and protective factor paradigm in explaining the onset and escalation of adolescent substance use. This framework for understanding the problem has been developed and employed by researchers at the University of Washington, under Doctors Hawkins and Catalano, to assess communities…
Bower, Julie M.; Carroll, Annemaree; Ashman, Adrian F.
This research investigated relationships between risk and protective factors and school experiences for three adolescent groups (31 early-onset offenders who began offending before the age of 12, 36 late-onset offenders who began offending at or after 12 years, and 36 who were non-offenders) aged 12-18 years. Using a semi-structured interview and…
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chien, Wu-Chien; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Wu, Chia-Ling
Anemia is known to be a significant public health problem in many countries. Most of the available information is incomplete or limited to special groups such as people with intellectual disability. The present study aims to provide the information of anemia prevalence and associated risk factors of children and adolescents with intellectual…
Mazza, James J.; Fleming, Charles B.; Abbott, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.
Few studies have examined risk factors of childhood and early adolescent depressive symptomatology trajectories. This study examined self-report depressive symptomatology across a 6-year time period from 2nd to 8th grade to identify latent groups of individuals with similar patterns of depressive phenomena in a sample of 951 children (440 girls,…
Jahromi, Laudan B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Zeiders, Katharine H.
Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for developmental delays. Less is known about the heterogeneity in these children's developmental trajectories, and factors associated with different patterns of development. This longitudinal study used latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify distinct trajectories in children of Mexican-origin…
Voisin, Dexter R.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; Yarber, William L.
The authors used Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework of an ecological systems model to examine factors that are independently associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors among 280 sexually active detained female adolescents. Using computer-assisted self-interviewing procedures, the authors assessed individual…
Lohman, Brenda J.; Billings, Amanda
Protective and risk factors associated with rates of early sexual debut and risky sexual behaviors for a sample of low-income adolescent boys were examined using bioecological theory framed by a resiliency perspective. Protective processes examined include a close mother-son and father-son relationship, parental monitoring and family routines, as…
Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Marshall, Sharon; Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita
Few studies have analyzed the development course beginning in pre-/early adolescence of overall engagement in health-risk behaviors and associated social risk factors that place individuals in different health-risk trajectories through mid-adolescence. The current longitudinal study identified 1276 adolescents in grade six and followed them for three years to investigate their developmental trajectories of risk behaviors and to examine the association of personal and social risk factors with each trajectory. Group-based trajectory modeling was applied to identify distinctive trajectory patterns of risk behaviors. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the effects of the personal and social risk factors on adolescents' trajectories. Three gender-specific behavioral trajectories were identified for males (55.3% low-risk, 37.6% moderate-risk, increasing, and 7.1% high-risk, increasing) and females (41.4% no-risk, 53.4% low-risk, increasing and 5.2% moderate to high-risk, increasing). Sensation-seeking, family, peer, and neighborhood factors at baseline predicted following the moderate-risk, increasing trajectory and the high-risk, increasing trajectory in males; these risk factors predicted following the moderate to high-risk, increasing trajectory in females. The presence of all three social risk factors (high-risk neighborhood, high-risk peers and low parental monitoring) had a dramatic impact on increased probability of being in a high-risk trajectory group. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early personal and social risk factors on subsequent risk behaviors in early to middle adolescence. Future adolescent health behavior promotion interventions might consider offering additional prevention resources to pre- and early adolescent youth who are exposed to multiple contextual risk factors (even in the absence of risk behaviors) or youth who are early-starters of delinquency and substance use behaviors
Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia R; Diaz-Albertini, Kristine; Klinoff, Vera A; Leeder, Elisa; Barrientos, Sohani; Kibler, Jeffrey L
The study objective was to examine the associations between cultural values and sexual risk factors among Latino youth. A sample of 226 Latino adolescents ages 13-16 completed a survey on cultural and sexual variables. Results indicate higher levels of Latino cultural orientation were related to greater sexual self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners for female adolescents and greater condom use self-efficacy for both males and females. Greater endorsement of simpatia (belief in interpersonal relationship harmony) was associated with sexual abstinence and greater sexual self-efficacy for all adolescents, and with being older at sexual debut for females. Stronger endorsement of respeto (respect towards parents and other authority figures) was correlated with a lower intention to have sex during secondary school and greater condom use self-efficacy. American cultural orientation was associated with less condom use. Our findings indicate Latino cultural values may serve as protective factors against sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth.
Brito, Anísio Luiz da Silva; Hardman, Carla Meneses; de Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes
Objective: To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with a sample of high school students from state public schools in Pernambuco, Brazil (n=4207, 14-19 years old). Data were obtained using a questionnaire. The co-occurrence of health risk behaviors was established based on the sum of five behavioral risk factors (low physical activity, sedentary behavior, low consumption of fruits/vegetables, alcohol consumption and tobacco use). The independent variables were gender, age group, time of day attending school, school size, maternal education, occupational status, skin color, geographic region and place of residence. Data were analyzed by ordinal logistic regression with proportional odds model. Results: Approximately 10% of adolescents were not exposed to health risk behaviors, while 58.5% reported being exposed to at least two health risk behaviors simultaneously. There was a higher likelihood of co-occurrence of health risk behaviors among adolescents in the older age group, with intermediate maternal education (9-11 years of schooling), and who reported living in the driest (semi-arid) region of the state of Pernambuco. Adolescents who reported having a job and living in rural areas had a lower likelihood of co-occurrence of risk behaviors. Conclusions: The findings suggest a high prevalence of co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in this group of adolescents, with a higher chance in five subgroups (older age, intermediate maternal education, the ones that reported not working, those living in urban areas and in the driest region of the state). PMID:26298656
Sesé, Maria A; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Gilbert, Chantal C; González-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; de Henauw, Stefaan; Breidenassel, Christina; Wärnberg, Julia; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Manios, Yannis; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Kafatos, Anthony; Moreno, Luis A
The present study examined the associations of food behaviours and preferences with markers of insulin resistance and clustered metabolic risk factors score after controlling for potential confounders, including body fat in European adolescents. A cross-sectional study "Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study" of 3546 European adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 years was conducted, using a complete dataset on at least glucose, insulin and "Food Choice Questionnaire". Results indicated skipping breakfast, as well as the preference of some foods such as nuts, chocolate, burgers and pizzas, soft drinks or juices, explain part of homeostasis model assessment index variance. In addition, snacking regularly during school day is associated with higher metabolic risk score in females. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that intervention studies aimed to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in youth should focus not only in influencing food and drink preferences, but also to ensure healthy food behaviour in adolescents. The harmful consequences in the choice of certain foods or drinks and food habits can be countered with proper planning and intervention programs to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors.
Bryla, Karen Y.
Disordered eating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disordered eating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disordered eating. Disordered…
von Rosen, Philip; Frohm, Anna; Kottorp, Anders; Fridén, Cecilia; Heijne, Annette
Many risk factors for injury are presented in the literature, few of those are however consistent and the majority is associated with adult and not adolescent elite athletes. The aim was to identify risk factors for injury in adolescent elite athletes, by applying a biopsychosocial approach. A total of 496 adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), participating in 16 different sports, were monitored repeatedly over 52 weeks using a validated questionnaire about injuries, training exposure, sleep, stress, nutrition and competence-based self-esteem. Univariate and multiple cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for risk factors for first reported injury. The main finding was that an increase in training volume, training intensity and at the same time decreasing the sleep volume resulted in a higher risk for injury compared to no change in these variables (HR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.46-3.45, p<0.01), which was the strongest risk factor identified. In addition, an increase by one score of competence-based self-esteem increased the hazard for injury with 1.02 (HR 95% CI, 1.00-1.04, p=0.01). Based on the multiple cox regression analysis, an athlete having the identified risk factors (Risk Index, competence-based self-esteem), with an average competence-based self-esteem score, had more than a threefold increased risk for injury (HR 3.35), compared to an athlete with a low competence-based self-esteem and no change in sleep or training volume.. Our findings confirm injury occurrence as a result of multiple risk factors interacting in complex ways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Background Obesity in infancy and adolescence has acquired epidemic dimensions worldwide and is considered a risk factor for a number of disorders that can manifest at an early age, such as Metabolic Syndrome (MS). In this study, we evaluated overweight, obese, and extremely obese adolescents for the presence of MS, and studied the prevalence of single factors of the syndrome in this population. Methods A total of 321 adolescents (174 females and 147 males) aged 10 to 16 years, attending the Adolescent Outpatient Clinic of Botucatu School of Medicine, Brazil, between April 2009 and April 2011 were enrolled in this study. Adolescents underwent anthropometric evaluation (weight, height, and abdominal circumference) and Body Mass Index (BMI) was estimated according to age and gender, following Disease Control and Prevention Centers recommendations (CDC, 2000). Blood pressure was measured and individuals with BMI ≥ 85th percentile were submitted to laboratory evaluation for Total Cholesterol, HDL and LDL Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Fasting Insulinemia, and Fasting Glycemia to identify MS factors, according to the criteria suggested by the International Diabetes Federation. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR, Quicki, and Fasting Glycemia/Fasting Insulinemia (FGI). Results and discussion Of the 321 adolescents, 95 (29.6%) were overweight, 129 (40.2%) were obese, and 97 (30.2%) were extremely obese. Around 18% were diagnosed with MS. The most prevalent risk factors were abdominal circumference ≥90th percentile (55%), HDL < 40 mg/dL (35.5%), High Pressure ≥130/85 mm/Hg (21%), Triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL (18.5%), and Fasting Glycemia ≥100 mg/dL (2%). Insulin resistance was observed in 65% of the adolescents. Conclusion An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, together with cardiometabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia and abnormal blood pressure, were observed in adolescents, contributing to the onset of metabolic syndrome at
Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents. Hunger was associated with increased odds of nondaily fruit and vegetable consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21; P < .001), inadequate physical activity (AOR = 1.21; P = .001), and current tobacco use (hunger sometimes [AOR = 1.83; P < .001] or most of the time/always [AOR = 2.12; P < .001]). Interventions to reduce the burden of NCDs in Bolivia should address hunger, in addition to traditional behavioral risk factors. PMID:27103264
Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the simultaneous presence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases and the association of these risk factors with demographic and economic factors among adolescents from southern Brazil. Methods The study included 916 students (14–19 years old) enrolled in the 2014 school year at state schools in São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Risk factors related to lifestyle (i.e., physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet), demographic variables (sex, age and skin colour) and economic variables (school shift and economic level) were assessed through a questionnaire. Simultaneous behaviours were assessed by the ratio between observed and expected prevalences of risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The clustering of risk factors was analysed by multinomial logistic regression. The clusters of risk factors that showed a higher prevalence were analysed by binary logistic regression. Results The clustering of two, three, four, and five risk factors were found in 22.2%, 49.3%, 21.7% and 3.1% of adolescents, respectively. Subgroups that were more likely to have both behaviours of physical inactivity and unhealthy diet simultaneously were mostly composed of girls (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.57–5.85) and those with lower socioeconomic status (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.05–3.21); simultaneous physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older adolescents (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.05–2.12). Subgroups less likely to have both behaviours of sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mostly composed of girls (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.38–0.89); simultaneous physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older individuals (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49–0.87) and those of the night shift (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.43–0.82). Conclusion Adolescents had a high prevalence
Ercan, Sırma; Dallar, Yıldız Bilge; Önen, Serdar; Engiz, Özlem
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and the risk factors associated with obesity among adolescents in Ankara, Turkey. Methods: The study was conducted in 26 schools in Ankara during the time period from September 2010 to March 2011. A total of 8848 adolescents aged 11-18 years were chosen using a population-based stratified cluster sampling method. Body mass index (BMI) of the participants was compared with the BMI references for Turkish children and adolescents to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity. A standardized questionnaire aiming to determine the sociodemographic characteristics, computer use, television (TV) watching, physical activity, and presence of obesity in the family was applied to the study group. Results: The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among adolescents was 7.7% (8.4 % for females and 7.0% for males). It was observed that BMI increased as computer use increased. A greater proportion of the overweight and obese adolescents watched TV and use computer for more than 2 hours/day as compared to their normal-weight counterparts. The normal-weight subjects were found to show a higher participation in regular physical activity. Obesity prevalence among the families of obese adolescents was 56.5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of adolescent obesity in Ankara, Turkey is lower as compared to many European countries and to the United States. Computer use, watching TV, physical activity and family factors are important risk factors for obesity. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23149433
Périsse, Didier; Amiet, Claire; Consoli, Angèle; Thorel, Marie-Vincente; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Bodeau, Nicolas; Guinchat, Vincent; Barthélémy, Catherine; Cohen, David
Aim: During adolescence, some individuals with autism engage in severe disruptive behaviors, such as violence, agitation, tantrums, or self-injurious behaviors. We aimed to assess risk factors associated with very acute states and regression in adolescents with autism in an inpatient population. Method: Between 2001 and 2005, we reviewed the charts of all adolescents with autism (N=29, mean age=14.8 years, 79% male) hospitalized for severe disruptive behaviors in a psychiatric intensive care unit. We systematically collected data describing socio-demographic characteristics, clinical variables (severity, presence of language, cognitive level), associated organic conditions, etiologic diagnosis of the episode, and treatments. Results: All patients exhibited severe autistic symptoms and intellectual disability, and two-thirds had no functional verbal language. Fifteen subjects exhibited epilepsy, including three cases in which epilepsy was unknown before the acute episode. For six (21%) of the subjects, uncontrolled seizures were considered the main cause of the disruptive behaviors. Other suspected risk factors associated with disruptive behavior disorders included adjustment disorder (N=7), lack of adequate therapeutic or educational management (N=6), depression (N=2), catatonia (N=2), and painful comorbid organic conditions (N=3). Conclusion: Disruptive behaviors among adolescents with autism may stem from diverse risk factors, including environmental problems, comorbid acute psychiatric conditions, or somatic diseases such as epilepsy. The management of these behavioral changes requires a multidisciplinary functional approach. PMID:20467546
Rumińska, Małgorzata; Majcher, Anna; Pyrzak, Beata; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Brzewski, Michał; Demkow, Urszula
The aim of the study was to analyze cardiometabolic risk factors andcarotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in obese children. We studied 122 obese children fulfilling the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force and 58 non-obese children. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin were assessed in all children. Glucose and insulin during the oral glucose tolerance test were assessed in obese children. The IMT was determined using ultrasound B-mode imaging in 81 obese and 32 non-obese children. We found that obese children had significantly higher levels of lipid andother non-lipid atherogenic indicators, but lower levels of adiponectin compared with non-obese children. The difference in the mean carotid IMT was insignificant in the two groups. Taking the combined groups, the level of adiponectin correlated negatively with body mass index and lipid atherogenic indicators. The IMT strongly correlated with systolic blood pressure in obese children. In the children fulfilling the criteria of metabolic syndrome, 17 out of the 84 obese children older than 10 years of age, IMT was greater than in those who did not fulfil these criteria. We conclude that the coexistence of abdominal obesity with abnormal lipid profile and hypertension leads to the early development of atherosclerosis accompanied by increased carotid intima-media thickness. Obesity initiates the atherosclerotic processes in early childhood.
Delfabbro, Paul; King, Daniel; Lambos, Chrisi; Puglies, Stan
Very little research has been conducted to examine the relationship between video-game playing and gambling in adolescence. In this study, 2,669 adolescents aged 13-17 years were surveyed to obtained details of their involvement in gambling and video-game playing as well as a measure of pathological gambling (the DSM-IV-J). The results showed that, the frequency of video game playing was significantly related to pathological gambling, but that the effect size was very small and largely accounted for by the greater popularity of both activities amongst boys. There was some evidence for stronger associations between technologically similar activities, namely arcade video games and an interest in gaming machines, but other factors discussed in the paper may also account for this association. In summary, the findings suggested that playing video-games is unlikely to be a significant risk factor for pathological gambling during adolescence.
Chacko, M R; Lovchik, J C
The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection was studied in a sexually active urban Baltimore adolescent population. Possible risk factors such as age, past history of sexually transmitted disease, number of sexual partners, contact with sexually transmitted disease, oral contraceptive use, and concomitant gonococcal infection were also evaluated. The prevalence of chlamydial infection in the 280 adolescents studied was 26%: 35% in male adolescents, 27% in pregnant female adolescents, and 23% in nonpregnant female adolescents. Chlamydia was almost three times as prevalent as gonorrhea in the same population. Age, past history of sexually transmitted disease, oral contraceptive use, and concomitant gonorrhea were not significantly associated with chlamydial infection. However, multiple current sexual partners, contact with sexually transmitted disease, genitourinary symptoms, and cervical ectopy were significantly associated with chlamydial infection. Testing for chlamydial infection in sexually active urban teenagers is recommended for those with genitourinary symptoms, those with cervical ectopy, or those who are contacts of persons with sexually transmitted disease. Considering the reservoir of infection in the asymptomatic female adolescents, screening for chlamydial infections in family planning clinics warrants consideration.
Song, SuJin; Young Paik, Hee; Song, Won O; Song, YoonJu
In the present study, we examined the associations of total carbohydrate intake, dietary glycaemic load (DGL) and white rice intake with metabolic syndrome risk factors by sex in Korean adolescents. For the present cross-sectional study, data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-9) were used. A total of 2209 adolescents (n 1164 boys and n 1045 girls) aged 10-18 years with complete anthropometric, biochemical and dietary intake data were included in the study. Dietary intake data were obtained using the 24 h recall method, and total carbohydrate intake, DGL and white rice intake were divided into quartiles by sex. The metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were defined using the International Diabetes Federation criteria for children and adolescents. Fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance were included as the metabolic syndrome risk factors. All statistical analyses considered the complex sampling design effect and appropriate sampling weights. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to estimate means with their standard errors of the mean for the metabolic syndrome risk factors across the quartiles of total carbohydrate intake, DGL and white rice intake. While high DGL was significantly associated with increased fasting glucose levels in boys, high total carbohydrate intake, DGL and white rice intake were consistently associated with reduced HDL-cholesterol levels in girls. High white rice intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in girls but not in boys. Optimising dietary carbohydrate intake with respect to the source or amount is fundamental to preventing and managing metabolic diseases in Asian adolescents.
Del Río-Ospina, Luisa; Soto-De León, Sara Cecilia; Camargo, Milena; Sánchez, Ricardo; Mancilla, Cindy Lizeth; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin
This study reports six HR-HPV types’ infection prevalence discriminated by species and multiple infection in unvaccinated Colombian female adolescents, as well as some factors modulating the risk of infection. HPV DNA for six high-risk viral types was identified in cervical samples taken from 2,134 12–19 year-old females using conventional generic and type-specific PCR. Binomial logistical regression analysis was used for modelling HR-HPV infection and multiple infection risk. The interaction between variables in a stepwise model was also included in such analysis. Viral DNA was detected in 48.97% of the females; 28.52% of them had multiple infections, HPV-16 being the most frequently occurring type (37.44%). Cytological abnormality prevalence was 15.61%. Being over 16 years-old (1.66: 1.01–2.71 95%CI), white ethnicity (4.40: 1.16–16.73 95%CI), having had 3 or more sexual partners (1.77: 1.11–2.81 95%CI) and prior sexually-transmitted infections (STI) (1.65: 1.17–2.32 95%CI) were associated with a greater risk of HPV infection. Having given birth was related to a higher risk of infection by A7 species and antecedent of abortion to less risk of coinfection. Where the females in this study came from also influenced the risk of infection by A7 species as female adolescents from the Andean region had a lower risk of infection (0.42: 0.18–0.99 95%CI). The presence of factors related to risky sexual behaviour in the study population indicated that public health services should pay special attention to female adolescents to modify the risk of infection by high-risk HPV types and decrease their impact on this age group. PMID:27846258
Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol
Dating aggression is a prevalent and costly public health concern. Using a relational risk framework, this study examined acute and chronic relational risk factors (negative interactions, jealousy, support, and relationship satisfaction) and their effects on physical and psychological dating aggression. The study also examined the interaction between chronic and acute risk, allowing us to assess how changes in acute risk have differing effects depending on whether the individual is typically at higher chronic risk. A sample of 200 youth (100 female) completed seven waves of data, which spanned 9 years from middle adolescence to young adulthood (M age at Wave 1 = 15.83). Using hierarchical linear modeling, analyses revealed both acute (within-person) and chronic (between-person) levels in jealousy, negative interactions, and relationship satisfaction, were associated with physical and psychological dating aggression. Significant interactions between chronic and acute risk emerged in predicting physical aggression for negative interactions, jealousy, and relationship satisfaction such that those with higher levels of chronic risk are more vulnerable to increases in acute risk. These interactions between chronic and acute risk indicate that risk is not static, and dating aggression is particularly likely to occur at certain times for youth at high risk for dating aggression. Such periods of increased risk may provide opportunities for interventions to be particularly effective in preventing dating aggression or its consequences. Taken together, these findings provide support for the role of relational risk factors for dating aggression. They also underscore the importance of considering risk dynamically.
Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Mani, Arash
Background: Since suicide attempt among adolescents is a major challenge and the reasons why this age group attempt suicide are complex, the aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors that contribute to suicide attempt among adolescents. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative content analysis, 14 adolescents (12–19 years old) who were admitted in two hospitals in Shiraz, Iran, were interviewed. Participants who tried attempt suicide with medication were selected by purposive sampling and the data were gathered by semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was guided by the conventional approach of qualitative content analysis. Results: Three major themes and 13 subthemes emerged from data analysis. The main themes were: (a) Individual factors and experiences (psycho-emotional problems, puberty, religious beliefs, stress management strategies, marriage and love, field and level of education); (b) family factors (family structure, family relationship, family economic features, family health conditions); and (c) social factors (suicidal behavior in others, media influence, professional support). Conclusions: This study identified three major themes related to suicide attempt among adolescents in the context. As a result, suicide prevention and care provision should formulate a comprehensive method, considering the interaction of medical besides individual, familiar, and social factors in their assessment and care provision. PMID:26985229
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan
Suicide has been found to be prevalent among adolescents involved in bullying; however, there has been a lack of research examining whether the risk and protective factors of suicidal ideation and attempt are different among adolescents with different types of bullying involvement. The aims of this study were to examine the risk and protective factors of suicidal ideation and attempt among adolescents with different experiences of bullying involvement, victimization, and perpetration. A total of 4,533 adolescents participated in this study. Different groups of bullying involvement, victimization, and perpetration were determined through use of the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. The associations of suicidal ideation and attempt with possible risk factors (domestic violence, overweight, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse) and protective factors (family support and self-esteem) were examined using logistic regression analysis. Pure victims, pure perpetrators, and victim-perpetrators were more likely to report suicidal ideation and attempt than the neutral group. The risk and protective factors of suicidal ideation and attempt were different across adolescents with different experiences of bullying involvement, victimization, and perpetrators. The risk of suicide should be monitored among adolescents who are involved in any type of bullying. The risk and protective factors of suicide identified in this study should be taken into consideration in prevention and intervention programs for suicide in adolescents involved in bullying.
Messiah, Sarah E; Vidot, Denise C; Somarriba, Gabriel; Haney, Kanathy; Aytur, Semra; Natale, Ruby A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Arheart, Kristopher L
AIM: To generate prevalence estimates of weight status and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among adolescents with and without disabilities. METHODS: Analysis of the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data was conducted among 12-18 years old with (n = 256) and without disabilities (n = 5020). Mean values of waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and metabolic syndrome (MetS, ≥ 3 risk factors present) were examined by the following standardized body mass index (BMI) categories for those with and without disabilities; overweight (BMI ≥ 85th - < 95th percentile for age and sex), obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) and severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2). Linear regression models were fit with each cardiometabolic disease risk factor independently as continuous outcomes to show relationships with disability status. RESULTS: Adolescents with disabilities were significantly more likely to be overweight (49.3%), obese (27.6%) and severely obese (12%) vs their peers without disabilities (33.1%, 17.5% and 3.6%, respectively, P ≤ 0.01 for all). A higher proportion of overweight, obese and severely obese children with disabilities had abnormal SBP, fasting lipids and glucose as well as MetS (18.9% of overweight, 32.3% of obese, 55% of severely obese) vs their peers without disabilities (9.7%, 16.8%, 36.3%, respectively). US adolescents with disabilities are over three times as likely to have MetS (OR = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.08-10.99, P = 0.03) vs their peers with no disabilities. CONCLUSION: Results show that adolescents with disabilities are disproportionately affected by obesity and poor cardiometabolic health vs their peers with no disabilities. Health care professionals should monitor the cardiometabolic health of adolescents with disabilities. PMID:25685291
Lee, Chun-Ying; Lin, Wei-Ting; Tsai, Sharon; Hung, Yu-Chan; Wu, Pei-Wen; Yang, Yu-Cheng; Chan, Te-Fu; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Weng, Yao-Lin; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Lee, Chien-Hung
Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12–16 years) were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan. Adolescent and parent surveys were conducted in schools and participant homes, respectively. Their demographic factors, diet patterns, and physical, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Adolescents with 1–2 and ≥3 risk components for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) were defined as potential MetS (pot-MetS) and MetS, respectively. Adolescents whose parents were overweight/obese, or with diabetes and hypertension had a higher prevalence ratio of pot-MetS and MetS (1.5–1.6 and 1.9–4.2-fold, respectively). Low physical activity (<952.4 MET·min/week), long screen time (≥3 h/day) and high sugar-sweetened beverage intake (>500 mL/day) were associated with a 3.3- (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.5–7.3), 2.2- (95% CI = 1.1–4.4), and 26.9-fold (95% CI = 3.2–229.0) odds ratio (OR) of MetS, respectively. Pediatric body mass index (BMI) accounted for 18.8%–95.6% and 16.9%–60.3% increased prevalence ratios of these parental and pediatric risk factors for MetS. The OR of pot-MetS + MetS for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was multiplicatively enhanced among adolescents with overweight/obesity (combined OR, 8.6-fold (95% CI = 4.3–17.3); p for multiplicative interaction, 0.009). The results suggest that parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric sedentary and high sugar-intake lifestyles correlate with the development of adolescent MetS, and an elevated child BMI
Akanni, Oluyemi O; Koleoso, Olaide N; Olashore, Anthony A; Adayonfo, Ehigiator O; Osundina, Adeagbo F; Ayilara, Olaniyi O
Risky behaviours in adolescents, apart from substance use, and their associate factors, have not been thoroughly investigated in Nigeria. Hence, there is a need to study the prevalence of risky behaviours and their relationship with gender and other potential risk factors. Data comprising socio-demographic, risky behaviours, personality traits, religious orientation and substance use were obtained from 300 randomly selected secondary school students. Two risk groups (low and high) based on the number of risky behaviours were determined. Male was a risk factor for theft (OR = 2.1; 95%CI = 1.17-3.95), bullying (OR = 2.76; 95%CI = 1.37-5.56) and fighting (OR = 2.14; 95%CI = 1.35-3.40). Fifty-two (17.3%) of the students were of high-risk behaviour group. Furthermore, private school (β = 1.05; P = 0.010), poor perceived relationship with teachers (β = 1.21; P = 0.002), polygamy (β = 1.20; P = 0.002) and lifetime cigarette use (β = 1.07; P = 0.027) were predictors of high-risk behaviour group. Substantial proportion of adolescents in Nigeria exhibit risky behaviours of which gender and other factors play a significant role.
Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T; Basile, Kathleen C; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael
The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother-adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother-adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study's implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed.
Cakir, Erkan; Ersu, Refika; Uyan, Zeynep Seda; Oktem, Sedat; Varol, Nezih; Karakoc, Fazilet; Karadag, Bulent; Akyol, Mesut; Dagli, Elif
Certain occupational groups are known to be at particularly high risk of developing allergic diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of allergic diseases among working adolescents. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used. Four hundred and thirty six adolescents working in motor, lathe-finish, coiffure and textile and 366 high school students as control group were enrolled to the study. Mean age was 16.8 +/- 1.2 years and 82.9% of them were male. There was no significant difference among groups for ever and current wheezing while doctor diagnosed asthma was higher in lathe- finish group (p = 0.036). Family history of allergy, history of allergic rhinitis, and active smoking were found to be risk factors for asthma and related symptoms. Working in coiffure (p = 0.054), and textile (p = 0.003) were significant risk factors for ever allergic rhinitis. Working in lathe finish (p = 0.023), coiffure (p = .002), and textile (p < 0.001) were associated with a higher risk for current allergic rhinitis. Working in coiffure was a risk factor for ever eczema (p = 0.008) and doctor diagnosed eczema (p = 0.014). It was concluded that working in lathe-finish was associated with doctor diagnosed asthma and active smoking was a risk factor for asthma and related symptoms. Working in coiffure, textile and lathe- finish were risk factors for rhinitis, and working in coiffure was a risk factor for eczema. Preventive measures should be taken at the onset of employment in order to prevent or reduce the detrimental effects of exposures in these occupational groups.
Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau
There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.
Steigleder-Schweiger, Claudia; Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Waldhör, Thomas; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Schwarz, Ines; Fritsch, Maria; Borkenstein, Martin; Schober, Edith
Mortality of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 1 diabetes is increased 2- to 20-fold compared to non-diabetic individuals. In young adults with type 1 diabetes, cardiovascular events are more often the cause of premature death than nephropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in Austria. In a cross sectional study data of children with type 1 diabetes <18 years of age treated at the Children's department of the University Hospitals of Vienna and Graz were collected. We recorded body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol according to age, sex, age at manifestation, diabetes duration, and insulin requirement. From 264 patients (49.4% male) complete data were available. Of all patients, 76.1% had one or more risk factors, 20.8% had two or more, 10.2% had three or more, and 4.9% had four or more risk factors. Insufficient glycemic control was the most frequent risk factor, present in 60.6% of our patients, followed by elevated triglycerides (22.7%) and increased body mass index (20.1%). Higher prevalence of risk factors was correlated with increasing age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, and insulin requirement. In conclusion, children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes have a much higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors compared to non-diabetic individuals. To prevent future cardiovascular events, achieving the best possible glycemic control, early detection of further risk factors, and adequate intervention are highly important.
Exelmans, Liese; Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan
Over the years, criminological research has identified a number of risk factors that contribute to the development of aggressive and delinquent behavior. Although studies have identified media violence in general and violent video gaming in particular as significant predictors of aggressive behavior, exposure to violent video games has been largely omitted from the risk factor literature on delinquent behavior. This cross-sectional study therefore investigates the relationship between violent video game play and adolescents' delinquent behavior using a risk factor approach. An online survey was completed by 3,372 Flemish adolescents, aged 12-18 years old. Data were analyzed by means of negative binomial regression modelling. Results indicated a significant contribution of violent video games in delinquent behavior over and beyond multiple known risk variables (peer delinquency, sensation seeking, prior victimization, and alienation). Moreover, the final model that incorporated the gaming genres proved to be significantly better than the model without the gaming genres. Results provided support for a cumulative and multiplicative risk model for delinquent behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:267-279, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Goldstein, Sara E.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
The present research explores risk factors for, and longitudinal associations of, sexual harassment by peers during adolescence. Eight-hundred and seventy-two African American and European American adolescents (65.4% African American, 51.1% females) were assessed during the summer after the eighth grade (mean age=14.2 years) and then again in the…
De-la-Iglesia, Myriam; Olivar, José-Sixto
The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2) Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed. PMID:26413564
De-la-Iglesia, Myriam; Olivar, José-Sixto
The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2) Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed.
Anatale, Katharine; Kelly, Sarah
Adolescence is a tumultuous and challenging time period in life. Sexual risk behavior among adolescents is a widespread topic of interest in the current literature. Two common factors that influence increased sexual risk behavior are symptoms of depression and negative body image. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body image and symptoms of depression upon sexual risk-taking in an adolescent female population. A secondary data analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used to explore girls' sexual activity, body image, and mental health. There were 7,708 high-school girls who participated in this study. Three questions were used to represent the constructs under investigation. There were significant correlations between sexual activity, body image, and symptoms of depression; only symptoms of depression were significant predictors of both sexual activity and condom usage. Body image was a predictor of sexual activity, but not condom use. Our findings support previous studies that suggested that people with depressive symptoms were more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Our study also supports the idea that a negative body image decreases sexual activity; however, other researchers have reported that negative body image leads to an increase in sexual activity.
Tjønna, Arnt E; Stølen, Tomas O; Bye, Anja; Volden, Marte; Slørdahl, Stig A; Odegård, Rønnaug; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisløff, Ulrik
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a multidisciplinary approach (MTG) and aerobic interval training (AIT) on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight adolescents. A total of 62 overweight and obese adolescents from Trøndelag County in Norway, referred to medical treatment at St Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, were invited to participate. Of these, 54 adolescents (age, 14.0 +/- 0.3 years) were randomized to either AIT (4 x 4 min intervals at 90% of maximal heart rate, each interval separated by 3 min at 70%, twice a week for 3 months) or to MTG (exercise, dietary and psychological advice, twice a month for 12 months). Follow-up testing occurred at 3 and 12 months. VO(2max) (maximal oxygen uptake) increased more after AIT compared with MTG, both at 3 months (11 compared with 0%; P<0.01) and 12 months (12 compared with -1%; P<0.01). AIT enhanced endothelial function compared with MTG at both 3 months (absolute change, 5.1 compared with 3.9%; P<0.01) and 12 months (absolute change, 6.3 compared with 1.0%; P<0.01). AIT was favourable compared with MTG in reducing BMI (body mass index), percentage of fat, MAP (mean arterial blood pressure) and increasing peak oxygen pulse. In addition, AIT induced a more favourable regulation of blood glucose and insulin compared with MTG. In conclusion, the novel findings of the present proof-of-concept study was that 3 months of twice weekly high-intensity exercise sessions reduced several known cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescents more than that observed after a multitreatment strategy, which was initiated as hospital treatment. Follow-up at 12 months confirmed that AIT improved or maintained these risk factors to a better degree than MTG.
Awotidebe, Adedapo; Phillips, Julie; Lens, Willy
The objective of this study was to determine the factors that increase the risk of HIV infection in rural school-going adolescents and young adults. This was a cross-sectional study of 430 secondary school students (47.4% boys and 52.6% girls) from two rural schools in South Africa. Data were collected with a self-administered questionnaire on demographic information, sources of HIV/AIDS information, HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, communication and negotiation skills, self-efficacy to refuse sex, peer influence and time perspective. Out of 113 (27.2%) participants who reported being sexually active, about 48% reported having had sex before the age of 15 and 42.2% reported penetrative sex with more than one partner in their lifetime. Only 44.8% of them reported consistent and regular use of condoms for every sexual encounter. Peer influence (OR = 3.01 (95% CI = 1.97–4.60)), gender difference (OR = 6.60 (95% CI = 1.62–26.84)) and lack of HIV information (OR = 1.22 (95% CI = 1.03–1.44)) influenced the sexual risk behaviors of the adolescents. Greater numbers of school-going adolescents in rural areas are sexually active. Peer influence, especially in boys, is a factor that increases the preponderance of risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. Positively, adolescents with high knowledge of HIV infection are more likely to use condoms for every sexual encounter. There is a need to strengthen comprehensive sexual health education and youth-friendly HIV prevention strategies to promote abstinence and safe sexual behaviors, especially among boys. PMID:25405598
Gutiérrez, Teresa; Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Mora, Marisol; González, Marcela L; Rosés, Rocío; Raich, Rosa M
We aimed to assess the association of several risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents. Participants were 448 girls and boys aged 12-15 years. Being female, higher body mass index, internalisation of standard of appearance, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, number of lifetime addictive behaviours and lower self-esteem were associated with higher eating disturbance scores, whereas frequency of sedentary behaviours and physical activity were not (R(2) ⩾ 41%). Findings suggest the need to guide prevention efforts towards the broad spectrum of individual potentially modifiable factors. A non-specific comprehensive perspective may be adequate to prevent problems related to weight, body image and drug use.
Uddin, Monica; Jansen, Stefan; Telzer, Eva H
The means by which social environmental exposures influence risk of mental disorders is a persistent and still open question. A key candidate mechanism for the biologic mediation of environmental effects involves epigenetic factors, which regulate gene function without altering underlying DNA sequence. Recent work has shown that environmental exposures such as childhood abuse, family history of mental disorder, and low socioeconomic status (SES) associate with differential DNA methylation (5mC) - a relatively stable, but modifiable, epigenetic factor. However, the longitudinal relation among SES, 5mC, brain function, and risk of depression remains to be elucidated. Here, we briefly review literature relevant to these associations and discuss recent findings that, for the first time, prospectively demonstrate sequential links between low SES, changes in 5mC, changes in brain function, and risk of depression in a cohort of adolescents.
Rolison, Mary R.; Scherman, Avraham
In this study, 171 older adolescents completed a risk-taking inventory to measure risk involvement. Results showed that perceived risks affected risk-taking more significantly than did perceived benefits. Higher sensation seeking tendencies were affiliated with more risk-taking. Locus of control was not related to risk-taking. (Contains 38…
Mayer, Birgit; Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Zimmermann-van Beuningen, Ritine
This study explored correlations between risk factors and eating behavior problems in late adolescent, non-clinical females (N = 301). Participants completed questionnaires for assessing eating problems, the closely associated factors of Body Mass Index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction, and a number of other risk variables that are thought to be…
Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla
Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…
Craig, E.; Reilly, J.J.; Bland, R.
