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Sample records for adolescent age groups

  1. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    PubMed

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age. PMID:26595203

  3. Bringing the Montessori Three-Year Multi-Age Group to the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes the benefits of including the ninth grade within the 3-year multi-age group setting within a Montessori farm school. Notes how seventh, eighth, and ninth grades work together in one family cluster, allowing 15-year-olds to avoid the pecking order of the high school freshman year while developing personal leadership, confidence, and a…

  4. Longitudinal Predictors of Restrictive Eating and Bulimic Tendencies in Three Different Age Groups of Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Koerner, Jody; Paxton, Susan J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined longitudinal predictors of future eating problems in 435 female adolescents in grades 7, 8, and 10 who were tested at 2 time points 8 months apart. Restrictive eating and bulimic tendencies were found to be relatively stable over time, especially at older grade levels. A predictive role was found for body dissatisfaction, depression, and…

  5. The Effects of Age Composition of 12-Step Groups on Adolescent 12-Step Participation and Substance Use Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.; Myers, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Youth substance use disorder treatment programs frequently advocate integration into 12-Step fellowships to help prevent relapse. However, the effects of the predominantly adult composition of 12-step groups on adolescent involvement and substance use outcome remain unstudied. Greater knowledge could enhance the specificity of treatment…

  6. The relationships of adolescent school-related deviant behaviour and victimization with psychological distress: testing a general model of the mediational role of parents and teachers across groups of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Juan; Estévez, Estefanía; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2006-10-01

    Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant behaviour and victimization were positively related to psychological distress as seen by the total effects. However, while victimization was directly related to psychological distress, the association of deviant behaviour and psychological distress was mediated by adolescent-parent communication and adolescent-teacher relationships. Multigroup analyses showed that relationships among variables were not significantly different for groups of age and gender. PMID:16263163

  7. The relationships of adolescent school-related deviant behaviour and victimization with psychological distress: testing a general model of the mediational role of parents and teachers across groups of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Juan; Estévez, Estefanía; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2006-10-01

    Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant behaviour and victimization were positively related to psychological distress as seen by the total effects. However, while victimization was directly related to psychological distress, the association of deviant behaviour and psychological distress was mediated by adolescent-parent communication and adolescent-teacher relationships. Multigroup analyses showed that relationships among variables were not significantly different for groups of age and gender.

  8. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  9. Hearing and loud music exposure in a group of adolescents at the ages of 14-15 and retested at 17-18.

    PubMed

    Biassoni, Ester C; Serra, Mario R; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Young people expose themselves to potentially damaging loud sounds while leisure activities and noise induced hearing loss is diagnosed in increasing number of adolescents. Hearing and music exposure in a group of adolescents of a technical high school was assessed at the ages of: 14-15 (test) and 17-18 (retest). The aims of the current study were: (1) To compare the auditory function between test and retest; (2) to compare the musical exposure levels during recreational activities in test and retest; (3) to compare the auditory function with the musical exposure along time in a subgroup of adolescents. The participants in the test were 172 male; in the retest, this number was reduced to 59. At the test and retest the conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and recreational habits questionnaire were performed. In the test, hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: Normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3); the Musical General Exposure (MGE), categorized in: Low, moderate, high, and very high exposure. The results revealed a significant difference (P < 0.0001) between test and retest in the HTL and global amplitude of TEOAEs in Group 1, showing an increase of the HTL and a decrease TEOAEs amplitude. A subgroup of adolescents, with normal hearing and low exposure to music in the test, showed an increase of the HTL according with the categories of MGE in the retest. To implement educational programs for assessing hearing function, ear vulnerability and to promote hearing health, would be advisable.

  10. Exploring gender-specific trends in underage drinking across adolescent age groups and measures of drinking: is girls' drinking catching up with boys'?

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Schwartz, Jennifer

    2010-08-01

    Underage drinking is among the most serious of public health problems facing adolescents in the United States. Recent concerns have centered on young women, reflected in media reports and arrest statistics on their increasing problematic alcohol use. This study rigorously examined whether girls' alcohol use rose by applying time series methods to both arrest data, Uniform Crime Reports, and self-report data from Monitoring the Future, a nationally representative long-term survey gathered independently of crime control agents. All self-reported drinking behaviors across all age groups show declining or unchanged female rates and no significant change in the gender gap, while the official source displays a steady narrowing gender gap and some increase of female arrest rates for liquor law violations. Results indicate that social control measures applied to underage drinking have shifted to target young women's drinking patterns, but their drinking has not become more widespread/problematic. Girls' increased alcohol use and abuse is a socially constructed problem, rather than the result of normalization of drinking or more strain in girls' lives. Future underage drinking policies and practices that apply legal intervention strategies to less chronic adolescent drinking behaviors will increase the visibility of girls' drinking.

  11. Peer Group Socialization of Homophobic Attitudes and Behavior during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2007-01-01

    A social developmental framework was applied to test for the socialization of homophobic attitudes and behavior within adolescent peer groups (Grades 7-11; aged 12-17 years). Substantial similarity within and differences across groups were documented. Multilevel models identified a group socializing contextual effect, predicting homophobic…

  12. Effective Communication in Adolescent Group Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azima, Fern J.

    This paper defines a useful strategy for therapists working with adolescents which includes: (1) a general model of the group leader's responsibilities and (2) a cataloguing of some of the specific impediments for both adolescent peers and the therapist that prevent effective communication. The goal of the group therapy is to identify the specific…

  13. Experiential Aging Activities and the Early Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Negative views about the elderly held by adolescents can result in a negative outlook on aging. Physical, mental, and social aging experiential activities are given which can be done at home or at school. (JN)

  14. Predictors of Birth Weight and Gestational Age Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-01-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139

  15. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  16. Parenting practices and peer group affiliation in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brown, B B; Mounts, N; Lamborn, S D; Steinberg, L

    1993-04-01

    Social scientists have often assumed that parental influence is sharply curtailed at adolescence because of the rising counterinfluence of peer groups, over which parents have little control. The present study tested a conceptual model that challenged this view by arguing that parents retain a notable but indirect influence over their teenage child's peer associates. Data from a sample of 3,781 high school students (ages 15-19) indicated that specific parenting practices (monitoring, encouragement of achievement, joint decision making) were significantly associated with specific adolescent behaviors (academic achievement, drug use, self-reliance), which in turn were significantly related to membership in common adolescent crowds (jocks, druggies, etc). Findings encourage investigators to assess more carefully parents' role in adolescents' peer group affiliations.

  17. Demographic group differences in adolescents' time attitudes.

    PubMed

    Andretta, James R; Worrell, Frank C; Mello, Zena R; Dixson, Dante D; Baik, Sharon H

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African Americans and Asian Americans reported higher scores for negative time attitudes and lower scores for positive time attitudes than European Americans and Latinos, with medium sizes. Adolescents in the low socioeconomic status group reported a less favorable evaluation of their past than middle and high SES peers, but there were no meaningful differences in time attitudes by gender. Findings indicate that middle SES adolescents, high school juniors and seniors, Latinos, and European Americans had higher representation in positive time attitude clusters (i.e., Positives and Balanced) than high SES adolescents, high school freshmen and sophomores, and African Americans.

  18. Group Intervention With Adolescent Vietnamese Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Alice M.; Sammons, Morgan T.

    1988-01-01

    Describes group intervention model, based on primary prevention schemes, for work with adolescent Vietnamese refugees. Addresses special cultural and therapeutic issues and concerns. Notes that while group therapies are generally difficult to implement with Vietnamese participants, group intervention work is feasible if clinicians modify…

  19. The Relationships of Adolescent School-Related Deviant Behaviour and Victimization with Psychological Distress: Testing a General Model of the Mediational Role of Parents and Teachers Across Groups of Gender and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrero, Juan; Estevez, Estefania; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant…

  20. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.

  1. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving. PMID:26613696

  2. Sand Tray Group Counseling with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Kay; Ritter, Kelli B.; Willingham, Elizabeth U.

    2003-01-01

    Sand tray group counseling with adolescents is an activity-based intervention designed to help participants address specific intrapersonal concerns, learn important skills of socialization, and develop a caring community. The main focus of the group is building small worlds with miniature figures in individual trays of sand and having an…

  3. Parent and adolescent effects of a universal group program for the parenting of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chu, Joanna Ting Wai; Bullen, Pat; Farruggia, Susan P; Dittman, Cassandra K; Sanders, Matthew R

    2015-05-01

    There is growing support for the large-scale implementation of parenting programs for the prevention of child behavior disorders and child maltreatment in younger children. However, there is only limited evidence on the efficacy of parenting programs in modifying risk and protective factors relating to adolescent behavior problems. This study examined the efficacy of Group Teen Triple P (GTTP), an eight-session parenting program specifically designed for parents of young adolescents. Seventy-two families with adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years were randomly assigned to either GTTP (n = 35) or a care as usual (CAU) control condition (n = 37). Compared to CAU parents, parents who received GTTP reported significant improvements in parenting practices, parenting confidence, the quality of family relationships, and fewer adolescent problem behaviors at post-intervention. Several of the parent-reported effects were corroborated by reports from adolescents, including decreases in parent-adolescent conflict and increases in parental monitoring. Adolescents whose parents participated in GTTP also reported significantly fewer behavioral problems than adolescents in the CAU condition. Many of these improvements were maintained at 6-month follow-up.

  4. Religious and national group identification in adolescence: a study among three religious groups in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ng Tseung-Wong, Caroline; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2013-01-01

    Religious group identification is an important but understudied social identity. The present study investigates religious group identification among adolescents of different faiths (Hindu, Muslim, Christian) living in multicultural Mauritius. It further explores how religious and national group identities come together among religious majority and minority adolescents. For three age groups (11 to 19 years, N = 2152) we examined the strength of adolescents' religious and national group identification, the associations between these two identities, and the relationships to global self-esteem. Across age and religious group, participants reported stronger identification with their religious group than with the nation. Identification with both categories declined with age, with the exception of Muslims, whose strong religious identification was found across adolescence. The association between religious and national identification was positive, albeit stronger for the majority group of Hindus and for early adolescents. We examined the manner in which religious and national identities come together using a direct self-identification measure and by combining the separate continuous measures of identification. Four distinct clusters of identification (predominant religious identifiers, dual identifiers, neutrals, and separate individuals) that were differently associated with global self-esteem were found. Dual identifiers reported the highest level of global self-esteem. The clusters of identification did not fully correspond to the findings for the direct self-identification measure. The results are discussed in terms of the meaning of dual identity and the positive manner in which adolescents can manage their multiple identities while taking into account the ideological framework in which those identities are played out. PMID:22822906

  5. Individual, family, and group therapy for adolescents.

    PubMed

    McCann, Christina M; le Roux, Pieter

    2006-02-01

    The three main psychotherapeutic treatment modalities include individual,family, and group therapies. Many theoretic orientations guide psychotherapists as they try to help adolescents with mental health problems. PCPs play a critical role in initial assessment of mental health symptoms, in addition to coordinating treatment needs. There is a need for increased education regarding mental health treatment for health care providers to help them connect adolescents and their families to appropriate mental health care providers. Integrative approaches that involve more than one treatment modality are often needed to provide the best treatment for adolescents. Better collaborative care not only improves physician understanding of mental health treatment but also improves the mental health provider's understanding of the medical system [30]. This emerging con-text of increased mutual collaborative care builds a better system that serves the adolescent.Web-based resources related to psychotherapy for adolescents American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry http://www.AACAP.org American Association for Marriage & Family Therapy http://www.AAMFT.org American Psychological Association http://www.APA.org American Psychiatric Association http://www.psych.org National Mental Health Association http://www.NMHA.org National Alliance for the Mentally Ill http://www.NAMI.org

  6. The Role of Social Identity Complexity in Inter-Group Attitudes among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2013-01-01

    To supplement research on adolescent social identities, the current study examined how social identity complexity relates to ethnic inter-group attitudes in a young adolescent sample (N = 97; "age range" = 12-14 years). Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap of groups with which youth align themselves. Descriptive…

  7. Observations of Adolescent Peer Group Interactions as a Function of Within- and Between-Group Centrality Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Dumas, Tara M.; Mahdy, Jasmine C.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of adolescent (n = 258; M age = 15.45) peer group triads (n = 86) were analyzed to identify conversation and interaction styles as a function of within-group and between-group centrality status. Group members' discussions about hypothetical dilemmas were coded for agreements, disagreements, commands, and opinions. Interactions during…

  8. The Use of a Group Approach in the Rehabilitation of Severely Retarded Adolescents in Agriculture in Israel. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chigier, E.

    The project investigated aspects of group dynamics and group behavior with mentally retarded adolescents, aged 18 to 25 years with a mental age ranging from 3 to 7 years, who worked in citriculture in Israel. The report began with an examination of the peer group principle, its relationship to childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and its…

  9. How to Improve Adolescents' Sun Protection Behavior? Age and Gender Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Christine; Tzelepis, Flora; Parfitt, Nicholas; Girgis, Afaf

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore adolescents' self-reported reasons for sun protection, as adolescents as a group continue to have poor sun protection practices. Methods: Seventeen age- and gender-segregated focus groups were conducted in Australian high schools. Results: Reasons for using sun protection included personal comfort, appearance, policies, fear…

  10. Exploring Gender-Specific Trends in Underage Drinking across Adolescent Age Groups and Measures of Drinking: Is Girls' Drinking Catching up with Boys'?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Hua; Schwartz, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Underage drinking is among the most serious of public health problems facing adolescents in the United States. Recent concerns have centered on young women, reflected in media reports and arrest statistics on their increasing problematic alcohol use. This study rigorously examined whether girls' alcohol use rose by applying time series methods to…

  11. Age associations with neural processing of reward anticipation in adolescents with bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Urošević, Snežana; Luciana, Monica; Jensen, Jonathan B; Youngstrom, Eric A; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD) and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age) associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus), suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development. PMID:27114896

  12. Age associations with neural processing of reward anticipation in adolescents with bipolar disorders

    PubMed Central

    Urošević, Snežana; Luciana, Monica; Jensen, Jonathan B.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD) and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age) associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus), suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development. PMID:27114896

  13. Friendship Group Identification, Multidimensional Self-Concept, and Experience of Developmental Tasks in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant, Mark; MacKenzie, Liam; Hewitt, Lisa A.

    2006-01-01

    This study applied a social identity perspective to the study of adolescent self-concept and social development. British adolescents aged 14-15 years (N=114) completed a questionnaire which asked them to: (i) rate their degree of identification with a school-based friendship group; (ii) complete a measure of multi-dimensional self-concept; and…

  14. Determinants of binge drinking in a permissive environment: focus group interviews with Dutch adolescents and parents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Compared to other European countries, the Netherlands score among the highest of binge drinking rates of 16 to 18 year old adolescents. Dutch adolescents aged 16 are legally allowed to buy and consume low strength alcoholic beverages. This study focused on determinants of binge drinking in such a permissive environment from the perspectives of adolescents and parents. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents aged 16 to 18 (N = 83), and parents of adolescents from this age group (N = 24). Data was analysed using thematic analyses methods. Results Most reasons adolescents mentioned for drinking were to relax, increase a good mood and to be social. Also peers around them influenced and increased adolescents’ drinking. Comparing adolescents and parental statements about their perspectives how alcohol use is handled and accepted by the parents we found that generally, those perspectives match. Parents as well as adolescents stated that alcohol use is accepted by parents. However, when looking at essential details, like the acceptable amounts that children may consume, the perspectives differ enormously. Adolescents think their parents accept any amount of drinking as long as they do not get drunk, whereas parents reported acceptable limits of 1 or 2 glasses every two weeks. Parents further indicated that they felt unsupported by the Dutch policies and regulations of alcohol use. Most of them were in favour of an increase of the legal purchasing age to 18 years. Conclusions Parents and adolescents should both be targeted in interventions to reduce alcohol use among adolescents. In particular, communication between parents and children should be improved, in order to avoid misconceptions about acceptable alcohol use. Further, adolescents should be supported to handle difficult social situations with peers where they feel obliged to drink. Additionally, revisions of policies towards a less permissive standpoint are advised to

  15. An Approach to the Management of Gonorrhea in the Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Alice Faye

    1981-01-01

    Gonorrhea is becoming more important to the pediatrician. Not only is the incidence of this disease greatest in the adolescent group, but it has become more frequent in young children as well. The author outlines an approach to managing gonococcal disease in the pediatric and adolescent age groups. PMID:7193742

  16. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Farhat, Tilda

    2010-01-01

    This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking; discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking;…

  17. Schizotypy in adolescence: the role of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muñiz, José; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela

    2008-02-01

    Schizotypy is a multidimensional personality construct that appears to indicate psychosis proneness. Supposedly, schizotypal traits behave differently depending on a person's age and gender, but few studies have examined this relationship. In our study we used the Thinking and Perceptual Style Questionnaire and the Junior Schizotypy Scales. The sample was made up of 321 students (169 males) with an age range of 12 to 17 years. The results show significant differences in gender and age groups. Males score higher than females on Physical Anhedonia, Social Anhedonia, and Impulsive Non-Conformity scales, while females score higher or Positive Symptoms, Negative Evaluation, and Social Paranoia scales. Significant differences were also found among age groups: Unusual experiences, self-referent ideation, social paranoia, thought disorder, and negative evaluation were more frequent in later stages of adolescence. However, the meaning of this difference could be interpreted in terms of emotional turbulence rather than as a direct indicator of vulnerability to psychosis. PMID:18277226

  18. Social Anxiety and Social Adaptation among Adolescents at Three Age Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg, Ora

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social anxiety and social adaptation among adolescents. This is the first study to research these parameters among three age groups: early, middle and late adolescence. On the whole, a negative relation was found between social anxiety and social adaptation. Specifically, for adolescents…

  19. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it.

  20. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  1. Online Focus Groups with Parents And Adolescents with Heart Transplants: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Beatrice; Nelson, Mary Kathryn; Huett, Amy; Meaux, Julie B; Pye, Sherry; Schmid, Barbara; Berg, Alex; LaPorte, Kelci; Riley, Linda; Green, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric heart transplant recipients are scarce and widely dispersed. Previous studies of adolescents in this population were limited to small homogenous samples. Although online focus groups are an emerging data collection method, its use in pediatric populations has not been fully realized. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of using online focus groups with pediatric populations. Adolescents (aged 13 to 21 years) at least 6 months post-heart transplant and their parents were recruited from two children's hospitals. An online discussion forum (iTracks) was used to conduct asynchronous focus groups with separate parent and adolescent groups. Six parents and four adolescents participated in the discussions. iTracks provided a framework for conducting focus groups in dispersed populations. Access to the discussion transcripts enhanced data analysis and eliminated transcription costs. Overall, online discussion forums were a feasible and cost-effective option to conduct online focus groups in this pediatric population.

  2. Age grouping to optimize augmentation success.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert W

    2010-05-01

    This article has described the different age groups that present for noninvasive injectable lip and perioral augmentation, as well as the breakdown of 3 subgroups that present within the 4 general age groups. With the fundamental understanding of these presenting groups and subgroups, the practicing augmenter will be able to better treatment plan and educate the patient on realistic and optimal aesthetic outcomes.

  3. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  4. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  5. Cognitive outcome varies in adolescents born preterm, depending on gestational age, intrauterine growth and neonatal complications

    PubMed Central

    Lundequist, Aiko; Böhm, Birgitta; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Forssberg, Hans; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate long-term cognitive outcome in a cohort of 18-year-olds born preterm and previously assessed at the age of 5.5. Methods We tested 134 adolescents born preterm with a very low birthweight of <1500 g and 94 term-born controls with a comprehensive cognitive battery at 18 years of age. The cohort was subdivided into 73 extremely preterm, 42 very preterm and 19 moderately preterm infants with gestational ages of 23–27, 28–31 and 32–36 weeks, respectively. The moderately preterm group was dominated by adolescents born small for gestational age. Results Very preterm adolescents performed on a par with term-born controls. In contrast, extremely preterm adolescents displayed inferior results on all cognitive tests, more so if they had suffered neonatal complications. Moderately preterm adolescents scored lower than very preterm and full-term born adolescents, particularly on complex cognitive tasks. Conclusion Adolescents born at 28 weeks of gestation or later, with appropriate birthweight and no perinatal complications, functioned like term-born peers at 18 years of age. Extremely preterm birth per se posed a risk for long-term cognitive deficits, particularly executive deficits. Adolescents born moderately preterm but small for gestational age were at risk of general cognitive deficits. PMID:25394225

  6. Adolescent Health Promotion Groups: A Primer for Milieu Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puskar, Kathryn; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Stark, Kirsti Hetager; Frazier, Leann

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents who are required to live away from their families of origin face many challenges that can affect mood and mental health. Milieu therapists (mental health associates) working with adolescents in a residential treatment center may be expected to provide group activities that promote mental health. It is important for new group leaders to…

  7. The Adolescent Peer Group Revisited: Turbulence or Adaptation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheidlinger, Saul

    1984-01-01

    Charges that although the potent influence of the peer group on the psychosocial development of adolescents is undisputed, most clinical writings portray it in a one-sided vein. Proposes a more balanced view of adolescent group life with emphasis on the adaptive and growth-promoting aspects. (JAC)

  8. Group sex” parties and other risk patterns: A qualitative study about the perceptions of sexual behaviors and attitudes of adolescents in Soweto, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Janan; Khunwane, Mamakiri; Laher, Fatima; de Bruyn, Guy; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Gray, Glenda

    2011-01-01

    This study explored perceptions about sexual behaviors and attitudes of adolescents living in Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, from the perspective of parents, counselors and adolescents. A qualitative methodology was applied. Nine focus group discussions (FGDs) were held; three with parents of adolescents, two with counselors who work with adolescents, two with female adolescents aged 16-18 years and two with male adolescents aged 16-18 years. In total, 80 participants were recruited from in and around Soweto. FGDs were guided by a semi-structured interview guide, audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and translated into English. Data were analyzed using Maxqda, a qualitative software analysis program. There were eight key themes related to adolescent sexuality and perceived attitudes towards relationships. Five themes were common to all participant groupings (parents, counselors and adolescents): (1) dating during adolescence, (2) adolescent females dating older males, (3) condom use amongst adolescents, (4) pregnancy and (5) homosexuality. (6) Sex as a regular and important activity among adolescents and (7) group sex practices among adolescents emerged as themes from adolescent and counselor FGDs. Lastly, (8) the role of the media as an influence on adolescent sexuality was common to adolescent and parent groups. Risky sexual behaviors continue among adolescents, with group sex parties a concerning emergent phenomenon that necessitates further study. HIV, other STIs and pregnancy prevention interventions should address multiple levels of influence to address context-specific influences. PMID:22844344

  9. Adolescent Literature: A Misrepresentation of Youth-Aged Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Jeanne

    1988-01-01

    Reading literature that presents adolescents with realistic and believable youth-aged relationships can help young people understand and have meaningful relationships with the elderly. Reading and analysis of some contemporary adolescent literature that depicts youth-aged relationships revealed that attitudes, actions, and feelings of fictional…

  10. [The usual diet of a group of adolescents from Valencia].

    PubMed

    Farré Rovira, R; Frasquet Pons, I; Martínez Martínez, I; Romá Sánchez, R

    1999-01-01

    Adolescents are considered a high nutritional risk group because their nutritional needs are increased with respect to other age groups, and because this period of life coincides with changes in life style that affect, often negatively, their eating habits. Our overall goal is to study the usual eating pattern of Valencian adolescents together with their drink and tobacco consumption, but the first stage focuses on setting up, validating and correcting methods to be applied. The present study was therefore carried out in a sample composed of 64 adolescents, ranging from 16 to 20 years of age. A self administered survey developed in our Department was used to explore their food preferences, eating habits, smoking habits and alcohol and coffee intake. The following results were obtained: The number of daily meals was of 3.7 +/- 0.9. The 91% takes the breakfast daily (milk with cereals or sweet rolls) and the majority of the students eat a second mid-morning breakfast. Lunch is of the traditional type, consisting of two courses. The first is rice or pasta, followed by meat, fish or eggs usually accompanied by a side dish or salad. Fresh fruit is the dessert eaten, almost daily by the majority of the sample. The most usual drink is water. The 70% of the sample have one supplementary afternoon intake "merienda". All of the surveyed people like fruits, pasta and chicken meat. While, liver and legumes are disliked by the majority. The intakes of soft drinks, snacks, alcohol, coffee and tobacco are moderate, being, all these products mainly consumed during the weekend. The mean diet offers an excess of proteins and saturated fat, while complex carbohydrates and dietetic fiber are scarce. Nutritional intakes of iron, magnesium and zinc in girls, and magnesium, folates and vitamin A in boys are estimated insufficient to fulfil their needs.

  11. Age-related changes in attentional control across adolescence: how does this impact emotion regulation capacities?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Heathcote, Lauren C.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to establish the novel use of the go/no-go Overlap task for investigating the role of attentional control capacities in the processing of emotional expressions across different age-groups within adolescence: at the onset of adolescence (11–12 year-olds) and toward the end of adolescence (17–18 year-olds). We also looked at how attentional control in the processing of fearful, happy, and neutral expressions relates to individual differences in trait anxiety in these adolescent groups. We were able to show that younger adolescents, but not older adolescents had more difficulties with attention control in the presence of all faces, but particularly in the presence of fearful faces. Moreover, we found that across all groups, adolescents with higher trait anxiety exhibited attentional avoidance of all faces, which facilitated relatively better performance on the primary task. These differences in reaction time emerged in the context of comparable accuracy level in the primary task across age-groups. Our results contribute to our understanding of how attentional control abilities to faces but in particular fearful expressions may mature across adolescence. This may affect learning about the environment and the acquisition of behavioral response patterns in the social world. PMID:24575077

  12. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  13. Art therapy focus groups for children and adolescents with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Stafstrom, Carl E; Havlena, Janice; Krezinski, Anthony J

    2012-06-01

    Children with epilepsy are at risk for numerous psychological and social challenges. We hypothesized that art therapy focus groups would enhance the self-image of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Sixteen children with epilepsy, ages 7-18 years, were recruited from pediatric neurology clinics at the University of Wisconsin to participate in four art therapy sessions. Pre-group assessments included psychological screens (Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale; Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale; Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale) and art therapy instruments (Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale; Seizure Drawing Task; Levick Emotional and Cognitive Art Therapy Assessment). Developmental levels of drawings were significantly below age-expected standards. Following completion of focus groups, a repeat Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale showed no differences between pre- and post-test scores on any measure of this scale. However, subjects and parents were uniformly positive about their group experiences, suggesting a qualitative benefit from participation in art therapy focus groups.

  14. ESCAP holds expert group meeting on population issues facing adolescents.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the activities at the ESCAP Population Division Expert Group Meeting on Adolescents that was held during September-October 1997 in Bangkok, Thailand. The meeting was a follow-up to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The meeting considered 1) the ICPD recommendations; 2) the recommendations contained in the Jakarta Plan of Action on Human Resource Development; and 3) the Proposals for Action on Human Resources Development for Youth in Asia and the Pacific. Participants included about 25 people from Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The conference relied on 8 invited experts, two resource persons, advisors from the UNFPA Country Support Team for East and Southeast Asia, and representatives of UNFPA, the Population Council, and the East-West Center. A concern was the declining age of menarche of girls in the ESCAP region and the increasing age of marriage. During the time of menarche and marriage, girls are migrating and moving away from their family and community in rural areas. Family structure and relationships are changing. Increases are observed in adolescent premarital sexual activity, the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, substance abuse, teenage pregnancy, and abortion. The mass media and information technologies have both a positive and a negative influence on adolescents. Parent-child communication exchanges and teacher-student exchanges are "less than ideal." Old traditions and practices change slower than people change. Boys and girls are affected differently by the sociocultural and economic environment. The societal norms set expectations for behavior that may conflict with individual beliefs and practices. Changes brought by globalization and rapid economic growth provide greater opportunity for young girls and women to obtain employment and autonomy.

  15. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Farhat, Tilda

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking, discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking; consider socialization and selection processes with respect to smoking; investigate the relative influence of best friends, close friends, and crowd affiliations; and examine parenting behaviors that could buffer the effects of peer influence. Our review indicates the following with respect to adolescent smoking: (1) substantial peer group homogeneity of smoking behavior; (2) support for both socialization and selection effects, although evidence is somewhat stronger for selection; (3) an interactive influence of best friends, peer groups and crowd affiliation; and (4) an indirect protective effect of positive parenting practices against the uptake of adolescent smoking. We conclude with implications for research and prevention programs. PMID:20614184

  16. Interracial Panjabi in a British Adolescent Peer Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampton, M. B. H.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration of the use of Panjabi by British Black adolescents and White adolescents in a mixed peer group, analyzing contexts of Panjabi occurrence and crossing, showed that Panjabi was important in managing the divisions that cross-cut youth community and in extending horizons beyond the confines of local neighborhood experience. (31…

  17. Norms of German adolescents for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A.

    PubMed

    Peter, Burkhard; Geiger, Emilia; Prade, Tanja; Vogel, Sarah; Piesbergen, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) has not been explicitly tested on an adolescent population. In this study, the German version of the HGSHS:A was administered to 99 German adolescents aged 15 to 19. In contrast to other studies, the gender distribution was relatively balanced: 57% female and 43% male. Results were comparable to 14 earlier studies with regard to distribution, mean, and standard deviation. Some peculiarities in contrast to the 14 previous studies are pointed out. It is concluded that the HGSHS:A can be used as a valid and reliable instrument to measure hypnotic suggestibility in adolescent samples.

  18. Age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C

    2016-06-01

    Contrary to common stereotypes, loneliness is not restricted to old age but can occur at any life stage. In this study, we used data from a large, nationally representative German study (N = 16,132) to describe and explain age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age. The age distribution of loneliness followed a complex nonlinear trajectory, with elevated loneliness levels among young adults and among the oldest old. The late-life increase in loneliness could be explained by lower income levels, higher prevalence of functional limitations, and higher proportion of singles in this age group. Consistent with an age-normative perspective, the association of income, relationship status, household size, and work status with loneliness differed between different age groups. In contrast, indicators of the quantity of social relationships (social engagement, number of friends, contact frequency) were universally associated with loneliness regardless of age. Overall, these findings show that sources of loneliness in older adults are well understood. Future research should focus on understanding the specific sources of loneliness in middle-aged adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Presence and Image of Women in the Information Media Aimed at Adolescents Aged 10 to 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansereau, Stephanie; Maranda, Jeanne

    An exploratory study identified the areas of information most commonly featured in the printed and electronic media designed specifically for adolescents aged 10-16 and also identified the presence and role of women in the information targeted to this age group. A content analysis was made of both French- and English-language television programs…

  20. Age-Related Differences in Academic Burnout of Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lea, Eunkyoung; Lee, Sang Min

    2013-01-01

    Korean adolescents experience considerable stress because of an educational system that focuses primarily on college entrance examinations, pressure for academic achievement, and a competitive atmosphere in school. The main purpose of this study was to explore age differences in the construct of Korean adolescents' academic burnout. Once…

  1. Gender, Age, and Behavior Differences in Early Adolescent Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen L.; Teufel, James A.; Birch, David A.; Kancherla, Vijaya

    2006-01-01

    Early adolescents in the United States are increasingly exposed to a culture of worrisome messages. A degree of adolescent worry is normal, but the likelihood of a young person being anxious or depressed increases with the perceived number of worries. This study examined the effect of age, gender, and worry behavior on frequency of 8 adolescent…

  2. Community factors shaping early age at first sex among adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents' sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents' sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions.

  3. Appendicitis in the Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Samuel B.; Nazem, Ahmad

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 35 patients aged 2 to 20 years who were seen at the District of Columbia General Hospital and Howard University Hospital over a three-year period (1984 to 1986) was performed. All patients were operated on with a preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A normal appendix was found in 17 percent of patients, of which the majority was adolescent girls. Of those patients with acute appendicitis, 41 percent had perforated appendices, and one half of these were judged to be complicated. At diagnosis or at reoperation, one half of the patients were maintained on single-antibiotic therapy, the other half were maintained on triple-antibiotic therapy. The average hospital stay was 26.6 days, with no significant difference between those patients on single- or triple-antibiotic coverage. The average hospital stay for patients with uncomplicated appendicitis was six days. PMID:3385787

  4. Identity Groups with American Indian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerschlag, Carl A.

    The struggle for self discovery is the major task of adolescent development. That struggle can be magnified by certain psychosocial forces which retard such ego identity development. American Indians share a centuries old, psychohistorical experience of massive disenfranchisement, powerlessness, and enforced dependency. Its symptomatic legacy is…

  5. Reference Group Influence on Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, J. L.; Arndt, Stephan

    2002-01-01

    Study assessed relative influence of perceived level of support for adolescent's alcohol use by best friends, most students in school, live-in parents/guardians, and adults in neighborhood/community. Findings revealed some differences by sex and grade level, and the different kinds of drinking behavior. Prevention programs including all four…

  6. Anger Management groups for adolescents: a mixed-methods study of efficacy and treatment preferences.

    PubMed

    Down, Richard; Willner, Paul; Watts, Louise; Griffiths, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of, and adolescents' preferences for, a Cognitive Behavioural (CBT) and Personal Development (PD) Anger Management (AM) group. The CBT group aimed to help adolescents develop skills to manage predominantly reactive aggression. The PD group aimed to enhance motivation to develop less aggressive identities with less use of proactive aggression. Eighteen adolescents were randomly allocated to a 10-session CBT or PD AM Group; seven additional adolescents formed a control group. They completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires to assess anger expression and control, use of AM coping skills (also completed by carers) and self-image. Participants were also interviewed pre- and post-intervention; transcripts were subjected to Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Both treatment groups demonstrated significant improvements in anger coping and self-esteem, relative to the control group. Participants' age was significantly correlated with self-image and anger control outcomes in the CBT group. Qualitative analysis identified factors associated with improved outcomes, particularly regarding participants' age, motivation and readiness to change, engagement in the therapeutic process, group dynamics and emotional expressiveness. Our ability to interpret data clinically was enhanced by the use of a mixed quantitative-qualitative methodology. The results help us to better match interventions to clients. PMID:20223794

  7. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  8. Adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on parent-adolescent positivity and negativity: Implications for genotype-environment correlation.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David

    2016-02-01

    We examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and nonpassive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. The findings indicated that nonpassive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father-adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than in families with younger adolescents, and that passive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed.

  9. Developmental Patterns of Social Trust between Early and Late Adolescence: Age and School Climate Effects

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Social trust (i.e., beliefs that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1535 adolescents collected over two years, we find that middle and late adolescents had significantly lower levels of trust than early adolescents and that these beliefs became more stable and less related to interpersonal trust between early and late adolescence. Results of multiple group SEMs revealed that, regardless of age, adolescents’ reports that a strong sense of student solidarity characterized their school significantly increased ST at T2, controlling for levels at T1, and opportunities to exchange perspectives with fellow students increased ST at T2 indirectly, through feelings of student solidarity. The study points to the role of schools in nurturing the democratic dispositions of younger generations. PMID:20936077

  10. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents: factorial invariance and latent mean differences across gender and age in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Candido J; La Greca, Annette M; Marzo, Juan C; Garcia-Lopez, Luis J; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about the factorial invariance across gender and age for self-report measures of social anxiety in adolescence. This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in 1570 Spanish adolescents (54% girls), ranging in age from 14 to 17 years. Equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Measurement invariance for the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was found across gender and age samples. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that girls exhibited higher means than boys on two SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation and Social Avoidance and Distress-New (SAD-New). In addition, on the SAD-New subscale, the structured means significantly diminished from 14-year olds to 16- and 17-year olds and from 15-year olds to 17-year olds. Findings are discussed in terms of the use of the SAS-A with Spanish adolescents.

  11. The Protective Role of Group Identity: Sectarian Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Emotion Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The protective role of strength of group identity was examined for youth in a context of protracted political conflict. Participants included 814 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.61, SD = 1.99 at Time 1) participating in a longitudinal study in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, the results show that the effect of…

  12. Positioning a "Mature" Self in Interactive Practices: How Adolescent Males Negotiate "Physical Attraction" in Group Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korobov, Neill; Bamberg, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a discursive psychological approach in examining the ways that adolescent boys (ages 12-15 years) accomplish a sense of "maturity" by bringing off and managing certain features of "heterosexuality" in group interaction. We focus on and analyse moments when the boys negotiate implicit challenges, make evaluations and offer…

  13. Inter-Group and Intra-Group Assertiveness: Adolescents' Social Skills Following Cultural Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU),…

  14. Speech Differences of Factory Worker Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    This article, which focuses on speech differences of age groups, is part of a larger study of occupational jargon, its characteristics and underlying features and the part it plays in reflecting the workers' knowledge of their jobs and their attitudes toward jobs in general. The project incorporated a case method of research in a china factory.…

  15. Age, puberty, and exposure to intimate partner violence in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Foster, Holly; Hagan, John; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2004-12-01

    This paper links sociological and epidemiologic research on violence and the life course to biosocial perspectives on pubertal maturation to examine risk factors associated with exposure to intimate partner violence in adolescence. While prior research has established early puberty as a risk factor for delinquent behavior, studies to date have not yet investigated whether early puberty is also linked to intimate partner violence in adolescence. Prior epidemiologic research has found that increasing age in adolescence is a risk factor for dating violence, but this work has not yet incorporated the element of pubertal maturation. The present study examines the relative effects of chronological age and maturational age in a biosocial model predicting risk for intimate partner violence among adolescent females, net of established control variables, using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. These findings indicate that early maturation in females is an additional risk factor for exposure to intimate partner violence in adolescence. The importance of disentangling types of age effects as raised in the developmental literature and as supported by these findings is discussed in relation to the prevention of youth violence.

  16. Age and educational track influence adolescent discounting of delayed rewards

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nikki C.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Boschloo, Annemarie; Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in a specific aspect of adolescent decision-making, namely the preference for future versus immediate outcomes. A sample of 622 Dutch adolescents aged 12–17 years completed a temporal discounting task. Participants were asked to choose between a delayed reward of €50 or an immediate reward of lower value. The delay interval was varied in three blocks (1 week, 1 month, 6 months). Results showed that preferences for large delayed rewards over smaller immediate rewards increased with age: late adolescents made more long-term decisions than early adolescents. This change was related to educational track. In the lower educational track, an age-related decrease in discounting was found for all three delay intervals. In the higher educational track this decrease only occurred for the 6 month delay interval. However, across all delay intervals enrolment in a higher level educational track was associated with an increased preference for long-term rewards. These results suggest that late adolescents are less susceptible than early adolescents to the competing presence of an immediate reward when making long-term decisions, a skill which becomes increasingly important as they transition into adulthood. PMID:24421778

  17. Relative Age Effects in Dutch Adolescents: Concurrent and Prospective Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2015-01-01

    The literature on relative age position effects is rather inconsistent. In this study we examined intra-classroom age position (or relative age) effects on Dutch adolescents’ school progress and performance (as rated by teachers), physical development, temperamental development (fear and frustration), and depressive symptoms, all adjusted for age at the time of measurement. Data were derived from three waves of Tracking Adolescents' Individuals Lives Survey (TRAILS) of 2230 Dutch adolescents (baseline mean age 11.1, SD = 0.6, 51% girls). Albeit relative age predicted school progress (grade retention ORs = 0.83 for each month, skipped grade OR = 1.47, both p<.001), our key observation is the absence of substantial developmental differences as a result of relative age position in Dutch adolescents with a normative school trajectory, in contrast to most literature. For adolescents who had repeated a grade inverse relative age effects were observed, in terms of physical development and school performance, as well as on depressive symptoms, favoring the relatively young. Cross-cultural differences in relative age effect may be partly explained by the decision threshold for grade retention. PMID:26076384

  18. Middle Level Team Scheduling: Appropriate Grouping for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    The interdisciplinary team organization allows teachers to allocate time to accommodate the curriculum and young adolescents' instructional needs. For maximum flexibility, several scheduling options may be considered: large-group instructional time, one less period daily, heterogeneous class grouping, and "top class" team scheduling. Advantages,…

  19. Age Differences in Loneliness from Late Adolescence to Oldest Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to common stereotypes, loneliness is not restricted to old age but can occur at any life stage. In this study, we used data from a large, nationally representative German study (N = 16,132) to describe and explain age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age. The age distribution of loneliness followed a complex…

  20. Being Left Out: Rejecting Outsiders and Communicating Group Boundaries in Childhood and Adolescent Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunwolf; Leets, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Although communication scholars have examined adult group processes, they have paid little attention to the peer group experiences of children and adolescents. Successfully gaining entry to peer groups is significant, in that rejection in childhood affects self-concept, social skills, and school successes. Guided by a bona fide groups perspective,…

  1. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group.

  2. Perspective Taking Explains Gender Differences in Late Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Disadvantaged Groups.

