Science.gov

Sample records for adolescent alcohol consumption

  1. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; França-Santos, Debora; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research. PMID:26910550

  2. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; França-Santos, Debora; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research. PMID:26910550

  3. Do Alcohol Consumption Patterns of Adolescents Differ by Beverage Type?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley; Jobli, Edessa C.; Moore, Michele J.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Heather, Dore S.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2006-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to explore the alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents by beverage type. A total of 705 primarily 9th grade students were recruited to participate in this study in the spring of 2002. Alcoholic beverage use differed significantly across gender and ethnicity on a number of beverage-specific drinking…

  4. High Potency and Other Alcoholic Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobli, Edessa C.; Dore, Heather S.; Werch, Chudley E.; Moore, Michele J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high potency (liquor, malt liquor, fortified wine) and other alcoholic beverage consumption (beer, wine/wine coolers) among adolescents, the impact of gender and ethnicity, and the risk and protective factors that predicted consumption. A confidential survey revealed that, among eighth grade students,…

  5. Alcohol Consumption and Injury among Canadian Adolescents: Variations by Urban-Rural Geographic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xuran; Li, Dongguang; Boyce, William; Pickett, William

    2008-01-01

    Context: The impact of alcohol consumption on risks for injury among rural adolescents is an important and understudied public health issue. Little is known about whether relationships between alcohol consumption and injury vary between rural and urban adolescents. Purpose: To examine associations between alcohol and medically attended injuries by…

  6. Social defeat in adolescent mice increases vulnerability to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Arias, Marta; Navarrete, Francisco; Blanco-Gandia, Maria Carmen; Arenas, Maria Carmen; Bartoll-Andrés, Adrián; Aguilar, Maria A; Rubio, Gabriel; Miñarro, José; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This study employs an oral operant conditioning paradigm to evaluate the effects of repeated social defeat during adolescence on the reinforcing and motivational actions of ethanol in adult OF1 mice. Social interaction, emotional and cognitive behavioral aspects were also analyzed, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments were performed to study gene expression changes in the mesocorticolimbic and hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal (HHA) axis. Social defeat did not alter anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze or cognitive performance in the passive avoidance and Hebb-Williams tests. A social interaction test revealed depression-like symptoms and social subordination behavior in defeated OF1 mice. Interestingly, social defeat in adolescence significantly increased the number of effective responses, ethanol consumption values and motivation to drink. Finally, real-time PCR analyses revealed that social defeat significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the ventral tegmental area and paraventricular nucleus, respectively. In contrast, mu-opioid receptor gene expression was decreased in the nucleus accumbens of socially defeated mice. In summary, these findings suggest that exposure to social defeat during adolescence increases vulnerability to the rewarding effects of ethanol without affecting emotional or cognitive performance. The gene expression alterations we have observed in the mesocorticolimbic and HHA axis systems of defeated mice could be related with their increased ethanol consumption. These results endorse future research into pharmacological strategies that modulate these systems for the treatment of social stress-related alcohol consumption problems.

  7. Occupational level of the father and alcohol consumption during adolescence; patterns and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Droomers, M; Schrijvers, C; Casswell, S; Mackenbach, J

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: This paper describes and attempts to explain the association between occupational level of the father and high alcohol consumption among a cohort of New Zealand adolescents from age 11 to 21. Design: Data were obtained from the longitudinal Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. At each measurement wave, those who then belonged to the quartile that reported the highest usual amount of alcohol consumed on a typical drinking occasion were categorised as high alcohol consumers. Potential predictors of high alcohol consumption included environmental factors, individual factors, and educational achievement measured at age 9, 11, or 13. Longitudinal logistic GEE analyses described and explained the relation between father's occupation and adolescent alcohol consumption. Setting: Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants: About 1000 children were followed up from birth in 1972 until adulthood. Main results: A significant association between fathers' occupation and adolescent alcohol consumption emerged at age 15. Overall adolescents from the lowest occupational group had almost twice the odds of being a large consumer than the highest occupational group. The association between father's occupation and high alcohol consumption during adolescence was explained by the higher prevalence of familial alcohol problems and friends approving of alcohol consumption, lower intelligence scores, and lower parental attachment among adolescents from lower occupational groups. Conclusions: Socioeconomic background affects adolescent alcohol consumption substantially. This probably contributes to cumulation of disadvantage. Prevention programmes should focus on adolescents from lower socioeconomic groups and make healthier choices the easier choices by means of environmental change. PMID:12933777

  8. A Rasch Model Analysis of Alcohol Consumption and Problems Across Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent investigations using item response modeling have begun to conceptualize alcohol consumption, problems, and dependence as representing points along a single continuum of alcohol involvement. Such a conceptualization may be of particular benefit to measurement of alcohol involvement in adolescents, but investigations to date have been limited to adult samples and may not generalize to adolescents due to age-related developmental differences. Methods This study used Rasch model analyses to examine the properties of indices of alcohol consumption and problems among 6,353 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years, in Wave 1 of the Add Health survey. A particular focus was on whether the functioning of items changed when these adolescents were re-interviewed in Wave 3 when they were 18 to 24 years of age. Results Rasch model analyses supported the unidimensionality and additive properties of the items in the Wave 1 data. Comparisons of Wave 1 and Wave 3 data indicated differential item functioning in most of the items such that items related to alcohol consumption were more severe during adolescence, whereas items related to alcohol problems were more severe in young adulthood. Conclusions A valid index of alcohol involvement in adolescents can be constructed combining indices of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Such an index covers a range of severity and functions similarly across sex and race/ethnicity. A similar index can be constructed in young adulthood. However, the interpretation of scores must be attentive to developmental differences. In particular, for adolescents, indices of alcohol consumption are relatively closer in severity to indices of alcohol problems than they are among young adults. Thus, alcohol problems are more likely among adolescents than young adults given a similar level of drinking. PMID:19183135

  9. Alcohol Consumption of Matched and Unmatched Adolescents in a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichman, Meir; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined adolescent (n=1,900) alcohol use. Found that subjects (n=454) who dropped out of study consumed alcoholic beverages at rates higher than those found among matched subjects. Found significant differences between dropouts and matched subjects in sociodemographic background. In spite of differences in alcohol consumption, sensation seeking,…

  10. Condom use and alcohol consumption in adolescents and youth

    PubMed Central

    Mola, Rachel; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Barbosa, Sháyra Anny Moura; Almeida, Layane Sá; de Sousa, Mayara Ruth Marinho; Pio, Wellypâmela Pauliny de Lima; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the association between not using the male condom and alcohol consumption in adolescents and schoolchildren. Methods An epidemiological study, with a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlation design carried out from March to July 2014. The sample consisted of students in public primary and secondary education, aged between 12 and 24 years. The social and demographic survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire were used. Results The study included 1,275 students, of these; 37.0% reported having had sexual relations. The prevalent age of sexual initiation was 14-16 years 55.7% and 65.6% used condom in the last sexual intercourse. Regarding the lack of condom use at the last intercourse, girls showed an association with drunkenness in the previous 30 days (2.19; 95%CI: 1.06-4.54). Conclusion In females, the non-use of condoms was associated with drunkenness in the previous 30 days. PMID:27462887

  11. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  12. The Reciprocal Relation Between Adolescents' School Engagement and Alcohol Consumption, and the Role of Parental Support.

    PubMed

    Roebroek, Lukas; Koning, Ina M

    2016-02-01

    While school engagement and the use of alcohol are subject to change during the course of adolescence, studies have shown that being engaged in school equates with a later onset of alcohol consumption. Cross-sectional studies also indicate that alcohol use correlates to school engagement, but the reciprocal nature of these factors has never been investigated. This study examines the reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption during adolescence. Further, the moderating effect of perceived parental support in this reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption is tested. Data were obtained from Dutch high school students (n = 906, 52.5% boys, mean age = 12.19 years) who annually completed a digital questionnaire over 4 years (age 12 to 15). A cross-lagged autoregressive model was applied in AMOS. Results showed that more school engagement at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of alcohol use 1 year later. In addition, more alcohol consumption at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of school engagement 1 year later. Higher school engagement at age 13 predicted less alcohol use at age 14, whereas no significant effect of alcohol use on school engagement was found at this age period. Furthermore, a reciprocal relation was found only for adolescents who perceived high parental support. The reciprocal nature of school engagement and alcohol consumption should be a consideration in future research and prevention program development.

  13. Alcohol consumption and social network ties among adolescents: evidence from Add Health.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Nikaj, Silda

    2014-05-01

    Although many studies have estimated the influence of peers on risky health behaviors, few have estimated the gains that adolescents receive from such behaviors, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. In this paper, we explore the extent to which alcohol consumption increases popularity of adolescents. Using data from a nationally-representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models with school-level fixed effects to identify the effect of alcohol consumption on social network ties. We find that alcohol consumption leads to an increase in popularity, with the largest gains experienced by white males and females. Our results provide new evidence on the motivation behind adolescent drinking and have important implications for substance abuse interventions.

  14. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  15. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  16. A panel study of peer norms and adolescent alcohol consumption: developing strategies for communication interventions.

    PubMed

    Hong, Traci; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-08-01

    Given that alcohol consumption and binge drinking among adolescents in the United States remain prevalent, this study assesses changes in the influence of peer norms-and their interactions with time, gender, and ethnicity-on alcohol consumption. Panel survey interviews of adolescents (N = 1,607) were completed in 9th grade and then again in 12th grade with students from Louisiana. Fixed effects multiple regression assessed the relations between the changes in 2 types of peer norms (i.e., descriptive norms and injunctive norms) and 2 alcohol consumption measures: 30-day alcohol prevalence and binge drinking. Increases in 30-day alcohol prevalence and binge drinking were associated with only descriptive norms. The effects of both types of peer norms intensified over time, and the effects of descriptive norms varied according to gender and ethnicity. Specifically, the influence of descriptive norms was greater on boys than on girls and on Caucasians than on African Americans. Communication interventions that target adolescents in the context of alcohol consumption should consider the temporal variability of peer normative influence and how it varies by gender and ethnicity. PMID:23767700

  17. A gender-specific analysis of adolescent dietary caffeine, alcohol consumption, anger, and violent behavior.

    PubMed

    James, Jack E; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported dietary caffeine and alcohol consumption were examined in relation to anger and violent behavior in Icelandic tenth-graders. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate direct and indirect effects of measured and latent variables in the population sample of 3,670, controlling for parental financial standing, family structure, ADHD, and peer delinquency. Gender differences were observed that have not been reported previously, especially in relation to anger as a possible mediator of violent behavior against a background of caffeine and alcohol consumption. Study findings suggest the need to take account of caffeine consumption in relation to adolescent anger and violence.

  18. Associations of Truancy, Perceived School Performance, and Mental Health with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtes, Muriel; Bannink, Rienke; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; Raat, Hein; Broeren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with adolescents' week, weekend, and binge drinking. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1167 secondary school students of Dutch ethnicity (mean age, 15.9 years, SD?=?0.69). Alcohol consumption, truancy, perceived school…

  19. Portrayal of Alcohol Consumption in Movies and Drinking Initiation in Low-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Mathis, Federica; Florek, Ewa; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12 months (mean age 12.9 years, SD = 1.08). Recruitment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 112 state-funded schools in Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland. Exposure to movie alcohol consumption was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country in the years 2004 to 2009. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions assessed the relationship between baseline exposure to movie alcohol consumption and initiation of trying alcohol, and binge drinking (≥ 5 consecutive drinks) at follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 40% of the sample initiated alcohol use and 6% initiated binge drinking by follow-up. Estimated mean exposure to movie alcohol consumption was 3653 (SD = 2448) occurrences. After age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics, and drinking behavior of peers, parents, and siblings were controlled for, exposure to each additional 1000 movie alcohol occurrences was significantly associated with increased relative risk for trying alcohol, incidence rate ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08; P = .003), and for binge drinking, incidence rate ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.20; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Seeing alcohol depictions in movies is an independent predictor of drinking initiation, particularly for more risky patterns of drinking. This result was shown in a heterogeneous sample of European youths who had a low affinity for drinking alcohol at the time of exposure. PMID:24799536

  20. Prevalence, comorbidities, and cofactors associated with alcohol consumption among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Mala A; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B; Abdul Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Kamaruddin, Rozanim Bt; Sabtu, Mohd Yusoff B

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol is deleterious to physical and mental health as well as social well-being. This study aims to examine the prevalence of alcohol consumption and factors associated with its use among school-going Malaysian adolescents. The Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 employed 2-stage clustering design to Malaysian secondary school respondents aged 12 to 17 years. The prevalence of current alcohol usage was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-10.07) overall, 11.2% (95% CI: 9.80-12.80) among males, and 23.4 (95% CI: 21.40-25.50) among Chinese students. Multivariate logistic regression showed that adolescents who had used alcohol were more likely to have used substance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.39; 95% CI: 2.33-4.99), experienced injury (aOR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.20-1.95), and engaged in sexual behaviors (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.12-1.79), and fights (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.08-1.41). The current national policies on alcohol should be strengthened to curb alcohol consumption among adolescents.