Background To determine risk factors for overweight/overfatness in children and adolescents from rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods Anthropometric data were collected from a cross-sectional sample (n = 1519, ages 7, 11 and 15 years) and linked to demographic information (n = 1310 and n = 1317 in overweight and overfat analyses, respectively). Candidate risk factors for overweight/overfatness were identified and tested for associations with overweight (BMI-for-age >+1SD, WHO reference) and overfatness (>85th centile body fatness, McCarthy reference) as outcomes. Associations were examined using simple tests of proportions (χ2/Mann–Whitney U tests) and multivariable logistic regression. Results Sex was a consistent variable across both analyses; girls at significantly increased risk of overweight and overfatness (overweight: n = 180, 73.9 and 26.1% females and males, respectively (P < 0.0001); overfat: n = 187, 72.7 and 27.3% females and males, respectively (P < 0.0001)). In regression analyses, sex and age (defined by school grade) were consistent variables, with boys at lower risk of overweight (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.40 (confidence interval (CI) -0.28–0.57)) and risk of overweight increasing with age (AOR 0.65 (CI- 0.44–0.96), 0.50 (CI-0.33–0.75) and 1.00 for school grades 1, 5 and 9, respectively). Results were similar for overfatness. Conclusions This study suggests that pre-adolescent/adolescent females may be the most appropriate targets of future interventions aimed at preventing obesity in rural South Africa. PMID:25742718
Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; De la Garza, Yolanda E.; Villarreal, Jesus Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.
ABSTRACT Background: The increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the serum lipid profile, the prevalence of dyslipidaemia, and associated risk factors among the North Mexican adolescent population. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-three subjects (47.8% girls) ages 11 to 16 years took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, dyslipidaemia was defined as a presence of ≥1 of the following levels (mg/dL): Total cholesterol ≥200, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130, non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40, and triglyceride ≥130. Results: The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 48.8% with no differences between sexes. Adolescents with high body mass index were more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (overweight: odds ratio [OR]: 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–3.77, P < 0.05; obesity: OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.11–4.41, P < 0.05) than those with normal weight. Abdominally subjects with obesity were also more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.35–3.91, P < 0.01) than their leaner counterparts. Conclusions: Half of Mexican adolescents living in the State of Nuevo León have at least 1 abnormal lipid concentration. Low HDL-chol level was the most common dyslipidaemia. Body mass index and abdominal obesity were associated with the prevalence of at least 1 abnormal lipid level. PMID:27379432
Kumar, Pragya; Ranjan, Alok; Singh, Chandra Mani; Pandey, Sanjay; Agarwal, Neeraj
Introduction Hypertension (HT) has its origin in childhood and adolescent period but it goes undetected due to absence of sign and symptoms, unless specifically looked for during this period. It has been seen that one with raised blood pressure level in this period will also have raised Blood Pressure (BP) level in their adulthood and elderly period. Aim The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of HT and its risk factor among apparently healthy school going adolescents of Patna district. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study among 2913 school going adolescents of eighth to 10th standard was conducted from April 2014 to August 2015 by adopting a two stage cluster sampling technique. The questions pertaining to risk behavior in relation to cardiovascular diseases from WHO’s Global School based Student Health Survey were used for this study. Results The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure of study population was 107.4 mm of Hg (95% C.I. 106.93-107.77) and 67.4 mm of Hg (95% C.I. 67.26-67.54), respectively. Prevalence of pre-HT and HT was 10.9% and 4.6% in school going adolescents while prevalence of overweight/obesity was 1.5%. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures had positive and significant correlation with age, height and body mass index. The proportion of children who had ever taken tobacco was 5.3%, cigarette smoking 4.3%, alcohol consumption 2.1%, and excess salt intake 22.3%. Only 49.1% children were doing physical activity at least one hour a day in past seven days for maintenance of good health. Conclusion The present study recommends that regular screening of blood pressure level must be initiated in adolescents so that remedial measure can be initiated as early as possible. PMID:28274012
Sobha, A.; Manjula, V.D.
Introduction Adolescent age group is the window of opportunity to correct nutritional status of children. If we intervene correctly during this period we can prevent future consequences of nutritional deficiencies. Very few studies have been conducted in kerala regarding adolescent anaemia. Aim To estimate prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors among adolescent girls of central Kerala, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 257 adolescent girls of ettumanoor panchayat, the field practice area of Government Medical College, Kottayam. A pre-designed and pre-tested proforma was used to obtain data regarding socio-demographic details and factors associated with anaemia. Relevant clinical examination of participants were done. Blood samples were analysed using an auto-analyser and stool examination for ova or cyst was done under microscopy. Diagnosis of anaemia was established when haemoglobin was less than 12gm/dl. Data analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. Association between Categorical variables were tested with Chi-square test and continuous variables independent t-test was used. Logistic regression was used to find out independent risk factors. The level of significance was fixed at p-value of < 0.05. Results The prevalence of anaemia was 21%. Risk factors associated with anaemia in the univariate analysis were presence of ova or cyst in stool (p = 0.003, OR = 2.94) and number of pads per day during menstruation (p = 0.004). Protective factors were hand washing after toileting (p = 0.021, OR = 0.311), hand washing before food intake (p = 0.026, OR = 0.5), foot wear usage (p = 0.022, OR = 0.25) and jaggery consumption (0.042). The factors which were significant in logistic regression were worm infestation, number of pads per day, washing hands before food intake and foot wear usage. Conclusion Worm infestation and number of pads per day during menstruation were found to be risk factors for anaemia. Personal hygiene practices
Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Romelsjö, Anders; Tengström, Anders
This longitudinal study examined possible gender differences regarding risk and protective factors for heavy episodic drinking among 1,222 seventh-grade students (aged 13) in the City of Stockholm, Sweden, with follow-up 2 years later. Logistic regression analyses showed that several factors predicted heavy episodic drinking. The strongest predictors for boys' heavy episodic drinking in the ninth grade were heavy episodic drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 5.30) and smoking in the seventh grade (OR = 5.80). Drinking peers (OR = 2.47) and smoking (OR = 2.44) in the seventh grade showed the strongest association for girls. Furthermore, high parental monitoring and having a secure attachment to parents may have a protective effect when risk factors are present. Our results lend support to prevention initiatives to strengthen the parent-child relation and focus on adolescents' ability to resist peer pressure and of limiting parental provision of alcohol. The study's limitations are noted.
Toro, J; Gila, A; Castro, J; Pombo, C; Guete, O
The aim was to study differences between male and female adolescents as regards body dissatisfaction, some risk factors for eating disorders, and exposure to social influences that create ideal body figures among these populations. A questionnaire comprising 40 items was administered to 240 male adolescents at 12 public and private schools in Barcelona. Twenty-nine of the questions were the same as those in another study administered to a sample of 675 female adolescents attending similar schools in the same geographical area. The other 11 questions were specifically for males. The differences between boys and girls were highly significant on almost all the items. Girls' scores were significantly higher (p = 0.000) in the following areas: dieting and exercising in order to be thin; feelings of anxiety on seeing or showing the body in public; tendency to focus on the bodies of others and on the amount of food they eat; the belief that thin people are more popular. In addition, the girls were significantly more vulnerable to potentially dangerous social influences. For the most part, males sought a heavier, more muscular body. Though a minority of males also feared being overweight, one out of four ate more than normal to gain weight and two out of three exercised to develop their muscles. The same proportion reported envying the build of certain actors. In adolescence, the ideal body figures of the sexes vary widely. This divergence reflects a greater risk of eating disorders in girls, who are also far more exposed to social situations that cause body dissatisfaction and shape risk attitudes and behaviors.
Bartel, Kate A; Gradisar, Michael; Williamson, Paul
Teenagers need sufficient sleep to function well daily, yet consolidated evidence advising which factors protect, or harm, adolescents' sleep is lacking. Forty-one studies, published between 2003 and February, 2014, were meta-analysed. Mean weighted r values were calculated to better understand the strength of protective and risk factors for 85,561 adolescents' (age range = 12-18 y) bedtime, sleep onset latency (SOL) and total sleep time (TST). Results showed good sleep hygiene and physical activity were associated with earlier bedtimes. Video gaming, phone, computer and internet use, and evening light related to delayed bedtimes. Good sleep hygiene negatively correlated with sleep latency. Alternatively, sleep latency lengthened as a negative family environment increased. Tobacco, computer use, evening light, a negative family environment and caffeine were associated with decreased total sleep, whereas good sleep hygiene and parent-set bedtimes related to longer sleep length. Good sleep hygiene appears to be protective, whereas a negative home environment and evening light appear to be risk factors. Cautious use of technology (other than television), caffeine, tobacco and alcohol should be considered. These factors, along with pre-sleep worry, are likely to have some negative impact on sleep. Parent-set bedtimes and physical activity may be beneficial. Future research directions are discussed.
Faria, Franciane Rocha; Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Cecon, Roberta Stofeles; Barbosa Júnior, Djalma Adão; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Cecon, Paulo Roberto; Priore, Silvia Eloiza
The aim of this study was to analyze body fat anthropometric equations and electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. 210 adolescents were divided into eutrophic group (G1) and overweight group (G2). The percentage of body fat (% BF) was estimated using 10 body fat anthropometric equations and 2 BIA. We measured lipid profiles, uric acid, insulin, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure. We found that 76.7% of the adolescents exhibited inadequacy of at least one biochemical parameter or clinical cardiovascular risk. Higher values of triglycerides (TG) (P = 0.001), insulin, and HOMA-IR (P < 0.001) were observed in the G2 adolescents. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the % BF from equation (5) was associated with TG, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin in G1. Among the G2 adolescents, the % BF estimated by (5) and (9) was associated with LDL, TG, insulin, and the HOMA-IR. Body fat anthropometric equations were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and should be used to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, equation (5) was associated with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors independent of the nutritional status of adolescents. PMID:23762051
Aguilar Cordero, M J; Sánchez López, A M; Mur Villar, N; García García, I; Guisado Barrilao, R
The sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is a disorder that currently affects a large number of children and adolescents. The aim of this review is to assess the factors causing this condition and the risk of suffering another disease associated with SAHS. The 50 articles selected for inclusion in this review were identified through GOOGLE SCHOLAR. The validity of the items was established by the degree of evidence obtained, by recommendations made in this respect and by the applicability to the situation observed. The review considers studies of SAHS in children and adolescents, taking into account those relating this disorder with obesity, hypertension, physical activity and other variables. The studies reviewed show that SAHS is associated with childhood obesity and that it increases the risk of cerebro-cardiovascular disease. It is also shown that SAHS decreases children's and adolescents' physical capacity and quality of life. Psychological aspects are also affected, impacting on academic performance, which is poorer than in healthy children. Therefore, early paediatric diagnosis of SAHS is important in order to prevent associated disorders.
Parks, Gregory A; Bard, David E
This study investigated differences in recidivism risk factors and traits associated with psychopathy among 3 groups of male adolescent sexual offenders (N=156): offenders against children, offenders against peers or adults, and mixed type offenders. Furthermore, those same variables were examined for their association with sexual and nonsexual recidivism and the 3 groups were compared for differences in rates of recidivism. Based upon both juvenile and adult recidivism data, 6.4% of the sample reoffended sexually and 30.1% reoffended nonsexually. Retrospective risk assessments were completed using the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (JSOAP-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist:Youth Version (PCL:YV). Comparisons of the 3 preexisting groups for differences on scale and factor scores were conducted using analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Differences among groups for recidivism were measured using survival curve analysis. Associations between risk scales and recidivism were measured using Cox regression analyses. Results suggest significant differences among the 3 offender groups on multiple scales of the JSOAP-II and PCL:YV, with mixed type offenders consistently producing higher risk scores as compared to those who exclusively offend against children or peers/adults. The Impulsive/Antisocial Behavior scale of the JSOAP-II and the Interpersonal and Antisocial factors of the PCL:YV were significant predictors of sexual recidivism. The Behavioral and Antisocial factors of the PCL:YV were significant predictors of nonsexual recidivism. Results supported previous research indicating that most adolescents who sexually offend do not continue offending into adulthood. Such results can lead to improved treatment by targeting specific risk factors for intervention and better use of risk management resources in the community, while preserving the most restrictive treatment options for the highest risk offenders.
Koulouridis, Efstathios; Georgalidis, Kostantinos; Kostimpa, Ioulia; Koulouridis, Ioannis; Krokida, Angeliki; Houliara, Despina
The aim of this study was to seek the possible relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) and anthropometric indexes, lipids, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic syndrome risk factors among healthy children and adolescents. Sufficient evidence suggest that obesity is related with a novel form of glomerulopathy named obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) among adults, children, and adolescents. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated from serum creatinine in 166 healthy children and adolescents [79 males, 87 females; age 10.6 +/- 3.3 (3-18) years]. Anthropometric indexes and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Fasting insulin, glucose, creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides were estimated. Insulin sensitivity was estimated from known formulas. The presence of certain metabolic syndrome risk factors was checked among the studied population. Boys showed higher e-GFR rates than girls (f = 8.49, p = 0.004). We found a strong positive correlation between e-GFR and body weight (r = 0.415), body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.28), waist circumference (r = 0.419), hip circumference (r = 0.364), birth weight (r = 0.164), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r = 0.305), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (r = 0.207). A negative correlation was found between e-GFR and fasting glucose (r = -0.19), total cholesterol (r = -0.27) and LDL-cholesterol (r = -0.26). Clustering of metabolic syndrome risk factors among certain individuals was correlated with higher e-GFR rates (f = 3.606, p = 0.007). The results of this study suggest that gender, anthropometric indexes, and SBP are strong positive determinants of e-GFR among children and adolescents. Waist circumference is the most powerful determinant of e-GFR. Fasting glucose and lipid abnormalities are negative determinants of e-GFR among the studied population. Clustering of metabolic syndrome risk
Bachand, Annette; Peel, Jennifer; Brown, Mark
Data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reveal high numbers of adolescent substance use in the United States. Substance use among adolescents can lead to increased risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections, vehicular fatalities, juvenile delinquency, and other problems associated with physical and mental health. Adolescents are particularly susceptible to involvement in substance use due to the underdeveloped state of the adolescent brain, which can lead to reduced decision-making ability and increased long-term effects of drugs and alcohol. Understanding the causes of adolescent substance use is vital for successful prevention and intervention programs. PMID:24826363
Correia, Divanise S; Cavalcante, Jairo C; Maia, Eulália M C
The purpose of this study was to analyze risk factors for abortion among female teenagers from 12 to 19 years of age in the city of Maceió, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in ten schools. The sample was calculated by considering the number of admissions for postabortion curettage, obtained from the Information System of Hospitalization. Data were obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire divided into three basic blocks of data: sociodemographic, sexual life, and pregnancy/abortion. To analyze the data, the logistic regression model was used. The Forward Method was chosen to set the final model that minimizes the number of variables and maximizes the accuracy of the model. The significant analysis between the dichotomous variables provided eight significant variables. Two of them are protective for abortion: the ages 12-14 years and talking with parents about sex. After the logistic regression, the receipt of support for abortion was the most significant variable of all. The adolescent with an active sexual life, a previous pregnancy, who is married, and has received support for an abortion has a 99.74% probability for an abortion. The results of this study, demonstrating the importance of the group in adolescence, and the statistical significance of having a partner to support and approve the pregnancy appears as a preventive factor for abortion. It shows the importance of support and companionship for adolescent women.
Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R; Rose, Roderick A
The current study examined multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of rural adolescents. Using ecological and social capital theories, we explored the impact of positive and negative proximal processes, social capital, and contextual characteristics (i.e., school and neighborhood) on adolescent aggression. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, which is a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle and high school students from 40 public schools in two rural, low income counties in North Carolina. A three-level HLM model (N = 4,056 at Wave 1, 4,251 at Wave 2, and 4,256 at Wave 3) was estimated to predict factors affecting the change trajectories of aggression. Results indicated that negative proximal processes in the form of parent-adolescent conflict, friend rejection, peer pressure, delinquent friends, and school hassles were significant predictors of aggression. In addition, social capital in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction served as buffers against aggression. Negative proximal processes were more salient predictors than positive proximal processes. School and neighborhood characteristics had a minimal impact on aggression. Overall, rates of aggression did not change significantly over the 3-year study window. Findings highlight the need to intervene in order to decrease negative interactions in the peer and parent domains.
Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Natarajan; Krishnadas, Rajeev
CONTEXT Economic difficulties at the individual level can lead to a number of behavioral problems, including substance abuse and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of a nationwide adverse economic environment during infancy, specifically, the high unemployment rates during and after the 1980 and 1981-1982 recessions, on rates of subsequent adolescent substance use and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and estimated logit regressions to examine the effect of changes in unemployment rates during infancy on the incidence of adolescent behavioral problems, controlling for known youth, family, and environmental risk factors. SETTING Adolescents living in the United States in 1997. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of 8984 adolescents born from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1984. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Probability of engaging in substance use (marijuana, smoking, alcohol, and hard [ie, illegal] drugs) and delinquent behaviors (arrest, handgun use, gang affiliation, petty and major theft, property destruction, and assaultive behavior). RESULTS Exposure to a 1% deviation from mean regional unemployment rates at the age of 1 year was associated with an increase in the odds ratios of engaging in marijuana use (1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]), smoking (1.07 [1.03-1.11]), alcohol use (1.06 [1.02-1.10]), arrest (1.17 [1.09-1.25]), gang affiliation (1.09 [1.00-1.19]), and petty (1.06 [1.01-1.10]) and major theft (1.11 [1.05-1.18]). No significant associations were noted with use of hard drugs, property destruction, and assaultive behavior. CONCLUSIONS The macroeconomic environment during infancy can have serious long-term effects on substance use and delinquent behavior. These potential long-term effects can play an important role in policy making for adolescent mental health care.
Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon
Depression during adolescence is critical to the individual's own development. Hence, identifying individuals with high-risk depression at an early stage is necessary. This study aimed to identify childhood emotional and behavioral risk factors related to depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents through a longitudinal study. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment conducted in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 yr of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist and a general questionnaire on family structure, parental education, and economic status to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Children's Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analysis revealed that childhood attention problems predicted depressive symptoms during adolescence for both boys and girls. For boys, family structure also predicted adolescent depressive symptoms. This study suggests that adolescents with attention problems during childhood are more likely to experience depressive symptoms.
Hautala, Dane S.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; Whitbeck, Les B.
The purpose of the study was to examine prospective childhood risk factors for gang involvement across the course of adolescence among a large eight-year longitudinal sample of 646 Indigenous (i.e., American Indian and Canadian First Nations) youth residing on reservation/reserve land in the Midwest of the United States and Canada. Risk factors at the first wave of the study (ages 10–12) were used to predict gang involvement (i.e., gang membership and initiation) in subsequent waves (ages 11–18). A total of 6.7% of the participants reported gang membership and 9.1% reported gang initiation during the study. Risk factors were distributed across developmental domains (e.g., family, school, peer, and individual) with those in the early delinquency domain having the strongest and most consistent effects. Moreover, the results indicate that the cumulative number of risk factors in childhood increases the probability of subsequent gang involvement. Culturally relevant implications and prevention/intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:28018134
Goodwin, Huw; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline
The risk factors for compulsive exercise are unknown. This study aims to explore longitudinal sociocultural risk factors for compulsive exercise, using a 12-month prospective design. A sample of 332 male and female adolescents (aged 13-15 years at baseline) completed self-report measures of sociocultural risk factors and compulsive exercise at baseline and eating disorder psychopathology and compulsive exercise at 12-month follow-up assessment. Hierarchical regressions found that family and peer messages to become more muscular predicted compulsive exercise in boys, whereas feeling pressure from the media to be thin was a significant predictor of compulsive exercise in girls. These relationships remained significant when controlling for eating disorder psychopathology but became nonsignificant when initial levels of compulsive exercise were entered into the model. The findings suggest that sociocultural risk factors may contribute to the development of compulsive exercise but future research should utilise a younger sample and employ a longer follow-up period to identify true longitudinal effects.
Hautala, Dane S; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J; Whitbeck, Les B
The purpose of the study was to examine prospective childhood risk factors for gang involvement across the course of adolescence among a large eight-year longitudinal sample of 646 Indigenous (i.e., American Indian and Canadian First Nations) youth residing on reservation/reserve land in the Midwest of the United States and Canada. Risk factors at the first wave of the study (ages 10-12) were used to predict gang involvement (i.e., gang membership and initiation) in subsequent waves (ages 11-18). A total of 6.7% of the participants reported gang membership and 9.1% reported gang initiation during the study. Risk factors were distributed across developmental domains (e.g., family, school, peer, and individual) with those in the early delinquency domain having the strongest and most consistent effects. Moreover, the results indicate that the cumulative number of risk factors in childhood increases the probability of subsequent gang involvement. Culturally relevant implications and prevention/intervention strategies are discussed.
Hu, Nan; Li, Jianghong; Glauert, Rebecca A; Taylor, Catherine L
Adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) has been found to be associated with a range of bio-psycho-social factors. Simultaneous investigations of these factors enable more robust estimation of the independent effect of a specific risk factor by adjusting for a more complete set of covariates. However, few studies have had the ability to examine all of these factors together. This study used the linkage of population-level de-identified data collections from government agencies to investigate a range of biological, psychological, and social risk factors and their effects on adolescent risk of DSH (with or without suicidal intent). The investigation was undertaken by progressively adjusting for plausible covariates, including fetal growth status and birth order, early familial social factors, parental hospital admissions due to psychiatric disorders or DSH, and parental all-cause death. Conditional logistic regression was used for data analysis. Children's psychiatric history was analysed to examine the extent to which it may account for the link between the risk factors and adolescent DSH risk. This study identified significant biological and perinatal social risk factors for adolescent DSH risk, including overdue birth, high birth order (≥2), single or teen/young motherhood, high neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage, and parental psychiatric and/or DSH-related hospital admissions. Further, parental psychiatric and/or DSH-related admissions, and children's psychiatric admissions in particular, largely attenuated the effects of the perinatal social risk factors but not the biological factors on adolescent DSH risk. These results highlight the importance of taking joint actions involving both health and social services in the prevention of adolescent DSH.
Gil, Andres G.; Vega, William A.; Turner, R. Jay
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship between risk factors experienced during adolescence by African Americans and European Americans and DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse or dependence in early adulthood. METHODS: The authors followed a cohort of adolescents from 1990-91 (grades 6 and 7) to 1998-2000 (ages 19-21), evaluating risk factors during early adolescence as predictors of DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse and dependence. RESULTS: African Americans had higher exposure to school, family structure, delinquency, and psychosocial factors. School factors and drug-use modeling of peers and family were the most important risk factors for marijuana abuse or dependence for both European and African Americans. CONCLUSION: Personal, familial, and social context factors during early adolescence affect adult drug-use problems, particularly for African Americans. Levels of drug use are lower among African Americans, but exposure to risks is higher and there are clear differences in the long-range impact of risk factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing and timing appropriate prevention efforts. PMID:12435824
Bianchini, Josiane Aparecida Alves; da Silva, Danilo Fernandes; Nardo, Claudia Christina Sanchez; Carolino, Idalina Diair Regla; Hernandes, Florencio; Nardo, Nelson
This study aims to assess the effects of a 16-week multidisciplinary program of obesity treatment on the control of metabolic syndrome (MS) and dyslipidemia in obese adolescents. Eighty-six adolescents aged 10-18 years were allocated in either the intervention group (IG; n = 44) or control group (CG; n = 42). IG was submitted to a multidisciplinary intervention based on cognitive behavioral therapy that aimed to modify eating habits and exercise behavior. We analyzed, before and after the intervention period, anthropometric parameters, body composition, bone mineral density, cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, and lipid profile of the subjects. MS was classified according to International Diabetes Federation (2007) and the presence of dyslipidemia according to Back et al. (Arq Bras Cardiol 85:4-36, 2005). In the beginning of the intervention, the median number (range) of risk factors for MS present was 2.0 (0.0-5.0) in the IG and 2.0 (0.0-4.0) in the CG. After the intervention, this parameter reduced significantly in the IG (1.0 (0.0-5.0); p = 0.004) while no change was observed in the CG (2.0 (0.0-4.0); p = 0.349). In addition, we observed improvements in body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, maximal oxygen uptake, absolute and relative body fat, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol in the IG which was not identified in the CG. Conclusio n: We suggest that a 16-week multidisciplinary intervention based on cognitive behavioral therapy was adequate to reduce risk factors for MS in obese adolescents.
Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Grunden, Leslie N.; Ernst, Jody L.
This study utilized a dynamic cumulative family risk model to explain changes in adolescent functioning. We used a person-centered approach to detect patterns of academic, emotional, and behavioral functioning and the stability of these patterns using two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 10,173). Four adjustment…
Ghazwani, Jaafar Y.; Khalil, Shamsun N.; Ahmed, Razia A.
Background: Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS), for the evaluation of SAD, were used. Results: A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90–8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17–5.19, respectively). Conclusion: The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial. PMID:26929726
Cox, Mary Foster; Fasolino, Tracy K; Tavakoli, Abbas S
Sexual risk behavior is a public health problem among adolescents living at or below poverty level. Approximately 1 million pregnancies and 3 million cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are reported yearly. Parenting plays a significant role in adolescent behavior, with mother-adolescent sexual communication correlated with absent or delayed sexual behavior. This study developed an instrument examining constructs of mother-adolescent communication, the Mother-Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) instrument. A convenience sample of 99 mothers of middle school children completed the self-administered questionnaires. The original 34-item MASC was reduced to 18 items. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the 18-item scale, which resulted in four factors explaining 84.63% of the total variance. Internal consistency analysis produced Cronbach alpha coefficients of .87, .90, .82, and .71 for the four factors, respectively. Convergent validity via hypothesis testing was supported by significant correlations with several subscales of the Parent-Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ) with MASC factors, that is, content and style factors with warmth, personal relationships and disciplinary warmth subscales of the PCRQ, the context factor with personal relationships, and the timing factor with warmth. In light of these findings, the psychometric characteristics and multidimensional perspective of the MASC instrument show evidence of usefulness for measuring and advancing knowledge of mother and adolescent sexual communication techniques.
Yang, M S; Su, I H; Wen, J K; Ko, Y C
The prevalence and related risk factors of betel quid chewing among adolescent students were studied in a junior high school (group 1) and in a vocational school (group 2) in southern Taiwan. Group 1 consisted of 3548 participants (89.7% response rate) and group 2 of 1358 (97.6% response rate). The students were asked to complete a questionnaire anonymously. In the junior high school 1.9% of students including all grades (13-15 years old) and both sexes was found to be a current betel quid chewer and 14% was an ex-chewer, whereas 10.2% of vocational school students (16-18 years old) was a current chewer and 31% was an ex-chewer. The prevalence of betel chewing was significantly higher among boys than girls. A high proportion of chewers was also a smoker and alcohol drinker. A statistical analysis of sociodemographic factors showed that male students who smoked tobacco, consumed alcohol and were friends or classmates of students who were betel quid chewers, were the likeliest adolescents to chew betel quid.
Robles-García, Rebeca; Fresán, Ana; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Conrod, Patricia; Gómez, Diego; de Quevedo Y Domínguez, María Emilia G; Rafful, Claudia; Real, Tania; Vásquez, Lucía; Medina-Mora, María Elena
To validate the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) in a sample of Mexican adolescents, this brief 23-item self-report questionnaire has been developed to screen four high-risk personality traits for substance misuse, to guide targeted approaches to prevention of addictions in adolescents. The scale has been previously validated in United Kingdom, Canada, Sri Lanka and China. A sample of 671 adolescents aged 11-17 completed a Spanish translation of the SURPS as well as other measures of personality and substance use. The Spanish translation of the SURPS has moderate internal consistency, and demonstrated a four-factor structure very similar to the original scale. The four subscales show good concurrent validity and three of the subscales were found to correlate with measures of substance use. The Spanish translation of the SURPS seems to be a valid and sensitive scale that can be used in a Mexican adolescent population.
There is no other such complex physical, biological, somatic, mental, psychological, psychiatric, cultural, social and spiritual phenomenon and general public health problem, so much unexplained, meaningless, so tragic, painful, and unreasonable, so difficult, contradictory and mystified like suicide. In spite of the several already identified background factors, we do not and we can not know the real reasons behind suicide, because suicide is multi-causal, and can never be traced back to one single cause, but there are always many biological, psychological-psychiatric, historical, social and cultural factors involved in its development. However, the strongest suicide risk factor is an unrecognized and untreated mental disorder. Suicide among young people is one of the most serious public health problems. In Hungary 1395 young people lost their lives due to suicide in the 24> age group between 2000-2010, 1150 males and 245 females. According to epidemiological studies, 24.7% of children and adolescents suffer from some form of behaviour-, conduct- or other psychiatric disorders. Among adolescents (aged 15-24) suicide was the first leading cause of death in 2010. Despite great advances in the psychopharmacology and psychotherapy of mental disorders, suicides persist as a major cause of mortality, especially among the 15-24-year old population. Victims of suicide are not healthy individuals. They always suffer from psychiatric or mental, physical or somatic, cultural (social, historical, mythological) and spiritual disorders. The author tries to classify suicide protective and risk factors according to physical-biological, mental-psychological, cultural-social, and spiritual aspects. However, it must be remembered that these factors are not necessarily present in each and every case and may vary from one country to another, one person to another, depending on cultural, political, (spiritual) and economical features. Risk and protective factors can occur (1) at the
Arngrimsson, Sigurbjorn A.
Objective To explore health behaviors and metabolic risk factors in normal weight obese (NWO) adolescents compared with normal weight lean (NWL) peers. Design and Methods A cross-sectional study of 18-year-old students (n = 182, 47% female) in the capital area of Iceland, with body mass index within normal range (BMI, 18.5–24.9 kg/m2). Body composition was estimated via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, fitness was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during treadmill test, dietary intake through 24-hour recall, questionnaires explained health behavior and fasting blood samples were taken. NWO was defined as normal BMI and body fat >17.6% in males and >31.6% in females. Results Among normal weight adolescents, 42% (n = 76) were defined as NWO, thereof 61% (n = 46) male participants. Fewer participants with NWO were physically active, ate breakfast on a regular basis, and consumed vegetables frequently compared with NWL. No difference was detected between the two groups in energy- and nutrient intake. The mean difference in aerobic fitness was 5.1 ml/kg/min between the groups in favor of the NWL group (p<0.001). NWO was positively associated with having one or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome (Odds Ratio OR = 2.2; 95% confidence interval CI: 1.2, 3.9) when adjusted for sex. High waist circumference was more prevalent among NWO than NWL, but only among girls (13% vs 4%, p = 0.019). Conclusions High prevalence of NWO was observed in the study group. Promoting healthy lifestyle with regard to nutrition and physical activity in early life should be emphasized regardless of BMI. PMID:27560824
Bekker, Liza; Barnea, Royi; Brauner, Akiva; Weller, Aron
Binge eating (BE) is characterized by repeated, intermittent over-consumption of food in a brief period of time. This study aims to advance the understanding of potential risk factors for BE such as obesity, overeating and adolescence as an age group. We used the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic overeating-induced obesity model with increased preferences for sweet and fat. Adolescent and adult rats from both strains (OLETF and the lean control strain, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) received limited access to a palatable liquid diet (Ensure vanilla) for three weeks. Water and chow were available throughout the study, but access to Ensure was limited to two hours, three times a week (3TW group) or every work day (5TW group). As expected, OLETF rats consumed more Ensure and were more BE-prone (BEP) than LETO rats at both ages. Adolescent rats showed a significantly larger binge size as demonstrated by a greater increase in Ensure intake, compared to adults. Furthermore, while the adults reduced their chow intake, compensating for increased Ensure intake, the adolescents increased their chow intake too. Finally, the adolescent rats showed binge like behavior earlier in the study and they tended to be BEP more than the adults. Our findings in rats suggest that adolescents and in particular obese adolescents are at risk for BE, and BE can lead to overweight, thus providing the basis for examination of biological mechanisms of this process in animal models.
Bonafini, Sara; Antoniazzi, Franco; Maffeis, Claudio; Minuz, Pietro; Fava, Cristiano
Omega-3 polyunsatured fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are essential nutrients mainly derived from fish and seafood but present also in vegetables such as nuts and seed-oils. Some epidemiological and clinical studies indicate a protection of ω-3 FA against cardiovascular disease and a favourable effect on cardiovascular risk factors control in adults. The evidences of their effects in children and adolescents are scanty but a possible beneficial role, especially for insulin sensitivity and blood pressure control, has been proposed. In this review we want to focus especially on the evidences, which could justify the assumption of ω-3 in children and adolescents, and to underline the aspects which need further investigation. Mechanisms through which ω-3 FA act are manifolds and still a matter of investigation: beside their interaction with ion channel and their influence on plasma membrane fluidity, probably the main effect is acting as competitor for cytochrome P-450 (CYP) with respect to ω-6 FA. Thus, they can modulate the biosynthesis of eicosanoids and other lipid mediators, which likely exert a protective action. Another suggestive hypothesis is that their beneficial effect is not dependent only on the intake of ω-3 FA, but also on the complex interaction between different nutrients including ω-3 and other FAs with polymorphisms in genes involved in ω-3 FA modulation. This complex interaction has seldom been explored in children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to investigate all these points in order to find a better collocation of ω-3 FA on the available armamentarium for preventive, possibly individualized, medicine.
Smokowski, Paul Richard; Rose, Roderick A; Bacallao, Martica
In this study, we examined longitudinal, person-centered trajectories of acculturation, internalizing symptoms, and self-esteem in 349 Latino adolescents. We compared acculturation measures (time in the US, culture-of-origin involvement, US cultural involvement, for both parents and adolescents); acculturation stressors (perceived discrimination, acculturation conflicts); and family dynamics (parent-adolescent conflict, familism). Results indicated that, over time, Latino adolescents' internalizing problems decreased and their self-esteem increased. However, we showed that increased length of time living in the US was significantly related to lower self-esteem among adolescents. Parent-adolescent conflict was a strong risk factor, which not only directly heightened internalizing symptoms and lowered self-esteem, but also mediated the effects of acculturation conflicts and perceived discrimination on these outcomes. Our findings revealed familism as a cultural asset associated with fewer internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Internalizing symptoms were also minimized by the adolescent's involvement in the US culture whereas bicultural adolescents with high culture-of-origin involvement reported higher self-esteem. We discussed the limitations and implications of this study for future research and practice.
Schulte, Ilva Elena; Petermann, Franz
The aim of this study was to examine whether familial risk factors for the development of somatoform symptoms and somatoform disorders in children and adolescents can be deduced from studies which investigated the intergenerational transmission of functional abdominal pain and somatoform disorders. A systematic review of articles published in…
Silviken, Anne; Kvernmo, Siv
The prevalence of suicide attempts and associated risk factors such as sociodemographic conditions, emotional/behavioural problems and parent-child relationships were examined among 591 indigenous Sami and 2100 majority adolescents in Arctic Norway. There were no significant ethnic differences in prevalence of suicide attempts. In both ethnic…
Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…
Wade, Tracey D.; Davidson, Susan; O'Dea, Jennifer A.