    PubMed

    Smith, Colin Tucker; Shepperd, James A; Miller, Wendi A; Graber, Julia A

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents' attitudes toward disadvantaged groups are surprisingly understudied. What we know from these few studies is that adolescents' attitudes tend to become more favorable over time and that adolescent girls display more favorable attitudes than do adolescent boys. However, researchers have not offered explanations for why these effects occur. We proposed that changes in social-cognitive abilities that accompany adolescent development increase perspective taking and that the increased perspective taking facilitates more favorable attitudes toward disadvantaged groups. Because girls develop social-cognitive abilities earlier than boys, girls should show greater perspective taking and thus more positive attitudes toward disadvantaged groups than should boys. Importantly, we propose that these more positive attitudes are explained better by perspective taking than by gender. Participants were late adolescents (n = 803, 53.3 % female, ages 15-19) from high schools in north-central Florida (United States) participating in an ongoing, multi-wave study. Participants completed a measure of perspective-taking and reported their attitudes toward three disadvantaged groups (Black, gay, and poor people) during their third year of high school and, again, 6 months later during their fourth year of high school. Our findings provided strong support for our theorizing. Girls generally reported warmer attitudes than did boys toward disadvantaged groups, with the gender differences in warmth tending to diminish across time. Similarly, girls were higher than boys in perspective-taking abilities at both time points, although boys increased over time whereas girls did not. Crucially, perspective taking mediated observed gender differences in attitudes, suggesting that perspective taking is a mechanism for improving attitudes toward disadvantaged groups during late adolescence. PMID:26519366

  3. The Influence of Peer Group Pressure Upon Adolescents' Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilanian, Seta M.

    An adolescent's learning patterns are developed throughout the student's socialization process, suggesting that peer pressure may influence learning. Female college students (N=15) aged 19-21 participated in a pencil-maze learning task performed while blindfolded. The task was presented in three categories of stimuli conditions: (1) normal…

  4. Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy E; Garza, Cutberto; de Onis, Mercedes

    2006-12-01

    Development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by two contemporaneous events: the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and preschool children by the World Health Organization (WHO). If a prescriptive approach analogous to that taken by WHO for younger children is to be adopted for school-aged children and adolescents, several issues would have to be addressed regarding the universality of growth potential across populations and how to define optimal growth in children and adolescents. A working group concluded that subpopulations exhibit similar patterns of growth when exposed to similar external conditioners of growth. However, on the basis of available data, it cannot be ruled out that some of the observed differences in linear growth across ethnic groups reflect true differences in genetic potential rather than environmental influences. Therefore, the sampling frame for the development of an international growth standard for children and adolescents would have to include multiethnic sampling strategies designed to capture the variation in human growth patterns. A single international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents could be developed with careful consideration of the population and individual selection criteria, study design, sample size, measurements, and statistical modeling of primary growth and secondary ancillary data. The working group agreed that existing growth references for school-aged children and adolescents have shortcomings, particularly for assessing obesity, and that appropriate growth standards for these age groups should be developed for clinical and public health applications.

  5. Adolescents at the Age of Mistrust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of communicating with children change in adolescence. Children who, in elementary school, readily responded to and initiated conversations and interactions with adults, now display new mannerisms and tendencies, in a time when they question, challenge, and separate, and are less willing to admire or trust adults. As such, adults must…

  6. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  7. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  8. Leading Psychoeducational Groups for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides readers with direction on how to organize psychoeducational groups while helping them enhance skills for effectively leading such groups. Offering an applied approach, the author integrates research and practice to suggest leadership strategies while addressing special issues such as children of divorce, anger management,…

  9. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  10. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  11. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  12. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  13. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  14. Collaborative Wellness Counseling with a Group of Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mary Ann; Williams, Michael A.

    A counseling group for eight black male adolescents in foster care used techniques associated with wellness counseling and holistic health (emphasis on strengths, self responsibility, and a collaborative approach). The counseling program was a joint venture undertaken by two psychologists and a community mental health center. Games, fun…

  15. Treating Social Anxiety in Adolescents: Ten Group Therapy Lesson Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur-Elmer, Alison; McBride, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents and concludes by offering a set of 10 group therapy lesson plans for SAD that therapists can use in their practice. The overview includes a description of social anxiety disorder and highlights various theories of anxiety. The…

  16. Changing Attitudes in Underprivileged Adolescents Participating in Group Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Julia

    Group psychotherapy was used with socio-economically deprived adolescents whose capacity for self-expression was promising. Non-psychotic acting out characters and passive inadequate personalities participated, and discussion, role playing, and psychodrama were the techniques utilized. After one year the following changes were seen: (1) increased…

  17. After plastic surgery: adolescent-reported appearance ratings and appearance-related burdens in patient and general population groups.

    PubMed

    Simis, Kuni J; Hovius, Steven E R; de Beaufort, Inez D; Verhulst, Frank C; Koot, Hans M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of appearance-related surgery on psychosocial functioning during adolescence. To this end, changes in bodily attitudes and appearance-related burdens in adolescents undergoing corrective (for aesthetic deformities) and reconstructive (for congenital or acquired deformities) surgery were compared with those in a general population sample.A group of 184 adolescent plastic surgery patients (corrective, n = 100; reconstructive, n = 84), and a comparison group of 83 adolescents at random selected from three municipalities (corrective, n = 67; reconstructive, n = 16), aged 12 to 22 years, were studied at two time points with a 6-month interval. The plastic surgical patients were studied presurgically and postsurgically. Using fully structured telephone interviews and postal questionnaires, adolescents' ratings of their appearance, bodily satisfaction and attitudes, and appearance-related burdens were obtained. All patients reported a significant decrease in burdens after surgery compared with the comparison group, indicating a much more prominent improvement in the patient sample compared with the developmental changes that may be expected to occur in adolescence. The corrective patient group reported least burdens after the operation. More specifically, the "breasts" group benefited most from the operation, indicating that breast corrections are rewarding interventions. The findings of this study imply that adolescents can be regarded as good candidates for plastic surgery. They gain bodily satisfaction, and they are relieved of many appearance-related burdens. Physical, social, and psychological burdens related to appearance satisfaction improve considerably in both corrective and reconstructive adolescent patients.

  18. Adolescent sexuality in the light of group processes.

    PubMed

    Kernberg, O F

    1980-01-01

    Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is used to illustrate several connected theses regarding the relation of the couple to its surrounding social group: these include a couple's oedipal rebellion, the unconscious longing for and hatred of the idealized couple by the large group, the denial of aggression within the couple and its projection onto the group, the impotence of rationality and the conventionalization of sexuality in the large group, and the pervading dynamics of aggression in group formation. Pertinent psychoanalytic theories are briefly summarized, and this combined analysis is applied to the psychoanalyst's attitude regarding adolescent patients' love life.

  19. Beyond talking groups: strategies for improving adolescent health education.

    PubMed

    Banister, Elizabeth; Begoray, Deborah

    2004-05-01

    In a study that focused on adolescent girls' health issues within their dating relationships, we found that nonstructured focus group conversation can be augmented with structured strategies to generate a nonthreatening environment in which participants are enabled to co-create an understanding of their experiences. The use of free writing, role playing, and body tracing helped raise participants' awareness and understanding of some of their health behaviors. We suggest that these strategies can be used in health care and educational contexts to promote the health of adolescents. By sharing strategies between education and health care professionals, both professions will benefit.

  20. [Andrological status of adolescents and its connection to anthropometric and hormonal descriptions in the students of technical college group].

    PubMed

    Lutov, Iu V; Seliatitskaia, V G; Epanchintseva, E A; Riabichenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the interrelation of andrological status with anthropometric and hormonal descriptions for age-specific features discovery of male sexual system pathological states at technical college students. 147 adolescents aged 15-17 years old were examined. Only 41 of them were found to have no abnormalities in their genital system development; in 35 adolescents sexual development was delayed; and 97 adolescents were found to have various andrological diseases (varicocele, phimosis, gynecomastia, testicular asymmetry, etc.) or clinical signs for development of these diseases. In 26 adolescences delayed sexual development was combined with the andrological pathology. The normal andrological status was usually accompanied with the highest frequency of low values of anthropometric indicators and indices that reflect the influence of various hormonal systems on the bodily constitution, as well as expressed anthropometricheterogeneity. In adolescents with andrological pathology or clinical signs for its development, in all anthropometric parameters the higher values were seen more frequently than low values against the background of highest group anthropometric homogeneity. Summative anthropometric characteristics of the adolescents group with delayed sexual development were between those of the adolescents groups with normal andrological status and andrological pathology The number of correlational relationships of anthropometric and hormonal indicators with the levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosteronesulphate was the lowest in the group of adolescents with normal andrological status as compared to their peers with delayed sexual development and andrological pathology. Only in the group of adolescents with normal andrological status the correlation analysis of data showed physiological influence of sexual hormones on anthropometric indicators. Thus, lower influence of sexual system hormones during this ontogenesis stage

  1. [Andrological status of adolescents and its connection to anthropometric and hormonal descriptions in the students of technical college group].

    PubMed

    Lutov, Iu V; Seliatitskaia, V G; Epanchintseva, E A; Riabichenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the interrelation of andrological status with anthropometric and hormonal descriptions for age-specific features discovery of male sexual system pathological states at technical college students. 147 adolescents aged 15-17 years old were examined. Only 41 of them were found to have no abnormalities in their genital system development; in 35 adolescents sexual development was delayed; and 97 adolescents were found to have various andrological diseases (varicocele, phimosis, gynecomastia, testicular asymmetry, etc.) or clinical signs for development of these diseases. In 26 adolescences delayed sexual development was combined with the andrological pathology. The normal andrological status was usually accompanied with the highest frequency of low values of anthropometric indicators and indices that reflect the influence of various hormonal systems on the bodily constitution, as well as expressed anthropometricheterogeneity. In adolescents with andrological pathology or clinical signs for its development, in all anthropometric parameters the higher values were seen more frequently than low values against the background of highest group anthropometric homogeneity. Summative anthropometric characteristics of the adolescents group with delayed sexual development were between those of the adolescents groups with normal andrological status and andrological pathology The number of correlational relationships of anthropometric and hormonal indicators with the levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosteronesulphate was the lowest in the group of adolescents with normal andrological status as compared to their peers with delayed sexual development and andrological pathology. Only in the group of adolescents with normal andrological status the correlation analysis of data showed physiological influence of sexual hormones on anthropometric indicators. Thus, lower influence of sexual system hormones during this ontogenesis stage

  2. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  3. Community Factors Shaping Early Age at First Sex among Adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents’ sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents’ sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions. PMID:25076654

  4. Age Related Differences in the Surface EMG Signals on Adolescent's Muscle during Contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin Ahamed, Nizam; Taha, Zahari; Alqahtani, Mahdi; Altwijri, Omar; Rahman, Matiur; Deboucha, Abdelhakim

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in the amplitude of the EMG signal among five different age groups of adolescent's muscle. Fifteen healthy adolescents participated in this study and they were divided into five age groups (13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 years). Subjects were performed dynamic contraction during lifting a standard weight (3-kg dumbbell) and EMG signals were recorded from their Biceps Brachii (BB) muscle. Two common EMG analysis techniques namely root mean square (RMS) and mean absolute values (MAV) were used to find the differences. The statistical analysis was included: linear regression to examine the relationships between EMG amplitude and age, repeated measures ANOVA to assess differences among the variables, and finally Coefficient of Variation (CoV) for signal steadiness among the groups of subjects during contraction. The result from RMS and MAV analysis shows that the 17-years age groups exhibited higher activity (0.28 and 0.19 mV respectively) compare to other groups (13-Years: 0.26 and 0.17 mV, 14-years: 0.25 and 0.23 mV, 15-Years: 0.23 and 0.16 mV, 16-years: 0.23 and 0.16 mV respectively). Also, this study shows modest correlation between age and signal activities among all age group's muscle. The experiential results can play a pivotal role for developing EMG prosthetic hand controller, neuromuscular system, EMG based rehabilitation aid and movement biomechanics, which may help to separate age groups among the adolescents.

  5. [Gender and age differences in the cognitive, psychophysiological, and behavioral responses of social anxiety in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Piqueras, José A; García-Fernández, José M; García-López, Luis J; Delgado, Beatriz; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze gender and age differences in adolescents' social anxiety in the factor scores of the Social Phobia subscale from the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SP-SPAI): Social Interactions, Focus of Attention, Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms and Avoidance and Escape Behaviors. The sample consisted of 2,543 students of Secondary Education between 12 and 17 years. Results are shown for the general sample (N= 2,543) and for the sample of adolescents classified as high social anxiety group (n= 317). Regarding the first group, girls obtained higher total scores on the Social Phobia scale and on all factors except for Avoidance and Escape (d= .32 - .35). Concerning the high anxiety group, the analyses revealed that boys avoid and escape from social situations more frequently than girls (d= .23). No age differences were found in the factor scores for any of the two samples.

  6. The Role of Peer Group Aggression in Predicting Adolescent Dating Violence and Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Chung-Hall, Janet; Dumas, Tara M.

    2013-01-01

    Past research has shown that adolescent peer groups make a significant contribution to shaping behavior but less is known about the role of peer groups in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study examined the contribution of aggressive peer group norms on relationship quality and dating violence among dating adolescents. At the…

  7. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R.; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05) was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05) was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls) and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls) occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight). PMID:26404334

  8. Gender-age environmental associates of adolescent low back pain.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, K; Williams, M

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes adolescent low back pain and tests its associations with environmental features of backpack load, time spent carrying loads, time sitting, and time playing sport, using data from 1269 adolescents in twelve volunteer high schools in Adelaide, South Australia. Backpacks were the preferred method of load carrying, two-thirds of wearers preferring to carry the load over two shoulders. The average load weighed 5.3 kg (approximating 10% of body weight). The youngest students carried approximately the same amount as the oldest students. Girls were more likely than boys to report recent low back pain, and there were gender- and age-specific associations between recent low back pain, the amount of time spent sitting, the backpack load and time spent carrying it, and time playing sport. Body mass was not a confounder of any association. These findings support ongoing concerns regarding environmental contributions to adolescent low back pain. PMID:10975661

  9. Clarifying the Associations between Age at Menarche and Adolescent Emotional and Behavioral Problems

    PubMed Central

    Van Hulle, Carol A.; Beasley, William H.; Rodgers, Joseph L.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding risk factors for the development of adolescent emotional and behavioral problems can help with intervention and prevention efforts. Previous studies have found that an early menarcheal age predicts several adolescent problems, including depressive symptoms, delinquency, and early age at first intercourse. Few studies, nevertheless, have explicitly tested (a) whether the associations with menarcheal age vary across racial/ethnic groups or (b) whether the sources of the associations are within-families (i.e., consistent with a direct, causal link) or only between-families (i.e., due to selection or confounding factors). The current study analyzed data from a nationally representative US Sample of females (N = 5,637). We examined whether race/ethnicity moderated the associations between early menarche and several adolescent problems by using multiple-group analyses and we examined the degree to which genetic and environmental factors shared by family members account for the associations by comparing sisters and cousins with differing menarcheal ages. Menarcheal age predicted subsequent depressive symptoms, delinquency, and early age at first intercourse in the population. The magnitudes of the associations were similar across all racial/ethnic groups for all outcomes. The within-family associations (i.e., when comparing siblings and cousins with different menarcheal age) were large and statistically significant when predicting early intercourse, but not the other outcomes. The findings suggest that selection or confounding factors account for the associations between menarcheal age and subsequent depressive symptoms and delinquency, whereas the independent association between menarcheal age and early age at first intercourse is consistent with a direct, causal effect. PMID:25687264

  10. Disentangling chronological age from age of onset in children and adolescents with obsessive--compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Geller, D A; Biederman, J; Faraone, S V; Bellordre, C A; Kim, G S; Hagermoser, L; Cradock, K; Frazier, J; Coffey, B J

    2001-06-01

    Although paediatric obsessive--compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly recognized as a putative developmental subtype of the disorder, it remains uncertain as to whether additional subtyping by age at onset in childhood or adolescence is warranted. Subjects included children and adolescents meeting DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria for OCD referred to a specialized OCD clinic. All youth were systematically evaluated with structured diagnostic interviews and clinical assessment by an OCD expert. Irrespective of current age, an earlier age at onset predicted increased risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, simple phobia, agoraphobia and multiple anxiety disorders. In contrast, mood and psychotic disorders were associated with chronological age and were more prevalent in older subjects. Tourette's disorder showed associations with both chronological age and age at onset. Chronological age and age at onset predicted different patterns of comorbidity and dysfunction in children and adolescents with OCD. Considering the heterogeneity of OCD, age at onset may help identify meaningful developmental subtypes of the disorder beyond chronological age.

  11. Age Differences in Emergency Department Visits and Inpatient Hospitalizations in Preadolescent and Adolescent Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenz, Alyssa M.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Bradley, Catherine; Charles, Jane; Boan, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluated age differences in emergency department care and inpatient hospitalizations in 252 preadolescent and adolescent youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; ages 9-18). Records from youth with ASDs were linked to acute care utilization records and were compared to a demographically similar comparison group of youth without ASDs…

  12. Young adolescents' perceptions, patterns, and contexts of energy drink use. A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are purported to increase energy and improve performance, but have been associated with adverse health effects and death. EDs are popular among adolescents and young adults, yet little is known about their use among young adolescents. This study explored perceptions, patterns, and contexts of ED use in six focus groups with 40 adolescents aged 12-15 years from two regional Australian schools. A thematic analysis of the data was used to investigate knowledge about ED brands and content, ED use, reasons for ED use, physiological effects, and influences on ED use. Participants were familiar with EDs and most had used them at least once but had limited knowledge of ED ingredients, and some had difficulty differentiating them from soft and sports drinks. EDs were used as an alternative to other drinks, to provide energy, and in social contexts, and their use was associated with short-term physiological symptoms. Parents and advertising influenced participants' perceptions and use of EDs. These findings suggest young adolescents use EDs without knowing what they are drinking and how they are contributing to their personal risk of harm. The advertising, appeal, and use of EDs by adolescents appear to share similarities with alcohol and tobacco. Further research is needed to replicate and extend the current findings, informed by the lessons learned in alcohol research.

  13. Young adolescents' perceptions, patterns, and contexts of energy drink use. A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are purported to increase energy and improve performance, but have been associated with adverse health effects and death. EDs are popular among adolescents and young adults, yet little is known about their use among young adolescents. This study explored perceptions, patterns, and contexts of ED use in six focus groups with 40 adolescents aged 12-15 years from two regional Australian schools. A thematic analysis of the data was used to investigate knowledge about ED brands and content, ED use, reasons for ED use, physiological effects, and influences on ED use. Participants were familiar with EDs and most had used them at least once but had limited knowledge of ED ingredients, and some had difficulty differentiating them from soft and sports drinks. EDs were used as an alternative to other drinks, to provide energy, and in social contexts, and their use was associated with short-term physiological symptoms. Parents and advertising influenced participants' perceptions and use of EDs. These findings suggest young adolescents use EDs without knowing what they are drinking and how they are contributing to their personal risk of harm. The advertising, appeal, and use of EDs by adolescents appear to share similarities with alcohol and tobacco. Further research is needed to replicate and extend the current findings, informed by the lessons learned in alcohol research. PMID:24852220

  14. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  15. Adolescents' Definitions of Bullying: The Contribution of Age, Gender, and Experience of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…

  16. Adolescent rats are more prone to binge eating behavior: a study of age and obesity as risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Liza; Barnea, Royi; Brauner, Akiva; Weller, Aron

    2014-08-15

    Binge eating (BE) is characterized by repeated, intermittent over-consumption of food in a brief period of time. This study aims to advance the understanding of potential risk factors for BE such as obesity, overeating and adolescence as an age group. We used the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic overeating-induced obesity model with increased preferences for sweet and fat. Adolescent and adult rats from both strains (OLETF and the lean control strain, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) received limited access to a palatable liquid diet (Ensure vanilla) for three weeks. Water and chow were available throughout the study, but access to Ensure was limited to two hours, three times a week (3TW group) or every work day (5TW group). As expected, OLETF rats consumed more Ensure and were more BE-prone (BEP) than LETO rats at both ages. Adolescent rats showed a significantly larger binge size as demonstrated by a greater increase in Ensure intake, compared to adults. Furthermore, while the adults reduced their chow intake, compensating for increased Ensure intake, the adolescents increased their chow intake too. Finally, the adolescent rats showed binge like behavior earlier in the study and they tended to be BEP more than the adults. Our findings in rats suggest that adolescents and in particular obese adolescents are at risk for BE, and BE can lead to overweight, thus providing the basis for examination of biological mechanisms of this process in animal models. PMID:24815316

  17. Adolescent Age Moderates Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Adolescent Positivity and Negativity: Implications for Genotype-Environment Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and non-passive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. Findings indicated that non-passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father- adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than families with younger adolescents, and that passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed. PMID:25924807

  18. Identification with social groups is associated with mental health in adolescents: Evidence from a Scottish community sample.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kirsty; Wakefield, Juliet R H; Sani, Fabio

    2015-08-30

    The promotion and maintenance of mental health is an increasingly important societal issue. Previous research has shown that identification with social groups is positively associated with adult mental wellbeing, with multiple group identifications being particularly beneficial. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the same is true for adolescents. 1111 Scottish secondary school students aged 13-17 completed a questionnaire investigating mental health symptoms and the extent of their identification with their family, school, and friendship groups. Higher identification with each group predicted better mental health. There was also an additive effect of group identification, with the odds of reporting psychiatric disturbance decreasing for every additional group with which participants identified strongly. These effects held even when age, gender, and group contact were controlled for. Our findings have implications for the prevention and treatment of mental problems, offering an alternative to traditional ways of viewing mental illness in adolescence and beyond.

  19. The Protective Role of Group Identity: Sectarian Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Emotion Problems

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    The protective role of strength of group identity was examined for youth in a context of protracted political conflict. Participants included 814 adolescents (M age = 13.61, SD = 1.99 at Time 1) participating in a longitudinal study in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, the results show that the effect of exposure to sectarian antisocial behaviors has a stronger effect on youth emotion problems for older adolescents. The results also show that youth with higher strength of group identity reported fewer emotion problems in the face of sectarian antisocial behavior, but that this buffering effect is stronger for Protestants compared to Catholics. Implications are discussed for understanding the role of social identity in post-accord societies. PMID:23682959

  20. Effect of Age, Sex, and Race Distance on Front Crawl Stroke Parameters in Subelite Adolescent Swimmers During Competition.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, Shilo J; Osborough, Conor D

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of age, sex and race distance on velocity (v), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) of subelite adolescent swimmers in competition, and to investigate their pacing strategies during the 100-m and 200-m events. Video footage of 112 adolescent swimmers (56 female; 56 male), competing in the 100-m and 200-m freestyle events, in two age groups (12-14; 15-18 years) was recorded and subsequently analyzed. A MANOVA showed that all stroke parameters significantly differed between sexes and between race distances. The older adolescents had a higher v, a longer SL and a greater SI (p < .01) than the younger adolescents. There were significant interaction effects between age and sex for v, SL and SI. Most adolescents had a SL that was within 7% of that reported for 1992 Olympians, but had up to 16% lower SRs. Separate Friedman's ANOVAs showed that SL differed between successive race quarters for both age groups, both sexes and both race distances. It is likely that physical immaturity, inexperience in competition pacing and within-race fatigue strongly influence the performances of subelite adolescent front crawl swimmers. PMID:25902554

  1. Effect of Age, Sex, and Race Distance on Front Crawl Stroke Parameters in Subelite Adolescent Swimmers During Competition.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, Shilo J; Osborough, Conor D

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of age, sex and race distance on velocity (v), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) of subelite adolescent swimmers in competition, and to investigate their pacing strategies during the 100-m and 200-m events. Video footage of 112 adolescent swimmers (56 female; 56 male), competing in the 100-m and 200-m freestyle events, in two age groups (12-14; 15-18 years) was recorded and subsequently analyzed. A MANOVA showed that all stroke parameters significantly differed between sexes and between race distances. The older adolescents had a higher v, a longer SL and a greater SI (p < .01) than the younger adolescents. There were significant interaction effects between age and sex for v, SL and SI. Most adolescents had a SL that was within 7% of that reported for 1992 Olympians, but had up to 16% lower SRs. Separate Friedman's ANOVAs showed that SL differed between successive race quarters for both age groups, both sexes and both race distances. It is likely that physical immaturity, inexperience in competition pacing and within-race fatigue strongly influence the performances of subelite adolescent front crawl swimmers.

  2. Adult Age, Gender, and Race Group Differences in Images of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foos, Paul W.; Clark, M. Cherie; Terrell, Debra F.

    2006-01-01

    Younger and older African American and Caucasian American adults, who were matched by age ("M" age = 40.63 years), completed a survey on perceptions of aging and subjective age. The 2 groups did not differ in the age they considered someone to be old ("M" age = 74.5 years). However, when asked which age was the happiest age, African Americans…

  3. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  4. Adolescent perceptions of the National Lottery and scratchcards: a qualitative study using group interviews.

    PubMed

    Woods, Richard T A; Griffiths, Mark D

    2002-12-01

    Recent research has consistently shown that a small but significant minority of youth engage in illegal lottery and scratchcard gambling. It is clear that most adolescents experience few gambling-related problems as a result of lotteries and scratchcards. However, it is less clear how gambling may be affecting them at a more general level. The present study set out to examine in more detail the perceptions identified in a previous survey. The study provided an opportunity for the participants to articulate and outline what they thought were the most salient issues through the use of semi-structured group interviews. Six separate group interviews took place (three groups of six adolescents and three groups of seven adolescents) aged 11-15 years. Results revealed many salient themes including winning money, socialization, different forms of excitement associated with these activities (entertainment, the fantasy of winning, and the "buzz"), control, (personal choice, luck, chance), and awareness of social problems. These are discussed in relation to the previous survey literature.

  5. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one’s health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7–13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of

  6. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one's health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7-13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the

  7. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one's health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7-13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the

  8. Differences by age groups in health care spending.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C R

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents differences by age in health care spending by type of expenditure and by source of funds through 1978. Use of health care services generally increases with age. The average health bill reached $2,026 for the aged in 1978, $764 for the intermediate age group, and $286 for the young. Biological, demographic, and policy factors determine each age group's share of health spending. Public funds financed over three-fifths of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 58 percent. Most of the health expenses of the young age groups were paid by private sources. PMID:10309224

  9. Understanding the Association between Maltreatment History and Adolescent Risk Behavior by Examining Popularity Motivations and Peer Group Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years,…

  10. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis,…

  11. Pressure to Drink but Not to Smoke: Disentangling Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Peer Networks and Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described…

  12. Identity Development as a Buffer of Adolescent Risk Behaviors in the Context of Peer Group Pressure and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…

  13. Altered relationships between age and functional brain activation in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, but whether the adolescent period, proximal to onset, is associated with aberrant development in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis is incompletely understood. While abnormal gray and white matter development has been observed, alterations in functional neuroimaging (fMRI) parameters during adolescence as related to conversion to psychosis have not yet been investigated. Twenty CHR individuals and 19 typically developing controls (TDC), (ages 14-21), were recruited from the Center for Assessment and Prevention of Prodromal States (CAPPS) at UCLA. Participants performed a Sternberg-style verbal working memory (WMem) task during fMRI and data were analyzed using a cross-sectional design to test the hypothesis that there is a deviant developmental trajectory in WMem associated neural circuitry in those at risk for psychosis. Eight of the CHR adolescents converted to psychosis within 2 years of initial assessment. A voxel-wise regression examining the relationship between age and activation revealed a significant group-by-age interaction. TDC showed a negative association between age and functional activation in the WMem circuitry while CHR adolescents showed a positive association. Moreover, CHR patients who later converted to overt psychosis showed a distinct pattern of abnormal age-associated activation in the frontal cortex relative to controls, while non-converters showed a more diffuse posterior pattern. Finding that age related variation in baseline patterns of neural activity differentiate individuals who subsequently convert to psychosis from healthy subjects suggests that these differences are likely to be clinically relevant. PMID:24144510

  14. Altered relationships between age and functional brain activation in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Karlsgodt, Katherine H; van Erp, Theo G M; Bearden, Carrie E; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2014-01-30

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, but whether the adolescent period, proximal to onset, is associated with aberrant development in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis is incompletely understood. While abnormal gray and white matter development has been observed, alterations in functional neuroimaging (fMRI) parameters during adolescence as related to conversion to psychosis have not yet been investigated. Twenty CHR individuals and 19 typically developing controls (TDC), (ages 14-21), were recruited from the Center for Assessment and Prevention of Prodromal States (CAPPS) at UCLA. Participants performed a Sternberg-style verbal working memory (WMem) task during fMRI and data were analyzed using a cross-sectional design to test the hypothesis that there is a deviant developmental trajectory in WMem associated neural circuitry in those at risk for psychosis. Eight of the CHR adolescents converted to psychosis within 2 years of initial assessment. A voxel-wise regression examining the relationship between age and activation revealed a significant group-by-age interaction. TDC showed a negative association between age and functional activation in the WMem circuitry while CHR adolescents showed a positive association. Moreover, CHR patients who later converted to overt psychosis showed a distinct pattern of abnormal age-associated activation in the frontal cortex relative to controls, while non-converters showed a more diffuse posterior pattern. Finding that age related variation in baseline patterns of neural activity differentiate individuals who subsequently convert to psychosis from healthy subjects suggests that these differences are likely to be clinically relevant. PMID:24144510

  15. Age variation in use of a contraceptive service by adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Philliber, S G; Namerow, P B; Jones, J E

    1985-01-01

    During the past decade, much has been written about adolescents' use of contraception and their experience of pregnancy. Few researchers, however, have distinguished between the experiences of older and younger adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to provide such a comparison. The data were collected during more than 7,000 visits made by 4,318 patients during almost 5 years of operation of an adolescent contraceptive service in the Washington Heights area of New York City. Characteristics of four groups--14 years and younger, 15-17 years, 18-19 years, and 20-21 years--were examined. The youngest teens initiated sexual intercourse 4 years earlier than the oldest group. Among those 14 or younger, 87 percent had never used contraception, and 9 percent had been pregnant. In the oldest group, more than two-thirds had used a contraceptive method, and three-fifths had already experienced a pregnancy. Results of multivariate analyses indicate that older teens are more likely to come to the clinic for contraception and to be consistent users of the first method of contraception that they select. On the other hand, younger teens are significantly more likely to revisit the clinic and to be pregnant at a second or later visit. PMID:3918321

  16. African American Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease: Support Groups and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marilyn M.; Telfair, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Studied the impact of support groups on the psychological well-being of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Response of 79 adolescent SCD group members show that psychological well-being was best predicted by fewer physical symptoms and greater satisfaction with the group. Findings suggest the beneficial effects of SCD support groups. (SLD)

  17. Self-esteem and emotional health in adolescents--gender and age as potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A

    2012-12-01

    The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (depression and anxiety) and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1,209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway. The results showed that girls reported higher scores on state anxiety and state depression, whereas boys consistently scored higher on self-esteem in all age groups. Self-esteem was strongly and inversely associated with both state depression and state anxiety. An interaction effect of gender by self-esteem was found on state depression, where the association was stronger for girls than for boys. The associations found give support for the positive role of self-esteem in relation to adolescents' emotional health and well-being.

  18. Interactive Performance and Focus Groups with Adolescents: The Power of Play

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anne E.; Aroian, Karen J.; Warren, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Conducting focus groups with adolescents can be challenging given their developmental needs, particularly with sensitive topics. These challenges include intense need for peer approval, declining social trust, short attention span, and reliance on concrete operations thinking. In this article we describe an adaptation of interactive performance as an alternative to traditional focus group method. We used this method in a study of discrimination experienced by Muslims (ages 13-17) and of peer pressure to engage in sexual behavior experienced by Hispanic girls (ages 10-14). Recommendations for use of this method include using an interdisciplinary team, planning for large amounts of disclosure towards the end of the focus group, and considering the fit of this method to the study topic. PMID:22949032

  19. Self-esteem: a comparative study of adolescents from mainstream and minority religious groups in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Ayub, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the level of self-esteem among religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) by making a comparison with their dominant counterparts (Muslims) in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that adolescents of religious minorities would have lower level of self-esteem than their dominant counterparts. In the present study 320 adolescents participated, in which 160 adolescents belonged to minority religious groups (i.e. 76 Christians and 84 Hindus) and 160 adolescents belonged to dominant religious group i.e. Muslims. To assess self-esteem of the participants, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg in Society and the adolescent self image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1965) was used. One Way Analysis of Variance reveals that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) inclined to have lower self-esteem as compared to their dominant counterpart (Muslim adolescents). PMID:22699828

  20. Self-esteem: a comparative study of adolescents from mainstream and minority religious groups in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Ayub, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the level of self-esteem among religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) by making a comparison with their dominant counterparts (Muslims) in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that adolescents of religious minorities would have lower level of self-esteem than their dominant counterparts. In the present study 320 adolescents participated, in which 160 adolescents belonged to minority religious groups (i.e. 76 Christians and 84 Hindus) and 160 adolescents belonged to dominant religious group i.e. Muslims. To assess self-esteem of the participants, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg in Society and the adolescent self image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1965) was used. One Way Analysis of Variance reveals that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) inclined to have lower self-esteem as compared to their dominant counterpart (Muslim adolescents).

  1. Health for Adolescents and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…

  2. Dating age and stage as correlates of adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, B C; Mccoy, J K; Olson, T D

    1986-01-01

    Dating experiences, especially the type or stage of dating, have consistently been found to be related to premarital sexual behavior. Findings regarding the age at 1st date and sexual behavior have been less consistent. This paper examined the age at which dating began and the type of dating relationship as correlates of premarital sexual attitudes and behavior among mid-teen adolescents. The analyses were based on a sample of high school students (n=836), most of whom were between the ages of 15 and 18 when the surveys were conducted. Early dating, especially early steady dating, was related to permissive attitudes and to premarital sexual experience among both males and females. The relationship between early dating and intercourse experience was particulary strong among Mormons, a religious group which has institutionalized age 16 as the legitimate age to begin dating. PMID:12341601

  3. Age-Sensitive Effect of Adolescent Dating Experience on Delinquency and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ryang Hui

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a developmental perspective and focuses on examining whether the impact of adolescent dating is age-sensitive. Dating at earlier ages is hypothesized to have a stronger effect on adolescent criminal behavior or substance use, but the effect would be weaker as one ages. The data obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of…

  4. Adolescents' Domain-Specific Judgments about Different Forms of Civic Involvement: Variations by Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Ferris, Kaitlyn

    2013-01-01

    Domain-specific judgments about different forms of civic engagement were assessed in a sample 467 primarily White adolescents (M age = 15.26, range = 11-19). Adolescents reported on the obligatory nature and social praiseworthiness (respect) of different forms of civic involvement. Adolescents distinguished among four different categories of civic…

  5. How Adolescents Use Technology for Health Information: Implications for Health Professionals from Focus Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Biscope, Sherry; Poland, Blake; Goldberg, Eudice

    2003-01-01

    Background Adolescents present many challenges in providing them effective preventive services and health care. Yet, they are typically the early adopters of new technology (eg, the Internet). This creates important opportunities for engaging youths via eHealth. Objective To describe how adolescents use technology for their health-information needs, identify the challenges they face, and highlight some emerging roles of health professionals regarding eHealth services for adolescents. Methods Using an inductive qualitative research design, 27 focus groups were conducted in Ontario, Canada. The 210 participants (55% female, 45% male; median age 16 years) were selected to reflect diversity in age, sex, geographic location, cultural identity, and risk. An 8-person team analyzed and coded the data according to major themes. Results Study participants most-frequently sought or distributed information related to school (89%), interacting with friends (85%), social concerns (85%), specific medical conditions (67%), body image and nutrition (63%), violence and personal safety (59%), and sexual health (56%). Finding personally-relevant, high-quality information was a pivotal challenge that has ramifications on the depth and types of information that adolescents can find to answer their health questions. Privacy in accessing information technology was a second key challenge. Participants reported using technologies that clustered into 4 domains along a continuum from highly-interactive to fixed information sources: (1) personal communication: telephone, cell phone, and pager; (2) social communication: e-mail, instant messaging, chat, and bulletin boards; (3) interactive environments: Web sites, search engines, and computers; and (4) unidirectional sources: television, radio, and print. Three emerging roles for health professionals in eHealth include: (1) providing an interface for adolescents with technology and assisting them in finding pertinent information sources; (2

  6. The co-construction of adolescent narrative identity: narrative processing as a function of adolescent age, gender, and maternal scaffolding.

    PubMed

    McLean, Kate C; Mansfield, Cade D

    2012-03-01

    The current study aimed to situate the development of adolescent narrative identity in the context of past-event conversations between adolescents and their mothers, extending work on conversational contexts in early childhood to adolescence. We examined a cross-section of 63 adolescents with 2 goals: (1) to examine how adolescent age and gender interacted with mothers' scaffolding behaviors and how those interactions were associated with adolescents' narrative processes of meaning-making, vulnerability, and resolution; (2) to examine mothers' behaviors in conversation and how the interactions between those behaviors and event type (important, sad, and happy themes) were associated with those narrative processes. We found that maternal behavior in the conversation was related to adolescent narrative processes, yet this link varied as a function of characteristics of the adolescent and type of event discussed. Overall results suggest that those with potentially less practice at narrating the self in elaborative ways--younger adolescents and boys--receive more supportive scaffolding, and that for those with likely more practice with elaborative narration--girls and older adolescents--mothers engage in more negation behavior. The role of these scaffolding behaviors in adolescent narrative identity development is discussed.

  7. Group behavioral therapy for adolescents with tic-related and non-tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Himle, Joseph A; Fischer, Daniel J; Van Etten, Michelle L; Janeck, Amy S; Hanna, Gregory L

    2003-01-01

    Prior research supports the distinction between tic-related and non-tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on phenomenologic, etiologic, and neurobehavioral data. The present study examines whether response to psychosocial treatment differs in adolescents, depending on the presence of comorbid tics. Nineteen adolescents, 12-17 years of age, participated in 7-week, uncontrolled trial of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for OCD. Eight of the patients had tic-related and eleven had non-tic-related OCD. The group CBT program included psycho-education, exposure and response prevention, cognitive strategies, and family involvement. Significant improvement was observed for all subjects on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale ratings of obsessions, compulsions, and total OCD symptoms. Outcomes were similar for subjects with tic-related and non-tic-related OCD. These preliminary results suggest that the presence of comorbid tic disorders may not attenuate response to behavioral group treatment among adolescents.

  8. Pressure to drink but not to smoke: disentangling selection and socialization in adolescent peer networks and peer groups.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-12-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described their alcohol and tobacco use on two occasions one year apart. Actor-based models simultaneously examined changes in peer network ties and changes in individual behaviors for all participants within each school. Multi-level analyses examined changes in individual behaviors for adolescents entering new peer groups and adolescents in stable peer groups, both of which were embedded within the school-based peer networks. Similar results emerged from both analytic methods: Selection and socialization contributed to similarity of alcohol use, but only selection was a factor in tobacco use.

  9. The third molar as an age marker in adolescents: new approach to age evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rozkovcova, Eva; Dostalova, Tatjana; Markova, Marie; Broukal, Zdenek

    2012-09-01

    Adolescence is a relatively short period between childhood and adulthood. It is very difficult to determine adulthood based on biological indicators. The third molar may be considered a potential age marker for the period between the ages of 16-21. Our study evaluated a set of 1700 panoramic radiographs of individuals aged between 5 and 21 years. Results confirmed the statistically significant difference in the course of third molars development. The mean deviation for individuals with one third molar agenesis is -0.98 years, for individuals with two third molars agenesis -1.89 years, and with three molars agenesis -3.28 years. Thus, the extent of the deviation is directly proportional to the number of unformed third molars. The calculation of age according to the mean of stages of all third molars could lead to the underestimation of age. No intergender differences were found. Age determination using third molars could be used for forensic purposes.

  10. The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…

  11. How Can Peer Group Influence the Behavior of Adolescents: Explanatory Model

    PubMed Central

    Tomé, Gina; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Simões, Celeste; Camacho, Inês; AlvesDiniz, José

    2012-01-01

    The current work aims to study both the peer group and family influence on adolescent behaviour. In order to achieve the aforementioned objective, an explanatory model based on the Structural Equations Modelling (SEM)was proposed. The sample used was the group of adolescents that participated in the Portuguese survey of the European study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). The Portuguese survey included students from grades 6, 8 and 10 within the public education system, with an average age of 14 years old (SD=1.89). The total sample of the HBSC study carried out in 2006 was 4,877; however with the use of the SEM, 1,238 participants were lost out of the total sample. The results show that peers have a direct influence in adolescents’ risk behaviours. The relationship with parents did not demonstrate the expected mediation effect, with the exception of the following elements: relation between type of friends and risk behaviour; and communication with parent and lesser involvement in violence behaviours and increased well-being. The negative influence of the peer group is more connected to the involvement in risk behaviours, whilst the positive influence is more connected with protective behaviours. PMID:22980148

  12. Peer relationship antecedents of delinquent behavior in late adolescence: Is there evidence of demographic group differences in developmental processes?

    PubMed Central

    LAIRD, ROBERT D.; PETTIT, GREGORY S.; DODGE, KENNETH A.; BATES, JOHN E.