  1. Chronic alcohol consumption from adolescence to adulthood in mice--hypothalamic gene expression changes in insulin-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Song, Huaiguang; Jin, Meilei; Xiao, Huasheng; Zhao, Guoping; Zou, Hong; Yu, Lei

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a developmental stage vulnerable to alcohol drinking-related problems, and alcohol exposure during adolescence may lead to long-lasting consequences. The hypothalamus is a key brain region for food and water intake regulation as well as weight control, and is one of the alcohol-sensitive brain regions. However, it is not known what the alcohol effect is on the hypothalamus following adolescent alcohol intake, chronically over adolescent development, at moderate levels. We employed a model of chronic moderate alcohol intake from adolescence to adulthood in mice, and analyzed the effect of alcohol on growth and weight gain, as well as hypothalamic gene expression patterns. The results indicated that chronic alcohol consumption during adolescence, even at moderate levels, led to both a reduction in weight gain in mice, and considerable gene expression changes in the hypothalamus. Pathway analysis and real-time PCR identified the type II diabetes mellitus and the insulin-signaling pathways as being the hypothalamic pathways affected by chronic alcohol. Our findings from the mouse alcohol consumption study therefore serve as a potential warning against alcohol consumption during adolescence, such as in teens and college students.

  2. Mechanisms involved in the neurotoxic, cognitive, and neurobehavioral effects of alcohol consumption during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Guerri, Consuelo; Pascual, María

    2010-02-01

    Studies over the last decade demonstrate that adolescence is a brain maturation period from childhood to adulthood. Plastic and dynamic processes drive adolescent brain development, creating flexibility that allows the brain to refine itself, specialize, and sharpen its functions for specific demands. Maturing connections enable increased communication among brain regions, allowing greater integration and complexity. Compelling evidence has shown that the developing brain is vulnerable to the damaging effects of ethanol. It is possible to infer, therefore, that alcohol exposure during the critical adolescent developmental stages could disrupt the brain plasticity and maturation processes, resulting in behavioral and cognitive deficits. Recent neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of the impact of human adolescent drinking in brain structure and functions. Findings in experimental animals have also given new insight into the potential mechanisms of the toxic effects of ethanol on both adolescent brain maturation and the short- and long-term cognitive consequences of adolescent drinking. Adolescence is also characterized by the rapid maturation of brain systems mediating reward and by changes in the secretion of stress-related hormones, events that might participate in the increasing in anxiety and the initiation pattern of alcohol and drug consumption. Studies in human adolescents demonstrate that drinking at early ages can enhance the likelihood of developing alcohol-related problems. Experimental evidence suggests that early exposure to alcohol sensitizes the neurocircuitry of addiction and affects chromatin remodeling, events that could induce abnormal plasticity in reward-related learning processes that contribute to adolescents' vulnerability to drug addiction. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms by which ethanol impacts brain development and lead to brain impairments and cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions as well as the neurobiological

  3. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence. PMID:26635714

  4. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  5. [The representation of alcoholic beverages consumption for adolescents in a Family Health Unit].

    PubMed

    Souza, Sinara de Lima; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Gomes, Romeu; Souza, Tatiana Costa

    2010-05-01

    Alcoholic beverages consumption by adolescents is a global problem with repercussion on different social sectors. However, the reasons that cause this behavior are still little studied. This qualitative research aimed to understand the socially constructed representations of adolescents about the consumption of alcoholic beverages, in a Family Health Unit in the city of Feira de Santana, state of Bahia, Brazil. Subjects were twenty-one adolescents of both genders. Observation, focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection, followed by interpretation of meanings as data analysis. Results showed that this practice represents "to drink much", which is close to the concept of binge drinking and "to be in the group", evidencing the socializing character of drinking. It also means a rite of passage. Among the factors that influence this representation, adults' attitudes to alcohol, especially the father and media, are highlighted. It is concluded that this substance represents a symbolic capital, with contradictions regarding the issue, precariousness of protective factors and existence of vulnerability factors. Rethinking adolescent-targeted and alcohol-related public policies is needed.

  6. Consumption of alcoholic beverages in adolescence and adulthood and risk of testicular germ cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Mary L; Doody, David R; Trabert, Britton; Starr, Jacqueline R; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2016-12-01

    The etiology of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) remains obscure and accumulating evidence suggests that postnatal environmental or lifestyle factors may play a role. To investigate whether consumption of alcoholic beverages during adolescence or adulthood is associated with TGCT risk, we analyzed data from a USA population-based case-control study of 540 18-44 year-old TGCT cases and 1,280 age-matched controls. Participants were queried separately about consumption of beer, wine and liquor during grades 7-8, grades 9-12 and the 5 years before reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and corresponding date for controls). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of TGCT risk with alcoholic beverage consumption during the different periods, both total and by specific beverage types and separately for seminomas and nonseminomas. Compared with nondrinkers in the 5 years before reference date, the OR (95% CI) for 1-6, 7-13 and ≥14 drinks per week were 1.20 (0.85, 1.69), 1.23 (0.81, 1.85) and 1.56 (1.03, 2.37), respectively (p-trend = 0.04). The corresponding results for alcohol consumption in grades 9-12 were 1.39 (1.06, 1.82), 1.07 (0.72, 1.60), 1.53 (1.01, 2.31) (p-trend = 0.05). Alcohol consumption in grades 7-8 was uncommon and no statistically significant associations with TGCT were observed. Associations with alcohol consumption in the 5 years before reference date appeared stronger for nonseminomas than for seminomas, but the differences were not statistically significant (p≥0.10). Associations were similar across different alcoholic beverage types. Consumption of alcoholic beverages may be associated with an increased TGCT risk.

  7. Consumption of alcoholic beverages in adolescence and adulthood and risk of testicular germ cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Mary L; Doody, David R; Trabert, Britton; Starr, Jacqueline R; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2016-12-01

    The etiology of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) remains obscure and accumulating evidence suggests that postnatal environmental or lifestyle factors may play a role. To investigate whether consumption of alcoholic beverages during adolescence or adulthood is associated with TGCT risk, we analyzed data from a USA population-based case-control study of 540 18-44 year-old TGCT cases and 1,280 age-matched controls. Participants were queried separately about consumption of beer, wine and liquor during grades 7-8, grades 9-12 and the 5 years before reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and corresponding date for controls). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of TGCT risk with alcoholic beverage consumption during the different periods, both total and by specific beverage types and separately for seminomas and nonseminomas. Compared with nondrinkers in the 5 years before reference date, the OR (95% CI) for 1-6, 7-13 and ≥14 drinks per week were 1.20 (0.85, 1.69), 1.23 (0.81, 1.85) and 1.56 (1.03, 2.37), respectively (p-trend = 0.04). The corresponding results for alcohol consumption in grades 9-12 were 1.39 (1.06, 1.82), 1.07 (0.72, 1.60), 1.53 (1.01, 2.31) (p-trend = 0.05). Alcohol consumption in grades 7-8 was uncommon and no statistically significant associations with TGCT were observed. Associations with alcohol consumption in the 5 years before reference date appeared stronger for nonseminomas than for seminomas, but the differences were not statistically significant (p≥0.10). Associations were similar across different alcoholic beverage types. Consumption of alcoholic beverages may be associated with an increased TGCT risk. PMID:27474852

  8. Effects of Intoxicating Free-Choice Alcohol Consumption During Adolescence on Drinking and Impulsivity During Adulthood in Selectively Bred High Alcohol Preferring Mice

    PubMed Central

    O’Tousa, David Scott; Matson, Liana Marie; Grahame, Nicholas Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background Abuse of alcohol during adolescence continues to be a problem, and it has been shown that earlier onset of drinking predicts increased alcohol abuse problems later in life. High levels of impulsivity have been demonstrated to be characteristic of alcoholics, and impulsivity has also been shown to predict later alcohol use in teenage subjects, showing that impulsivity may precede the development of alcohol use disorders. These experiments examined adolescent drinking in a high-drinking, relatively impulsive mouse population, and assessed its effects on adult drinking and adult impulsivity. Methods Experiment 1: Selectively bred High-Alcohol Preferring (HAPII) mice were given either alcohol (free choice access) or water only for two weeks during middle adolescence or adulthood. All mice were given free choice access to alcohol 30 days later, in adulthood. Experiment 2: Adolescent HAPII mice drank alcohol and water, or water alone, for two weeks, and were then trained to perform a delay discounting task as adults to measure impulsivity. In each experiment, effects of volitional ethanol consumption on later behavior were assessed. We expected adolescent alcohol exposure to increase subsequent drinking and impulsivity. Results Mice consumed significant quantities of ethanol, reaching average blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) of 142 mg/dl (adolescent) or 154 mg/dl (adult) in Experiment 1. Adolescent mice in experiment 2 reached an average of 108 mg/dl. Mice exposed to alcohol in either adolescence or adulthood showed a transient increase in ethanol consumption, but we observed no differences in impulsivity in adult mice as a function of whether mice drank alcohol during adolescence. Conclusions These findings indicate that HAPII mice drink intoxicating levels of alcohol during both adolescence and adulthood, and that this volitional intake has long-term effects on subsequent drinking behavior. Nonetheless, this profound exposure to alcohol during adolescence

  9. An assessment of community capacity to prevent adolescent alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca J; Kittinger, Daniela Spoto; Ta, Van M; Nihoa, Wendy K; Payne, Christine; Nigg, Claudio R

    2012-09-01

    To effectively address the issue of youth alcohol use, communities need to have sufficient infrastructure and capacity in place to operate effective prevention programs. This study evaluates community capacity in the state of Hawai'i, using the Capacity Assessment Survey administered to stakeholders in the youth alcohol prevention system. Capacity is quantified with gap scores, which measure the discrepancy between an agency's performance of an attribute and the attribute's relative importance. Six assessment areas, termed capacity domains, are defined. Results are given for each county and the state overall. Based on these results, communities need to prioritize capacity-building efforts specifically in the domains of effectiveness, funding/resource availability, and sustainability. Organization, workforce skills/knowledge, and cultural competency were categorized as relative strengths in comparison, but gap scores are nevertheless significantly greater than 0 ("ideal"; p < .001), indicating these areas need improvement as well. Suggestions for improvement in each capacity domain are given. This assessment is the first step in a five-step planning process to implement youth alcohol prevention programs in communities in Hawai'i. PMID:22467663

  10. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  11. BDNF Val66Met and reward-related brain function in adolescents: role for early alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nees, F; Witt, S H; Dinu-Biringer, R; Lourdusamy, A; Tzschoppe, J; Vollstädt-Klein, S; Millenet, S; Bach, C; Poustka, L; Banaschewski, T; Barker, G J; Bokde, A L W; Bromberg, U; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Frank, J; Frouin, V; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Gowland, P; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Mann, K; Martinot, J-L; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Robbins, T W; Smolka, M N; Rietschel, M; Schumann, G; Flor, H

    2015-03-01

    Changes in reward processing have been identified as one important pathogenetic mechanism in alcohol addiction. The nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene (rs6265/Val66Met) modulates the central nervous system activity of neurotransmitters involved in reward processing such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate. It was identified as crucial for alcohol consumption in healthy adults and, in rats, specifically related to the function in the striatum, a region that is commonly involved in reward processing. However, studies in humans on the association of BDNF Val66Met and reward-related brain functions and its role for alcohol consumption, a significant predictor of later alcohol addiction, are missing. Based on an intermediate phenotype approach, we assessed the early orientation toward alcohol and alcohol consumption in 530 healthy adolescents that underwent a monetary incentive delay task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found a significantly lower response in the putamen to reward anticipation in adolescent Met carriers with high versus low levels of alcohol consumption. During reward feedback, Met carriers with low putamen reactivity were significantly more likely to orient toward alcohol and to drink alcohol 2 years later. This study indicates a possible effect of BDNF Val66Met on alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adolescence. PMID:25650137

  12. Do Girls Profit More? Gender-Specific Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program against Alcohol Consumption in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichold, Karina; Brambosch, Anett; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a life skills program with regard to alcohol consumption, life skills, knowledge, and school bonding for young adolescents. The focus was on the moderating role of gender, based on the assumption that life skills programs may address specific needs of adolescent girls better than those of boys. The…

  13. Cross-national comparisons of the association between alcohol consumption and deliberate self-harm in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Ystgaard, Mette; Hawton, Keith; Madge, Nicola; van Heeringen, Kees; de Wilde, Erik Jan; DeLeo, Diego; Fekete, Sandor; Morey, Carolyn

    2007-12-01

    How differences in drinking patterns may affect the impact of alcohol consumption on deliberate self-harm among adolescents is explored in this international comparative study. Schools in Australia, Belgium, England, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, and Norway (N = 30,532) were surveyed. In all countries the risk of deliberate self-harm was significantly elevated among adolescents who reported some or numerous episodes of intoxication, controlling for confounding factors. The results support the assumption that intoxication is significantly related to the association between alcohol consumption and deliberate self-harm in adolescents.