Investigates the enjoyment and perceived value associated with two interventions designed to reduce risk factors for eating disorders in young adolescents, a media literacy program or a self-esteem program. Overall, the media literacy program was the intervention preferred by students. Students in both interventions said that they had learnt to…
Mels, Cindy; Derluyn, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; Rosseel, Yves
Background: While the current knowledge base on the mental health effects of displacement is mainly limited to refugees residing in industrialised countries, this paper examines the impact of war-induced displacement and related risk factors on the mental health of Eastern Congolese adolescents, and compares currently internally displaced…
Sedrez, Juliana Adami; da Rosa, Maria Izabel Zaniratti; Noll, Matias; Medeiros, Fernanda da Silva; Candotti, Claudia Tarragô
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between behavioral risk factors, specifically postural habits, with the presence of structural changes in the spinal column of children and adolescents. METHODS: 59 students were evaluated through the self-reporting Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument and spinal panoramic radiographic examination. Spine curvatures were classified based on Cobb angles, as normal or altered in the saggital plane and as normal or scoliotic in the frontal plane. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0, based on descriptive statistics and chi-square association test (a=0,05). RESULTS: The prevalence of postural changes was 79.7% (n=47), of which 47.5% (n=28) showed frontal plane changes and 61% (n=36) sagital plane changes. Significant association was found between the presence of thoracic kyphosis and female gender, practice of physical exercises only once or twice a week, sleep time greater than 10 hours, inadequate postures when sitting on a seat and sitting down to write, and how school supplies are carried. Lumbar lordosis was associated with the inadequate way of carrying the school backpack (asymmetric); and scoliosis was associated wuth the practice of competitive sports and sleep time greater than 10 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle may be associated with postural changes. It is important to develop health policies in order to reduce the prevalence of postural changes, by decreasing the associated risk factors. PMID:25623725
Baheiraei, Azam; Soltani, Farzaneh; Ebadi, Abbas; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi
Introduction: Family and peer risk factors are considered as important predictors of tobacco use in adolescents. Furthermore, information regarding gender differences in lifetime tobacco use of adolescents is essential for designing gender-specific tobacco prevention policies. Methods: In a cross-sectional population-based study, 870 Iranian adolescents (430 boys and 436 girls) aged 15-18 years old, filled out the adopted form of “Communities That Care Youth Survey”. Four family and two peer risk factors were entered in adjusted logistic regression analyses to predict the lifetime tobacco use (cigarette and smokeless tobacco) in boys and girls, separately. Results: Boys reported higher prevalence of lifetime cigarettes use compared to girls (22.8% vs. 17.8%, p = 0.04). However, the prevalence of lifetime smokeless tobacco use in girls was the same as boys, even slightly higher (7.9% vs. 7.1%, P=0.5). “Family history of drug use” and “Friends use of drugs” were common risk factors predicting cigarettes and smokeless tobacco use between both genders. On the other hand, other family risk factors included “Poor family management”, “Parental attitude favorable toward drug use” and “Family conflict” were the predictors of lifetime tobacco use only in girls, but not in boys. Conclusion: Design and implementation of preventative programs for adolescents tobacco use should be conducted with emphasis on the role of smoker parents at home, and friendship with substance user peers with antisocial behaviors. It seems that family risk factors may have more value in prevention of tobacco use in female adolescents. PMID:24999129
van der Put, Claudia E
To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n=25), female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense with a peer victim (PSO, n=15) and female adolescents who have committed a misdemeanor sexual offenses (MSO, n=31). Results showed that CSOs had considerably fewer problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school), family (e.g., parental alcohol problems, parental mental health problems, poor authority and control, out of home placements and run away from home) and friends (antisocial friends) than MSOs and/or PSOs. No differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems, physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Rocha, Naruna Pereira; Milagres, Luana Cupertino; de Novaes, Juliana Farias; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro
Abstract Objective: To address the association between food and nutrition insecurity and cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Data source: Articles were selected from the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases with no publication date limit, involving children and adolescents, using the descriptors: food and nutrition security, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, stress and dyslipidemia. The terms were used in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The search was carried out systematically and independently by two reviewers. Data synthesis: Exposure to food insecurity during childhood and adolescence ranged from 3.3% to 82% in the selected publications. Exposure to food insecurity was associated with stress, anxiety, greater chance of hospitalization, nutritional deficiencies, excess weight and inadequate diets with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables and increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and fats. Conclusions: Food and nutrition insecurity was associated with the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the assessed publications. Childhood and adolescence constitute a period of life that is vulnerable to food insecurity consequences, making it extremely important to ensure the regular and permanent access to food. Because this is a complex association, some difficulties are found, such as the synergy between risk factors, the assessment of heterogeneous groups and extrapolation of data to other populations, in addition to the influence of environmental factors. PMID:26564327
Bryan, Angela D; Schmiege, Sarah J; Magnan, Renee E
Adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system have a high incidence of risky sexual behaviors resulting in unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Substance use may be particularly important as a risk factor for unsafe sexual behavior for this group, and recent evidence suggests a possible association between marijuana use and risky sexual behavior. Adolescents (n = 728; 33% female) on probation were followed for 2 years, at intervals of 6 months, to explore the association of marijuana use and condom use longitudinally and at a specific intercourse occasion. Latent growth curve modeling indicated that greater marijuana use at baseline was associated with a steeper decline in condom use over the 2-year period of the study. In-depth analysis of the most recent intercourse occasion suggested that condom use was less likely if marijuana was being used by the participant or his/her partner and that this association was more pronounced if intercourse occurred with someone the participant had just met. Implications for the prevention of risky sexual behavior in this population are discussed.
Mosqueda-Díaz, Angélica; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho
This quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive and exploratory research aimed to identify and describe protective and family risk factors related to the phenomenon of drugs in adolescents' families in the community of Valparaiso, Chile. The sample consisted of 61 students enrolled in 2008 and selected through simple random sampling. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire, developed and validated by experts from five countries in the Americas. Of the adolescents, 86.9% perceived the family relations, in general, as a protective factor, highlighting great communication with parents. Tensions, health and behavior problems were found as protective factors by a small number of students who act as neutral actors, in both cases associated with alcohol and drugs consumption by some family member. As risk factors, education and parents' kind of work were appointed.
Kim, Sun Mi; Baek, Ji Hyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Young Sik; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A
We determined risk factors that discriminate between suicide attempt (SA) adolescents and suicidal ideation only (SI only) adolescents using data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (12-19 years; N = 73,238). In males, heavy alcohol use, drug use, and high perceived sadness/hopelessness showed significant effects on the presence of SA versus the presence of SI only. In females, along with these variables, low academic achievement, poor perceived health status, high perceived stress, and unhealthy coping strategy were also significantly related to the presence of SA versus SI only. Therefore, clinical interventions targeting adolescents' psychological distress are warranted to prevent suicide.
Eriksson, L M; Irewall, T; Lindberg, Anne; Stenfors, Nikolai
The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs. 19%, p = 0.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs. 20%, p = 0.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs. 8.0 years; p < 0.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent elite skier is an independent risk factor associated with asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Slobodskaya, Helena R; Semenova, Nadezhda B
High rates of child mental health problems in the Russian Federation have recently been documented; the rates of youth suicide are among the highest in the world. Across the Russian regions, Republic of Tyva has one of the highest rates of child and adolescent suicide and the lowest life expectancy at birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associations of mental health problems in Native Tyvinian children and adolescents using internationally recognised measures and diagnoses. A two-stage, two-phase design involved selection of schools in five rural settlements in Western Tyva and two schools in the capital city followed by selection of Native Tyvinian children in grades 3-4 (ages 9-10) and 6-7 (ages 14-15). In the first phase, a screening measure of psychopathology, the Rutter Teacher Questionnaire, was obtained on 1048 children with a 97% participation rate. In the second phase, more detailed psychiatric assessments were carried out for subgroups of screen-positive and screen-negative children. The prevalence of mental health problems was about 25%, ranging from 40% in adolescent boys from rural areas to 9% in adolescent girls from the city. The patterning of disorders and risk factors were similar to those in other countries, rural areas were associated with an increased risk of psychopathology. The findings indicate that there is an urgent need for interventions to reduce risk in this population and provide effective help for Tyvinian children and adolescents with mental health problems.
Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Sonka, Milan; Blecha, Mary Beth; Lin, Wenjiao; Davis, Patricia H.
Objectives To determine whether cardiovascular risk factors are associated with aortic and carotid intimal-medial thickness (aIMT and cIMT) in adolescents and young adults. Background Atherosclerotic lesions begin developing in youth, first in the distal abdominal aorta and later in the carotid arteries. Knowledge of how risk factors relate to aIMT and cIMT may help in the design of early interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease. Methods Participants were 635 members of the Muscatine Offspring cohort. The mean aIMT and cIMT were measured using an automated reading program. Results The means (SDs) of aIMT and cIMT were 0.63 (0.14) mm and 0.49 (0.04) mm, respectively. In adolescents (ages 11 to 17), aIMT was associated with triglycerides, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and waist/hip ratio, after adjusting for age, gender, and height. In young adults (ages 18 to 34), aIMT was associated with those same five risk factors, plus HDL-cholesterol and pulse pressure. In adolescents, cIMT was associated with SBP, pulse pressure, heart rate, BMI, and waist/hip ratio. In young adults, cIMT was associated total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, SBP, .DBP, BMI, waist/hip ratio, and HbA1C. In both age groups, aIMT and cIMT were significantly correlated with the PDAY coronary artery risk score. Conclusions Both aIMT and cIMT are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Using aIMT in adolescents gives information beyond that obtained from cIMT alone. Measurement of aIMT and cIMT may help identify those at risk for premature cardiovascular disease. PMID:19520251
Calderon, Kristine S.; Yucha, Carolyn B.; Schaffer, Susan D.
The incidence of adolescent obesity is increasing dramatically in the United States with associated risks of hypertension, adverse lipid profiles, and Type II diabetes. Unless reversed, this trend predicts an epidemic of adult cardiovascular disease. Interventions at home, at school, and in the community are required to empower teens to increase physical activity and to modify eating habits. This article describes assessment for obesity-related health problems as well as scientific guidelines and research-based intervention strategies to decrease obesity in adolescents.
Farrell, Albert D.; Henry, David B.; Schoeny, Michael E.; Bettencourt, Amie; Tolan, Patrick H.
This study examined the direct effects of beliefs about aggression and nonviolence on physical aggression and their role as protective factors that buffer adolescents from key risk factors in the peer, school, and parenting domains. Multilevel analyses were conducted on data from 5,581 adolescents representing two cohorts from 37 schools in four…
Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Rocha, Clarissa Lisbôa Arla da; Horta, Bernardo Lessa
The objective of this article is to evaluate the number of sexual partners in the last twelve months and the use of condom in the last three sexual relations of adolescents aged between 15 and 18 years old. It was a cross-sectional study with 960 adolescents. Two dichotomized variables were considered as risk sexual behaviors: two or more sexual partners in the last twelve months, and occasional use of condom in the last three sexual relations. We assessed whether these behaviors were associated with socioeconomic status, gender, adolescent and parental schooling, age, living with the parents, remunerated work, religiosity, drugs use, tobacco, alcohol consumption, alcoholic beverages consume before the last sexual relation. The Poisson regression was used for each outcome. The adolescent gender, schooling, the use of illicit drugs and tobacco in the last month as well as alcoholic beverages consume before the last sexual relation indicates greater risk of keeping sexual relations with two or more partners in the last 12 months. With regard to the occasional use of condom in the last three sexual relations, females and those whose mothers have low schooling presented increased risk. Our study suggests that there is a strong relation between risky behaviors.
Gispert, Maria; And Others
Examined factors (family structure, functioning in school, suicidal risk, depression, and stressful life events) related to suicide attempts in 82 adolescents. Suicide risk correlated with current stress, while depression correlated with life-long and current stress. Results indicated most were depressed, angry, and experienced family disruption,…
Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Ourda, Despoina; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos
Cyberbullying is an emerging form of bullying that takes place through contemporary information and communication technologies. Building on past research on the psychosocial risk factors for cyberbullying in this age group, the present study assessed a theory-driven, school-based preventive intervention that targeted moral disengagement, empathy and social cognitive predictors of cyberbullying. Adolescents (N = 355) aged between 16 and 18 years were randomly assigned into the intervention and the control group. Both groups completed anonymous structured questionnaires about demographics, empathy, moral disengagement and cyberbullying-related social cognitive variables (attitudes, actor prototypes, social norms, and behavioral expectations) before the intervention, post-intervention and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention included awareness-raising and interactive discussions about cyberbullying with intervention group students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that, after controlling for baseline measurements, there were significant differences at post-intervention measures in moral disengagement scores, and in favorability of actor prototypes. Further analysis on the specific mechanisms of moral disengagement showed that significant differences were observed in distortion of consequences and attribution of blame. The implications of the intervention are discussed, and guidelines for future school-based interventions against cyberbullying are provided.
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population.
Black, Maureen M.; And Others
Studied factors associated with sexual intercourse and substance use among young, low income, African-American adolescents. Found that sexual activity was associated with parental conflict and having sexually active friends. Boys reported less parental monitoring and family and community support than girls and were more likely to report sexual…
Knight, Rebecca; Williams, Rebecca J.; Pagano, Ian; Sargent, James D.
OBJECTIVE: To describe electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and cigarette use among adolescents and determine whether established risk factors for smoking discriminate user categories. METHODS: School-based survey of 1941 high school students (mean age 14.6 years) in Hawaii; data collected in 2013. The survey assessed e-cigarette use and cigarette use, alcohol and marijuana use, and psychosocial risk and protective variables (eg, parental support, academic involvement, smoking expectancies, peer smoking, sensation seeking). Analysis of variance and multinomial regression examined variation in risk and protective variables across the following categories of ever-use: e-cigarette only, cigarette only, dual use (use of both products), and nonuser (never used either product). RESULTS: Prevalence for the categories was 17% (e-cigarettes only), 12% (dual use), 3% (cigarettes only), and 68% (nonusers). Dual users and cigarette-only users were highest on risk status (elevated on risk factors and lower on protective factors) compared with other groups. E-cigarette only users were higher on risk status than nonusers but lower than dual users. E-cigarette only users and dual users more often perceived e-cigarettes as healthier than cigarettes compared with nonusers. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports a US adolescent sample with one of the largest prevalence rates of e-cigarette only use in the existing literature. Dual use also had a substantial prevalence. The fact that e-cigarette only users were intermediate in risk status between nonusers and dual users raises the possibility that e-cigarettes are recruiting medium-risk adolescents, who otherwise would be less susceptible to tobacco product use. PMID:25511118
van der Laan, André M; Veenstra, René; Bogaerts, Stefan; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan
This study uses a social-ecological approach to the development of delinquency. The authors emphasize that a balance between eliminating risk and enhancing protection across domains is essential in reducing problems and promoting competence. The cumulative risk and promotive effects of temperament, family and school factors in preadolescence were examined on different groups of delinquents (based on self-report) in early adolescence. Data from the first two waves of the TRAILS study (N = 2,230) were used. The results provide evidence for a compensatory model that assumes main effects of risk and promotive factors on problem behavior. Accumulation of risks in preadolescence promoted being a serious delinquent in early adolescence, with the strongest effects for temperament. Accumulation of promotive effects decreased being a delinquent and supported being a non-delinquent. Furthermore, evidence is found for a counter-balancing effect of cumulative promotive and risk factors. Exposure to more promotive domains in the relative absence of risk domains decreased the percentage of serious delinquents. Our results did not support a protective model. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.
Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia
The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…
Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita
To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males.
Hicks, Brian M.; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C. Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96% European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample—socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)—and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse. PMID:24337735
Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96 % European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample-socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)-and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse.
Reingle, Jennifer M.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Cottler, Linda B.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.
Purpose To understand the etiology of violence among ethnically-diverse men using a nationally representative and longitudinal sample of youth. Methods Participants included 4,322 adolescent men followed from ages 13 to 32 from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Trajectories of violence were estimated, and multinomial regression procedures were used to evaluate multiple domains of risk and protective factors for violence. Results Three profiles of violence (non-violent, desistors, and escalators) were identified. There were no substantial differences in the patterns of violent behavior across race/ethnicity; however, the prevalence of violence differed by racial/ethnic group. After accounting for violent behavior at Wave I, peer marijuana use (OR = 1.20), alcohol use (OR = 1.50), group fighting (OR = 2.23), and Wave I violence (OR = 4.34) were identified as risk factors for desistance, while only Wave I violence predicted escalation (OR = 2.27). Conclusions Three trajectories of serious violence, including a late-onset group, were identified; however, few risk and protective factors were associated with membership in this group. Risk and protective factors for violence prior to age 13 should be targeted for prevention. PMID:23298997
Coenders, Alies; Chapman, Cindy; Hannaford, Patricia; Jaaniste, Tiina; Qiu, Wen; Anderson, David; Glogauer, Maline; Goodison-Farnsworth, Evelyn; McCormick, Marianne; Champion, David
Objectives This study was designed to investigate whether an individual and parental history of functional pain syndromes (FPS) is found more often in adolescents suffering from chronic pain than in their pain-free peers. Methods Our case–control study involved 101 adolescents aged 10–18 years. Cases were 45 patients of the Chronic Pain Clinic at Sydney Children’s Hospital with diverse chronic pain disorders. Controls consisted of 56 adolescent volunteers who did not have chronic pain. Adolescents and their parents filled out questionnaires assessing demographic data as well as known and potential risk factors for chronic pain. A history of FPS was assessed by questionnaire, including restless legs syndrome (RLS). Chi-squared tests and t-tests were used to investigate univariate associations between chronic pain in adolescents and lifetime prevalence of FPS. Logistic regression was used to test multivariate associations, while controlling for possible confounders. Results Migraine, non-migraine headaches, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and RLS were reported significantly more frequently in cases than controls (P-values of 0.01, <0.001, 0.01, and 0.03, respectively). Parental migraine, RAP, and RLS were also significantly associated with adolescent chronic pain in the multivariate analyses. Individual history of migraine, non-migraine headaches, and RAP, along with parental history of RAP and depression significantly accounted for 36%–49% of variance in chronic pain. Other associations with chronic pain were generally in accordance with previous reports. Discussion It may be helpful when assessing a child who has chronic pain or is at risk of chronic pain, to enquire about these associations. Based on the current findings, an individual history of migraine, non-migraine headaches, and RAP, as well as parental migraine, RAP, and RLS are symptoms that are of particular relevance to assess. PMID:24707186
Chadwick, O.; Kusel, Y.; Cuddy, M.
Background: Little is known about the factors affecting the risk of behavioural and emotional problems in young people with severe intellectual disability (ID), although such evidence as there is suggests that there may be differences between the pattern of risk factors in this group and those that operate in general population samples of the same…
Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Brown, Eric C.; Greenbaum, Paul E.
This 7-year study examined the consequences of early pregnancy and parenting for girls with serious emotional disturbances (SED) and risk factors identified with teenage pregnancy. Risk factors that were examined included sociodemographic characteristics, psychological characteristics, and psychopathology. The 109 participants in the study were…
Jahromi, Laudan B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Lara, Ethelyn E.
Infants of adolescent mothers are at increased risk for negative developmental outcomes. Given the high rate of pregnancy among Mexican-origin adolescent females in the US, the present study examined health characteristics at birth and developmental functioning at 10 months of age in a sample of 205 infants of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers.…
Doljanac, R F; Zimmerman, M A
Adolescence is a period of sexual experimentation. We examined psychosocial predictors of high-risk sexual behavior and condom use. The sample included 824 ninth-graders, most of whom are African American. We conducted separate analyses for whites and African Americans. Predictors included alcohol and substance use, delinquency, prosocial behaviors, and family and peer influences. We found that problem behaviors predicted high-risk sexual behavior, but the effects were stronger for white youth. We also found that friends' behaviors were more predictive than family influences, except for family conflict. In general, the models explained more variance for white youths than for African-American youths. The results suggest that problem behavior theory and social interactions theory may be most relevant for white youth and that other models may be necessary to explain high-risk sexual behavior among African-American youths.
Giletta, Matteo; Calhoun, Casey D; Hastings, Paul D; Rudolph, Karen D; Nock, Matthew K; Prinstein, Mitchell J
Adopting a multi-level approach, this study examined risk factors for adolescent suicidal ideation, with specific attention to (a) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses and (b) the interplay between HPA-axis and other risk factors from multiple domains (i.e., psychological, interpersonal and biological). Participants were 138 adolescent females (M(age) = 14.13 years, SD = 1.40) at risk for suicidal behaviors. At baseline, lifetime suicidal ideation and a number of risk factors were assessed (i.e., depressive symptoms, impulsiveness, pubertal status and peer stress). Participants were exposed to a psychosocial stress task and HPA-axis responses were assessed by measuring cortisol levels pre- and post-stressor. At 3 months post-baseline, suicidal ideation again was assessed. Using group-based trajectory modeling, three groups of cortisol stress-response patterns were identified (i.e., hyporesponsive, normative, and hyperresponsive). As compared to females in the normative and hyporesponsive group, females in the hyperresponsive group were more likely to report a lifetime history of suicidal ideation at baseline, above and beyond the effects of the other predictors. Moreover, as compared to females in the normative group, females in the hyperresponsive group were at increased risk for reporting suicidal ideation 3 months later, after controlling for prior ideation. No interactions between cortisol group and the other risk factors were significant, with the exception of a non-significant trend between impulsiveness and cortisol group on lifetime suicidal ideation. Findings highlight the importance of HPA-axis responses to acute stressors as a risk factor for suicidal ideation among adolescents.
Calhoun, Casey D.; Hastings, Paul D.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Adopting a multi-level approach, this study examined risk factors for adolescent suicidal ideation, with specific attention to (a) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses and (b) the interplay between HPA-axis and other risk factors from multiple domains (i.e., psychological, interpersonal and biological). Participants were 138 adolescent females (Mage=14.13 years, SD=1.40) at risk for suicidal behaviors. At baseline, lifetime suicidal ideation and a number of risk factors were assessed (i.e., depressive symptoms, impulsiveness, pubertal status and peer stress). Participants were exposed to a psychosocial stress task and HPA-axis responses were assessed by measuring cortisol levels pre- and post-stressor. At 3 months post-baseline, suicidal ideation again was assessed. Using group-based trajectory modeling, three groups of cortisol stress-response patterns were identified (i.e., hyporesponsive, normative, and hyperresponsive). As compared to females in the normative and hyporesponsive group, females in the hyperresponsive group were more likely to report a lifetime history of suicidal ideation at baseline, above and beyond the effects of the other predictors. Moreover, as compared to females in the normative group, females in the hyperresponsive group were at increased risk for reporting suicidal ideation 3 months later, after controlling for prior ideation. No interactions between cortisol group and the other risk factors were significant, with the exception of a non-significant trend between impulsiveness and cortisol group on lifetime suicidal ideation. Findings highlight the importance of HPA-axis responses to acute stressors as a risk factor for suicidal ideation among adolescents. PMID:24958308
Hankin, Benjamin L.; Abela, John R.Z.
Little is known about which risk factors longitudinally predict non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) during adolescence, a period when these self-injurious behaviors become alarmingly prevalent. We prospectively studied the rates, course, and longitudinal prediction of NSSI from early through middle adolescence with a community sample of 103 youth (ages 11–14) who were assessed for NSSI at baseline and 2 ½ years later (94% retention; final N=97). Multiple risk factors (temperament, cognitive and interpersonal vulnerabilities, stressors; youths’ and mothers’ depression) were examined as prospective predictors of NSSI over the 2½ year follow-up. Analyses showed that 18% of youth engaged in NSSI over the 2½-year follow-up; 14% for the first time. Distal risks (assessed at baseline) that differentiated youth who engaged in NSSI from those who did not included negative cognitive style and mothers’ prior depression. Proximal factors (assessed 2 years after baseline) that differentiated NSSI from non-NSSI youth included stressors, depressive symptoms, poor relationship quality, excessive reassurance seeking, and mothers’ onset of depression. Several of these factors predicted new engagement of NSSI over 2½ years. PMID:20807667
Pinto, Karina Alves de Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and investigate their association with parameters markers of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its risk factors in female adolescents. It is a cross-sectional study with 150 adolescents from 10 public schools in the Federal District, Brazil. The presence of abdominal obesity was considered by measuring waist circumference above the 80th percentile, according to Taylor et al. (2000). The associated factors included sociodemographic characteristics, health status of adolescents and their parents, physical activity, eating habits, blood pressure and biochemical profile. The abdominal obesity prevalence ratio (PR) was estimated by Poisson regression model, with 95% CI. Among the adolescents studied (age= 15.6 +/- 0.8 years; BMI = 21.0 +/- 3.0 kg/m2), prevalence of abdominal obesity was 20%, and this condition was not associated with sociodemographic variables, physical activity and diet. However, abdominal obesity was significantly associated with intake of less than 4 meals a day (PR = 2.27; IC95% 1.27-4.10), previous obesity (PR = 2.36; IC95% 1.31-4.01), history of parental chronic disease (PR = 3.55; IC 95% 1.63-7.75), fasting insulin = 15 uUi/mL (PR = 3.05; IC 95% 1.36-6.82) e HDL-c > 40 mg/dL (PR = 0.39; IC95% 0.23-0.67). In this population, modifiable factors, family history and determinants of MS, such as insulin and HDL-c were associated with abdominal obesity, which points to the need for effective health promotion among adolescents.
Martínez, Isabel; Fuentes, María C; García, Fernando; Madrid, Ignacio
The aim of this study was to analyze the parental socialization styles as a protective or a risk factor for substance use in a sample of 673 Spanish adolescents (51.7% were women) aged 14-17 (M = 15.49, SD = 1.06). All participants completed the Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) and a scale of substance use. Additionally, they also completed a scale of delinquency and another one of school misconduct. A multivariate (4×2×2) analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied for substance use, delinquency and school misconduct with parenting style, sex and age. Results from this study showed that indulgent parenting style was a protective factor for substance use whereas authoritarian style was identified as a risk factor. Moreover, results from protective and risk parenting styles on delinquency and school misconduct were consistent with those obtained on substance use. These findings have important implications for the development of family-based substance use prevention programs among Spanish adolescents and other similar cultures where indulgent parenting style is currently displaying a beneficial impact.
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (
Colins, Olivier F; Vermeiren, Robert R; Noom, Marc; Broekaert, Eric
The aim of this study was to prospectively examine whether psychotic-like symptoms (PLSs) are positively associated with violent recidivism and whether this relation is stronger when PLSs co-occur with substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 224 detained male adolescents from all youth detention centers in Flanders. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children was used to assess PLSs and the number of SUDs. Two to 4 years later, information on official recidivism was obtained. Although hallucinations were unrelated to violent recidivism, paranoid delusions (PDs) and threat/control override delusions (TCODs) were negatively related to violent recidivism. The relation between PLSs and violent recidivism did not become stronger in the presence of SUDs. Detained youths with PLSs do not have a higher risk for violent recidivism than detained youths without PLSs. In contrast, by identifying detained youths with PDs or TCODs, clinicians are likely to identify youths with a low risk for future violent crimes.
Sen, Yasar; Kandemir, Nurgun; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Gonc, Nazli; Ozon, Alev
The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its risk factors in obese children and adolescents. The study included 352 obese children and adolescents (body mass index [BMI] > or = 95th percentile) aged between 2 and 19 years. The diagnosis of MS was made according to the criteria adapted from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guidelines. BMI z-scores were calculated to assess the degree of obesity. The prevalence of MS and risk factors were determined. Determinants of MS were examined using regression analysis. The prevalence of MS was 41.8%. The age at onset of obesity, sedentary life-span, fasting blood levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were higher, while levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and the number of actively spent hours were lower in cases with MS (p < 0.05). The most important determinant of MS was BMI z-score (r = 0.31, p < 0.0001). A one-point increase in BMI z-score yielded a 2-fold increase in the prevalence of MS. The prevalence of MS increased from 27.6% to 60.7% when the BMI z-score increased from 2.3 to 3.3. The risk of developing MS was 2.6-fold higher in cases with BMI z-score > 3 when compared to those with z-scores between 2 and 3. The results from this study indicate that, although the correlation between MS and the BMI z-score was weak, the BMI z-score may be an effective parameter in identifying obese children and adolescents at risk for MS. Screening the cases with BMI z-scores > or = 2 for MS is important for establishing an early diagnosis.
Bohlin, Margareta C; Erlandsson, Soly I
Adolescents in Western society often expose themselves to high levels of sound in gyms, rock concerts, discotheques etc. As these behaviours are as threatening to young people's health as more traditional risk behaviours are, our aim in the present study was to analyze the relationship between self-exposure to noise, risk behaviours and risk judgements among 310 Swedish adolescents aged 15-20 (167 men; 143 women). Adolescents' behaviour in different traditional risk situations correlated with behaviour in noisy environments, while judgements about traditional risks correlated with judgements regarding noise exposure. It is an interesting finding that although young women judge risk situations as generally more dangerous than young men do, they nevertheless behave in the same way. We suggest that this difference is a social and cultural phenomenon which underscores the importance of adopting a gender perspective in the analysis of risk factors. Adolescents reporting permanent tinnitus judged loud music as more risky than adolescents with no symptoms and they did not listen to loud music as often as those with occasional tinnitus. Research on hearing prevention for young people needs to acknowledge and make use of theories on risk behaviour, especially due to the existence of a relationship between adolescents' risk-taking in noisy environments and other types of risk-taking. Similarly, theories on risk behaviour should acknowledge noise as a risk factor.
Santos, Rute; Moreira, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Lopes, Luís; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Moreira, Pedro; Silva, Pedro; Mota, Jorge
Few studies have reported associations between clustering metabolic risk factors and socioeconomic status (SES) in youth. This study aimed to analyze the association between clustering metabolic risk factors and SES in adolescents. It was hypothesized that SES is inversely related to clustering metabolic risk factors. This 2009 cross-sectional school-based study investigated 517 Portuguese adolescents ages 15-18 years. The study considered the age- and sex-adjusted z-scores for the ratio of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein, homeostasis model, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure, and a metabolic risk score was constructed by summing all the z-scores (≥1 standard deviation was considered high risk). Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated by the 20 m shuttle-run test and dietary intake by a food frequency questionnaire. The best of parental education was used as a proxy measure of SES. The results showed that adolescents with low SES were more likely to have a high metabolic risk score (odds ratio [OR], 1.96; p < 0.020) regardless of cardiorespiratory fitness, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, or pubertal stage. In conclusion, a lower SES was associated with increased risk for a high metabolic risk score among Azorean adolescents after adjustment for pubertal stage, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Future health-promotion strategies among Azorean adolescents should consider the impact of SES on their health.
Barker, Erin T.; Galambos, Nancy L.
Examined factors predicting body dissatisfaction for seventh- and tenth-grade girls and boys in the second wave of a 3-year study of psychosocial maturity. Identified high body mass index, greater figure management, and being teased about appearance as risk factors for girls' body dissatisfaction. Being teased was boys' only significant risk…
Duerden, Emma G.; Oatley, Hannah K.; Mak-Fan, Kathleen M.; McGrath, Patricia A.; Taylor, Margot J.; Szatmari, Peter; Roberts, S. Wendy
While self-injurious behaviors (SIB) can cause significant morbidity for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little is known about its associated risk factors. We assessed 7 factors that may influence self-injury in a large cohort of children with ASD: (a) atypical sensory processing; (b) impaired cognitive ability; (c) abnormal…
Ramírez Ruiz, Martha; Andrade, Denise de
The present investigation had as objective identifying in a family the possible factors of risk related to the use of alcohol and tobacco in the children and adolescents. It is important to emphasize that study of this nature within a social and culture perspective expresses the attempt to include/understand the factors of risk for the use of tobacco and to drink alcoholic the environmental influences in the familiar surroundings views to prevent futures cases with dependency. For the study used a sample of one hundred families, to that applied to an instrument pre to them established with the people in charge of the respective families. As result were obtained 51% of the schooling level are low, 54% has inferior wage to the basic one, 61% to drink alcoholic. To emphasize that unquestionable the reduction of the casuistry of alcoholism and/or tabaquismo to influence significantly in the quality of the individuals life.
Dahlui, M; Jahan, N K; Majid, H A; Jalaludin, M Y; Murray, L; Cantwell, M; Su, T T; Al-Sadat, N
Smoking among Malaysian adolescents remains a public health concern despite concerted efforts in tobacco control. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and determinants of current-smoking status in young adolescents. This cross sectional study used the first round of the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Research Team's prospective cohort study. It was conducted in three States of the Central and Northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia between March and May 2012. The study used the multistage stratified sampling design. A total of 1,342 adolescents of both sexes, aged 12-13 years, were sampled from randomly selected urban and rural national schools. Information on current smoking status and associated factors were collected by a self-administered, pre-tested, validated, structured questionnaire. Seven percent of the samples were current-smokers; the majority (62%) of them started smoking at the age of 11 years or below. The prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher in males (odds ratio [OR] = 2.37; 95% CI: 1.46, 3.84), those who were influenced by smoker friends (OR = 8.35; 95% CI: 4.90, 14.25), who were unaware of the health risks of smoking (OR =1.85; 95% CI: 1.02, 3.36) and who reported a lack of satisfaction about their overall life (OR =3.26; 95% CI: 1.73, 6.12). The study findings provide valuable information to strengthen the existing school-based smoking prevention program through integration of social competence and social influence curricula. The program should empower the young adolescents to refuse tobacco offers, to overcome social influences and to resist peer pressure to avoid starting smoking. Particular focuses to include mental health service to prevent both emotional and behavioural problems are needed.
Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong
Even though reliable eating disorder risk factors have been identified among adolescent girls, little is known about predictors of increased vulnerability within specific phases of adolescence or among adolescent boys, particularly in highly populated non-Western contexts. In this study, early and middle adolescent boys (n = 1,271) and girls (n = 1,415) from Chongqing, China completed validated measures of eating disorder pathology and putative risk factors at baseline and 2 years follow-up. Multivariate models for boys of each age group indicated increases in disordered eating at follow-up were predicted by higher initial body mass index, negative affect and body dissatisfaction levels as well as attendant increases in perceived appearance pressure from mass media, body dissatisfaction, negative affect between assessments. High baseline levels of reported appearance pressure from parents and dating partners contributed, respectively, to prediction models of younger and older boys. More distinct constellations of significant predictors emerged in multivariate models of early versus middle adolescent girls. Together, findings indicated body dissatisfaction and negative affect were fairly robust risk factors for exacerbations in disturbances across samples while risk factors such as perceived pressure from desired/prospective dating partners were salient only during particular phases of adolescence.
Fam, Bita; Amouzegar, Atieh; Arzhan, Soraya; Ghanbariyan, Arash; Delshad, Maryam; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun
Background: Physical activity (PA) is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. This study aimed to examine the association between PA and MetS and its components among normal weight and overweight/obese adolescent in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods: This cross-sectional study includes 777 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who were selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling from among TLGS participants. Subjects were classified as normal weight and overweight/obese based on the age- and sex-specific standardized percentile curves of BMI for Iranian population. Levels of PA were assessed using a standardized and modifiable activity questionnaire (MAQ), and categorized into tertiles. MetS was defined according to the Cook's criteria. Results: Prevalence of the MetS was higher in overweight/obese than normal group (35% vs. 3%; P: 0.02). Normal groups were more physically active (50% vs. 44%); however, difference was not significant. There was a significant association between the light PA and risk of lower level of HDL-C before and after adjustment, in normal weight group (OR: 1.61, CI 95%: 1.11, 2.35; OR: 1.65, CI 95%: 1.12, 2.44, respectively). The overweight/obese group with light and moderate PA had a higher risk of having abdominal obesity than those with vigorous PA, only after adjustment for determined covariates (OR: 1.11, CI 95%: 1.07, 1.21; OR: 1.06, CI 95%: 1.01, 1.08, respectively); the association between MetS and PA was not significant. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the association between PA and some individual components of MetS such as waist and HDL-C. PMID:24130941
Leonardo, Cristiane R; Filgueiras, Maria Francisca T; Vasconcelos, Mônica M; Vasconcelos, Roberta; Marino, Viviane P; Pires, Cleidismar; Pereira, Ana Cristina; Reis, Fernanda; Oliveira, Eduardo A; Lima, Eleonora M
Risk factors for renal scarring in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) were evaluated. The medical records of 120 patients were assessed concerning gender, presence of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR), bladder capacity, detrusor overactivity, residual urine, febrile urinary tract infection (UTI), bacteriuria, constipation, detrusor sphincter incoordination (DSI), high detrusor pressure at maximal cystometric capacity (PMCC), low compliance, and thickness and trabeculation of the bladder wall. Renal scarring was diagnosed by (99m)technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan (DMSA). Renal scarring was detected in 38 patients (31%). VUR, UTI, decreased bladder capacity, urinary residue, and trabeculated and thick bladder wall were associated with scarring at univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed VUR (P < 0.0001) as the independent risk factor for renal scarring. Thickness of the bladder wall was a marginal risk factor (P = 0.07). Although UTI was not a risk factor, it was associated with VUR (P = 0.03). In our analysis, VUR was the main risk factor; however, renal scarring was probably due to multifactorial causes, as VUR was associated with UTI.
Novak, Jamie; Furman, Wyndol
Violence within romantic relationships is a significant public health concern. Previous research largely explores partner violence at one or two time points, and often examines a limited set of risk factors. The present study explored both individual and relationship-level risk factors and their associations with physical victimization and perpetration across more than 10 years using a community sample of 200 participants (50 % female; M age Wave 1 = 15.8). Additionally, we explored the effects of previous partner violence on the likelihood of future partner violence. Survival analysis indicated that externalizing symptoms and negative interactions (e.g., relationship conflict) were associated with both perpetration and victimization. Reporting an experience of partner violence did not significantly alter an individual's risk of future partner violence. Overall, men were significantly more likely to report victimization; perpetration rates did not vary by gender. The results highlight the importance of examining multiple levels of risk.
Background The purpose of this study was to examine the association between muscular fitness (MF), assessed by 2 components of Fitnessgram test battery, the Curl-Up and Push-Ups tests and the metabolic risk score among adolescent girls. Methods A total of 229 girls (aged 12-15 years old) comprised the sample of this study. Anthropometric data (height, body mass, waist circumference) were collected. Body mass index (BMI) was also calculated. Muscular strength was assessed taking into account the tests that comprised the FITNESSGRAM test battery, i.e. the curl-up and the push-up. Participants were then categorized in one of 3 categories according the number of tests in which they accomplished the scores that allow them to be classified in health or above health zone. The blood pressure [BP], fasting total cholesterol [TC], low density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides [TG], glucose, and a metabolic risk score (MRS) were also examined. Physical Activity Index (PAI) was obtained by questionnaire. Results Higher compliance with health-zone criteria (good in the 2 tests), adjusted for age and maturation, were positive and significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with height (r = 0.19) and PAI (r = 0.21), while a significant but negative association was found for BMI (r = -0.12); WC (r = -0.19); TC (r = -0.16); TG (r = -0.16); LDL (r = -0.16) and MRS (r = -0.16). Logistic regression showed that who were assigned to MF fittest group were less likely (OR = 0.27; p = 0.003) to be classified overweight/obese and less likely (OR = 0.26; p = 0.03) to be classified as having MRS. This last association was also found for those whom only performed 1 test under the health zone (OR = 0.23; p = 0.02). Conclusions Our data showed that low strength test performance was associated with increased risk for obesity and metabolic risk in adolescent girls even after adjustment for age and maturation. PMID:20573222
Baer, Tamara E.; Milliren, Carly E.; Walls, Courtney; DiVasta, Amy D.