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal prospective design was used to test the generalizability of low levels of social preference and high levels of antisocial peer involvement as risk factors for delinquent behavior problems to African American (AA) and European American (EA) boys and girls (N = 384). Social preference scores were computed from peer reports in middle childhood (ages 6–9). Parents and adolescents reported antisocial peer involvement in early adolescence (ages 13–16) and adolescents reported on their own delinquent behavior in late adolescence (ages 17 and 18). Analyses tested for differences across four groups (AA boys, EA boys, AA girls, EA girls) in construct measurement, mean levels, and associations among variables. Few measurement differences were found. Mean-level differences were found for social preference and delinquent behavior. AA boys were least accepted by peers and reported the highest level of delinquent behavior. EA girls were most accepted by peers and reported the lowest level of delinquent behavior. Associations among peer experiences and delinquent behavior were equivalent across groups, with lower levels of social preference and higher levels of antisocial peer involvement associated with more delinquent behavior. Person-centered analyses showed the risk associated with low social preference and high antisocial peer involvement to be similar across groups, providing further evidence of the generalizability of the peer relationship experiences as risk factors for subsequent delinquent behavior problems. PMID:15971763

  13. Age determination by magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist in adolescent male football players

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Jiri; George, John; Junge, Astrid; Hodler, Juerg

    2007-01-01

    Background In football there are established age‐related tournaments for males and females to guarantee equal chances within the game for all the different age groups. To prevent participation in the incorrect age group, and owing to the fact that in some Asian and African countries registration at birth is not compulsory, other methods of age determination need to be available. Standard radiographs of the left wrist have been used for assessment of skeletal age for many years. This is, however, not ethical in the sporting environment. Aim To study the possible use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has no radiation risk, in estimating the age of healthy adolescent football players. Methods The examination protocol was applied in four countries using, their respective MRI equipment using a 1‐T or 1.5‐T magnet and a wrist coil. 496 healthy male adolescent football players between the ages of 14 and 19 years from Switzerland, Malaysia, Algeria and Argentina were selected for the study. The degree of fusion of the left distal radial physis was determined by three independent raters by a newly developed grading system which can be used in future MRI epiphysial fusion grading studies. Results The inter‐rater reliability for grading was high (r = 0.91 and 0.92); all correlations were highly significant (p<0.001). The average age increased with a higher grading of fusion, and the correlation between age and grade of fusion was highly significant (r = 0.69, p<0.001). Only one player (0.8%) in the 16‐year‐old age group was graded as completely fused. Conclusion MRI of the wrist offers an alternative as a non‐invasive method of age determination in 14–19‐year‐old male adolescents. The grading system presented here clearly identifies the skeletal maturity by complete fusion in all MRI slices, which eliminates any risk associated with standard radiographic rating as determined by the International Atomic Energy Agency. PMID:17021001

  14. [Construction of age group vegetation index and preliminary application].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhang-hua; Li, Cong-hui; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-yong; Gong, Cong-hong; Tang, Meng-ya

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, one remote sensing index-age group vegetation index (AGVI) was put forward, and its feasibility was verified. Taking 518 groups of pine forest age group data collected in 13 counties (cities) of Sanming, Jiangle, Shaxian, Nanping, Huaan, Yunxiao, Nanping, Anxi, Putian, Changting, Jianyang, Ningde and Fuqing, Fujian Province and HJ-1 CCD multi-spectral image at the same time-phase as the basis, the spectrum differences of blue, green, red, near infrared and NDVI of each age group were analyzed, showing the characteristics of young forest>middle-aged forest>over-mature forest>mature forest>near mature forest at near infrared band and mature forest>near mature forest>over-mature forest>young forest>middle-aged forest at NDVI, thus the age group vegetation index (AGVI) was constructed; the index could increase the absolute and relative spectrum differences among age groups. For the pine forest AGVI, cluster analysis was conducted with K-mean method, showing that the division accuracy of pine forest age group was 80.45%, and the accurate rate was 90.41%. Therefore, the effectiveness of age group vegetation index constructed was confirmed.

  15. Ephedra Use in a Select Group of Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    P. Schaefer, Michael; Smith, Jay; L. Dahm, Diane; C. Sorenson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Ephedra-containing dietary supplements are consumed to improve sports performace, but may carry risks of cardiac and neurological adverse events. Little is known of their use by young athletes. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and patterns of ephedra use among high school athletes. An anonymous survey was performed in Rochester, Minnesota on high school athletes who participated in fall sports during 2003-04. Parental consent was obtained for athletes under age 18 years. Surveys were distributed at preparticipation examinations and in- school survey stations. The response rate to the survey was 68.2%, or 311 respondents out of a possible 456 with consent (or 26% of all 1197 athletes eligible prior to the consent process). Seven of 311 (2.3%) respondents used dietary supplements containing ephedra. Only one of seven users (14.3%) knew that the supplements they used contained ephedra. Ephedra use was more common in boys (five) than girls (two). Ephedra use was only found in 17 and 18-year-olds. The most common sports among ephedra users were football, track and field, and weightlifting. This study suggests that Ephedra use was infrequent among the young athletes in this population. However, ephedra users were generally unaware that the dietary supplements they consumed contained ephedra. Users were more likely to participate in football, track and field, and weightlifting. Ephedra users were likely to obtain supplements from their peers, and were largely uninformed of the content of their supplements. Key Points Ephedra is an herbal stimulant used as an ergogenic aide. Adolescent ephedra users most commonly obtain it from their friends. Adolescent athletes are likely to take ephedra unknowningly. PMID:24353458

  16. Brain tumors in children and adolescents: cognitive and psychological disorders at different ages.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Geraldina; Liscio, Mariarosaria; Galbiati, Susanna; Adduci, Annarita; Massimino, Maura; Gandola, Lorenza; Spreafico, Filippo; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Fossati-Bellani, Franca; Sommovigo, Michela; Castelli, Enrico

    2005-05-01

    Cognitive and psychological disorders are among the most frequently observed sequelae in brain tumor survivors. The goal of this work was to verify the presence of these disorders in a group of children and adolescents diagnosed with brain tumor before age 18 years, differentiate these disorders according to age of assessment, identify correlations between the two types of impairments and define possible associations between these impairments and clinical variables. The study involved 76 patients diagnosed with brain tumor before age 18 years. Three age groups were formed, and all the patients received a standardized battery of age-matched cognitive and psychological tests. According to our findings, all three groups present with cognitive and psychological-behavioral disorders. Their frequency varies according to age of onset and is strongly associated to time since diagnosis. The performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) was more impaired than the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ). Internalizing problems, withdrawal and social problems were the most frequent psychological disorders. Correlations were found between cognitive impairment and the onset of the main psychological and behavioral disorders. These findings are relevant as they point out the long-term outcome of brain tumor survivors. Hence, the recommendation to diversify psychological interventions and rehabilitation plans according to the patients' age.

  17. Adolescent peer group identification and characteristics: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Pokhrel, Pallav; Ashmore, Richard D.; Brown, B. Bradford

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an exhaustive review of 44 peer-reviewed quantitative or qualitative data-based peer-reviewed studies completed on adolescent peer group identification. Adolescent peer group identification is one’s self-perceived or other-perceived membership in discrete teenage peer groups. The studies reviewed suggest that adolescent peer groups consist of five general categories differentiable by lifestyle characteristics: Elites, Athletes, Academics, Deviants, and Others. We found that the Deviant adolescent group category reported relatively greater participation in drug use and other problem behaviors across studies, whereas Academics and Athletes exhibited the least participation in these problem behaviors. Additional research is needed in this arena to better understand the operation of adolescent group labels. PMID:17188815

  18. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.

  19. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population. PMID:26697266

  20. Engaging Urban Parents of Early Adolescents in Parenting Interventions: Home Visits vs. Group Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with parents to strengthen parenting practices and to promote healthy development of early adolescents are needed. This exploratory mixed methods study examined the feasibility of three methods of engaging parents in positive parenting activities. Participants were parents of youth ages 11–13 enrolled in three urban, public middle schools in neighborhoods characterized by high rates of community violence. Families (N = 144) were randomized into one of three interventions: six home sessions, two home sessions followed by four group sessions, or six group sessions. The majority of parents were single, non-Hispanic, African American mothers. Urban parents of middle school students were more likely to participate in home visits than in group sessions; offering a combination did not increase participation in the group sessions. As only 34% of those who consented participated in the intervention, qualitative data were examined to explain the reasons for non-participation. PMID:27122960

  1. Age and Gender Differences in Coping Style across Various Problems: Omani Adolescents' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bahrani, Muna; Aldhafri, Said; Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali; Alzubiadi, Abdulqawi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…

  2. "Not in the Middle Ages"?: Alan Garner's "The Owl Service" and the Literature of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses connecting with the Middle Ages in adolescent fiction. Discusses how, in "The Owl Service," Garner addresses a relationship between adolescence in the late twentieth century and an aspect of the past--specifically the Middle Ages. Considers how "The Owl Service" is a story energized by myth, concerning the participation of successive…

  3. Parent-Child Interaction and Adolescents' Future Orientation: The Effects of Age and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    A number of studies have shown that parent-child interaction influences the manner in which adolescents see their future. In an investigation designed to determine whether this influence varies according to the child's age and sex, 57 Finnish adolescents were interviewed at ages 11 and 15 about their hopes for the future. The internality,…

  4. Measurement Invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale across Gender and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…

  5. The Educational Needs of the 16-19 Age Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janne, Henri; Geminard, Lucien

    Reports for the Council of Europe were the basis for this study of the educational needs of the 16-19 age group. The first of four sections, on sociological aspects, contains five chapters: socio-cultural characteristics of the 16-19 age group; quantitative aspects of education; equality of educational opportunity; and an overview of the…

  6. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  7. Urban and Rural Chinese Adolescents' Judgments and Reasoning about Personal and Group Jurisdiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Charles C.; Yang, Shaogang; Tan, Dingliang; Liu, Chunqiong; Shao, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    This research applied social domain theory to illuminate reasoning about the perceived legitimacy and limits of group decision making (majority rule) among adolescents from urban and rural China (N = 160). Study 1 revealed that adolescents from both urban and rural China judged group decision making as acceptable for both social conventional and…

  8. Utilizing Mutual Aid in Reducing Adolescent Substance Use and Developing Group Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogro-Wilson, Cristina; Letendre, Joan; Toi, Hiroki; Bryan, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of mutual aid groups for high school students. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was applied to 242 adolescents, where every other adolescent was assigned to the intervention or the control condition. The study evaluated the influence of implementing mutual aid groups in decreasing perceived risk…

  9. Similarity of risk and protective behaviors among African-American pre- and early adolescent members of naturally occurring friendship groups.

    PubMed

    Fang, X; Stanton, B; Li, X; Romer, D; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S

    1996-01-01

    To determine whether self-reported risk and protective behaviors, expectations, and attitudes are more similar among African-American early adolescents within a community-based friendship group than across groups, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 382 African-American youth 9 through 15 years of age forming 76 community-based groups of 3 through 10 same-gender friends. Each member of the friendship group reported his/her own past involvement in nine risk behaviors (sexual intercourse, substance abuse, drug-trafficking, and other delinquent activities) and two protective behaviors (high academic performance and regular church attendance) and their expectations and feelings regarding several of these behaviors. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated overall and by gender and age. Members were generally more similar within friendship groups than across groups with regard to several risk behaviors and expectations including sexual intercourse and drug-trafficking. Particularly striking was the similarity among members of "junior" friendship groups (e.g., median age of youth < 11 years) of both risk and protective behaviors and expectations. The finding of enhanced similarity of risk behaviors and expectations among members within groups suggests that intervention delivery through community-based friendship groups may be a useful approach for risk prevention efforts targeting pre-adolescent African-American youth living in low-income settings. PMID:8982522

  10. A Randomized Depression Prevention Trial Comparing Interpersonal Psychotherapy--Adolescent Skills Training to Group Counseling in Schools.

    PubMed

    Young, Jami F; Benas, Jessica S; Schueler, Christie M; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E; Mufson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset.

  11. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  12. Family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy: study of a group of adolescent girls and their families in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guijarro, S; Naranjo, J; Padilla, M; Gutiérez, R; Lammers, C; Blum, R W

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents the study on the family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy among adolescent girls and their families in Quito, Ecuador. The study aimed to identify characteristics within the family associated with adolescent pregnancy. A total of 135 female adolescents (aged 12-19 years) and their families were separately interviewed. 47 were pregnant and attending prenatal care at an inner city hospital in Quito, and 88 were nonpregnant students from schools located within the same geographical area. Results showed that when compared to their pregnant peers, more nonpregnant adolescents lived with their biological parents (p 0.002); they showed higher school performance (p 0.001); and more values and religiosity (p 0.0001). Pregnant adolescents reported lower mother-daughter and father-daughter communication (p 0.02), lesser life satisfaction in general, and more school and economic difficulties (p 0.001). Moreover, they were less likely to find support for their problems in or outside the family (p 0.0001) and showed higher levels of depression (68.8%) and sexual abuse (14.9%). Parental education was higher in the families of nonpregnant adolescents and both parents worked to provide financial support for the family.

  13. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  14. Food group intake and micronutrient adequacy in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lynn L; Singer, Martha R; Qureshi, M Mustafa; Bradlee, M Loring; Daniels, Stephen R

    2012-11-01

    This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9-13, 14-18, and 19-20 years). Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA) recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine's recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the "meat" group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy) from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy. PMID:23201841

  15. Personality-situation transactions from adolescence to old age.

    PubMed

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-05-01

    People presumably choose and create their daily environments according to their personality. Prior research shows that, for example, more extraverted people engage more often in social situations, and more conscientious people engage more often in work-related activities compared with less extraverted or less conscientious people, respectively. The current study examined such personality-situation transactions in people's daily life. Based on the assumption that older people know themselves and their personality better than younger people, we investigated whether momentary and proximate personality-situation associations (i.e., changing from 1 type of situation into another) increase with older age. Three-hundred and 78 people aged 14 to 82 years described their Big Five traits and took part in a 3-week experience-sampling phase. Using mobile-phone based assessments in daily life, participants reported on average 55 times on their momentary situation. Multilevel modeling results showed that personality-situation associations varied with the age of participants. Some of the "established" personality-situation associations, such as for extraversion and time spent with friends or conscientiousness and time spent with work activities, were only observed in adolescence and young adulthood. In contrast, other personality-situation associations appeared only in late adulthood, such as for openness and time spent with friends. Yet most personality-situation associations did not vary significantly with people's age. In addition, personality traits predicted maintaining or entering personality-congruent situations. The latter results point to the active role of personality in shaping one's environment. The findings imply that some personality-situation transactions may be largely similarly across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26167797

  16. Language Assessment Methods for Three Age Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ann R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes results of a survey of licensed Midwestern school-based speech-language pathologists (N=326) regarding methods used to assess the language of children ages 3 to 5 years, 6 to 11 years, and 12 to 18 years. Striking similarities were found in methods used for each age group. The relationship of these methods to recommended…

  17. When Does the Gender Difference in Rumination Begin? Gender and Age Differences in the Use of Rumination by Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.; Brown, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    A cross-sectional non-clinical sample of 1,218 adolescents, aged 10-17 years, completed measures of stress, rumination, and depression to allow tests of the response style theory of S. Nolen-Hoeksema [J Res Adolesc 4:519-534, 1994] in adolescents, in particular whether increasing levels of stress and rumination in early adolescence are predictive…

  18. Adolescents' Information Behavior When Isolated from Peer Groups: Lessons from New Immigrant Adolescents' Everyday Life Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Joung Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how isolated immigrant adolescents seek and use necessary information when they are not able to use significant information sources--their peer groups--in the period of transition before new peer groups are established. Method: To achieve the study's purpose, sixteen recently arrived (three…

  19. The role of family and peer relations in adolescent antisocial behaviour: comparison of four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Deković, Maja; Wissink, Inge B; Marie Meijer, Anne

    2004-10-01

    The dominant theories about the development of antisocial behaviour during adolescence are based almost entirely on research conducted with mainstream, white, middle-class adolescents. The present study addresses this significant gap in the literature by examining whether the same model of family and peer influence on antisocial behaviour is applicable to adolescents belonging to different ethnic groups. The sample included 603 adolescents (318 females and 285 males) from four ethnic groups: 68% of adolescents were Dutch, 11% were Moroccan, 13% were Turkish and 8% were Surinamese. The questionnaires assessing antisocial behaviour, quality of parent-adolescent relationship and involvement with deviant peers were completed by adolescents individually at schools. Results show few ethnic differences in the mean level of the assessed constructs: adolescents from different ethnic groups show similar levels of antisocial behaviour, are to a similar degree satisfied with their relationships with parents, disclose as much information to them, and do not differ in their involvement with deviant peers. However, the associations of parent and peer relations with antisocial behaviour differed across the ethnic groups.

  20. Psychological Subtyping Finds Pathological, Impulsive, and "Normal" Groups among Adolescents Who Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research to date suggests that as many as 12-15% of young people engage in self-harm behaviour; however, the current understanding of the psychological basis of adolescent self-harm is limited. The objective was to determine whether adolescents who self-harm are a psychologically homogenous group. It was hypothesised that psychological…

  1. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  2. 14 Week Group Counselling Proposal for Increasing Self-Esteem in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Katherine; Mills, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    This psychoeducational counselling group is designed to explore the many facets of the emerging female adolescent identity and foster a high level of self-esteem. According to Powell (2004) adolescence is a time, and even more so for females, which can be marked by many identity conflicts and low levels of self-esteem. As such, this 14 week…

  3. Experiences of Adolescents Participating in a Developmental Peer Group Counselling Career Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Janet N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study, part of a larger study that tested 6 counseling workshops based on a "Life Skills" developmental group model, involved a thematic analysis of taped descriptions of experiences of 27 adolescents in relation to their career aspirations and participation in an adolescent developmental peer counseling program at House of Shalom, a youth…

  4. Adolescents' Motivation for Reading: Group Differences and Relation to Standardized Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Denton, Carolyn A.; York, Mary J.; Francis, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on adolescents' motivation for reading by examining important group differences and the relation of motivation to standardized achievement. Adolescents (N = 406) ranging from grade 7 to grade 12 completed a self-report survey that assessed 13 different aspects of their reading motivation…

  5. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    PubMed

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  6. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores. PMID:25540495

  7. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  8. The negative effects of prejudice on interpersonal relationships within adolescent peer groups.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Mereish, Ethan H; Birkett, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Social development theories highlight the centrality of peer groups during adolescence and their role in socializing attitudes and behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we tested the effects of group-level prejudice on ensuing positive and negative interpersonal interactions among peers over a 7-month period. We used social network analysis to identify peer groups based on sociometric nominations, followed by multilevel modeling of the effects of sexual prejudice at the group level on interpersonal interactions among individuals in these groups. As hypothesized, the interpersonal interactions in peer groups with stronger group-level sexual prejudice were distinct from and poorer than those in groups with weaker group-level sexual prejudice. Moreover, longitudinal models indicated that adolescents in groups with stronger initial sexual prejudice reported worse interpersonal interactions with their peers seven months later. These findings provide a contextual understanding of prejudice and its negative effects on how adolescents come to relate with one another over time.

  9. Tobacco Cessation Treatment for Alaska Native Adolescents: Group Randomized Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco cessation treatments have not been evaluated among Alaska Native (AN) adolescents. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and the potential efficacy of a targeted cessation intervention for AN youth using a group randomized design. Methods: Eight villages in western Alaska were randomly assigned to receive the intervention (n = 4 villages) or a delayed treatment control condition (written materials only; n = 4 villages). Ten adolescents aged 12–17 years were targeted from each village with a planned enrollment of 80. The intervention was held over a weekend, and youth traveled from their villages to quit tobacco use with other teens. The intervention comprised 8hr of group-based counseling. Talking circles, personal stories from elders, and recreational activities were included to enhance cultural acceptability and participation. Newsletters were mailed weekly for 5-weeks postprogram. Assessments were conducted at baseline, week 6 (end-of-treatment), and 6 months. Self-reported tobacco abstinence was confirmed with salivary cotinine. Results: Recruitment targets were met in the intervention (41 enrolled) but not in control villages (27 enrolled). All intervention participants attended the weekend program. Retention was high; 98% of intervention and 86% of control participants completed 6-month follow-up. The 7-day point-prevalence self-reported tobacco abstinence rates for intervention and control participants were 10% (4/41) and 0% (0/27) at both week 6 and 6 months (p = .15). Only 1 adolescent in the intervention condition was biochemically confirmed abstinent at week 6 and none at 6 months. Conclusion: The intensive individual-focused intervention used in this study was feasible but not effective for tobacco cessation among AN youth. Alternative approaches are warranted. PMID:24532352

  10. Cultural Orientation in Asian American Adolescents: Variation by Age and Ethnic Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…

  11. The Conception of Risk in Minority Young Adolescents Aged 12-14 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…

  12. Adolescents' Perceptions of Male Involvement in Relational Aggression: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Curt; Heath, Melissa Allen; Bailey, Benjamin M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Yamawaki, Niwako; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared age and gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of male involvement in relational aggression (RA). After viewing two of four video clips portraying RA, each participating adolescent (N = 314; Grades 8-12) answered questions related to rationalizing bullying behaviors--specifically minimizing bullying, blaming…

  13. [Evaluation of nutritional habits, nutritional status and physical performance in selected group of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jeszka, J; Zielke, M; Bajerska, J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was the assessment of nutritional status and nutritional habits as well as physical fitness in a group of 74 adolescents (44 girls and 30 boys) aged 13-19 years, spending their holidays in a recreation centre in Klodzko Valley and the evaluation of correlation coefficients between these parameters. The nutritional status (NS) was evaluated on the basis of body mass index (BMI), skin folds thickness and total body fat (FM). Nutritional habits (NH) were estimated by the method of dietary history with special attention paid to consumption of selected food products and regularity of meals. Physical performance (PhP) of the group was assessed by Harvard's step-test. Evaluation of nutritional habits indicated only a few cases of improper nutrition but about 33% of total examined group followed nutrition guidelines and the scores of NH received by the main part of this group (ca. 66%) were recognised as sufficient. Differences of NS, in adolescents were found, but there was no case of obesity. Significant number of girls (21-55%) showed low values of BMI (<18.4 kg/m2) which could indicate insufficient energy intake. No correlation between NH and NS was however found. Level of physical fitness of the examined group was quite high and strongly correlated with nutritional habits (r = 0.77, p < 0.001). The results proved that the relationship between NH and PhP can be noticed in relatively young persons and that the evaluation of NS of youngsters should include a simple physical performance test.

  14. The Role of Adolescents' Morality and Identity in Volunteering. Age and Gender Differences in a Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Goethem, Anne A. J.; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Boom, Jan; de Castro, Bram Orobio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explain adolescents' volunteering in terms of their morality and identity and to examine the moderation effect of gender and age in this process. Data were collected among 698 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 20 (M = 15.19; SD = 1.43). Adolescents' moral reasoning was positively associated with understanding moral issues…

  15. Toward Excellence in Treatment Services for Adolescents. Submitted by Adolescent Study Group to the Center for Substance Abuse Services, Michigan Department of Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing. Center for Substance Abuse Services.

    An Adolescent Study Group was established by the Michigan Department of Public Health/Center for Substance Abuse Services (MCPH/CSAS) to examine the current delivery system of substance abuse treatment services for adolescents. The primary focus was on treatment services for alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) problems among adolescents in…

  16. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  17. Coming of Age Ethnically: Teaching Young Adolescents of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Geneva

    1994-01-01

    Examines the current status of cultural diversity in middle school education theory, suggests some developmental characteristics of young adolescents of color that are often overlooked, and proposes some ways that middle school education could be modified to be more responsive to the ethnic and cultural diversity of early adolescents. (SM)

  18. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Clinical phenotype among a high-risk group of children and adolescents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Seung; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Lee, Hae Kook; Chambers, Christina D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and phenotype of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or spectrum disorders (FASD) in Korea. This study was performed to describe the distribution of alcohol-related physical features in a genetically homogeneous sample of children and adolescents in institutional settings in Korea. Children and adolescents receiving services in one of seven institutions in Seoul, Korea were screened for growth deficiency. Those who screened positive were assessed using a structured protocol for the key cardinal features of FAS, and for 11 additional alcohol-related dysmorphologic features. Based on these findings, children and adolescents were categorized as FAS, Deferred (some characteristic features of FAS), and No FAS. Groups were compared on the prevalence of specific additional features and number of additional features, stratified by gender and age. Of 307 children and adolescents screened, 87 received the dysmorphology evaluation. Thirteen were classified as FAS, 44 Deferred, and 30 No FAS. The frequency of 10 of the 11 additional alcohol-related features did not differ significantly by FAS category. Palmar crease abnormalities were more common in FAS (53.8%) than in the Deferred category (25.0%) or the No FAS category (6.7%) (P = 0.003). A high prevalence across all groups was found for midfacial hypoplasia and epicanthal folds, whereas only one child exhibited ptosis. This study suggests that an FASD phenotype variant related to ethnic differences in the range of defects specific to prenatal alcohol exposure may be present in the Korean population.

  19. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Clinical phenotype among a high-risk group of children and adolescents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Seung; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Lee, Hae Kook; Chambers, Christina D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and phenotype of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or spectrum disorders (FASD) in Korea. This study was performed to describe the distribution of alcohol-related physical features in a genetically homogeneous sample of children and adolescents in institutional settings in Korea. Children and adolescents receiving services in one of seven institutions in Seoul, Korea were screened for growth deficiency. Those who screened positive were assessed using a structured protocol for the key cardinal features of FAS, and for 11 additional alcohol-related dysmorphologic features. Based on these findings, children and adolescents were categorized as FAS, Deferred (some characteristic features of FAS), and No FAS. Groups were compared on the prevalence of specific additional features and number of additional features, stratified by gender and age. Of 307 children and adolescents screened, 87 received the dysmorphology evaluation. Thirteen were classified as FAS, 44 Deferred, and 30 No FAS. The frequency of 10 of the 11 additional alcohol-related features did not differ significantly by FAS category. Palmar crease abnormalities were more common in FAS (53.8%) than in the Deferred category (25.0%) or the No FAS category (6.7%) (P = 0.003). A high prevalence across all groups was found for midfacial hypoplasia and epicanthal folds, whereas only one child exhibited ptosis. This study suggests that an FASD phenotype variant related to ethnic differences in the range of defects specific to prenatal alcohol exposure may be present in the Korean population. PMID:26384109

  20. An Investigation of Gender and Age Differences in Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah; St. Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender- and age-related differences in academic motivation and classroom behaviour in adolescents. Eight hundred and fifty-five students (415 girls and 440 boys) aged 11-16 ("M" age = 13.96, "SD" = 1.47) filled in a questionnaire that examined student academic motivation and teachers completed a…

  1. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  2. Age-Related Differences in Response to Music-Evoked Emotion Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, K G; Quintin, E M; South, M

    2016-04-01

    While research regarding emotion recognition in ASD has focused primarily on social cues, musical stimuli also elicit strong emotional responses. This study extends and expands the few previous studies of response to music in ASD, measuring both psychophysiological and behavioral responses in younger children (ages 8-11) as well as older adolescents (ages 16-18). Compared to controls, the ASD group demonstrated reduced skin conductance response to music-evoked emotion. Younger groups, regardless of diagnosis, showed greater physiological reactivity to scary stimuli than to other emotions. There was a significant interaction of age group and diagnostic group in identifying scary music stimuli, possibly evidencing disrupted developmental trajectories in ASD for integrating physiological and cognitive cues that may underlie symptoms of anxiety. PMID:26520146

  3. Trajectories of gambling problems from mid-adolescence to age 30 in a general population cohort.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, René; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    Studies of gambling starting before adulthood in the general population are either cross-sectional, based on the stability of these behaviors between 2 time points, or cover a short developmental period. The present study aimed at investigating the developmental trajectories of gambling problems across 3 key periods of development, mid-adolescence, early adulthood, and age 30, in a mixed-gender cohort from the general population. Using a semiparametric mixture model, trajectories were computed based on self-reports collected at ages 15 (N = 1,882), 22 (N = 1,785), and 30 (N = 1,358). Two distinct trajectories were identified: 1 trajectory including males and females who were unlikely to have experienced gambling problems across the 15-year period, and 1 trajectory including participants likely to have experienced at least 1 problem over the last 12 months at each time of assessment. Participants following a high trajectory were predominantly male, participated frequently in 3 to 4 different gambling activities, and were more likely to report substance use and problems related to their alcohol and drug consumption at age 30. Thus, gambling problems in the general population are already observable at age 15 in a small group of individuals, who maintain some level of these problems through early adulthood, before moderately but significantly desisting by age 30, while also experiencing other addictive behaviors and related problems. PMID:26168229

  4. A newly identified group of adolescents at "invisible" risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study.

    PubMed

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group ("invisible" risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the "invisible" risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the "invisible" group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The "invisible" group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. PMID:24497256

  5. Self-perceptions of pubertal timing and patterns of peer group activities and dating behavior among heterosexual adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rona; Williams, Sandra

    2016-02-01

    This study identified patterns of past and concurrent peer group and dating behavior in a sample of adolescent girls (N = 511; aged 17-19 years; 49% White). Peer group activities and dating behaviors were classified as occurring in either early (ages 10-13 years), middle (ages 14-16 years), or late (ages 17-19 years) adolescence according to the age at which each participant indicated the activity/behavior was first experienced. Latent class analysis identified four latent classes: Early Interactions/Early Daters (15%), Early Interactions/Late Daters (17%), Early Interactions/Middle Daters (33%) and Middle Interactions/Middle Daters (35%). Class membership was associated with girl's perceived pubertal timing. Compared to Early Interactions/Early Daters, girls in the Early Interactions/Late Daters class reported higher levels of pubertal timing, indicating greater perception that their pubertal development was late relative to peers. Late perceived pubertal timing is potentially relevant for dating but not necessarily other mixed- and cross-sex peer interactions. PMID:26775189

  6. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  7. Skills for Living: Group Counseling Activities for Young Adolescents, Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smead, Rosemarie

    Group counseling offers a content-plus-process approach to counseling of youth. Counselors in schools or mental health settings can use this book to learn how to create meaningful group experiences for adolescents. The group agendas are aimed at middle school youth and offer them the opportunity to experience positive growth and change in the…

  8. Intervention Groups for Adolescents with Conduct Problems: Is Aggregation Harmful or Helpful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mager, Wendy; Milich, Richard; Harris, Monica J.; Howard, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Past research has suggested that the aggregation of deviant peers during treatment may cause harmful effects (T. J. Dishion, J. McCord, & F. Poulin, 1999). This study compared the effectiveness of problem-solving skills training groups in which all members had conduct problems ("pure" group condition) with groups that consisted of adolescents with…

  9. Markers of Marijuana Use Outcomes within Adolescent Substance Abuse Group Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Brett; Macgowan, Mark J.; Wagner, Eric F.; Amrhein, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Despite their popularity, little is known about what distinguishes effective from ineffective or even iatrogenic adolescent group interventions. Methods: Audio recordings and transcripts from 19, 8-10 session, school-based treatment groups comprised of 108, substance abusing 10- to 19-year olds were analyzed. "Group leader empathy" was…

  10. Development and Implementation of a Psychoeducational Group for Ghanaian Adolescents Experiencing Parental Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkyi, Anthony K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents development and informal assessment of a 10-week psychoeducational program designed for 8 adolescent group members experiencing parental divorce in a rural community in Ghana. Group design, cultural considerations, program implementation, and impacts are described. The literature review pertaining to group work as an…

  11. Impact of Group Sandtray Therapy on the Self-Esteem of Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Yu-Pei; Armstrong, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of group sandtray therapy was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design with young adolescent girls (n = 37) identified as having low self-esteem. A split-plot analysis of variance (SPANOVA) revealed statistically significant differences between participants in the treatment and control groups in self-esteem on five…

  12. Injunctive and Descriptive Peer Group Norms and the Academic Adjustment of Rural Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Schmid, Lorrie; Farmer, Thomas W.; Locke, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    This study integrates diverse literatures on peer group influence by conceptualizing and examining the relationship of peer group injunctive norms to the academic adjustment of a large and ethnically diverse sample of rural early adolescents' academic adjustment. Results of three-level hierarchical linear modeling indicated that peer groups were…

  13. Leadership in Groups of School-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Cynthia A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined correlates and predictors of leadership in school-age female groups. Subjects were fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade girls enrolled in 16 Girl Scout troops. Leadership and personal characteristics were measured. Found a consistent relationship between leadership status and a managerial leadership style. Long-term informal leadership was…

  14. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  15. Alcohol use across the lifespan: An analysis of adolescent and aged rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Novier, Adelle; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence and old age are unique periods of the lifespan characterized by differential sensitivity to the effects of alcohol. Adolescents and the elderly appear to be more vulnerable to many of alcohol's physiological and behavioral effects compared to adults. The current review explores the differential effects of acute alcohol, predominantly in terms of motor function and cognition, in adolescent and aged humans and rodents. Adolescents are less sensitive to the sedative-hypnotic, anxiolytic, and motor-impairing effects of acute alcohol, but research results are less consistent as it relates to alcohol's effects on cognition. Specifically, previous research has shown adolescents to be more, less, and similarly sensitive to alcohol-induced cognitive deficits compared to adults. These equivocal findings suggest that learning acquisition may be differentially affected by ethanol compared to memory, or that ethanol-induced cognitive deficits are task-dependent. Older rodents appear to be particularly vulnerable to the motor- and cognitive-impairing effects of acute alcohol relative to younger adults. Given that alcohol consumption and abuse is prevalent throughout the lifespan, it is important to recognize age-related differences in response to acute and long-term alcohol. Unfortunately, diagnostic measures and treatment options for alcohol dependence are rarely dedicated to adolescent and aging populations. As discussed, although much scientific advancement has been made regarding the differential effects of alcohol between adolescents and adults, research with the aged is underrepresented. Future researchers should be aware that adolescents and the aged are uniquely affected by alcohol and should continue to investigate alcohol's effects at different stages of maturation. PMID:25842258

  16. Social role negotiation skills for substance-abusing adolescents: a group model.

    PubMed

    Blume, T W; Green, S; Joanning, H; Quinn, W S

    1994-01-01

    A group model for therapeutic early intervention (secondary prevention) with nonaddicted adolescent substance abusers is proposed, based on a Social Role Negotiation model of substance abuse integrating concepts form role theory and cognitive developmental theory. The description of the group model, a structured short-term approach, includes a variety of exercises which promote developmental improvement in the essential skills of role-taking, role-making, and definition of the situation. An individualized intervention strategy is proposed for each group member, based on a theory-based taxonomy of substance-related problems. Strategies for using family involvement to support an adolescent group are described.

  17. Preventing adolescent pregnancy: biological, social, cultural, and political influences on age at first sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Pires, Raquel; Araújo-Pedrosa, Anabela; Pereira, Joana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2014-08-01

    Age at first sexual intercourse (AFSI) is the initial factor related to adolescents' sexual life that may increase the risk of adolescent pregnancy. We explored the biological, social, cultural, and political predictors of AFSI addressing several gaps that prevent us from generalizing the results of past research to adolescent pregnancy prevention. We also explored the moderating effects of cultural variables on the links between social and political predictors and AFSI. Our sample consisted of 889 Portuguese female adolescents aged 12-19. Earlier age at menarche, non-intact family structure, maternal history of adolescent pregnancy, lower maternal emotional warmth, absence of religious involvement, and living in Portugal's mainland and in a legal context penalizing abortion predicted earlier AFSI. School attendance predicted earlier AFSI among adolescents of European ethnic origin; adolescents of non-European ethnic origin presented the opposite, but non-significant, pattern. These findings suggest that, in addition to isolated characteristics, factors from different ecological contexts should be considered when planning interventions designed to foster healthy and informed transitions to sexual initiation and prevent the related risks of unwanted outcomes. We discuss implications for future research and practice.

  18. [How do adolescents in Germany define cyberbullying? A focus-group study of adolescents from a German major city].

    PubMed

    Höher, Jonas; Scheithauer, Herbert; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja

    2014-01-01

    A steadily growing number of empirical research on cyberbullying exists retaining the traditional definition of bullying. However, whether this scientific and theoretical definition represents youths' perceptions and experiences with cyberbullying is a subject of further investigation. Scenarios of cyberbullying incidents were used and later discussed in three focus groups with 20 adolescents (55 % boys, 45 % girls, 11-16 years old). Thematic and content analyses laid focus on the following questions: (1) Which terms are used by the adolescents to describe the behaviors in the incidents? (2) What are the roles of traditional bullying definition criteria (i. e. intention, repetition, and power imbalance) and two additional cyberbullying-specific criteria (i. e. anonymity and publicity)? (3) How are the behaviors perceived in comparison to each other? Results show that German adolescents perceive "cybermobbing" as the best term to describe the presented incidents. Impersonation was not perceived as cyberbullying by the adolescents, but rather viewed as a criminal act. In addition, adolescents perceived the intent to harm, the impact on the victim, and repetition relevant for defining cyberbullying. Moreover, analyses revealed an interdependence between criteria which suggests that anonymity and publicity have an effect on the severity of the behavior, however they were not essential for the definition of cyberbullying.

  19. [How do adolescents in Germany define cyberbullying? A focus-group study of adolescents from a German major city].

    PubMed

    Höher, Jonas; Scheithauer, Herbert; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja

    2014-01-01

    A steadily growing number of empirical research on cyberbullying exists retaining the traditional definition of bullying. However, whether this scientific and theoretical definition represents youths' perceptions and experiences with cyberbullying is a subject of further investigation. Scenarios of cyberbullying incidents were used and later discussed in three focus groups with 20 adolescents (55 % boys, 45 % girls, 11-16 years old). Thematic and content analyses laid focus on the following questions: (1) Which terms are used by the adolescents to describe the behaviors in the incidents? (2) What are the roles of traditional bullying definition criteria (i. e. intention, repetition, and power imbalance) and two additional cyberbullying-specific criteria (i. e. anonymity and publicity)? (3) How are the behaviors perceived in comparison to each other? Results show that German adolescents perceive "cybermobbing" as the best term to describe the presented incidents. Impersonation was not perceived as cyberbullying by the adolescents, but rather viewed as a criminal act. In addition, adolescents perceived the intent to harm, the impact on the victim, and repetition relevant for defining cyberbullying. Moreover, analyses revealed an interdependence between criteria which suggests that anonymity and publicity have an effect on the severity of the behavior, however they were not essential for the definition of cyberbullying. PMID:24877777

  20. Adolescent aesthetic athletes: a group at risk for eating pathology?

    PubMed

    Van Durme, Kim; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline

    2012-04-01

    Previous research shows that leanness- and weight-dependent sports increase the risk of developing disturbed eating behaviour. This study investigated whether adolescent aesthetic athletes (n=68, M=14.6 years), particularly ballet dancers and figure skaters, exhibit more eating pathology compared to the general population. Furthermore, it was investigated whether sport-related factors have explanatory value for the dieting behaviour of aesthetic athletes. To asses eating pathology, reliable and valid self-report questionnaires were used including the Eating Disorder Inventory-II, the Children's Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Results show that female aesthetic athletes show more drive for thinness, features of bulimia, dieting behaviour and concerns about weight and shape compared to female adolescents from the general population. Concerning the explanation of dieting behaviour in aesthetic athletes, both sport-related factors (competition state anxiety) and general risk factors (eating concern) seem to be relevant. These results suggest that female aesthetic athletes show more disturbed eating behaviour and thoughts than female adolescents from the general population and therefore may have an enhanced risk of developing clinical eating disorders.

  1. [Diagnostics and therapy of dysphonia suitable for the ages and developmental stages of children and adolescents (part 2)].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M

    2008-02-01

    The incidence of dysphonia among children and adolescents is evaluated internationally at 6 % to 25 %. Nonetheless, hoarseness as a leading symptom among children is often insufficiently recognized by their parents/attachment figures, by the young patients themselves, and even by physicians. In an overview, the hereditary and acquired organic and functional causes - including secondary organic lesions of the vocal folds - their pathomechanisms and the symptoms typical for this age group are presented. For diagnostics suitable for these age groups and developmental stages, modern methods of laryngoscopy (including stoboscopy and real-time laryngoscopy), of functional diagnostics of vocal capacity and quality as well as anamnestic and psychometric procedures for the investigation of possible psychosomatic genesis are available. Frequent therapeutic measures are vocal hygienic counseling and psycho- and family dynamic therapies. Vocal exercise treatments are particularly employed for the consequences of laryngeal surgery and with voice techniques unfavorable as a precondition for increased vocal activity. Operative measures in the sound-producing areas of the vocal apparatus and in the framework of plastic reconstruction concentrate on the optimizing of vocal capacity and quality. In clinical routine, symptoms of dysphonia in children and adolescents should be consciously registered, and any long-term hoarseness, in this age group as well, should be examined by specialized physicians using the methods suitable to the age group and the developmental stage. When the appropriate indications are present, all of the therapeutic options currently available should be discussed.

  2. What's age got to do with it? Partner age difference, power, intimate partner violence, and sexual risk in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Ellen M; Hardie, Thomas L; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilyn S; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc's framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors' effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (-.4292, p < .01); however, the indirect effects through three proposed mediators (relationship power, physical IPV, or psychological IPV severity) were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to explore alternative rationale explaining the relationship between partner age differences and sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior.

  3. Age Got to Do With It? Partner Age Difference, Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Risk in Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Ellen M.; Hardie, Thomas L.; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilynn S.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc’s framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors’ effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (−.4292, p < .01); however, the indirect effects through three proposed mediators (relationship power, physical IPV, or psychological IPV severity) were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to explore alternative rationale explaining the relationship between partner age differences and sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior. PMID:23345572

  4. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. PMID:27154370

  5. Diagnostic validity across racial and ethnic groups in the assessment of adolescent DSM-IV disorders.

    PubMed

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J; Kessler, Ronald C; Lin, Julia Y; McLaughlin, Katie A; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Alegria, Margarita

    2012-12-01

    We examine differential validity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnoses assessed by the fully-structured Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI) among Latino, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents in comparison to gold standard diagnoses derived from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children (K-SADS). Results are based on the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement, a national US survey of adolescent mental health. Clinicians re-interviewed 347 adolescent/parent dyads with the K-SADS. Sensitivity and/or specificity of CIDI diagnoses varied significantly by ethnicity/race for four of ten disorders. Modifications to algorithms sometimes reduced bias in prevalence estimates, but at the cost of reducing individual-level concordance. These findings document the importance of assessing fully-structured diagnostic instruments for differential accuracy in ethnic/racial subgroups.