  14. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a) urban-rural differences and b) differences according to migration background. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample). The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants) (12.2%), independent smaller cities ("urban districts") (19.0%) and rural areas ("rural districts") (68.8%). Results Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7%) and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities) with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, re-spectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than adolescents of German

  15. Personal and Social Correlates of Alcohol Consumption among Mid-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, John; Boys, Annabel; Farrell, Michael; Stillwell, Garry; Hutchings, Kevin; Hillebrand, Jennifer; Griffiths, Paul

    2005-01-01

    A prospective, cohort survey of 540 mid-adolescent students was conducted to identify personal, family and social correlates of alcohol use. A structured questionnaire recorded alcohol involvement, other substance use, perceived parental alcohol use and related factors, alcohol-related attitudes and beliefs, psychological well-being, social and…

  16. Association of asthma symptoms with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Kim, Bo Hye

    2013-03-01

    The association of asthma symptoms with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in Korean adolescents was investigated in this study using the data of Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Associated risk factors for experiencing asthma symptoms were explored in 3432 adolescents. In the symptomatic group, 21.7% were current smokers, compared to 10.9% in the asymptomatic group. Current smokers in the symptomatic group also smoked more cigarettes than those in the asymptomatic group. In the symptomatic group, 27.4% were current drinkers, compared to 17.9% in the asymptomatic group. Current drinkers in the symptomatic group were more likely to drink alcohol and to have experienced severe intoxication than those in the asymptomatic group. Participants who had been diagnosed within one year (odds ratio = 5.19, 95% confidence interval = 4.17-6.44) and those who had smoked over 20 days during the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval = 1.26-2.49) were more likely to experience asthma symptoms. Healthcare providers should identify the risk behaviors of adolescents with asthma and counsel them and their parents simultaneously.

  17. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  18. Initiation and Continuation of Best Friends and Adolescents' Alcohol Consumption: Do Self-Esteem and Self-Control Function as Moderators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Helle; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Granic, Isabela; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this three-wave longitudinal survey, we investigated bi-directional longitudinal associations between best friends and adolescents' alcohol consumption. Additionally, since the relation between best friends and adolescents' drinking may be stronger if adolescents have not consumed alcohol yet, we examined this relation not only with regard to…

  19. Witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.

  20. Exploring the relationship between identity status development and alcohol consumption among Italian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Lonigro, Antonia; Baumgartner, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore the relationship between identity statuses and alcohol use and misuse in adolescence. A sample of 440 Italian students completed the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status-Version 2 (EOM-EIS-II) and the Alcohol Addiction Scale of the Shorter Promise Questionnaire (SPQ-ALC). The results suggested that problematic alcohol use during early and middle adolescence is associated with developmentally less sophisticated identity development. Foreclosed and diffused adolescents were classified as binge drinkers and heavy drinkers. The latter reported a higher mean dependence score than other identity groups. The risk and mediating factors about alcohol misuse and dependence are provided.

  1. Cross-National Comparisons of the Association between Alcohol Consumption and Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Ystgaard, Mette; Hawton, Keith; Madge, Nicola; van Heeringen, Kees; de Wilde, Erik Jan; DeLeo, Diego; Fekete, Sandor; Morey, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    How differences in drinking patterns may affect the impact of alcohol consumption on deliberate self-harm among adolescents is explored in this international comparative study. Schools in Australia, Belgium, England, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, and Norway (N = 30,532) were surveyed. In all countries the risk of deliberate self-harm was…

  2. Alcohol consumption among Chilean adolescents: Examining individual, peer, parenting and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study examined whether adolescents from Santiago, Chile who had never drunk alcohol differed from those who had drunk alcohol but who had never experienced an alcohol-related problem, as well as from those who had drunk and who had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem on a number of variables from four domains - individual, peers, parenting, and environmental. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community based sample. Participants 909 adolescents from Santiago, Chile. Measurements Data were analyzed with multinomial logistic regression to compare adolescents who had never drunk alcohol (non-drinkers) with i) those that had drunk but who had experienced no alcohol-related problems (non-problematic drinkers) and ii) those who had drunk alcohol and had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem (problematic drinkers). The analyses included individual, peer, parenting, and environmental factors while controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Findings Compared to non-drinkers, both non-problematic and problematic drinkers were older, reported having more friends who drank alcohol, greater exposure to alcohol ads, lower levels of parental monitoring, and more risk-taking behaviors. In addition, problematic drinkers placed less importance on religious faith to make daily life decisions and had higher perceptions of neighborhood crime than non-drinkers. Conclusions Prevention programs aimed at decreasing problematic drinking could benefit from drawing upon adolescents’ spiritual sources of strength, reinforcing parental tools to monitor their adolescents, and improving environmental and neighborhood conditions. PMID:24465290

  3. Media as social influence: racial differences in the effects of peers and media on adolescent alcohol cognitions and consumption.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Pomery, Elizabeth A; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A; Kingsbury, John; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

    2010-12-01

    Racial differences in the effects of peer and media influence on adolescents' alcohol cognitions and consumption were examined in a large-scale panel study. With regard to peer influence, results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the relation between perceived peer drinking and own drinking was significant for both Black and White adolescents, but it was stronger for the White adolescents. With regard to media influence, structural modeling analyses indicated that exposure to drinking in movies was associated with more alcohol consumption 8 months and 16 months later. These effects were mediated by increases in the favorability of the adolescents' drinker prototypes, their willingness to drink, and their tendency to affiliate with friends who were drinking. Multiple group analyses indicated that, once again, the effects (both direct and indirect) were much stronger for White adolescents than for Black adolescents. The results suggest media influence works in a similar manner to social influence and that Whites may be more susceptible to both types of influence.

  4. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    PubMed Central

    Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W.; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children. PMID:25493392

  5. The effect of alcohol consumption on the adolescent brain: A systematic review of MRI and fMRI studies of alcohol-using youth

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Sakhardande, Ashok; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Background A large proportion of adolescents drink alcohol, with many engaging in high-risk patterns of consumption, including binge drinking. Here, we systematically review and synthesize the existing empirical literature on how consuming alcohol affects the developing human brain in alcohol-using (AU) youth. Methods For this systematic review, we began by conducting a literature search using the PubMED database to identify all available peer-reviewed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of AU adolescents (aged 19 and under). All studies were screened against a strict set of criteria designed to constrain the impact of confounding factors, such as co-occurring psychiatric conditions. Results Twenty-one studies (10 MRI and 11 fMRI) met the criteria for inclusion. A synthesis of the MRI studies suggested that overall, AU youth showed regional differences in brain structure as compared with non-AU youth, with smaller grey matter volumes and lower white matter integrity in relevant brain areas. In terms of fMRI outcomes, despite equivalent task performance between AU and non-AU youth, AU youth showed a broad pattern of lower task-relevant activation, and greater task-irrelevant activation. In addition, a pattern of gender differences was observed for brain structure and function, with particularly striking effects among AU females. Conclusions Alcohol consumption during adolescence was associated with significant differences in structure and function in the developing human brain. However, this is a nascent field, with several limiting factors (including small sample sizes, cross-sectional designs, presence of confounding factors) within many of the reviewed studies, meaning that results should be interpreted in light of the preliminary state of the field. Future longitudinal and large-scale studies are critical to replicate the existing findings, and to provide a more comprehensive and conclusive picture of the

  6. Adolescent intake of caffeinated energy drinks does not affect adult alcohol consumption in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Robins, Meridith T; DeFriel, Julia N; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The rise in marketing and mass consumption of energy drink products by adolescents poses a largely unknown risk on adolescent development and drug reward. Yet, with increasing reports of acute health issues present in young adults who ingest large quantities of energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol, the need to elucidate these potential risks is pressing. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sucrose; therefore, exposure to energy drinks may lead to changes in drug-related behaviors since caffeine and sucrose consumption activates similar brain pathways engaged by substances of abuse. With a recent study observing that adolescent caffeine consumption increased cocaine sensitivity, we sought to investigate how prolonged energy drink exposure in adolescence alters alcohol use and preference in adulthood. To do so, we utilized three different energy drink exposure paradigms and two strains of male mice (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) to monitor the effect of caffeine exposure via energy drinks in adolescence on adult alcohol intake. These paradigms included two models of volitional consumption of energy drinks or energy drink-like substances and one model of forced consumption of sucrose solutions with different caffeine concentrations. Following adolescent exposure to these solutions, alcohol intake was monitored in a limited-access, two-bottle choice between water and increasing concentrations of alcohol during adulthood. In none of the three models or two strains of mice did we observe that adolescent 'energy drink' consumption or exposure was correlated with changes in adult alcohol intake or preference. While our current preclinical results suggest that exposure to large amounts of caffeine does not alter future alcohol intake, differences in caffeine metabolism between mice and humans need to be considered before translating these results to humans. PMID:27565749

  7. Adolescent intake of caffeinated energy drinks does not affect adult alcohol consumption in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Robins, Meridith T; DeFriel, Julia N; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The rise in marketing and mass consumption of energy drink products by adolescents poses a largely unknown risk on adolescent development and drug reward. Yet, with increasing reports of acute health issues present in young adults who ingest large quantities of energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol, the need to elucidate these potential risks is pressing. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sucrose; therefore, exposure to energy drinks may lead to changes in drug-related behaviors since caffeine and sucrose consumption activates similar brain pathways engaged by substances of abuse. With a recent study observing that adolescent caffeine consumption increased cocaine sensitivity, we sought to investigate how prolonged energy drink exposure in adolescence alters alcohol use and preference in adulthood. To do so, we utilized three different energy drink exposure paradigms and two strains of male mice (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) to monitor the effect of caffeine exposure via energy drinks in adolescence on adult alcohol intake. These paradigms included two models of volitional consumption of energy drinks or energy drink-like substances and one model of forced consumption of sucrose solutions with different caffeine concentrations. Following adolescent exposure to these solutions, alcohol intake was monitored in a limited-access, two-bottle choice between water and increasing concentrations of alcohol during adulthood. In none of the three models or two strains of mice did we observe that adolescent 'energy drink' consumption or exposure was correlated with changes in adult alcohol intake or preference. While our current preclinical results suggest that exposure to large amounts of caffeine does not alter future alcohol intake, differences in caffeine metabolism between mice and humans need to be considered before translating these results to humans.