Study Objectives To review the clinical presentation, evaluation and management of normal-weight, overweight and obese adolescent and young adult women with PCOS over 2-year follow-up. Design Retrospective chart review Participants 173 adolescent and young adult women, aged 12–22 years, diagnosed with PCOS Interventions Demographic, health data, and laboratory measures were abstracted from 3 clinic visits: baseline and 1- and 2- year follow-up. Subjects were classified as normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW) or obese (OB). Longitudinal data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Main Outcome Measures BMI, self-reported concerns, lifestyle changes. Results Most patients (73%) were OW or OB. Family history of type II diabetes was greater in OW (38%) and OB (53%) as compared to NW (22%) patients (p=0.002). Acanthosis nigricans was identified in OW (62%) and OB (21%) patients, but not NW patients (0%; p <0.001). OW and OB patients had higher fasting insulin (p<0.001) and lower HDL cholesterol (p=0.005) than NW patients, although screening rates were low. BMI Z-scores decreased in both OW and OB patients over time (0.07 units/year; p<0.001). Conclusions Most patients with PCOS were OW/OB. Substantial clinical variability existed in CVD screening; among those screened, OW and OB patients had greater CVD risk factors. Despite self-reported concerns about weight and diabetes risk among OW/OB patients, no clinically significant change in BMI percentile occurred. Evidence-based interventions and recommendations for screening tests are needed to address CVD risk in adolescents and young adults with PCOS. PMID:26081478
Ungar, Michael; Liebenberg, Linda; Dudding, Peter; Armstrong, Mary; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
Background: Very little research has examined the relationship between resilience, risk, and the service use patterns of adolescents with complex needs who use multiple formal and mandated services such as child welfare, mental health, juvenile justice, and special educational supports. This article reports on a study of 497 adolescents in…
Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff M; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather
Because no single report has examined risk factors that predict future onset each type of eating disorder and core symptom dimensions that crosscut disorders, we addressed these aims to advance knowledge regarding risk factor specificity. Data from 3 prevention trials that targeted young women with body dissatisfaction (N = 1,272; Mage = 18.5, SD = 4.2) and collected annual diagnostic interview data over 3-year follow-up were combined to identify predictors of subthreshold/threshold anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD). Negative affect and functional impairment predicted onset of all eating disorders. Thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, overeating, and mental health care predicted onset of subthreshold/threshold BN, BED, and PD; positive thinness expectations, denial of cost of pursuing the thin ideal, and fasting predicted onset of 2 of these 3 disorders. Similar risk factors predicted core eating disorder symptom onset. Low BMI and dieting specifically predicted onset of subthreshold/threshold AN or low BMI. Only a subset of factors showed unique predictive effects in multivariate models, likely due to moderate correlations between the risk factors (M r = .14). Results provide support for the theory that pursuit of the thin ideal and the resulting body dissatisfaction, dieting, and unhealthy weight control behaviors increase risk for binge/purge spectrum eating disorders, but suggest that youth who are inherently lean, rather than purposely pursuing the thin ideal, are at risk for AN. Impaired interpersonal functioning and negative affect are transdiagnostic risk factors, suggesting these factors should be targeted in prevention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record
McVey, Gail L.; Pepler, Debra; Davis, Ron; Flett, Gordon L.; Abdolell, Mohamed
Risk and protective factors associated with disordered eating were examined in girls in middle-level school. Analysis showed that low competence in physical appearance, high importance of social acceptance, high self-oriented perfectionism, and low parental support were correlated significantly with reports of high levels of disordered eating.…
Curbow, Barbara; Bowie, Janice; Binko, JoAnn; Smith, Stephanie; Dreyling, Erin; McDonnell, Karen A.
Using a snowball technique, in-depth interviews were conducted with 108 girls emanating from seven demographically dissimilar social networks. Girls were asked to classify 58 items as either a risk or protective factor for smoking initiation and then to assign an importance weighting to each. All items except one (worries about her weight) were…
Gage, Anastasia J.; Suzuki, Chiho
This study examined risk factors associated with alcohol use in the past 3 months among young men aged 15-24 in Haiti using data from the 2000 Enquete Mortalite, Morbidite et Utilization des Services. Findings indicate that life-time smoking, multiple sexual partnerships, witnessing inter-parental conflict in childhood, disruption of parental…
Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Longshore, Douglas L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a revised state-of-the-art drug prevention program, Project ALERT, on risk factors for drug use in mostly rural midwestern schools and communities. Fifty-five middle schools from South Dakota were randomly assigned to treatment or control conditions. Treatment-group students received 11…
Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Willis, Don
This article's aim is to examine correlates of middle school students' body mass index (BMI). Little research simultaneously has considered both child and parent correlates in predicting child's BMI; we examine the interrelationships between middle school students and their parent's risks and protective factors and their impact on the child's BMI.…
East, Patricia L.; Khoo, Siek Toon; Reyes, Barbara T.
One hundred twenty-eight Latina and African American girls from high-risk environments (e.g., poverty, family history of teen parenting, etc.) were studied from age 13 through age 19 to prospectively identify the protective factors that might guard against teenage pregnancy. Results indicated that involved and strict parenting during early…
Huang, Zepeng; Liu, Zhenni; Liu, Xiangxiang; Lv, Laiwen; Zhang, Yan; Ou, Limin; Li, Liping
Despite the prevalence of the phenomena of peer victimization and bystander behaviors, little data has generated to describe their relationships and risk factors. In this paper, a self-administered survey using a cross-sectional cluster-random sampling method in a sample of 5450 participants (2734 girls and 2716 boys) between 4th and 11th grades was conducted at six schools (two primary schools and four middle schools) located in Shantou, China. Self-reported peer victimization, bystander behaviors and information regarding parents’ risky behaviors and individual behavioral factors were collected. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate risk factors affecting peer victimization and bystander behaviors. The results indicated that urban participants were more likely to become bullying victims but less likely to become passive bystanders. Contrarily, bullying victimization was related to the increasing of passive bystander behaviors. Father drinking and mother smoking as independent factors were risk factors for peer victimization. Participants who were smoking or drinking had a tendency to be involved in both peer victimization and passive bystander behaviors. This study suggested that bystander behaviors, victims’ and parents’ educations play a more important role in peer victimization than previously thought. PMID:27472354
Vergetaki, Anna; Linardakis, Manolis; Papadaki, Angeliki; Kafatos, Anthony
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) risk factors in adolescents and University students in Crete (Greece), according to different levels of snack consumption. 237 adolescents (14.2-16.3 years) and 196 University students (19.5-31.5 years) participated during 2002/3 and 2004/5. Dietary intake (24-h dietary recalls), cardiorespiratory fitness, smoking habits, time spent watching television, anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were assessed in all subjects. Adolescents consumed snacks more often than University students (62% vs. 49.5%, P < 0.05) and had significantly higher total energy intake (8629 vs. 7641 kJ, P < 0.05) and energy intake from snacks (2537 vs. 1767 kJ, P < 0.001). Snack consumers had higher energy intake than non-consumers in both groups. No relationship was found between snack consumption and MetSyn risk factors, cardiorespiratory fitness and smoking. However, University students who consumed snacks had 15.36 times higher risk of having ≥ 2 MetSyn risk factors than adolescent snack consumers, had considerably higher LDL-cholesterol levels, total: HDL-cholesterol ratio and watched more television than non-consumers. These findings emphasize the need for developing effective nutrition interventions to promote healthier snack choices in adolescents and young adults with characteristics similar to our sample, in order to prevent cardiovascular risk later in adulthood.
White, Monique S; Addison, Clifton C; Jenkins, Brenda W Campbell; Bland, Vanessa; Clark, Adrianne; LaVigne, Donna Antoine
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is linked to hypertension among African American youth. Optimistic bias influences behavior of youth causing them to underestimate their susceptibility to negative health outcomes. This study explored adolescent behaviors and prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in a school district. We examined the relationship between individual health risk practices and optimistic bias on health outcomes; 433 African American high school students were administered a survey and had their obesity and blood pressure measured by the school nurse. Canonical correlational analyses were used to examine relationships between health risk practices and descriptive statistics for optimistic bias and health outcomes. Engaging in moderate exercise for at least 30 min in the last 7 days and lower blood pressure was the only statistically significant relationship. Two-thirds of the students did not perceive themselves to be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease with males at greater risk than females, despite the presence of clinical risk factors for hypertension and obesity. Reducing health optimistic bias is an effective way of motivating young people to adopt more positive behaviors using educational institutions to implement intervention programs that promote positive health behavior as a way to reduce health disparities.
White, Monique S.; Addison, Clifton C.; Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Bland, Vanessa; Clark, Adrianne; Antoine LaVigne, Donna
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is linked to hypertension among African American youth. Optimistic bias influences behavior of youth causing them to underestimate their susceptibility to negative health outcomes. This study explored adolescent behaviors and prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in a school district. We examined the relationship between individual health risk practices and optimistic bias on health outcomes; 433 African American high school students were administered a survey and had their obesity and blood pressure measured by the school nurse. Canonical correlational analyses were used to examine relationships between health risk practices and descriptive statistics for optimistic bias and health outcomes. Engaging in moderate exercise for at least 30 min in the last 7 days and lower blood pressure was the only statistically significant relationship. Two-thirds of the students did not perceive themselves to be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease with males at greater risk than females, despite the presence of clinical risk factors for hypertension and obesity. Reducing health optimistic bias is an effective way of motivating young people to adopt more positive behaviors using educational institutions to implement intervention programs that promote positive health behavior as a way to reduce health disparities. PMID:28230728
Goldston, David B.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Erkanli, Alaattin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Mayfield, Andrew; Frazier, Patricia H.; Treadway, Sarah L.
The purpose of this prospective, naturalistic study was to examine the relationships between suicide attempts and contemporaneous psychiatric disorders, and developmental changes in these relationships from adolescence to young adulthood. The sample consisted of 180 adolescents, 12-19 years of age at hospitalization, repeatedly assessed for up to…
Best, David; Gross, Samantha; Manning, Victoria; Gossop, Michael; Witton, John; Strang, John
The study uses a school-based sample to test the social and familial risk and protective factors relating to cannabis use. Based on a self-completion survey of 2078 14-16-year-olds (mean age of 15 years) attending seven standard state-run secondary schools in south London, an assessment was made of rates and risk factors for cannabis use. Twenty-four per cent of the total sample had ever used cannabis, with 15% having done so in the month prior to assessment. In addition to greater likelihood of illicit drug use, lifetime cannabis users were less likely to spend time regularly with both their mothers and fathers, but more likely to spend free time with friends who smoked, drank alcohol and used illicit drugs, and with friends involved in criminal activities. Among those who had ever used cannabis, frequency of cannabis use was predicted (using linear regression) by two onset factors (earlier initiation of drinking and cannabis use were both linked to more frequent use) and two social factors (more time spent with drug-using friends and less time spent with the mother). Overall, the study showed that early onset, itself predicted by social networks, is linked to more frequent use of cannabis and that this appears to be sustained by less time spent with parents and more with drug-using peers.
Martins, Christine Baccarat de Godoy
Singled out by statistics as the third leading cause of mortality in our country, external causes (accidents and violence) entail a great impact with economic, social and emotional rebound. Knowing the factors related to the event is essential, because it allows identifying and breaking the web that determines morbidity and mortality from external causes. The study aims to analyze the existing publications on the factors associated with accidents and violence, in order to provide theoretical support for professionals in their practices. This is a bibliographical study of the Liliacs, Medline and Scielo databanks. The knowledge of the risk and protection factors discussed in the present study enables subsidize the practice of social actors engaged in transforming the conditions that lead to accidents and violence.
Bond, Bert; Cockcroft, Emma J; Williams, Craig A; Harris, Sam; Gates, Phillip E; Jackman, Sarah R; Armstrong, Neil; Barker, Alan R
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, but no study has identified the influence of HIIT on endothelial and autonomic function in this group. Thirteen 13- to 14-yr-old adolescents (6 girls) completed six HIIT sessions over 2 wk. Each training session consisted of eight to ten 1-min repetitions of cycling at 90% peak power interspersed with 75 s of unloaded cycling. Traditional (triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and blood pressure) and novel [flow-mediated dilation (FMD), heart rate variability (HRV)] CVD risk factors were assessed in a fasted and postprandial state before (PRE), 1 day after (POST-1D), and 3 days after (POST-3D) training. Aerobic fitness was determined PRE and POST-3D. Two weeks of HIIT had no effect on aerobic fitness or traditional CVD risk factors determined in the fasted or postprandial state (P > 0.15). Compared with PRE, fasted FMD was improved POST-1D [P = 0.003, effect size (ES) = 0.70] but not POST-3D (P = 0.32, ES = 0.22). Fasted FMD was greater POST-1D compared with POST-3D (P = 0.04, ES = 0.48). Compared with PRE, postprandial FMD was greater POST-1D (P < 0.001, ES = 1.01) and POST-3D (P = 0.01, ES = 0.60). Fasted HRV was greater POST-1D (P = 0.001, ES = 0.71) and POST-3D (P = 0.02, ES = 0.44). The test meal lowered HRV in all laboratory visits (P < 0.001, ES = 0.59), but there were no differences in postprandial HRV between visits (P > 0.32 for all). Two weeks of HIIT enhanced endothelial function and HRV without improvements in traditional CVD risk factors. However, most of this favorable adaptation was lost POST-3D, suggesting that regularly performing high-intensity exercise is needed to maintain these benefits.
Aila Gustafsson, Sanna; Edlund, Birgitta; Kjellin, Lars; Norring, Claes
The aim of this study was to longitudinally examine the role of personal standards, self-evaluation, perceived benefits of thinness and attitudes to eating and weight in the development of healthy versus disturbed eating in adolescent girls. In a longitudinal study, girls who participated in two assessments, four to five years apart, were divided into three groups according to the attitudes to eating that they manifested at the second evaluation: those with disturbed eating patterns (DE-group, n = 49), those with intermediate concerns about eating (IE-group, n = 260) and those with healthy eating attitudes (HE-group, n = 120). Variables concerning attitudes to eating and weight and physical self-evaluation emerged as risk factors, whereas personal standards or self-evaluation in general did not. Protective factors were a low BMI, healthy eating attitudes, an accepting attitude towards body size and a positive self-evaluation, particularly with regard to physical and psychological characteristics. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of early risk and protective factors for eating disturbances in girls.
Šimunović, Marko; Božić, Joško; Milić, Lukrecija; Unić, Ivana; Škrabić, Veselin
Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are one of the biggest public health issues in child and adolescent population. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this hospital based study is the first report on the prevalence of MS in obese children and adolescents in Dalmatia, the Mediterranean part of Croatia. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of individual cardiovascular risk factors and MS. Between January 2009 and June 2014, 201 obese subjects aged 6 to 18 were analyzed retrospectively from our Pediatric Endocrine Unit database. The subjects were then classified in two groups of obesity; subjects with BMI z score 2.0-3.0 were classified as moderately obese and subjects with BMI z score > 3.0 were classified as severely obese. The overall prevalence of MS using the modified IDF criteria was 30.3%. The most common component of MS in both groups was arterial hypertension, while impaired fasting glucose was the least common component of MS. Our finding of high prevalence of MS underlines the importance of early childhood obesity treatment.
Milić, Lukrecija; Unić, Ivana; Škrabić, Veselin
Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are one of the biggest public health issues in child and adolescent population. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this hospital based study is the first report on the prevalence of MS in obese children and adolescents in Dalmatia, the Mediterranean part of Croatia. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of individual cardiovascular risk factors and MS. Between January 2009 and June 2014, 201 obese subjects aged 6 to 18 were analyzed retrospectively from our Pediatric Endocrine Unit database. The subjects were then classified in two groups of obesity; subjects with BMI z score 2.0–3.0 were classified as moderately obese and subjects with BMI z score > 3.0 were classified as severely obese. The overall prevalence of MS using the modified IDF criteria was 30.3%. The most common component of MS in both groups was arterial hypertension, while impaired fasting glucose was the least common component of MS. Our finding of high prevalence of MS underlines the importance of early childhood obesity treatment. PMID:27752263
Hackerman, Ann E.
There has been a surge in the rates of adolescents who are becoming infected with HIV. This study of 214 at risk clients being treated on an inpatient psychiatric hospitalization basis examines why such clients continue to engage in high-risk behaviors. Results and suggestions for a psychoeducational curriculum for professionals are included.…
Soriano-Maldonado, A; Cuenca-García, M; Moreno, L A; González-Gross, M; Leclercq, C; Androutsos, O; Guerra-Hernández, E J; Castillo, M J; Ruiz, J R
Introducción: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECVs) suponen la principal causa de morbi-mortalidad en los países occidentales. El incremento del colesterol plasmático se ha relacionado con el desarrollo de ECV. El huevo, por su alto contenido en colesterol, ha sido indirectamente relacionado con el riesgo de desarrollar ECVs. Objetivo: Examinar la asociación entre ingesta de huevo y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en adolescentes, estudiando si dicha relación está influenciada por la actividad física. Método: Se estudiaron 380 adolescentes pertenecientes al estudio HELENA (HEalthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence). La ingesta de alimentos se estimó mediante anamnesis nutricional de dos días no consecutivos. Se midieron indicadores de adiposidad, perfil lipídico, glucosa, insulina, resistencia a la insulina, tensión arterial y capacidad aeróbica. Se calculó un índice integrado de riesgo cardiovascular (IRCV) como medida del perfil cardiovascular global. La actividad física se midió mediante acelerometría. Se examinó el desarrollo madurativo. El estatus socioeconómico y consumo de tabaco se obtuvieron mediante cuestionario. La asociación entre ingesta de huevo y factores de riesgo de ECV se examinó mediante un modelo de regresión multinivel ajustado por factores de confusión. Resultados: La ingesta de huevo no se asoció con perfil lipídico, nivel de adiposidad, tensión arterial, resistencia a la insulina, capacidad aeróbica o IRCV (todos P > 0,05). Esta falta de asociación no estuvo influenciada por el nivel de actividad física. Conclusiones: Estos resultados sugieren que no existe asociación entre ingesta de huevo y perfil lipídico, adiposidad, resistencia a la insulina, tensión arterial, capacidad aeróbica o el IRCV en adolescentes. La actividad física no influencia dicha falta de asociación.
Muenster, Eva; Zier, Ulrike; Letzel, Stephan; Ochsmann, Elke; Weirich, Horst H; Toschke, Andre M
The health hazards of tobacco consumption are well known; numerous prevention programs exist, but knowledge of risk factors for starting to smoke is scarce. This study addressed the question if school-related factors influence smoking behavior in 7-17-year-old pupils. A cross-sectional study including 2459 pupils of schools in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, was conducted. Roughly every twentieth child (n = 135, 4.5%) had smoked at least once. In the multivariate model the probability of smoking was associated with older age, being male, not being content, and having inadequate family support, as well as with feeling unfairly treated at school. These findings suggest the imposition of gender- and age-adequate prevention with a focus on social support from school and parents to decrease the number of juvenile smokers.
Berger, David K.; And Others
Assessed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk status of pregnant Hispanic adolescents in New York City. One-third of 87 adolescents were identified as being at increased risk for HIV infection. Sexual risk-taking behavior was most common factor that increased HIV risk. Birthplace and nationality were significantly associated with HIV risk…
Hoff, Dominic A.; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjorn E.
There is little information available on the topic of poor school satisfaction as a risk factor for cannabis use among adolescents. We examined if there was an association between poor school satisfaction, school class cannabis use and individual cannabis use. Further, we investigated if many cannabis users within the school class statistically…
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–...
This study employs a framework adopted in 2008 by Jacobson, Muehlenkamp, Miller, and Turner to explore differences in risk and treatment factors in a sample of 476 adolescent inpatients grouped with relation to their involvement in deliberately self-harmful (DSH) behavior. Participants were assigned to groups indicating no DSH, nonsuicidal…
Schmitt, Vicki L.; Frey, Bruce B.; Dunham, Michelle L.; Carman, Carol A.
Issues associated with drug and alcohol use as well as other delinquent behaviors among adolescents are of utmost importance to those concerned with student success in middle grades settings. In order to target preventive interventions for these problems, research suggests that educators should examine the risk and protective factors associated…
Heshmat, Ramin; Shafiee, Gita; Qorbani, Mostafa; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Djalalinia, Shirin; Esmaeil Motlagh, Mohammad; Ardalan, Gelayol; Ahadi, Zeinab; Safari, Omid; Safiri, Saeid; Kelishadi, Roya
Introduction: Current evidence suggests that ghrelin could contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults, but limited experience exists in adolescents. This study aims to explore the association of ghrelin levels with the MetS components among Iranian adolescents. Methods: In this case-control study, 32 adolescents with MetS and 148 healthy controls were selected randomly from the childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non communicable disease (CASPIAN-III) study. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria modified for children and adolescents. Anthropometric measures (including body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC] and waist to height ratio [WHtR]), blood pressure (BP) and biochemical data (including fasting blood sugar [FBS], triglyceride [TG], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], total cholesterol [TC] and gerlin) were measured. Results: Total ghrelin level was significantly higher in students without MetS compared to those with MetS (748.89 ± 85.04 vs. 728.72 ± 90.36 [pg/mL]; P < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were seen between ghrelin levels and BMI, WC, WHtR, TG, and TC. Ghrelin had also relatively strong inverse correlations with FBS (r = −0.59, P< 0.001), LDL-C (r = −0.56, P < 0.001), and positive correlation with HDL-C (r = 0.60, P < 0.001). Compared with the children with MetS, in those without MetS, ghrelin was significantly associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. A decreasing trend was observed in the mean ghrelin level across increasing number of MetS components (P for trend <0.001). Conclusion: We observed a relationship between ghrelin concentration and MetS components in adolescents. PMID:27777695
Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A. Heather; Willett, Walter C
The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of adolescent total red meat was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintiles, RR, 1.42; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend=0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent poultry intake was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.75; 95%CI, 0.59-0.96; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 16% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.84; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 24% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). Higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168
Gispert, M; Wheeler, K; Marsh, L; Davis, M S
Suicide attempts among adolescents are occurring more frequently and their evaluation is a difficult task. The factors related to suicide attempts in eighty-two adolescents, ages 12 to 18 were examined. They had been admitted to the adolescent unit of a large, urban general hospital for evaluation of self-destructive behavior. A systematic review of the patients' charts was performed to gather information about family structure, functioning in school, suicidal risk, degree of depression, and stressful life events. Although most were moderately depressed, a significant proportion denied having tried to harm themselves. While some repressed their anger, the majority expressed anger openly, tended to feel sad and to carry out premeditated as well as more serious suicide attempts. Most had experienced family disruption, and nearly half were functioning poorly in school. Suicide risk correlated only with current stress, while depression correlated with life-long as well as current stress. Results suggest that identification of the suicide attempt and the contributory factors, especially the degree of overt anger and depression, are crucial in deciding appropriate interventions, providing adequate treatment, and avoiding recurrence.
McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Kofler, Michael J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
The current study examined associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and future interpersonal victimization among adolescents, after accounting for the impact of early victimization exposure, gender, ethnicity, and household income. In addition, problematic alcohol use was tested as a mediator of the relation between PTSD…
Knoche, Lisa L.; Givens, Jami E.; Sheridan, Susan M.
We investigated the relationship between depression and parental sense of competence to child cognitive outcomes for a sample of 49 adolescent mothers and their young children ("Mean age" = 9 1/2 months) enrolled in a student parenting program. Cognitive development of the infants and toddlers was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant…
Skemp-Arlt, Karen M.
Body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbances are prevalent among youths and are beginning at an increasingly younger age. The glorification of the ideal, thin body type surrounds youths, in direct contrast to the increasing rates of overweight and obesity among the same population. The messages that children and adolescents are receiving are…
Kislitsyna, Ol'ga Anatol'evna
Attention to problems of health has traditionally been focused on problems of physical health, in spite of very clear signs that the number of cases of impaired health of a psychosocial and mental character is rising. According to estimates of the World Health Organization (WHO), as many as 20 percent of children and adolescents suffer from…
Wong, Joy P. S.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Ho, S. Y.; Lam, T. H.
This study examined 1,361 Chinese adolescents who reported self-injurious behaviors. Groups A and B both acknowledged deliberate self-injury, but only Group A had made a suicide attempt. Group C reported accidental self-injury. Deliberate self-injurers (Groups A and B) were more frequently girls, older, and with more suicidal ideation. Group A had…
Kelly, Thomas M.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Donovan, John E.; Clark, Duncan B.
Adolescents diagnosed with at least one mental disorder were studied to determine predictors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Major depression was predictive of suicidal ideation and attempts for both genders. Chronic stress was found predictive of male suicidal ideations, while low self esteem and family dysfunction were predictive in…
Murnan, Judy; Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.
This study examined relationships between variation in child and adolescent firearm mortality by state and the following variables: childhood poverty rate, percent single parent families, percent population that is African American, percent population that is Hispanic. percent students carrying a gun, percent students carrying a weapon, percent…
Costello, Darce M.; Swendsen, Joel; Rose, Jennifer S.; Dierker, Lisa C.
This study used semi-parametric group-based modeling to explore unconditional and conditional trajectories of self-reported depressed mood from ages 12 to 25 years. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,559), 4 distinct trajectories were identified: no depressed mood, stable low depressed mood, early…
White, George L.; And Others
Developed pilot instrument to examine differences between adolescents who have attempted suicide and others. An 86-item questionnaire was administered to 25 suicide attempters and 57 nonsuicide attempters. Found significant differences for each of 3 domains (family environment, social environment, self-perceptions) and for 55 questions. Used…
Pérez, Silvia; Peñate, Wenceslao; Bethencourt, Juan M; Fumero, Ascensión
It is well-known that traumatic events and adverse life situations are very important in both physical and psychological health. Prevalence studies suggested that adolescents experience at least one potentially traumatic event before reaching age 18. The paradigm of research centered on expressive writing has evidenced the beneficial effects that the emotional disclosure of previous traumas produces on physical health and psychological adjustment. The aims of the study are threefold: determining the prevalence of adverse or traumatic events; examining the extent to which psychopathological symptoms developed in those exposed to traumatic events; and exploring an verbal emotional disclosure (VED) paradigm in which variations on time spent talking about traumatic experiences to others resulted in a reduction of the psychological impact of trauma in a sample of Spanish adolescents. 422 volunteer adolescents participated, 226 boys and 192 girls, from 10 to 19 years old, all of them living in Tenerife. The mean age was 14.8 years (SD = 1.83). All of them completed the instruments used to assess the psychological impact of traumatic experiences and VED. The main results indicated that 77% of the participants had suffered a traumatic situation. The participants who have been exposed to traumatic events scored significantly higher in measures of post-traumatic stress, disorder, intrusive thoughts, avoidance behaviors, anxiety and depression, compared to those without trauma. Furthermore, results show a decrease in symptomatology scores as a function of time spent disclosing emotional experiences to others, particularly when disclosure occurred several times. In conclusion, stressful events or traumatic experiences and their concomitant emotional effects are highly prevalent in adolescents, and repeated VED to others appears to ameliorate their impact. VED shows greater therapeutic benefits when adolescents narrate the experience on several occasions and in an extensive way.
Pérez, Silvia; Peñate, Wenceslao; Bethencourt, Juan M.; Fumero, Ascensión
It is well-known that traumatic events and adverse life situations are very important in both physical and psychological health. Prevalence studies suggested that adolescents experience at least one potentially traumatic event before reaching age 18. The paradigm of research centered on expressive writing has evidenced the beneficial effects that the emotional disclosure of previous traumas produces on physical health and psychological adjustment. The aims of the study are threefold: determining the prevalence of adverse or traumatic events; examining the extent to which psychopathological symptoms developed in those exposed to traumatic events; and exploring an verbal emotional disclosure (VED) paradigm in which variations on time spent talking about traumatic experiences to others resulted in a reduction of the psychological impact of trauma in a sample of Spanish adolescents. 422 volunteer adolescents participated, 226 boys and 192 girls, from 10 to 19 years old, all of them living in Tenerife. The mean age was 14.8 years (SD = 1.83). All of them completed the instruments used to assess the psychological impact of traumatic experiences and VED. The main results indicated that 77% of the participants had suffered a traumatic situation. The participants who have been exposed to traumatic events scored significantly higher in measures of post-traumatic stress, disorder, intrusive thoughts, avoidance behaviors, anxiety and depression, compared to those without trauma. Furthermore, results show a decrease in symptomatology scores as a function of time spent disclosing emotional experiences to others, particularly when disclosure occurred several times. In conclusion, stressful events or traumatic experiences and their concomitant emotional effects are highly prevalent in adolescents, and repeated VED to others appears to ameliorate their impact. VED shows greater therapeutic benefits when adolescents narrate the experience on several occasions and in an extensive way
Cancela, Camila Silva Peres; Murao, Mitiko; Viana, Marcos Borato; de Oliveira, Benigna Maria
Background Despite all the advances in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, central nervous system relapse remains an important obstacle to curing these patients. This study analyzed the incidence of central nervous system relapse and the risk factors for its occurrence in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods This study has a retrospective cohort design. The studied population comprised 199 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia followed up at Hospital das Clinicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG) between March 2001 and August 2009 and submitted to the Grupo Brasileiro de Tratamento de Leucemia da Infância - acute lymphoblastic leukemia (GBTLI-LLA-99) treatment protocol. Results The estimated probabilities of overall survival and event free survival at 5 years were 69.5% (± 3.6%) and 58.8% (± 4.0%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of central nervous system (isolated or combined) relapse was 11.0% at 8 years. The estimated rate of isolated central nervous system relapse at 8 years was 6.8%. In patients with a blood leukocyte count at diagnosis ≥ 50 x 109/L, the estimated rate of isolated or combined central nervous system relapse was higher than in the group with a count < 50 x 109/L (p-value = 0.0008). There was no difference in cumulative central nervous system relapse (isolated or combined) for the other analyzed variables: immunophenotype, traumatic lumbar puncture, interval between diagnosis and first lumbar puncture and place where the procedure was performed. Conclusions These results suggest that a leukocyte count > 50 x 109/L at diagnosis seems to be a significant prognostic factor for a higher incidence of central nervous system relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:23323068
Patsopoulou, Anna; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Katsioulis, Antonios; Rachiotis, George; Malissiova, Eleni; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents' and adolescents' demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12-18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2) and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ). Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy), maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents' obesity.
Laher, Fatima; Hornschuh, Stefanie; Nkala, Busisiwe; Chimoyi, Lucy; Otwombe, Kennedy; Kaida, Angela; Gray, Glenda Elisabeth; Miller, Cari
Background Internet access via mobile phones and computers facilitates interaction and potential health communication among individuals through social networking. Many South African adolescents own mobile phones and can access social networks via apps. Objective We investigated sociodemographic factors and HIV risk behaviors of adolescent social networking users in Soweto, South Africa. Methods We conducted an interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey of adolescents aged 14-19 years. Independent covariates of social networking were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Of 830 adolescents, 57% (475/830) were females and the median age was found to be 18 years (interquartile range 17-18). Social networking was used by 60% of adolescents (494/830); more than half, that is, 87% (396/494) accessed social networks through mobile phones and 56% (275/494) spent more than 4 hours per day using their mobile phones. Social networking was independently associated with mobile usage 2-4 hours (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.06, CI: 1.69-5.51) and more than 4 hours per day (AOR: 6.16, CI: 3.46-10.9) and one (AOR: 3.35, CI: 1.79-6.27) or more sexual partner(s) (AOR: 2.58, CI: 1.05-6.36). Conclusions Mobile phone–based social networking is prevalent among sexually active adolescents living in Soweto and may be used as an entry point for health promotion and initiation of low-cost adolescent health interventions. PMID:27683173
East, Patricia L; Khoo, Siek Toon
This 3-wave, 5-year longitudinal study tested the contributions of family contextual factors and sibling relationship qualities to younger siblings' substance use, sexual risk behaviors, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted disease. More than 220 non-White families participated (67% Latino and 33% African American), all of which involved a younger sibling (133 girls and 89 boys; mean age = 13.6 years at Time 1) and an older sister (mean age = 17 years at Time 1). Results from structural equation latent growth curve modeling indicated that qualities of the sibling relationship (high older sister power, low warmth/closeness, and low conflict) mediated effects from several family risks (mothers' single parenting, older sisters' teen parenting, and family's receipt of aid) to younger sibling outcomes. Model results were generally stronger for sister-sister pairs than for sister-brother pairs. Findings add to theoretical models that emphasize the role of family and parenting processes in shaping sibling relationships, which, in turn, influence adolescent outcomes.
Dorn, Tina; Yzermans, C Joris; Guijt, Henk; van der Zee, Jouke
Life stress has been related to hypertension in various studies, but well-designed research carried out in disaster settings is scarce. Moreover, most research focuses on the primary victims and disregards effects on their caregivers. In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors tested the hypothesis that parents of adolescents who had been involved in the Volendam, Netherlands, pub fire on January 1, 2001 (n = 418) were more at risk of developing hypertension than parents from the same community whose children had not been involved in the fire (n = 1,462). Only residents without prior evidence of hypertension were included. The follow-up period covered 4 years (2001-2004). Assessment of hypertension was based on the records of family practitioners and pharmacies. The odds of developing new hypertension were 1.48 times higher in parents of fire victims than in control parents during the follow-up period (odds ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 2.02). All analyses controlled for age, gender, socioeconomic status, family practice, history of chronic disease, and number of contacts with the family practitioner during follow-up. Since hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity, it is important to provide interventions that help people fight the negative effects of disaster-related stress.
Antunes, Barbara de Moura M.; Monteiro, Paula Alves; Silveira, Loreana Sanches; Cayres, Suziane Ungari; da Silva, Camila Buonani; F., Ismael Forte
OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of a 20-week concurrent training on the variables of body composition, lipid profile, and fatty liver diagnosis in obese adolescents. METHODS An open clinical trial was carried out with 34 obese adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years. Total body fat, trunk fat mass, total cholesterol and its fractions (HDL, LDL and VLDL), and triglycerides were analyzed; an upper abdominal ultrasound was performed in order to diagnose fatty liver. The participants underwent concurrent training (association of weight training with aerobic training) three times per week, lasting one hour for 20 weeks. Statistical analysis included paired Studentâ€(tm)s t-test and frequency analysis in order to verify the relative and absolute reductions of fatty liver diagnosis, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS The studied adolescents showed statistically significant improvement in body composition, with a decrease of total body fat percentage, total fat mass, trunk fat, and an a increase in the lean body mass. They also presented reduced size of liver lobes, decrease in total cholesterol and in LDL-cholesterol, with a lower prevalence of fatty liver. CONCLUSIONS The concurrent training was effective for promoting significant improvements in body fat composition and lipid profile variables, besides reducing fatty liver prevalence rate. PMID:24142321
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Tynes, Brendesha M.; Toomey, Russell B.; Williams, David R.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study examined the associations between Latino adolescents' ("n" = 219; "M" [subscript age] = 14.35; "SD" = 1.75) perceptions of ethnic discrimination in multiple settings (e.g., online, school) and several domains of adjustment (e.g., mental health, academic),…
Oriol, P; Patois, E; Guenin-Tostain, F; Kauffmann, F
The risk factors for smoking have been studied by a self administered questionnaire in 710 boys and 1,233 girls aged 11 to 16 amongst young French school children in the department of Yvelines. The percentage of smokers in this age group was estimated at 15.4%. Comparison of smokers (7.1 cigarettes per day on average) and non-smokers shows an association between smoking in boys and or/girls and the age of the subject, smoking habits of parents, brothers, sisters, members of the family or best friends, socioeconomic status of the parents, one parent families, attitudes and attention of the parents, religious observance, type and area of the school and authorization of smoking in the school yards. Assessed independently the only relationships to tobacco smoking actually were age, smoking habits of best friends, parents, brothers and sisters, and in girls only (for whom the sample size was larger) type and area of the school and one parent families. These results suggest that interventions that are aimed at decreasing smoking amongst the young, should take into account not just individuals, but the young as a group and the familial environment.
Baczkiewicz, Maja; Demczuk-Włodarczyk, Ewa
The second part of the series of articles presents the reliability testing results of questions concerning factors that could influence or originate the symptoms of low back pain (LBP). The questions are a part of the questionnaire designed for pupils aged 13-18. 124 persons aged 13-17 were tested. The questionannaires were filled in twice by every pupil in no more than 7-day period, and then the answers were compared according to the test-retest method. The questions concerning risk factors were about: the intensive growth period, chronic diseases, the medical diagnosis of LBP, concomitant faulty posture, sport training and leisure time physical activities, leisure time spent sitting, possible nutritional deficiencies, the amount of sleep, the impact of lifting and dislike for school. Results that were obtained in the process of testing indicated that reasoning would be invalid if based on questions about sports (45% repeatable answers), about leisure time physical activities (Polish version of the leisure time exercise questionnaire of Godin and Shepard--correlation for the Godin and Shepard index was 0,29) and about intensive growth period (small number of valid responses indicates that the question is incomprehensible for adolescents). The rest of questions were found acceptably reliable.