  6. Diagnostic validity across racial and ethnic groups in the assessment of adolescent DSM-IV disorders

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lin, Julia Y.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Alegria, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    We examine differential validity of DSM-IV diagnoses assessed by the fully-structured Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI) among Latino, Non-Latino Black, and Non-Latino White adolescents in comparison to gold standard diagnoses derived from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS). Results are based on the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement, a national US survey of adolescent mental health. Clinicians re-interviewed 347 adolescent/parent dyads with the K-SADS. Sensitivity and/or specificity of CIDI diagnoses varied significantly by ethnicity/race for four of ten disorders. Modifications to algorithms sometimes reduced bias in prevalence estimates, but at the cost of reducing individual-level concordance. These findings document the importance of assessing fully-structured diagnostic instruments for differential accuracy in ethnic/racial subgroups. PMID:23148026

  7. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  8. The Age-Crime Curve in Adolescence and Early Adulthood Is Not Due to Age Differences in Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"--the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice Policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and concluded that…

  9. A therapeutic group for parents of transgender adolescents.

    PubMed

    Menvielle, Edgardo J; Rodnan, Leslie A

    2011-10-01

    Therapy for transgender, transsexual, and gender variant persons has traditionally assisted individuals in the process of adjusting to their newly adopted gender role. Increasingly, younger gender variant patients,teens and preteens, present to the clinical consultation raising the need to develop therapeutic interventions that better address the psychosocial needs of minors. The Gender and Sexuality Development Program at Children's National Medical Center (CNMC) in Washington,DC (http://www.childrensnational.org/gendervariance), provides outpatient psychosocial evaluations and therapeutic services for children,adolescents, and their families.

  10. A therapeutic group for parents of transgender adolescents.

    PubMed

    Menvielle, Edgardo J; Rodnan, Leslie A

    2011-10-01

    Therapy for transgender, transsexual, and gender variant persons has traditionally assisted individuals in the process of adjusting to their newly adopted gender role. Increasingly, younger gender variant patients,teens and preteens, present to the clinical consultation raising the need to develop therapeutic interventions that better address the psychosocial needs of minors. The Gender and Sexuality Development Program at Children's National Medical Center (CNMC) in Washington,DC (http://www.childrensnational.org/gendervariance), provides outpatient psychosocial evaluations and therapeutic services for children,adolescents, and their families. PMID:22051009

  11. Observing Interactions between Children and Adolescents and their Parents: The Effects of Anxiety Disorder and Age.

    PubMed

    Waite, Polly; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Parental behaviors, most notably overcontrol, lack of warmth and expressed anxiety, have been implicated in models of the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children and young people. Theories of normative development have proposed that different parental responses are required to support emotional development in childhood and adolescence, yet age has not typically been taken into account in studies of parenting and anxiety disorders. In order to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and parenting differ in children and adolescents, we compared observed behaviors of parents of children (7-10 years) and adolescents (13-16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n = 120), while they undertook a series of mildly anxiety-provoking tasks. Parents of adolescents showed significantly lower levels of expressed anxiety, intrusiveness and warm engagement than parents of children. Furthermore, offspring age moderated the association between anxiety disorder status and parenting behaviors. Specifically, parents of adolescents with anxiety disorders showed higher intrusiveness and lower warm engagement than parents of non-anxious adolescents. A similar relationship between these parenting behaviors and anxiety disorder status was not observed among parents of children. The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of the role of parental behaviors in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between these different developmental periods. Further experimental research to establish causality, however, would be required before committing additional resources to targeting parenting factors within treatment.

  12. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  13. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in Brazilian Samples of Different Age Groups: Findings from Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Brietzke, Elisa; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Kristensen, Christian Haag; Arteche, Adriane Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is internationally accepted as a key tool for the assessment of childhood abuse and neglect experiences. However, there are relative few psychometric studies available and some authors have proposed two different factor solutions. We examined the dimensional structure and internal consistency of the Brazilian version of the CTQ. A total of 1,925 participants from eight different clinical and non-clinical samples including adolescents, adults and elders were considered in this study. First, we performed Confirmatory Factor Analysis to investigate the goodness of fit of the two proposed competitive factor structure models for the CTQ. We also investigated the internal consistency of all factors. Second, multi-group analyses were used to investigate measurement invariance and population heterogeneity across age groups and sex. Our findings revealed that the alternative factor structure as opposed to the original factor structure was the most appropriate model within adolescents and adults Brazilian samples. We provide further evidence for the validity and reliability of the CTQ within the Brazilian samples and report that the alternative model showed an improvement in fit indexes and may be a better alternative over the original model. PMID:24475237

  14. Sex and Age Differences in Adolescents' Value Judgments of Historically Important Events: Theory, Stereotypes and Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunen, Seth; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined how younger and older adolescents differed in their value judgments of historically important events. Subjects (n=154) between the ages of 11 and 27 listed 10 most important events to United States since 1900. Three most frequently cited events were World Wars I and II and Vietnam. Age was much better predictor of value judgments than…

  15. Residual Effects of Repeated Bully Victimization before the Age of 12 on Adolescent Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddow, Julie Laser

    2006-01-01

    In this study, data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY 97) were used to examine early adolescent functioning as a result of being bullied. The NLSY 97 asked 4807 youths from age 12 to 14 whether they had been the victims of repeated bullying before the age of 12. In this study, 19.1% of the youths responded that they had…

  16. Do Sources of Cigarettes among Adolescents Vary by Age over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Shi, Qun; Erickson, Darin J.; Forster, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Trends in sources of cigarettes among adolescents were assessed using data from a teen cohort (2000-2006). Five sources--bought from store, got from other teen, stole from others, bought from others, and got from an adult--were measured over time by age. The most common source among all ages was other teens. Fewer teens bought cigarettes from…

  17. The Technological Adolescent Age Transition: A Boundary to Estimate the Last Factor of the Drake Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A.

    2004-06-01

    Based on the study of several long-term societal indicators we estimate the phase transition between the ``Technological Adolescent Age'' (TAA) and the ``Technological Mature Age'' (TMA). Assuming the ``Principle of Mediocrity'' and using the Drake Equation we estimate a lower threshold for the number of technological civilizations in the galaxy.

  18. Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

  19. Polycomb group proteins in hematopoietic stem cell aging and malignancies.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Karin; de Haan, Gerald

    2011-07-01

    Protection of the transcriptional "stemness" network is important to maintain a healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compartment during the lifetime of the organism. Recent evidence shows that fundamental changes in the epigenetic status of HSCs might be one of the driving forces behind many age-related HSC changes and might pave the way for HSC malignant transformation and subsequent leukemia development, the incidence of which increases exponentially with age. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key epigenetic regulators of HSC cellular fate decisions and are often found to be misregulated in human hematopoietic malignancies. In this review, we speculate that PcG proteins balance HSC aging against the risk of developing cancer, since a disturbance in PcG genes and proteins affects several important cellular processes such as cell fate decisions, senescence, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair.

  20. Minority group status and healthful aging: social structure still matters.

    PubMed

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J

    2006-07-01

    During the last 4 decades, a rapid increase has occurred in the number of survey-based and epidemiological studies of the health profiles of adults in general and of the causes of disparities between majority and minority Americans in particular. According to these studies, healthful aging consists of the absence of disease, or at least of the most serious preventable diseases and their consequences, and findings consistently reveal serious African American and Hispanic disadvantages in terms of healthful aging. We (1) briefly review conceptual and operational definitions of race and Hispanic ethnicity, (2) summarize how ethnicity-based differentials in health are related to social structures, and (3) emphasize the importance of attention to the economic, political, and institutional factors that perpetuate poverty and undermine healthful aging among certain groups.

  1. Effects of Individual and Group Contingency Interventions on Attendance in Adolescent Part-Time Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkovits, Shira Melody; Sturmey, Peter; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of individual and group monetary contingencies on the attendance of adolescent part-time employees. Attendance increased in both individual and group contingency phases; however staff questionnaire responses indicated a preference for the individual contingencies. Future research should consider staff acceptability…

  2. The Negative Effects of Prejudice on Interpersonal Relationships within Adolescent Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Mereish, Ethan H.; Birkett, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Social development theories highlight the centrality of peer groups during adolescence and their role in socializing attitudes and behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we tested the effects of group-level prejudice on ensuing positive and negative interpersonal interactions among peers over a 7-month period. We used social network analysis to…

  3. Religious Group Relations among Christian, Muslim and Nonreligious Early Adolescents in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2010-01-01

    This study conducted among Christian, Muslim, and nonreligious early adolescents living in the Netherlands used intergroup theory for examining religious group evaluations. There was evidence for a religious group divide with a third of the Christian and nonreligious participants explicitly indicating negative feelings toward Muslims, and Muslim…

  4. Helping Adolescent Mothers to Achieve in School: An Evaluation of the Taking Charge Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary Beth; Franklin, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    A school social worker and three social work interns in a semirural alternative high school with a predominant Hispanic student enrollment evaluated the Taking Charge group intervention. The group is an evidence-based life skills intervention for adolescent mothers, and it was evaluated on its efficacy for improving participants' school…

  5. Adolescent Substance-Use Frequency following Self-Help Group Attendance and Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Jennifer; Darling, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the heterogeneity of posttreatment outcomes, the likelihood of relapse is often dependent on several factors, including participation in continuing care services such as self-help groups. However, few studies have examined the use of self-help groups among adolescent outpatients. Therefore, in this study, investigators examined self-help…

  6. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis, themes from the 12 focus groups were found to be consistent across village, gender, and age groups. Program location or site (e.g., away from the village, hunting, fishing), a group-based format, and inclusion of medication and personal stories were reported to be important attributes of cessation programs. Motivators to quit tobacco were the perceived adverse health effects of tobacco, improved self-image and appearance, and the potential to be a future role model as a non–tobacco user for family and friends. Parents were perceived as potentially supportive to the adolescent in quitting tobacco. The findings will be used to develop tobacco cessation programs for Alaska Native youth. PMID:18048549

  7. Group motivational interviewing for adolescents: Change talk and alcohol and marijuana outcomes

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Houck, Jon M.; Hunter, Sarah B.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about what may distinguish effective and ineffective group interventions. Group motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising intervention for adolescent alcohol and other drug (AOD) use; however, the mechanisms of change for group MI are unknown. One potential mechanism is change talk, which is client speech arguing for change. The present study describes the group process in adolescent group MI and effects of group-level change talk on individual alcohol and marijuana outcomes. Method We analyzed 129 group session audio recordings from a randomized clinical trial of adolescent group MI. Sequential coding was performed using the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC) and the CASAA Application for Coding Treatment Interactions (CACTI) software application. Outcomes included past-month intentions, frequency, and consequences of alcohol and marijuana use, motivation to change, and positive expectancies. Results Sequential analysis indicated that facilitator open-ended questions and reflections of change talk (CT) increased group CT. Group CT was then followed by more CT. Multilevel models accounting for rolling group enrollment revealed group CT was associated with decreased alcohol intentions, alcohol use and heavy drinking three months later; group sustain talk was associated with decreased motivation to change, increased intentions to use marijuana, and increased positive alcohol and marijuana expectancies. Conclusions Facilitator speech and peer responses each had effects on change and sustain talk in the group setting, which was then associated with individual changes. Selective reflection of CT in adolescent group MI is suggested as a strategy to manage group dynamics and increase behavioral change. PMID:25365779

  8. Race-Based Humor and Peer Group Dynamics in Adolescence: Bystander Intervention and Social Exclusion.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Palmer, Sally B; Abrams, Dominic

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents' evaluations of discriminatory race-based humor and their expectations about peer responses to discrimination were investigated in 8th- (Mage  = 13.80) and 10th-grade (Mage  = 16.11) primarily European-American participants (N = 256). Older adolescents judged race-based humor as more acceptable than did younger adolescents and were less likely to expect peer intervention. Participants who rejected discrimination were more likely to reference welfare/rights and prejudice and to anticipate that peers would intervene. Showing awareness of group processes, adolescents who rejected race-based humor believed that peers who intervened would be more likely to be excluded. They also disapproved of exclusion more than did participants who supported race-based humor. Results expose the complexity of situations involving subtle discrimination. Implications for bullying interventions are discussed. PMID:27684393

  9. Learning science in small multi-age groups: the role of age composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-06-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by pre-primary children aged 4-6. The second part included one primary class attended by students aged 6-8 in addition to the pre-primary classes. Students were involved in inquiry-based science activities. Two sources of data were used: Lesson recordings and children's assessments. The data from both sources were separately analyzed and the findings plotted. The resulting graphs indicate a linear relationship between the overall performance of the younger children in a class and the number of older ones participating in the groups in each class. It seems that the age composition of the groups can significantly affect the overall cognitive achievements of the younger children and preferentially determines the time within which this factor reaches its maximum value. The findings can be utilized in deciding the age composition of small groups in a class with the aim of facilitating the younger children's learning in science.

  10. Variances in the etiology of drug use among ethnic groups of adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Beauvais, Frederick; Oetting, E. R.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article reviews drug use trends among ethnic groups of adolescents. It identifies similarities and differences in general, and culturally specific variables in particular, that may account for the differences in drug use rates and the consequences of drug use. METHODS: The authors review trends in drug use among minority and nonminority adolescents over the past 25 years and propose an explanatory model for understanding the factors that affect adolescent drug use. Sources of variance examined include factors common to all adolescents, factors unique to certain ethnic groups, temporal influences, location and demographic variables, developmental and socialization factors, and individual characteristics. RESULTS: Most of the variance in adolescent drug use is due to factors that are common across ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: This finding should not overshadow the importance of addressing ethnocultural issues in designing prevention or treatment interventions, however. Although the major factors leading to drug use may be common across ethnic groups, unique elements within a culture can be used effectively in interventions. Interventions also need to address culturally specific issues in order to gain acceptance within a community. PMID:12435823

  11. Parenting Behavior, Quality of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Functioning in Four Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…

  12. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS.

    PubMed

    Kreager, Derek A; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2011-02-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in two ninth grade cohorts of 27 Pennsylvania and Iowa schools. We then relate group-level measures of delinquency and drinking to network measures of group size, friendship reciprocity, transitivity, structural cohesion, stability, average popularity, and network centrality. We find significant negative correlations between group delinquency and all of our network measures, suggesting that delinquent groups are less solidary and less central to school networks than non-delinquent groups. Further analyses, however, reveal that these correlations are primarily explained by other group characteristics, such as gender composition and socioeconomic status. Drinking behaviors, on the other hand, show net positive associations with most of the network measures, suggesting that drinking groups have higher status and are more internally cohesive than non-drinking groups. Our findings shed light on a longstanding criminological debate by suggesting that any structural differences between delinquent and non-delinquent groups may be attributable to other attributes coincidental with delinquency. In contrast, drinking groups appear to provide peer contexts of greater social capital and cohesion.

  13. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS*

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2010-01-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in two ninth grade cohorts of 27 Pennsylvania and Iowa schools. We then relate group-level measures of delinquency and drinking to network measures of group size, friendship reciprocity, transitivity, structural cohesion, stability, average popularity, and network centrality. We find significant negative correlations between group delinquency and all of our network measures, suggesting that delinquent groups are less solidary and less central to school networks than non-delinquent groups. Further analyses, however, reveal that these correlations are primarily explained by other group characteristics, such as gender composition and socioeconomic status. Drinking behaviors, on the other hand, show net positive associations with most of the network measures, suggesting that drinking groups have higher status and are more internally cohesive than non-drinking groups. Our findings shed light on a longstanding criminological debate by suggesting that any structural differences between delinquent and non-delinquent groups may be attributable to other attributes coincidental with delinquency. In contrast, drinking groups appear to provide peer contexts of greater social capital and cohesion. PMID:21572969

  14. Adolescent Sexuality and Positive Well-Being: A Group-Norms Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2011-01-01

    The link between adolescent sexual activity and psychological well-being is a controversial issue in developmental psychology. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between three aspects of teenage sexuality (genital sexual experience, age of sexual onset, and number of sex partners) and positive well-being (hedonic, eudaimonic,…

  15. Popularity, Social Acceptance, and Aggression in Adolescent Peer Groups: Links with Academic Performance and School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Nakamoto, Jonathan; McKay, Tara

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a short-term longitudinal study focusing on popularity and social acceptance as predictors of academic engagement for a sample of 342 adolescents (approximate average age of 14). These youths were followed for 4 consecutive semesters. Popularity, social acceptance, and aggression were assessed with a peer nomination …

  16. Exercise and Fatigue in Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Hooke, Mary C; Friedman, Debra L; Campbell, Kristin; Withycombe, Janice; Schwartz, Cindy L; Kelly, Kara; Meza, Jane

    2015-09-01

    Fatigue is a significant problem for adolescent and young adult (AYA) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. The relationship between exercise and fatigue is complex. This study explored the trajectory of and the relationship between exercise and fatigue over 36 months post-therapy in a cohort of 103 AYA-aged HL survivors treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) study AHOD0031. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations were used in this secondary data analysis. Exercise and fatigue improved over time but were unrelated; amount of exercise at end of therapy predicted amount of exercise at 12 (p = 0.02) and 36 (p = 0.0008) months post-therapy.

  17. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundsdottir, Edda Y.; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorlacius, Arngrimur; Reykdal, Olafur; Gunnlaugsdottir, Helga; Thorsdottir, Inga; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2012-01-01

    Background/objectives Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208); nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P=0.002 and r=0.22; P=0.04, respectively) while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium. PMID:22952457

  18. Participation in Clubs and Groups from Childhood to Adolescence and Its Effects on Attachment and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Martin, Jennifer; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    We examined social participation in organized clubs and groups from childhood to adolescence in a sample of young people from Dunedin, New Zealand. Groups were broadly categorized as ''sports'' and ''cultural/youth'' groups. While the results indicated high levels of participation in childhood with a decline over the ensuing adolescent years, path…

  19. The Child Health and Illness Profile--Adolescent Edition: Assessing Well-Being in Group Homes or Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altshuler, Sandra J.; Poertner, John

    2002-01-01

    The Child Health and Illness Profile--Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) was administered to 63 adolescents in group settings. Domains studied were satisfaction, resilience, risk, achievement, and disorders. Compared to a normed group, youth in group homes or institutions felt physically healthy and safe and were resilient. Of concern were low…

  20. Adolescent Adjustment in a Nationally Collected Sample: Identifying Group Differences by Adoption Status, Adoption Subtype, Developmental Stage and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Anthony L.; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Finley, Gordon E.

    2004-01-01

    The current study investigated group differences in adolescent adjustment by adoption status and adoption subtype in a national sample, in contrast to group differences based on developmental stage or gender. Secondary analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were performed to describe group differences in a broad range of…

  1. An Experiment in Group Adolescent Weight Loss Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechter, Frances

    1981-01-01

    A nutrition and diet group was established to lend support to and instill dieting techniques and correct eating habits in a group of 10 girls. Weight loss goals were established but no specific demands were made. (JN)

  2. Snus user identity and addiction. A Swedish focus group study on adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The teenage years are the years when adolescents seek their identity, and part of this involves experimenting with tobacco. The use of tobacco as such, and norms among their friends, is more important to the adolescents than the norms of parents when it comes to using tobacco or not. The aim was to explore the significance of using snus for adolescents, and attitudes to snus, as well as the reasons why they began using snus and what maintained and facilitated the use of snus. Methods Adolescents who use snus were interviewed in focus groups. The material was analysed using content analysis. Results Four groups of boys and one group of girls were interviewed, a total of 27 students from the upper secondary vocational program. Three themes related to the students’ opinions on and experiences of using snus were found: Circumstances pertaining to snus debut indicate what makes them start using snus. Upholding, which focuses on the problem of becoming addicted and development of identity, and approach, where the adolescents reflect on their snus habits in relation to those around them. A number of factors were described as relevant to behaviour and norm building for the development into becoming a snus user. Attitudes and actions from adults and friends as well as – for the boys – development of an identity as a man and a craftsman influenced behaviour. Conclusions The results showed that development of identity was of major importance when adolescents start using snus. The adolescents were initially unable to interpret the early symptoms of abstinence problems, but subsequently became well aware of being addicted. Once they were stuck in addiction and in the creation of an image and identity, it was difficult to stop using snus. These factors are important when considering interventions of normative changes and tobacco prevention in schools as well as among parents. PMID:23148521

  3. The role of peer groups in male and female adolescents' task values and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Kiuru, Noona; Watt, Anthony

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of peer groups and sex in adolescents' task values and physical activity. The participants were 330 Finnish Grade 6 students (173 girls, 157 boys), who responded to questionnaires that assessed physical education task values during the spring semester (Time 1). Students' physical activity was assessed one year later (Time 2). The results indicated that adolescent peer groups were moderately homogeneous in terms of task values toward physical education and physical activity. Girls' peer groups were more homogeneous than those of boys in regards to utility and attainment values. Furthermore, the results for both girls and boys showed that particularly intrinsic task value typical for the peer group predicted group members' physical activity. The findings highlight the important role of peer group membership as a determinant of future physical activity. PMID:21526593

  4. Identity confusion and depression in groups of adolescents having psychiatric and physical symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cuhadaroğlu, F

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the identity status of adolescents having psychiatric and physical symptoms and the relation of depression with identity problems in adolescence. Three groups of university students were given a sociodemographic questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF). The first group consisted of 31 students who were seen by the consultant psychiatrist at the Student Health Center of a university in Ankara. The second group included 37 students who applied to the same center with various physical complaints but did not need to be consulted by the psychiatrist. The third group was a group of 50 healthy students at the same university. The analysis revealed that only those with psychiatric complaints had identity confusion and that for the males in this group depressive symptoms are significant predictors of identity confusion.

  5. [Age-Related Features of EEG Coherence in Children and Adolescents Living in the European North of Russia].

    PubMed

    Soroko, S I; Nagornova, Zh V; Rozhkov, V P; Shemyakina, N V

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents data on the formation of spatial synchronization of brain potentials in 91 children aged 7-18 years living in European North of Russia. We estimated coherence values for 19 derivations (pair 171) in five EEG frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta). We described age-related changes, gender differences and topical specific features of the formation of coherence in the left and right hemispheres, and in inter- and intrahemispheric synchronization. We carried out computer assessment of the differences in EEG coherence between three age groups of children in order to determine criteria for identification of children with retarded formation of spatial organization of local EEG processes. Age-related changes in the structure of EEG patterns observed in the study reflect the processes of morphofunctional brain development in children and adolescents at different stages of postnatal ontogenesis under severe conditions of northern climate.

  6. Teachers' assessments of children aged eight predict life satisfaction in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Meri; Meri, Honkanen; Hurtig, Tuula; Tuula, Hurtig; Taanila, Anja; Anja, Taanila; Moilanen, Irma; Irma, Moilanen; Koponen, Hannu; Hannu, Koponen; Mäki, Pirjo; Pirjo, Mäki; Veijola, Juha; Juha, Veijola; Puustjärvi, Anita; Anita, Puustjärvi; Ebeling, Hanna; Hanna, Ebeling; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Heli, Koivumaa-Honkanen

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to investigate how teachers' assessments of children predict life satisfaction in adolescence. This is a prospective cohort study on the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 8,959). Information was gathered from parents, teachers and adolescents using questionnaires at the age of 7, 8 and 15. Response rates were 80-90%. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed with Rutter Children's Behavioural Questionnaires for teachers (RB2) and parents (RA2) during the first grade at age 8. At adolescence, self-reported life satisfaction was measured with a question including five response alternatives. According to teachers' assessments, 13.9% of the children had high emotional or behavioural problems (RB2 ≥9). These assessments predicted life dissatisfaction in adolescence (OR(crude) = 1.77; 95% CI 1.43-2.20) in several models including also health behaviour and use of psychotropic medicine. However, introducing all the significant variables in the same model, RB2 lost its significance (OR = 1.28; 0.96-1.70), but good school achievement assessed by teachers was still a significant predictor. Life satisfaction in adolescence was associated with a variety of favourable concurrent factors. In conclusion teachers' assessments of children during the first school year predicted life satisfaction in adolescence. In mental health promotion, teachers' early assessments should be utilized for the benefit of children. PMID:21789735

  7. Comparing sports vision among three groups of soft tennis adolescent athletes: Normal vision, refractive errors with and without correction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih-Tsun; Liu, Yen-Hsiu; Lee, Jiahn-Shing; See, Lai-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of correcting static vision on sports vision is still not clear. Aim: To examine whether sports vision (depth perception [DP], dynamic visual acuity [DVA], eye movement [EM], peripheral vision [PV], and momentary vision [MV],) were different among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision (Group A), with refractive error and corrected with (Group B) and without eyeglasses (Group C). Setting and Design: A cross-section study was conducted. Soft tennis athletes aged 10–13 who played softball tennis for 2–5 years, and who were without any ocular diseases and without visual training for the past 3 months were recruited. Materials and Methods: DPs were measured in an absolute deviation (mm) between a moving rod and fixing rod (approaching at 25 mm/s, receding at 25 mm/s, approaching at 50 mm/s, receding at 50 mm/s) using electric DP tester. A smaller deviation represented better DP. DVA, EM, PV, and MV were measured on a scale from 1 (worse) to 10 (best) using ATHLEVISION software. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the data among the three study groups. Results: A total of 73 athletes (37 in Group A, 8 in Group B, 28 in Group C) were enrolled in this study. All four items of DP showed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0051, 0.0004, 0.0095, 0.0021). PV displayed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0044). There was no significant difference in DVA, EM, and MV among the three study groups. Conclusions: Significant better DP and PV were seen among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision than those with refractive error regardless whether they had eyeglasses corrected. On the other hand, DVA, EM, and MV were similar among the three study groups. PMID:26632127

  8. The LMS and Z Scale Growth Reference for Saudi School-age Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al Salloum, Abdullah A.; Alqurashi, Mansour M.; Al Herbish, Abdullah S.; Al Omar, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: To establish L, M, and S parameters and z score reference for the assessment of nutrition and growth of Saudi school-age children and adolescents. Subjects and Methods: Data from the original cross-sectional study were reanalyzed. The L, M, and S parameters and z scores were calculated for weight, height and body mass index for school-age children and adolescents. Results: A total of 19,299 subjects from 5 to 18 years of age were included. All were Saudi nationals and 9,827 (50.9%) were boys. The L M S parameters and z scores for weight for age, height for age, and BMI for age for boys and girls are presented in detailed tables across the age of commonly used z scores (+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3). Graphs corresponding to the same parameters (weight, height, and BMI) showing the main z scores across all ages from 5 to 18 years are illustrated. Conclusion: This report provides the first reference for nutritional status and growth of Saudi school-age children and adolescents. This tool is essential for more accurate assessment of growth and nutrition in various clinical conditions and research. PMID:27488329

  9. Identification of Normal Blood Pressure in Different Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Chen, Yen-Lin; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Pei, Dee; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of using single criterion of normal blood pressure with systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg for all ages is still disputable. The aim of the study is to identify the cutoff value of normotension in different age and sex groups. Totally, 127,922 (63,724 men and 64,198 women) were enrolled for the analysis. Finally, four fifths of them were randomly selected as the study group and the other one fifths as the validation group. Due the tight relationship with comorbidities from cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS) was used as a surrogate to replace the actual cardiovascular outcomes in the younger subjects. For SBP, MetS predicted by our equation had a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 67% in males and 65%, 83% in females, respectively. At the same time, they are 61%, 73% in males and 73%, 86% in females for DBP, respectively. These sensitivity, specificity, odds ratio, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from our equations are all better than those derived from the criteria of 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg in both genders. By using the presence of MetS as the surrogate of CVD, the regression equations between SBP, DBP, and age were built in both genders. These new criteria are proved to have better sensitivity and specificity for MetS than either 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg. These simple equations should be used in clinical settings for early prevention of CVD. PMID:27057846

  10. Defining Early Adolescent Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maureen G.; Sowers, MaryFran

    2002-01-01

    Determined the age group for defining early adolescent childbearing based on rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Data on infant mortality, very low birth weight, and very pre-term delivery per 1,000 live births for women age 12-23 years in the 1995 U.S. birth cohort indicate that early adolescent childbearing is best defined as giving birth at age…

  11. Age at Time of Initial Sexual Intercourse and Health of Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age.

  12. Age at Time of Initial Sexual Intercourse and Health of Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age

  13. Psychometric Properties of the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale in a Group of Italian Younger Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faraci, Palmira; Gori, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alexithymia is a personality construct that inhibits and interferes with normal affect regulating abilities. The purpose of our study was to assess psychometric properties of TAS-20 in younger adolescents. Methods Data were collected from 508 younger adolescents (48.8% male and 51.2% female) with a mean age of 12.56 years (DS=0.50, range: 12-13 years). We administered the following scales: 20-Item-Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Results The confirmatory factor analysis performed on the second random subsample showed reasonable goodness-of-fit for the oblique bi-factorial model: [chi]2 (32, n=254)=54.22; p=0.008; χ2/df=1.69; NNFI=0.92; CFI=0.95; SRMR=0.05; RMSEA=0.05; 90% confidence interval=0.027-0.078. Conclusion Based on the outcomes of our research we support the idea of evaluating adolescents for alexithymia. PMID:26508961

  14. Association of size at birth with adolescent hormone levels, body size and age at menarche: relevance for breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Opdahl, S; Nilsen, T I L; Romundstad, P R; Vanky, E; Carlsen, S M; Vatten, L J

    2008-07-01

    Birth size has been positively associated with age at menarche and height in adolescence and adulthood, but the relevant biological mechanisms remain unclear. Among 262 Norwegian term-born singleton girls, birth size measures (weight, length, ponderal index, head circumference and subscapular skin-fold thickness) were analysed in relation to adolescent hormone levels (oestradiol, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione and free testosterone index), age at menarche and adolescent (ages 12.7-15.5 years) and body size (height, weight, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio) using survival analysis and general linear modelling. The results were adjusted for gestational age at birth, age and menarcheal status at measurement in adolescence and maternal age at menarche. Birth weight, birth length and head circumference were positively associated with adolescent weight and height, and small birth size was associated with earlier age at menarche. Subscapular skin-fold thickness at birth was not associated with adolescent body size, but low fold-thickness was associated with earlier age at menarche. Measures of birth size were inversely related to circulating levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in adolescence, but there was no clear association with other hormones. These results suggest that physical and sexual development in puberty and adolescence is influenced by prenatal factors, and in combination, these factors may influence health and disease later in life. PMID:18594544

  15. Longitudinal Reliability of Self-Reported Age at Menarche in Adolescent Girls: Variability across Time and Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa M.; Pabst, Stephanie; Tissot, Abbigail; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Age at menarche is critical in research and clinical settings, yet there is a dearth of studies examining its reliability in adolescents. We examined age at menarche during adolescence, specifically, (a) average method reliability across 3 years, (b) test-retest reliability between time points and methods, (c) intraindividual variability of…

  16. Evaluation of a group cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for young adolescents: A randomized effectiveness trial

    PubMed Central

    Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen J.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Chajon, Norma D.; Megan Kash-MacDonald, V.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Matlin, Samantha L.; Gallop, Robert J.; Seligman, Martin E.P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Depression is a common psychological problem in adolescence. Recent research suggests that group cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent symptoms of depression in youth. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of such interventions when delivered by school teachers and counselors (as opposed to research team staff). Method We evaluated the effectiveness of the Penn Resiliency Program for adolescents (PRP-A), a school-based group intervention that targets cognitive behavioral risk factors for depression. We randomly assigned 408 middle school students (ages 10-15) to one of three conditions: PRP-A, PRP-AP (in which adolescents participated in PRP-A and parents were invited to attend a parent intervention component), or a school-as-usual control. Adolescents completed measures of depression and anxiety symptoms, cognitive style, and coping at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and at 6-month follow-up. Results PRP-A reduced depression symptoms relative to the school as usual control. Baseline levels of hopelessness moderated intervention effects. Among participants with average and high levels of hopelessness, PRP (A and AP) significantly improved depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, hopelessness, and active coping relative to control. Among participants with low baseline hopelessness, we found no intervention effects. PRP-AP was not more effective than PRP-A alone. We found no intervention effects on clinical levels of depression or anxiety. Conclusion These findings suggest that cognitive-behavioral interventions can be beneficial when delivered by school teachers and counselors. These interventions may be most helpful to students with elevated hopelessness. PMID:22889296

  17. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  18. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated.

  19. Developing Programmes to Promote Participation in Sport among Adolescents with Disabilities: Perceptions Expressed by a Group of South African Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantjes, Jason; Swartz, Leslie; Conchar, Lauren; Derman, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with disabilities in developing countries frequently have limited access to sporting opportunities and comparatively little is known of their lived experiences and preferences. We set out to understand what a group of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) living in South Africa perceive to be important components of programmes developed…

  20. Effect of Parental Age on Treatment Response in Adolescents with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Opler, Mark; Malaspina, Dolores; Gopal, Srihari; Nuamah, Isaac; Savitz, Adam J; Singh, Jaskaran; Hough, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Advanced paternal age (APA) is associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, but its effect on treatment response has not been longitudinally studied. Methods Association of parental ages at the time of the child's birth with age of onset, initial symptom severity and treatment response (to placebo and three different weight-based doses of paliperidone ER) in adolescents with schizophrenia was assessed in a post-hoc analysis using data from a 6-week double-blind study, the primary results of which are published (NCT 00518323). Results The mean (SD) paternal age was 29.2 (6.2) years, range (16-50) and maternal age was 26.8 (5.7) years, range (17-42) at childbirth for the 201 adolescents (ages 12-17 years) included in the analysis. While parental ages were uncorrelated with age of onset or initial symptom severity, both maternal and paternal age showed significant effects on treatment response (p < 0.03) of all paliperidone ER arms versus placebo. Paternal age was significantly correlated to improvement in positive symptoms and maternal age significantly related to negative symptoms, although only paternal age remained significantly associated with the treatment response in analyses that included both parents’ ages. Conclusions APA was associated with greater treatment response to both paliperidone ER and placebo, but not to age of onset or initial symptom severity in adolescents with schizophrenia. The results support the contention that APA-related schizophrenia has distinct underpinnings from other cases. Further studies are required to explore the role of genetic and environmental factors, and their interactions, in treatment response in this complex disorder. PMID:24144440

  1. Emergence of Mixed-Sex Friendship Groups during Adolescence: Developmental Associations with Substance Use and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Lauren E.; Gest, Scott D.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from over 14,000 youth residing in 28 communities in the rural United States were analyzed to examine the emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups in early adolescence. Youth were surveyed on 5 occasions between fall of 6th grade and spring of 9th grade. At each assessment, youth reported the names of up to 7…

  2. An Exploratory Study of Group Therapy for Sexually Abused Adolescents and Nonoffending Guardians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Amanda P.; Kelly, Adrian B.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent survivors of sexual abuse frequently report severe trauma, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. While cognitive-behavioral group interventions show promise, interpreting efficacy is problematic due to commonly high attrition. This article reports promising exploratory study findings relating to a 12-week multimodal abuse-specific…

  3. A Cognitive Behavioural Group Approach for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruttledge, Richard A.; Petrides, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural approaches emphasize the links between thoughts, feelings and behaviour (Greig, 2007). Previous research has indicated that these approaches are efficacious in reducing disruptive behaviour in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to provide further evaluation of cognitive behavioural group work to reduce disruptive…

  4. Learning to Relate: Interweaving Creative Approaches in Group Counseling with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudrzyk, Bogusia; Zera, David Aloyzy; McMahon, George; Schmidt, Robert; Boyne, Joey; Spannaus, Rudy L.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes three creative arts exercises designed to promote belonging, connectedness, and wellness among adolescents with and without disabilities. The scenarios are multifaceted and based on utilization of creative visual and performing arts. Creative outlets may help groups be more effective and meaningful for participants,…

  5. Investigating the Effects of Group Practice Performed Using Psychodrama Techniques on Adolescents' Conflict Resolution Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of group practice which is performed using psychodrama techniques on adolescents' conflict resolution skills. The subjects, for this study, were selected among the high school students who have high aggression levels and low problem solving levels attending Haci Zekiye Arslan High School, in Nigde.…

  6. The Role of Peer Groups in Adolescents' Educational Expectations and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Vuori, Jukka; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent the members of adolescents' peer groups share similar educational expectations, and to what extent overall and school-related adjustment are associated with these expectations. Three hundred and ninety-four ninth-graders facing the transition to secondary education filled in questionnaires measuring…

  7. Racial group regard, barrier socialization, and African American adolescents' engagement: patterns and processes by gender.

    PubMed

    Smalls, Ciara; Cooper, Shauna M

    2012-08-01

    The current study examined gendered processes via 1) profiles of racial barrier socialization, regard for one's racial group (private regard), and behavioral engagement and grades and, 2) gender and private regard as a moderator in the link between barrier messages and academic engagement outcomes. One-hundred and twenty-five African American adolescents (ages 10-14, M = 12.39, SD = 1.07) completed measures of socialization, private regard, grades and behavioral engagement. Latent Profile Analysis revealed a 2-cluster solution fit the data best - 1) High Engagement-Race Salient (HERS) cluster and 2) Low Engagement-Non-Salient cluster (LENS). Girls had higher representation in the HERS cluster. When private regard was examined as a moderator, girls' grades were unrelated to barrier socialization and private regard. In contrast, barrier socialization was associated with lower grades for low private regard boys. Findings are discussed in the context of gendered racial school contexts that African American youth must navigate to be academically successful.

  8. Risky health-related behaviours among school-aged adolescents: a rational 'consumer' choice?

    PubMed

    Hartley, Jane E K

    2016-05-01

    Within the contemporary culture of consumption, school-aged adolescents, though neither waged nor salaried producers, are nevertheless treated by the media and the advertisers as if they are active consumers who are engaged in the project of the self. For those adolescents who lack the financial resources to 'buy into' this culture, anxiety may ensue. In order to ease this anxiety, and to acquire social status, some - not all - may make the 'rational' 'consumer' choice to engage in risky health-related behaviour. In situ ethnographic research is needed in order to complement and inform the existing survey-based evidence on the relationship between economic status and health-related behaviour among school-aged adolescents as they deal with the pressures of consumerism. PMID:25781521

  9. Focus Group Studies on Food Safety Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices of School-Going Adolescent Girls in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavaravarapu, Subba Rao M.; Vemula, Sudershan R.; Rao, Pratima; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Polasa, Kalpagam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices of adolescent girls. Design: Focus group discussions (FGDs) with 32 groups selected using stratified random sampling. Setting: Four South Indian states. Participants: Adolescent girls (10-19 years). Phenomena of Interest: Food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices.…

  10. A Home Treatment Program by an Indigenous Professional, the Visiting Nurse, with a Group of Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Joline; And Others

    In this study, the effectiveness of a Visiting Nurse counseling program with the adolescent suicide attempter is examined. Both experimental and control subjects represented all socioeconomic groups. The nurses who worked with the control group had no special training, and were not encouraged to counsel the adolescents. Those working with the…

  11. Age and sex relationship with flow-mediated dilation in healthy children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nicola D; Dengel, Donald R; Stratton, Gareth; Kelly, Aaron S; Steinberger, Julia; Zavala, Hanan; Marlatt, Kara; Perry, Daniel; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J

    2015-10-15

    Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive technique used to measure conduit artery vascular function. Limited information is available on normative FMD values in healthy children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess relationships between age and sex with FMD across childhood and adolescence. Nine hundred and seventy-eight asymptomatic children (12 ± 3 yr, range 6-18 yr, 530 male) underwent ultrasonic brachial artery assessment before and after 5 min of forearm ischemia. Sex differences in FMD and baseline artery diameter were assessed using mixed linear models. Baseline artery diameter was smaller in females than males [2.96 mm (95% CI: 2.92-3.00) vs. 3.24 mm (3.19-3.28), P < 0.001] and increased with age across the cohort (P < 0.001). Diameter increased between ages 6 and 17 yr in males [from 2.81 mm (2.63, 3.00) to 3.91 mm (3.68, 4.14)] but plateaued at age 12 yr in females. Males had a lower FMD [7.62% (7.33-7.91) vs. 8.31% (7.95-8.66), P = 0.024], specifically at ages 17 and 18 yr. There was a significant effect of age on FMD (P = 0.023), with a reduction in FMD apparent postpuberty in males. In conclusion, the brachial artery increases structurally with age in both sexes; however, there are sex differences in the timing and rate of growth, in line with typical sex-specific adolescent growth patterns. Males have a lower FMD than females, and FMD appears to decline with age; however, these findings are driven by reductions in FMD as males near maturity. The use of age- and sex-specific FMD data may therefore not be pertinent in childhood and adolescence.