  8. The Reinforcing Properties of Ethanol are Quantitatively Enhanced in Adulthood by Peri-Adolescent Ethanol, but not Saccharin, Consumption in Female Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Toalston, Jamie E.; Deehan, Gerald A.; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Engleman, Eric A.; Bell, Richard L.; Murphy, James M.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30–60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood. PMID:26074425

  9. The reinforcing properties of ethanol are quantitatively enhanced in adulthood by peri-adolescent ethanol, but not saccharin, consumption in female alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Toalston, Jamie E; Deehan, Gerald A; Hauser, Sheketha R; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30-60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood.

  10. Unique Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects Induced by Repeated Adolescent Consumption of Caffeine-Mixed Alcohol in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Meridith T.; Lu, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The number of highly caffeinated products has increased dramatically in the past few years. Among these products, highly caffeinated energy drinks are the most heavily advertised and purchased, which has resulted in increased incidences of co-consumption of energy drinks with alcohol. Despite the growing number of adolescents and young adults reporting caffeine-mixed alcohol use, knowledge of the potential consequences associated with co-consumption has been limited to survey-based results and in-laboratory human behavioral testing. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated adolescent (post-natal days P35-61) exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol in C57BL/6 mice on common drug-related behaviors such as locomotor sensitivity, drug reward and cross-sensitivity, and natural reward. To determine changes in neurological activity resulting from adolescent exposure, we monitored changes in expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the dopaminergic reward pathway as a sign of long-term increases in neuronal activity. Repeated adolescent exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure induced significant locomotor sensitization, desensitized cocaine conditioned place preference, decreased cocaine locomotor cross-sensitivity, and increased natural reward consumption. We also observed increased accumulation of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens following repeated adolescent caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure compared to alcohol or caffeine alone. Using our exposure model, we found that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence causes unique behavioral and neurochemical effects not observed in mice exposed to caffeine or alcohol alone. Based on similar findings for different substances of abuse, it is possible that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence could potentially alter or escalate future substance abuse as means to compensate for these behavioral and neurochemical alterations. PMID:27380261

  11. Unique Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects Induced by Repeated Adolescent Consumption of Caffeine-Mixed Alcohol in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Robins, Meridith T; Lu, Julie; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    The number of highly caffeinated products has increased dramatically in the past few years. Among these products, highly caffeinated energy drinks are the most heavily advertised and purchased, which has resulted in increased incidences of co-consumption of energy drinks with alcohol. Despite the growing number of adolescents and young adults reporting caffeine-mixed alcohol use, knowledge of the potential consequences associated with co-consumption has been limited to survey-based results and in-laboratory human behavioral testing. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated adolescent (post-natal days P35-61) exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol in C57BL/6 mice on common drug-related behaviors such as locomotor sensitivity, drug reward and cross-sensitivity, and natural reward. To determine changes in neurological activity resulting from adolescent exposure, we monitored changes in expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the dopaminergic reward pathway as a sign of long-term increases in neuronal activity. Repeated adolescent exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure induced significant locomotor sensitization, desensitized cocaine conditioned place preference, decreased cocaine locomotor cross-sensitivity, and increased natural reward consumption. We also observed increased accumulation of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens following repeated adolescent caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure compared to alcohol or caffeine alone. Using our exposure model, we found that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence causes unique behavioral and neurochemical effects not observed in mice exposed to caffeine or alcohol alone. Based on similar findings for different substances of abuse, it is possible that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence could potentially alter or escalate future substance abuse as means to compensate for these behavioral and neurochemical alterations. PMID:27380261

  12. A clustered randomised trial examining the effect of social marketing and community mobilisation on the age of uptake and levels of alcohol consumption by Australian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John Winston; Osborn, Amber; Smith, Rachel; Hall, Jessica Kate; Kremer, Peter; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne; Leslie, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Throughout the world, alcohol consumption is common among adolescents. Adolescent alcohol use and misuse have prognostic significance for several adverse long-term outcomes, including alcohol problems, alcohol dependence, school disengagement and illicit drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether randomisation to a community mobilisation and social marketing intervention reduces the proportion of adolescents who initiate alcohol use before the Australian legal age of 18, and the frequency and amount of underage adolescent alcohol consumption. Method and analysis The study comprises 14 communities matched with 14 non-contiguous communities on socioeconomic status (SES), location and size. One of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention. Baseline levels of adolescent alcohol use were estimated through school surveys initiated in 2006 (N=8500). Community mobilisation and social marketing interventions were initiated in 2011 to reduce underage alcohol supply and demand. The setting is communities in three Australian states (Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia). Students (N=2576) will complete school surveys in year 8 in 2013 (average age 12). Primary outcomes: (1) lifetime initiation and (2) monthly frequency of alcohol use. Reports of social marketing and family and community alcohol supply sources will also be assessed. Point estimates with 95% CIs will be compared for student alcohol use in intervention and control communities. Changes from 2006 to 2013 will be examined; multilevel modelling will assess whether random assignment of communities to the intervention reduced 2013 alcohol use, after accounting for community level differences. Analyses will also assess whether exposure to social marketing activities increased the intervention target of reducing alcohol supply by parents and community members. Trial registration ACTRN12612000384853. PMID:23355674

  13. [Neurocognitive anomalies associated with the binge drinking pattern of alcohol consumption in adolescents and young people: a review].

    PubMed

    López-Caneda, Eduardo; Mota, Nayara; Crego, Alberto; Velasquez, Teresa; Corral, Montserrat; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Binge drinking (BD) is the most common problematic drinking pattern during adolescence and youth. At the same time, it is a period marked by profound structural and functional brain changes, which may be affected by heavy alcohol consumption. In recent years, a considerable number of studies that attempt to characterize the effects of BD on the brain has been published. However, to date there is not any critical review in Spanish language on neurostructural, neurophysiological and cognitive consequences that may result from the maintenance of a BD pattern of alcohol consumption during adolescence and youth. The purpose of this review is to critically summarize the main research results on the effects of BD on the brain. To this end, a literature search in databases Web of Knowledge, PubMed and PsycINFO for the period 2000-2013 was performed. In general, studies agree that BD is associated with 1) lower performance on tasks assessing cognitive processes such as attention, memory and executive functions, 2) structural changes (in white matter and gray matter) in different brain regions and 3) neurophysiological abnormalities (hyper/hypoactivation) linked to different cognitive processes. These results, although still need to be contrasted, warn about important consequences that could result from the persistence of BD on a young and still maturing brain. PMID:25578003

  14. Adolescent alcoholism in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Pela, O A

    1986-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol by Nigerian adolescents is investigated. Adolescence and alcoholism as applied in this study are defined, and the financial costs and physical and mental effects of alcohol use are described. The author used unobtrusive methods to gather data, visiting three nightclubs and an amusement park where alcohol is served in order to observe and interview adolescents. The findings show that adolescents begin drinking at an early age and consume large quantities of beer. The findings are consistent with those of other epidemiological studies. Finally, recommendations for controlling adolescent alcohol use are made.

  15. Social capital in relation to alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social capital has lately received much attention in public health research. However, few studies have examined the influence of social capital on alcohol consumption, smoking and drug use which have strong influence on public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated whether two measures of social capital were related to substance use in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13–18 year old students (participation rate: 78.2%) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Results Individuals within the group with low neighbourhood social capital had an approximately 60% increased odds of high alcohol consumption, more than three times increased odds of smoking and more than double the odds of having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high neighbourhood social capital. Individuals within the group with low general social trust had approximately 50% increased odds of high alcohol consumption and double the odds of smoking and having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high general social trust. However, social capital at the contextual level showed very weak effects on alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions Social capital may be an important factor in the future development of prevention programs concerning adolescent substance use. However, further replications of the results as well as identifications of direction of causality are needed. PMID:23688242

  16. Alcohol consumption in late adolescence and early adulthood--where is the problem?

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-07-25

    Risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) is more common in late adolescence and early adulthood (approximately between the ages of 16 and 30) than in any other period in life. This is also the age when young people in Switzerland and many other European countries are legally allowed to buy and drink alcohol, but they usually do not yet have adult responsibilities. This paper reviews evidence from the international literature and provides examples of studies conducted in Switzerland demonstrating that (a) RSOD is by far most prevalent on Saturday evenings followed by Friday evenings, usually because young people go out and do not have any work or study responsibilities the next day; (b) RSOD results from drinking in private before going out ("predrinking") and accelerating the pace of drinking (i.e. increasing the number of drinks consumed per hour); (c) RSOD is often not accidental but purposeful,. to seek excitement, to have fun and to feel the effects of alcohol; (d) RSOD occurs predominantly outside the home, mostly in bars, pubs, discos or at special events and festivals; (e) RSOD often results in intended and unintended injuries and other acute consequences, which are leading risk factors for mortality and morbidity in this age group. Effective prevention strategies should include attempts to reduce opportunities to engage in heavy drinking as well as strategies to reduce its harmful consequences.

  17. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8-2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4-2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression.

  18. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample.

    PubMed

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.

  19. [Tobacco and alcohol consumption among 11- to 17-year-old adolescents: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS Wave 1)].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Kuntz, B

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, tobacco and alcohol consumption among adolescents in Germany was analyzed. In addition to the current situation, we report temporal developments and trends. Data were obtained from the first follow-up of the KiGGS study (KiGGS Wave 1) conducted from 2009 to 2012. All girls and boys aged 11-17 years (n = 5,258) were included. The results show that currently 12.0% of 11- to 17-year-old adolescents in Germany smoke, 5.4% of them on a daily basis. At-risk drinking (AUDIT-C total score) was prevalent among 15.8% of adolescents, heavy episodic drinking (six or more alcoholic standard drinks on a single occasion at least once a month) among 11.5%. No significant gender differences were found for most indicators. However, among adolescents aged 14-17 years, boys revealed a greater inclination toward heavy episodic drinking than girls did (23.1 vs. 16.5 %, p < 0.01). Regarding smoking, distinct socioeconomic differences were observed. For example, adolescents from families with a low socioeconomic status (SES) smoke significantly more often on a regular or daily basis compared with their peers from high-SES families (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.16-3.27 and OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 2.05-6.69, respectively). The relationship between SES and alcohol consumption is rather weak. Significant differences emerged only regarding lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption, and indicate lower consumption rates among low-SES compared with high-SES adolescents (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33-0.68). Consideration of the KiGGS baseline study data (2003-2006) shows that smoking prevalence has dropped almost by half from 20.4 to 12.0%. The percentage of adolescents who have ever drunk alcohol has decreased from 62.8 to 54.4%. These results are consistent with the findings of other studies on adolescent tobacco and alcohol consumption and should be considered in the context of preventive efforts that have been strengthened in recent years, especially regarding

  20. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  1. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Suburban Adolescent Black High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Zannis, Marie

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 392 African-American and 1,173 white students in middle class, suburban high school. Compared to whites, African Americans reported drinking smaller quantities of alcohol less frequently, were more likely to be nondrinkers and to report never having been drunk; and were less likely to drive while drunk or to use alcohol for relief of…

  2. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  3. Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socio‐economic background to alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, Alastair H.; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims If socio‐economic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Design Comparing cohort studies. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Participants were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; n = 15 672), the British birth cohort study (BCS70; n = 12 735) and the West of Scotland Twenty‐07 1970s cohort (T07; n = 1515). Measurements Participants self‐reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16 years) and heavy drinking (> 14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22–26 years). Parental occupational class (manual versus non‐manual) indicated socio‐economic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Findings Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58, probit coefficients were 0.201 and –0.765, respectively; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents from a non‐manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; P < 0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; P < 0.001) than adolescent non‐smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. Conclusions In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college

  4. The Influence of Dating Anxiety on Normative Experiences of Dating, Sexual Interactions, and Alcohol Consumption among Canadian Middle Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Andrea M.; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents tend to consume alcohol and find romantic and sexual partners in mixed-group settings that are unmonitored by adults. Relatively little is known about the influence that dating anxiety may have with these social interactions. A sample of 163 high school students (aged 14-17 years) completed online surveys assessing dating, sex, and…

  5. Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy: Associations with Alcohol Consumption in a Sample of Adolescents in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Cole, Jon C.; Percy, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have reported equivocal findings regarding the association between self-esteem, self-efficacy and adolescent alcohol use. Data were collected from a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland (n = 4088) over two consecutive academic years measuring global self-esteem, academic, social and emotional…

  6. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations. PMID:23429423

  7. [Family and risk factors related to alcohol consumption and smoking among children and adolescents (Guayaquil-Ecuador)].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Ruiz, Martha; Andrade, Denise de

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation had as objective identifying in a family the possible factors of risk related to the use of alcohol and tobacco in the children and adolescents. It is important to emphasize that study of this nature within a social and culture perspective expresses the attempt to include/understand the factors of risk for the use of tobacco and to drink alcoholic the environmental influences in the familiar surroundings views to prevent futures cases with dependency. For the study used a sample of one hundred families, to that applied to an instrument pre to them established with the people in charge of the respective families. As result were obtained 51% of the schooling level are low, 54% has inferior wage to the basic one, 61% to drink alcoholic. To emphasize that unquestionable the reduction of the casuistry of alcoholism and/or tabaquismo to influence significantly in the quality of the individuals life.