Hayashi, Kazunori; Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Terai, Hidetomi; Suzuki, Akinobu; Hoshino, Masatoshi; Tamai, Koji; Ohyama, Shoichiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki
OBJECTIVE Numerous reports have been published on the effectiveness and safety of correction of the coronal Cobb angle and thoracolumbar sagittal alignment in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Suboptimal sagittal alignment, such as decreased thoracic kyphosis (TK), after corrective surgery, is a possible cause of lumbar or cervical spinal degeneration and junctional malalignment; however, few reports are available on reciprocal changes outside of the fused segments, such as the cervical lordotic angle (CLA). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the perioperative CLA and other radiographic factors or clinical results in AIS, and to identify independent risk factors of postoperative cervical hyperkyphosis. METHODS A total of 51 AIS patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion with the placement of pedicle screw (PS) constructs at thoracic levels were included in the study. Clinical and radiographic follow-up of patients was conducted for a minimum of 2 years, and the postoperative course was evaluated. The authors measured and identified the changes in the CLA and other radiographic parameters using whole-spine radiography, with the patient in the standing position, performed immediately before surgery, 2 weeks after surgery, and 2 years after surgery. The postoperative cervical hyperkyphosis group included patients whose CLA at 2-year follow-up was smaller than -10°. The reciprocal changes of the CLA and other parameters were also investigated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine the associated risk factors for postoperative cervical hyperkyphosis. RESULTS This study comprised 48 females and 3 males (mean age 16.0 years). The mean follow-up period was 47 months (range 24-90 months). The main coronal thoracic curve was corrected from 54.6° to 16.4°, and the mean correction rate was 69.8% at 2 years. The CLA significantly increased from the mean preoperative measurement (-5.4° ± 14°) to the 2
Fung, Annis Lai-chu; Raine, Adrian
There has been no prior research on peer victimization and child or adolescent schizotypal personality. This study tests the hypothesis that increased peer victimization is associated with increased schizotypal personality. Schizotypy was assessed using the SPQ-C (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Child) in 3,508 male and female schoolchildren aged 8 to 16 years. All forms of peer victimization (physical, verbal, social manipulation, attack on property) were associated with schizotypal personality in both males and females across all age groups. Significant victimization more than doubled schizotypy scores. It is hypothesized that peer victimization may predispose to paranoid ideation, social anxiety, and lack of close friends, and consequently heightened schizotypal personality.
Background Brazil is currently experiencing a nutrition transition: the displacement of traditional diets with foods high in saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol and an increase in sedentary lifestyles. Despite these trends, our understanding of child obesity in Brazil is limited. Thus, the aims of this study were (1) to investigate the current prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large sample of children and adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil, and (2) to identify the lifestyle behaviors associated with an increased risk of obesity in young Brazilians. Methods A total of 3,397 children and adolescents (1,596 male) aged 7-18 years were randomly selected from 22 schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese based on international age- and sex-specific body mass index thresholds. Selected sociodemographic, physical activity, and nutrition behaviors were assessed via questionnaire. Results Overall, 19.4% of boys and 16.1% of girls were overweight while 8.9% and 4.3% were obese. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in boys and in younger children when compared to girls and older children, respectively (P < 0.05 for both). Logistic regression analysis revealed that overweight was associated with more computer usage, parental encouragement to be active, and light soft drink consumption after controlling for differences in sex, age, and parental education (P < 0.05 for all). Conversely, overweight was associated with less active transport to school, eating before sleep, and consumption of breakfast, full-sugar soft drinks, fried food and confectionery (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusions Our results show that obesity in São Paulo children and adolescents has reached a level equivalent to that seen in many developed countries. We have also identified three key modifiable factors related to obesity that may be appropriate targets for future
Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...
Yuan, Yue; An, Weihua
Prior research has identified a list of individual attributes, along with neighborhood, school, and network characteristics, as potential factors affecting perceived risk. However, prior research has rarely investigated the simultaneous effects of these factors on perceived risk. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), supplemented with the 1990 census data, to examine the associations of neighborhood, school, and network characteristics and perceived risk among adolescents. To account for the overlaps between school districts and neighborhoods, we use cross-classified multilevel modeling (CCMM). Our analyses lead to two main findings. First, perceived risk appears to be context-specific. Perceived risk at school is mostly affected by school characteristics but not by neighborhood characteristics. Perceived risk in neighborhood is mostly affected by neighborhood characteristics but not by school characteristics. Second, network characteristics matter for both types of perceived risk and more so for perceived risk at school than in neighborhood. We find that, while having more friends is associated with a lower level of perceived risk, having more friends with delinquent and violent behaviors is associated with a higher level of perceived risk among adolescents.
Tinsley, Barbara J; Lees, Nancy B; Sumartojo, Esther
The authors' goal is to review and integrate theory and research focused on the impact of the family, within a cultural perspective, on HIV prevention in childhood and adolescence. Families' impact on adolescents' HIV risk and prevention is examined through the lens of culture, focusing on the individual adolescent factors and family-level influences that converge to determine adolescents' HIV risk status. Family-based risk and health socialization during childhood and adolescence is theoretically and empirically evaluated, from developmental, cultural, and communication perspectives. The influence of families on adolescents' HIV knowledge, risk, and prevention strategies is explored from a developmental perspective. Finally, a future research agenda, focused on remaining issues that affect the ability to understand and modify HIV risk in adolescence, is outlined.
Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Pack, Robert; Harris, Carole; Cottrell, Lesley; Burns, James
Analyzed data about urban African American youth to explore whether differences in exposure to violence, resilience, and distress symptoms between gang members and nonmembers resulted from risk behaviors in which youths participated or from gang membership itself. Results indicated that gang membership itself related to increased risk and…
Patsopoulou, Anna; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Katsioulis, Antonios; Rachiotis, George; Malissiova, Eleni; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents’ and adolescents’ demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2) and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ). Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy), maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents’ obesity. PMID:26712779
MacPherson, M.; de Groh, M.; Loukine, L.; Prud’homme, D.; Dubois, L.
Abstract Introduction: We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its risk factors, and the influence of socioeconomic status, in Canadian children and adolescents. Methods: Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009) and cycle 2 (2009–2011) respondents aged 10 to 18 years who provided fasting blood samples were included (n = 1228). The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) consensus definition for children and adolescents (10–15 years) and worldwide adult definition (≥ 16 years) were used to diagnose MetS. Prevalence of MetS and its risk factors were calculated and differences by socioeconomic status were examined using χ2 tests. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 2.1%. One-third (37.7%) of participants had at least one risk factor, with the most prevalent being abdominal obesity (21.6%), low HDL-C (19.1%) and elevated triglyceride levels (7.9%). This combination of abdominal obesity, low HDL-C and elevated triglyceride levels accounted for 61.5% of MetS cases. Participants from households with the highest income adequacy and educational attainment levels had the lowest prevalence of one or more MetS risk factors, abdominal obesity and low HDL-C. Conclusion: The prevalence of MetS (2.1%) was lower than previously reported in Canada (3.5%) and the USA (4.2%–9.2%), potentially due to the strict application of the IDF criteria for studying MetS. One-third of Canadian children and adolescents have at least one risk factor for MetS. Given that the risk for MetS increases with age, these prevalence estimates, coupled with a national obesity prevalence of almost 10% among youth, point to a growing risk of MetS and other chronic diseases for Canadian youth. PMID:26878492
Consoli, Angèle; Cohen, David; Bodeau, Nicolas; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Mirkovic, Bojan; Knafo, Alexandra; Mahé, Vincent; Laurent, Claudine; Renaud, Johanne; Labelle, Réal; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Gérardin, Priscille
Objective: To assess risk and protective factors for suicidality at 6-month follow-up in adolescent inpatients after a suicide attempt. Methods: One hundred seven adolescents from 5 inpatient units who had a suicide attempt were seen at 6-month follow-up. Baseline measures included sociodemographics, mood and suicidality, dependence, borderline symptomatology, temperament and character inventory (TCI), reasons for living, spirituality, and coping scores. Results: At 6-month follow-up, 41 (38%) subjects relapsed from suicidal behaviours. Among them, 15 (14%) had repeated a suicide attempt. Higher depression and hopelessness scores, the occurrence of a new suicide attempt, or a new hospitalization belonged to the same factorial dimension (suicidality). Derived from the best-fit structural equation modelling for suicidality as an outcome measure at 6-month follow-up, risk factors among the baseline variables included: major depressive disorder, high depression scores, and high scores for TCI self-transcendence. Only one protective factor emerged: coping–hard work and achievement. Conclusion: In this very high-risk population, some established risk factors (for example, a history of suicide attempts) may not predict suicidality. Our results suggest that adolescents who retain high scores for depression or hopelessness, who remain depressed, or who express a low value for life or an abnormally high connection with the universe are at higher risk for suicidality and should be targeted for more intense intervention. Improving adolescent motivation in school and in work may be protective. Given the sample size, the model should be regarded as exploratory. PMID:25886668
Larsen, E; Rise, J; Lund, K E
The use of snus is increasing in Norway. In this study we examined differences between adolescents who were exclusive snus users, and adolescent non-users, smokers and dual users of snus and cigarettes on a number of psychosocial factors, categorized as risk variables and protective variables associated with involvement in health compromising behavior. We applied separate logistic regression models, where exclusive snus users (n=740) were compared with non-users (n=904), smokers (n=219), and dual users (n=367). Compared to non-users, the group of exclusive snus users was associated with variables traditionally predicting health risk behavior, such as smoking friends (OR=1.74, SD 1.27-2.38) and truancy (OR=2.12, SD 1.65-2.78). Compared to smokers, exclusive snus users were related to variables traditionally associated with protection against involvement in health risk behavior, e.g. higher academic orientation (OR=1.66, SD 1.12-2.45). Associations with protective factors were also observed when exclusive snus users were compared with dual users. While the group of exclusive snus users was associated with a pattern of psychosocial risk compared to non-users, they showed a more conventional pattern when compared to smokers and dual users. The group of exclusive snus users may be described on a continuum varying from psychosocial risk factors to protective factors of risk involvement depending on the group of comparison.
Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
We used a longitudinal twin design to examine selection effects of personality traits at age 11 on high-risk environmental contexts at age 14 and the extent to which these contexts mediated risk for substance abuse at age 17. Socialization at age 11 (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) predicted exposure to contextual risk at age 14. Contextual risk partially mediated the effect of socialization on substance abuse, though socialization also had a direct effect. In contrast, boldness at age 11 (social engagement and assurance, thrill seeking, and stress resilience) also predicted substance abuse directly but was unrelated to contextual risk. There was substantial overlap in the genetic and shared environmental influences on socialization and contextual risk, and genetic risk in socialization contributed to substance abuse indirectly via increased exposure to contextual risk. This suggests that active gene-environment correlations related to individual differences in socialization contributed to an early, high-risk developmental trajectory for adolescent substance abuse. In contrast, boldness appeared to index an independent and direct genetic risk factor for adolescent substance abuse.
Vidal, Sarah; Prince, Dana; Connell, Christian M; Caron, Colleen M; Kaufman, Joy S; Tebes, Jacob K
This study prospectively examines the transition from the child welfare system into the juvenile justice system among 10,850 maltreated children and adolescents and explores how patterns of risks, including severity and chronicity of maltreatment, adverse family environment, and social risk factors, affect service systems transition. Almost three percent of maltreated children and adolescents had their first juvenile justice adjudication within an average of approximately six years of their initial child protective services investigation (CPS). Social risk factors, including a child's age at index CPS investigation (older), gender (boys), and race/ethnicity (Black and Hispanic) significantly predicted the risk of transition into the juvenile justice system. Recurrence of maltreatment and experiencing at least one incident of neglect over the course of the study period also increased the risk of transition into the juvenile justice system. However, subtypes of maltreatment, including physical, sexual, and other types of abuse did not significantly predict the risk of juvenile justice system transition. Finally, family environment characterized by poverty also significantly increased the risk of juvenile justice system transition. These findings have important implications for developing and tailoring services for maltreated children, particularly those at-risk for transitioning into the juvenile justice system.
Krontorádová, K; Honzíková, N; Fiser, B; Nováková, Z; Závodná, E; Hrstková, H; Honzík, P
We studied the relationship between blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, ms/mmHg) in adolescents. We examined 34 subjects aged 16.2+/-2.4 years who had repeatedly high causal BP (H) and 52 controls (C) aged 16.4+/-2.2 years. Forty-four C and 22 H were of normal weight (BMI between 19-23.9), and 8 C and 12 H were overweight (BMI between 24-30). Systolic BP was recorded beat-to-beat for 5 min (Finapres, controlled breathing 0.33 Hz). BRS was determined by the cross-spectral method. The predicting power of BMI and BRS for hypertension was evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating curve (ROC - plot of sensitivity versus specificity). H compared with C had lower BRS (p<0.01) and higher BMI (p<0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis (p<0.001) revealed that a decreased BRS (p<0.05) and an increased BMI (p<0.01) were independently associated with an increased risk of hypertension. No correlation between BMI and BRS was found either in H or in C. Following optimal critical values by ROC, the sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC were determined for: BMI - 22.2 kg/m(2), 61.8 %, 69.2 %, 66.0 %; BRS - 7.1 ms/mmHg, 67.7 %, 69.2 %, 70.0 %; BMI and BRS - 0.439 a.u., 73.5 %, 82.7 %, and 77.3 %. Decreased BRS and overweight were found to be independent risk factors for hypertension.
Smith, Carolyn A; Greenman, Sarah J; Thornberry, Terence P; Henry, Kimberly L; Ireland, Timothy O
The prevention of intimate partner violence is a desirable individual and public health goal for society. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive assessment of adolescent risk factors for partner violence in order to inform the development of evidence-based prevention strategies. We utilize data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a two decade long prospective study of a representative community sample of 1000 participants that has extensive measures of adolescent characteristics, contexts, and behaviors that are potential precursors of partner violence. Using a developmental psychopathology framework, we assess self-reported partner violence perpetration in emerging adulthood (ages 20-22) and in adulthood (ages 29-30) utilizing the Conflict Tactics Scale. Our results indicate that risk factors for intimate partner violence span several developmental domains and are substantially similar for both genders. Internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors as well as early intimate relationships are especially salient for both genders. Additionally, cumulative risk across a number of developmental domains places adolescents at particularly high risk of perpetrating partner violence. Implications for prevention include extending existing prevention programs that focus on high risk groups with multiple risks for developmental disruption, as well as focusing on preventing or mitigating identified risk factors across both genders.
Essouma, Mickael; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Bigna, Jean Joel R; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Aminde, Leopold N; Zafack, Joseline
Introduction The African adult population is facing a growing epidemic of hypertension. Establishment of accurate epidemiological data on hypertension in African children and adolescents may have important implications for hypertension preventive strategies in Africa. Methods and analysis This systematic review and meta-analysis will follow the MOOSE Guidelines. Relevant abstracts published in English/French from 1 January 1985 to 31 July 2015 will be searched in PubMed, Google Scholar and Online African journals. Full texts of eligible studies will then be accessed through PubMed, Google Scholar, HINARI and the respective journals’ websites. Relevant unpublished papers and conference proceedings will also be checked. Data will be analysed using R statistical software. The study-specific estimates will be pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis model to obtain an overall summary estimate of the prevalence/incidence of hypertension across studies. Also, we will assess the association between risk factors and hypertension. Heterogeneity of studies will be evaluated by the χ2 test on Cochrane's Q statistic. Funnel plots analysis and Egger's test will be done to detect publication bias. Results will be presented by geographic region (central, eastern, northern, southern and western Africa). A p value less than 0.05 will be considered significant for factors that predicted hypertension. Ethics and dissemination The current study is based on published data, and thus ethical approval is not required. This systematic review and meta-analysis is expected to serve as input for designing early life preventive and control strategies, and as a guide for future research based on existing gaps. The final report of the systematic review in the form of a scientific paper will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Findings will further be presented at conferences and submitted to relevant health authorities. Trial registration number CRD42015019029. PMID:26373403
Dredge, Rebecca; Gleeson, John F M; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl
Cyberbullying victimization is associated with a range of emotional and behavioral outcomes for adolescents. However, previous research has shown that this type of victimization does not affect all individuals negatively. The factors that account for individual differences in reactions to the same online experiences are not well understood. Using a qualitative inductive approach, a set of strong themes relating to factors that either increased the severity of impact of cyberbullying victimization or buffered victims against the impact emerged from interviews with 25 adolescents aged 15-24 years. Themes related to publicity, anonymity of perpetrators, features of the medium, presence of bystanders, and individual level factors were identified as potential influences upon impact severity. The implications of these results for further research and for school/university cyberbullying prevention programs for victims, perpetrators, and bystanders are discussed.
Tu, Yu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Lin, Yi-Jung; Chan, Te-Fu
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a frequent cause of sexually transmitted infection worldwide, and has a key role in the etiology of cervical cancer. Young people are the most vulnerable age group for acquiring HPV infection, but this particular age group in Taiwan knows little about it. This study investigated Taiwanese adolescent women's knowledge of HPV and factors associated with intention to use condoms for reducing HPV-related diseases among adolescent women. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used, and a convenience sample of 384 adolescent women aged 15 to 16 years in Southern Taiwan was recruited. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test or ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis. Only 26.6% of the participants were aware of HPV. The percentage of correct answers for knowledge about HPV was 35.4%. Factors associated with intention to use condoms for HPV prevention were discussion of sexual issues, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and HPV knowledge. These variables accounted for 55.8% of the variance in scores for intention to use condoms for HPV prevention. These findings could be used in future HPV prevention education and campaigns. Future intervention programs might be particularly focused on insufficient HPV knowledge among adolescent females.
... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Tynes, Brendesha M; Toomey, Russell B; Williams, David R; Mitchell, Kimberly J
Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study examined the associations between Latino adolescents' (n = 219; Mage = 14.35; SD = 1.75) perceptions of ethnic discrimination in multiple settings (e.g., online, school) and several domains of adjustment (e.g., mental health, academic), and tested whether developmentally salient cultural assets (i.e., ethnic identity) directly promoted youth adjustment or moderated the negative impact of discrimination on adjustment. Each of the 3 ethnic identity components (i.e., exploration, resolution, affirmation) demonstrated evidence of promoting positive outcomes among Latino youth; furthermore, there was some evidence that the promotive effects of affirmation and resolution were significantly stronger for older versus younger adolescents. In addition, with the exception of experiences with discrimination from adults outside of the school setting, there was evidence of ethnic identity interacting with each type of discrimination to predict Latino adolescents' self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and externalizing problems. Findings suggest directions for future research and identify potential targets for intervention that may prove fruitful in programming efforts with Latino adolescents.
Sun, Wei Yue; Chen, W. William
This study compared dietary knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and patterns between Chinese American middle school students and their Chinese equivalents. Chinese students had less knowledge and less favorable attitudes but more positive behavioral factors affecting diet. They consumed less meat, dairy products, fat, sweets, and snacks and ate more…
Kemler, E; Vriend, I; Paulis, W D; Schoots, W; van Middelkoop, M; Koes, B
Physical activity and sports participation are promoted to counteract the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and young adults. Both high body mass index and physical activity level have been associated with an increased risk of sports injuries. The objective is to determine the relationship between sports injuries and overweight in sports participants (4-24 years), taking physical activity into account. Data were obtained from the 2006-2011 "Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands" survey. Analyses were based on a representative sample of 3846 sports participants (4-24 years). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to investigate the association between sports injury and weight status. Of all the sports participants, 14.7% were overweight. Compared with normal-weight sports participants, the odds of sustaining a sports injury was 0.73 [confidence interval (CI): 0.53-1.00, P = 0.050] for overweight sports participants; the odds for underweight sports participants was 0.80 (CI: 0.56-1.15, P = 0.226). There is some evidence that overweight sports participants (4-24 years) do not have an increased injury risk compared with normal-weight sports participants, even when the level of physical activity is taken into account. Additional research is recommended regarding overweight people who start to participate in a physically active lifestyle.
Moreira Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Sacramento Cunha Machado, Márcia; Borges da Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando; Fernandes Weyll Pimentel, Rodrigo; Teixeira Ferreira, Tatiana; Silva Leoni, Fernanda Maria; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios
Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide. PMID:23133306
Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth Moreira; Machado, Márcia Sacramento Cunha; Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando Borges da; Pimentel, Rodrigo Fernandes Weyll; Ferreira, Tatiana Teixeira; Leoni, Fernanda Maria Silva; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios
Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12-28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14-30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.
Raine, Adrian; Fung, Annis Lai Chu; Portnoy, Jill; Choy, Olivia; Spring, Victoria L
Although low resting heart rate has been viewed as a well-replicated biological correlate of child and adolescent antisocial behavior, little is known about how it interacts with psychosocial adversity in predisposing to both reactive-proactive aggression and psychopathy, and whether this relationship generalizes to an East Asian population. This study tests the hypothesis that low resting heart rate will be associated with aggression and psychopathic traits, and that heart rate will interact with adversity in predisposing to these antisocial traits. Resting heart rate was assessed in 334 Hong Kong male and female schoolchildren aged 11-17 years. A social adversity index was calculated from a psychosocial interview of the parent, while parents assessed their children on the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire and the Antisocial Personality Screening Device. Low resting heart rate was significantly associated with higher proactive aggression, impulsive features of psychopathy, and total child psychopathy. Low resting heart rate interacted with high psychosocial adversity in explaining higher reactive (but not proactive) aggression, as well as impulsive psychopathy. These findings provide support for a biosocial perspective of reactive aggression and impulsive psychopathy, and document low resting heart rate as a robust correlate of both childhood impulsive psychopathic behavior and proactive aggression. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document low resting heart rate as a correlate of child psychopathy and the second to establish low heart rate as a risk factor of antisocial behavior in an East Asian population. The findings provide further evidence for both low resting heart rate as a potential biomarker for childhood psychopathic and aggressive behavior, and also a biosocial perspective on childhood antisocial behavior.
Jiménez-Pavón, David; Sesé, María A; Valtueña, Jara; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; González-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; Manios, Yannis; Widhalm, Kurt; de Henauw, Stefaan; Polito, Angela; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Moreno, Luis A
The purpose of this study was to identify the relevance of a set of risk factors for insulin resistance in adolescents from Europe and to consider their possible gender-specific associations. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) was conducted in 1053 European adolescents (mean age, 14.9 years) in a school setting in 9 countries. Three anthropometric markers of body fat and a dietary index were calculated. Total energy intake was estimated from a questionnaire. C-reactive protein, leptin, and vitamin D were assessed, and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular strength were measured. Center, socioeconomic status, pubertal status, and season were used as potential confounders. The main outcome was the homeostasis model assessment used as a marker of insulin resistance. Correlations, analyses of covariance, and logistic regression models were used. In males, leptin was the only risk factor for insulin resistance after adjusting for confounders including markers of body fat (odds ratios (ORs) from 1.49 to 1.60). In females, leptin, vitamin D, and fitness were the remaining independent risk factors for insulin resistance after adjustments (OR 2.11; 95% confidential interval (CI) 1.29-3.45; OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.80; and OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.87, respectively). Our observations suggest a gender dimorphism in the identification of risk factors for high insulin resistance. Preventive strategies should focus on improving modifiable factors such as cardiorespiratory fitness and on ensuring vitamin D sufficiency. Randomized controlled trials focusing on these strategies are necessary to test their efficacy.
Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama
The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development.
Wymbs, Brian T; McCarty, Carolyn A; King, Kevin M; McCauley, Elizabeth; Vander Stoep, Ann; Baer, John S; Waschbusch, Daniel A
Youth with elevated conduct disorder (CD) symptoms who also have callous-unemotional (CU) traits exhibit more antisocial behavior than youth without CU traits. However, evidence regarding whether CU traits increase risk of substance use over and above CD symptoms, and whether these associations differ for boys and girls, is scarce. Using the Developmental Pathways Project sample of 521 middle school students, we examined whether adolescent- and parent-reported CU traits measured in 6th grade prospectively predicted the onset and recurrence of substance use and use-related impairment by 9th grade. We also examined the degree to which CU traits uniquely predicted substance use and impairment over and above CD symptoms, as well as whether gender moderated these associations. Results indicated that adolescent-reported CU traits increased the likelihood of substance use and impairment onset and recurrence by 9th grade. Analyses revealed that CD symptoms accounted for prospective associations between adolescent-reported CU and substance use, but gender moderated these associations. Boys with elevated CU traits and CD symptoms were not more likely to report alcohol use onset or recurrence, but they were at highest risk of recurrent marijuana use, use of both alcohol and marijuana, and use-related impairment by 9th grade. Girls with low CU traits and high CD symptoms were most likely to report onset and recurrent use of alcohol, as well as recurrent marijuana use, use of both substances and impairment. Study findings highlight the importance of accounting for CD symptoms and gender when examining links between CU traits and substance use in early adolescence.
Cheuiche Pires, Gabriela; Camboim Rockett, Fernanda; Abrahão Salum Júnior, Giovanni; Gus Manfro, Gisele; Bosa, Vera Lúcia
Introducción: Evidencias sugieren que la ansiedad es una prediciente independiente de los eventos cardiovasculares adversos. Entretanto, pocos estudios evaluaron la presencia de factores de riesgo (FR) para estas enfermedades en ninos y adolescentes. Objetivos: Identificar la prevalencia de FR cardiovasculares en ninos y adolescentes diagnosticados con disturbio de ansiedad y su asociacion con la gravedad de la enfermedad. Metodología: Estudio transversal que avaluo FR nutricional, antropometricos, % de gordura corporal (CG), presion arterial (PA), nivel de actividad fisica y escalas de sintomas y gravedad de la ansiedad. Resultados: 65 ninos y adolescentes (8.6 } 1.7 anos) fueron incluidos en el estudio. Cuanto a los FR, el consumo excesivo de acidos grasos saturados (52.3%), indice de masa corporal alto (50.8%), PA alterada (50.8%) y la falta de ejercicio fisico (50.0%) fueron los mas prevalecientes. Hubo asociacion significativa entre la mayor gravedad del disturbio y el acumulo de ≥ 6 FR (p=0,026), exceso de gordura abdominal medida por la circunferencia de cintura (p=0.019) y por el indice de conicidad (p=0.053) y exceso en el % GC (p=0.044). Conclusión: Los resultados encontrados indican que hay una alta prevalencia de FR cardiovascular en la amuestra estudiada y los pacientes mas graves presentaron mayor riesgo. La caracterizacion del perfil de riesgo en las poblaciones con predisposicion a las enfermedades cardiovasculares es crucial para la elaboracion de estrategias de intervencion que oportunicen la reduccion en la prevalencia de estas enfermedades.
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goldweber, Asha; Garbarino, James
Previous research suggests that social--cognitive factors mediate the association between social--environmental risk and aggression in high-risk samples, but less is known about the relation among these factors in suburban youth. The present study examined whether such an association occurred for suburban youth exposed to low levels of social…
Woodgate, Roberta L; Safipour, Jalal; Tailor, Ketan
Research examining adolescents' understandings of cancer and cancer risk is limited. Accordingly, we conducted an ethnographic study that sought to extend our limited understanding of Canadian adolescents' perspectives of cancer and cancer prevention including how adolescents conceptualize and understand cancer risk. This article addresses findings specific to adolescents' perspectives of cancer risk. Seventy-five adolescents (11-19 years old) took part in the study. Two individual open-ended interviews were planned for each adolescent with the second interview occurring 4 to 5 weeks after the first interview. The second interview was complemented by the use of photovoice. Four focus groups, composed of the adolescents who took part in the individual interviews, were also conducted. Data analysis involved both thematic and content analysis. Findings revealed that adolescents conceptualized cancer risk in terms of specific risk factors, with lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, diet/nutrition and physical inactivity) dominating their discourse. Adolescents rationalized risky health behaviours through use of cognitive strategies that included questioning and evaluating risk information, considering the benefits costs of the cancer risk, and downplaying the impact of the cancer risk. Use of these cognitive strategies helped to make cancer risks more acceptable to adolescents. While adolescents felt that cancer could not always be prevented, they did feel it was possible for individuals to delay getting cancer by lowering the impact of cancer risks through making the right choices. Although more research in this area is needed, the findings from this study may help inform cancer prevention and risk communication programmes and policies.
Nyberg, Cecilia; Schyllander, Jan; Stark Ekman, Diana; Janson, Staffan
Few studies have assessed if Sweden's injury prevention work has been equally effective for children of different socio-economic backgrounds. The goal of this paper is to review the country's injury rates for children over time, stratified by socio-economic status (SES), to see if the effects are similar across SES levels. This study employs a retrospective case-control study design, using data from the hospitalisation records of 51,225 children, which were linked to family socio-economic data. Children and adolescents in families receiving social welfare benefits, and those living with single parents and mothers with less education had higher risks of injuries leading to hospitalisation. The population-based safety work over the past decades seems to have had only minor effects on reducing the impact of socio-economic based difference in injury risks to younger Swedes.
Shakoor, Sania; Zavos, Helena M S; McGuire, Philip; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica
Cannabis users are more likely to have psychotic experiences (PEs). The degree to which these associations are driven by genetic or environmental influences in adolescence is unknown. This study estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to the relationship between cannabis use and PEs. Specific PEs were measured in a community-based twin sample (4830 16-year-old pairs) using self-reports and parent-reports. Adolescents reported on ever using cannabis. Multivariate liability threshold structural equation model-fitting was conducted. Cannabis use was significantly correlated with PEs. Modest heritability (37%), common environmental influences (55%) and unique environment (8%) were found for cannabis use. For PEs, modest heritability (27-54%), unique environmental influences (E=12-50%) and little common environmental influences (11-20%), with the exception of parent-rated Negative Symptoms (42%), were reported. Environmental influences explained all of the covariation between cannabis use and paranoia, cognitive disorganization and parent-rated negative symptoms (bivariate common environment=69-100%, bivariate unique environment=28-31%), whilst the relationship between cannabis use and hallucinations indicated familial influences. Cannabis use explains 2-5% of variance in positive, cognitive, and negative PEs. Cannabis use and psychotic experience co-occur due to environmental factors. Focus on specific environments may reveal why adolescent cannabis use and psychotic experiences tend to 'travel together'.
Andover, Margaret S; Morris, Blair W; Wren, Abigail; Bruzzese, Margaux E
Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed.
Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed. PMID:22463065
Layne, Christopher M.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Baker, Aaron; Legerski, John-Paul; Isakson, Brian; Pasalic, Alma; Durakovic-Belko, Elvira; Dapo, Nermin; Campara, Nihada; Arslanagic, Berina; Saltzman, William R.; Pynoos, Robert S.
Methods are needed for quantifying the potency and differential effects of risk factors to identify at-risk groups for theory building and intervention. Traditional methods for constructing war exposure measures are poorly suited to "unpack" differential relations between specific types of exposure and specific outcomes. This study of…
Kim, Sangwon; Orpinas, Pamela; Kamphaus, Randy; Kelder, Steven H.
This study empirically derived a multiple risk factors model of the development of aggression among middle school students in urban, low-income neighborhoods, using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). Results indicated that aggression increased from sixth to eighth grade. Additionally, the influences of four risk domains (individual, family,…
This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…
An exploratory study on risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases among adolescents in Malaysia: overview of the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (The MyHeART study)
Background The National Health & Morbidity Survey (NHMS) IV (2011) observed that the prevalence of obese children aged less than 18 years in Malaysia is 6.1% compared to 5.4% overweight and obese in NHMS III (2006). As such, this observation is of public health importance as obesity is a forewarning risk factor for chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and certain types of cancers. This MyHeART (Malaysian Health and Adolescents longitudinal Research Team) study aims to examine risk factors of non-communicable diseases (NCD) among adolescents. Methods/design The MyHeART study is longitudinal cohort study of 1361 schoolchildren (13-years old) attending 15 public secondary schools from the central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and northern (Perak) regions of Peninsular Malaysia. The study used a stratified sampling design to select the study participants. Data collected at baseline included socio-economic, lifestyle (e.g. smoking, physical activity assessment, fitness assessment, seven-day diet history), and environmental information, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, handgrip strength and bone mineral density. Blood samples for fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles, full blood count, renal profile, as well as bone profile and serum vitamin D were taken. This study cohort will be followed up again when participants turn 15, 17 and lastly, after a period of ten years (around the age of 27). Results Nine percent of the adolescents from this study were obese. More male participants smoked compared to female participants (15.4% vs. 4.7%). Adolescent males had higher fasting blood glucose but the female participants had lower high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) and higher low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol). In addition, adolescents from the rural area had higher fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Discussion Our results demonstrated that adolescents from the
Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S
Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.
Butzer, Bethany; LoRusso, Amanda; Shin, Sunny H; Khalsa, Sat Bir S
Adolescence is a key developmental period for preventing substance use initiation, however prevention programs solely providing educational information about the dangers of substance use rarely change adolescent substance use behaviors. Recent research suggests that mind-body practices such as yoga may have beneficial effects on several substance use risk factors, and that these practices may serve as promising interventions for preventing adolescent substance use. The primary aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of yoga for reducing substance use risk factors during early adolescence. Seventh-grade students in a public school were randomly assigned by classroom to receive either a 32-session yoga intervention (n = 117) in place of their regular physical education classes or to continue with physical-education-as-usual (n = 94). Participants (63.2 % female; 53.6 % White) completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires assessing emotional self-regulation, perceived stress, mood impairment, impulsivity, substance use willingness, and actual substance use. Participants also completed questionnaires at 6-months and 1-year post-intervention. Results revealed that participants in the control condition were significantly more willing to try smoking cigarettes immediately post-intervention than participants in the yoga condition. Immediate pre- to post-intervention differences did not emerge for the remaining outcomes. However, long-term follow-up analyses revealed a pattern of delayed effects in which females in the yoga condition, and males in the control condition, demonstrated improvements in emotional self-control. The findings suggest that school-based yoga may have beneficial effects with regard to preventing males' and females' willingness to smoke cigarettes, as well as improving emotional self-control in females. However additional research is required, particularly with regard to the potential long-term effects of mind-body interventions
Khashayar, Patricia; Heshmat, Ramin; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Aminaee, Tahere; Ardalan, Gelayol; Farrokhi-Khajeh-Pasha, Yasin; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Larijani, Bagher; Kelishadi, Roya
Objective. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of different combinations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors among a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Methods. The study sample, obtained as part of the third study of the school-based surveillance system entitled CASPIAN III, was representative of the Iranian adolescent population aged from 10 to 18 years. The prevalence of different components of MetS was studied and their discriminative value was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results. The study participants consisted of 5738 students (2875 girls) with mean age of 14.7 ± 2.4 years) living in 23 provinces in Iran; 17.4% of participants were underweight and 17.7% were overweight or obese. Based on the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation for the adolescent age group, 24.2% of participants had one risk factor, 8.0% had two, 2.1% had three, and 0.3% had all the four components of MetS. Low HDL-C was the most common component (43.2% among the overweight/obese versus 34.9% of the normal-weight participants), whereas high blood pressure was the least common component. The prevalence of MetS was 15.4% in the overweight/obese participants, the corresponding figure was 1.8% for the normal-weight students, and 2.5% in the whole population studied. Overweight/obese subjects had a 9.68 increased odds of (95% CI: 6.65-14.09) the MetS compared to their normal-weight counterparts. For all the three risk factors, AUC ranged between 0.84 and 0.88, 0.83 and 0.87, and 0.86 and 0.89 in waist circumference, abdominal obesity, and BMI for boys and between 0.78 and 0.97, 0.67 and 0.93, and 0.82 and 0.96 for girls, respectively. Conclusion. The findings from this study provide alarming evidence-based data on the considerable prevalence of obesity, MetS, and CVD risk factors in the adolescent age group. These results are confirmatory evidence for
Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas
Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…
Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Cleland, Charles M.; Vekaria, Pooja C.; Ferns, Bill
We examined the risk and protective factors and mental health problems of 105 low SES, urban adolescents whose mothers were coping with alcohol abuse and other drug problems. Approximately half of the mothers were also HIV-infected. As hypothesized, there were few differences between adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in…
Lam, Lawrence T
Internet gaming addiction was included in the latest version of the DSM-V as a possible disorder recently, while debate is still on-going as to whether the condition called "Internet Addiction" (IA) could be fully recognised as an established disorder. The major contention is how well IA could fulfil the validation criteria as a psychiatric disorder as in other well-established behavioural addictions. In addition to various proposed validation criteria, evidence of risk and protective factors as well as development of outcomes from longitudinal and prospective studies are suggested as important. A systematic review of available longitudinal and prospective studies was conducted to gather epidemiological evidence on risk and protective factors of IA and the health effect of IA on adolescents. Nine articles were identified after an extensive search of the literature in accordance to the PRISMA guidelines. Of these, eight provided data on risk or protective factors of IA and one focused solely on the effects of IA on mental health. Information was extracted and analysed systematically from each study and tabulated. Many exposure variables were studied and could be broadly classified into three main categories: psychopathologies of the participants, family and parenting factors, and others such as Internet usage, motivation, and academic performance. Some were found to be potential risk or protective factors of IA. It was also found that exposure to IA had a detrimental effect on the mental health of young people. These results were discussed in light of their implications to the fulfilment of the validation criteria.