  12. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication. PMID:26708734

  13. Emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups during adolescence: Developmental associations with substance use and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Lauren E; Gest, Scott D; Feinberg, Mark E; Osgood, D Wayne

    2014-11-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from over 14,000 youth residing in 28 communities in the rural United States were analyzed to examine the emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups in early adolescence. Youth were surveyed on 5 occasions between fall of 6th grade and spring of 9th grade. At each assessment, youth reported the names of up to 7 same-grade friends and described patterns of alcohol use, cigarette use, and delinquency. Approximately 800-900 friendship groups (M = 10.5 members) were identified at each assessment and categorized in terms of gender composition (all-girl, mostly-girl, mixed-sex, mostly-boy, all-boy). The proportion of groups categorized as mixed-sex increased with grade level (10% in 6th grade, 22% in 9th grade), but gender-homogenous groups predominated at all grade levels (76% in 6th grade, 51% in 9th grade). Mixed-sex groups were slightly larger than all-girl groups but the same size as all-boy groups. All-girl groups had the highest levels of tight-knittedness (i.e., density, reciprocity, and transitivity), with mixed-sex groups having the lowest levels and all-boy groups having intermediate levels. After controlling for demographic factors, future mixed-sex group membership was predicted by lower popularity, higher levels of delinquency, and lower levels of alcohol use; mixed-sex friendship group membership was associated with increased likelihood of cigarette use. Results are partially consistent with Dunphy's (1969) classic account of the emergence of mixed-sex groups in adolescence, but suggest that in early adolescence, mixed-sex group affiliation is significantly associated with deviant behavior and peripheral social status, not with popularity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Emergence of Mixed-Sex Friendship Groups during Adolescence: Developmental Associations with Substance Use & Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Lauren E.; Gest, Scott D.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from over 14,000 youth residing in 28 communities in the rural U.S. were analyzed to examine the emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups in early adolescence. Youth were surveyed on five occasions between fall of 6th grade and spring of 9th grade. At each assessment, youth reported the names of up to seven same-grade friends and described patterns of alcohol use, cigarette use and delinquency. Approximately 800 – 900 friendship groups (Mean = 10.5 members) were identified at each assessment and categorized in terms of gender composition (all-girl, mostly-girl, mixed-sex, mostly-boy, all-boy). The proportion of groups categorized as mixed-sex increased with grade level (10% in 6th grade, 22% in 9th grade), but gender-homogenous groups predominated at all grade levels (76% in 6th grade, 51% in 9th grade). Mixed-sex groups were slightly larger than all-girl groups but the same size as all-boy groups. All-girl groups had the highest levels of tightknittedness (i.e., density, reciprocity and transitivity), with mixed-sex groups having the lowest levels and all-boy groups having intermediate levels. After controlling for demographic factors, future mixed-sex group membership was predicted by lower popularity, higher levels of delinquency and lower levels of alcohol use; and mixed-sex friendship group membership was associated with increased likelihood of cigarette use. Results are partially consistent with Dunphy’s classic account of the emergence of mixed-sex groups in adolescence, but suggest that in early adolescence, mixed-sex group affiliation is significantly associated with deviant behavior and peripheral social status, not with popularity. PMID:25221839

  15. Prospective Memory across Adolescence: The Effects of Age and Cue Focality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Altgassen, Mareike; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Weirui; Akgun, Canan; Kliegel, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the role of controlled attention in age differences in event-based prospective memory performance across adolescence. The researchers tested whether presenting the prospective memory cue in or out of focal awareness of the ongoing task (resulting in low versus high demands for controlled attention, respectively) might…

  16. Act Your Age! A Cultural Construction of Adolescence. Critical Social Thought. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesko, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Are our current ways of talking about "the problem of adolescence" really that different than those of past generations? For the past decade, Act Your Age! has provided a provocative and now classic analysis of the accepted ways of viewing teens. By employing a groundbreaking "history of the present" methodology that resists traditional…

  17. The Relationship of Time Perspective to Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement among Academically Talented Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…

  18. Gender Differences in Food Preferences of School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…

  19. Direct Replication of a Cross-Age Tutoring Program Involving Handicapped Adolescents and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Charles A.

    1986-01-01

    A cross-age tutoring program designed to improve school performance of tutors (adolescents classified as emotionally disturbed) and tutees (children classified as educable mentally retarded) was replicated in an urban public school district. Results showed that both tutors and tutees improved on academic and social measures of school performance.…

  20. Attachment and Self-Evaluation in Chinese Adolescents: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hairong; Thompson, Ross A.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated age and gender differences in the quality of attachment to mothers, fathers, and peers, and the association of attachment with measures of self-evaluation in 584 Chinese adolescents in junior high, high school, and university. Their responses to the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment indexed attachment quality, and…

  1. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  2. Age at Menarche and Premenstrual Syndrome in Adolescent Girls with Intellectual Disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibralic, Inga; Sinanovic, Osman; Memisevic, Haris

    2010-01-01

    The issues involving menstruation are the topic of many scientific inquires in the fields of medicine, psychology, sociology and anthropology. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche and the most common symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in adolescent girls with intellectual disability. The main method of data collection…

  3. Adolescents with Cancer in Italy: Improving Access to National Cooperative Pediatric Oncology Group (AIEOP) Centers.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Andrea; Rondelli, Roberto; Pession, Andrea; Mascarin, Maurizio; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Mosso, Maria Luisa; Maule, Milena; Barisone, Elena; Bertolotti, Marina; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Jankovic, Momcilo; Fagioli, Franca; Biondi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    This analysis compared the numbers of patients treated at Italian pediatric oncology group (Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica [AIEOP]) centers with the numbers of cases predicted according to the population-based registry. It considered 32,431 patients registered in the AIEOP database (1989-2012). The ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) cases was 0.79 for children (0-14 years old) and 0.15 for adolescents (15-19 years old). The proportion of adolescents increased significantly over the years, however, from 0.05 in the earliest period to 0.10, 0.18, and then 0.28 in the latest period of observation, suggesting a greater efficacy of local/national programs dedicated to adolescents.

  4. Tobacco Cessation for Adolescents: Developing a Group Therapy Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolchan, Eric T.; Ruckel, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a cognitive-behavioral therapeutic approach to help teenagers better manage life stressors by using effective and adaptive coping skills, while identifying and addressing specific factors that lead either to smoking or maintaining abstinence from smoking behavior. Discusses specific group exercises that empower teens to take control of…

  5. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  6. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  7. Age of Partner at First Adolescent Intercourse and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescent females who have early sexual experiences with older male partners report high rates of sexual risk behavior during adolescence, but little is known about whether these early sexual experiences are associated with adult sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether having first consensual sex with an older partner was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Methods Participants were 292 women (66% African American, mean age = 26 years) attending a public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic who reported having voluntary vaginal sex before age 18. Participants completed a computerized survey assessing child/adolescent sexual experiences and current adult sexual risk behavior. Results Participants were, on average, 14.6 years at first vaginal intercourse; their partners were, on average, 17.5 years. After controlling for covariates, a greater partner age difference at first intercourse was associated with more episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner and a greater proportion of episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner in the past 3 months. Conclusions Having an older first sex partner during adolescence was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Early sexual experiences may be important life events that influence subsequent sexual behavior. Sexual health interventions need to target female adolescents before they initiate sexual intercourse to reduce risk for STDs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PMID:21128817

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents with Fragile X Syndrome: Within-Syndrome Differences and Age-Related Changes

    PubMed Central

    McDuffie, Andrea; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Kim, Jee-Seon; Kover, Sara T.; Weber, Ann; Brown, W. Ted

    2010-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised was used to examine diagnostic profiles and age-related changes in autism symptoms for a group of verbal children and adolescents with FXS, with and without autism. After controlling for nonverbal IQ, statistically significant between-group differences for lifetime and current autism symptoms were found for the Communication and Restricted Interests/Repetitive Behaviors domains, but not the Reciprocal Social Interaction domain. Effect sizes for differences in Reciprocal Social Interaction also were smaller than effect sizes for the other domains with one exception. Overall, severity of autism symptoms improved with age for all participants, with the least improvement noted for Restricted Interests and Repetitive Behaviors. FMRP did not account for unique variance in autism symptoms over and above nonverbal IQ. PMID:20567604

  9. Maternal and Perinatal Effects of Adolescent Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Nancy C.; LaBarba, Richard C.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated developmental consequences of adolescent childbearing in 60 low-income, pregnant adolescents and a low-income control group of pregnant adult women. Racial and age influences were investigated. Adolescents did not differ from controls on emotionality; a significant age by race interaction was found for depression. (Author/DB)

  10. Maternal sensitivity and effortful control in early childhood as predictors of adolescents' adjustment: The mediating roles of peer group affiliation and social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Laible, Deborah; Carlo, Gustavo; Davis, Alexandra N; Karahuta, Erin

    2016-06-01

    Longitudinal links between early childhood temperament, maternal sensitivity, and adolescents' adjustment have been proposed and found in several longitudinal studies, but the mechanisms of influence have not been explored. The authors examined the paths from maternal sensitivity and temperament in early childhood to adolescents' prosocial, aggressive, and delinquent behaviors via childhood social behaviors and peer group affiliation. Data at 54 months, Grade 3 (M age = 9.03, SD = .31), Grade 6 (M age = 11.95, SD = .34), and Grade 9 (M age = 15.57, SD = .78) from the NICHD SECCYD longitudinal investigation of 1,364 participants (52% boys) was analyzed. Overall, results yielded evidence that maternal sensitivity and child temperament at 54 months of age predicted prosocial, aggressive, and delinquent outcomes at age 15. Affiliation with peer groups (especially with prosocial peers) and social behaviors in childhood mediated the aforementioned paths for effortful control, but not for maternal sensitivity. Discussion focuses on the implications for understanding the long-term effects of early childhood predictors on behavioral outcomes in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27228452

  11. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  12. A Study of Self-Esteem and Romanticism among Pregnant Adolescents, Adolescent Mothers, and a Control Group in Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Hellen, Cheryl; And Others

    In the United States over one million adolescent girls will become pregnant each year. Adolescent pregnancy often leads to truncated educational attainment and subsequently results in a prolonged cycle of poverty and dependence. This study investigated feelings of self-esteem and romanticism among pregnant adolescents (N=276), adolescent mothers…

  13. Chronic social stress during adolescence induces cognitive impairment in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Sterlemann, Vera; Rammes, Gerhard; Wolf, Miriam; Liebl, Claudia; Ganea, Karin; Müller, Marianne B; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2010-04-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is one of the major aspects that impede successful aging in humans. Environmental factors, such as chronic stress, can accelerate or aggravate cognitive deficits during aging. While there is abundant evidence that chronic stress directly affects cognitive performance, the lasting consequences of stress exposures during vulnerable developmental time windows are largely unknown. This is especially true for the adolescent period, which is critical in terms of physical, sexual, and behavioral maturation. Here we used chronic social stress during adolescence in male mice and investigated the consequences of this treatment on cognitive performance during aging. We observed a substantial impairment of spatial memory, but not other memory domains, 12 months after the end of the stress period. This hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction was supported by concomitant impairment in LTP induction in CA1 neurons in 15-month-old animals. Further, we observed a decrease of hippocampal BDNF mRNA and synaptophysin immunoreactivity, suggesting plasticity and structural alterations in formerly stressed mice. Finally, we identified expression changes of specific neurotransmitter subunits critically involved in learning and memory, specifically the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B. Taken together, our results identify possible molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment during aging, demonstrating the detrimental impact of stress during adolescence on hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in aged mice. PMID:19489003

  14. National and state vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years--United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-08-30

    At ages 11 through 12 years, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that preteens receive 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 1 dose of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. ACIP also recommends that pre-teens and older adolescents receive an annual influenza vaccine as well as any overdue vaccines (e.g., varicella). To monitor vaccination coverage among persons aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen). This report highlights findings of that analysis. From 2011 to 2012, coverage increased for ≥1 Tdap vaccine dose (from 78.2% to 84.6%), ≥1 MenACWY vaccine dose (from 70.5% to 74.0%) and, among males, ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 8.3% to 20.8%). Among females, vaccination coverage estimates for each HPV vaccine series dose were similar in 2012 compared with 2011. Coverage varied substantially among states. Regarding Healthy People 2020 targets for adolescents, 36 states achieved targets for Tdap, 12 for MenACWY, and nine for varicella vaccine coverage. Large and increasing coverage differences between Tdap and other vaccines recommended for adolescents indicate that substantial missed opportunities remain for vaccinating teens, especially against HPV infection. Health-care providers should administer recommended HPV and meningococcal vaccinations to boys and girls during the same visits when Tdap vaccine is given. In addition, whether for health problems or well-checks, providers, parents, and adolescents should use every health-care visit as an opportunity to review adolescents' immunization histories and ensure that every adolescent is fully vaccinated.

  15. National and state vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years--United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-08-30

    At ages 11 through 12 years, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that preteens receive 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 1 dose of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. ACIP also recommends that pre-teens and older adolescents receive an annual influenza vaccine as well as any overdue vaccines (e.g., varicella). To monitor vaccination coverage among persons aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen). This report highlights findings of that analysis. From 2011 to 2012, coverage increased for ≥1 Tdap vaccine dose (from 78.2% to 84.6%), ≥1 MenACWY vaccine dose (from 70.5% to 74.0%) and, among males, ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 8.3% to 20.8%). Among females, vaccination coverage estimates for each HPV vaccine series dose were similar in 2012 compared with 2011. Coverage varied substantially among states. Regarding Healthy People 2020 targets for adolescents, 36 states achieved targets for Tdap, 12 for MenACWY, and nine for varicella vaccine coverage. Large and increasing coverage differences between Tdap and other vaccines recommended for adolescents indicate that substantial missed opportunities remain for vaccinating teens, especially against HPV infection. Health-care providers should administer recommended HPV and meningococcal vaccinations to boys and girls during the same visits when Tdap vaccine is given. In addition, whether for health problems or well-checks, providers, parents, and adolescents should use every health-care visit as an opportunity to review adolescents' immunization histories and ensure that every adolescent is fully vaccinated. PMID:23985496

  16. Friendships fighting prejudice: a longitudinal perspective on adolescents' cross-group friendships with immigrants.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Brenick, Alaina; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2015-06-01

    Increasingly, adolescents are growing up in multiethnic multicultural societies. While intergroup prejudice can threaten the multicultural societal cohesion, intergroup friendships are strong predictors of reduced prejudice. Thus, more research is needed to fully understand the development of intergroup friendships and their relations to less prejudicial attitudes. This study addressed two major developmental research questions: first, whether longitudinal patterns of intergroup friendships of native adolescents (i.e., whether or not a native German adolescent has a friendship with an immigrant at different points in time) relate to changes in rates of prejudice about immigrants. Second, whether these friendship patterns that unfold over time can be predicted by contact opportunities, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control assessed at the beginning of the study. The sample included 372 native German adolescents (14.7 years of age at first assessment, 62.3% girls) who showed one of four friendship trajectories over the three annual assessments: they either maintained, gained, never had, or lost a friendship with an outgroup peer. In particular, results showed that adolescents who gained an intergroup friendship over the three time points showed a significant decrease in negative prejudice over the study. All four theorized predictors contributed to explain friendship trajectory membership. Generally, adolescents with many opportunities for contact, positive attitudes about contact, perceived positive social norms for contact, and high levels of behavioral control (self-efficacy) were more likely to maintain a friendship with an outgroup member than to follow any of the three other friendship trajectories (gain, lost, or never had). The pattern of predictions differed, however, depending on the specific pairs of friendship trajectories compared.

  17. Peer Interaction and Group Education for Adaptation to Disease in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Altundag, Sebahat; Bayat, Meral

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of group interaction and training in the adaptation process to disease in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: This experimental study with pre- and post-test control groups was conducted in the pediatric endocrine clinic at a university hospital. The data were collected through descriptive data form, social support assessment scale, self-esteem inventory and information form. The data collection forms were administered four times with 3-month intervals to the study and control groups. Training, peer interaction and social support attempts were provided to the study group. Results: After the training and peer interaction, it was determined that there was a decrease in HbA1c levels and an increase in self-esteem (p<0.001) and mean scores of social support (p<0.05), and significant increase in knowledge levels (p<0.001). As for the adolescents in the control group, it was determined that there was no change in their HbA1c levels (p>0.05), and that there was no difference in their self-esteem scores, mean knowledge levels (p>0.05) in comparison with their pre-test scores. Conclusion: The training and peer interaction in adolescents were found to be effective in the adaptation process to the disease. PMID:27648058

  18. Peer Interaction and Group Education for Adaptation to Disease in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Altundag, Sebahat; Bayat, Meral

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of group interaction and training in the adaptation process to disease in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: This experimental study with pre- and post-test control groups was conducted in the pediatric endocrine clinic at a university hospital. The data were collected through descriptive data form, social support assessment scale, self-esteem inventory and information form. The data collection forms were administered four times with 3-month intervals to the study and control groups. Training, peer interaction and social support attempts were provided to the study group. Results: After the training and peer interaction, it was determined that there was a decrease in HbA1c levels and an increase in self-esteem (p<0.001) and mean scores of social support (p<0.05), and significant increase in knowledge levels (p<0.001). As for the adolescents in the control group, it was determined that there was no change in their HbA1c levels (p>0.05), and that there was no difference in their self-esteem scores, mean knowledge levels (p>0.05) in comparison with their pre-test scores. Conclusion: The training and peer interaction in adolescents were found to be effective in the adaptation process to the disease.

  19. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-10-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

  20. Measuring Behaviors of Individual Adolescents during Group-Based Substance Abuse Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Stein, L.A.R.; Clair, Mary; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Soenksen, Shayna; Lebeau, Rebecca; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hurlbut, Warren; Monti, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Group treatment is delivered in youth correctional facilities, yet groups may be iatrogenic. Few measures with demonstrated psychometric properties exist to track behaviors of individuals during groups. We assessed psychometrics for the Group Process-Individual Level measure (GP-IL) of group treatment. Methods: N=152 teens were randomized to 1 of 2 groups (10 sessions each). Adolescents, counselors, and observers rated teen behaviors at sessions 3 and 10. GP-IL assesses reinforcement for deviancy and positive behaviors, member rejection, and counselor connection and praise. Results: Internal consistency and 1-month stability were demonstrated. Concurrent validity is supported by correlations with measures expected to be associated with group behavior (e.g., coping skills). Counselors and observers rated more deviancy during interactive skills-building groups versus didactic psycho-educational groups (p≤ .005). Scales evidenced incremental validity. Conclusions: GP-IL offers a sound method of tracking adolescent behaviors for professionals working with groups. Counselors ratings were most reliable and valid overall. PMID:25127289

  1. Infants of adolescent mothers. Maternal characteristics and developmental status at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Camp, B W; Burgess, D; Morgan, L; Malpiede, D

    1984-03-01

    The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered at 1 year of age to 54 healthy infants of adolescent mothers. Information was obtained regarding maternal cognitive and emotional maturity, child-rearing attitudes, attitudes toward the infant, and psychosocial status at one year. The average Bayley Mental Scale score was 113, and the average Bayley Motor Scale score was 105. There was a negative correlation between the Bayley Mental Scale score and maternal age and education. Bayley Motor Scale scores were predictable from a combination of maternal authoritarian attitudes, abuse potential, and infant's birth weight. Although high authoritarian attitudes in mothers have been associated with poor cognitive development at later ages, they may represent an important strength in adolescent mothers during the first year. PMID:6702768

  2. A statewide survey of age at first intercourse for adolescent females and age of their male partners: relation to other risk behaviors and statutory rape implications.

    PubMed

    Leitenberg, H; Saltzman, H

    2000-06-01

    In a statewide survey of a representative sample of adolescent girls in 8th-12th grades (N = 4201), information was obtained on age at first intercourse and age of their male partners. Excluding intercourse experiences where physical force was threatened or used, 31% had intercourse by age 15 and 45% by age 16. Contrary to the impression left by studies of teenage mothers, girls who first had sex between age 13 and age 15 or between age 16 and age 18 did not have a large percentage of much older partners (5 or more years older; 12 and 7%, respectively). The percentage of much older partners was higher, however, for girls who had sex in very early adolescence, ages 11-12 (34%). Much older male partners were associated with greater problem behaviors for girls who first had intercourse in very early adolescence (11-12), but less so for those who first had intercourse between age 13 and age 15 (truancy only) and not at all for those who first had intercourse at between 16 and 18. Regardless of partner's age disparity, earlier age at first intercourse during adolescence was associated with a greater number of other problem behaviors. The implications of these findings for recent calls to enforce statutory rape laws more stringently to reduce teenage pregnancy were discussed. PMID:10992978

  3. Variation in functional connectivity along anterior-to-posterior intraparietal sulcus, and relationship with age across late childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Vinette, Sarah A; Bray, Signe

    2015-06-01

    The intraparietal sulcus (IPS), a region in the dorsal attention network (DAN), has been implicated in multi-sensory attention and working memory. Working memory and attention develop across childhood; changes in functional connectivity within the DAN may relate to this maturation. Previous findings regarding fronto-parietal intrinsic functional connectivity age-effects were mixed. Our study aimed to circumvent limitations of previous work using a large cross-sectional sample, 183 typically developing participants 6.5-20 years, from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange, and seed regions along the anterior-to-posterior axis of the IPS. These seeds, IPS0-4, were entered into functional connectivity models. Group-level models investigated differential connectivity along the IPS and relationships with age. Anterior IPS3/4 exhibited greater connectivity with sensorimotor/pre-motor regions. Posterior IPS0/1 demonstrated greater connectivity with dorsal and ventral visual regions. Positive age-effects were found between IPS3-4 and visual regions. Negative age-effects were found between IPS and superior parietal and medial orbitofrontal cortices. Follow-up region of interest analyses were used to estimate age-effects for DAN and anticorrelated default mode network regions. Results suggest age-effects on IPS functional connectivity are relatively modest, and may differ pre- and across-adolescence. Studying typical age-related connectivity variability within this network may help to understand neurodevelopmental disorders marked by impaired attention. PMID:25951196

  4. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  5. Randomized Trial of Group Interventions to Reduce HIV/STD Risk and Change Theoretical Mediators among Detained Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiege, Sarah J.; Broaddus, Michelle R.; Levin, Michael; Bryan, Angela D.

    2009-01-01

    Criminally involved adolescents engage in high levels of risky sexual behavior and alcohol use, and alcohol use may contribute to lack of condom use. Detained adolescents (n = 484) were randomized to (1) a theory-based sexual risk reduction intervention (GPI), (2) the GPI condition with a group-based alcohol risk reduction motivational enhancement…

  6. Attachment Representations in Mothers, Fathers, Adolescents, and Clinical Groups: A Meta-analytic Search for Normative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    1996-01-01

    This meta-analysis on 33 studies, including more than 2,000 Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications, presents distributions of AAI classifications in samples of nonclinical fathers and mothers, in adolescents, in samples from different cultures, and in clinical groups. Fathers, adolescents, and participants from different countries show…

  7. Implementing Self-Advocacy Training within a Brief Psychoeducational Group to Improve the Academic Motivation of Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowden, Angel Riddick

    2009-01-01

    Black adolescents are confronted with ongoing social barriers that affect their academic motivation. School counselors can improve the educational landscape for Black adolescents by employing advocacy competencies in their schools. In this article I describe a brief psychoeducational group that can be used to teach self-advocacy skills to Black…

  8. Group psychoeducation for parents of adolescents with eating disorders: the Aachen program.

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, Kristian; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Vloet, Timo; Hagenah, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Family-based treatment in adolescents and individual psychoeducation in adults are accepted components in a multimodal treatment of eating disorders. However, only few studies have been conducted on the use of parent-based psychoeducation. This paper presents the structure and content, as well as a preliminary evaluation, of a group psychoeducation program for parents of adolescent patients with eating disorders. The program is limited to five 90-minute sessions and aimed at increasing the parents' understanding of the disorder and promoting high transparency with regard to our treatment principles. The vast majority of parents rated the group psychoeducation as helpful in coping with their child's disorder and would recommend others to take part in the program.

  9. Increased Serum Levels of Oxytocin in ‘Treatment Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TRDIA)’ Group

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Oda, Yasunori; Ishima, Tamaki; Yakita, Madoka; Kurata, Tsutomu; Kunou, Masaru; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kamata, Yu; Kimura, Atsushi; Niitsu, Tomihisa; Komatsu, Hideki; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Shiina, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Shimizu, Eiji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2016-01-01

    Objective ‘Treatment-resistant depression’ is depression that does not respond to an adequate regimen of evidence-based treatment. Treatment-resistant depression frequently becomes chronic. Children with treatment-resistant depression might also develop bipolar disorder (BD). The objective of this study was to determine whether serum levels of oxytocin (OXT) in treatment-resistant depression in adolescents (TRDIA) differ from non-treatment-resistant depression in adolescents (non-TRDIA) or controls. We also investigated the relationships between serum OXT levels and the clinical symptoms, severity, and familial histories of adolescent depressive patients. Methods We measured serum OXT levels: TRDIA (n = 10), non-TRDIA (n = 27), and age- and sex- matched, neurotypical controls (n = 25). Patients were evaluated using the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children-Japanese Version (DSRS-C-J). The patients were also assessed retrospectively using the following variables: familial history of major depressive disorder and BD (1st degree or 2nd degree), history of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, recurrent depressive disorder (RDD), history of antidepressant activation. Results Serum levels of OXT among the TRDIA and non-TRDIA patients and controls differed significantly. Interestingly, the rates of a family history of BD (1st or 2nd degree), RDD and a history of antidepressant activation in our TRDIA group were significantly higher than those of the non-TRDIA group. Conclusions Serum levels of OXT may play a role in the pathophysiology of TRDIA. PMID:27536785

  10. The Hierarchical Factor Model of ADHD: Invariant across Age and National Groupings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factor structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1,373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1,772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and…

  11. Early Adolescent Age and Gender Differences in Patterns of Emotional Self-Disclosure to Parents and Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    This study explored adolescent age and gender differences in patterns of emotional self-disclosure to parents and friends. An additional purpose was to describe how familial and individual developmental characteristics influence patterns of adolescent emotional disclosure. The sample consisted of 174 junior high school students between 12 and 15…

  12. Early Adolescent Age and Gender Differences in Patterns of Emotional Self-Disclosure to Parents and Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored adolescent age and gender differences in patterns of emotional self-disclosure to parents and friends among 174 junior high school students. Found that girls exhibited greater emotional self-disclosure to parents and peers than did males, and that emotional self-disclosure to friends was greatest among older adolescents. (Author/NB)

  13. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  14. Effects of Autistic Traits on Social and School Adjustment in Children and Adolescents: The Moderating Roles of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…

  15. Parental Monitoring Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Problem Behaviors among African American Urban Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Maryse H.; Miller, Bobbi Viegas; O'Donnell, Philip C.; Wasserman, Michelle S.; Colder, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Adolescent delinquency, drug use and aggression remain societal concerns. These problems are more common with adolescent boys than girls, and tend to increase with age. Although a lack of parental monitoring has been found to be related to problem behaviors, the mediating role of monitoring on the relationship of sex and grade to problem behaviors…

  16. Age- and sex-related variations in vocal-tract morphology and voice acoustics during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Markova, Diana; Richer, Louis; Pangelinan, Melissa; Schwartz, Deborah H; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Veillette, Suzanne; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    Distinct differences in the human voice emerge during adolescence, with males producing deeper and more resonant voices than females by the end of sexual maturation. Using magnetic resonance images of heads and voice recordings obtained in 532 typically developing adolescents, we investigate what might be the drivers of this change in voice, and the subjective judgment of the voice "maleness" and "femaleness". We show clear sex differences in the morphology of voice-related structures during adolescence, with males displaying strong associations between age (and puberty) and both vocal-fold and vocal-tract length; this was not the case in female adolescents. At the same time, males (compared with females) display stronger associations between age (and puberty) with both fundamental frequency and formant position. In males, vocal morphology was a mediator in the relationship between bioavailable testosterone and acoustic indices. Subjective judgment of the voice sex could be predicted by the morphological and acoustic parameters in males only: the length of vocal folds and its acoustic counterpart, fundamental frequency, is a larger predictor of subjective "maleness" of a voice than vocal-tract length and formant position.

  17. Age- and sex-related variations in vocal-tract morphology and voice acoustics during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Markova, Diana; Richer, Louis; Pangelinan, Melissa; Schwartz, Deborah H; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Veillette, Suzanne; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    Distinct differences in the human voice emerge during adolescence, with males producing deeper and more resonant voices than females by the end of sexual maturation. Using magnetic resonance images of heads and voice recordings obtained in 532 typically developing adolescents, we investigate what might be the drivers of this change in voice, and the subjective judgment of the voice "maleness" and "femaleness". We show clear sex differences in the morphology of voice-related structures during adolescence, with males displaying strong associations between age (and puberty) and both vocal-fold and vocal-tract length; this was not the case in female adolescents. At the same time, males (compared with females) display stronger associations between age (and puberty) with both fundamental frequency and formant position. In males, vocal morphology was a mediator in the relationship between bioavailable testosterone and acoustic indices. Subjective judgment of the voice sex could be predicted by the morphological and acoustic parameters in males only: the length of vocal folds and its acoustic counterpart, fundamental frequency, is a larger predictor of subjective "maleness" of a voice than vocal-tract length and formant position. PMID:27062936

  18. [Calcium intake and adiposity in adolescents aged 12-16 years in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Gabriela; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Bárbara; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio

    2013-06-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the association between calcium (Ca) intake and adiposity in adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 125 adolescents 12 to 16 years. Ca intake was evaluated by 24-hour recall dietary surveys and food frequency consumption. Adiposity was measured by anthropometric methods and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). The association between Ca intake and adiposity was identified by simple correlation and multivariate models adjusted to energy consumption, age, sex and menarche. Mean age of adolescents was 13.5 +/- 0.8 years. A negative correlation was identified between Ca intake and anthropometric indicators weight, skinfolds, body mass index, fat mass and percentage of fat (the latter two by BIA and only in women). Multivariate analysis, including energy consumption showed no association between Ca intake and adiposity. In conclusion, Ca consumption does not associate with adiposity in adolescents; multivariate models showed that energy intake and menarche are the variables that show a higher association with adiposity at this stage of life.

  19. Patterns of Chemotherapy-Induced Toxicities in Younger Children and Adolescents with Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Abha A.; Anderson, James R.; Pappo, Alberto S.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Dasgupta, Roshni; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Hawkins, Douglas S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Patients aged older than 10 years with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have an inferior outcome compared to patients aged 1–9 years which might be explained by toxicities (adverse events, AE) resulting in chemotherapy dose reductions. Methods AEs observed during one of 3 randomized chemotherapy regimens (VAC, VAI or VIE) in Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS)-IV were recorded. The incidence of toxicities by age and treatment regimen was determined. The odds of developing an AE in a particular age group (5–9, 10–14, and 15–20 years) were compared to the control age group, 1–4 years. Results 657 patients were eligible for analysis. Estimated 5-year EFS were 78%, 83%, 67%, and 58% for age groups 1–4, 5–9, 10–14, and 15–20, respectively. Patients 15–20 years experienced less neutropenia (OR 0.43, p<0.0001), thrombocytopenia (OR 0.41, p<0.0001), anemia (OR 0.34, p<0.0001) and infection (OR 0.41, p<0.0001) compared to younger patients, despite receiving similar amounts of chemotherapy. In contrast, peripheral nervous system (PNS) toxicity was higher in adolescents older than 10 years (OR 4.18, p<0.0001). Females experienced more neutropenia (OR 1.28, p=0.05) and thrombocytopenia (OR 1.26, p=0.06) compared to males. Conclusions Adolescents receiving treatment for RMS experience significantly less hematologic and more PNS toxicity compared to younger children despite receiving similar amounts of chemotherapy. Although outcome is inferior in adolescents, it is unclear whether the differences in toxicity observed in our study impact on outcome. Future studies examining the age and gender-related differences in pharmacokinetics of chemotherapy are necessary. PMID:21761400

  20. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  1. Iranian Adolescents' Intended Age of Marriage and Desired Family Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashakkori, Abbas; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined questionnaire data pertaining to intended age of marriage and desired family size from Iranian 12th graders. Proximal factors (individual level variables such as self-concept and school success) were stronger predictors on both dependent measures than were distal factors (parental education, sibling size, and family modernity). Proximal…

  2. Age and Gender Differences in the Predictors of Adolescent Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, James G.; Bolitho, Floyd; Bertrand, Lorne D.

    1998-01-01

    Predictors of alcohol consumption were investigated across age and sex among junior and senior high school students (N=1,942). The dominant predictor for young boys was whether their friends drink; for girls it was related to interpersonal disorder. Peer pressure was important for older girls and continued dominant for boys. (EMK)

  3. Urinary bisphenol A and age at menarche among adolescent girls: Evidence from NHANES 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    McGuinn, Laura A.; Ghazarian, Armen A.; Su, L. Joseph; Ellison, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental estrogen used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins used to make food and beverage packaging. Increasing evidence suggests that BPA mimics estrogens in the body and may be associated with putative markers of breast cancer risk. Objectives We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2010 data to investigate the association of BPA with age at menarche in adolescent girls. We hypothesized that urinary BPA, as a surrogate biomarker for BPA exposure, is associated with earlier age at menarche, and that body mass index (BMI) may modulate this association. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analyses of urinary BPA, BMI and age of menarche in a subsample of 987 adolescent girls aged 12–19, using pooled data from the 2003–2010 NHANES. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between urinary BPA and early onset of menarche, with adjustment for sampling design. We additionally assessed interaction of BPA with BMI. Results Adolescent girls with moderate BPA levels appeared to be less likely to have early onset of menarche than those with the lowest levels (OR=0.57; 95% CI=0.30, 1.08) after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, parental education, country of birth, NHANES cycle, BMI and creatinine. BMI appeared to modify the BPA-menarche association. Conclusions Although a non-significant trend suggests increasing urinary BPA may be associated with delayed menarche in adolescent girls, these results are based on cross-sectional data. Results should be clarified in carefully designed longitudinal cohort studies. PMID:25460659

  4. Comparing group-based acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with enhanced usual care for adolescents with functional somatic syndromes: a study protocol for a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Kallesøe, Karen Hansen; Schröder, Andreas; Wicksell, Rikard K; Fink, Per; Ørnbøl, Eva; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) are common in adolescents, characterised by severe disability and reduced quality of life. Behavioural treatments such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has shown promising results in children and adolescents with FSS, but has focused on specific syndromes such as functional pain. The current study will compare the efficacy of group-based ACT with that of enhanced usual care (EUC) in adolescents with a range of FSS operationalised by the unifying construct of multiorgan bodily distress syndrome (BDS). Methods and analysis A total of 120 adolescents aged 15–19 and diagnosed with multiorgan BDS, of at least 12 months duration, will be assessed and randomised to either: (1) EUC: a manualised consultation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist and individualised treatment plan or (2) manualised ACT-based group therapy plus EUC. The ACT programme consists of 9 modules (ie, 27 hours) and 1 follow-up meeting (3 hours). The primary outcome is physical health, assessed by an Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) aggregate score 12 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include self-reported symptom severity, symptom interference, depression and anxiety, illness worry, perceived stress and global improvement; as well as objective physical activity and bodily stress response measured by heart rate variability, hair cortisol and inflammatory biomarkers. Process measures are illness perception, illness-related behaviour and psychological flexibility. Ethics and dissemination The study is conducted in accordance with Helsinki Declaration II. Approval has been obtained from the Science Ethics Committee of the Central Denmark Region and the Danish Data Protection. The results will be sought to be published according to the CONSORT statement in peer-reviewed journals. Discussion This is one of the first larger randomised clinical trials evaluating the effect of a group-based intervention for adolescents with a

  5. Why do adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents participate in focus groups?

    PubMed

    Carroll, Aaron E; Marrero, David G; Swenson, Melinda M

    2007-01-01

    Almost all patient-centered research is dependent on voluntary participation by participants. Many forces, however, act to either encourage or inhibit people from deciding to participate. This study explored adolescents' with type 1 diabetes and their parents' reasons for participating in a research study. We recruited adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their parents to participate in a focus group study. Qualitative analysis of the focus group data followed a set procedure: (a) audio review, (b) reading through transcriptions, (c) discussions among investigators regarding key elements of participants' perceptions, (d) determination of conceptual themes, and (e) assignment of relevant responses to appropriate thematic constructs. The 10 focus groups involved 59 participants. The three major themes that developed were giving and receiving, desire for peer socialization, and need for validation. Themes captured the reasons adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents decided to participate in this research. A better understanding of why people participate in research may help us to meet their needs and desires more completely. Designing research to meet these reasons will have the dual affect of increasing participation while also better serving those who choose to be studied.

  6. Intrinsic connectivity networks from childhood to late adolescence: Effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Solé-Padullés, Cristina; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Calvo, Rosa; Baeza, Inmaculada; Moya, Jaime; Lázaro, Luisa; Rosa, Mireia; Bargalló, Nuria; Sugranyes, Gisela

    2016-02-01

    There is limited evidence on the effects of age and sex on intrinsic connectivity of networks underlying cognition during childhood and adolescence. Independent component analysis was conducted in 113 subjects aged 7-18; the default mode, executive control, anterior salience, basal ganglia, language and visuospatial networks were identified. The effect of age was examined with multiple regression, while sex and 'age × sex' interactions were assessed by dividing the sample according to age (7-12 and 13-18 years). As age increased, connectivity in the dorsal and ventral default mode network became more anterior and posterior, respectively, while in the executive control network, connectivity increased within frontoparietal regions. The basal ganglia network showed increased engagement of striatum, thalami and precuneus. The anterior salience network showed greater connectivity in frontal areas and anterior cingulate, and less connectivity of orbitofrontal, middle cingulate and temporoparietal regions. The language network presented increased connectivity of inferior frontal and decreased connectivity within the right middle frontal and left inferior parietal cortices. The visuospatial network showed greater engagement of inferior parietal and frontal cortices. No effect of sex, nor age by sex interactions was observed. These findings provide evidence of strengthening of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical networks across childhood and adolescence.

  7. Predictability and Reliability of Different Anterio-Posterior Skeletal Discrepancy Indicators in Different Age Groups - A Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rana; Gupta, Abhishek; Joshi, Rishi; Tiwari, Anil; Sen, Priyank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The lateral cephalometric skeletal discrepancy indicators play a major role in diagnosing and preparing a case for orthognathic surgeries and the dentofacial corrections. Aim The study was aimed to check the reliability and the predictability of different anterio-posterior skeletal discrepancy indicators in different age groups and to derive the most reliable indicator for the orthodontic diagnosis. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 100 subjects including 29 adolescent (15 males and 14 females) and 71 adult (41 males and 30 females) subjects with the mean age of 19.05 ± 5.78 years. All the subjects had Angle’s Class I molar relationship. The lateral cephalograms of the sample were taken under the standard setting and hand tracing of the cephalometric radiographs using a sharp 4H pencil were made on acetate tracing paper. The anterio-posterior cephalometric indicators like β-angle, Wits appraisal (mm), Sella- Nasion plane to Point A and Point B distance (SN-AB mm) and Maxillo-Mandibular plane angle bisector to Point A and Point B distance (MM-AB mm) were measured. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings was evaluated using Intra Class Correlation (ICC) test. Mann Whitney U-test was applied for comparison of parameters between different malocclusion groups. Concurrent validity of various parameters was calculated using Cohen’s kappa. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The comparison of intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adolescent group showed, MM-AB to have an almost perfect agreement followed by Wits. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adult group showed moderate agreement for Wits and MM-AB showed almost perfect agreement and all the parameters showed statistically significant ICC. Comparison of parameters between adolescent and adult, Angle’s Class I malocclusion group showed significant difference between adolescent and

  8. Stability of leisure participation from school-age to adolescence in individuals with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Schmitz, Norbert; Shevell, Michael; Lach, Lucy

    2015-12-01

    With increasing age, youth with disabilities are at risk for decreased participation in leisure activities, a key component for physical and mental health. This prospective study describes changes in leisure participation and leisure preferences from school-age to adolescence in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants were recruited at school-age (6-12 years) for a study on participation and reassessed for a second study on adolescents (12-19 years) if >12 years. Thirty-eight children (24 males) with CP who could actively participate in the completion of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and the Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC) comprised the sample. Average time between assessments was 5.0 ± 1.3 years. Most children were ambulatory (32/38 Gross Motor Function Classification System I-II). In addition to the CAPE and PAC, children were evaluated using the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 and parents completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. Paired t-tests revealed a significant decline in leisure participation diversity and intensity (CAPE) for recreation (p<.0001), skill-based (p<.0001) and self-improvement (p<.05) activities, whereas social participation remained stable (p>.05). Diversity of active-physical activities increased modestly (p=.06) although intensity of participation in this activity domain decreased (p=.003). There was also a decline in enjoyment of leisure activities. Preferences for these leisure activities remained unchanged between school-age and adolescence, except for recreational activities. Gender, maternal education, family income and gross motor ability were not related to differences in CAPE/PAC scores with increasing age. Findings suggest that over time, children with CP's participation in leisure activities diminishes, which is of concern to their functioning and well-being. Parents may be more involved in early childhood in facilitating participation whereas in adolescence, youth may

  9. Fatigue and mood correlates of sleep length in three age-social groups: School children, students, and employees.

    PubMed

    Oginska, Halszka; Pokorski, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to trace the consequences of insufficient sleep, in terms of chronic sleep reduction rather than acute sleep deprivation, on fatigue, mood, cognitive performance self-estimations, and daytime sleepiness in different age-social groups. The age group of the subjects reflects their social situation and their working time organization: adolescents (n = 191) obeyed the strict school schedules with starting times often before 08:00 h; university students (n = 115) had more flexible timetables; young employees (n = 126) were engaged in regular morning schedules or irregular daytime hours or day and night shifts. A questionnaire study determined the declared need of sleep, self-reported sleep length, chronic fatigue (using a scale comprised of eight fatigue symptoms and four mood and three cognitive items), and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale). The declared need for sleep decreased in subsequent age groups from 9 h 23 min in school children to 8 h 22 min in university students and to 7 h 37 min in young employees. Consequently, the discrepancy between preferred and real sleep length (sleep deficit) was the largest in adolescents: 106 min. Females showed a greater need of sleep than males (p = .025) and significantly more fatigue, mood, and cognitive problems; they also exhibited higher level of daytime sleepiness (p < .000). The sleep index (reported sleep length related to requirements) correlated significantly with all health issues in women (p < .000), while only with fatigue symptoms in men (p = .013). Actual sleep length was unrelated to mood and fatigue issues; the declared individual need of sleep and sleep index showed significant associations, especially in the group of adolescents. The most frequent complaints of adolescents included tiredness on awakening (46%), nervousness, and general weakness; university students reported excessive drowsiness (50%), tension, and nervousness; employees suffered mostly from negative moods

  10. Relationship between impulsiveness and deviant behavior among adolescents in the classroom: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Angeles; Tabernero, Carmen

    2011-12-01

    To assess the relationship between impulsiveness and deviant behavior among 103 adolescents, taking into account their sociodemographic characteristics, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and a self-assessment measure with regard to disruptive and deviant behaviors which had occurred in the last 90 days were used. The results show that impulsiveness and disruptive behavior in the classroom were related to deviant behavior outside of the classroom. Therefore, age and sex explained the relationship between impulsiveness and behavior. The older adolescents and the girls showed less disruptive behaviors than the younger participants and the boys; both variables showed an interactive effect on disruptive behavior. The age at which sexual activity commenced and the number of sexual partners were also significantly related to impulsiveness and disruptive and deviant behavior. Similarly, impulsiveness was shown to have a significant relationship with disruptive and deviant behavior, and disruptive behavior was shown to have a significant relationship with deviant behavior.