  8. Gender, Alcohol Consumption Patterns, and Engagement in Sexually Intimate Behaviors among Adolescents and Young Adults in Nha Trang, Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie S.; Zhan, Min; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Lostutter, Ty W.; Tho, Le Huu; Luong, Vo Van; Minh, Truong Tan

    2011-01-01

    A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was conducted with 880 youth (16 to 24 years) in Nha Trang City to assess relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors. A timeline followback method was employed. Chi-square, generalized logit modeling and logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the sample, 78.2% male and 56.1%…

  9. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  10. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

  11. Alcohol use among adolescents, aggressive behaviour, and internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Petri; Kekkonen, Virve; Valtonen, Hannu; Tolmunen, Tommi; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tacke, Ulrich; Hintikka, Jukka; Lehto, Soili M; Laukkanen, Eila

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use is common among adolescents, but its association with behavioural and emotional problems is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how self-reported psychosocial problems were associated with the use of alcohol in a community sample consisting of 4074 Finnish adolescents aged 13-18 years. Aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol use and a high level of alcohol consumption, while internalizing problems did not associate with alcohol use. Having problems in social relationships associated with abstinence and lower alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking, early menarche and attention problems also associated with alcohol use. PMID:25038493

  12. [Alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Adriano Antonio da Silva; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Passos, Sônia Regina Lambert; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de

    2011-08-01

    Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widely encouraged by the mass media, despite the related health risks. Today's students in the health fields are the professionals of tomorrow who will be providing advice and serving as role models for patients. The aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption and related factors among these students. A total of 608 male and female university students from Maceió, the capital of Alagoas State, Brazil, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Poisson regression and multinomial logistic models. Prevalence of lifetime use of alcohol was 90.4%. Prevalence of alcohol abuse was 18.3% in men and 6.1% in women. Heavier alcohol consumption and alcohol abuse were observed in males, older students, non-natives of Maceió, smokers, and those exposed to alcohol advertising. The results emphasized the vulnerability of these young people to risky health behaviors. Their future social role highlights distinct needs in their university education to enable them to act professionally in this area.

  13. Gender, Alcohol Consumption Patterns, and Engagement in Sexually Intimate Behaviors Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Nha Trang, Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie S.; Zhan, Min; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Lostutter, Ty W.; Tho, Le Huu; Van Luong, Vo; Minh, Truong Tan

    2010-01-01

    A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was conducted with 880 youth (16 to 24 years) in Nha Trang City to assess relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors. A timeline followback method was employed. Chi-square, generalized logit modeling and logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the sample, 78.2% male and 56.1% female respondents ever consumed alcohol. Males reporting sexual behaviors (vaginal, anal, oral sex) had a significantly higher calculated peak BAC of 0.151 compared to 0.082 for males reporting no sexual intimacy (p < .0001). Females reporting sexual behaviors had a peak BAC of 0.072 compared to 0.027 for those reporting no sexual intimacy (p = .016). Fifty percent of (33/66) males and 30.4% (7/23) females report event specific drinking and engagement in sexual behaviors. Males reporting 11+ drinks in 30 days had more sexual partners than those reporting 1 to 10 drinks (p = .037). Data suggest different physical and psychosocial mediators between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors by gender. PMID:21373363

  14. Alcohol drinking and blood pressure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jerez, S J; Coviello, A

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alcohol consumption among adolescents from Tucuman, Argentina, and to determine its possible relationship with increased levels of blood pressure. Three hundred fifty-six students aged 13-18 included in the study were asked to answer questionnaires anonymously. Two blood pressures measures were then taken. Differences between both sexes were found in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption. Enjoyment was determined to be the main reason for drinking. There was an association between frequency and alcohol-related problems, and smoking habits. There were also differences in blood pressure among males and females. A weak, but significant, relationship between quantity/frequency index and diastolic blood pressure was found. A greater prevalence of hypertension in male heavy drinkers was noted as well. Because this addiction implies multiple social problems and it also accounts for a hypertension risk factor, the importance of aiming at developing prevention strategies for alcohol abuse among adolescents is stressed.

  15. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:25591103

  16. External versus Internal Control of Beverage Consumption in Males at Risk for Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisman, Stephen A.; And Others

    Alcohol researchers have sought to characterize the relationship between cue responsivity and alcohol consumption by alcoholics. This study used the beverage tasting paradigm to test for differences in cue responsivity in adolescent sons of alcoholics. It was hypothesized that, compared to sons of nonalcoholics, sons of alcoholics would be more…

  17. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  18. [Adolescence and alcohol].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Pier Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Anna Freud defined adolescence "evolutional disorder", meaning also a compulsory and temporary shift. Corresponding, biologically, to the puberty, it is an age full of expectations and hopes, nevertheless not free from psychological and social risks: because of a changing relation with family, of the searching of new models, of the coming in contact with less protective contexts, of the differentiation of affective expectations. Therefore it can be that the passing from childhood to active subjectivity brings on anxiety, conflicts and deviance; and it can suggest illusory remedies as overindulgence in alcohol, alarming phenomenon denounced by WHO and by many other international and Italian institutions. After these preliminary remarks, the A. reminds as alcohol and its by-products reached Europe, describes its metabolism and its biological effects, the genetic factors which could predispose to the tolerance and/or to the addiction, the environmental and social ones, and the costs, both individual and public. Conclusions want suggest two omens: the reclamation of a new kind of family relation, based on listening and dialogue; and the achievement of a concrete alliance between society and young adult, which could conjugate the expectations of the community with the rights of the new subject for a free and integrated growing up. PMID:16209112

  19. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  20. Ego Identity of Adolescent Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from…

  1. PREDICTING PATTERNS OF ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL USE: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because most studies of adolescent alcohol use have focused primarily on the frequency and quantity of consumption, we know little about how adolescent drinking patterns change during the high school years. The purpose of this article is to provide such data, as well as to identify some of the indiv...

  2. The Gender Gap in Alcohol Consumption during Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Gendered Attitudes and Adult Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Peralta, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth young adult sample (N = 1,488) to investigate whether gender role attitudes and the occupation of and transition to three adult roles (i.e., employment, marriage, and parenthood) contribute to the maintenance of the gender gap in the frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Our results…

  3. Characterizing Subjective Responses to Alcohol among Adolescent Problem Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Robert; Monti, Peter M.; Ray, Lara; Treloar, Hayley R.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Ramirez, Jason; Chun, Thomas; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Justus, Alicia; Tidey, Jennifer; Blanchard, Alexander; Magill, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical models of alcoholism emphasize the acute reinforcing properties of alcohol as chief determinants of drinking, and animal research suggests adolescents are uniquely sensitive to these effects. Human studies of these phenomena, however, are virtually nonexistent. We used ecological momentary assessment methods to capture adolescents' subjective responses to alcohol in real time in their natural environments. Adolescent participants were 22 problem drinkers, ages 15 to 19 years (M = 18.3, SD = 0.09; 55% female; 55% alcohol dependent). Participants consumed alcohol on 38% of days during a one-week monitoring period, with an average of 5 drinks per occasion. Momentary data revealed that adolescents experience decreased stimulation and increased sedation and ‘high’ across the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve. Notably, greater craving predicted higher volumes of subsequent alcohol consumption during the episode, whereas greater ‘high’ attenuated use. To test for developmental differences in these effects, we pooled these data with data from a similarly ascertained sample of 36 adult heavy drinkers, ages 24 to 64 years (M = 38.1, SD = 11.8; 50% female; 61% alcohol dependent). Adolescents were more sensitive to the stimulant effects of alcohol than adults. This study provides novel data on how adolescent problem drinkers experience alcohol in their natural contexts and illustrates how these effects, which appear to differ from adult problem drinkers, confer liability for future drinking. PMID:24661164

  4. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  5. Alcohol drinking and blood pressure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jerez, S J; Coviello, A

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alcohol consumption among adolescents from Tucuman, Argentina, and to determine its possible relationship with increased levels of blood pressure. Three hundred fifty-six students aged 13-18 included in the study were asked to answer questionnaires anonymously. Two blood pressures measures were then taken. Differences between both sexes were found in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption. Enjoyment was determined to be the main reason for drinking. There was an association between frequency and alcohol-related problems, and smoking habits. There were also differences in blood pressure among males and females. A weak, but significant, relationship between quantity/frequency index and diastolic blood pressure was found. A greater prevalence of hypertension in male heavy drinkers was noted as well. Because this addiction implies multiple social problems and it also accounts for a hypertension risk factor, the importance of aiming at developing prevention strategies for alcohol abuse among adolescents is stressed. PMID:9650629

  6. Family Meal Frequency and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Adolescence: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between family meals and alcohol and tobacco consumption during early adolescence. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, alcohol (binge drinking, drunkenness), and tobacco consumption (past year, daily frequency) in 671 adolescents (51% women; mean age, Wave 1 = 14.05…

  7. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  8. Image advertisements for alcohol products: is their appeal associated with adolescents' intention to consume alcohol?

    PubMed

    Kelly, K J; Edwards, R W

    1998-01-01

    Criticism has been directed toward alcohol advertising, particularly regarding the use of image (lifestyle) advertising, and its potential influence on teenage alcohol consumption. This study sought to determine if adolescents who drink, or intend to drink alcohol at some future time, find image advertisements for alcohol more appealing than product advertisements. The results indicated that image advertising was preferred to product advertising, particularly by younger adolescents. Evidence of an association between preference for image advertisements and intent to drink in the future was found. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. Rational decision perspectives on alcohol consumption by youth. Revising the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Kuther, Tara L

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive and developmental approaches have made great strides in describing and predicting alcohol consumption by youth. The present review examines several theories of decision making with regard to alcohol consumption, including subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory. In addition, the developmental literature on the contribution of parents and peers to adolescent alcohol consumption is reviewed. A model is proposed, which integrates the theory of planned behavior and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory with modifications based on findings from the developmental literature. Implications for further research are discussed.