Pisa, Pedro T; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A
The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South African adolescents. Nutrient patterns were identified from quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ) in 388 rural South African adolescents between the ages of 11-15 years from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (AHDSS). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients derived from QFFQs. Multiple linear regression and partial R2 models were fitted and computed respectively for each of the retained principal component (PC) scores on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics including body mass index (BMI) for age Z scores. Four nutrient patterns explaining 79% of the total variance were identified: PCI (26%) was characterized by animal derived nutrients; PC2 (21%) by vitamins, fibre and vegetable oil nutrients; PC3 (19%) by both animal and plant derived nutrients (mixed diet driven nutrients); and PC4 (13%) by starch and folate. A positive and significant association was observed with BMI for age Z scores per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PC1 (0.13 (0.02; 0.24); p = 0.02) and PC4 (0.10 (-0.01; 0.21); p = 0.05) scores only. We confirmed variability in nutrient patterns that were significantly associated with various lifestyle factors including obesity.
Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica
The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed.
Jaser, Sarah S.; Yates, Heather; Dumser, Susan; Whittemore, Robin
Purpose The purpose of this article is to review risk behaviors and their health consequences in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The existing literature on common risk behaviors in adolescents is examined, with a focus on illicit drug use, alcohol use, smoking, unprotected sexual activity, and disordered eating behaviors. Conclusions A review of the literature highlights the lack of studies of risk behaviors in this population. Much of what is known comes from studies with adolescents in the general population or from studies of adults with type 1 diabetes. Known risk and protective factors for risk behaviors and health outcomes are noted. Based on these findings, suggestions are provided for diabetes educators and health care providers to assess for and prevent risk behaviors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Directions for future research in this population are indicated, including the need to develop and test standardized prevention programs. PMID:22002971
Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine
This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.
David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine
This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population. PMID:26697266
Christodoulides, T. E.; Richardson, G.; Graham, F.; Kennedy, P. J.; Kelly, T. P.
The paper describes an evaluation of a risk assessment tool's effectiveness in distinguishing adolescent sexual offenders who had committed further sexual offences from those who had not. The sample consisted of 50 male adolescent sexual offenders referred to a forensic outpatient service within a healthcare setting. The adolescents within the…
Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.
Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…
Boyer, Cherrie B; Greenberg, Lauren; Chutuape, Kate; Walker, Bendu; Monte, Dina; Kirk, Jennifer; Ellen, Jonathan M
The goal of this research was to examine associations among sociodemographic factors, HIV risk, and community context (e.g., economic insecurity, job training, housing instability, crime victimization, and perceived community norms) in adolescents and young adults who ever exchanged sex for drugs or money. Anonymous survey data were collected using ACASIs at community venues where adolescents and young adults congregate in resource-challenged, STI prevalent, urban, US neighborhoods. Conventional descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact tests, and generalized estimating equations approaches were used to examine associations. Participants (1818, 95.5 % of those screened eligible) were, on average, aged 21.0 years; 42.2 % were males, and 4.6 % were transgender. Almost one-third (32.1 %) identified as gay or lesbian, 18.1 % identified as bisexual; 66.2 % were Black and 21.0 % were Hispanic; 1.3 % was 'living on the street'. A sizeable proportion reported HIV-related risk: 16.3 % exchanged sex, 12.6 % had sex with someone they knew to be HIV-infected, 7.8 % had sex with someone who injected drugs, and 1.3 % injected drugs. Multivariate comparisons identified a number of variables (e.g., being male or transgender, homelessness, sex with a partner who has HIV, STI history, unemployment, job training access, housing instability, crime victimization, perceived community norms) that were significantly associated with exchange of sex (p < 0.05). This research contributes to the knowledge-base regarding exchange of sex among adolescents and young adults, particularly as it relates to community context. Longitudinal studies to describe the trajectory of social, health, and physical risks and consequences are needed for development of effective evidence-based prevention strategies.
Ayhan, Gülen; Martin, Loic; Levy-Loeb, Mathieu; Thomas, Stéphanie; Euzet, Géneviève; Van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Nacher, Mathieu
French Guiana, a French overseas department in South America, has been classified epidemic for HIV. This territory is consisting of a very young population with almost 45% of them being younger than 20 years of age. Delaying the onset of first sexual intercourse (SI) is one of the major objectives to fight HIV infection in adolescents. The objective of this study is to identify the age of first SI and the risk factors of early onset. A behavioural surveillance survey among students living on the coastline and alongside the Maroni River was conducted in 2011/2012. A total of 1603 students filled out the survey. While 60% had already SI, the mean age of first intercourse was 12.1 years for boys and 13.9 years for girls. Accordingly, over 90% had a premature onset of SI. Risk factors are age, male gender, living alongside the Maroni River, another language than the French being mother tongue, not being religious, alcohol and cannabis consumption and a bad attitude towards condom use. Risk factors for girls are an older first sexual partner, having more than three lifetime sexual partners and condom rupture. Evidence-based implementation with respect of local and socio-demographic aspects is necessary to improve youths' appreciation of SI and related risk of sexual transmitted diseases.
Data on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are limited. Echocardiography was performed in the last year of the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial (median 4.5 yr from diagnosis of T2D, average age 18 yr), incl...
Cândido, Ana Paula C; Benedetto, Raquel; Castro, Ana Paula P; Carmo, Joseane S; Nicolato, Roney L C; Nascimento-Neto, Raimundo M; Freitas, Renata N; Freitas, Sílvia N; Caiaffa, Waleska T; Machado-Coelho, George L L
This study aims to identify risk factors for cardiovascular disorders in schoolchildren living in Ouro Preto City, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a population-based sampling of schoolchildren (6-14 years old), randomly selected and stratified by the proportion of students according to age and gender in each schools of the city. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometric variables as well as physical activity and family history were used in a logistic regression model for obesity or arterial hypertension. Out of 780 schoolchildren sampled, the risk of obesity was greater in subjects presenting high triglyceride and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and those whose parents were obese, while the risk of hypertension was high in obese subjects and those who presented low birth weight. It was observed that 44.4% of the schoolchildren were exposed to two or three cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and 8.2% were exposed to four or six factors. These findings should be considered in preventive measures to reduce the future risk for CVD among schoolchildren in Brazil.
Kansi, Juliska; Wichstrom, Lars; Bergman, Lars R.
The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating…
Nargiso, Jessica E.; Friend, Karen; Florin, Paul
This study examines the relationship between peer, family, and community context risk factors and alcohol use; gender is examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Hierarchical logistic regressions conducted in a sample of 781 seventh grade students found that normative beliefs about peers' alcohol use emerged as the most consistent…
Crews, S. Dean; Bender, Hermine; Vanderwood, Mike; Cook, Clayton R.; Gresham, Frank M.; Kern, Lee
Professionals working with children who have severe emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) need to understand the risk and protective factors (RPFs) that are correlated with the development of these behavior patterns, for at least 3 reasons. First, significant numbers of students experience negative outcomes or fail to achieve positive outcomes.…
Lopez, Barbara; Huang, Shi; Wang, Wei; Prado, Guillermo; Brown, C. Hendricks; Zeng, Guang; Flavin, Kathryn; Pantin, Hilda
We examined how relationships among intrapersonal (i.e., attitudes and beliefs about smoking) and ecodevelopmental (i.e., family, school, and peer) factors influence risk for lifetime smoking in immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Our sample was comprised of 223 immigrant Hispanic adolescents and their families and was drawn from 3 middle schools in a…
McCourt, Hannah J; Draffin, Claire R; Woodside, Jayne V; Cardwell, Chris R; Young, Ian S; Hunter, Steven J; Murray, Liam J; Boreham, Colin A; Gallagher, Alison M; Neville, Charlotte E; McKinley, Michelle C
Dietary pattern (DP) analysis allows examination of the combined effects of nutrients and foods on the markers of CVD. Very few studies have examined these relationships during adolescence or young adulthood. Traditional CVD risk biomarkers were analysed in 12-15-year-olds (n 487; Young Hearts (YH)1) and again in the same individuals at 20-25 years of age (n 487; YH3). Based on 7 d diet histories, in the present study, DP analysis was performed using a posteriori principal component analysis for the YH3 cohort and the a priori Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was calculated for both YH1 and YH3 cohorts. In the a posteriori DP analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the 'healthy' DP were found to have lower pulse wave velocity (PWV) and homocysteine concentrations, the 'sweet tooth' DP were found to have increased LDL concentrations, and decreased HDL concentrations, [corrected] the 'drinker/social' DP were found to have lower LDL and homocysteine concentrations, but exhibited a trend towards a higher TAG concentration, and finally the 'Western' DP were found to have elevated homocysteine and HDL concentrations. In the a priori dietary score analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the Mediterranean diet were found to exhibit a trend towards a lower PWV. MDS did not track between YH1 and YH3, and nor was there a longitudinal relationship between the change in the MDS and the change in CVD risk biomarkers. In conclusion, cross-sectional analysis revealed that some associations between DP and CVD risk biomarkers were already evident in the young adult population, namely the association between the healthy DP (and the MDS) and PWV; however, no longitudinal associations were observed between these relatively short time periods.
Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij – Jansen, Petra M.; de Waart, Frouwkje G.; Raat, Hein
Purpose To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. Methods A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. Results There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying behavior, especially
Ritter, Philipp S; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea; Beesdo-Baum, Katja
There is ample data suggesting that individuals with bipolar disorder more frequently suffer from disturbed sleep even when euthymic. Since sleep is a process that is crucial for affective homeostasis, disturbed sleep in healthy individuals may be a risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Utilizing data from a large cohort of adolescents and young adults, this study tests the hypothesis that disturbed sleep constitutes a risk factor for the later onset of bipolar disorder. A representative community sample of N = 3021 adolescents and young adults (baseline age 14-24) was assessed using the standardized Composite International Diagnostic Interview and followed-up prospectively up to 3 times over up to 10 years. Disturbed sleep at baseline was quantified utilizing the corresponding items from the self-report inventory SCL-90-R. The compound value (insomnia-score) as an ordinal parameter for the severity of sleep disturbances was used to assess associations with the incidence of bipolar disorder among participants free of major mental disorder at baseline (N = 1943) using odds ratios (OR) from logistic regressions. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, parental mood disorder and lifetime alcohol or cannabis dependence. Poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk for the subsequent development of bipolar disorder (OR = 1.75; p = 0.001). Regarding individual sleep items, trouble falling asleep and early morning awakening were predictive for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Disturbed sleep in persons otherwise free of major mental disorders appears to confer an increased risk for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder.
Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Wichstrom, Lars; Haldorsen, Tor
Some risk and protective factors differ in their importance to suicidal and nonsuicidal people. In this research we explore the cross-sectional differences between risk factors among suicidal adolescents and nonsuicidal adolescents by focusing on self-esteem. Sixty-five suicidal and 390 nonsuicidal adolescents were compared on Harter's…
Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Laguana, Michelle B; Novotny, Rachel; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T
Although high mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk, X-ray based mammography cannot be performed before the recommended screening age, especially not in adolescents and young women. Therefore, new techniques for breast density measurement are of interest. In this pilot study in Guam and Hawaii, we evaluated a radiation-free, bioimpedance device called Electrical Breast DensitometerTM (EBD; senoSENSE Medical Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for measuring breast density in 95 women aged 31-82 years and 41 girls aged 8-18 years. Percent density (PD) was estimated in the women's most recent mammogram using a computer-assisted method. Correlation coefficients and linear regression were applied for statistical analysis. In adult women, mean EBD and PD values of the left and right breasts were 230±52 and 226±50 Ω and 23.7±15.1 and 24.2±15.2%, respectively. The EBD measurements were inversely correlated with PD (rSpearman=-0.52, p<0.0001); the correlation was stronger in Caucasians (rSpearman=-0.70, p<0.0001) than Asians (rSpearman=-0.54, p<0.01) and Native Hawaiian/Chamorro/Pacific Islanders (rSpearman=-0.34, p=0.06). Using 4 categories of PD (<10, 10-25, 26-50, 51-75%), the respective mean EBD values were 256±32, 249±41, 202±46, and 178±43 Ω (p<0.0001). In girls, the mean EBD values in the left and right breast were 148±40 and 155±54 Ω; EBD values decreased from Tanner stages 1 to 4 (204±14, 154±79, 136±43, and 119±16 Ω for stages 1-4, respectively) but were higher at Tanner stage 5 (165±30 Ω). With further development, this bioimpedance method may allow for investigations of breast development among adolescent, as well as assessment of breast cancer risk early in life and in populations without access to mammography.
Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Laguaña, Michelle B; Novotny, Rachel; Guerrero, Rachael T Leon
Although high mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk, X-ray based mammography cannot be performed before the recommended screening age, especially not in adolescents and young women. Therefore, new techniques for breast density measurement are of interest. In this pilot study in Guam and Hawaii, we evaluated a radiation-free, bioimpedance device called Electrical Breast Densitometer™ (EBD; senoSENSE Medical Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for measuring breast density in 95 women aged 31–82 years and 41 girls aged 8–18 years. Percent density (PD) was estimated in the women’s most recent mammogram using a computer-assisted method. Correlation coefficients and linear regression were applied for statistical analysis. In adult women, mean EBD and PD values of the left and right breasts were 230±52 and 226±50 Ω and 23.7±15.1 and 24.2±15.2%, respectively. The EBD measurements were inversely correlated with PD (rSpearman=−0.52, p<0.0001); the correlation was stronger in Caucasians (rSpearman=−0.70, p<0.0001) than Asians (rSpearman=−0.54, p<0.01) and Native Hawaiian/Chamorro/Pacific Islanders (rSpearman=−0.34, p=0.06). Using 4 categories of PD (<10, 10–25, 26–50, 51–75%), the respective mean EBD values were 256±32, 249±41, 202±46, and 178±43 Ω (p<0.0001). In girls, the mean EBD values in the left and right breast were 148±40 and 155±54 Ω; EBD values decreased from Tanner stages 1 to 4 (204±14, 154±79, 136±43, and 119±16 Ω for stages 1–4, respectively) but were higher at Tanner stage 5 (165±30 Ω). With further development, this bioimpedance method may allow for investigations of breast development among adolescent, as well as assessment of breast cancer risk early in life and in populations without access to mammography. PMID:26838256
Qu, Yang; Fuligni, Andrew J; Galvan, Adriana; Telzer, Eva H
Adolescence is marked by a steep increase in risk-taking behavior. The serious consequences of such heightened risk taking raise the importance of identifying protective factors. Despite its dynamic change during adolescence, family relationships remain a key source of influence for teenagers. Using a longitudinal fMRI approach, we scanned 23 adolescents twice across a 1.5-year period to examine how changes in parent-child relationships contribute to changes in adolescent risk taking over time via changes in adolescents' neural reactivity to rewards. Results indicate that although parent-child relationships are not associated with adolescent risk taking concurrently, increases in positive parent-child relationships contribute to declines in adolescent risk taking. This process is mediated by longitudinal decreases in ventral striatum activation to rewards during risk taking. Findings highlight the neural pathways through which improvements in positive parent-child relationships serve to buffer longitudinal increases in adolescent risk taking.
Hendrick, C Emily; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Maslowsky, Julie
Girls with early pubertal timing are at elevated risk for teenage childbearing; however, the modifiable mechanisms driving this relationship are not well understood. The objective of the current study was to determine whether substance use, perceived peer substance use, and older first sexual partners mediate the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Data are from Waves 1-15 of the female cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationwide, ongoing cohort study of U.S. men and women born between 1980 and 1984. The analytic sample (n = 2066) was 12-14 years old in 1997 and ethnically diverse (51 % white, 27 % black, 22 % Latina). Using structural equation modeling, we found substance use in early adolescence and perceived peer substance use each partially mediated the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Our findings suggest early substance use behavior as one modifiable mechanism to be targeted by interventions aimed at preventing teenage childbearing among early developing girls.
Rafferty, Yvonne; Griffin, Kenneth W; Lodise, Michelle
This longitudinal study examined the influence of parenting behaviors, well-being, and risk factors of low-income adolescent mothers on the cognitive and language abilities of children from infancy to age 3. Participants consisted of 1,240 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. Data were collected using structured interviews with the mothers and from videotaped mother-child interactions during play activities when children were approximately 14 months old and again at 36 months of age. Positive parenting behaviors exhibited toward the 14-month-old children predicted gains in both cognitive and language abilities more so than did maternal well-being, risk factors within the family setting, and demographic risk factors. Gains in cognitive abilities from infancy to age 3 were predicted by supportive parenting, higher family resources, and lower family conflict when children were infants. Gains in language abilities were predicted by supportive parenting, support for language and learning in the home environment, and higher family resources when children were infants. Finally, path analyses showed that maternal age had an indirect effect on child cognitive and language abilities at age 3 through effects on parenting behaviors. Older mothers were more likely to be supportive during play at age 14 months, which in turn promoted enhanced developmental outcomes at age 3. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.
Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Bowker, Julie C.; Wieczorek, William F.
Though peer socialization theories are prominent in the adolescent substance use literature, variability in the degree to which adolescents are vulnerable to peer influence is likely, and few studies have examined this issue. This study examines the association between perceived peer substance use/approval of substance use and adolescent…
Smokowski, Paul Richard; Rose, Roderick A.; Bacallao, Martica
In this study, we examined longitudinal, person-centered trajectories of acculturation, internalizing symptoms, and self-esteem in 349 Latino adolescents. We compared acculturation measures (time in the US, culture-of-origin involvement, US cultural involvement, for both parents and adolescents); acculturation stressors (perceived discrimination,…
Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph
This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…
Hashemipour, Mahin; Kargar, Maryam; Ghannadi, Alireza; Kelishadi, Roya
Background: Childhood obesity is becoming a global problem and its incidence is increasing. The role of dietary intervention with fruits containing vitamin C and flavonoid to control obesity consequences in childhood has not been yet defined. Lemon (Citrus aurantifolia) peels contain flavonoid, pectin and vitamin C. We aimed to compare the effects of lemon peels and placebo on cardiometabolic risk factors and markers of endothelial function among adolescents with overweight and obesity. Methods: In this triple-masked, randomized controlled trial, 60 overweight/obese adolescents were enrolled in a 4-week trial. Eligible participants were randomly assigned into two groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon powder or placebo. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were compared between the two groups before and after administration of medication and placebo. Results: Of the total 60 enrolled patients, 30 and 29 patients in the lemon and control groups completed the study, respectively. The results of within-group analysis demonstrated a slight reduction in body mass index, LDL-C and systolic blood pressure in the lemon group, but no between group differences existed in the studied variables. Conclusion: This study revealed that consumption of lemon peel extract has some beneficial effects for childhood obesity; however, no considerable effect was documented on anthropometric measures and biochemical factors. Future studies with longer follow up are highly recommended. PMID:28210594
Hashemipour, Mahin; Kargar, Maryam; Ghannadi, Alireza; Kelishadi, Roya
Background: Childhood obesity is becoming a global problem and its incidence is increasing. The role of dietary intervention with fruits containing vitamin C and flavonoid to control obesity consequences in childhood has not been yet defined. Lemon (Citrus aurantifolia) peels contain flavonoid, pectin and vitamin C. We aimed to compare the effects of lemon peels and placebo on cardiometabolic risk factors and markers of endothelial function among adolescents with overweight and obesity. Methods: In this triple-masked, randomized controlled trial, 60 overweight/obese adolescents were enrolled in a 4-week trial. Eligible participants were randomly assigned into two groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon powder or placebo. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were compared between the two groups before and after administration of medication and placebo. Results: Of the total 60 enrolled patients, 30 and 29 patients in the lemon and control groups completed the study, respectively. The results of within-group analysis demonstrated a slight reduction in body mass index, LDL-C and systolic blood pressure in the lemon group, but no between group differences existed in the studied variables. Conclusion: This study revealed that consumption of lemon peel extract has some beneficial effects for childhood obesity; however, no considerable effect was documented on anthropometric measures and biochemical factors. Future studies with longer follow up are highly recommended.
Nooner, Kate B; Linares, L Oriana; Batinjane, Jessica; Kramer, Rachel A; Silva, Raul; Cloitre, Marylene
Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescence published from 2000 to 2011 indicate that adolescents are at greater risk of experiencing trauma than either adults or children, and that the prevalence of PTSD among adolescents is 3-57%. Age, gender, type of trauma, and repeated trauma are discussed as factors related to the increased rates of adolescent PTSD. PTSD in adolescence is also associated with suicide, substance abuse, poor social support, academic problems, and poor physical health. PTSD may disrupt biological maturational processes and contribute to the long-term emotion and behavior regulation problems that are often evident in adolescents with the disorder. Recommendations are presented for practice and research regarding the promotion of targeted prevention and intervention services to maximize adolescents' strengths and minimize vulnerabilities. Public policy implications are discussed.
Williams, Dylan M; Fraser, Abigail; Fraser, William D; Hyppönen, Elina; Davey Smith, George; Deanfield, John; Hingorani, Aroon; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A
Objective Lower maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy may be associated with increased offspring cardiovascular risk in later life, but evidence for this is scant. We examined associations of maternal total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in pregnancy with offspring cardiovascular risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence. Design A longitudinal, prospective study. Setting The study was based on data from mother–offspring pairs in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK prospective population-based birth cohort (N=4109). Outcome measures Offspring cardiovascular risk factors were measured in childhood (mean age 9.9 years) and in adolescence (mean age 15.4 years): blood pressure, lipids, apolipoproteins (at 9.9 years only), glucose and insulin (at 15.4 years only), C reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (at 9.9 years only) were measured. Results After adjustments for potential confounders (maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, parity, socioeconomic position, ethnicity, and offspring gestational age at 25(OH)D sampling; gender, age, and BMI at outcome assessment), maternal 25(OH)D was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (−0.48 mm Hg difference per 50 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D; 95% CI −0.95 to −0.01), Apo-B (−0.01 mg/dL difference; 95% CI −0.02 to −0.001), and CRP (−6.1% difference; 95% CI −11.5% to −0.3%) at age 9.9 years. These associations were not present for risk factors measured at 15.4 years, with the exception of a weak inverse association with CRP (−5.5% difference; 95% CI −11.4% to 0.8%). There was no strong evidence of associations with offspring triglycerides, glucose or insulin. Conclusions Our findings suggest that fetal exposure to 25(OH)D is unlikely to influence cardiovascular risk factors of individuals later in life. PMID:24125739
Mutto, Milton; Lawoko, Stephen; Ovuga, Emilio; Svanstrom, Leif
Childhood injuries remain understudied in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine the extent, nature and determinants of school-related childhood injury risk in north-western Uganda. A cohort of 1000 grade fives from 13 elementary schools was followed-up for one term. Survival and multi-level modelling techniques compared the risk rates across gender, schools and locations. Childhood injuries are common in north-western Uganda. Most of them occur during travel, breaks, practical classes and gardening, while walking, playing, learning and digging. Most injuries result from collisions with objects, sports and falls. Two-thirds of children receive first aid and hospital care. Times to injury were 72.1 and 192.9 person days (p = 0.0000). Gender differences in time to event were significant (p = 0.0091). Girls had better survival rates: cumulative prevalence of childhood injury was 36.1%; with significant gender differences (p = 0.007). Injury rate was 12.3/1000 person days, with a hazard ratio of 1.4. Compared to girls, boys had a 37% higher injury rate (p = 0.004). Rates varied among schools. Associated factors include sex and school. Rural-urban location and school differences do influence childhood injury risk. Childhood injuries are common: the risk is high, gender- and school-specific. Determinants include gender and school. Location and school contexts influence injury risk.
Basile, Kathleen C.; Hamburger, Merle E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Choi, Colleen
Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV) perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer. Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N = 4,131) in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics. Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types. Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. PMID:23930146
Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty; St Clair, Iyekiyapiwin Darlene; Kokotailo, Patricia K; Lacourt, Jeanne; Wilson, Dale
With their distinct cultural heritage and rural boundaries, American Indian reservation communities offer a unique opportunity to explore protective factors that help buffer adolescents from potential risk behaviors such as violence. Prior published research on Indian communities has not explored three potential protective factors for violence-parental monitoring of adolescents and friends, adolescents' self-efficacy to avoid fighting, and adolescents' interest in learning more about their traditional culture. This paper explores the relationship between these factors and reduced risk of reported violence. In 1998, 630 American Indian students in grades 6-12 were surveyed in five Midwestern, rural Indian reservation schools. Path analysis was used to identify the direct and indirect association of the three potential protective factors with reduced violence behavior. There were significant gender differences both in perceived parental monitoring and in adolescents' self-efficacy. For female adolescents, parental monitoring had the strongest inverse relationship with female adolescents' involvement in violence. Female adolescents' self-efficacy and their interest in learning more about their culture were also inversely associated with violence and therefore potentially important protectors. Male adolescents who reported more interest in learning the tribe's culture had better self-efficacy to avoid violence. However, self-efficacy did not successfully predict their reported involvement in peer violence. These findings support exploring gender differences, parental monitoring, self-efficacy training as well as cultural elements in future violence intervention studies. Further investigation is needed to identify protective factors for risk behaviors among male adolescents and test the generalizability to non-reservation based adolescents.
Volk, Anthony; Craig, Wendy; Boyce, William; King, Matthew
This study examined correlates of different types of bullying and victimization relevant to the adolescent context. Of particular interest was the importance of risk factors that emerge and/or undergo significant changes during adolescence. Logistic regressions were performed using a representative sample of approximately 6,500 Canadian adolescents. We found that high-levels of victimization (7.6%), bullying (6.1%), and bully-victimization (0.9%) were quite prevalent amongst adolescents. The patterns of risk associated with each of these labels were different from each group. An examination of the different sub-types of victimization revealed that there were differences in both the prevalence and the risk patterns associated with each sub-type. Physical, verbal, and rumor victimization (the most common types) had similar risk patterns, while sexual victimization and ethnic victimization (the least most common type) each had a unique risk pattern. We conclude that emerging and/or changing risk factors associated with adolescent development are significantly related to bullying and victimization, with the specific relationships depending on the specific type of activity examined. These findings suggest that successful intervention strategies should try to be sensitive to the variations in prevalence and relationships with the risk factors.
Hochhauser, Mark; And Others
Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…
Remaschi, Laura; Cecchini, Cristina; Meringolo, Patrizia
Background: Self-harm behaviors consist of parasuicidal behaviors, which represent “a deliberate destruction of body tissue, with or without suicidal intent”. A theoretical model is the Experiential Avoidance Model. The most frequent risk factors are school distress, poor social integration, poor social and family support, drugs use, sexual abuse, altered sense of life and death, bad relationship with the body and unsolved body mentalization process. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to perform an analysis of risk factors for self-harm behaviors, to help plan preventive actions. Patients and Methods: One questionnaire with specific scales was employed for students, whereas three semi-structured interviews were employed for teachers, all on distress perception and self-harm in school. Results: Data analysis confirms an association between self- cutting and alcohol use, sexual harassments, school dropout, threatening people, incommunicability with family members and negative relationship with the body and suicide attempts, with a clear tendency for males. In the interviews, teachers highlight self-injury as a dysfunctional relationship with the body and observe several risk markers of psychological distress. Conclusions: The results confirm the available literature data, while noting that self-harming is a preponderantly male behavior. The results also signal the need to create opportunities to instruct teachers to combat the resistances and stereotypes of psychological distress. PMID:25883916
Ruffolo, Mary C.; Sarri, Rosemary; Goodkind, Sara
This study examines risk and protective factors for delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls to inform the development of effective mental health prevention and intervention programs. Delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls (N = 159) involved or at risk of involvement with the juvenile justice system, who were receiving…
Racicka, Ewa; Bryńska, Anita
Diabetes is associated with increased risk for eating disorders, various dependent on type of diabetes. Binge eating disorder is more common in patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Whereas, intentional omission of insulin doses for the purpose of weight loss occurs mainly in patient with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), however, in some patients with type 2 diabetes omission of oral hypoglycemic drugs can be present. Risk factors for the development of eating disorders in patients with diabetes include: age, female gender, greater body weight, body image dissatisfaction, history of dieting and history of depression. Poor glycemic control, recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis or recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, secondary to intentional insulin overdose, missed clinical appointments, dietary manipulation and low self-esteem should raise concern. The consequence of eating disorders or disordered eating patterns in patients with diabetes is poor glycemic control and hence higher possibility of complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy and premature death.
Looijenga, Leendert H J
Data are lacking on the role of histological risk factors (such as embryonal carcinoma and lymphovascular invasion) for occult metastasis in adolescents with testicular germ cell tumours. Investigators of a pilot study have now retrospectively reviewed a testis cancer database to identify risk stratification criteria in this population.
Stewart, Christine P.; Wu, Lee S.F.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Khatry, Subarna K.; West, Keith P.
Abstract Background Chronic disease begins early in life, yet population data are sparse on potential causal factors in children and young adults in South Asia. Methods We assessed risk factors for chronic disease in two population cohorts, aged 9–23 years, in rural Nepal. Assessed variables included short height (less than −2 z), high body mass index (BMI) (z>0.42), waist circumference (WC) >90 cm (male) or 80 cm (female) or age-adjusted child cutoff], high blood pressure (>120/80 mmHg), fasting glucose (≥100 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (>7%), blood lipids [triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total cholesterol], diet, smoking, alcohol, and socioeconomic status (SES) factors. Results The population was stunted (46%) and few were overweight (∼2%–4% with high BMI or WC). Twelve percent had high blood pressure. Plasma hypertriglyceridemia (≥150 mg/dL) affected ∼8.5%, and 78% had low HDL-C concentrations <40 mg/dL (male) or <50 mg/dL (female)], while few (≤3%) had elevated total cholesterol (≥180 mg/dL), glucose, and HbA1c. Females were at higher risk than males for high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–2.3] and overweight (4.2; 3.0–5.8), but had lower risk of dyslipidemia (0.7; 0.6–0.9). Ethnic plains Madheshi were less likely to be overweight (0.3; 0.2–0.4), but had greater risk of dyslipidemia (1.4; 1.1–1.7) versus those of Hill origin. Some dietary factors were significantly associated with high blood pressure or dyslipidemia, but not overweight. Conclusions Dyslipidemia and high blood pressure are emerging health concerns among young adults in rural Nepal. PMID:23682595
Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; de Piano, Aline; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Corgosinho, Flávia Campos; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Caranti, Danielle Arisa; Masquio, Deborah Cristina Landi; Carnier, June; Sanches, Priscila de Lima; Leão da Silva, Patrícia; Nascimento, Cláudia Maria Oller; Oyama, Lila Missae; Dantas, Alexandre Dâmaso Aguilera; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Tufik, Sergio; Tock, Lian
The prevention of obesity and health concerns related to body fat is a major challenge worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of a medically supervised, multidisciplinary approach, on reduction in the prevalence of obesity related comorbidities, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance in a sample of obese adolescents. A total of 97 postpuberty obese adolescents were enrolled in this study. Body composition, neuropeptides, and adipokines were analysed. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The abdominal ultrasonography was performed to measure visceral, subcutaneous fat and hepatic steatosis. All measures were performed at baseline and after one year of therapy. The multidisciplinary management promoted the control of obesity reducing body fat mass. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, asthma, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), binge eating, and hyperleptinemia was reduced. An improvement in the inflammatory profile was demonstrated by an increase in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and reduction in proinflammatory adipokines, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, interleukin-6 concentrations, and in the Lep/Adipo ratio. Moreover, a reduction in the AgRP and an increase in the alfa-MSH were noted. The multidisciplinary approach not only reduced obesity but also is efficacious in cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance. PMID:24285955
Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert
Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…
Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors aimed to describe the pathways of risk within sexual risk taking, alcohol use, and delinquency, and then identify how the trajectory of sexual risk is linked to alcohol use and delinquency. Risk trajectories were measured with adolescents aged 15-24 years (N = 1,778). Using…
Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Kleinman, Marjorie; Altschuler, Elizabeth; Marrocco, Frank; Amakawa, Lia; Gould, Madelyn S
This is the first study to examine the extent to which frequent involvement in high-school bullying (as a bullying perpetrator, victim of bullying, or bully-victim) increases the risk for later depression and suicidality beyond other well-established risk factors of suicide. The study included 96 students who reported being a bully, a victim, or a bully-victim, and also reported depression, suicidality, or substance problems during an initial suicide screen. These students were interviewed 2 years later and were compared with 142 youth identified during the initial screen as "suicide-at-risk" by virtue of their depression, suicidal ideation, attempts, and substance problems, but who did not report any involvement in bullying behavior. Students who reported both bullying others and other suicide-related behaviors at baseline had higher suicide ideation and were more functionally impaired at follow-up than students who reported suicide-related behaviors but were not involved in bullying. Preventive efforts in high school should target those children who are characterized by both psychological disturbance and bullying, especially the frequent bullies.
Barlett, Christopher P
The current study used the risk factor approach to test the unique and combined influence of several possible risk factors for cyberbullying attitudes and behavior using a four-wave longitudinal design with an adolescent US sample. Participants (N = 96; average age = 15.50 years) completed measures of cyberbullying attitudes, perceptions of anonymity, cyberbullying behavior, and demographics four times throughout the academic school year. Several logistic regression equations were used to test the contribution of these possible risk factors. Results showed that (a) cyberbullying attitudes and previous cyberbullying behavior were important unique risk factors for later cyberbullying behavior, (b) anonymity and previous cyberbullying behavior were valid risk factors for later cyberbullying attitudes, and (c) the likelihood of engaging in later cyberbullying behavior increased with the addition of risk factors. Overall, results show the unique and combined influence of such risk factors for predicting later cyberbullying behavior. Results are discussed in terms of theory.
Buck, Katharine Ann
Psychopathic traits reflect deficits in behavioral, affective, and interpersonal functioning (Cooke & Michie, 2001). Children with poor inhibitory control may display these traits. Maternal sensitivity and attachment have been implicated in psychopathic traits, but whether they may reduce the likelihood of psychopathic trait expression in adolescence for uninhibited children is largely unknown. The current study attempted to shed light on this issue. Data came from 957 adolescents, followed from 54 months through 15 years. Findings demonstrated that maternal sensitivity was associated with a reduced likelihood of psychopathic traits for males with low inhibitory control. For females, secure attachment mediated the interaction of sensitivity and inhibitory control to psychopathic traits. The current study offers insight into the temperamental traits, parenting, and relational processes involved in psychopathic trait expression during adolescence.
Langehough, Steven O.; Walters, Connor; Knox, David; Rowley, Michael
Current literature indicates the positive effect of a spiritual or religious orientation on recovery from alcohol abuse, drug addiction, codependency, and child sexual abuse, and as a personal control against deviant behavior in adolescents. Yet spiritual resources have been underutilized not only in prevention but in intervention programs. This…
Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R.; Pardini, Dustin
Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified four distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early-onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the four marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed within the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early-onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects. PMID:26237286
Kelly, Thomas M.; Cornelius, Jack R.; Lynch, Kevin G.
Tests substance-related and non-substance-related psychiatric disorders as predictors of attempted suicide among adolescents. Bipolar disorder, cocaine use disorders, and conduct disorder were found to be predictive of attempted suicide in univariate testing. Higher rates of cocaine use disorder/conduct disorder, hallucinogen use disorder/conduct…
Benthin, Alida; And Others
High school students (n=41) evaluated 30 activities (smoking, drinking, drug use, sex) on perceived risk and benefit. Adolescents who participated in activity perceived risks to be smaller, better known, and more controllable than did nonparticipants. Participants perceived greater benefits relative to risks, greater peer pressure to participate,…
Liepman, Michael R; Calles, Joseph L; Kizilbash, Leena; Nazeer, Ahsan; Sheikh, Suhail
Substance use by adolescents can lead to mortality, physical and social morbidity, and a brain disorder called substance dependence if allowed to progress to chronic, repetitive self-administration. Substance abuse and dependence can begin in adolescence or adulthood, but many of the attitudes and behaviors that affect risk become established during adolescence. Genetic risk factors have been identified for at least two distinct disorders and more are under active study to determine the cause and pathophysiology of addictive disorders. Although much remains to be done, a complex interplay of numerous genetic and environmental risk factors clearly is involved. An understanding of the most important environmental risk factors has led to effective primary prevention approaches; knowledge of the genetic risk factors and neuropharmacology of drugs of abuse in the brain is beginning to influence secondary prevention efforts and treatment, including better medications for addictive disorders. A large proportion of adolescents carry a genetic vulnerability that can be expressed when they accept peer and societal influences that promote experimentation with substances of abuse. At that point, the genetic factors take over, maintaining the drug self-administration pattern. Decay of social status results from association with drug-using peers and shifts in priorities supportive of drug use rather than education and productivity. More research into the genetic risk factors and applications of current knowledge to treatment is needed.