  11. The Effectiveness of Group Assertiveness Training on Happiness in Rural Adolescent Females with Substance Abusing Parents

    PubMed Central

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Khalili, Mina Norozi; Chenarani, Maryam Shakeri; Hamidi, Mahin; Akaberi, Arash; Ardani, Amir Rezaei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parental substance abuse confronts children with a variety of psychological, social, and behavioral problems. Children of substance abusing parents show higher levels of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression and exert lower levels of communication skills. Weak social skills in this group of adolescents put them at a higher risk for substance abuse. Many studies showed school based interventions such as life skill training can effective on future substance abusing in these high risk adolescences. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of 57 middles schools girls, all living in rural areas and having both parents with substance dependency. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=28) and control (n=29) groups. The data were collected before and six weeks after training in both group. The intervention group received eight sessions of group assertiveness training. Participants were compared in terms of changes in scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and the Gambrills-Richey Assertion Inventory. Results: The total score for happiness change from 43.68 ±17.62 to 51.57 ±16.35 and assertiveness score changed from 110.33±16.05 to 90.40±12.84. There was a significant difference in pretest-posttest change in scores for intervention (7.89±4.13) and control (-2.51±2.64) groups; t (55) =2.15, p = 0.049. These results suggest that intervention really does have an effect on happiness and assertiveness. Conclusion: Determining the effectiveness of these school based interventions on other life aspects such as substance abuse calls for further study on these rural adolescent girls. PMID:26383218

  12. Effects of age and soccer expertise on general tests of perceptual and motor performance among adolescent soccer players.

    PubMed

    Vänttinen, T; Blomqvist, M; Luhtanen, P; Häkkinen, K

    2010-06-01

    This study of perceptual and motor skills in soccer players was conducted on adolescent males. The goals were to monitor the development of general perceptual motor skills in nonsoccer-playing and soccer-playing groups (n = 245), to examine the relationship between physical maturity and general perceptual motor skills (n = 41), and to compare the differences in general perceptual motor skills between groups with different soccer expertise (n = 142). The measured variables were simple reaction time, peripheral awareness, eye-hand-foot coordination, and testosterone blood level. The results suggested that general perceptual motor skills improved with age, the development of these skills was related to participants' blood testosterone concentration (especially between 12 and 14 years), and general perceptual motor skills improved with soccer expertise. However, the differences between subelite and elite soccer players were not meaningful enough to encourage practitioners to test general perceptual motor skills on a large scale when evaluating the potential of young players.

  13. Group Therapy for Repeated Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents: Failure of Replication of a Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazell, Philip L.; Martin, Graham; McGill, Katherine; Kay, Tracey; Wood, Alison; Trainor, Gemma; Harrington, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A study revealing the superiority of group therapy to routine care in preventing the recurrence of self-harming behavior among adolescents is unsuccessfully replicated. The study's findings contradicted those of the original study.

  14. “First, do no harm”: legal guidelines for health programmes affecting adolescents aged 10–17 who sell sex or inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    KPs in institutions, they are entitled to judicial process. Legal guidelines also provide that these adolescents have influence over their placement, access to legal counsel to challenge the conditions of their detention and regular visitation from peers, friends and family, and that all facilities be subject to frequent and periodic review by independent agencies, including community-based groups led by KPs. Conclusions Controlling international law specifies that protective interventions among KPs aged 10–17 must not only include low-threshold, voluntary services but also “protect” adolescent KPs from the harms attendant to law-enforcement-based interventions. Going forward, health practitioners must honour the right to health by adjusting programmes according to principles of minimum intervention, due process and proportionality, and duly limit juvenile justice and child protection involvement as a measure of last resort, if any. PMID:25724508

  15. Exercise and Fatigue in Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Hooke, Mary C.; Friedman, Debra L.; Campbell, Kristin; Withycombe, Janice; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Kelly, Kara; Meza, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a significant problem for adolescent and young adult (AYA) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. The relationship between exercise and fatigue is complex. This study explored the trajectory of and the relationship between exercise and fatigue over 36 months post-therapy in a cohort of 103 AYA-aged HL survivors treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) study AHOD0031. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations were used in this secondary data analysis. Exercise and fatigue improved over time but were unrelated; amount of exercise at end of therapy predicted amount of exercise at 12 (p = 0.02) and 36 (p = 0.0008) months post-therapy. PMID:26421221

  16. Younger Age at Crisis Following Parental Death in Male Children and Adolescents is Associated with Higher Risk for Dementia at Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Goldbourt, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of midlife report of crisis following parental death (CFPD) during childhood and adolescence, with dementia at old age. Methods In 1965, 9362 male participants of the Israel Ischemic Heart disease (IIHD) study were asked whether they have experienced CFPD (paternal or maternal) during the following ages: 0–6. 7–12. 13–18 or >18 years. Dementia was assessed over three decades later in 1889 survivors of the original cohort, 1,652 of whom were assessed for CFPD in 1965. Results Controlling for age, the estimated odds for dementia relative to individuals who reported crisis following paternal parental death (CFPR-P) at the age of 18 and above, were 3.06 (95%CI 1.42–6.61), 2.15 (95% CI 0.87–5.31) and 2.35 (95%CI 1.05–5.28) for those who reported CFPD-P at the ages of 0–6, 7–12 and 13–18 respectively. Odds for dementia were 0.60 (95% CI 0.32–1.11) for participants who reported CFPD-P at ages of 18 and above, compared to participants who did not report such a crisis. Similar results were obtained for the association of crisis reported following maternal parental death (CFPD-M) at different age groups and dementia. Conclusions CFPD during childhood is associated with increased risk for dementia in males who survived until old age. PMID:21537146

  17. Safety Profile of PrePex Male Circumcision Device and Client Satisfaction With Adolescent Males Aged 13–17 Years in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Tshimanga, Mafuta; Mugurungi, Owen; Mangwiro, Tonderayi; Ncube, Getrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Chatikobo, Pesanai; Gundidza, Patricia; Samkange, Christopher; Dhlamini, Roy; Murwira, Munyaradzi; Gwinji, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Background: The safety and efficacy of the PrePex device for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been demonstrated in studies in Rwanda, Uganda, and Zimbabwe, leading to the conditional prequalification of the device for use in adults. Because the majority of VMMC clients in the 14 priority countries are adolescents under 18 years, research to establish the safety and efficacy of the device for males <18 years is required. Methods: One-arm, prospective study included 402 adolescents, aged 13–17 years, using PrePex device between August 2013 and January 2014 at a VMMC centre in Harare. Endpoints are number and grade of adverse events associated with device circumcision, time to complete wound healing, client satisfaction with the procedure, and outcome. Results: The rate of medical ineligibility among adolescent males was high; 237/402 (35.9%) of study participants had to be excluded based on medical reasons. The severe/moderate adverse event rate was low at 2/402 (0.5%). No device displacements/self-removals were observed. Time to complete wound healing was shorter than in adults; 367/398 (92.2%) adolescents had completed wound healing by day 35, whereas 90% of adults had completed wound healing by day 56 as demonstrated in previous studies. Overall, adolescents were highly satisfied with the results of their circumcision. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that the PrePex device can be safely used in adolescents aged 13–17 years. The significant proportion of males opting for surgical circumcision and the high medical ineligibility suggest that surgical circumcision needs to be provided alongside PrePex services in programs targeting young age groups. PMID:27331588

  18. Neuro-oscillatory mechanisms of intersensory selective attention and task switching in school-aged children, adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jeremy W; Foxe, John J; Molholm, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    The ability to attend to one among multiple sources of information is central to everyday functioning. Just as central is the ability to switch attention among competing inputs as the task at hand changes. Such processes develop surprisingly slowly, such that even into adolescence, we remain slower and more error prone at switching among tasks compared to young adults. The amplitude of oscillations in the alpha band (~8-14 Hz) tracks the top-down deployment of attention, and there is growing evidence that alpha can act as a suppressive mechanism to bias attention away from distracting sensory input. Moreover, the amplitude of alpha has also been shown to be sensitive to the demands of switching tasks. To understand the neural basis of protracted development of these executive functions, we recorded high-density electrophysiology from school-aged children (8-12 years), adolescents (13-17), and young adults (18-34) as they performed a cued inter-sensory selective attention task. The youngest participants showed increased susceptibility to distracting inputs that was especially evident when switching tasks. Concordantly, they showed weaker and delayed onset of alpha modulation compared to the older groups. Thus the flexible and efficient deployment of alpha to bias competition among attentional sets remains underdeveloped in school-aged children. PMID:26190204

  19. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  20. Linguistic Lateralization in Adolescents with Down Syndrome Revealed by a Dichotic Monitoring Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoji, Hiroaki; Koizumi, Natsuko; Ozaki, Hisaki

    2009-01-01

    Linguistic lateralization in 10 adolescents with Down syndrome (average age: 15.7 years), 15 adolescents with intellectual disabilities of unknown etiology (average age: 17.8 years), 2 groups of children without disabilities (11 children, average age: 4.7 years; 10 children, average age: 8.5 years), and 14 adolescents without disabilities (average…

  1. Music through the ages: Trends in musical engagement and preferences from adolescence through middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Rentfrow, Peter J; Xu, Man K; Potter, Jeff

    2013-10-01

    Are there developmental trends in how individuals experience and engage with music? Data from 2 large cross-sectional studies involving more than a quarter of a million individuals were used to investigate age differences in musical attitudes and preferences from adolescence through middle age. Study 1 investigated age trends in musical engagement. Results indicated that (a) the degree of importance attributed to music declines with age but that adults still consider music important, (b) young people listen to music significantly more often than do middle-aged adults, and (c) young people listen to music in a wide variety of contexts, whereas adults listen to music primarily in private contexts. Study 2 examined age trends in musical preferences. Results indicated that (a) musical preferences can be conceptualized in terms of a 5-dimensional age-invariant model, (b) certain music-preference dimensions decrease with age (e.g., Intense, Contemporary), whereas preferences for other music dimensions increase with age (e.g., Unpretentious, Sophisticated), and (c) age trends in musical preferences are closely associated with personality. Normative age trends in musical preferences corresponded with developmental changes in psychosocial development, personality, and auditory perception. Overall, the findings suggest that musical preferences are subject to a variety of developmental influences throughout the life span.

  2. Music through the ages: Trends in musical engagement and preferences from adolescence through middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Rentfrow, Peter J; Xu, Man K; Potter, Jeff

    2013-10-01

    Are there developmental trends in how individuals experience and engage with music? Data from 2 large cross-sectional studies involving more than a quarter of a million individuals were used to investigate age differences in musical attitudes and preferences from adolescence through middle age. Study 1 investigated age trends in musical engagement. Results indicated that (a) the degree of importance attributed to music declines with age but that adults still consider music important, (b) young people listen to music significantly more often than do middle-aged adults, and (c) young people listen to music in a wide variety of contexts, whereas adults listen to music primarily in private contexts. Study 2 examined age trends in musical preferences. Results indicated that (a) musical preferences can be conceptualized in terms of a 5-dimensional age-invariant model, (b) certain music-preference dimensions decrease with age (e.g., Intense, Contemporary), whereas preferences for other music dimensions increase with age (e.g., Unpretentious, Sophisticated), and (c) age trends in musical preferences are closely associated with personality. Normative age trends in musical preferences corresponded with developmental changes in psychosocial development, personality, and auditory perception. Overall, the findings suggest that musical preferences are subject to a variety of developmental influences throughout the life span. PMID:23895269

  3. Behavioral Group Work in a Home for the Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsk, N.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Elderly people in institutions frequently become isolated and noncommunicative. By using behavioral measurements of group workers and group members, the authors have formulated ways of treatment that encourage members to participate more actively. (Author)

  4. Childhood and adolescent obesity and long-term cognitive consequences during aging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Freire, Daniel; Knable, Lindsay; Zhao, Wei; Gong, Bing; Mazzola, Paolo; Ho, Lap; Levine, Samara; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance has reached an epidemic level. Obesity's immediate clinical impacts have been extensively studied; however, current clinical evidence underscores the long-term implications. The current study explored the impacts of brief childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance on cognitive function in later life. To mimic childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance, we exposed 9-week-old C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat diet for 15 weeks, after which the mice exhibited diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. We then put these mice back on a normal low-fat diet, after which the mice exhibited normal body weight and glucose tolerance. However, a spatial memory test in the forms of the Morris water maze (MWM) and contextual fear conditioning at 85 weeks of age showed that these mice had severe deficits in learning and long-term memory consolidation. Mechanistic investigations identified increased expression of histone deacetylases 5, accompanied by reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in the brains 61 weeks after the mice had been off the high-fat diet. Electrophysiology studies showed that hippocampal slices isolated from these mice are more susceptible to synaptic impairments compared with slices isolated from the control mice. We demonstrated that a 15-week occurrence of obesity and insulin resistance during childhood/adolescence induces irreversible epigenetic modifications in the brain that persist following restoration of normal metabolic homeostasis, leading to brain synaptic dysfunction during aging. Our study provides experimental evidence that limited early-life exposure to obesity and insulin resistance may have long-term deleterious consequences in the brain, contributing to the onset/progression of cognitive dysfunction during aging.

  5. The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in the Lives of Older Adolescents: A Comparison of Three Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17–19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs’ psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents’ self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:20446024

  6. Age at HPV Vaccine Initiation and Completion among US Adolescent Girls: Trend from 2008 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbubur; McGrath, Christine J.; Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the trend of provider-verified HPV vaccine initiation (≥1 dose) and completion (≥3 doses) among adolescent girls at the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended age (11-12 years). Methods We analyzed National Immunization Survey of Teens 2008-2012 data and examined the trend of provider-verified HPV vaccine initiation and completion among <13 year old girls. Results Data on age at HPV vaccine initiation and completion were available for 24,466 and 15,972 girls, respectively. The weighted proportion of girls who initiated the vaccine at <13 years of age was 14.1%, 24.1%, 35.9%, 47.7% and 55.9% in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively (p for trend <.001). The similar trend was also observed for mean age at HPV vaccine initiation and completion (p <.001). Conclusions Additional efforts are needed to increase HPV vaccine uptake among adolescent girls as only half of them receive this vaccine at ACIP recommended age. PMID:25529289

  7. Multiple-Family Group Intervention for Incarcerated Male Adolescents Who Sexually Offend and Their Families: Change in Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Predicts Adaptive Change in Adolescent Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Keiley, Margaret K; Zaremba-Morgan, Ali; Datubo-Brown, Christiana; Pyle, Raven; Cox, Milira

    2015-07-01

    The multiple-family group intervention is an effective, yet affordable, 8-week treatment that is conducted in a juvenile correctional institution in Alabama with adolescents who sexually offend and their families. Data from 115 incarcerated male adolescents and their male and female caregivers collected at pre-, post-, and 1-year follow-up were used to determine that problem behaviors (internalizing, externalizing) decreased over pre- and posttest and the significant decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation predicted those changes. Adolescent-reported anxiety over abandonment and attachment dependence on parents increased significantly; these changes were predicted by decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation. Linear growth models were also fit over the 3 time points and indicate decreases in adolescent problem behavior and maladaptive emotion regulation. PMID:24809985

  8. Participation in clubs and groups from childhood to adolescence and its effects on attachment and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Martin, Jennifer; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-02-01

    We examined social participation in organized clubs and groups from childhood to adolescence in a sample of young people from Dunedin, New Zealand. Groups were broadly categorized as "sports" and "cultural/youth" groups. While the results indicated high levels of participation in childhood with a decline over the ensuing adolescent years, path analyses suggested strong continuities in participation over time. Both family "active-recreational" orientation (ARO) and "intellectual-cultural" orientation (ICO) predicted participation, and mediated the effects of disadvantage on participation. Participation was significantly related to adolescent attachment to parents, friends and school/workplace, as well as self-perceived strengths, after controlling for early family disadvantage and social support, peer attachment and literacy. The effect of participation in adolescence is to widen the "social convoy" to which young people are exposed as well as strengthening relationships within that convoy.

  9. Altered Age-Related Trajectories of Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry in Adolescents at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Dylan G.; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Belger, Aysenil; Perkins, Diana O.; Olvet, Doreen M.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Constable, Todd; Woods, Scott W.; Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Walker, Elaine F.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2011-01-01

    Emotion processing deficits are prominent in schizophrenia and exist prior to the onset of overt psychosis. However, developmental trajectories of neural circuitry subserving emotion regulation and the role that they may play in illness onset have not yet been examined in patients at risk for psychosis. The present study employed a cross-sectional analysis to examine age-related functional activation in amygdala and prefrontal cortex, as well as functional connectivity between these regions, in adolescents at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis relative to typically developing adolescents. Participants (n=34) performed an emotion processing fMRI task, including emotion labeling, emotion matching, and non-emotional control conditions. Regression analyses were used to predict activation in the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) based on age, group, sex, and the interaction of age by group. CHR adolescents exhibited altered age-related variation in amygdala and vlPFC activation, relative to controls. Controls displayed decreased amygdala and increased vlPFC activation with age, while patients exhibited the opposite pattern (increased amygdala and decreased vlPFC activation), suggesting a failure of prefrontal cortex to regulate amygdala reactivity. Moreover, a psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed decreased amygdala-prefrontal functional connectivity among CHR adolescents, consistent with disrupted brain connectivity as a vulnerability factor in schizophrenia. These results suggest that the at-risk syndrome is marked by abnormal development and functional connectivity of neural systems subserving emotion regulation. Longitudinal data are needed to confirm aberrant developmental trajectories intra-individually and to examine whether these abnormalities are predictive of conversion to psychosis, and of later deficits in socioemotional functioning. PMID:22056201

  10. Altered age-related trajectories of amygdala-prefrontal circuitry in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gee, Dylan G; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; van Erp, Theo G M; Bearden, Carrie E; Lieberman, Matthew D; Belger, Aysenil; Perkins, Diana O; Olvet, Doreen M; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Constable, Todd; Woods, Scott W; Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S; McGlashan, Thomas H; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2012-01-01

    Emotion processing deficits are prominent in schizophrenia and exist prior to the onset of overt psychosis. However, developmental trajectories of neural circuitry subserving emotion regulation and the role that they may play in illness onset have not yet been examined in patients at risk for psychosis. The present study employed a cross-sectional analysis to examine age-related functional activation in amygdala and prefrontal cortex, as well as functional connectivity between these regions, in adolescents at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis relative to typically developing adolescents. Participants (n=34) performed an emotion processing fMRI task, including emotion labeling, emotion matching, and non-emotional control conditions. Regression analyses were used to predict activation in the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) based on age, group, sex, and the interaction of age by group. CHR adolescents exhibited altered age-related variation in amygdala and vlPFC activation, relative to controls. Controls displayed decreased amygdala and increased vlPFC activation with age, while patients exhibited the opposite pattern (increased amygdala and decreased vlPFC activation), suggesting a failure of prefrontal cortex to regulate amygdala reactivity. Moreover, a psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed decreased amygdala-prefrontal functional connectivity among CHR adolescents, consistent with disrupted brain connectivity as a vulnerability factor in schizophrenia. These results suggest that the at-risk syndrome is marked by abnormal development and functional connectivity of neural systems subserving emotion regulation. Longitudinal data are needed to confirm aberrant developmental trajectories intra-individually and to examine whether these abnormalities are predictive of conversion to psychosis, and of later deficits in socioemotional functioning. PMID:22056201

  11. Ethnic identity, intergroup contact, and outgroup orientation among diverse groups of adolescents on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Brendesha M; Giang, Michael T; Thompson, Geneene N

    2008-08-01

    The relationship among adolescents' (N = 228) ethnic identity, outgroup orientation, and online intergroup experiences was examined across three groups: European Americans, ethnic minorities (i.e., Latino and African Americans), and multiracials. Similar to previous studies, ethnic minorities reported significantly higher ethnic identity than European Americans and multiracials. Although outgroup orientation did not differ among ethnic groups, European Americans reported that they had more online intergroup contact than the other ethnic groups; greater intergroup contact was also related to higher outgroup orientation for this group. These results show that ethnic identity remains stronger for ethnic minorities, but intergroup interaction has become a salient and influential aspect of the online experience for European Americans. Implications are drawn for understanding and improving online and offline intergroup relations.

  12. Across all solid organs, adolescent age recipients have worse transplant organ survival than younger age children: A US national registry analysis.

    PubMed

    Dharnidharka, Vikas R; Lamb, Kenneth E; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Meier-Kriesche, Herwig-Ulf

    2015-08-01

    Univariate analyses suggest that adolescents have worse long-term allograft survival versus younger children across different SOT. This study's objective was to determine whether multivariate analyses of a large national database recording all deceased SOT (KI; LI; HR; LU) also show worse adolescent allograft survival in the different organs. Using data from the national Scientific Registry for Transplant Recipients in the USA for pediatric primary SOT from 1989 to 2010, we calculated median half-lives and constructed K-M graft survival curves. Recipient age at transplant (<12 or adolescent 12-17 yr) was fitted with other identical covariates into multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. In all SOT recipients, unadjusted graft survival curves demonstrated better graft survival for adolescents initially, followed by crossing of the lines, such that adolescent SOT recipients had worse survival after one yr (KI), 4.6 yr (LI), 4.4 yr (HR), and 1.6 yr (LU). Multivariate models of the post-cross period showed a significantly higher AHR for worse graft survival in adolescent age across all four SOTs: AHR 1.400 (KI), 1.958 (LI), 1.414 (HR), and 1.576 (LU). Improving adolescent long-term outcomes across all four organs will be a defining issue in the future.

  13. A newly identified group of adolescents at “invisible” risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study

    PubMed Central

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group (“invisible” risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the “invisible” risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the “invisible” group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The “invisible” group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. PMID:24497256

  14. Group Treatment of Sexually Abused Latency-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Lisa Y.; Gutierrez-Kovner, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a pilot group developed to address the traumagenic stigmatization, powerlessness, betrayal, and sexualization that characterize victims of sexual abuse. Treatment modules developed within this framework focused on: group cohesiveness, discussion of specific abuse experiences, coping strategies, sexuality, victimization prevention, and…

  15. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1-5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6-11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12-17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18-59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1-5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6-11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12-17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  16. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1–5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6–11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12–17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18–59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1–5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6–11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12–17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  17. Depression Prevention for Early Adolescent Girls: A Pilot Study of All Girls Versus Co-Ed Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen; Elkon, Andrea G. L.; Samuels, Barbra; Freres, Derek R.; Winder, Breanna; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested…

  18. Exploration of virtual body-representation in adolescence: the role of age and sex in avatar customization.

    PubMed

    Villani, Daniela; Gatti, Elena; Triberti, Stefano; Confalonieri, Emanuela; Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The malleable nature of the self led researchers to investigate the meaning of virtual identity by exploring virtual self-representation through avatars and its association with users' identity. The present study aims to investigate the changes in virtual body-representation in adolescence related to age levels and sex and the association with adolescents' self-esteem and body esteem. Anthropometric features, body esteem and self-esteem were used to assess adolescents' body image and identity. The scoring code of the "Drawing Me" graphical test was used to evaluate the avatars. The sample is composed of 63 adolescents of different ages-early, middle and late adolescence-balanced by sex. Results show that the creation of a digital avatar changes with age and is partially associated with adolescents' perceptions in terms of body esteem and self-esteem. Moreover, the creation of avatars occurs differently for boys, who enrich their avatars with many sexual features, than for girls, who prefer to detail their avatars' clothing to enrich them. Critical reflections and implications for psychological interventions that may use avatars to investigate adolescents' identity in integration with other tools will be discussed.

  19. Exploration of virtual body-representation in adolescence: the role of age and sex in avatar customization.

    PubMed

    Villani, Daniela; Gatti, Elena; Triberti, Stefano; Confalonieri, Emanuela; Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The malleable nature of the self led researchers to investigate the meaning of virtual identity by exploring virtual self-representation through avatars and its association with users' identity. The present study aims to investigate the changes in virtual body-representation in adolescence related to age levels and sex and the association with adolescents' self-esteem and body esteem. Anthropometric features, body esteem and self-esteem were used to assess adolescents' body image and identity. The scoring code of the "Drawing Me" graphical test was used to evaluate the avatars. The sample is composed of 63 adolescents of different ages-early, middle and late adolescence-balanced by sex. Results show that the creation of a digital avatar changes with age and is partially associated with adolescents' perceptions in terms of body esteem and self-esteem. Moreover, the creation of avatars occurs differently for boys, who enrich their avatars with many sexual features, than for girls, who prefer to detail their avatars' clothing to enrich them. Critical reflections and implications for psychological interventions that may use avatars to investigate adolescents' identity in integration with other tools will be discussed. PMID:27376008

  20. Adolescent Health in the United States, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, Andrea P.; Duran, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This report presents data on the current status of adolescent health. Many of the measures of health status are shown by single year of age or by 2- or 3-year age intervals to highlight the changes that occur in health status as adolescents move through this important developmental period. Summary measures combining 5- or 10-year age groups (the…

  1. Construct Validity of Adolescent Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jeanette; Elkins, Irene J.; Legrand, Lisa; Peuschold, Dawn; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosed in adolescence. Boys and girls were grouped by history of DSM-III-R conduct disorder (CD) and ASPD: Controls (n = 340) had neither diagnosis; CD Only (n = 77) had CD by age 17 but no ASPD through age 20; Adolescent ASPD (n = 64) had ASPD by age 17. The…

  2. Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: A review.

    PubMed

    Cain, Neralie; Gradisar, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Electronic media have often been considered to have a negative impact on the sleep of children and adolescents, but there are no comprehensive reviews of research in this area. The present study identified 36 papers that have investigated the relationship between sleep and electronic media in school-aged children and adolescents, including television viewing, use of computers, electronic gaming, and/or the internet, mobile telephones, and music. Many variables have been investigated across these studies, although delayed bedtime and shorter total sleep time have been found to be most consistently related to media use. A model of the mechanisms by which media use may affect sleep is presented and discussed as a vehicle for future research.

  3. Correlates of age at onset of sexual intercourse in African American adolescents living in urban public housing.

    PubMed

    Nebbitt, Von Eugene; Lombe, Margaret; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Stokes, Charu

    2010-11-01

    Research has found the early onset of sexual activity (having sexual intercourse before age 13) among adolescents to be related to teen pregnancy and a range of health-risk behaviors and higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS. These findings are most prevalent in urban African American adolescents. Using a sample of 299 sexually active African American adolescents living in public housing developments in a large Northeast and a large Mid-Atlantic city, this study assesses the influence of family, peers, and the individual on the age of onset of sexual intercourse. All participants completed surveys in their housing developments. Results indicate an average age of onset of 14. Males reported a significantly younger age of onset and more sexual partners than females. Exposure to delinquent peers and self-efficacy were significant predictors of age of onset. Implications for practice are discussed.

  4. The Pros and Cons of Mixed-Age Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodish, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Recently, numerous larger schools have tried to capture the potential advantages of a wide age range in their classrooms. The nongraded organizational system recognizes and plans for varied student abilities, provides for different rates of progress, and adjusts to individual emotional and social needs. Both advantages and disadvantages are…

  5. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  6. MULTI-AGE GROUPING--ENRICHING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES OF CHILDREN OCCUR NATURALLY IN PLAY AND IN MANY SCHOOL ACTIVITIES, FOR EXAMPLE, STUDENT COUNCIL MEETINGS, CLUBS, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS. THESE ACTIVITIES DEMAND THE VARIETY OF AGES, TALENTS, INTERESTS, AND EXPERIENCES REPRESENTED BY THE WHOLE RANGE OF STUDENTS IN A SCHOOL. IT IS QUESTIONED WHETHER ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES WOULD NOT…

  7. Web-based support as an adjunct to group-based smoking cessation for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mermelstein, Robin; Turner, Lindsey

    2006-12-01

    Although group-based programs remain the most common treatment approach for adolescent smoking cessation, success rates for these programs have been relatively modest, and their reach may be limited. Web-based adjuncts may be one way to boost the efficacy and reach of group-based approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of enhancing the American Lung Association's Not on Tobacco program (NOT) with a Web-based adjunct (NOT Plus). Twenty-nine high schools were randomly assigned to either the NOT program alone or to the NOT Plus condition, which included access to a specially designed Web site for teens, along with proactive phone calls from the group facilitator to the participant. Self-reported smoking behavior was obtained at end-of-program and at a 3-month follow-up. Using hierarchical linear modeling, accounting for the clustering of students in schools, and controlling for student gender, grade, race, and baseline smoking rate, there was a marginally significant (p=.06) condition effect at end-of-treatment and a significant effect at 3-month follow-up (p<.05) favoring the NOT Plus condition. Approximately 57% of adolescents reported visiting the Web site, and among the NOT Plus condition, use of the Web site was associated with cessation significantly at end-of-program (p<.05), but not at 3 months. Adolescents in urban schools were more likely to access the Web site than those in rural schools. Participants who visited the Web site rated it positively on several dimensions. Reasons for not using the Web site will be discussed, as well as its value as an adjunct.

  8. Web-based support as an adjunct to group-based smoking cessation for adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mermelstein, Robin; Turner, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Although group-based programs remain the most common treatment approach for adolescent smoking cessation, success rates for these programs have been relatively modest, and their reach may be limited. Web-based adjuncts may be one way to boost the efficacy and reach of group-based approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of enhancing the American Lung Association’s Not on Tobacco program (NOT) with a Web-based adjunct (NOT Plus). Twenty-nine high schools were randomly assigned to either the NOT program alone or to the NOT Plus condition, which included access to a specially designed Web site for teens, along with proactive phone calls from the group facilitator to the participant. Self-reported smoking behavior was obtained at end-of-program and at a 3-month follow-up. Using hierarchical linear modeling, accounting for the clustering of students in schools, and controlling for student gender, grade, race, and baseline smoking rate, there was a marginally significant (p = .06) condition effect at end-of-treatment and a significant effect at 3-month follow-up (p < .05) favoring the NOT Plus condition. Approximately 57% of adolescents reported visiting the Web site, and among the NOT Plus condition, use of the Web site was associated with cessation significantly at end-of-program (p < .05), but not at 3 months. Adolescents in urban schools were more likely to access the Web site than those in rural schools. Participants who visited the Web site rated it positively on several dimensions. Reasons for not using the Web site will be discussed, as well as its value as an adjunct. PMID:17491173

  9. Gender and age variations in the self-image of Jamaican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Muenchen, R A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and self-image of adolescents attending three secondary schools in Jamaica. The relatively few studies that have been done regarding self-perceptions of these youth are not only dated but have utilized a unidimensional conceptualization of the self. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire which employs a multidimensional construct of the self was administered to a sample of 174 Jamaican adolescents ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M = 15.90 years, SD = 1.21). Results revealed statistically significant effects for both gender and age. Gender was found to be significant on one self-image dimension: Morals, while age differences were evident on six dimensions: Social Relationships, Morals, Sexual Attitudes, Mastery of the External World, Vocational and Educational Goals, and Emotional Health. The results in some instances were contrary to those of past research. Discussion focused on cultural socialization and other factors affecting youth in Jamaican society.

  10. Age and Sex Influence Cystatin C in Adolescents With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, David M.; Prentice, Nicole; McFann, Kim; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Jalal, Diana; Bishop, Franziska K.; Aragon, Brittany; Wadwa, R. Paul

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare serum cystatin C levels, a novel biomarker of renal function, in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes and to determine what factors affect cystatin C levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cystatin C was measured in youth 12–19 years of age with (n = 259, diabetes duration 9 ± 3 years, HbA1c 8.9 ± 1.6%) and without diabetes (n = 78). Data were compared by diabetes status, and linear regression was used to determine factors affecting cystatin C. RESULTS Cystatin C (0.698 ± 0.083 vs. 0.688 ± 0.127 mg/L, P = 0.40) was similar by diabetes status. In multiple linear regression, cystatin C was associated with age and serum creatinine in nondiabetic subjects and sex, age, and serum creatinine in subjects with diabetes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest sex differences and age-related changes in cystatin C in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. An understanding of these changes is needed to determine the potential role of cystatin C as a marker of renal function in this population. PMID:21926294

  11. Ego Identity of Adolescent Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from…

  12. Age-Related Responses in Circulating Markers of Redox Status in Healthy Adolescents and Adults during the Course of a Training Macrocycle

    PubMed Central

    Zalavras, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Deli, Chariklia K.; Draganidis, Dimitris; Theodorou, Anastasios A.; Soulas, Dimitrios; Koutsioras, Yiannis; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.

    2015-01-01

    Redox status changes during an annual training cycle in young and adult track and field athletes and possible differences between the two age groups were assessed. Forty-six individuals (24 children and 22 adults) were assigned to four groups: trained adolescents, (TAD, N = 13), untrained adolescents (UAD, N = 11), trained adults (TA, N = 12), and untrained adults (UA, N = 10). Aerobic capacity and redox status related variables [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity, TBARS, protein carbonyls (PC), uric acid, and bilirubin] were assessed at rest and in response to a time-trial bout before training, at mid- and posttraining. TAC, catalase activity, TBARS, PC, uric acid, and bilirubin increased and GSH declined in all groups in response to acute exercise independent of training status and age. Training improved aerobic capacity, TAC, and GSH at rest and in response to exercise. Age affected basal and exercise-induced responses since adults demonstrated a greater TAC and GSH levels at rest and a greater rise of TBARS, protein carbonyls, and TAC and decline of GSH in response to exercise. Catalase activity, uric acid, and bilirubin responses were comparable among groups. These results suggest that acute exercise, age, and training modulate the antioxidant reserves of the body. PMID:25945150

  13. [Adolescents with gender identity disorder: reconsideration of the age limits for endocrine treatment and surgery].

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2012-01-01

    The third versions of the guideline for treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology does not include puberty-delaying hormone therapy. It is recommended that feminizing/masculinizing hormone therapy and genital surgery should not be carried out until 18 year old and 20 year old, respectively. On the other hand, the sixth (2001) and the seventh (2011) versions of the standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people of World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) recommend that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2, [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by the endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until age 16 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. A questionnairing on 181 people with GID diagnosed in the Okayama University Hospital (Japan) showed that female to male (FTM) transsexuals hoped to begin masculinizing hormone therapy at age of 15.6 +/- 4.0 (mean +/- S.D.) whereas male to female (MTF) transsexuals hoped to begin feminizing hormone therapy as early as age 12.5 +/- 4.0, before presenting secondary sex characters. After confirmation of strong and persistent cross-gender identification, adolescents with GID should be treated with cross-gender hormone or puberty-delaying hormone to prevent developing undesired sex characters. These treatments may prevent transsexual adolescents from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Subsequent early breast and genital surgery may help being employed in desired sexuality.

  14. Adolescent immunization.

    PubMed

    Handal, G A

    2000-06-01

    The dramatic improvements achieved in the control of vaccine-preventable diseases in children have only been shared partially by adolescents and young adults, as today several million adolescents are not receiving the full complement of vaccines recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). This article discusses the reasons for this problem and the tools to bridge this gap. In particular, medical societies and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend a close assessment of the adolescentís immunization status between 11 and 12 years of age, inclusion of school immunization, and providing missing immunizations at any opportunity. The article also addresses other vaccines recommended for groups of adolescents with special needs, reporting information, and provides an update on the vaccines of the future.

  15. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Internet Therapy, Group Therapy and A Waiting List Condition

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Eduard J.; Bögels, Susan M.; Oort, Frans J.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) in adolescents. Design: A randomized controlled trial of CBTI in group therapy (GT), guided internet therapy (IT), and a waiting list (WL), with assessments at baseline, directly after treatment (post-test), and at 2 months follow-up. Setting: Diagnostic interviews were held at the laboratory of the Research Institute of Child Development and Education at the University of Amsterdam. Treatment for GT occurred at the mental health care center UvAMinds in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants: One hundred sixteen adolescents (mean age = 15.6 y, SD = 1.6 y, 25% males) meeting DSM-IV criteria for insomnia, were randomized to IT, GT, or WL. Interventions: CBTI of 6 weekly sessions, consisted of psychoeducation, sleep hygiene, restriction of time in bed, stimulus control, cognitive therapy, and relaxation techniques. GT was conducted in groups of 6 to 8 adolescents, guided by 2 trained sleep therapists. IT was applied through an online guided self-help website with programmed instructions and written feedback from a trained sleep therapist. Measurements and Results: Sleep was measured with actigraphy and sleep logs for 7 consecutive days. Symptoms of insomnia and chronic sleep reduction were measured with questionnaires. Results showed that adolescents in both IT and GT, compared to WL, improved significantly on sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and total sleep time at post-test, and improvements were maintained at follow-up. Most of these improvements were found in both objective and subjective measures. Furthermore, insomnia complaints and symptoms of chronic sleep reduction also decreased significantly in both treatment conditions compared to WL. Effect sizes for improvements ranged from medium to large. A greater proportion of participants from the treatment conditions showed high end-state functioning and clinically significant

  16. Motivational systems in adolescence: Possible implications for age differences in substance abuse and other risk-taking behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental phase characterized by hormonal, physiological, neural and behavioral alterations evident widely across mammalian species. For instance, adolescent rats, like their human counterparts, exhibit elevations in peer-directed social interactions, risk-taking/novelty seeking and drug and alcohol use relative to adults, along with notable changes in motivational and reward-related brain regions. After reviewing these topics, the present paper discusses conditioned preference and aversion data showing adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to positive rewarding properties of various drugs and natural stimuli, while less sensitive to the aversive properties of these stimuli. Additional experiments designed to parse specific components of reward-related processing using natural rewards have yielded more mixed findings, with reports of accentuated positive hedonic sensitivity during adolescence contrasting with studies showing less positive hedonic affect and reduced incentive salience at this age. Implications of these findings for adolescent substance abuse will be discussed. PMID:19762139

  17. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  18. Age estimation by dental developmental stages in children and adolescents in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Vidisdottir, Sigridur Rosa; Richter, Svend

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown that it is necessary to create a database for dental maturity for every population and compare it to others. The present study is the first one for dental development in the Icelandic population the age range being 4-24 years. It will help in forensic dental age estimation and will also help dentists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists and other professionals who rely on developmental age assessment in children and adolescents. In this present retrospective cross-sectional study, dental maturity was determined in 1100 Icelandic children and adolescents from orthopantomograms (OPGs). The first 100 were used for a pilot study and the remaining 1000 for the main study. A total of 23 subjects were excluded. The sample consisted of 508 girls and 469 boys from the age of 4-24 years and a dental developmental scoring system was used as a standard for determination of dental maturity stages. A total of 200 OPGs were studied both on the left and right side and the remaining on the right side. Dental maturity was established for all teeth and both genders, when the sample permitted, from the beginning of crown formation to the root apex closure. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability test showed high reliability, R=0.982. Girls in Iceland reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 17.81 years of age for the maxillary and at 18.47 years for the mandibular teeth. Boys reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 18.00 years of age in the maxilla and 17.63 in the mandible. There was no significant difference between left and right side (r=0.95-1.00) and there was no gender difference, except in root formation in maxillary and mandibular canines where girls reached root completed earlier than boys. A reliable database has been established in Iceland for tooth development in the age range of 4-24 years, which is compatible with international studies. These results will help forensic odontologists and other professionals to estimate with

  19. Outcomes of Adolescent and Adult Patients with Lung Metastatic Osteosarcoma and Comparison of Synchronous and Metachronous Lung Metastatic Groups.