  10. Doctors' drinking habits and consumption of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, J; Asp, S; Olkinuora, M; Aärimaa, M; Strid, L; Kauttu, K

    1988-10-15

    Alcohol consumption and drinking habits among Finnish doctors were studied as part of a survey of stress and burnout. A questionnaire containing 99 questions or groups of questions was sent to all 3496 practising doctors aged under 66 randomly selected from the registry of the Finnish Medical Association. Altogether 2671 doctors (76%) responded; this sample was representative of the Finnish medical profession. The average weekly consumption of alcohol during the past year and various aspects of drinking behaviour were assessed, and the presence or absence of symptoms and diseases often encountered among heavy drinkers and addicts was determined. The data were analysed separately for men and women, for those aged less than or equal to 40 and greater than 40, and for the men with high and low alcohol consumption and with high and low scores on the index of drinking habits. Selected variables related to work, stress, and coping were correlated with alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour. The median consumption of alcohol among male doctors was 4876 g (6.2 litres) and among female doctors 2226 g (2.8 litres) of absolute alcohol per person per year and was higher in those aged over 40. Beer was most commonly drunk by men and wine by women. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with older age, disappointment with career, heavy smoking, use of benzodiazepines, stress and burnout symptoms, suicidal thoughts, general dissatisfaction, and diseases related to alcohol. Drinking habits were heavier among doctors working in community health centres, those taking long sick leaves, younger doctors disappointed with their careers or the atmosphere at work, and older doctors immersed in their work. Alcohol consumption among doctors seems to be higher than that of the general population in Finland, and heavy drinking seems to be associated with stress and burnout. PMID:3142564

  11. Alcohol Consumption and Health among Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; Fleming, Michael F.; French, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article estimates the effects of alcohol consumption on self-reported overall health status, injuries, heart problems, emergency room use, and hospitalizations among persons older than the age of 65. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a…

  12. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  13. Use of Alcohol and Drugs in the Transitional Phase from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Torild; Vaglum, Per

    1990-01-01

    Studied use of alcohol and drugs in transitional phase from adolescence to young adulthood by analyzing data from a prospective longitudinal national survey of 2000 young adults. Findings showed a significant impact of this transitional period on both alcohol consumption and use of cannabis and a higher alcohol consumption among those who had left…

  14. Alcohol consumption: risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2008-12-01

    Alcohol has had a long and complicated role in human society and health. Excessive use of alcohol causes enormous morbidity and mortality worldwide, but the health effects of alcohol use within recommended guidelines are diverse and complex. Established effects include increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and antithrombotic activity, providing plausible mechanisms for the observed association of moderate drinking with lower risk of coronary heart disease but higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke. However, moderate drinking increases sex steroid hormone levels and may interfere with folate metabolism, both of which are potential mechanisms for the observed associations of moderate drinking with several forms of cancer, particularly breast and colorectal. Genetic susceptibility to the effects of alcohol on cancer and coronary heart disease also differs across the population. Recommendations regarding moderate drinking must be individualized to reflect the potentially competing effects of alcohol on several chronic diseases.

  15. Light alcohol intake during adolescence induces alcohol addiction in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Balguerie, Kevin; Coune, Fabien; Legastelois, Rémi; Jeanblanc, Virginie; Naassila, Mickaël

    2015-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by a series of positive, negative or cognitive symptoms but with also the particularity of exhibiting a high rate of co-morbid use of drugs of abuse. While more than 80% of schizophrenics are smokers, the second most consumed drug is alcohol, with dramatic consequences on frequency and intensity of psychotic episodes and on life expectancy. Here we investigated the impact of light alcohol intake during adolescence on the subsequent occurrence of alcohol addiction-like behavior in neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) rats, a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Our findings demonstrated an increased liability to addictive behaviors in adult NVHL rats after voluntary alcohol intake during adolescence. NVHL rats displayed several signs of alcohol use disorder such as a loss of control over alcohol intake and high motivation to consume alcohol, associated with a higher resistance to extinction. In addition, once NVHL rats relapsed, they maintained higher drinking levels than controls. We finally showed that the anti-addictive drug naltrexone is efficient in reducing excessive alcohol intake in NVHL rats. Our results are in accordance with epidemiological studies underlying the particular vulnerability to alcohol addiction after adolescent exposure to alcohol and highlight the fact that schizophrenic subjects may be particularly at risk even after light alcohol consumption. Based on these results, it seems particularly relevant to prevent early onset of alcohol use in at-risk subjects and thus to reduce the incidence of co-morbid alcohol abuse in psychotic patients.

  16. Alcoholism in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Vernelie

    1973-01-01

    A review of the research and literature on the subject of alcohol and youth which points out the complexity of the problem. Paper presented at the 14th Annual AMA-ASHA Session on School Health at San Francisco, California 1972. (JC)

  17. Alcohol Consumption and Obesity: An Update.

    PubMed

    Traversy, Gregory; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Recreational alcohol intake is a widespread activity globally and alcohol energy (7 kcal/g) can be a contributing factor to weight gain if not compensated for. Given that both excessive alcohol intake and obesity are of public health interest, the present paper provides an update on the association between alcohol consumption and body weight. In general, recent prospective studies show that light-to-moderate alcohol intake is not associated with adiposity gain while heavy drinking is more consistently related to weight gain. Experimental evidence is also mixed and suggests that moderate intake of alcohol does not lead to weight gain over short follow-up periods. However, many factors can explain the conflicting findings and a better characterization of individuals more likely to gain weight as a result of alcohol consumption is needed. In particular, individuals who frequently drink moderate amounts of alcohol may enjoy a healthier lifestyle in general that may protect them from weight gain. In conclusion, despite the important limitations of current studies, it is reasonable to say that alcohol intake may be a risk factor for obesity in some individuals, likely based on a multitude of factors, some of which are discussed herein.

  18. Alcohol consumption and plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    A few reports show that consumption of spirits and of wine correlate with elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), which is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between tHcy and current daily ethanol consumption cross-sectionally in middle-aged Japanese men (n = 974, age 51-59 years). Plasma tHcy was positively associated with consumption of whiskey but not with consumption of shochu (Japanese spirits), sake, beer, or wine. Odds ratios of an increase in daily intake of 30 ml ethanol (approximately 1 standard deviation) for hyperhomocysteinemia (>14.0 micromol/l) were 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.14) for whiskey, 1.08 (0.78-1.50) for shochu, 0.99 (0.59-1.66) for sake, 0.98 (0.58-1.63) for beer, and 1.70 (0.31-9.50) for wine in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for the daily number of cigarettes smoked, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and serum creatinine levels. After inclusion of plasma folate and vitamin B12 in the multivariate analysis model, the association between whiskey ethanol consumption and hyperhomocysteinemia remained significant with odds ratio of 2.79 (1.36-5.72). These results suggest that whiskey consumption correlates with hyperhomocysteinemia independently of plasma folate or vitamin B12 or lifestyle factors in the population studied.

  19. Alcohol consumption and plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    A few reports show that consumption of spirits and of wine correlate with elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), which is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between tHcy and current daily ethanol consumption cross-sectionally in middle-aged Japanese men (n = 974, age 51-59 years). Plasma tHcy was positively associated with consumption of whiskey but not with consumption of shochu (Japanese spirits), sake, beer, or wine. Odds ratios of an increase in daily intake of 30 ml ethanol (approximately 1 standard deviation) for hyperhomocysteinemia (>14.0 micromol/l) were 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.14) for whiskey, 1.08 (0.78-1.50) for shochu, 0.99 (0.59-1.66) for sake, 0.98 (0.58-1.63) for beer, and 1.70 (0.31-9.50) for wine in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for the daily number of cigarettes smoked, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and serum creatinine levels. After inclusion of plasma folate and vitamin B12 in the multivariate analysis model, the association between whiskey ethanol consumption and hyperhomocysteinemia remained significant with odds ratio of 2.79 (1.36-5.72). These results suggest that whiskey consumption correlates with hyperhomocysteinemia independently of plasma folate or vitamin B12 or lifestyle factors in the population studied. PMID:16584970

  20. Adolescent energy drink consumption: An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Caffeinated Energy Drinks (EDs) are not recommended for consumption by children, yet there is a lack of age-specific recommendations and restrictions on the marketing and sale of EDs. EDs are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. In the current study we examined ED consumption patterns among 399 Australian adolescents aged 12-18 years. Participants completed a self-report survey of consumption patterns, physiological symptoms, and awareness of current ED consumption guidelines. Results indicated that ED consumption was common among the sample; 56% reported lifetime ED consumption, with initial consumption at mean age 10 (SD = 2.97). Twenty-eight percent of the sample consumed EDs at least monthly, 36% had exceeded the recommended two standard EDs/day, and 56% of consumers had experienced negative physiological health effects following ED consumption. The maximum number of EDs/day considered appropriate for children, adolescents, and adults varied, indicating a lack of awareness of current consumption recommendations. These findings add to the growing body of international evidence of adolescent ED consumption, and the detrimental impact of EDs to adolescent health. Enforced regulation and restriction of EDs for children's and adolescents' consumption is urgently needed in addition to greater visibility of ED consumption recommendations. PMID:27389033

  1. Alcohol use: from childhood through adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Travis Pete; Hession, Carol

    2012-10-01

    Alcohol use is often overlooked and more importantly unsuspected in young children 3-11 years of age. Alcohol use in preteens is commonly overlooked when there is growing evidence to suggest that the age at which one begins drinking can be predictive of future problem drinking and other substance abuse. There is a need for health care professionals and elementary school educators to be aware of the real and growing problem of alcohol use from childhood through adolescence. It is sometimes difficult to recognize because many of the effects of alcohol mimic routine presentations seen in children. This article focuses on the significance, contributing factors, effects on the body, comorbidities, and social and psychological effects of alcohol use on children through adolescence. It also examines diagnostic screening for alcohol use in adolescence and the detrimental role of the nurse in assisting with identifying and preventing the problem of alcohol use in childhood through adolescence.

  2. Alcohol use: from childhood through adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Travis Pete; Hession, Carol

    2012-10-01

    Alcohol use is often overlooked and more importantly unsuspected in young children 3-11 years of age. Alcohol use in preteens is commonly overlooked when there is growing evidence to suggest that the age at which one begins drinking can be predictive of future problem drinking and other substance abuse. There is a need for health care professionals and elementary school educators to be aware of the real and growing problem of alcohol use from childhood through adolescence. It is sometimes difficult to recognize because many of the effects of alcohol mimic routine presentations seen in children. This article focuses on the significance, contributing factors, effects on the body, comorbidities, and social and psychological effects of alcohol use on children through adolescence. It also examines diagnostic screening for alcohol use in adolescence and the detrimental role of the nurse in assisting with identifying and preventing the problem of alcohol use in childhood through adolescence. PMID:22326714

  3. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Gabriela; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E.; Adlaf, Edward M.; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI. Objective We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption. Design, Settings and Participants Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health’s 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11–20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Main Outcome Measures Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed. Results Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers. Conclusions and Relevance TBI remains a

  4. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

  5. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  6. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  7. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  8. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  9. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  10. Could music potentially serve as a functional alternative to alcohol consumption? The importance of music motives among drinking and non-drinking adolescents

    PubMed Central

    JONKER, ANNA; KUNTSCHE, EMMANUEL

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: This study investigated whether adolescents who drink and those who are teetotal differ in the link between music motives and health-related outcomes (life satisfaction, self-rated health, school pressure, somatic complaints, depressed and aggressive mood, physical powerlessness, frequency of being bullied and bullying others and evenings spent out with friends). It also looked at whether associations between music motives and health-related outcomes remained significant when drinking motives were included among drinkers. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation models were estimated based on data from 4,481 adolescents from Switzerland (mean age 14.5, SD = 0.9). Results: It was confirmed that the four music motives and the four drinking motives obtained by crossing the valence (positive–negative) and the source (internal–external) of expected change in affect form distinct dimensions (i.e. the 8-factor model best fitted the data). Drinkers and non-drinkers differed in the various links between music motives and health-related outcomes. For example, almost all the links between conformity music motives and the health-related outcomes were significant for non-drinkers but not for drinkers. Enhancement music motives, by contrast, were often significant for drinkers but not for non-drinkers. Coping music motives were significant among both drinkers and non-drinkers. These links were basically unchanged when drinking motives were taken into account. Discussion and conclusions: This study indicates that music serves important functions in the lives of adolescents, even among those who use alcohol for different motives. This makes listening to music a promising potential alternative to alcohol use. PMID:25592307

  11. College Student Perceptions on Campus Alcohol Policies and Consumption Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Brenda L.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Donnelly, Joseph W.; Rutledge, Imani N.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422…

  12. Social Psychological Bases for College Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    College students (n=234) completed questionnaires on social and psychological predictors of alcohol consumption and satisfaction as step toward creating nonalcoholic social activities. Among multiple factors affecting drinking were wanting to release emotional tension, wanting to meet new people, belonging to a fraternity or sorority, low academic…

  13. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  14. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  15. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  16. Gender comparisons of alcohol consumption in alcoholic and nonalcoholic populations.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Welte, J W

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the similarities and differences between male and female drinkers in terms of the estimated functional impact of alcohol intake on drinking occasions. Alcohol consumption on drinking occasions was documented in male and female alcoholics and occasional drinkers in face-to-face interviews and also in a general population statewide sample by means of a telephone survey. Expression of ethanol intake in terms of grams of ethanol consumed per kilogram of total body water yielded data consistent with the notion that blood concentrations of ethanol achieved by females on drinking occasions may have been quite similar to the values achieved by males. However, important gender differences were also found in terms of an older age of onset of regular drinking, less frequent alcohol intake and a higher percentage of abstainers among females.