Heshmat, Ramin; Shahr Babaki, Amir Eslami; Djalalinia, Shirin; Ataei-Jafari, Asal; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Arefirad, Tahereh; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Asayesh, Hamid
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its contributing factors are considered important health problems in the pediatric age group. This study was designed to assess the joint association of ST and PA with cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adolescents. A representative sample of 5625 (50.2% boys) school students with a mean age of 14.73 (SD: 2.41) were selected through multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran. ST and PA were assessed by self-administered validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference (WC)) and MetS components (abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides (TG) and high fasting blood sugar (FBG)) were measured according to standardized protocols. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for the pediatric age group. Moreover, elevated total cholesterol (TC), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and generalized obesity were considered as other cardiometabolic risk factors. Students with high ST levels had significantly higher body mass index z-score (BMI z-score), WC, TG, LDL-C, and BP as well as lower HDL-C level; whereas those with high PA levels had significantly higher HDL-C levels as well as lower BMI z-score, TC, and BP. Adolescents with low PA/ high ST levels had significantly higher BMI, WC, LDL-C levels, as well as higher SBP and DBP compared to their other counterparts. In Multivariate model, joint effect of low PA/ high ST (compared to the high PA/low ST group) increased the odds of overweight, abdominal obesity and low HDL-C and decreased the odds of elevated TC. The findings of this study showed that joint association of high ST and low PA have direct association with abdominal obesity, overweight and low HDL-C and indirect association with elevated TC. PMID:27167372
Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves
Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212
Yalch, Matthew M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Fehon, Dwain C; Grilo, Carlos M
Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents and suicidal behavior is one of the primary risk factors for youth psychiatric hospitalizations. A number of studies indicate that depression and substance abuse are associated with suicide risk in this population, but less is known about the role of borderline personality features or their incremental influence over other known risk factors in indicating suicidal behavior among adolescents. This study examined whether borderline features were associated with suicide risk when controlling for symptoms of depression and substance abuse in a sample of adolescents hospitalized in an inpatient psychiatric facility. Self-report data from 477 adolescent psychiatric inpatients were used to test hypotheses about the association of borderline features with suicide risk after controlling for other common risk factors. Borderline features were significantly related to suicide risk even after accounting for symptoms of depression and substance abuse. These findings underscore the clinical value of routinely assessing borderline features among adolescents.
Morello, Paola; Pérez, Adriana; Peña, Lorena; Braun, Sandra N; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Thrasher, James F; Sargent, James; Mejía, Raúl
Tobacco, alcohol and drug use starts at an early age. It is important to identify risk factors associated with initiation. In 2014, a survey was conducted among students attending first year of secondary schools in Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and Tucumán. A total of 3172 students completed the survey (42% were girls); their mean age was 12.8 years old. Findings showed that 10% had smoked; 32% had consumed alcohol; 17% had a heavy drinking episode in the past month; and 8% had used at least one illegal drug once in their lifetime. A high sensation seeking index was associated with the use of tobacco (odds ratio [OR]: 4.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-8.1), alcohol (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 3.73-8.31), and marijuana, coca paste or cocaine, (OR: 11.73, 95% CI: 5.81-23.69). Having friends who smoke or drink was associated with tobacco (OR: 12.6, 95% CI: 7.8-20.5) and alcohol use (OR: 5.17, 95% CI: 4.15-6.40). Having permissive parents in terms of media use was associated with tobacco use (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.1-6.5), and perceiving a low parental support and control (OR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.40-6.52) was associated with marijuana, coca paste and cocaine use.
Ahmed, M B
During the last decade the number of teenagers involved in violent behavior and drug abuse increased significantly. Some of these adolescents were involved in Satanic cult activities. Although sensationalism is created by isolated incidents like the Matamoros murders and Geraldo's media coverage of satanism, our observation, in a private psychiatric hospital, reveals that in fact adolescents involved in satanic cults do not differ from other adolescents admitted with a variety of other problems. Psychodynamic factors, family dynamics, and treatment strategies for management of adolescents who are involved in satanic cult activities are discussed.
Vanwong, Natchaya; Srisawasdi, Pornpen; Ngamsamut, Nattawat; Nuntamool, Nopphadol; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Chamkrachangpada, Bhunnada; Hongkaew, Yaowaluck; Limsila, Penkhae; Kittitharaphan, Wiranpat; Sukasem, Chonlaphat
Background: Atypical antipsychotics have been found to be associated with hyperuricemia. Risperidone, one of the atypical antipsychotics, might be related to the hyperuricemia among autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of hyperuricemia in ASD patients treated with risperidone and to determine associations between serum uric acid levels and risperidone dosage, treatment duration, and metabolic parameters. Methods: 127 children and adolescents with ASD treated with risperidone and 76 age-matched risperidone-naïve patients with ASD were recruited. The clinical data and laboratory data were analyzed. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid >5.5 mg/dl. Results: Hyperuricemia was present in 44.70% of risperidone-naïve patients with ASD and 57.50% of ASD patients treated with risperidone. The fasting uric acid levels were significantly higher in the risperidone group than in the risperidone-naïve group (5.70 vs. 5.35 mg/dl, P = 0.01). The increased uric acid concentrations were significantly associated with adolescent patients treated with risperidone. The higher dose of risperidone and/or the longer treatment time were associated with the increased uric acid levels. Uric acid levels significantly rose with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), triglyceride (TG) levels, triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C), insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment index (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) levels, and leptin levels. Conversely, the levels of HDL-C and adiponectin were negatively correlated with uric acid levels. In multiple regression analysis, there were age, BMI, TG/HDL-C ratio, and adiponectin levels remained significantly associated with uric acid levels. Conclusion: Hyperuricemia may play a role in metabolic adverse effect in children and adolescents with ASDs receiving the high dose and/or the long-term treatment with risperidone. PMID:28105014
Celebrini, Richard G.; Eng, Janice J.; Miller, William C.; Ekegren, Christina L.; Johnston, James D.; MacIntyre, Donna L.
There is a need to investigate the effect of specific movement strategies in reducing biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury in young female athletes. The purpose of this study was 1) to determine the feasibility of implementing a novel movement strategy (Core-PAC) into a team warm-up prior to soccer training based on subject compliance and integration of the Core-PAC into the warm-up and 2) to determine whether the Core-PAC would improve peak knee flexion angles and peak abduction moments at the knee during a side-cut (SC) and an unanticipated side-cut (USC) prior to kicking a soccer ball, and a side-hop (SH) task after immediate instruction and after a four-week training program. A convenience sample of ten 14–16 year old female soccer players were instructed in the Core-PAC immediately after baseline testing and during a training program consisting of a 20-minute warm-up, two-times per week. The Core-PAC was understood and accepted by the subjects and incorporated into their warm-up activities with good compliance. After the immediate instruction, there were significant increases in peak knee flexion angles of a mean 6.4° during the SC (p = 0.001), 3.5° during the USC (p = 0.007), and 5.8° during the SH (p < 0.001) tasks. Peak knee abduction moments decreased by a mean of 0.25 Nm/kg during the SC (p < 0.03), 0.17 Nm/kg during the USC (p = 0.05), and 0.27 Nm/kg during the SH (p = 0.04) tasks. After the 4-week training program, some individuals showed improvement. The results of this study suggest that the Core-PAC may be one method of modifying high-risk movements for ACL injury such as side-cutting and single-leg landing. PMID:22210470
Zhang, Zhiying; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Hartman, Terryl J
Previous studies have shown that birth weight and other birth characteristics may be associated with risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life; however, results using large US national survey data are limited. Our goal was to determine the aforementioned associations using nationally representative data. We studied children and adolescents 6-15 years using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles 2001-2010. Survey and examination data included demographic and early childhood characteristics, current health status, physical activity information, anthropometric measurements, dietary data (total energy, saturated fat, sodium, and sugar intakes), biomarkers related to selected risk factors of CVD [systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profiles], and type 2 diabetes [fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)]. Birth weight (proxy-reported) was inversely associated with SBP among girls; SBP levels increased 1.4 mmHg for each 1,000 g decrease in birth weight (p = 0.003) after controlling for potential confounders. Birth weight was not associated with levels of CRP or lipid profiles across the three racial groups. In addition, birth weight was inversely related to levels of fasting insulin and HOMA among non-Hispanic Whites; for each 1,000 g decrease in birth weight, fasting insulin levels increased 9.1% (p = 0.007) and HOMA scores increased 9.8% (p = 0.007). Birth weight was inversely associated with the levels of SBP, fasting insulin, and HOMA. These results support a role for birth weight, independent of the strong effects of current body weight status, in increasing risk for CVD and type 2 diabetes.
Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…
Drummond, Wilhelmina J.
Explores causes of the high teenage suicide rate in New Zealand by looking at environmental-social factors. Examines the problems these youth face, such as depression and alcohol use, and discusses their risk-taking behaviors. Findings are linked to current theory on adolescent suicide. Prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies are…
Lopez, Vera; Corona, Rosalie
This qualitative study explored 18 high-risk adolescent Latinas' perceptions of their relationships with nonresident fathers. A number of interrelated factors--early childhood memories, mothers' interpretations, and fathers' behaviors--shaped girls' perceptions, which in turn, influenced how they interacted with fathers. Some girls struggled to…
Raffaelli, Marcela; Crockett, Lisa J.
Precursors of adolescent sexual risk taking were examined in a multiethnic sample consisting of 443 children (51% girls) of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth participants. Respondents were 12-13 years old in 1994 and 16-17 in 1998. Controlling for demographic and contextual factors, self-regulation--but not risk proneness--was significantly…
Curcio, S.; García-Espinosa, V.; Arana, M.; Farro, I.; Chiesa, P.; Giachetto, G.; Zócalo, Y.; Bia, D.
The aims of our work were to determine normal aging rates for structural and functional arterial parameters in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults and to identify gender-related differences in these aging rates. Methods. 161 subjects (mean: 15 years (range: 4–28 years), 69 females) were studied. Subjects included had no congenital or chronic diseases, nor had they been previously exposed to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Arterial parameters assessed were (1) central blood pressure (BP) and aortic pulse wave analysis, (2) arterial local (pressure-strain elastic modulus) and regional (pulse wave velocity, PWV) stiffness, and (3) arterial diameters and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Simple linear regression models (age as the independent variable) were obtained for all the parameters and the resulting rates of change were compared between genders. Results. No gender-related differences were found in mean values of arterial structural and functional parameters in prepubertal ages (4–8 years), but they started to appear at ~15 years. Boys showed a greater rate of change for central systolic BP, central pulse pressure, CIMT, and carotid-femoral PWV. Conclusion. Gender-related differences in arterial characteristics of adults can be explained on the basis of different growing-related patterns between boys and girls, with no existing differences in prepubertal ages. PMID:26989504
Adolescent pregnancy is a complex and frustrating problem that exacts a large social and personal cost. This year approximately 40,000 Canadian teenagers will become pregnant. With proper prevention, this number could be reduced. Pregnant teenagers seem to be at increased risk for some obstetric complications and their children for some neonatal complications. Family physicians who see patients over the course of a lifetime are in a good position to prevent adolescent pregnancy and the associated complications. PMID:8520241
... atherosclerosis (“clogged” arteries) and High Blood Pressure . Preventing Arrhythmias and Heart Disease Prevent heart disease by lowering ... cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following conditions can increase ...
Doyle, Mark M; Murphy, Jamie; Shevlin, Mark
Co-occurring psychological disorders are highly prevalent among children and adolescents. To date, the most widely utilised factor model used to explain this co-occurrence is the two factor model of internalising and externalising (Achenbach 1966). Several competing models of general psychopathology have since been reported as alternatives, including a recent three factor model of Distress, Fear and Externalising Dimensions (Krueger 1999). Evidence for the three factor model suggests there are advantages to utilising a more complex model. Using the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey 2004 data (B-CAMHS; N = 7997), confirmatory factor analysis was used to test competing factor structure models of child and adolescent psychopathology. The B-CAMHS was an epidemiological survey of children between the ages of 5 and 16 in Great Britain. Child psychological disorders were assessed using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman 1997), and the Development and Wellbeing Assessment (Goodman et al. 2000). A range of covariates and risk variables including trauma, parent mental health and family functioning where subsequently utilised within a MIMIC model framework to predict each dimension of the 2 and three factor structure models. Two models demonstrated acceptable fit. The first complimented Achenbach's Internalising and Externalising structure. The three factor model was found to have highly comparable fit indices to the two factor model. The second order models did not accurately represent the data nor did an alternative three factor model of Internalising, Externalising and ADHD. The two factor and three factor MIMIC models observed unique profiles of risk for each dimension. The findings suggest that child and adolescent psychopathology may also be accurately conceptualised in terms of distress, fear and externalising dimensions. The MIMIC models demonstrated that the Distress and Fear dimensions have their own unique etiological profile of
Kullik, Angelika; Petermann, Franz
This study examined emotion regulation as a mediator in the relationship of attachment and depression in adolescents. Participants (N girls = 127; M age = 14.50; N boys = 121; M age = 14.31) completed self-report questionnaires of attachment to parents and peers, emotion regulation and depression. Models with dysfunctional emotion regulation as a mediation variable were tested via hierarchical multiple regression analyses and bootstrapping procedure. Results revealed significant relations between attachment to parents and peers, dysfunctional emotion regulation and depression. For girls, internal-dysfunctional emotion regulation was a mediator in the relation of attachment to parents and depression and partly mediated the association of attachment to peers. For boys, internal- and external-dysfunctional emotion regulation acted as partly mediators in association of attachment to parents and depression. Results indicate important mechanisms that contribute to the refinement of conceptual models and provide indications for gender specific prevention and intervention for depressive disorders.
Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Herting, Jerald R.; Hooven, Carole L.; Walsh, Elaine; Thompson, Elaine Adams
This study extends prior examination of adolescent violence etiology, drawing on an ethnically diverse, community accessed, yet emotionally vulnerable sample (N = 849) of adolescents at-risk for school dropout. A balanced risk and protective factor framework captured theorized dimensions of strain, coping, and support resources. We tested the…
Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen
The interplay between intrapersonal risk (low self-esteem, perfectionism and body dissatisfaction) and interpersonal protection (social support) appears relevant for delineating gender-specific pathways that lead to both depressive and eating psychopathology. The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine gender differences in the levels of…
Killebrew, Alyssa E.; Smith, Michelle L.; Nevels, Robert M.; Weiss, Nicole H.; Gontkovsky, Samuel T.
This study examined the associations among three external variables (Peer Substance Use Before Sex, Peer Number of Children, and Parental Influence and Substance Use Before Sex and History of Pregnancy) identified on the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey and a demographic survey, using Bandura's Social Learning Theory as an interpretive…
Wymbs, Brian T.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; King, Kevin M.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Vander Stoep, Ann; Baer, John S.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.
Youth with elevated conduct disorder (CD) symptoms who also have callous-unemotional (CU) traits exhibit more antisocial behavior than youth without CU traits. However, evidence regarding whether CU traits increase risk of substance use over and above CD symptoms, and whether these associations differ for boys and girls, is scarce. Using the…
Dickson, K.; Emerson, E.; Hatton, C.
Background: Research has suggested increased risk of anti-social behaviour amongst individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: This study reports the results of a secondary analysis of data relating to self-reported anti-social behaviour, obtained from the 1999 Office for National Statistics (ONS) study of the mental health of children…
Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.
Family is an important socialization context for youth as they move through early adolescence. A significant feature of this complex socialization context is the accumulation of potential family risk factors that may compromise youth adjustment. This study examined cumulative family risk and adolescents' adjustment difficulties in 416 two-parent…
Reniers, Renate L E P; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J
This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents' perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13-20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts.
Kopera-Frye, Karen F.; And Others
Previous research has demonstrated an association between locus of control in adolescence and a successful transition to adulthood. Having an external locus of control has been implicated as an important factor in adolescent behaviors such as teenage pregnancy and delinquency, and has been found to be negatively related to school achievement. This…
Sun, Rachel C. F.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.
This study aimed to investigate the family, school, peer and psychological factors that contribute to adolescent suicidal ideation. The participants were 1,358 (680 boys and 678 girls) Hong Kong Chinese adolescents who were divided into younger (12.3 years, n = 694) and older (15.4 years, n = 664) age groups. By using structural equation modeling,…
Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.
Although Mexican American adolescents experience multiple risk factors in their daily lives, most research examines the influences of risk factors on adjustment independently, ignoring the additive and interactive effects of multiple risk factors. Guided by a person-centered perspective and utilizing latent profile analysis, this study identified…
Kit, Phey Ling; Teo, Lan
In this article, we review the risk and protective factors for adolescent smoking, as well as current research on evidence-based practices. The relevance of structured expressive therapy in meeting the maturational and emotional needs of at-risk and delinquent adolescents, and the multicultural context of adolescents in Singapore's Asian society…
Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Goodlett, Benjamin D; Shaw, Daniel S
The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders.
Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip
The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764
Bilali, Aggeliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Katostaras, Theofanis
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents and identify possible risk factors associated with these attitudes. Design: Cross-sectional, school-based study. Setting: Six randomly selected schools in Patras, southern Greece. Participants: The study population consisted of 540 Greek students aged 13-18…
Vanhalst, Janne; Luyckx, Koen; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Goossens, Luc
Low self-esteem has been shown to relate to concurrent and later feelings of loneliness in adolescence. However, it remains unclear why low self-esteem puts adolescents at risk for experiencing loneliness. Further, longitudinal research on the direction of effects between loneliness and self-esteem is virtually non-existent. The present study aims to fill these gaps in the literature. First, the direction of effects between loneliness and self-esteem was investigated in two independent longitudinal studies: a five-wave study sampling Dutch adolescents (M age = 15.22 years at T1; 47 % female; N = 428) and a three-wave study sampling Belgian adolescents (M age = 14.95 years at T1; 63 % female; N = 882). Second, the underlying role of social acceptance was investigated in the latter sample by applying a multi-method approach that included actual (i.e., peer-reported) and perceived (i.e., self-reported) social acceptance. Results indicated that self-esteem and loneliness influenced one another in a reciprocal manner. Furthermore, the dominant path from self-esteem to loneliness was partially mediated by perceived--but not actual--social acceptance. The importance of distinguishing actual from perceived social acceptance is discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined.
Tingey, Lauren; Cwik, Mary F; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Lee, Angelita; Suttle, Rosemarie; Walkup, John T; Barlow, Allison
Native American (Native) adolescents have the highest suicide rates in the United States, yet no conceptual models describing risk factors specific to this population exist. We sought to further hone a Native-specific conceptual model developed from quantitative data with qualitative data collected from a longitudinal series of interviews with (N = 22) Native adolescents who had attempted suicide. Four levels of suicide risk emerged, detailing individual, family, community, and societal factors that affect youths' pathways to suicide, along with a variety of subthemes and constructs. Some themes parallel established models of suicide risk; however, others are unique to the experience of this sample, including the impact of overtaxed households and family composition, significant grief burden, contagion, and stigma surrounding treatment seeking. We suggest adaptations of existing themes and constructs in the model. We discuss practical implications for research and intervention development, along with strengths and limitations of the study.
Background Prior studies addressing the impacts of regular physical activity or sedentary habits on the immune system have been conducted in adults and laboratory settings. Thus, it is practically unknown how a healthy active lifestyle could affect low-grade inflammation processes, infections or allergies in young persons. The AFINOS Study was designed to determine the relationship between the regular physical activity levels of adolescents and overweight, infection, and allergies along with the presence of metabolic and immunological biomarkers of a deteriorated health status. A further objective of the AFINOS Study is to assess the health status and lifestyle habits of an adolescent population in an effort to identify any protective factors that could be used as preventive measures, since many chronic diseases and their associated co-morbidities often persist from adolescence into adulthood. Methods/Design This study was conducted as three separate sub-studies in three different populations as follows: (a) Study 1 was performed on a population sample of adolescents; (b) Study 2 on the adolescents' parents; and (c) Study 3 on a subset of the adolescents from Study 1. Study 1 assessed health and lifestyle indicators through a questionnaire administered to a representative sample of adolescents from the Madrid Region (n = 2400) aged 13 to 16 years. In Study 2, the parents of the teenagers participating in Study 1 were required to fill out a questionnaire. Finally in Study 3, body composition, physical activity, health-related physical fitness, and blood measurements were determined in a subset (n = 200) of the individuals included in Study 1. Discussion This paper describes the rationale, design, and methodologies used in the AFINOS Study. This multidisciplinary, multicenter study seeks to evaluate several aspects of existing relationships between routine physical activity/sedentary behaviour and several health status markers, specifically those related to the
McMaster, Marianne E; Lee, Amanda Jane; Burwell, R Geoffrey
To our knowledge there are no publications that have evaluated physical activities in relation to the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) other than sports scolioses. In a preliminary longitudinal case-control study, mother and child were questioned and the children examined by one observer. The aim of the study was to examine possible risk factors for AIS. Two study groups were assessed for physical activities: 79 children diagnosed as having progressive AIS at one spinal deformity centre (66 girls, 13 boys) and a Control Group of 77 school children (66 girls, 11 boys), the selection involving six criteria. A structured history of physical activities was obtained, every child allocated to a socioeconomic group and examined for toe touching. Unlike the Patients, the Controls were not X-rayed and were examined for surface vertical spinous process asymmetry (VSPA). Statistical analyses showed progressive AIS to be positively associated with social deprivation, early introduction to indoor heated swimming pools and ability to toe touch. AIS is negatively associated with participation in dance, skating, gymnastics or karate and football or hockey classes, which might suggest preventive possibilities. There is a significantly increased independent odds of AIS in children who went to an indoor heated swimming pool within the first year of life (odds ratio 3.88, 95% CI 1.77-8.48; p = 0·001). Furthermore fourteen (61%) Controls with VSPA compared with 9 (17%) Controls without VSPA had been introduced to the swimming pool within their first year of life (P < 0.001). Early exposure to indoor heated swimming pools for both AIS and VSPA, suggests that the AIS findings do not result from sample selection.
BMI is a Better Indicator of Cardiac Risk Factors, as against Elevated Blood Pressure in Apparently Healthy Female Adolescents and Young Adult Students: Results From a Cross-Sectional Study in Tripura
Background: Anthropometric measures are used as indicators of elevated blood pressure, but reported to have variable sensitivity among populations. This study was undertaken to identify the better indicator of Cardiac-risk factors by statistical comparison of BMI, Waist circumference, and Waist to Height (WtHr) ratio in apparently healthy adolescents and young adult female students of Tripura. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a resource limited setup on 210 apparently healthy female adolescents and young adult students in Tripura. Mean (±SD) of all parameters were compared (ANOVA) to recognize significant independent (anthropometric measures) and dependent factors (blood pressure indices and so on). Correlation (r) analysis was used to identify the better (p) indicator of blood pressure indices (dependent variable) and its impact was assessed by Multiple Regression analysis. Results: blood pressure indices are comparatively higher in obese and overweight participants with statistically significant (95.5% confidence) mean differences. Significant correlation with dependent factors is observed with BMI followed by WtHr and Waist Circumference. Impact of anthropometric measures with blood pressure Indices is most significant for BMI (P ≤ 0.020) followed by WtHr (P ≤ 0.500) and waist circumference (P ≤ 0.520). Conclusion: BMI is a superior indicator of blood pressure indices and can identify participants at risk even in apparently healthy adolescent and young adult females. PMID:27890980
Johnson, Sara B.; Sudhinaraset, May; Blum, Robert Wm.
In the January 2009 issue of this journal, Males argues that adolescent brain science perpetuates the "myth of adolescent risk taking." He contends that those who study adolescent neuromaturation are biological determinists who ignore the profound social and environmental forces that influence adolescent behavior to further their own agendas.…
Dogan-Ates, Aysun; Carrion-Basham, Carla Y.
This study investigated the role of three groups of risk and protective factors (e.g., individual, family, and extrafamilial) that are associated with teen pregnancy. Two groups of Latina adolescents (aged 15 to 19), nonpregnant/ nonparenting (NP; N = 48) and pregnant/parenting (P; N = 46), completed a demographic survey, an adolescent profile…
Jerrell, Jeanette M; McIntyre, Roger S; Park, Yong-Moon Mark
The greater burden of illness in youth with co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) deserves further investigation, specifically regarding the influence of other psychiatric or medical conditions and the pharmacotherapies prescribed. A retrospective cohort design was employed, using South Carolina's (USA) Medicaid claims' dataset covering outpatient and inpatient medical services, and medication prescriptions between January, 1996 and December, 2006 for patients ≤17 years of age. The cohort included 22,452 cases diagnosed with ADHD at a mean age 7.8 years; 1,259 (5.6 %) cases were diagnosed with MDD at a mean age of 12.1 years. The probability of a child with ADHD developing MDD was significantly associated with a comorbid anxiety disorder (aOR = 3.53), CD/ODD (aOR = 3.45), or a substance use disorder (aOR = 2.31); being female (aOR = 1.77); being treated with pemoline (aOR = 1.69), atomoxetine (aOR = 1.31), or mixed amphetamine salts (aOR = 1.28); a comorbid obesity diagnosis (aOR = 1.29); not being African American (aOR = 1.23), and being older at ADHD diagnosis (aOR = 1.09). Those developing MDD also developed several comorbid disorders later than the ADHD-only cohort, i.e., conduct disorder/oppositional-defiant disorder (CD/ODD), at mean age of 10.8 years, obesity at 11.6 years, generalized anxiety disorder at 12.2 years, and a substance use disorder at 15.7 years of age. Incident MDD was more likely in individuals clustering several demographic, clinical, and treatment factors. The phenotypic progression suggested herein underscores the need for coordinated early detection and intervention to prevent or delay syndromal MDD, or to minimize its severity and associated impairment over time.
cardiovascular disease among black women can be better controlled through the use of a stress reduction intervention that reduces the sympathetic nervous...All participants will have high normal (130/80) or mild hypertension and at least two additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g
Coleman, Casey; Wileyto, E. Paul; Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda
Background: Chronic disease risk factors tend to cooccur. Purpose: This study examined the cooccurrence of 8 negative health behaviors in a representative sample of urban adolescents to inform educational interventions. Methods: The prevalence, cooccurrence, and clustering of suicide attempt, lifetime history of sexual activity, tobacco use, cell…
King, Cheryl A; Hill, Ryan M; Wynne, Henry A; Cunningham, Rebecca M
This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up vs. no in-person follow-up) on adolescents' responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13-17; 80% White, 21.6% Black, 9.8% American Indian, 2.9% Asian) seeking medical emergency services. They were randomized to a screening follow-up condition. Screening measures assessed primary risk factors for suicidal behavior, including suicidal thoughts, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and aggressive/delinquent behavior. There was no main effect of follow-up condition on adolescents' screening scores; however, significant interactions between follow-up condition and public assistance status were evident. Adolescents whose families received public assistance were less likely to report aggressive-delinquent behavior if assigned to in-person follow-up. Adolescents whose families did not receive public assistance reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation if assigned to in-person follow-up. Findings suggest that response biases impact some adolescents' responses to suicide risk screenings. Because national policy strongly recommends suicide risk screening in emergency settings, and because screening scores are used to make critical decisions regarding risk management and treatment recommendations, findings indicate the importance of improving the reliability and validity of suicide risk screening for adolescents.
Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa
Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…
Robert, Marie; Pauze, R.; Fournier, L.
There are two factors that limit our knowledge of the risk factors associated with homelessness among runaway adolescents, namely (1) the samples used are often composed of youth homeless service users and/or youths living on the streets (visible homelessness), whereas most adolescents in fact use ''private'' resources (hidden homelessness), and…
Carlivati, Jill; Collins, W. Andrew
The focus of this chapter is continuity and change in attachment representations in a sample at risk because of early poverty. Its particular emphasis is adolescence and reasons that adolescence may be a period of attachment security change in the at-risk population. The authors begin with an overview of key issues in adolescent attachment,…
Leonardo, Jennifer Braga
This study investigated the contribution of assimilation, sociodemographic factors, and social supports to depressive symptoms in immigrant adolescents, using Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 4,263). Immigrant adolescents reported more risk factors and higher levels of depressive symptoms than native…
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Sanders, Christopher
Seventy-nine high school seniors were administered the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), as well as a questionnaire on parent relationships; peer relationships; positive and negative feelings including suicidal thoughts; and lifestyle variables including academic performance, exercise, and drug use. Results are discussed…
Zhao, Sibo; Zhang, Jie
Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age. PMID:25546276
Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110
This article proposes a framework for theory and research on risk-taking that is informed by developmental neuroscience. Two fundamental questions motivate this review. First, why does risk-taking increase between childhood and adolescence? Second, why does risk-taking decline between adolescence and adulthood? Risk-taking increases between…
Schwartz, Seth J.; Rosiers, Sabrina Des; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José
The present study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (mean age 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning. PMID:23848416
Schwartz, Seth J; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Unger, Jennifer B; Knight, George P; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José
This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (Mage = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning.
Breton, Jean-Jacques; Labelle, Réal; Berthiaume, Claude; Royer, Chantal; St-Georges, Marie; Ricard, Dominique; Abadie, Pascale; Gérardin, Priscille; Cohen, David; Guilé, Jean-Marc
Objectives: To examine whether protective factors in the Protection for Adolescent Depression Study (PADS) moderate the impact of stressful events on depression and suicidal behaviour in the community and a clinical setting; and to study the influence of sex. Method: Participants were 283 adolescents from the community and 119 from a mood disorder clinic in Montreal. The participants were evaluated on 6 instruments measuring individual risk and protective factors. Descriptive analyses and univariate and multiple logistic regression models were carried out. Results: Risk factors predicted higher levels of depression and presence of suicidal behaviour, and protective factors predicted lower levels of depression and absence of suicidal behaviour, as expected under the vulnerability-resilience stress model. Several sex differences were observed in terms of the predictive power of risk factors (for example, hopelessness among girls and keep to themselves among boys) and protective factors (for example, focusing on the positive among girls and self-discovery among boys). Conclusions: Findings from the PADS suggest that protective factors moderate the impact of stress on depression and suicidal behaviour. Developing protection appears important in the presence of chronic conditions, such as depressive disorders, to reduce the likelihood of further episodes. The influence of sex makes it all the more relevant to target different factors for boys and girls to increase protection and decrease risk in prevention and intervention programs. PMID:25886672
Russell, Stephen T.; Joyner, Kara
Used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to investigate links between sexual orientation and suicidality. There was a strong link between adolescent sexual orientation and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. This relationship was mediated by critical youth suicide risk factors (depression, hopelessness, alcohol abuse,…
Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing
This study examined the trajectories of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents from ages 15 to 23 and factors associated with those trajectories. The sample was 5,419 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using group-based trajectory modeling, five distinctive trajectory groups were identified. The High group had a high…
Rivers, Susan E.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Mills, Britain
Fuzzy-trace theory explains risky decision making in children, adolescents, and adults, incorporating social and cultural factors as well as differences in impulsivity. Here, we provide an overview of the theory, including support for counterintuitive predictions (e.g., when adolescents "rationally" weigh costs and benefits, risk taking increases,…
Salzman, Kenneth P.; Salzman, Stephanie A.
This study examined factors that may place adolescents at risk for psychological dysfunction and school failure. Subjects were 70 adolescents who were admitted to a psychiatric hospital from September 1986 to March 1988. Demographic, academic performance, familial, and psychological data were retroactively gathered from patient files, tabulated…
By understanding at-risk youth, resilient youth, and the characteristics and behaviors of each, teachers and school personnel can create effective school connectedness and positive learning environments. This document focuses on resiliency factors in adolescence and how gender differences affect adolescent resiliency. Current research on…
Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Reidy, Dennis E; Kernsmith, Poco D
Stalking perpetration and the associated risk for violence among adolescents has generally been neglected. In the present study, 1236 youth completed surveys assessing empirically established stalking indicators, threats and aggression toward stalking victims, dating violence, and violent delinquency. Latent Profile Analysis identified 3 latent classes of boys: non-perpetrators (NP), hyper-intimate pursuit (HIP), and comprehensive stalking perpetrators (CSP) and, and 2 classes for girls: NP and HIP. Boys in the CSP class were the most violent youth on nearly all indices with boys in the HIP class demonstrating an intermediate level of violence compared to NP boys. Girls in the HIP class were more violent than NP girls on all indices. These findings suggest stalking in adolescence merits attention by violence prevention experts. In particular, juvenile stalking may signify youth at risk for multiple forms of violence perpetrated against multiple types of victims, not just the object of their infatuation.
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data indicate that central adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, independent of total adiposity. The use of longitudinal data to investigate the relation between changes in fat distribution and the emergence of risk factors is limited. OBJECTIVE: We ...
Price, Myeshia N.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
This study explored factors that may be associated with early initiation of sexual activity among adolescents. Using the cumulative risk model, we hypothesized that as exposure to risk factors increases, so does the likelihood of early sexual debut. A sample of 273 (53% girls, 90% European American) adolescents was followed longitudinally from age…
Fanniff, Amanda M; Schubert, Carol A; Mulvey, Edward P; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Piquero, Alex R
Juveniles who have committed sexual offenses are subject to specialized treatment and policies based on their assumed unique dangerousness, despite contradictory evidence. Limited information is available regarding risk factors and their relationships to outcomes in this population. The comparative frequency and predictive utility of empirically supported risk factors for general delinquency were examined using data from the Pathways to Desistance study. Adolescent males who committed sexual offenses (n = 127) were compared to adolescent males who committed non-sexual offenses (n = 1021). At the start of the study, the sample ranged in age from 14 to 18 (M = 16.00, SD = 1.12) and self-identified as primarily African American (44 %), Latino (29 %), or White (25 %). Outcomes were measured over 7 years and included general and sexual recidivism, involvement in school and work, and positive relationships with peers and adults. The results indicated a few small differences in the presence of risk factors and their relationship to outcomes, with many similarities. Juveniles who have committed sexual offenses had equivalent general recidivism but higher sexual recidivism, though this rate was low (7.87 %, or 10 of the 127 adolescents who had committed sexual offenses). New clinical and policy approaches may be needed given the similarities between groups.
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…
Hüsler, Gebhard; Plancherel, Bernard; Werlen, Egon
This research has tested a social disintegration model in conjunction with risk and protection factors that have the power to differentiate relative, weighted interactions among variables in different socially disintegrated groups. The model was tested in a cross-sectional sample of 1082 at-risk youth in Switzerland. Structural equation analyses show significant differences between the social disintegration (low, moderate, high) groups and gender, indicating that the model works differently for groups and for gender. For the highly disintegrated adolescents results clearly show that the risk factors (negative mood, peer network, delinquency) are more important than the protective factors (family relations, secure sense of self). Family relations lose all protective value against negative peer influence, but personal variables, such as secure self, gain protective power.
Fisher, Helen L; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C Y; Arseneault, Louise
This paper presents multilevel findings on adolescents' victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization, we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severity of victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, Internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was revictimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development.
Martyn, Kristy K.; Momper, Sandra L.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol J.; Low, Lisa Kane
Purpose American Indian (AI) adolescent girls have higher rates of sexual activity, births and STIs compared to the national average. The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence urban adolescent AI girls' sexual risk behavior (SRB). Design A qualitative study was conducted using grounded theory methodology to reveal factors and processes that influence SRB. Methods Talking circles, individual interviews, and event history calendars were used with 20 urban AI 15-19 year old girls to explore influences on their sexual behavior. Findings The generated theory, Framing Sexual Risk Behavior, describes both social and structural factors and processes that influenced the girls' sexual behaviors. The theory extends Bronfenbrenner's ecological model by identifying microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem influences on sexual behavior, including: Microsystem: Being “Normal,” Native, and Having Goals; Mesosystem: Networks of Family and Friends, Environmental Influences, and Sex Education; and Macrosystem: Tribal Traditions/History and Federal Policy. Discussion Urban AI girls reported similar social and structural influences on SRB as urban adolescents from other racial and ethnic groups. However, differences were noted in the family structure, cultural heritage, and unique history of AIs. Implications for Practice This theory can be used in culturally responsive practice with urban AI girls. PMID:24803532
It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.
Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S
Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks.
Moore, Susan M.; Rosenthal, Doreen A.
Evaluates the perceptions of adolescents (n=189) of their risks and ascertains the relationship between risk perception and actual risky behavior in five areas: AIDS, STDs, serious car accidents, lung cancer, and skin cancer. Results indicated that although late-adolescent students underestimated risk behavior, they were able to make judgments…
Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bosiger, Ruth; Metzke, Christa Winkler
Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the stability and correlates of adolescent suicidal risk across adolescence. Methods: Suicidal risk was studied longitudinally in N = 593 subjects in 1994, 1997, and 2001 at mean ages of 13, 16, and 20 years. Three partly overlapping suicidal risk groups were compared to three control groups…
Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang
Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress.
Abbott-Chapman, Joan; Denholm, Carey; Wyld, Colin
Research investigating patterns of intergenerational risk taking has produced evidence of increased risk taking of female adolescents compared with their mother's generation and a reduction in the traditional gap between levels of teenage male and female risk taking. The research is part of a larger, multistage project on factors affecting…
Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather
A large volume of research has investigated interrelations among adolescent risk behaviors. Although several theoretical accounts have been proposed, researchers have not directly examined hypotheses for "why" risk behaviors are linked. In the present paper, a distinction is drawn between predictive factors that explain variance in risk behaviors…
Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran
Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…
The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.