    PubMed

    Gok Durnali, Ayse; Paksoy Turkoz, Fatma; Ardic Yukruk, Fisun; Tokluoglu, Saadet; Yazici, Omer Kamil; Demirci, Ayse; Bal, Oznur; Gundogdu Buyukbas, Selay; Esbah, Onur; Oksuzoglu, Berna; Alkis, Necati

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcomas with lung metastases are rather heterogenous group. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of osteosarcoma patients with lung metastases and to compare the synchronous and metachronous lung metastatic groups. A total of 93 adolescent and adult patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma, from March 1995 to July 2011, in a single center, were included. Sixty-five patients (69.9%) were male. The median age was 19 years (range, 14-74). Thirty-nine patients (41.9%) had synchronous lung metastases (Group A) and 54 patients (58.1%) had metachronous lung metastases (Group B). The 5-year and 10-year post-lung metastases overall survival (PLM-OS) was 17% and 15%, respectively. In multivariate analysis for PLM-OS, time to lung metastases (p = 0.010), number of metastatic pulmonary nodules (p = 0.020), presence of pulmonary metastasectomy (p = 0.007) and presence of chemotherapy for lung metastases (p< 0.001) were found to be independent prognostic factors. The median PLM-OS of Group A and Group B was 16 months and 9 months, respectively. In Group B, the median PLM-OS of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months was 6 months, whereas that of the patients who developed lung metastases later was 16 months. Time to lung metastases, number and laterality of metastatic pulmonary nodules, chemotherapy for lung metastatic disease and pulmonary metastasectomy were independent prognostic factors for patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma. The best PLM-OS was in the subgroup of patients treated both surgery and chemotherapy. The prognosis of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months after diagnosis was worst.

  20. Outcomes of Adolescent and Adult Patients with Lung Metastatic Osteosarcoma and Comparison of Synchronous and Metachronous Lung Metastatic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gok Durnali, Ayse; Paksoy Turkoz, Fatma; Ardic Yukruk, Fisun; Tokluoglu, Saadet; Yazici, Omer Kamil; Demirci, Ayse; Bal, Oznur; Gundogdu Buyukbas, Selay; Esbah, Onur; Oksuzoglu, Berna; Alkis, Necati

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcomas with lung metastases are rather heterogenous group. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of osteosarcoma patients with lung metastases and to compare the synchronous and metachronous lung metastatic groups. A total of 93 adolescent and adult patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma, from March 1995 to July 2011, in a single center, were included. Sixty-five patients (69.9%) were male. The median age was 19 years (range, 14–74). Thirty-nine patients (41.9%) had synchronous lung metastases (Group A) and 54 patients (58.1%) had metachronous lung metastases (Group B). The 5-year and 10-year post-lung metastases overall survival (PLM-OS) was 17% and 15%, respectively. In multivariate analysis for PLM-OS, time to lung metastases (p = 0.010), number of metastatic pulmonary nodules (p = 0.020), presence of pulmonary metastasectomy (p = 0.007) and presence of chemotherapy for lung metastases (p< 0.001) were found to be independent prognostic factors. The median PLM-OS of Group A and Group B was 16 months and 9 months, respectively. In Group B, the median PLM-OS of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months was 6 months, whereas that of the patients who developed lung metastases later was 16 months. Time to lung metastases, number and laterality of metastatic pulmonary nodules, chemotherapy for lung metastatic disease and pulmonary metastasectomy were independent prognostic factors for patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma. The best PLM-OS was in the subgroup of patients treated both surgery and chemotherapy. The prognosis of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months after diagnosis was worst. PMID:27167624

  1. Evaluation of a Group-Based Behavioral Intervention to Promote Adherence in Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hommel, Kevin A.; Hente, Elizabeth A.; Odell, Shannon; Herzer, Michele; Ingerski, Lisa M.; Guilfoyle, Shanna M.; Denson, Lee A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To pilot test the feasibility and acceptability of a family-based group behavioral intervention to improve medication adherence in adolescents diagnosed with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Methods Participants were 40 adolescents age 11-18 years diagnosed with IBD and their primary caregivers, who were randomized to either a 4-session Family-Based Group Behavioral Treatment or Usual Care over a 6-week period. Adherence was measured using a mutli-method, multi-informant assessment involving caregiver- and patient-report, pill count data, and electronic monitoring. Results Adherence rates ranged from 66-89% for 6-MP/azathioprine and 51-93% for mesalamine across assessment methods. The intervention was feasible, as evidenced by the 99% treatment session attendance rate, and acceptable based on patient and caregiver report. Repeated measures ANOVA tests revealed nonsignificant differences between the conditions from baseline to post-treatment assessments for pill count, electronic monitor, and primary caregiver-reported adherence (p's> .05). There was a statistically significant improvement in patient-reported mesalamine adherence represented by a significant main effect for Condition (F = 22.24, p< .01; δ = .79) and Condition X Time interaction (F = 13.32, p< .05; δ = .69). Conclusions Findings suggest potential for use of behavioral intervention to improve medication adherence in this population. This intervention may be more effective with more complex regimens (e.g., multiple doses per day) such as those prescribed with mesalamine. Further research is needed to examine this type of intervention in more diverse samples with more active disease. Use of alternative adherence measurement approaches, including electronic pill boxes and/or real-time self-report (e.g., via text messaging, electronic diaries, etc.) is also recommended. PMID:21989119

  2. Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…

  3. Childbearing in adolescents aged 12-15 years in low resource countries: a neglected issue. New estimates from demographic and household surveys in 42 countries.

    PubMed

    Neal, Sarah; Matthews, Zoë; Frost, Melanie; Fogstad, Helga; Camacho, Alma V; Laski, Laura

    2012-09-01

    There is strong evidence that the health risks associated with adolescent pregnancy are concentrated among the youngest girls (e.g. those under 16 years). Fertility rates in this age group have not previously been comprehensively estimated and published. By drawing data from 42 large, nationally representative household surveys in low resource countries carried out since 2003 this article presents estimates of age-specific birth rates for girls aged 12-15, and the percentage of girls who give birth at age 15 or younger. From these we estimate that approximately 2.5 million births occur to girls aged under 16 in low resource countries each year. The highest rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, where in Chad, Guinea, Mali, Mozambique, Niger and Sierra Leone more than 10% of girls become mothers before they are 16. Strategies to reduce these high levels are vital if we are to alleviate poor reproductive health. PMID:22620274

  4. Political Violence and Adolescent Out-group Attitudes and Prosocial Behaviors: Implications for Positive Inter-group Relations

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    The negative impact of political violence on adolescent adjustment is well-established. Less is known about factors that affect adolescents’ positive outcomes in ethnically-divided societies, especially influences on prosocial behaviors toward the outgroup, which may promote constructive relations. For example, understanding how intergroup experiences and attitudes motivate outgroup helping may foster intergroup cooperation and help to consolidate peace. The current study investigated adolescents’ overall and outgroup prosocial behaviors across two time points in Belfast, Northern Ireland (N = 714 dyads; 49% male; Time 1: M = 14.7, SD = 2.0, years old). Controlling for Time 1 prosocial behaviors, age and gender, multivariate structural equation modeling showed that experience with intergroup sectarian threat predicted fewer outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 2 at the trend level. On the other hand, greater experience of intragroup nonsectarian threat at Time 1 predicted more overall and outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 2. Moreover, positive outgroup attitudes strengthened the link between intragroup threat and outgroup prosocial behaviors one year later. Finally, experience with intragroup nonsectarian threat and outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 1 was related to more positive outgroup attitudes at Time 2. The implications for youth development and intergroup relations in post-accord societies are discussed. PMID:26457005

  5. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  6. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Hypertensive Adolescents Analysis of Risk by 2004 National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Staging Criteria

    PubMed Central

    McNiece, Karen L.; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Samuels, Joshua; Bell, Cynthia; Garcia, Kathleen; Poffenbarger, Timothy; Sorof, Jonathan M.; Portman, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    The National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents recently recommended staging hypertension (HTN) in children and adolescents based on blood pressure severity. The use of blood pressure staging and its corresponding therapeutic approach was examined in this pooled analysis assessing the risk for end-organ damage, specifically left ventricular hypertrophy among hypertensive adolescents stratified by working group criteria. Newly diagnosed hypertensive adolescents and normotensive control subjects similar in age, race/ethnicity, gender, and body mass index completed casual and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements, M-mode echocardiography, and fasting serum laboratories. Hypertensive subjects had higher insulin and cholesterol but similar glucose levels as compared with control subjects. Among subjects with stage 1 HTN by casual blood pressure, 34% had white-coat HTN as opposed to 15% of stage 2 hypertensive subjects. Of the subjects with normal casual measurements, 20% had HTN by ambulatory monitoring. Subjects with stage 2 HTN by casual measurement alone (odds ratio: 4.13; 95% CI: 1.04 to 16.48) and after 24-hour ambulatory confirmation (odds ratio: 7.23; 95% CI: 1.28 to 40.68) had increased odds for left ventricular hypertrophy. In addition, the risk for left ventricular hypertrophy was similar for subjects with masked and confirmed stage 1 HTN, whereas subjects with white-coat HTN had a risk comparable to normotensive subjects. Thus, recommendations that adolescents with stage 2 HTN by casual measurements alone receive medication initially along with therapeutic lifestyle counseling are reasonable, though ambulatory blood pressure monitoring remains a valuable tool for evaluating children with stage 2 HTN, because >10% have white-coat HTN. PMID:17592068

  7. Adolescent decision-making about use of inhaled asthma controller medication: Results from focus groups with participants from a prior longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Bender, Bruce G.; Rankin, Allison E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adherence with inhaled controller medications for asthma is known to be highly variable with many patients taking fewer doses than recommended for consistent control of lung inflammation. Adherence also worsens as children become teenagers, although the exact causes are not well established. Objective To use focus group methodology to examine beliefs, feelings, and behaviors about inhaled asthma controller medication in adolescents and young adults who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of asthma treatment adherence and outcome in order to develop more effective management strategies. Methods Twenty-six subjects participated in 6 focus groups comprised of 3-5 young adults (age range 12-20 years). Verbatim transcripts of these groups were analyzed using the long-table method of content analysis to identify key themes raised by participants. Results A variety of beliefs, feelings and behaviors influence the adolescent’s decision about how to use their asthma medication. Some of the adolescents understood the importance of daily medication and were committed to the treatment plan prescribed by their provider. Poorer adherence was the product of misinformation, incorrect assumptions about their asthma, and current life situations. Conclusions These results, by highlighting potential mechanisms underlying both better and worse adherence inform the development of strategies to improve adherence behavior in adolescents and young adults with asthma. Knowledge of the specific beliefs, feelings and behaviors that underlie adolescents’ use of inhaled asthma controller medication will help providers maximize treatment adherence in this notoriously difficult patient population. PMID:21854323

  8. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food group intake in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marcelle Flores; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Estima, Camilla; Leal, Greisse

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of the food groups included in the food guide pyramid for adolescents (FFQ-FP). The final version of the FFQ-FP consisted of 50 food items. The study was carried out with a sample of 109 adolescents over a period of four months. A 24hr recall (24hr) was conducted four times and the FFQ-FP was conducted twice. Validity was determined by comparing the second FFQ-FP and the mean of the four 24hrs, while reproducibility was verified by comparing the results of the two FFQ-FPs. Statistical analysis was carried out using medians, standard deviations, Pearson and intraclass correlations and Kappa statistics to assess concordance. Best results were achieved for the rice (including bread, grains and starches), meats and sugars groups. Weakest correlation was observed for the variable vitamin C. The validity and reproducibility of the FFQ-FP was satisfactory for most variables. PMID:24068225

  9. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food group intake in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marcelle Flores; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Estima, Camilla; Leal, Greisse

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of the food groups included in the food guide pyramid for adolescents (FFQ-FP). The final version of the FFQ-FP consisted of 50 food items. The study was carried out with a sample of 109 adolescents over a period of four months. A 24hr recall (24hr) was conducted four times and the FFQ-FP was conducted twice. Validity was determined by comparing the second FFQ-FP and the mean of the four 24hrs, while reproducibility was verified by comparing the results of the two FFQ-FPs. Statistical analysis was carried out using medians, standard deviations, Pearson and intraclass correlations and Kappa statistics to assess concordance. Best results were achieved for the rice (including bread, grains and starches), meats and sugars groups. Weakest correlation was observed for the variable vitamin C. The validity and reproducibility of the FFQ-FP was satisfactory for most variables.

  10. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) more sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the males'. Screen time was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake but not with sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and

  11. Performance Development in Adolescent Track and Field Athletes According to Age, Sex and Sport Discipline

    PubMed Central

    Tønnessen, Espen; Svendsen, Ida Siobhan; Olsen, Inge Christoffer; Guttormsen, Atle; Haugen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sex-specific differences that arise during puberty have a pronounced effect on the training process. However, the consequences this should have for goal-setting, planning and implementation of training for boys and girls of different ages remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to quantify performance developments in athletic running and jumping disciplines in the age range 11-18 and identify progression differences as a function of age, discipline and sex. Methods The 100 all-time best Norwegian male and female 60-m, 800-m, long jump and high jump athletes in each age category from 11 to 18 years were analysed using mixed models with random intercept according to athlete. Results Male and female athletes perform almost equally in running and jumping events up to the age of 12. Beyond this age, males outperform females. Relative annual performance development in females gradually decreases throughout the analyzed age period. In males, annual relative performance development accelerates up to the age of 13 (for running events) or 14 (for jumping events) and then gradually declines when approaching 18 years of age. The relative improvement from age 11 to 18 was twice as high in jumping events compared to running events. For all of the analyzed disciplines, overall improvement rates were >50% higher for males than for females. The performance sex difference evolves from < 5% to 10-18% in all the analyzed disciplines from age 11 to 18 yr. Conclusion To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to present absolute and relative annual performance developments in running and jumping events for competitive athletes from early to late adolescence. These results allow coaches and athletes to set realistic goals and prescribe conditioning programs that take into account sex-specific differences in the rate of performance development at different stages of maturation. PMID:26043192

  12. Associations of Family and Peer Experiences with Masculinity Attitude Trajectories at the Individual and Group Level in Adolescent and Young Adult Males.

    PubMed

    Marcell, Arik V; Eftim, Sorina E; Sonenstein, Freya L; Pleck, Joseph H

    2011-11-01

    Data were drawn from 845 males in the National Survey of Adolescent Males who were initially aged 15-17, and followed-up 2.5 and 4.5 years later, to their early twenties. Mixed-effects regression models (MRM) and semiparametric trajectory analyses (STA) modeled patterns of change in masculinity attitudes at the individual and group levels, guided by gender intensification theory and cognitive-developmental theory. Overall, men's masculinity attitudes became significantly less traditional between middle adolescence and early adulthood. In MRM analyses using time-varying covariates, maintaining paternal coresidence and continuing to have first sex in uncommitted heterosexual relationships were significantly associated with masculinity attitudes remaining relatively traditional. The STA modeling identified three distinct patterns of change in masculinity attitudes. A traditional-liberalizing trajectory of masculinity attitudes was most prevalent, followed by traditional-stable and nontraditional-stable trajectories. Implications for gender intensification and cognitive-developmental approaches to masculinity attitudes are discussed.

  13. Sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index in adolescents and adults after single-ventricle palliation.

    PubMed

    Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S

    2012-06-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were \\21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects[21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD\\21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress.

  14. Romanticism and self-esteem among pregnant adolescents, adolescent mothers, and nonpregnant, nonparenting teens.

    PubMed

    Medora, N P; Goldstein, A; von der Hellen, C

    1994-10-01

    Feelings of romanticism and self-esteem among pregnant adolescents, adolescent mothers, and a control group of nonpregnant, nonparenting adolescents were investigated. The Bachman Self-Esteem Scale (Bachman, O'Malley, & Johnston, 1978) and the Dean Romanticism Scale (Dean, 1961) were distributed to 649 U.S. female adolescents--255 pregnant adolescents, 121 adolescent mothers, and 273 teenagers in the control group. For romanticism, the results indicated a significant main effect for group (pregnant teens, teen mothers, and a control group consisting of nonpregnant, nonparenting teenagers) and ethnicity (White, Hispanic, African American, and Asian) but not for age (13 to 15 years and 16 to 19 years). The pregnant teens and teen mothers thus had a higher degree of romanticism than the control group did. For self-esteem, there was a significant main effect for race, but not for group or for age. This main effect was qualified by a significant interaction between ethnicity and age. PMID:7807975

  15. Romanticism and self-esteem among pregnant adolescents, adolescent mothers, and nonpregnant, nonparenting teens.

    PubMed

    Medora, N P; Goldstein, A; von der Hellen, C

    1994-10-01

    Feelings of romanticism and self-esteem among pregnant adolescents, adolescent mothers, and a control group of nonpregnant, nonparenting adolescents were investigated. The Bachman Self-Esteem Scale (Bachman, O'Malley, & Johnston, 1978) and the Dean Romanticism Scale (Dean, 1961) were distributed to 649 U.S. female adolescents--255 pregnant adolescents, 121 adolescent mothers, and 273 teenagers in the control group. For romanticism, the results indicated a significant main effect for group (pregnant teens, teen mothers, and a control group consisting of nonpregnant, nonparenting teenagers) and ethnicity (White, Hispanic, African American, and Asian) but not for age (13 to 15 years and 16 to 19 years). The pregnant teens and teen mothers thus had a higher degree of romanticism than the control group did. For self-esteem, there was a significant main effect for race, but not for group or for age. This main effect was qualified by a significant interaction between ethnicity and age.

  16. Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of the age of onset of alcohol use disorders in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Chorlian, David B.; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Dick, Danielle; Almasy, Laura; Bauer, Lance; Bucholz, Kathleen; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kang, Sun J.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Sam; Nurnberger, John; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    Discrete time survival analysis (DTSA) was used to assess the age-specific association of event related oscillations (EROs) and CHRM2 gene variants on the onset of regular alcohol use and alcohol dependence. The subjects were 2938 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. Results showed that the CHRM2 gene variants and ERO risk factors had hazards which varied considerably with age. The bulk of the significant age-specific associations occurred in those whose age of onset was under 16. These associations were concentrated in those subjects who at some time took an illicit drug. These results are consistent with studies which associate greater rates of alcohol dependence among those who begin drinking at an early age. The age specificity of the genetic and neurophysiological factors is consistent with recent studies of adolescent brain development, which locate an interval of heightened vulnerability to substance use disorders in the early to mid teens. PMID:23963516

  17. Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of the age of onset of alcohol use disorders in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Chorlian, David B; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Dick, Danielle; Almasy, Laura; Bauer, Lance; Bucholz, Kathleen; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kang, Sun J; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Sam; Nurnberger, John; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-09-01

    Discrete time survival analysis was used to assess the age-specific association of event-related oscillations (EROs) and CHRM2 gene variants on the onset of regular alcohol use and alcohol dependence. The subjects were 2,938 adolescents and young adults ages 12-25. Results showed that the CHRM2 gene variants and ERO risk factors had hazards which varied considerably with age. The bulk of the significant age-specific associations occurred in those whose age of onset was under 16. These associations were concentrated in those subjects who at some time took an illicit drug. These results are consistent with studies which associate greater rates of alcohol dependence among those who begin drinking at an early age. The age specificity of the genetic and neurophysiological factors is consistent with recent studies of adolescent brain development, which locate an interval of heightened vulnerability to substance use disorders in the early to mid teens.

  18. Descriptive study of the differences in the level of the conus medullaris in four different age groups.

    PubMed

    Van Schoor, Albert-Neels; Bosman, Marius C; Bosenberg, Adrian T

    2015-07-01

    In performing neuraxial procedures, knowledge of the location of the conus medullaris in patients of all ages is important. The aim of this study was to determine the location of conus medullaris in a sample of newborn/infant cadavers and sagittal MRIs of children, adolescents, and young adults. The subjects of both the samples were subdivided into four developmental stages. No statistical difference was seen between the three older age groups (P > 0.05). A significant difference was evident when the newborn/infant stage was compared with the other, older stages (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). In the newborn/infant group the spinal cord terminated most frequently at the level of L2/L3 (16%). In the childhood stage, the spinal cord terminated at the levels of T12/L1 and the lower third of L1 (21%). In the adolescent population, it was most often found at the level of the middle third of L1 and L1/L2 (19%). Finally, in the young adult group, the spinal cord terminated at the level of L1/L2 (25%). This study confirmed the different level of spinal cord termination between newborns/infants less than one-year-old and subjects older than one year. In this sample the conus medullaris was not found caudal to the L3 vertebral body, which is more cranial than the prescribed level of needle insertion recommended for lumbar neuraxial procedures. It is recommended that the exact level of spinal cord termination should be determined prior to attempting lumbar neuraxial procedures in newborns or infants.

  19. Associations between the group processes of bullying and adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Catherine A; Fitzpatrick, Sally; Bussey, Kay; Hides, Leanne; Chan, Gary C K

    2016-11-01

    The adverse impact of bullying and victimization on substance use among youth has received increasing attention. Bullying is a specific type of aggressive behavior that not only involves bullies and victims but also followers, who actively support or reinforce the bully; defenders, who intervene to defend or assist the victim; or outsiders who passively observe or ignore the bullying. Limited research to date has linked these five bullying role behaviors to substance use. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between each of the bullying role behaviors and adolescent alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were 1255 (748 female) students (Mage=15.3, age range: 13-17years) in Grades 9 (n=714) and 11 (n=541). Bullying role behaviors, alcohol and tobacco onset and intensity, and alcohol-related harms were assessed. Results revealed an association between pro-bullying behavior (bullying and following) and all substance use variables, and between defender behavior and smoking and alcohol-related harm. No relationship between victimization, or outsider behavior, and substance use was found after controlling for the other bullying roles. The findings highlight the complex relationship between bullying roles, alcohol and tobacco use and alcohol-related harm in adolescents.

  20. Associations between the group processes of bullying and adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Catherine A; Fitzpatrick, Sally; Bussey, Kay; Hides, Leanne; Chan, Gary C K

    2016-11-01

    The adverse impact of bullying and victimization on substance use among youth has received increasing attention. Bullying is a specific type of aggressive behavior that not only involves bullies and victims but also followers, who actively support or reinforce the bully; defenders, who intervene to defend or assist the victim; or outsiders who passively observe or ignore the bullying. Limited research to date has linked these five bullying role behaviors to substance use. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between each of the bullying role behaviors and adolescent alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were 1255 (748 female) students (Mage=15.3, age range: 13-17years) in Grades 9 (n=714) and 11 (n=541). Bullying role behaviors, alcohol and tobacco onset and intensity, and alcohol-related harms were assessed. Results revealed an association between pro-bullying behavior (bullying and following) and all substance use variables, and between defender behavior and smoking and alcohol-related harm. No relationship between victimization, or outsider behavior, and substance use was found after controlling for the other bullying roles. The findings highlight the complex relationship between bullying roles, alcohol and tobacco use and alcohol-related harm in adolescents. PMID:27305098

  1. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs). Methods: The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. Results: EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1–3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%), followed by price (21%). One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. Conclusions: EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour. PMID:27483299

  2. Association between dietary fiber intake and the folate status of a group of female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Houghton, L A; Green, T J; Donovan, U M; Gibson, R S; Stephen, A M; O'Connor, D L

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the association between dietary fiber intake and the folate status of Canadian female adolescents. We also assessed dietary folate intakes and evaluated the prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency in these subjects. Female adolescents aged 14-19 y (n = 224) were recruited and fasting blood samples were collected. Dietary intakes (3-d food record) were recorded and participants were classified as lactoovovegetarians, semivegetarians, or omnivores on the basis of food-consumption patterns assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Fourteen percent, 17%, and 26% of lactoovovegetarians, semivegetarians, and omnivores, respectively, had dietary folate intakes below their predicted requirements; 1%, 4%, and 23%, respectively, had serum folate concentrations indicative of deficiency. Despite low dietary folate intakes and serum folate concentrations, few subjects had homocysteine concentrations indicative of deficiency, suggesting that the degree of folate depletion had not yet produced functional consequences. Most important, results suggest that the consumption of nonstarch polysaccharide is significantly associated with serum folate concentrations (P < 0.001). For each 1-g increase in nonstarch polysaccharide intake, a 1.8% increase in serum folate concentration is expected. In summary, we propose that an increase in nonstarch polysaccharide intake may promote the intestinal biosynthesis of folate, providing a complementary strategy to enhance the folate nutriture of humans.

  3. [Neurological findings in a group of children and adolescents exposed and infected by HIV-1].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Cristiane; Gouvêa, Aída; Machado, Daisy; Cunegundes, Kelly; Beltrão, Suênia; Bononi, Fabiana; Succi, Regina Célia

    2005-09-01

    The CNS infection by HIV-1 in infancy could be present immediately after infection or became manifest later. Microcephalia, mental retardation, pyramidal signs, humor and behavioral disorders and antiretroviral therapy complications are common. This is an observational, sectional and descriptive study about findings on neurological examination of 173 patients in a group of children and adolescents infected and exposed to HIV-1 in perinatal period. Most of them had more than one neurological finding or different diagnosis. The more common findings were: encephalopathy, mental retardation, language delay, pyramidal signs, hyporeflexia. The neurological examination was abnormal in 67% of all patients even in seroreverters. We suggest that this group has a high risk to neurological disease and the development of co-morbidity is directly correlated to clinical deterioration by HIV-1 infection.

  4. Effects of repeated exposure to morphine in adolescent and adult male C57BL/6J mice: age-dependent differences in locomotor stimulation, sensitization, and body weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Koek, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Given evidence for age-related differences in the effects of drugs of abuse, surprisingly few preclinical studies have explored effects of opioids in adolescents (versus adults). Objectives This study compared the motor stimulating and ataxic effects of repeatedly-administered morphine in adolescent, late-adolescent, and adult mice. Methods Mice were treated with saline or morphine (10–100 mg/kg, i.p.) once per day for 4 days, and morphine (3.2–56 mg/kg)-induced locomotion was assessed 3 days or 5 weeks later. Different mice were treated repeatedly with morphine and ataxia was measured. Results Acute administration of morphine increased locomotion more in adolescents than in adults. Repeated morphine enhanced morphine-induced locomotion, assessed 3 days later, to a similar extent in each age group (minimum effective dose: 17.8 mg/kg). This sensitization was still evident 5 weeks later when the adolescents had become adult, but was smaller and occurred at a higher dose (56 mg/kg). In animals treated repeatedly with morphine as adults, sensitization was no longer apparent 5 weeks later. Intermittent morphine was at least 10-fold less potent to produce body weight loss in adolescents than in adults. Repeated morphine did not alter morphine-induced ataxia at any age. Conclusions Compared with adults, adolescents were more sensitive to the acute locomotor stimulating effects of morphine and to its long-lasting locomotor sensitizing effects, consistent with overactivity of dopamine systems during adolescence. In contrast, adolescents were less sensitive than adults to body weight loss induced by intermittent morphine, an effect indicative of morphine withdrawal in adult rodents. PMID:24096538

  5. Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Relational Competencies and Movement in Group Work with Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Kristi B.; Hammer, Tonya R.; Reicherzer, Stacee; Gilliam, Billie J.

    2012-01-01

    Relational-cultural theory (RCT) is an evolving feminist model of human development that places emphasis on growth-fostering relationships as building blocks for wellness. This article demonstrates the use of RCT in addressing relational aggression, including cyberbullying, in counseling a group of adolescent girls. The group counselor's…

  6. Body Talk and Body Ideals among Adolescent Boys and Girls: A Mixed-Gender Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandbu, Åse; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how body ideals are discussed among adolescent boys and girls in 5 mixed-gender focus groups (n = 37). The ways in which boys and girls talk about bodies differed clearly within the focus group conversations as well as in the everyday situations described in the interviews. The boys were more concrete in their description of…

  7. A Comparative Investigation of the Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Practices and Psychodrama on Adolescent Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Zeynep; Gokcakan, Zafer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate whether cognitive-behavioral group practices and psychodrama decrease adolescent aggression. This is a quasi-experimental, pre-post and follow up study with two experiments and one control group. The Aggression Scale (Buss & Warren, 2000) adapted to Turkish by Can (2002) was administered as a pretest to…

  8. Short-term memory development: differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes.

    PubMed

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2014-10-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in cognitive performance within an age group is considered to be measurement error. However, if a part of this variance is systematic, it can provide very useful information about the cognitive processes used by some children of a certain age but not others. In the current study, we presented 210 children aged 5 to 12 years with serial order short-term memory tasks. First we analyze our data according to the approach using age groups, and then we apply latent class analysis to form latent classes of children based on their performance instead of their ages. We display the results of the age groups and the latent classes in terms of serial position curves, and we discuss the differences in results. Our findings show that there are considerable differences in performance between the age groups and the latent classes. We interpret our findings as indicating that the latent class analysis yielded a much more meaningful way of grouping children in terms of cognitive processes than the a priori grouping of children based on their ages.

  9. Performance trends in age group breaststroke swimmers in the FINA World Championships 1986-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    Performance trends in breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level in pool competitions are well investigated for elite swimmers, but not for age group swimmers. This study investigated trends in participation, performance and sex difference in performance in a total of 35,143 (16,160 women and 18,983 men) age group breaststroke swimmers aged 25-29 to 95-99 years competing in the FINA World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analysed using linear regression analyses and trends in performance were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and calendar year as fixed variables. Women and men improved performance in all age groups. For age groups 25-29 to 85-89 years, men were faster than women. For age groups 90-94 to 95-99 years, men were not faster than women. Sex and distance showed a significant interaction for all distances in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years. In 50 m, women reduced the gap to men in age groups 40-44 to 70-74 years and in 100 m and 200 m, women reduced the gap in age groups 50-54 to 60-64 years. In summary, (i) women and men improved performance in all race distances and in all age groups, (ii) men were faster than women from 25 to 89 years, but not from 90 to 99 years, and (iii), women reduced the gap to men between ~40 and ~75 years, but not in younger (<40 years) or older (>75 years) age groups. Based on these findings for a time period of nearly 30 years, we may assume a further increase in participation and a further improvement in performance in the near future in age group breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level.

  10. Adolescent loneliness.

    PubMed

    Williams, E G

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of loneliness in delinquent adolescents with regard to types of delinquency offenses committed, demographic characteristics, and personality characteristics in the areas of interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The types of delinquency offenses were categorized as burglary, runaway, drugs, assault, and incorrigible. The demographic variables examined were age, sex, race, family rank or birth order, family structure in terms of parental presence, family income level, religion, and geographic locale. A sample of 98 adolescents was obtained from juvenile detention facilities in three metropolitan areas in the United States. Subjects ranged in age from 12 to 18. Subjects were asked to complete the Loneliness Questionnaire as a self-reported measure of loneliness. Subjects also provided information about themselves relative to demographic characteristics and completed the FIRO-B Questionnaire, which measured interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The results revealed no significant differences with regard to any of the demographic variables when the effect of each was considered alone. However, there was a significant effect on loneliness by income when considered jointly with other demographic variables. Adolescents from the middle income group expressed more loneliness than those from the upper and lower income groups. No significant differences were observed with regard to personality characteristics related to interpersonal needs for inclusion and affection, but delinquent adolescents with medium to high needs for control indicated significantly more feelings of loneliness than delinquent adolescents with low needs for control.

  11. Differential Functioning of the Chinese Version of Beck Depression Inventory-II in Adolescent Gender Groups: Use of a Multiple-Group Mean and Covariance Structure Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to investigate whether items of the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II-C; "Chinese Behavioral Science Corporation" in "Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II" [in Chinese]. The Chinese Behavioral Science Corporation, Taiwan, 2000) exhibited DIF across adolescent gender groups, in…

  12. Indicated Cognitive-Behavioral Group Depression Prevention Compared to Bibliotherapy and Brochure Control: Acute Effects of an Effectiveness Trial with Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Brière, Frédéric N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Test whether a brief cognitive-behavioral (CB) group and bibliotherapy prevention reduce major depressive disorder onset, depressive symptoms, and secondary outcomes relative to brochure controls in adolescents with self-reported depressive symptoms when school personnel recruit participants and deliver the intervention. Method 378 adolescents (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.2; 68% female, 72% White) with elevated self-assessed depressive symptoms were randomized to a 6-session CB group, minimal contact CB bibliotherapy, or educational brochure control. Participants were assessed at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up. Results CB group participants showed a significantly lower risk for major depressive disorder onset (0.8%) compared to both CB bibliotherapy (6.3%) and brochure control (6.5%; HR = 8.1 and 8.3; respectively). Planned contrasts indicated that CB group resulted in lower depressive symptom severity than brochure control at posttest (p = .03, d = .29) but not 6-month follow-up; differences between CB group and bibliotherapy were nonsignificant at posttest and 6-month follow-up. Condition effects were nonsignificant for social adjustment and substance use. Conclusions The finding that a brief CB group intervention delivered by real-world providers significantly reduced MDD onset relative to both brochure control and bibliotherapy is very encouraging, though effects on continuous outcome measures were small or nonsignificant and approximately half the magnitude of those found in efficacy research, potentially because the present sample reported lower initial depression. PMID:24099432

  13. Cannabis use disorders are comparatively prevalent among nonwhite racial/ethnic groups and adolescents: A national study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T.; Mannelli, Paolo; Killeen, Therese K.

    2014-01-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of the US population is shifting, with the nonwhite population growing faster than whites. We examined cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalences and correlates in seven racial/ethnic groups. We included cannabis use (CU) prevalence as a comparison. Data were from the 2005–2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=394,400). Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. The following were included as control variables: age, sex, family income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder, and survey year. Past-year CU prevalence increased significantly from 10.45% in 2005 to 11.41–11.54% during 2009–2011. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had higher odds of CU; Asian Americans and Hispanics had lower odds of CU. There were no significant yearly changes in CUD prevalence in the sample during 2005–2011 (1.58–1.73%). Compared with whites, individuals who were mixed-race, black, and Native American had higher odds of CUD; Asian Americans had lower odds. In aggregate, 15.35% of past-year cannabis users met criteria for a CUD in the 12-month period. Past-year cannabis users who were black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American had higher odds of CUD than white users. In each racial/ethnic group, adolescent cannabis users generally showed greater odds of CUD than adult users. Behavioral health indicators (major depressive episode, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder) were associated with CU and CUD. In conclusion, CUD disproportionally affects nonwhite groups and youth. PMID:24342767

  14. Cannabis use disorders are comparatively prevalent among nonwhite racial/ethnic groups and adolescents: a national study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T; Mannelli, Paolo; Killeen, Therese K

    2014-03-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of the US population is shifting, with the nonwhite population growing faster than whites. We examined cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalences and correlates in seven racial/ethnic groups. We included cannabis use (CU) prevalence as a comparison. Data were from the 2005-2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 394,400). Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. The following were included as control variables: age, sex, family income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder, and survey year. Past-year CU prevalence increased significantly from 10.45% in 2005 to 11.41-11.54% during 2009-2011. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had higher odds of CU; Asian Americans and Hispanics had lower odds of CU. There were no significant yearly changes in CUD prevalence in the sample during 2005-2011 (1.58-1.73%). Compared with whites, individuals who were mixed-race, black, and Native American had higher odds of CUD; Asian Americans had lower odds. In aggregate, 15.35% of past-year cannabis users met criteria for a CUD in the 12-month period. Past-year cannabis users who were black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American had higher odds of CUD than white users. In each racial/ethnic group, adolescent cannabis users generally showed greater odds of CUD than adult users. Behavioral health indicators (major depressive episode, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder) were associated with CU and CUD. In conclusion, CUD disproportionally affects nonwhite groups and youth.

  15. Social feedback processing from early to late adolescence: influence of sex, age, and attachment style

    PubMed Central

    Vrtička, Pascal; Sander, David; Anderson, Brittany; Badoud, Deborah; Eliez, Stephan; Debbané, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The establishment of an accurate understanding of one's social context is a central developmental task during adolescence. A critical component of such development is to learn how to integrate the objective evaluation of one's behavior with the social response to the latter—here referred to as social feedback processing. Case report We measured brain activity by means of fMRI in 33 healthy adolescents (12–19 years old, 14 females). Participants played a difficult perceptual game with integrated verbal and visual feedback. Verbal feedback provided the participants with objective performance evaluation (won vs. lost). Visual feedback consisted of either smiling or angry faces, representing positive or negative social evaluations. Together, the combination of verbal and visual feedback gave rise to congruent versus incongruent social feedback combinations. In addition to assessing sex differences, we further tested for the effects of age and attachment style on social feedback processing. Results revealed that brain activity during social feedback processing was significantly modulated by sex, age, and attachment style in prefrontal cortical areas, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, caudate, and amygdala/hippocampus. We found indication for heightened activity during incongruent social feedback processing in females, older participants, and individuals with an anxious attachment style. Conversely, we observed stronger activity during processing of congruent social feedback in males and participants with an avoidant attachment style. Conclusion Our findings not only extend knowledge on the typical development of socio-emotional brain function during adolescence, but also provide first clues on how attachment insecurities, and particularly attachment avoidance, could interfere with the latter mechanisms. PMID:25328847

  16. Effect of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. Methods We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. Results We evaluated 2405 children in 1999–2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: −0.32, p < 0.001) compared to non

  17. Windows of vulnerability: maternal separation, age, and fluoxetine on adolescent depressive-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Freund, N; Thompson, B S; Denormandie, J; Vaccarro, K; Andersen, S L

    2013-09-26

    Early exposure to stressful life events plays a significant role in adolescent depression. Clinical studies have identified a number of factors that increase the risk of depression, including sex of the subject, duration of the stressor, and genetic polymorphisms that elevate serotonin levels. In this study we used the maternal separation (MS) model to investigate to what extent these factors interacted during development to manifest in depressive-like behavior in male and female rats. The triadic model of learned helplessness parses depressive-like behavior into aspects of controllable, uncontrollable, and motivational behaviors. This model was used to investigate how the timing of MS between the ages of postnatal day (P) 2-9 and P9-16 interacted with either simultaneous vehicle (saline; 1ml/kg; i.p.) or fluoxetine (10mg/kg) exposure, which was used to enhance serotonin levels; these experiments also compared the effect of a vehicle injection during these developmental periods to a no injection control. Vehicle injections alone increased helplessness in the controllable condition in male rats when injected between P9-16 only, and did not interact further with MS. MS at both ages decreased controllability in male adolescents; females demonstrated an increase in controllability after MS. Elevated serotonin at P2-9 increased escape latencies in male and female control and MS subjects. Fluoxetine exposure at P9-16 increased helplessness in controls. Fluoxetine decreased helplessness in MS males independent of age, but increases helplessness in MS females. This study highlights the importance of age of MS (MS between P2-9 increases helplessness in males more than females), the duration of the stressor (previous results show females are effected by longer MS [P2-20], but not shorter [this study]), and that elevated serotonin increases escape latencies to a greater extent in females. PMID:23850503

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae pharyngeal colonization in school-age children and adolescents with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Principi, Nicola; Preti, Valentina; Gaspari, Stefania; Colombini, Antonella; Zecca, Marco; Terranova, Leonardo; Cefalo, Maria Giuseppina; Ierardi, Valentina; Pelucchi, Claudio; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cancer, particularly those with hematologic malignancies, are at an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and they are included in the list of subjects for whom pneumococcal vaccination is recommended. The main aim of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in school-aged children and adolescents with cancer to determine the potential protective efficacy of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). An oropharyngeal swab was obtained from 277 patients (age range 6-17 years) with cancer during routine clinical visits and analyzed for S. pneumoniae using real-time polymerase chain reaction. S. pneumoniae was identified in 52 patients (18.8%), including 47/235 (20.0%) with hematologic malignancies and 5/42 (11.9%) with solid tumors. Colonization declined significantly with an increase in age (odds ratio [OR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.71, and OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.82 in children aged 10-14 and ≥15 years, respectively, as compared to those <10 years). Carriage was more common among patients with leukemia or lymphoma than in children with solid tumors. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was significantly associated with reduced pneumococcal carriage (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19–0.89). A total of 15/58 (25.9%) and 26/216 (12.0%) children were colonized by PCV13 serotypes among cancer patients previously vaccinated and not vaccinated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), respectively. In conclusion, this study indicates that children and adolescents with cancer are frequently colonized by S. pneumoniae. Because most of the carried serotypes are included in PCV13, this vaccine is presently the best solution to reduce the risk of IPD in these patients. PMID:26367101

  19. Age-Related, Sport-Specific Adaptions of the Shoulder Girdle in Elite Adolescent Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Ann M.; Palmans, Tanneke; Johansson, Fredrik R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Tennis requires repetitive overhead movements that can lead to upper extremity injury. The scapula and the shoulder play a vital role in injury-free playing. Scapular dysfunction and glenohumeral changes in strength and range of motion (ROM) have been associated with shoulder injury in the overhead athlete. Objective: To compare scapular position and strength and shoulder ROM and strength between Swedish elite tennis players of 3 age categories (<14, 14–16, and >16 years). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Tennis training sports facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-nine adolescent Swedish elite tennis players (ages 10–20 years) selected based on their national ranking. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used a clinical screening protocol with a digital inclinometer and a handheld dynamometer to measure scapular upward rotation at several angles of arm elevation, isometric scapular muscle strength, glenohumeral ROM, and isometric rotator cuff strength. Results: Players older than 16 years showed less scapular upward rotation on the dominant side at 90° and 180° (P < .05). Although all absolute scapular muscle strength values increased with age, there was no change in the body-weight–normalized strength of the middle (P = .9) and lower (P = .81) trapezius or serratus anterior (P = .17). Glenohumeral internal-rotation ROM and total ROM tended to decrease, but this finding was not statistically significant (P = .052 and P = .06, respectively). Whereas normalized internal-rotator strength increased from 14 to 16 years to older than 16 years (P = .009), normalized external-rotator and supraspinatus strength remained unchanged. Conclusions: Age-related changes in shoulder and scapular strength and ROM were apparent in elite adolescent tennis players. Future authors should examine the association of these adaptations with performance data and injury incidence. PMID:25098662

  20. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  1. Predicting mortality from burns: the need for age-group specific models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra L; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-09-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000 to 2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. "One size fits all" models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  2. Predicting Mortality from Burn Injuries: The need for age-group specific models

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sandra L.; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G.; Palmieri, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000-2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. “One size fits all” models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  3. Identification of an age-dependent biomarker signature in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental conditions with symptoms manifesting before the age of 3, generally persisting throughout life and affecting social development and communication. Here, we have investigated changes in protein biomarkers in blood during childhood and adolescent development. Methods We carried out a multiplex immunoassay profiling analysis of serum samples from 37 individuals with a diagnosis of ASD and their matched, non-affected siblings, aged between 4 and 18 years, to identify molecular pathways affected over the course of ASDs. Results This analysis revealed age-dependent differences in the levels of 12 proteins involved in inflammation, growth and hormonal signaling. Conclusions These deviations in age-related molecular trajectories provide further insight into the progression and pathophysiology of the disorder and, if replicated, may contribute to better classification of ASD individuals, as well as to improved treatment and prognosis. The results also underline the importance of stratifying and analyzing samples by age, especially in ASD and potentially other developmental disorders. PMID:23915542

  4. National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13-17 Years - United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Curtis, C Robinette; MacNeil, Jessica; Markowitz, Lauri E; Singleton, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents aged 11-12 years routinely receive vaccines to prevent diseases, including human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers, pertussis, and meningococcal disease (1). To assess vaccination coverage among adolescents in the United States, CDC analyzed data collected regarding 21,875 adolescents through the 2015 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen).* During 2014-2015, coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years increased for each HPV vaccine dose among males, including ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 41.7% to 49.8%), and increased modestly for ≥1 HPV vaccine dose among females (from 60.0% to 62.8%) and ≥1 quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) dose (from 79.3% to 81.3%). Coverage with ≥1 HPV vaccine dose was higher among adolescents living in households below the poverty level, compared with adolescents in households at or above the poverty level.(†) HPV vaccination coverage (≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 doses) increased in 28 states/local areas among males and in seven states among females. Despite limited progress, HPV vaccination coverage remained lower than MenACWY and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) coverage, indicating continued missed opportunities for HPV-associated cancer prevention. PMID:27561081

  5. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  6. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  7. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  8. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Pertussis Toxin among Different Age Groups in Thailand after 37 Years of Universal Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Wanlapakorn, Nasamon; Ngaovithunvong, Varisara; Thongmee, Thanunrat; Vichaiwattana, Preeyaporn; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high coverage of prophylactic vaccine against Bordetella pertussis infection in many countries for more than three decades, pertussis remains a common vaccine-preventable disease. Infections have been detected more commonly in countries using acellular pertussis vaccine in their Expanded Program of Immunization. Thailand implemented a routine infant immunization program with whole-cell pertussis vaccine in 1977, and since 1992, the national vaccine policy has offered a five-dose whole-cell pertussis vaccine for children given at the ages of 2, 4, 6, 18, and 48 months. This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies to pertussis toxin among healthy people across all ages to determine the level of whole-cell vaccine-induced immunity in the population, and to identify which age group should be targeted for a booster dose. The lowest seronegative rate and highest geometric mean concentrations were found in the 0–10 years age group, corresponding to their recent pertussis vaccination. The proportion of people with undetectable IgG level was prominent, starting after 11 years of age onwards. Now that a reduced-dose pertussis vaccine with fewer adverse effects is available, a booster dose during adolescence should be considered in order to reduce the incidence of pertussis disease. Further studies exploring how long the reduced-dose pertussis vaccine can provide protective immunity against pertussis disease when administered to adults and adolescents should also be performed. PMID:26837004

  9. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Pertussis Toxin among Different Age Groups in Thailand after 37 Years of Universal Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wanlapakorn, Nasamon; Ngaovithunvong, Varisara; Thongmee, Thanunrat; Vichaiwattana, Preeyaporn; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high coverage of prophylactic vaccine against Bordetella pertussis infection in many countries for more than three decades, pertussis remains a common vaccine-preventable disease. Infections have been detected more commonly in countries using acellular pertussis vaccine in their Expanded Program of Immunization. Thailand implemented a routine infant immunization program with whole-cell pertussis vaccine in 1977, and since 1992, the national vaccine policy has offered a five-dose whole-cell pertussis vaccine for children given at the ages of 2, 4, 6, 18, and 48 months. This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies to pertussis toxin among healthy people across all ages to determine the level of whole-cell vaccine-induced immunity in the population, and to identify which age group should be targeted for a booster dose. The lowest seronegative rate and highest geometric mean concentrations were found in the 0-10 years age group, corresponding to their recent pertussis vaccination. The proportion of people with undetectable IgG level was prominent, starting after 11 years of age onwards. Now that a reduced-dose pertussis vaccine with fewer adverse effects is available, a booster dose during adolescence should be considered in order to reduce the incidence of pertussis disease. Further studies exploring how long the reduced-dose pertussis vaccine can provide protective immunity against pertussis disease when administered to adults and adolescents should also be performed. PMID:26837004

  10. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  11. Views on social and cultural influence on sexuality and sexual health in groups of Ugandan adolescents.