  17. The Influence of Alcohol-specific Communication on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Alcohol-related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  18. Personality Characteristics of Adolescents with Alcoholic Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomori, Martina

    1994-01-01

    Study examined the psychodynamic pathways and social processes which place children of alcoholics at risk. Assessments of 63 adolescents in families with at least 1 alcoholic parent were compared to a control group taken from non-alcoholic families. Differences were found in anxiety variables, self-image variables, and aggression variables. (RJM)

  19. Academic Giftedness and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peairs, Kristen F.; Eichen, Dawn; Putallaz, Martha; Costanzo, Philip R.; Grimes, Christina L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of development particularly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol use, with recent studies underscoring alcohol's effects on adolescent brain development. Despite the alarming rates and consequences of adolescent alcohol use, gifted adolescents are often overlooked as being at risk for early alcohol use. Although gifted…

  20. Alcohol and Drug Use among "Street" Adolescents: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKirnan, David J.; Johnson, Tina

    Although adolescent alcohol and drug use is decreasing, many teenagers continue to use alcohol and drugs. Studies of adolescent alcohol use typically sample intact high school populations, excluding dropouts and adolescents alienated from straight high school populations. Alcohol and drug use and alcohol related attitudes were measured in 62…

  1. Ego identity of adolescent children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from integrative schools in the same neighborhood and matched by age. Ego identity was measured by Tzuriel's "Adolescent Ego Identity Scale" (AEIS). It was hypothesized that adolescent children of alcoholics will show lower scores of ego identity and of its dimensions. The hypothesis was not confirmed. To the contrary, adolescent children of alcoholics reported higher scores of "ego identity-total" and of four of the seven ego identity dimensions. One possible explanation is that children of alcoholics are maturing early in age compared to their controls. They have developed different coping strategies that facilitate creating a more "stable" ego identity compared to their peers. Another explanation is that children of alcoholics apply defense mechanisms that enhance the development of an "adaptive self."

  2. Parental Supervision and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Stattin, Håkan; Kerr, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inadequate parent supervision during the early adolescent years forecasts a host of conduct problems, including illicit alcohol consumption. Early pubertal maturation may exacerbate problems, because girls alienated from same-age peers seek the company of older, more mature youth. The current study examines overtime associations between parent autonomy granting and adolescent alcohol abuse during a developmental period when alcohol consumption becomes increasingly normative, to determine if early maturing girls are at special risk for problems arising from a lack of parent supervision. METHODS: At annual intervals for 4 consecutive years, a community sample of 957 Swedish girls completed surveys beginning in the first year of secondary school (approximate age: 13 years) describing rates of alcohol intoxication and perceptions of parent autonomy granting. Participants also reported age at menarche. RESULTS: Multiple-group parallel process growth curve models revealed that early pubertal maturation exacerbated the risk associated with premature autonomy granting: Alcohol intoxication rates increased 3 times faster for early maturing girls with the greatest autonomy than they did for early maturing girls with the least autonomy. Child-driven effects were also found such that higher initial levels of alcohol abuse predicted greater increases in autonomy granting as parent supervision over children engaged in illicit drinking waned. CONCLUSIONS: Early maturing girls are at elevated risk for physical and psychological adjustment difficulties. The etiology of escalating problems with alcohol can be traced, in part, to a relative absence of parent supervision during a time when peer interactions assume special significance. PMID:26391935

  3. Stressful life experiences, alcohol consumption, and alcohol use disorders: the epidemiologic evidence for four main types of stressors

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to stress is potentially important in the pathway to alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. Stressors occur at multiple time points across the life course, with varying degrees of chronicity and severity. Method We review evidence from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between four different stressors (fateful/catastrophic events, child maltreatment, common adult stressful life events in interpersonal, occupational, financial, and legal domains, and minority stress) and alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders. Results Studies generally demonstrate an increase in alcohol consumption in response to exposure to terrorism or other disasters. Research has demonstrated little increase in incident alcohol use disorders, but individuals with a history of alcohol use disorders are more likely to report drinking to cope with the traumatic event. Childhood maltreatment is a consistent risk factor for early onset of drinking in adolescence and adult alcohol use disorders, and accumulating evidence suggests that specific polymorphisms may interact with child maltreatment to increase risk for alcohol consumption and disorder. Stressful life events such as divorce and job loss increase the risk of alcohol disorders, but epidemiologic consensus on the specificity of these associations across gender has not been reached. Finally, both perceptions of discrimination and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and alcohol use disorders among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. Conclusion Taken together, these literatures demonstrate that exposure to stress is an important component in individual differences in risk for alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of alcohol use disorders and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:21373787

  4. Influence of Holy Month Ramadan on Alcohol Consumption in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çelen, Aydın

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes a balanced panel data set covering 50 monthly observations regarding the brewery products to examine the impact of holy month Ramadan on alcohol consumption in Turkey. In addition to the Ramadan, temperature, prices of the products and disposable income are other demand factors which are taken into account in this study. As expected, the Ramadan has been found to be associated with lower alcohol usage. As price of alcoholic drinks increases, the alcohol consumption decreases significantly. In addition, alcohol consumption rises with the enhancements in the disposable income. However, surprisingly, the temperature has not any significant effect on alcohol consumption in Turkey. PMID:24810139

  5. The Moderating Effects of Culture on Peer Deviance and Alcohol Use among High-Risk African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Jagers, Robert J.; Wilson, Karen D.; Owens, Kristal

    2007-01-01

    African-American adolescents have lower rates of alcohol consumption than White youth. However, African-American youth suffer disproportionately more adverse social, mental, and physical health outcomes related to alcohol use. Affiliating with negative peers is a risk factor for alcohol initiation and consumption. Cultural variables have shown…

  6. Alcohol in Greenland 1951–2010: consumption, mortality, prices

    PubMed Central

    Aage, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in alcohol consumption in Greenland have been extreme since alcohol became available to the Greenland Inuit in the 1950s, increasing from low levels in the 1950s to very high levels in the 1980s – about twice as high as alcohol consumption in Denmark. Since then, consumption has declined, and current consumption is slightly below alcohol consumption in Denmark, while alcohol prices are far above Danish prices. Objective Description of historical trends and possible causal connections of alcohol prices, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality in Greenland 1951–2010 as a background for the evaluation of the impact of various types of policy. Design Time series for Greenland 1951–2010 for alcohol prices, consumption and mortality are compiled, and variation and correlations are discussed in relation to various policies aimed at limiting alcohol consumption. Corresponding time series for Denmark 1906–2010 are presented for comparison. Results The trends in alcohol prices and consumption followed each other rather closely until the 1990s in Greenland and the 1980s in Denmark. At this time, consumption stabilised while prices decreased further, but the effect of prices upon consumption is strong, also in recent years. A trend in Greenlandic mortality similar to consumption is discernible, but not significant. Among alcohol-related deaths cirrhosis of the liver is less prevalent whilst accidents are more prevalent than in Denmark. Conclusions The effect of alcohol excise taxes and rationing upon consumption is evident. The stabilisation and subsequent decline in consumption since the mid-1990s, while alcohol prices decreased persistently, does not preclude continued effects of prices. On the contrary, price effects have been neutralised by other stronger causes. Whether these are government anti-alcohol campaigns or a cultural change is not clear. PMID:23256091

  7. Alcohol and tobacco use during adolescence: the importance of the family mealtime environment.

    PubMed

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2010-05-01

    Despite evidence that frequent family meals are associated with low levels of substance use during adolescence, prior studies have not examined the role of how adolescents perceive mealtimes. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, perceived priority, atmosphere and structure of mealtimes as predictors of alcohol and tobacco consumption, using data from 550 adolescents (50% boys; age range 11-16). Frequent family meals were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of alcohol and tobacco use. However, this association was explained by adolescents' perception of the atmosphere at mealtimes. These findings suggest adolescents' perception of the mealtime environment contributes to family meals' protective effect.

  8. Alcohol, Drugs and Adolescents. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaChance, Laurie L.

    The foreword states that this publication aims to assist the reader to better understand the dimensions of the drug and alcohol abuse problems of adolescents and the responses of choice by professionals and by those caring for adolescents. These topics are discussed: (1) the stepping stone theory; (2) correlates of substance abuse; (3)…

  9. The Social Ecology of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, Susan T.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauman, Karl E.; Hussong, Andrea; Cai, Li; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Faris, Robert; Hipp, John; DuRant, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual framework based on social ecology, social learning, and social control theories guided identification of social contexts, contextual attributes, and joint effects that contribute to development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Modeling of alcohol use, suggested by social learning theory, and indicators of the social bond, suggested by…

  10. Alcohol and drug use, family situation and school performance in adolescent children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Hyphantis, T; Koutras, V; Liakos, A; Marselos, M

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted in a population of about 8000 Greek high school students (grades 9 and 12) in order to investigate factors possibly contributing to alcohol consumption. A self-rating multiple choice questionnaire was used. The present report focuses on students with alcoholic parents. Parameters studied include students' alcohol and drug use, school performance, family relationships, socioeconomic factors and parental control. In 3.3% of the sample parental alcoholism was reported. The results indicated that parental alcoholism is a strong predictor variable for the student's alcohol and drug use. Furthermore, predictability of the student's alcohol and drug use is increased when relatives' and friends' alcoholism are taken into account. Thus, family and/or peer actual alcohol use patterns appear to be a strong influence on adolescent alcohol and drug use. School performance is worse in children of alcoholics, and family situations (eg. divorces) as well as family dynamics (relationships with the family) are disturbed, in comparison with families of students with nonalcoholic parents. These results are discussed in terms of 'modelling' for drinking and drug behaviour and the socialisation process within the family.

  11. Adolescent Alcohol Use: Social Comparison Orientation Moderates the Impact of Friend and Sibling Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Litt, Dana M.; Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Research has indicated that both peers and siblings influence adolescents' alcohol use (e.g. Windle, 2000). The present two studies examined if social comparison orientation (SCO) moderates the effects of perceived friend and sibling alcohol use on adolescents' alcohol use cognitions and behaviors. Design & Methods Two studies examined the role of SCO as a moderator of social influence (perceived friend alcohol use in Study 1 and both perceived friend use and sibling-reported alcohol use in Study 2) on prototype perceptions and willingness to drink alcohol (Studies 1 & 2) as well as actual alcohol consumption (Study 2) among early adolescents. Results In Study 1, cross-sectional results indicated that SCO moderated the effect of perceived friend alcohol use on favorable images of drinkers and willingness to drink. Study 2 found that SCO moderated the effects of perceived friend use and sibling use on favorable images of alcohol users, willingness to use alcohol, and change in alcohol use over three years such that adolescents who reported engaging in social comparison more often reported greater willingness, more favorable images, and increases in alcohol use when perceived friend use or sibling use was high. Conclusions These studies highlight the importance of SCO as a moderator of susceptibility to the social influences of friends and siblings and may hold important implications for adolescent alcohol use prevention programs and models of health-risk behavior. PMID:25243814

  12. [After the booze comes the hangover: a perspective of alcohol consumption in young].

    PubMed

    Pombo, Samuel; Sampaio, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Until today, little relevance has been given to the main cause of alcohol consumption related morbidity in young population, the so called "the next day morning alcohol hangover". The hangover is defined by the presence of symptoms connected to excessive alcohol consumption and its total metabolism, with severity enough to disturb responsibilities and daily life activities. Numerous observations show us that generally the young populations tend to be involved in a series of behaviors to cope with the unpleasant effects of a night of immoderate alcohol consumption. Through an empirical evaluation, it will be argued in this study the circumstances implicated in alcohol hangover and which behaviors the young population normally tends to be involved in order to attenuate it. The sample comprised 134 university students (1º year). It can be concluded that the frequency of the behaviors to cope with alcohol hangover translates the need to remove or alleviate in an accurate and symptomatic way the most reiterated effects of aversive alcohol hangover cluster. This work provides reliable information that could be employed from an educational point of view, while we profound which cognitive, behavior and physiological mechanisms occurs during an episode of alcohol hangover. Taken into account that the consumption of alcoholic beverage is a normative behavior in adolescence, we propose a realistic perspective of the phenomenon (more than ideological and utopic), that encompass the maximum delay of the beginning of alcohol consumption in young, educating them in what concerns the potential harm of its consumption, incorporated in a broad perspective of promotion of an healthy life style and of proximity with the adolescent.