Collado, Anahi; Felton, Julia W; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W
Adolescent substance use and abuse show associations with increases in disinhibitory constructs, including sensation seeking, risk taking propensity, and impulsivity. However, the longitudinal trajectories of these constructs from early to middle adolescence remain largely unknown. Thus, the current study examined these developmental trajectories in 277 adolescents (Mage=11.00 at Wave 1), over five consecutive yearly waves. Controlling for age, Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses showed that sensation seeking increased linearly, whereas risk taking propensity and impulsivity demonstrated curvilinear changes. Specifically, risk taking propensity increased in the first four waves of assessment but did not evidence changes at the last assessment wave. Impulsivity, on the other hand peaked at wave four before subsequently declining. A comparison between females and males and Black and White adolescents suggested that these groups' trajectories were similar. Black adolescents' sensation seeking trajectory differed from adolescents who belonged to the "Other" racial group (i.e., adolescents who neither self-identified as Black or White). Generally, the study findings replicate and extend earlier work indicating that these risk factors increase across early adolescence and begin to level-off during middle adolescence. The importance of understanding the natural course of these core constructs is of great importance for directing future relevant prevention and intervention work.
Sheffield, Jeanie K.; Fiorenza, Erika; Sofronoff, Kate
Although a relatively high percentage of Australian adolescents experience mental health problems, many disturbed adolescents do not receive the help they require, and only a small proportion of adolescents seek professional psychological help. The present study examined adolescents' willingness to seek help and investigated factors that promote…
Goldenberg, Shira M; Silverman, Jay G; Engstrom, David; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Usita, Paula; Rolón, María Luisa; Strathdee, Steffanie A
Coerced and adolescent sex industry involvement are linked to serious health and social consequences, including enhanced risk of HIV infection. Using ethnographic fieldwork, including interviews with 30 female sex workers with a history of coerced or adolescent sex industry involvement, we describe contextual factors influencing vulnerability to coerced and adolescent sex industry entry and their impacts on HIV risk and prevention. Early gender-based violence and economic vulnerability perpetuated vulnerability to coercion and adolescent sex exchange, while HIV risk mitigation capacities improved with increased age, control over working conditions, and experience. Structural interventions addressing gender-based violence, economic factors, and HIV prevention among all females who exchange sex are needed.
MacPherson, Laura; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Daughters, Stacey B; Wang, Frances; Cassidy, Jude; Mayes, Linda C; Lejuez, C W
The goal of the current study was to examine the combined influence of positive reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring risk taking propensity (RTP) and negative reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring deficits in distress tolerance (DT) on a range of risk taking behaviors among early adolescents. Participants included a community sample of 230 early adolescents (aged 9-13) who completed two behavioral tasks assessing reinforcement processes as well as reported on past year risk behavior involvement as assessed by items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System at a baseline and a 1-year follow-up assessment. Data indicated that at the Wave 2 assessment, RTP was positively related to number of risk-taking behaviors in the past year but only for those with low DT, with this finding persisting after controlling for the significant influence of male gender and higher sensation seeking. Results of the present study highlight the importance of considering both positive and negative reinforcement processes in combination when investigating vulnerability factors for early risk behavior engagement in youth.
Ji, Yaofeng; Liu, Yin; Yang, Na
Rhinitis is a common global disorder that impacts on the quality of life of the sufferer and caregivers. Treatment for pediatric rhinitis is empirical and does not include a detailed history of the allergy triggers or allergy testing. Thus, allergen avoidance advice is not tailored to the child's sensitivities, which may result in adenoid hypertrophy. However, infant onset rhinitis, especially its relationship with respiratory viruses, remains to be further clarified. Rhinitis basically involves inflammation of the upper nasal lining, presenting typically with symptoms of runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal blockage, and/or sneezing. While not typically fatal, it does impose significant health, psychological, and monetary burden to its sufferers, and is thus considered a global health problem. Previous findings showed that immunotherapy had significant clinical efficacy in children with allergic rhinitis. The present review article aims to highlight recent perspectives pertaining to the rhinitis risk factors especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27698737
Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose
This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…
Gonzalez, Jeanette; And Others
Assessed 440 high and low sports and danger risk-taking adolescents. Sports risk takers reported more danger-related risk taking, more drug use, and higher self-esteem than non-risk takers. Danger risk takers reported greater sports-related risk taking, more drug use, less intimacy with their mothers, less family responsibility taking, and less…
Dearden, Kirk A.; De La Cruz, Natalie G.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Clark, Matthew
This paper describes the prevalence of depression and suicidal tendencies as well as risk factors for attempted suicide among students in Bolivia. Adolescents 13-18 years old (182 females, 394 males) from randomly selected schools in La Paz completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Frequencies and logistic regression were used to identify…
Maslowsky, Julie; Keating, Daniel P.; Monk, Christopher S.; Schulenberg, John
Risk behavior contributes to substantial morbidity and mortality during adolescence. This study examined neurocognitive predictors of proposed subtypes of adolescent risk behavior: planned (premeditated) versus unplanned (spontaneous). Adolescents (N = 69, 49% male, M = 15.1 [1.0] years) completed neurocognitive tasks (Iowa Gambling Task [IGT],…
Zweig, Janine M.; Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; McGinley, Karen Alexander
Examines the interrelationships among adolescent health risk behaviors using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for 12,955 adolescents. Findings show distinct differences for males and females in risk profile, but few distinctions between profiles based on socioeconomic characteristics. (SLD)
Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.
Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent…
de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J
The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior.
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José
Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS.
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J.; Castillo, Linda G.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Romero, Andrea J.; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Lizzi, Karina M.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José
Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning two models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement six months post-baseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms one year post-baseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning, (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS, (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. PMID:26301514
Sunstein, Cass R.
Adolescent risk-taking can be illuminated through an understanding of the development of the brain, of dual-processing theories, and of social norms and meanings. When adolescents take unjustified risks, it is often because of the weakness of their analytic systems, which provide an inadequate check on impulsive or ill-considered decisions. Social…
Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.
A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…
Dahmen, Brigitte; Firk, Christine; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate
Adolescent mothers and their children are exposed to multiple psychosocial risk factors and represent a high-risk group for adverse developmental outcomes. It is not the mother's young age alone which contributes to the developmental risk of the mother-child dyad. Rather, both the combination of risks, such as poverty, domestic violence, dysfunctional family relationships, or a psychiatric disorder, all of which predispose to adolescent pregnancy, as well as the strains of parenthood during the mother's own developmental stage add to the psychosocial risks of children of teenage mothers. Early motherhood can lead to lower levels of education and a lower socioeconomic status. In addition, there is a higher risk for psychopathology in both the teenage mother and her child. This article provides an overview of the current research findings regarding adolescent parenting and its associated risks. Risk factors leading to early motherhood are reviewed and associated with differences in parenting behaviors and the developmental outcomes of their children. This article will conclude with a short overview on intervention programs for adolescent mothers and their children. Further research is needed to develop age-appropriate support programs for adolescent mothers and their children to cope with the complexity of risks and improve their developmental trajectories.
Dias, Paula Jaudy Pedroso; Domingos, Isabela Prado; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Muraro, Ana Paula; Sichieri, Rosely; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras
OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of sedentary behavior and associated factors in adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study with adolescents aged 10 to 17 years, of both sexes, belonging to a 1994-1999 birth cohort in the city of Cuiabá, MT, Central Western Brazil. Data were collected using a questionnaire containing sociodemographic, economic, lifestyle and anthropometric variables. Sedentary behavior was determined as using television and/or computer/video games for a time greater than or equal to 4 hours/day. Associations with sedentary behavior were evaluated using body mass index in childhood and adolescence and sociodemographic and behavioral variables using hierarchical logistic regression. RESULTS The overall prevalence of sedentary behavior was 58.1%. Of the 1,716 adolescents evaluated, 50.7% (n = 870) were male. In multivariate analysis, after adjustment for confounding factors, the variables that remained associated with sedentary behavior were: age (14 and over) (OR = 3.51, 95%CI 2.19;5.60); higher socioeconomic class (OR = 3.83, 95%CI 2.10;7.01), higher level of maternal education (OR = 1.81, 95%CI 1.09;3.01); living in the country (OR = 0.49, 95%CI 0.30;0.81); insufficient physical activity (OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.02;1.53); experimentation with alcoholic beverages (OR = 1.34, 95%CI 1.08;1.66) and being overweight in adolescence (OR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.06;1.68). CONCLUSIONS The high proportion of adolescents in sedentary activities and the lack of association with being overweight in childhood, indicates the need for educational initiatives to reduce multiple risk behaviors. Encouraging physical activity in young people as a way of reducing sedentary behavior and, consequently, being overweight is fundamental. PMID:24897048
Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding
Little information is available on the prevalence and risk factors for less-healthy food intake among people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to provide the information of healthy or less-healthy food intake among Taiwanese adolescents with ID and to examine the risk factors to their food intake. A cross-sectional data on 1419…
Ibabe, Izaskun; Jaureguizar, Joana; Bentler, Peter M
Both the family and school environments influence adolescents' violence, but there is little research focusing simultaneously on the two contexts. This study analyzed the role of positive family and classroom environments as protective factors for adolescents' violence against authority (parent abuse and teacher abuse) and the relations between antisocial behavior and child-to-parent violence or student-to-teacher violence. The sample comprised 687 Spanish students aged 12-16 years, who responded to the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the Classroom Environment Scale (CES). Structural Equation Modeling was used to test our model of violent behavior towards authority based on Catalano and Hawkins' Social Developmental Model (1996). Perceived family cohesion and organization showed an inverse association with parent abuse, suggesting that a positive family environment was a protective factor for the development of violence against parents. Family and classroom environments had direct effects on adolescents' violence against authority, and antisocial behavior showed a mediating effect in this relationship. The model accounted for 81% of the variance in violence against authority. As family environment was a better predictor of violence against authority than school environment, intervention efforts to reduce rates of adolescent violence should focus on helping parents to increase family cohesion and to manage conflictive relationships with their children.
Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong
Body surveillance and body shame are features of objectified body consciousness (OBC) that have been linked to disordered eating, yet the evidence base is largely cross-sectional and limited to samples in certain Western countries. Furthermore, it is not clear whether these factors contribute to the prediction of eating disturbances independent of conceptually related risk factors emphasized within other sociocultural accounts. In this prospective study, body surveillance, body shame, and features of complementary sociocultural models (i.e., perceived appearance pressure from mass media and close interpersonal networks, appearance social comparisons, negative affect, body dissatisfaction) were assessed as risk factors for and concomitants of eating disturbances over time. University-age, mainland Chinese women (n = 2144) and men (n = 1017) completed validated measures of eating-disorder pathology and hypothesized risk factors at baseline (T1) and 1-year follow-up (T2). Among women, elevations on T1 measures of sociocultural-model features predicted more T2 eating disturbances, independent of T1 disturbances. After controlling for other T1 predictors, body surveillance and shame made modest unique contributions to the model. Finally, heightened T2 body dissatisfaction, media, and interpersonal appearance pressure, negative affect, and body shame predicted concomitant increases in T2 eating concerns. For men, T1 features of sociocultural accounts (negative affect, body dissatisfaction) but not OBC predicted T2 eating disturbances, along with attendant elevations in T2 negative affect, interpersonal appearance pressure, and body shame. Implications are discussed for theory and intervention that target disordered eating.
Crosnoe, Robert; Erickson, Kristan Glasgow; Dornbusch, Sanford M.
Used self-reports and reports from friends to explore gender differences in the impact of risk and protective factors on adolescent deviant behavior. Both family and school factors reduced adolescent delinquency and substance use and protected adolescents against the impact of having deviant friends, though school factors were more consistently…
MORELAND, JENNIFER J.; KRIEGER, JANICE L.; HECHT, MICHAEL L.; MILLER-DAY, MICHELLE
This study employs a meta-theoretical perspective for examining risk perceptions and behavior in the rural, Appalachian cultural context, an area that remains largely unexplored. In-depth interviews were conducted with 113 rural adolescents to describe how youth conceptualize risk and how risk is communicated in the rural environment. Analyses revealed adolescents viewed behavior as risky when they had personal or vicarious experiences resulting in a loss of control or physical harm. Elements of the rural Appalachian culture including activities, familism, and community ties can both prevent and promote adolescent risk-taking in various forms. This study demonstrates the conceptualization of risk and messages about risk are culturally-situated and communicatively devised and enacted. The implications of these findings for adolescent risk prevention programs are discussed. PMID:23448190
Moreland, Jennifer J; Raup-Krieger, Janice L; Hecht, Michael L; Miller-Day, Michelle M
This study uses a meta-theoretical perspective for examining risk perceptions and behavior in the rural Appalachian cultural context, an area that remains largely unexplored. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 113 rural adolescents to describe how youth conceptualize risk and how risk is communicated in the rural environment. Analyses revealed adolescents viewed behavior as risky when they had personal or vicarious experiences resulting in a loss of control or physical harm. Elements of the rural Appalachian culture including activities, familism, and community ties can prevent and promote adolescent risk taking in various forms. This study demonstrates the conceptualization of risk and messages about risk are culturally situated and communicatively devised and enacted. The implications of these findings for adolescent risk prevention programs are discussed.
Tracy, Allison J.; Collins, Linda M.; Graham, John W.
The influence of parents and other important adults on adolescent substance use is becoming recognized as a salient topic of research. A study designed to assess the impact of adult substance use on adolescents' progression through increasingly more advanced stages of substance use is reported here. Latent Transition Analysis was used to estimate…
Must, A; Strauss, R S
This report reviews the risks and consequences associated with childhood and adolescent obesity. Although no consensus definition of childhood obesity exists, the various measures encountered in the literature are moderately well correlated. The paper is organized in three parts. The first section reviews childhood obesity sequelae that occur during childhood. These short-term risks, for orthopedic, neurological, pulmonary, gasteroenterological, and endocrine conditions, although largely limited to severely overweight children, are becoming more common as the prevalence of severe overweight rises. The social burden of pediatric obesity, especially during middle childhood and adolescence, may have lasting effects on self-esteem, body image and economic mobility. The second section examines the intermediate consequences, such as the development of cardiovascular risk factors and persistence of obesity into adulthood. These mid-range effects of early obesity presage later adult disease and premature mortality. In the final section, the small body of research on the long-term morbidity and mortality associated with childhood obesity is reviewed. These studies suggest that risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality is elevated among those who were overweight during childhood. The high prevalence and dramatic secular trend toward increasing childhood obesity suggest that without aggressive approaches to prevention and treatment, the attendant health and social consequences will be both substantial and long-lasting.
Foster, Katherine T.; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Background Gender differences in the prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have motivated the separate study of its risk factors and consequences in men and women. However, leveraging gender as a third variable to help account for the association between risk factors and consequences for AUD could elucidate etiological mechanisms and clinical outcomes. Method Using data from a large, community sample followed longitudinally from ages 17 to 29, we tested for gender differences in psychosocial risk factors and consequences in adolescence and adulthood after controlling for gender differences in the base rates of AUD and the psychosocial factor. Psychosocial factors included alcohol use, other drug use, externalizing and internalizing symptoms, deviant peer affiliation, family adversity, academic problems, attitudes and use of substances by a romantic partner, and adult socio-economic status. Results At both ages 17 and 29, mean-levels of psychosocial risks and consequences were higher in men and those with AUD. However, the amount of risk exposure in adolescence was more predictive of AUD in women than men. By adulthood, AUD consequences were larger in women than men and internalizing risk had a stronger relationship with AUD in women at both ages. Conclusion Despite higher mean-levels of risk exposure in men overall, AUD appears to be a more severe disorder in women characterized by higher levels of adolescent risk factors and a greater magnitude of the AUD consequences among women than men. Furthermore, internalizing symptoms appear to be a gender specific risk factor for AUD in women. PMID:26118496
Lee, Arthur M.; Gurka, Matthew J.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Childhood metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a risk factor for adverse outcomes later in life. Our goal was to identify temporal trends among US adolescents in the severity of MetS, its individual components, and factors related to diet and physical activity. METHODS: We analyzed 5117 participants aged 12 to 19 from NHANES. We used regression analysis of individual waves of data, 1999 to 2012. MetS severity was calculated using a gender- and race/ethnicity-specific MetS severity z score. RESULTS: There was a linear trend of decreasing MetS severity in US adolescents from 1999 to 2012 (P = .030). This occurred despite a trend of increasing BMI z score (P = .005); instead, the decrease in MetS severity appeared to be due to trends in increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL; P < .0001) and decreasing triglyceride (P = .0001) levels. In considering lifestyle factors, there was no change in physical activity over the time period. Regarding dietary patterns, total calorie consumption and carbohydrate consumption were positively associated with triglyceride levels and negatively associated with HDL levels, whereas unsaturated fat consumption exhibited the opposite associations. Consistent with these associations, there was a trend of decreasing total calorie consumption (P < .0001), decreasing carbohydrate consumption (P < .0001), and increasing unsaturated fat consumption (P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: The healthier trend of declining MetS severity in adolescents appeared to be due to favorable increases in HDL and decreases in fasting triglyceride measurements. These were in turn associated with favorable changes in dietary patterns among US adolescents. Future studies should investigate the causality of dietary differences on changes in MetS severity in adolescents. PMID:26908664
Garbarino, J; Sebes, J; Schellenbach, C
This paper examines the parental, adolescent, and family system characteristics that place a family at risk for destructive parent-child relations in adolescence. It is based on a study of 62 families, all of which contained a youth (age 10-16) and 2 parents and were referred because of the adjustment problems of the adolescent. A 3-member team visited the family at home to administer a 3 1/2-hour battery of questionnaire, interview, and observation instruments. These included a measure of risk for destructive parent-child relations (the Adolescent-Abuse Inventory); the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist; a measure of the family as an interactional system (FACES); the Cornell Parent Behavior Description; and assessments of adolescent physical maturation, interparental conflict, cognitive functioning, life events (A-FILE), and demographic and socioeconomic factors. The results permit identification of families as high risk for destructive parent-child relations using the parental scores on the Adolescent-Abuse Inventory. The high-risk group tends to be "chaotic" and "enmeshed" (FACES), to include more stepparents, to be more punishing and less supportive (Cornell Parent Behavior Description), and to be more stressed by life changes (A-FILE). Adolescents in the high-risk families are characterized by significantly more developmental problems (both internalizing and externalizing), and the number of such problems correlates significantly with the risk for destructive parent-child relations. The development of adolescent psychopathology appears to interact with the evolution of a high-risk family system to produce destructive relationships between parents and their adolescent offspring. Stepfamilies appear especially vulnerable to this dysfunctional evolution.
Rovis, Darko; Bezinovic, Petar; Basic, Josipa
Background: Substance use, gambling, and violence represent a great risk for adolescent health. Schools are often referred to as the "best" places for health promotion and prevention, where positive school bonding serves as a strong protective factor for the development of risk behaviors and poor school bonding is associated with various…
Shaffer, David, Ed.; And Others
The book describes Project Prevention, an interdisciplinary project developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, to identify risk factors for mental disorders and preventive interventions. After an introductory chapter, the following eight chapters cover: the scope of Project Prevention; children at high risk (e.g.,…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2009
Although many factors may influence the initiation of drug or alcohol use, the perception of risk associated with these behaviors also varies by gender, age, and type of drug. Understanding the different patterns of risk perceptions that emerge during adolescent development may help to better target health communication messages and increase the…
Clemens, Patricia W.; Rust, James O.
This study examined 15- and 16-year-old youths' (Midteens') feelings of anomie and rebellion in relation to family and situational factors. Only parents' formal education level and midteens' approval of the way they were being reared correlated significantly with midteens' scores on the Anomia and Rebellion Scales. (Author/SJL)
Zimić, Jadranka Ivandić; Jukić, Vlado
This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy.
Moreno, Luis A; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba; Bueno, Gloria
The high prevalence of obesity in children is a global health issue. Obesity in children and adolescents can result in hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic inflammation, and hyperinsulinemia, increasing the risk of death, as children grow into adulthood, and raising public health concerns. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Dairy consumption may have a protective effect against the development of CVD, but there is scarce evidence of this in children and adolescents. Within the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between dairy consumption and CVD risk factors in a sample of adolescents (aged 12.5-17.5 years) from 8 European cities. Overall, dairy products emerged as the food group that best identified adolescents at low CVD risk. Higher consumption of milk and yogurt and of milk- and yogurt-based beverages was associated with lower body fat, lower risk for CVD, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness.
Córdova, David; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Villamar, Juan A; Soto, Daniel W; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Meca, Alan; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Oshri, Assaf; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Romero, Andrea J
Parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning play an important role in HIV risk behaviors among adolescents, yet longitudinal research with recent immigrant Hispanic families remains limited. This study tested the effects of trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies on HIV risk behaviors among recent-immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Additionally, we examined whether and to what extent trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies vary as a function of gender. We assessed family functioning of 302 Hispanic adolescents (47 % female) and their parent (70 % female) at six time points over a three-year period and computed latent discrepancy scores between parent and adolescent reports at each timepoint. Additionally, adolescents completed measures of sexual risk behaviors and alcohol use. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to determine the feasibility of collapsing parent and adolescent reported family functioning indicators onto a single latent discrepancy variable, tested model invariance over time, and conducted growth mixture modeling (GMM). GMM yielded a three-class solution for discrepancies: High-Increasing, High-Stable, and Low-Stable. Relative to the Low-Stable class, parent-adolescent dyads in the High-Increasing and High-Stable classes were at greater risk for adolescents reporting sexual debut at time 6. Additionally, the High-Stable class was at greater risk, relative to the Low-Stable class, in terms of adolescent lifetime alcohol use at 30 months post-baseline. Multiple group GMM indicated that trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning trajectories did not vary by gender. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta
Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.
Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A.; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W.; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A.; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta
Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644
... common than normal in children who lived near Chernobyl, the site of a 1986 nuclear plant accident ... exposure was much, much lower than that around Chernobyl. A higher risk of thyroid cancer has not ...
... a higher risk. Diseases such as cancer, chronic kidney disease, and some types of arthritis. Weak areas in an artery wall or abnormal arteries and veins . Pregnancy. Both during and in the weeks right after ...
Webster-Stratton, C; Taylor, T
This bulletin describes state-of-the-art universal and selective prevention programs designed to promote parent and teacher competencies and to prevent conduct problems. In addition, it describes indicated interventions designed for children who already have been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder. Emphasis is placed on empirically supported programs that have identified key malleable risk factors in children, families, and schools, which have been shown in longitudinal research to be related to later development of substance abuse, delinquency, and violence. We have targeted preschool and primary grade children, ages 0-8 years, in this review because research suggests that the most effective interventions can nip in the bud risk behaviors in the early years, before antisocial behaviors become crystallized. Guidelines for selecting effective interventions are provided.
Marmorstein, Naomi R.; Iacono, William G.; Legrand, Lisa
Objective Obesity and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are associated, but evidence about how they relate over time is conflicting. The goal of this study was to examine prospective associations between depression and obesity from early adolescence through early adulthood. Methods Participants were drawn from a statewide, community-based, Minnesota sample. MDD and obesity with onsets by early adolescence (by age 14), late adolescence (between 14 and 20), and early adulthood (ages 20 to 24) were assessed via structured interview (depression) and study-measured height and weight. Results Cross-sectional results indicated that depression and obesity with onsets by early adolescence were concurrently associated, but the same was not true later in development. Prospective results indicated that depression by early adolescence predicted the onset of obesity (odds ratio=3.76, confidence interval= 1.33–10.59) during late adolescence among females. Obesity that developed during late adolescence predicted the onset of depression (odds ratio=5.89, confidence interval= 2.31–15.01) during early adulthood among females. Conclusions For girls, adolescence is a high risk period for the development of this comorbidity, with the nature of the risk varying over the course of adolescence. Early adolescent-onset depression is associated with elevated risk of later onset obesity, and obesity, particularly in late adolescence, is associated with increased odds of later depression. Further investigation into the mechanisms of these effects and the reasons for the observed gender and developmental differences is needed. Prevention programs focused on early-onset cases of depression and adolescent-onset cases of obesity, particularly among females, may help in reducing risk for this form of comorbidity. PMID:24480863
Klisic, Aleksandra; Kavaric, Nebojsa; Soldatovic, Ivan; Bjelakovic, Bojko
Summary Background Since the cardiovascular (CV) risk score in the young population, children and adolescents, is underestimated, especially in developing countries such as Montenegro, where a strong interaction exists between the genetically conditioned CV risk and environmental factors, the purpose of this study was to estimate CV risk in apparently healthy adolescent girls. Moreover, we aimed to test some new, emerging CV risk factors and their interaction with the traditional ones, such as obesity. Precisely, we aimed to assess the impact of low bilirubin levels, as a routine biochemical parameter, as an additional risk factor for atherosclerotic disease in the adult phase. Methods Forty-five obese adolescent girls (mean age 17.8±1.22 years) and forty-five age- and sex-matched normal weight controls, all nonsmokers, were included. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Cardiovascular Risk Score (CVRS) was calculated by adding the points for each risk factor (e.g. sex, HDL-c, non-HDL-c, blood pressure and fasting glycemia). Results A significant positive relationship between CVRS and ALT, hsCRP and TG/HDL-c, but an opposite relationship between CVRS and total bilirubin were found (P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher waist circumference (WC) and LDL-c, but lower HDL-c were independent predictors of lower bilirubin values (adjusted R2=0.603, P<0.001). Conclusions Obese adolescent girls are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease late in life. In addition to the traditional risk factors, total bilirubin may have the potential to discriminate between low and higher risk for cardiovascular disturbances in healthy adolescent girls. PMID:28356879
Elkins, Rebecca L.; King, Keith; Nabors, Laura; Vidourek, Rebecca
Background: Steroid use among adolescents is an increasing health concern. Literature examining factors related to steroid use is limited. Methods: We investigated steroid use among 9th through 12th grade adolescents in the Greater Cincinnati area. A total of 38,414 adolescents completed the PRIDE Questionnaire. Associations between demographics,…
Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Galván, Adriana
Discordant development of brain regions responsible for cognitive control and reward processing may render adolescents susceptible to risk taking. Identifying ways to reduce this neural imbalance during adolescence can have important implications for risk taking and associated health outcomes. Accordingly, we sought to examine how a key family relationship-family obligation-can reduce this vulnerability. Forty-eight adolescents underwent an fMRI scan during which they completed a risk-taking and cognitive control task. Results suggest that adolescents with greater family obligation values show decreased activation in the ventral striatum when receiving monetary rewards and increased dorsolateral PFC activation during behavioral inhibition. Reduced ventral striatum activation correlated with less real-life risk-taking behavior and enhanced dorsolateral PFC activation correlated with better decision-making skills. Thus, family obligation may decrease reward sensitivity and enhance cognitive control, thereby reducing risk-taking behaviors.
Schnurr, Melissa P.; Lohman, Brenda J.
Given prevalence rates and negative consequences that adolescents' perpetration of dating violence may have on an individual's well-being and future relationships, it is imperative to explore factors that may increase or reduce its occurrence. Thus, we aimed to identify how multiple contextual risk factors (individual, family, schools, and…
Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra
Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)
Ellen, J M; Boyer, C B; Tschann, J M; Shafer, M A
In 1991, 881 urban US high school students participated in a survey designed to determine their perceptions of risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and to test whether results of a previously reported clinic-based study on perceptions of risk are generalizable. Of the students, 278 had engaged in sexual intercourse, and 231 of these returned questionnaires with usable answers to each question. The analysis was based on this latter cohort. The mean age of this group was 15.5 years. 53% were male, 34% Black, 27% Hispanic, 14% Asian, 9% White, and 16% other. The perceived relative risks for STDs and HIV (dependent measures) were submitted to separate analysis using the 5-point Likert scales. Independent measures included demographic variables, STD and HIV anxiety, condom use, number of partners, and STD and HIV beliefs. It was found that 24% never used a condom and 43% always used condoms. The subjects showed no optimistic bias in their perceptions of the relative risk of STDs or HIV (they believed their risks to be the same as those of other people their age). The only variance found was that the White subjects believed themselves at less relative risk than the other subjects. These findings contrast those of the clinic-based study and suggest that perceptions of risk may vary among different cohorts. Higher levels of anxiety were also found to be associated with higher levels of perceived risk whereas other factors were not. A possible limitation of this study was that the group to which the study population was asked to compare itself was not clearly defined. However, this study indicates that sexually active adolescents are well aware of their STD and HIV risks and that their decision to engage in risky behavior may be due to factors other than a heightened sense of invulnerability (such as perception of social norms or alcohol use).
Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.
Objective: The Internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined Internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling in adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the Internet. Method: Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut…
Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas
Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…
Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.
This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…
Schetky, Diane H.
This lesson addresses the unique issues confronting child and adolescent psychiatrists in prescribing medication for children and adolescents. Issues of consent, off-label use of medications, safety, and efficacy are discussed, along with problems that may arise when treating high-risk populations. This lesson aims to encourage safe and ethical…
Trick, Sarah; Jantzer, Vanessa; Haffner, Johann; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz
Parental Monitoring and its Relation to Behaviour Problems and Risk Behaviour in an Adolescent School Sample Numerous research studies emphasize parental monitoring as a protective factor for adolescent problem behaviour. The purpose of the study presented was to use Stattin and Kerr's (2000) monitoring subscales for the first time in a German-speaking area and to explore the relations to behaviour problems in an adolescent school sample. The two active monitoring strategies "parental control" and "parental solicitation" as well as "parental knowledge" and "child disclosure" relating to behaviour problems and risk behaviour were examined. A sample of 494 pupils, grades 5, 7 and 9, of German secondary schools and their parents answered questions on "parental knowledge", "control", "solicitation" and "child disclosure". Adolescents also answered the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and items about risk behaviour like frequency of violence, delinquency, substance abuse, self-injuring behaviour and school absenteeism. Behaviour problems in terms of the SDQ could be predicted sufficiently by "parental knowledge", but for the prediction of risk behaviour, the active parental monitoring strategies were of importance, too. More "parental knowledge", more "control" and less "solicitation" could predict less risk behaviour. Results confirm "parental knowledge" as a general protective factor for problem behaviour. However, they show the importance of "parental control" for adolescent risk behaviour.
Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S
Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors
Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; Bots, Michiel L
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the primary cause of death in women. Guidelines for identifying high-risk individuals have been developed, e.g. the Dutch Guideline on Cardiovascular Risk Management. In the most recent version of this guideline, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are cited as cardiovascular risk factors; therefore, individuals with these conditions are identified as being at high risk. As with DM and RA, there is strong evidence that the experience of having a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy is a cardiovascular risk factor. This is particularly the case for early preeclampsia, which constitutes a 7-fold increased risk of ischemic heart disease. However, in the Netherlands, there are no guidelines and there is no consensus on how to screen or treat these women. Trial evidence is therefore urgently needed to substantiate the value of cardiovascular risk management for those women with a history of hypertension during pregnancy.
Lusczakoski, Kathryn D; Rue, Lisa A
Typically, clinical evaluations of adolescents' sexual risk is based on inquiring about past sexual activity, which is limited by not including an adolescent's cognitive decision making regarding their past sexual decisions. This study describes the novel OPTIONS framework for assessing adolescent sexual risk including three general categories of risk (e.g., primary, secondary, and tertiary risk), which is designed to overcome the limitation of action-based assessment of risk and improve practitioners' ability to assess the levels of sexual risk. A convenience sample of 201 older adolescents (18-19 years of age) completed an online version of the Relationship Options Survey (ROS), designed to measure the OPTIONS sexual risk assessment. Bivariate correlation among the subscales functioned in the hypothesized manner, with all correlations being statistically significant. Using the OPTIONS model, 22.4% participants were classified as high risk primary, 7.0% participants were classified as high risk secondary, and 27.4% participants were classified as high risk tertiary. The study provided preliminary evidence for OPTIONS model of sexual assessment, which provides a more tailored evaluation by including cognitive decisions regarding an adolescent's sexual actions.
Defoe, Ivy N.; Semon Dubas, Judith; Somerville, Leah H.; Lugtig, Peter; van Aken, Marcel A. G.
Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the initiation and peak of many harmful risk-taking behaviors such as smoking, which is among the most addictive and deadliest behaviors. Generic metatheories like the theory of triadic influence (TTI) suggest that interrelated risk factors across multiple domains (i.e., intrapersonal and…
Doughty, Kimberly N.; Njike, Valentine Yanchou
Abstract Background: Comprehensive, residential treatment for severe obesity in adolescents may be an alternative to bariatric surgery and more efficacious than outpatient treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a long-term cognitive-behavioral therapy–based immersion obesity treatment program for adolescents. Methods: Twelve obese adolescents with BMIs above the 95th percentile completed a 14- to 18-week multicomponent intervention. Results: We observed significant improvements in BMI z-score, waist circumference, mile run time, and blood lipids. Conclusion: This study suggests that the tested program may be effective, at least in the short term; a randomized, controlled trial to further assess this model is warranted. PMID:25647345
Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos; Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Cabral de Oliveira, Antônio César
The aim of this study was to identify prevalence and factors associated with violent behavior among adolescents in Aracaju and Metropolitan region. The study included 2207 adolescents (16.03 ± 1.08 years old) enrolled in high schools of the State Public Network. Violent behavior was identified from question 14 of the YRBS-2007 questionnaire with responses categorized as “never” and “one or more times.” Higher prevalence in males in relation to risk factors for adoption of violent behavior was found: cigarette consumption (7.3%), alcohol consumption (39.1%), and marijuana use (3.4%). Data analysis used descriptive statistics and logistic regression with hierarchical model at two levels: (a) sociodemographic variables and (b) behavioral variables. For both sexes, association between violent behavior and cigarette smoking (OR = 3.77, CI 95% = 2.06–6.92 and OR = 1.99, CI 95% = 1.04 to 3.81, male and female, resp.) and alcohol consumption (OR = 3.38, CI 95% = 2.22 to 5.16 and OR = 1.83, CI 95% = 1.28 to 2.63, male and female, resp.) was verified. It was concluded that violent behavior is associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages and cigarettes among adolescents. PMID:25548796
Stevens, Tia; Morash, Merry; Park, Suyeon
Based on resilience and feminist criminological theories, several individual, family, and community characteristics were hypothesized to predict late-adolescent delinquency for girls varying in early-adolescent risk. Girls aged 12 and 13 were interviewed each year as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Predictors of…
Zhou, Zongkui; Tang, Hanying; Tian, Yuan; Wei, Hua; Zhang, Fengjuan; Morrison, Chelsey M.
Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence among adolescents worldwide; however, it has yet to receive adequate scholarly attention in China, especially in the mainland. The present study investigated the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of cyberbullying, utilizing a sample of 1,438 high school students from central China.…
Santos, Teresa; Ferreira, Mafalda; Simões, Maria Celeste; Machado, Maria Céu; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar
Living with a chronic condition (CC) in adolescence has been historically considered protective for risk behaviours. However, research from the last decade suggest that when compared with healthy peers, adolescents living with a chronic condition can engage in risky behaviours in a similar if not higher rate than their counterparts living with out a CC. This study aims to characterize and evaluate the impact of 1) living with a chronic condition (CC), and 2) how the perception of living with a CC affects school participation, and its association with risk/protective behaviours (drunkenness, physical fight, sadness and self-harm). For this purpose 4 groups were identified: adolescents with mostly healthy behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk-internalizing behaviours and adolescents with mostly risk-externalizing behaviours. A large sample was included in this study, composed by 3494 Portuguese adolescents with an average age of 15 years, who participated in the Portuguese Survey of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children/WHO (HBSC). Main results show that adolescents living with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours when compared to adolescents without CC, who present more healthy behaviors. Furthermore, adolescents that report that having a CC affects school participation show more risky behaviours than those not affected by a CC who present more healthy behaviours. Boys with a CC show more healthy behaviours, and those who feel that the CC affects school participation present more risky behaviours. On the other hand, girls with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours and less healthy behaviours It is important to point out that dolescents living with a CC represent a vulnerable group, and may engage in experimental/risky behaviours as likely as their non CC peers. Thus, potential benefits can arise from reinforcing interventions within protective contexts (family/peers/school setting). Health
Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine
Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…
Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun
This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis. PMID:26461837
Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Su, Yi-Ju
Juvenile crime affects not only the victims of the crime but also the delinquents' future. How to prevent adolescent criminal behavior has become an important public policy issue. This study contributes to this interesting issue by examining the relationship between tattooing and adolescents' criminal behavior. In particular, this study investigates whether or not having a tattoo/tattoos is connected to the incidence of various criminal activities, including: larceny, robbery, fraud, assault, drug use, and homicide. A unique sample of 973 juvenile detainees drawn from the administrative profiles in Taiwan and the coarsened exact matching method were utilized. Results show that compared to their nontattooed counterparts, tattooed juvenile detainees were significantly more likely to commit fraud, assault, drug abuse, and homicide by 3%, 13%, 9%, and 9%, respectively. In contrast, tattooing was not significantly associated with larceny or robbery. From a policy perspective, given the significant link between tattooing and criminal behavior, the presence of a tattoo in adolescents may serve as a valuable indicator regarding adolescents' high probability of committing crimes.
Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Peterson, Fred L.
Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youth risk behaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…