    PubMed

    Råssjö, Eva-Britta; Kiwanuka, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Sexual problems such as forced and transactional sex are common among adolescents, especially in developing countries. The objective of the present study was to describe how young people respond to their social living conditions and why they marry early, have early pregnancies, experience forced sex and involve themselves in transactional sex. Young people, 15-24 years old, participated in focus group discussions that were tape recorded, translated into English, transcribed and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Six groups were mixed, with both women and men, while two groups had only men and one group only women as participants. The two study sites were located in a slum area in Kampala and in a village in Wakiso district, near a trading centre. The following topics were discussed: Forced sex, early marriage, contraception, teenage pregnancy and transactional sex. The participants described how young people are affected by harmful cultural practices, by power imbalance, especially due to gender-based inequity, and by lack of information and life skills. This study also showed that young people perceive themselves as a resource and are prepared to help other less advantaged youth to get knowledge about reproductive health issues. Enforcement of laws that can protect children and youth was suggested. Government and community should work against harmful traditional practices and introduce sexual education in primary school.

  12. Views on social and cultural influence on sexuality and sexual health in groups of Ugandan adolescents.

    PubMed

    Råssjö, Eva-Britta; Kiwanuka, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Sexual problems such as forced and transactional sex are common among adolescents, especially in developing countries. The objective of the present study was to describe how young people respond to their social living conditions and why they marry early, have early pregnancies, experience forced sex and involve themselves in transactional sex. Young people, 15-24 years old, participated in focus group discussions that were tape recorded, translated into English, transcribed and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Six groups were mixed, with both women and men, while two groups had only men and one group only women as participants. The two study sites were located in a slum area in Kampala and in a village in Wakiso district, near a trading centre. The following topics were discussed: Forced sex, early marriage, contraception, teenage pregnancy and transactional sex. The participants described how young people are affected by harmful cultural practices, by power imbalance, especially due to gender-based inequity, and by lack of information and life skills. This study also showed that young people perceive themselves as a resource and are prepared to help other less advantaged youth to get knowledge about reproductive health issues. Enforcement of laws that can protect children and youth was suggested. Government and community should work against harmful traditional practices and introduce sexual education in primary school. PMID:21122615

  13. [Nutritional status and diet characteristics of a group of adolescents from the rural locality Calama, Bolivia].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Almanza-López, M J; Pérez-Cueto, J D; Eulert, M E

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 a pilot study was carried out in the rural area of the Bolivian Department of La Paz aiming at the identification of dietary patterns among a group of secondary school adolescents who have little or scarce contact with the urban centres. The study consisted of a food intake survey (24 h recall), the measurement of anthropometrics and sociodemographic information. Nine percent was the global prevalence of overweight, although it was more present in girls. No statistically significant differences were found between nutrients in the diets of boys and girls. The energy intake was distributed in the five usual eating times as follows: 22% breakfast, 20% break time at school, 24% lunch, 12% tea time and 22% dinner. Furthermore, the anthropometric measures of boys were compared with their urban counterparts, where the differences were only significant with students in private schools. The present study can be used for the formulation of nutritional policies in Bolivia.

  14. Taking charge of epilepsy: the development of a structured psychoeducational group intervention for adolescents with epilepsy and their parents.

    PubMed

    Snead, Kara; Ackerson, Joseph; Bailey, Kirstin; Schmitt, Margaret M; Madan-Swain, Avi; Martin, Roy C

    2004-08-01

    Children and adolescents with epilepsy frequently experience poor psychosocial outcomes due to numerous factors such as perceived stigma, behavior problems, academic difficulties, and depression. Health psychology research has documented the effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions aimed at improving psychosocial outcomes for individuals with a variety of health conditions. With increasing numbers of adolescents living with epilepsy, interest in improving the quality of life for this particular population has grown. There remains, however, a paucity of research concerning psychosocial interventions for adolescents with epilepsy. The present study outlines the development and initial implementation of a 6-week structured psychoeducational group intervention for adolescents with epilepsy and their parents. Preintervention, the QOLIE-AD-48, Childhood Depression Inventory, and Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale were administered. Educational topics included medical aspects of epilepsy, healthy lifestyle behaviors, family and peer relationships, understanding self-image and self-esteem, and stress management techniques. Participants were introduced to a variety of cognitive-behavioral strategies, and were encouraged to share their own experiences with epilepsy. Feedback from adolescent and parent participants indicated that the intervention was relevant to their needs, helped them better understand their epilepsy, and allowed an opportunity for positive peer support. Also, postintervention outcome measurement indicated an overall positive trend for quality of life improvement in the adolescents.

  15. Benefits of gregarious feeding by aposematic caterpillars depend on group age structure.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart A; Stastny, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Gregarious feeding is a common feature of herbivorous insects and can range from beneficial (e.g. dilution of predation risk) to costly (e.g. competition). Group age structure should influence these costs and benefits, particularly when old and young larvae differ in their feeding mode or apparency to predators. We investigated the relative value of gregarious feeding by aposematic larvae of Uresiphita reversalis that we observed feeding in groups of mixed ages and variable densities on wild Lupinus diffusus. In a manipulative field experiment, the survivorship and growth of young larvae were enhanced in the presence of older conspecifics, but not in large groups of similarly aged larvae. Estimates of insect damage and induced plant responses suggest that mixed-age groups enhance plant quality for young larvae while avoiding competition. We conclude that benefits of gregariousness in this species are contingent on group age structure, a finding of significance for the ecology and evolution of gregariousness and other social behaviours.

  16. Constraining the age of the Mitu Group, South-East Peru: U-Pb ages of detrital and igneous zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitsma, Mariël.; Schaltegger, Urs; Spikings, Richard; Winkler, Wilfried; Carlotto, Victor

    2010-05-01

    Inverted extensional basins with continental deposits of the Mitu Group straddle the Eastern Cordillera of Peru. The present study investigates the Mitu Group of south-east Peru (13-16°S), which consists of continental clastic sedimentary rocks and interbedded basaltic to andesitic lavas. There is a paucity of geochemical and geochronological data from the Mitu Group, and the interpretation of its evolution is complicated by i) rapid changes in fault structure along-strike of the graben system, and ii) inversion during Andean orogenesis. Due to dominating coarse-grained clastics, the Mitu Group is devoid of fossils and its age is poorly bracketed to the Permo-Triassic, based on its stratigraphic relationships with the underlying Copacabana and overlying Pucará groups. The upper strata of the Copacabana Group have been constrained by palynology to the Artinskian, while marine fossils at the base of the Pucará Group indicate a Norian age. The Pucará Group is only present in northern Peru, whereas the Mitu Group has an erosional contact with overlying Cretaceous sandstones in the study area. Preliminary data suggest that the lower Mitu Group is middle Triassic, leaving a significant hiatus between the Copacabana and Mitu groups. Laser ablation ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating was utilized to characterize pre- and syn-rift detrital zircon assemblages in sandstones, as well as to date the syn-rift volcanic and plutonic activity. Detrital zircon U-Pb age histograms of medium grained sandstones in the pre-rift Ambo and Copacabana groups contain several age populations, which can be immediately linked to major events identified along the western Gondwanan margin, such as the Sunsas/Grenville (1 Ga) and Pampean (0.55 Ga) orogenies, as well as the Famatinian arc (0.45 Ga). The youngest zircon in the population assigns a maximum deposition age to the rock; these zircons are of late Mississippian age for the Ambo and latest Pennsylvanian for the Copacabana groups. The

  17. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  18. Ten Years of Longitudinal Research on U.S. Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Developmental Correlates of Sexual Intercourse, and the Importance of Age, Gender and Ethnic Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Helfand, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We integrated findings from 35 recent, longitudinal studies of the onset of heterosexual intercourse. Correlates of adolescent sexual intercourse onset, whether in early (before age 16) or middle (ages 16-18) adolescence, included living with other than two biological parents, being less monitored by parents, having more advanced physical maturity…

  19. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  20. Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Jeanie; Strulovitch, Jack; Tagalakis, Vicki; Meng, Linyan; Fombonne, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of a social skills training group for adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism (AS/HFA) was evaluated. Parents of six groups of adolescents (n = 46, 61% male, mean age 14.6) completed questionnaires immediately before and after the 12-week group. Parents and adolescents were surveyed regarding their…

  1. BMI, Waist Circumference Reference Values for Chinese School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peige; Li, Xue; Gasevic, Danijela; Flores, Ana Borges; Yu, Zengli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls) were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS). Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH) study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93). However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p < 0.001) and the agreement was weaker (κ = 0.76). The abdominal obesity prevalence estimates were significant different according to the two systems both in boys and girls, although the agreement reached to 0.88, which represented an

  2. The effect of positive group psychotherapy on self-esteem and state anger among adolescents at Korean immigrant churches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jin

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to describe participants' experiences and examine the effects of group therapy on self-esteem and state anger among the adolescent children of immigrants in the US. A quasi-experimental design and qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Group therapy was conducted for 8weeks. Thirty-three adolescents took part in the study. Quantitative results revealed that group therapy improved self-esteem (t=2.222. p<.05) but not state anger. However, qualitative results suggested that group therapy helped improve interpersonal relationships and communication skills, the forgiveness of others, and the management of anger. Furthermore, group therapy utilizing positive psychology strategies improved self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, and communication skills. PMID:25858203

  3. Self-esteem and social anxiety in an adolescent female eating disorder population: age and diagnostic effects.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Nicole; Buchholz, Annick; Boerner, Katelynn E; Henderson, Katherine A; Norris, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study explored symptoms of social anxiety and multidimensional self-esteem in a clinical, adolescent female eating disorder population. Using self-report measures, data from 344 females revealed significant negative relationships between dimensions of self-esteem and social anxiety. A diagnostic difference emerged, with the restricting subgroup reporting significantly higher perceived physical appearance and global self-worth than those with binge/purge symptoms or bulimia nervosa. No significant age differences or age by diagnosis interaction effects emerged. These findings suggest that in clinical samples of adolescent eating disorders, self-esteem and social anxiety share a significant inverse relationship and seem to remain fairly constant across adolescence. PMID:23421697

  4. Adolescents in the age of AIDS: myths, misconceptions, and misunderstandings regarding sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Cohall, A; Kassotis, J; Parks, R; Vaughan, R; Bannister, H; Northridge, M

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to evaluate the extent of knowledge possessed by young people residing in an urban sexually transmitted disease (STD) and AIDS epicenter about STDs, including AIDS; and to determine whether knowledge levels varied by age, gender, race/ ethnicity, and/or previous health instruction. A total of 867 adolescents (472 females and 395 males) attending a large public high school in New York City completed a self-administered survey. Levels of knowledge about AIDS transmission and prevention were high (mean percentage correct = 91.8%). Nonetheless, adolescent respondents locked awareness about the prevalence of common STDs, had limited understanding of the ways in which these diseases can be transmitted and prevented, and were unaware of potentially serious sequelae resulting from exposure to infectious agents (e.g., infertility from chlamydial infections). Young people who had taken a health education course in which STDs were discussed did slightly better on the knowledge survey than did their peers. While the prevention of HIV infection is, and should be, a national priority, more concerted efforts are needed to better educate young people about other STDs in the overall context of sexual health.

  5. Variations of Weight of Prostate Gland in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Azam, M S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ara, I; Ajmery, S; Zaman, U K; Amin, S

    2016-07-01

    Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories - Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the prostate gland was 10.13gm in Group A, 17.27gm in Group B and 22.50gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of weight of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The weight of prostate gland was found to increase with increased age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of prostate gland of Bangladeshi people. PMID:27612887

  6. Quantifying the influence of safe road systems and legal licensing age on road mortality among young adolescents: steps towards system thinking.

    PubMed

    Twisk, Divera; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Bos, Niels; Shope, Jean T; Kok, Gerjo

    2015-01-01

    Based on existing literature, a system thinking approach was used to set up a conceptual model on the interrelationships among the components influencing adolescent road mortality, distinguishing between components at the individual level and at the system level. At the individual level the role of risk behaviour (sometimes deliberate and sometimes from inexperience or other non-deliberate causes) in adolescent road mortality is well documented. However, little is known about the extent to which the 'road system' itself may also have an impact on younger adolescents' road mortality. This, by providing a safe or unsafe road environment for all road users (System-induced exposure) and by allowing access to high-risk vehicles at a young or older age through the legal licensing age. This study seeks to explore these relationships by analysing the extent to which the road mortality of 10 to 17 year olds in various jurisdictions can be predicted from the System-induced Exposure (SiE) in a jurisdiction and from its legal licensing age to drive motor vehicles. SiE was operationalized as the number of road fatalities per 10(5) inhabitants/all ages together, but excluding the 10 to 17 year olds. Data on road fatalities during the years 2001 through 2008 were obtained from the OECD International Road Traffic Accident Database (IRTAD) and from the USA NHTSA's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database for 29 early and 10 late licensing jurisdictions. Linear mixed models were fitted with annual 'Adolescent road mortality per capita' for 2001 through 2008 as the dependent variable, and time-dependent 'SiE' and time-independent 'Licensing system' as predictor variables. To control for different levels of motorisation, the time-dependent variable 'Annual per capita vehicle distance travelled' was used as a covariate. Licensing system of a jurisdiction was entered as a categorical predictor variable with late licensing countries as a baseline group. The study found support

  7. Promoting Group Work at Key Stage 3: Solving an Attitudinal Crisis among Young Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pell, Tony; Galton, Maurice; Steward, Susan; Page, Charlotte; Hargreaves, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The attitudes and behaviour of 1040 pupils aged 12-14 years have been measured at the beginning and end of the school year with a battery of attitude, motivation and personality tests in an investigation of the differential effects of group work compared to whole-class learning. A total of 44 secondary teachers of English, mathematics and science…

  8. Adolescent Girls' Assessment and Management of Sexual Risks: Insights from Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Fava, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted focus groups with girls ages 14 to 17 (N = 43) to study how the dominant discourse of sexual risk shapes young women's understanding of the sexual domain and their management of these presumably pervasive threats. Through inductive analysis, we developed a coding scheme focused on three themes: (a) "types of sexual risk," (b) "factors…

  9. Problem-Solving in Retarded Adolescents and Young Adults: Findings of a Group Psychotherapy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyder, Dietrich W.; And Others

    To compare differences in skills and self concept among mentally handicapped young adults, and to show the significance of the admission age and quality of special educational opportunities, a study was made involving 27 persons who had attended regular and/or special education classes. The educational experiences of the groups were organized in…

  10. Performance of four age groups of normal elderly on the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test.

    PubMed

    Mitrushina, M; Satz, P; Chervinsky, A; D'Elia, L

    1991-05-01

    This study explored effect of age on encoding, retention, and retrieval components of memory functioning in a sample of 156 healthy, elderly subjects between the ages of 57 and 85, partitioned into four age groups. Memory assessment was based on subjects' performance on the RAVLT, which consisted of five free-recall trials, recall after interference, and recognition trial. Significant group differences in recall were found on all five learning trials, whereas rates of learning, forgetting, and recognition did not differ for four age groups. In addition, primacy/recency effect was equally strong for all groups. Results suggest faulty retrieval mechanisms, whereas encoding and retention processes did not prove to be affected by aging.

  11. Internet-Delivered Targeted Group Intervention for Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in Adolescent Girls: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinicke, Brooke E.; Paxton, Susan J.; McLean, Sian A.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a targeted intervention designed to alleviate body image and eating problems in adolescent girls that was delivered over the internet so as to increase access to the program. The program consisted of six, 90-minute weekly small group, synchronous on-line sessions and was facilitated by a therapist and manual. Participants were…

  12. Racial/Ethnic Group and Socioeconomic Status Variation in Educational and Occupational Expectations from Adolescence to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of educational and occupational expectations from adolescence to adulthood in relation to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) group membership. Hierarchical linear modeling on national data (NELS:88) spanning 12 years yielded several findings: (a) African American participants reported the…

  13. Evaluation of a Group Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Young Adolescents: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen J.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Chajon, Norma D.; Kash-MacDonald, V. Megan; Chaplin, Tara M.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Matlin, Samantha L.; Gallop, Robert J.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a common psychological problem in adolescence. Recent research suggests that group cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent symptoms of depression in youth. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of such interventions when delivered by school teachers and counselors (as opposed to research team staff). We…

  14. Effectiveness of a School-Based Group Psychotherapy Program for War-Exposed Adolescents: A Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, Christopher M.; Saltzman, William R.; Poppleton, Landon; Burlingame, Gary M.; Pasalic, Alma; Durakovic, Elvira; Music, Mirjana; Campara, Nihada; Dapo, Nermin; Arslanagic, Berina; Steinberg, Alan M.; Pynoos, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    The study assesses the comparative efficacy of a classroom-based psycho-education and skills intervention and a school-based trauma- and grief-focused group treatment of a three-tiered mental health program for adolescents exposed to severe war-trauma, traumatic bereavement, and postwar adversity. The two-tier approach, combined with…

  15. Developmental Model Using Gestalt-Play versus Cognitive-Verbal Group with Chinese Adolescents: Effects on Strengths and Adjustment Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Yih-Jiun

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of short-term developmental group counseling applying Gestalt-play versus cognitive-verbal approaches with Taiwanese adolescents. On a measure of behavioral and emotional strengths, teachers reported significant changes in students' overall behavioral and emotional strengths measured via total scores. Specific…

  16. Substance Use and Dependency Disorders in Adolescent Girls in Group Living Programs: Prevalence and Associations with Milieu Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy J. L.; Ashare, Caryn; Charvat, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-three adolescent girls residing in community-based group-living child welfare programs were administered a standardized measure (SASS-2) in order to assess probability of a substance use/dependency disorder in this highly vulnerable population. Findings revealed that one third of the sample, and one half of the nonpregnant/parenting girls,…

  17. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Versus Sertraline for the Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbahr, Fernando Ramos; Castillo, Ana Regina; Ito, Ligia Montenegro; Latorre, Maria do Rosario Dias de Oliveira; Moreira, Michele Nunes; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) and of sertraline in treatment-naive children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Method: Between 2000 and 2002, 40 subjects between 9 and 17 years old were randomized to receive GCBT (n = 20) or sertraline (n = 20). GCBT consisted of a…

  18. Gender-Role Identity and Perceived Peer Group Acceptance among Early Adolescents in Belgian Mixed and Single-Sex Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutsaert, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on survey data, this paper explores the association between early adolescents' gender-role identity and sense of peer group acceptance, and how this association may vary as a function of the gender context of the school. Two indicators of gender-role identity were included in the analysis: in one measure the items reflect features of…

  19. The Meaning of Dating Violence in the Lives of Middle School Adolescents: A Report of a Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredland, Nina M.; Ricardo, Izabel B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.; Kub, Joan K.; Yonas, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This article reports qualitative findings of seven focus groups that illuminate the phenomenon of dating and dating violence from the perspective of the young adolescent. This study was part of a larger intervention project, "An Arts-Based Initiative for the Prevention of Violence Against Women and Girls," a collaboration of the Centers for…

  20. Group-Based Preference Assessment for Children and Adolescents in a Residential Setting: Examining Developmental, Clinical, Gender, and Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Jennifer L. Resetar; Cook, Clayton R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic group differences in preference in residentially placed children and adolescents. In addition, this study considers whether residentially placed youth prefer stimuli currently being used as rewards as part of a campuswide token economy system and whether youth would identify preferred…

  1. Reliability of a wellness inventory for use among adolescent females aged 12–14 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The wellness construct has application in a number of fields including education, healthcare and counseling, particularly with regard to female adolescents. The effective measurement of wellness in adolescents can assist researchers and practitioners in determining lifestyle behaviors in which they are lacking. Behavior change interventions can then be designed which directly aid in the promotion of these areas. Methods The 5-Factor Wellness Inventory (designed to measure the Indivisible Self model of wellness) is a popular instrument for measuring the broad aspects of wellness amongst adolescents. The instrument comprises 97 items contributing to 17 subscales, five dimension scores, four context scores, total wellness score, and a life satisfaction index. This investigation evaluated the test-retest (intra-rater) reliability of the 5F-Wel instrument in repeated assessments (seven days apart) among adolescent females aged 12–14 years. Percentages of exact agreement for individual items, and the number of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness and the five summary dimension scores were calculated. Results Overall, 46 (95.8%) participants responded with complete data and were included in the analysis. Item agreement ranged from 47.8% to 100% across the 97 items (median 69.9%, interquartile range 60.9%-73.9%). The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness at the re-assessment was 87.0%, 97.8% and 97.8% respectively. The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 for the domain scores at the reassessment ranged between 54.3-76.1%, 78.3-95.7% and 89.1-95.7% respectively across the five dimensions. Conclusions These findings suggest there was considerable variation in agreement between the two assessments on some individual items. However, the total wellness score and the five dimension summary scores remained comparatively stable between assessments

  2. Age groups of antarctic krill, Euphausia superba dana, in the Prydz Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Sun, Song; Wang, Ke; Li, Chao-Iun

    2000-06-01

    Age groups of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba Dana) in the Prydz Bay region were studied by distribution mixture analysis based on length/frequency data collected by R/V Jidi during the 1989/1990 and 1990/1991 austral summer. Five age groups were determined, i.e. 1+, 2+, 3+, 4+, and 5+, or six age groups in all, if the 0+ larvae were included. The mean body length of 1+ to 5+ age groups was 25.70 mm, 40.47 mm, 45.52 mm, 50.52 mm and 54.52 mm respectively. Supposing the difference in body length between successive age groups is a reflection of the early growth, the maximum growth rate occurred during the period from 1+ juveniles to 2+ subadults (14.77 mm/a). From 2+ subadults to 3+ adults the growth rate dropped steeply (5.05 mm/a) because at this stage, increase of body length was substituted, to a great extent, by the growth of sexual products. From 3+ onwards the growth rate was maintained at a relatively low level and decreased slowly with age. The relative abundance of age groups 1+ and 2+, in our sample must be much lower than that in the real population owing to both the large mesh size we used and the distribution difference between juveniles and adults. If we left aside 1+ and 2+ age groups and just looked at the relative abundance of adults, we found that age group 3+ dominated the adult population and that the relative abundance decreased sharply with increasing age. If this situation is normal, one can expect an extremely high mortality rate in adults, 82.6% from 3+ to 4+ and 94.0% from 4+ to 5+. This is reasonably expectable for the Prydz Bay region.

  3. Specific language and reading skills in school-aged children and adolescents are associated with prematurity after controlling for IQ.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eliana S; Yeatman, Jason D; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M

    2011-04-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and IQ. Participants from two study sites (N=100) included 9-16-year old children born before 36 weeks gestation and weighing less than 2500 grams (preterm group, n=65) compared to children born at 37 weeks gestation or more (full-term group, n=35). Children born preterm had significantly lower scores than full-term controls on Performance IQ, Verbal IQ, receptive and expressive language skills, syntactic comprehension, linguistic processing speed, verbal memory, decoding, and reading comprehension but not on receptive vocabulary. Using MANCOVA, we found that SES, IQ, and prematurity all contributed to the variance in scores on a set of six non-overlapping measures of language and reading. Simple regression analyses found that after controlling for SES and Performance IQ, the degree of prematurity as measured by gestational age group was a significant predictor of linguistic processing speed, β=-.27, p<.05, R(2)=.07, verbal memory, β=.31, p<.05, R(2)=.09, and reading comprehension, β=.28, p<.05, R(2)=.08, but not of receptive vocabulary, syntactic comprehension, or decoding. The language and reading domains where prematurity had a direct effect can be classified as fluid as opposed to crystallized functions and should be monitored in school-aged children and adolescents born preterm.

  4. Specific Language and Reading Skills in School-Aged Children and Adolescents are Associated with Prematurity after Controlling for IQ

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and IQ. Participants from two study sites (N = 100) included 9–16 year old children born before 36 weeks gestation weighing less than 2500 grams (preterm group, n = 65) compared to children born at 37 weeks gestation or more (full-term group, n = 35). Children born preterm had significantly lower scores than full-term controls on Performance IQ, Verbal IQ, receptive and expressive language skills, syntactic comprehension, linguistic processing speed, verbal memory, decoding, and reading comprehension but not on receptive vocabulary. Using MANCOVA, we found that SES, IQ, and prematurity all contributed to the variance in scores on a set of six non-overlapping measures of language and reading. Simple regression analyses found that after controlling for SES and Performance IQ, the degree of prematurity as measured by gestational age group was a significant predictor of linguistic processing speed, β = −.27, p < .05, R2 = .07, verbal memory, β = .31, p < .05, R2 = .09, and reading comprehension, β = .28, p < .05, R2 = .08, but not of receptive vocabulary, syntactic comprehension, or decoding. The language and reading domains where prematurity had a direct effect can be classified as fluid as opposed to crystallized functions and should be monitored in school-age children and adolescents born preterm. PMID:21195100

  5. [Comparative study of 2 groups of paranoid syndromes appearing at different ages].

    PubMed

    Gilliéron, E; Müller, C

    1976-01-01

    Clinical study of two groups of females beyond age of 65, institutionalized for delusional manifestations of schizophrenic nature and presenting also, at the time of examination, a pronounced paranoid state. In the first group: the manifestations had arisen before the age of 45. In the second group, after the age of 65. This study has demonstrated certain psychopathological characteristics suggesting the presence of personality problems definitely more profound in patients of the first group: autistic state, asthenia, thought disorder, incoherence and vagueness of delusional subjects, ordinarily much more unreal are characteristics of the first group in comparison to the second. This seems to bring evidence that these two paranoid states (paranoid schizophrenia in adult age and paranoid state in senility) are, at first sight, pathological entities based on personality problems of very different intensity.

  6. How do groups work? Age differences in performance and the social outcomes of peer collaboration.

    PubMed

    Leman, Patrick J

    2015-05-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were awarded to the best performing individuals. Findings, both in terms of social outcomes and performance in the quiz, indicated that the 8-year olds viewed the benefits of group membership in terms of the opportunities to receive information from other members. The 13-year olds, in contrast, viewed group collaboration as a constructive process where success was connected with group cohesiveness.

  7. Offline and online civic engagement among adolescents and young adults from three ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Jugert, Philipp; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Kuhn, Alexandra; Benbow, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Levels of civic engagement are assumed to vary according to numerous social and psychological characteristics, but not much is known about online civic engagement. This study aimed to investigate differences and similarities in young people's offline and online civic engagement and to clarify, based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB), associations between motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, collective efficacy, and civic engagement. The sample consisted of 755 youth (native German, ethnic German Diaspora, and Turkish migrants) from two age groups (16-18 and 19-26; mean age 20.5 years; 52 % female). Results showed that ethnic group membership and age moderated the frequency of engagement behavior, with Turkish migrants taking part more than native Germans, who were followed by ethnic German Diaspora migrants. Analyses based on TPB showed good fit for a model relating intention for offline and online civic engagement to motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, and collective efficacy. Ethnic group moderated the findings for offline civic engagement and questioned the universality of some model parameters (e.g., peer and parental norms). This study showed the utility of the TPB framework for studying civic engagement but also reveals that the predictive utility of peer and parental norms seems to vary depending on the group and the behavior under study. This study highlights the importance of including minority samples in the study of civic engagement in order to identify between-group similarities and differences. PMID:22903193

  8. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed. PMID:25976291

  9. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed.

  10. A study of the prevalence of thalassemia and its correlation with liver function test in different age and sex group in the Chittagong district of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Palit, Sarmi; Bhuiyan, Robiul H.; Aklima, Jannatul; Emran, Talha B.; Dash, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Thalassemia is the name of a group of genetic, inherited disorders of the blood. More specifically, it is a disorder of the hemoglobin molecule inside the red blood cells. According to World health Organization (WHO), there are about 3% beta-thalassemia carrier and about 4% Hb E/beta-thalassemia carrier in Bangladesh. Our objective is to identify the prevalence of beta-thalassemia in our adolescent populations and to review risk factors that would most easily identify a subset of adolescent patients at greatest risk for the development of beta-thalassemia. We also made a study of clinical profile of 53 thalassemic patients, observing the relationship between the patients with their verity ages and sex. The cases are taken on the basis of their age (2-30 years), beta-thalassemia major, clinical jaundice with history of chronic blood transfusion. The cases excluded those who had jaundice due to viral hepatitis or hepatitis due to heavy metal poisoning (Arsenic) and those with spleenectomy. Liver function test has been evaluated in 53 patients. That were recorded with some relevant demographical data such as age, sex, blood group where median age was of 16 years and mean (±SD) age 15.4151 ± 7.90918. Among them were 21 (39.6%) female and 32 (60.4%) male. With an average 15.1% (8 in no.) beta-thalassemia, 7.5% (4 in no.) beta-thalassemia major and 77.4% (41 in no.) E-beta-thalassemia cases have been found in the study. Mean (±SD) TSB in total 53 subjects with age group 2-10 years and 21-30 years is significant. The study revealed that in thalassemic patients when the age is more, the disease progresses with their complication. Hepatic complication is mainly due to being hepatocellular in nature than that of obstructive one. PMID:24826050

  11. Parents and Adolescents Growing up in the Digital Age: Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Proactive Media Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Fraser, Ashley M.; Dyer, W. Justin; Yorgason, Jeremy B.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined how parents' use of restrictive and active monitoring and deference changed over three years, and examined both adolescent and parent characteristics as predictors of initial levels of media monitoring, as well as change in media monitoring. Participants included 276 mother-child dyads (M age of child = 12.08, SD = 0.63,…

  12. Age Related Differences of Executive Functioning Problems in Everyday Life of Children and Adolescents in the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bergh, Sanne F. W. M.; Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander; Koot, Hans M.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies investigated executive functioning (EF) problems in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using laboratory EF tasks. As laboratory task performances often differ from real life observations, the current study focused on EF in everyday life of 118 children and adolescents with ASD (6-18 years). We investigated age-related and…

  13. Development of Ethnic, Racial, and National Prejudice in Childhood and Adolescence: A Multinational Meta-Analysis of Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In…

  14. Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes – The Impact of Gender, Age, and Health-Related Functioning on Eating Disorder Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Wisting, Line; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate correlates of eating disorder psychopathology in adolescent males and females with type 1 diabetes. Method A total of 105 adolescents with type 1 diabetes (42% males), aged 12–20 years, were recruited from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry in this population-based study. All participants were interviewed with the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Additionally, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire were administered to assess health-related functioning. Clinical data were obtained from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. Results Significant gender differences were demonstrated in the pattern of correlates of eating disorder pathology. Among females, eating disorder psychopathology was significantly associated with body mass index adjusted for age and gender, age, insulin restriction, coping, illness perceptions, and perceptions of insulin concern. In a regression model, age, illness perceptions, and insulin restriction remained significantly associated with eating disorder psychopathology, explaining 48% of the variance. None of the variables were associated with eating disorder psychopathology among males. Discussion Greater clinical awareness of illness perceptions, attitudes toward insulin, and insulin restriction may potentially decrease the risk of developing eating disorders among female adolescents with type 1 diabetes, and the subsequent increased morbidity and mortality associated with comorbid type 1 diabetes and eating disorders. PMID:26529593

  15. HPV vaccination coverage among women aged 18–20 years in Germany three years after recommendation of HPV vaccination for adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Deleré, Yvonne; Böhmer, Merle M; Walter, Dietmar; Wichmann, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Routine immunization of adolescent girls aged 12–17 y against human papillomavirus (HPV) was recommended in Germany in March 2007. We aimed to assess HPV-vaccine uptake and knowledge about post-vaccination cervical cancer screening and condom use in women aged 18–20 years, three years after adoption of HPV-vaccination into the routine vaccination schedule. Results: Overall 2,001 females participated in our study. Of these, 49% reported receipt of a complete three-dose course of HPV-vaccines; 11% received 1 or 2 doses. Living in East Germany, high educational status, and interest in health-related issues were independently associated with HPV-vaccination. Misconceptions among survey-participants were rare: Only 8% believed that HPV-vaccination would obviate the need for cervical screening and 1% that condom use would be dispensible after vaccination. Methods: In 2010, a nationwide cross-sectional telephone-survey was performed among randomly-selected women aged 18–20 years living in Germany. Telephone interviews were conducted by a large professional market research institute as part of a daily omnibus survey. Conclusion: HPV-vaccination coverage is low in Germany. The results indicate that there is an urgent need for the implementation of a coordinated adolescent vaccination program to facilitate access to vaccination, including balanced information tailored to this age group. Otherwise, the HPV-vaccination effort will fall short of reaching its maximum public health benefit. PMID:23732901

  16. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Rong-liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0–54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4–10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC. PMID:27272218

  17. Evaluating Measures of Fidelity for Substance Abuse Group Treatment With Incarcerated Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Shayna S; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Martin, Rosemarie A

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of treatment fidelity has become increasingly important as the demand for evidence-based practice grows. The purpose of the present study is to describe the psychometric properties of two measures of treatment fidelity that can be used by therapists and supervisors - one for group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and one for combined Substance Education and Twelve-Step Introduction (SET) for adolescent substance use. At the end of group sessions (CBT n=307; SET n=279), therapists and supervisors completed an evaluation measure assessing adherence to certain core components of the intervention. The supervisor version of the fidelity measure also included items for rating the level of competency the therapist demonstrated when providing each component of the intervention. Results from split-half cross-validation analyses provide strong support for an 11-item, three-factor CBT fidelity measure. Somewhat less consistent but adequate support for a nine-item, two-factor SET fidelity measure was found. Internal consistencies ranged from acceptable to good for both the CBT and SET adherence scales and from acceptable to good for the CBT and SET competency scales, with the exception of the CBT practices competency scale. Preliminary validation of the measures suggests that both measures have adequate to strong factor structure, reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity. The results of this study have implications for research and clinical settings, including the supervision process.

  18. Evaluating Measures of Fidelity for Substance Abuse Group Treatment With Incarcerated Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Shayna S; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Martin, Rosemarie A

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of treatment fidelity has become increasingly important as the demand for evidence-based practice grows. The purpose of the present study is to describe the psychometric properties of two measures of treatment fidelity that can be used by therapists and supervisors - one for group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and one for combined Substance Education and Twelve-Step Introduction (SET) for adolescent substance use. At the end of group sessions (CBT n=307; SET n=279), therapists and supervisors completed an evaluation measure assessing adherence to certain core components of the intervention. The supervisor version of the fidelity measure also included items for rating the level of competency the therapist demonstrated when providing each component of the intervention. Results from split-half cross-validation analyses provide strong support for an 11-item, three-factor CBT fidelity measure. Somewhat less consistent but adequate support for a nine-item, two-factor SET fidelity measure was found. Internal consistencies ranged from acceptable to good for both the CBT and SET adherence scales and from acceptable to good for the CBT and SET competency scales, with the exception of the CBT practices competency scale. Preliminary validation of the measures suggests that both measures have adequate to strong factor structure, reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity. The results of this study have implications for research and clinical settings, including the supervision process. PMID:27211991

  19. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young ( ≲ 200 Myr), nearby ( ≲ 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the τ2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the MV, V - J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are as follows: 149^{+51}_{-19} {Myr} for the AB Dor moving group, 24 ± 3 Myr for the β Pic moving group (BPMG), 45^{+11}_{-7} {Myr} for the Carina association, 42^{+6}_{-4} {Myr} for the Columba association, 11 ± 3 Myr for the η Cha cluster, 45 ± 4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10 ± 3 Myr for the TW Hya association and 22^{+4}_{-3} {Myr} for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of coeval stars. Our isochronal ages for both the BPMG and Tuc-Hor are consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages, which unlike isochronal ages, are relatively insensitive to the choice of low-mass evolutionary models. This consistency between the isochronal and LDB ages instils confidence that our self-consistent, absolute age scale for young, nearby moving groups is robust, and hence we suggest that these ages be adopted for future studies of these groups. Software implementing the methods described in this study is available from http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/tau-squared/.

  20. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132