  13. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition. PMID:26035281

  14. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition.

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REASONS FOR DRINKING ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: AN INTERACTIONAL APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    ABBEY, ANTONIA; SMITH, MARY JO; SCOTT, RICHARD O.

    2015-01-01

    Two motives for alcohol consumption have been emphasized in the etiological and the reasons-for-drinking literature: (a) people drink alcohol to cope with stress, and (b) people drink alcohol because of social influences. There is support for both of these hypotheses, but the results are usually modest and most authors agree that more complex theories of alcohol consumption are needed. This study examined the interactional effects of reasons for drinking alcohol and situational factors on alcohol consumption. Standardized telephone interviews were conducted with 781 randomly selected Michigan drinkers. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that gender, friends’ alcohol consumption, coping, and social motives for drinking were significant predictors of study participants’ alcohol consumption. As predicted, there was a significant interaction between drinking to cope with stress and perceived stress, and there was also a significant interaction between drinking for social reasons and friends’ alcohol consumption. Similarities and differences in the results for women, men, Blacks, and Whites are described. PMID:8178704

  16. Academic Giftedness and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Peairs, Kristen F; Eichen, Dawn; Putallaz, Martha; Costanzo, Philip R; Grimes, Christina L

    2011-04-01

    Adolescence is a period of development particularly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol use, with recent studies underscoring alcohol's effects on adolescent brain development. Despite the alarming rates and consequences of adolescent alcohol use, gifted adolescents are often overlooked as being at risk for early alcohol use. Although gifted adolescents may possess protective factors that likely inhibit the use of alcohol, some gifted youth may be vulnerable to initiating alcohol use during adolescence as experimenting with alcohol may be one way gifted youth choose to compensate for the social price (whether real or perceived) of their academic talents. To address the dearth of research on alcohol use among gifted adolescents the current study (a) examined the extent to which gifted adolescents use alcohol relative to their nongifted peers and (b) examined the adjustment profile of gifted adolescents who had tried alcohol relative to nongifted adolescents who tried alcohol as well as gifted and nongifted abstainers. More than 300 students in seventh grade (42.5% gifted) participated in the present study. Results indicated gifted students have, in fact, tried alcohol at rates that do not differ from nongifted students. Although trying alcohol was generally associated with negative adjustment, giftedness served as a moderating factor such that gifted students who had tried alcohol were less at risk than their nongifted peers. However, evidence also suggests that gifted adolescents who tried alcohol may be a part of a peer context that promotes substance use, which may place these youth at risk for adjustment difficulties in the future.

  17. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  18. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  19. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  20. Association Between Alcohol Sports Sponsorship and Consumption: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Aim Concerns have been raised about the impact of alcohol sports sponsorship on harmful consumption, with some countries banning this practice or considering a ban. We review evidence on the relationship between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and alcohol consumption. Methods Search of electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and International Alcohol Information Database) supplemented by hand searches of references and conference proceedings to locate studies providing data on the impact of exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and outcomes relating to alcohol consumption. Results Seven studies met inclusion criteria, presenting data on 12,760 participants from Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Poland. All studies report positive associations between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and self-reported alcohol consumption, but the statistical significance of results varies. Two studies found indirect exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship was associated with increased levels of drinking amongst schoolchildren, and five studies found a positive association between direct alcohol sports sponsorship and hazardous drinking amongst adult sportspeople. Conclusion These findings corroborate the results of previous systematic reviews that reported a positive association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. The relationship between alcohol sports sponsorship and increased drinking amongst schoolchildren will concern policymakers. Further research into the effectiveness of restrictions on alcohol sports sponsorship in reducing harmful drinking is required. PMID:26911984

  1. Racial Discrimination-Induced Anger and Alcohol Use among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Francis; Miller, Aletha R.; Foster, Kenneth; Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored whether a relationship exists between anger among Black adolescents that has been provoked by racial discrimination, and alcohol consumption. Participants consisted of 134 Black adolescents from 14 to 18 years of age, residing in northeast Texas. All participants were administered a questionnaire measuring whether and the…

  2. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Matthew S; Amodeo, Leslie R; Roitman, Jamie D

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  3. The Burden of Cancer Attributable to Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    TESTINO, Gianni

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between alcohol intake and the occurrence of cancer in humans. All types of alcoholic beverages are associated with an increased risk which suggests that ethanol itself is the crucial compound which causes that effect. The International Agency for Research for Cancer classified alcohol consumption and acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption as carcinogenic for humans (group 1): oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colorectal, liver and female breast. The mechanisms by which alcohol consumption exerts its carcinogenic effect have not been defined fully, although plausible events include: a genotoxic effect of acetaldehyde; increased estrogen concentration, which is important for breast carcinogenesis; a role as solvent of tobacco carcinogens; production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species; and change in folate metabolism. Most alcohol-induced diseases increases in a linear fashion as intake increases: oral, esophagus and colon cancer fall into this pattern: very little is known about safe margins of alcohol consumption. Given the linear dose-response relation between alcohol intake and risk of cancer, control of heavy drinking remains the main target for cancer control. In healthy subjects, European Code Against Cancer recommends keeping daily consumption within two drinks for man and one drink for women. In our opinion, there are not enough data to support the actually safe intake of alcohol. Any level of alcohol consumption increase the risk of developing an alcohol related cancer. The level of risk increases in line with the level consumption. PMID:22879847

  4. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  5. Alcohol consumption and rates of personal violence (suicide and homicide).

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1989-12-01

    The present study examined the association between alcohol consumption and rates of personal violence (suicide and homicide) over regions within a nation. Although suicide rates were higher in regions with a higher per capital consumption of alcohol, other social variables were also found to be associated with both alcohol consumption and suicide rates, such as divorce rates and inter-region migration. Thus, it appears that alcohol consumption may be but one index of a broader sociocultural dimension that is associated with regional rates of suicidal behavior.

  6. Brief Report: Excessive Alcohol Use Negatively Affects the Course of Adolescent Depression--One Year Naturalistic Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meririnne, Esa; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Ruuttu, Titta; Tuisku, Virpi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2010-01-01

    The impact of alcohol use on the course of adolescent depression over one-year was investigated by following 197 consecutive adolescent outpatients with unipolar depression in a naturalistic treatment setting. Their baseline alcohol consumption was categorized in three groups: excessive use (defined as weekly drunkenness), regular use (monthly…

  7. Research note: adolescents' perception of psychosis risk following cannabis consumption.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andreea Mihaela; Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Chendran, Laura Alexandra

    2012-03-01

    Cannabis consumption during adolescence has been associated with the onset of psychosis. In 2010, we examined adolescents' perception of this association. Adolescents (N = 583) from four Romanian urban high schools filled in psychosis proneness scales according to the risk they assigned to hypothetical adolescents described in vignettes. Target adolescent's frequency and age of first consumption were manipulated. Analysis of variance indicated a main effect of target's consumption frequency, but no effect of age of first consumption on psychosis risk perception. Participants' own consumption status acted as moderator. Results highlight the discrepancy between clinical research results and adolescents' perception of psychosis risk. The study's limitations are noted.

  8. Alcohol use across the lifespan: An analysis of adolescent and aged rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Novier, Adelle; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence and old age are unique periods of the lifespan characterized by differential sensitivity to the effects of alcohol. Adolescents and the elderly appear to be more vulnerable to many of alcohol's physiological and behavioral effects compared to adults. The current review explores the differential effects of acute alcohol, predominantly in terms of motor function and cognition, in adolescent and aged humans and rodents. Adolescents are less sensitive to the sedative-hypnotic, anxiolytic, and motor-impairing effects of acute alcohol, but research results are less consistent as it relates to alcohol's effects on cognition. Specifically, previous research has shown adolescents to be more, less, and similarly sensitive to alcohol-induced cognitive deficits compared to adults. These equivocal findings suggest that learning acquisition may be differentially affected by ethanol compared to memory, or that ethanol-induced cognitive deficits are task-dependent. Older rodents appear to be particularly vulnerable to the motor- and cognitive-impairing effects of acute alcohol relative to younger adults. Given that alcohol consumption and abuse is prevalent throughout the lifespan, it is important to recognize age-related differences in response to acute and long-term alcohol. Unfortunately, diagnostic measures and treatment options for alcohol dependence are rarely dedicated to adolescent and aging populations. As discussed, although much scientific advancement has been made regarding the differential effects of alcohol between adolescents and adults, research with the aged is underrepresented. Future researchers should be aware that adolescents and the aged are uniquely affected by alcohol and should continue to investigate alcohol's effects at different stages of maturation. PMID:25842258

  9. Neurotoxic effects of alcohol in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F

    2013-01-01

    This review examines neuroimaging and neurocognitive findings on alcohol-related toxicity in adolescents. Teens who meet criteria for alcohol use disorders, as well as those who engage in subdiagnostic binge drinking behaviors, often show poorer neurocognitive performance, alterations in gray and white matter brain structure, and discrepant functional brain activation patterns when compared to nonusing and demographically matched controls. Abnormalities are also observed in teens with a family history of alcoholism, and such differences in neuromaturation may leave youths at increased risk for the development of an alcohol use disorder or increased substance use severity. More prospective investigations are needed, and future work should focus on disentangling preexisting differences from dose-dependent effects of alcohol on neurodevelopment. Intervention strategies that utilize neuroimaging findings (e.g., identified weaknesses in particular neural substrates and behavioral correlates) may be helpful in both prevention and intervention campaigns for teens both pre- and postinitiation of alcohol use.

  10. Snack consumption among underprivileged adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, M; Thomas, S

    2010-10-01

    We conducted this school based cross-sectional study to assess the snack consumption pattern of 702 adolescent girls (11-14 years) in nine government schools selected from three districts of Delhi. The results indicated high preference for snacks. Parents and teachers were identified as the most influential factors determining their food choices. PMID:21048243

  11. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations: An Epidemiologic Overview.

    PubMed

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18-25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  12. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol's aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking.

  13. Private peer group settings as an environmental determinant of alcohol use in Dutch adolescents: results from a representative survey in the region of Twente.

    PubMed

    Korte, Jojanneke; Pieterse, Marcel E; Postel, Marloes G; Van Hoof, Joris J

    2012-07-01

    This study supports the hypothesis that the drinking setting can be an environmental risk factor for hazardous alcohol use. In a survey of Dutch adolescents (n = 1516), alcohol consumption and participation in private peer group settings (PPSs), environments where adolescents meet and drink alcohol without direct adult supervision, were measured. After controlling for demographic variables, adolescents visiting PPSs as compared to non-visitors, appeared to have a significantly higher lifetime prevalence of alcohol use, average weekly consumption, and frequency of heavy episodic drinking. Moreover, accounting for school clustering, the frequency of PPS visits was associated with increased alcohol consumption. PMID:22429488

  14. Exposure to alcohol among adolescent students and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Porto, Denise Lopes; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; de Morais, Otaliba Libânio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescent school students and identify its individual and contextual associated factors. METHODS The present research used data from the 2009 National School Health Survey (PeNSE), which included a sample of 59,699 9th grade students in Brazilian capitals and the Federal District. The association between regular alcohol consumption and independent explanatory variables was measured by means of the Pearson’s Chi-square test, with a 0.05 significance level. The explanatory variables were divided into four groups based on affinity (sociodemographic; school and family context; risk factors; and protection factors). A multivariate analysis was carried out for each group, always adjusting for age and sex. Variables with p < 0.10 were used in the final multivariate analysis model. RESULTS The highest alcohol consumption in the preceding 30 days was independently associated with pupils aged 15 years (OR = 1.46) and over, female (OR = 1.72), white, children of mothers with higher education, studying in private school, students who had tried smoking (OR = 1.72) and drug use (OR = 1.81), with regular tobacco consumption (OR = 2.16) and those who have had sexual intercourse (OR = 2.37). The factors related to family were skipping school without parental knowledge (OR = 1.49), parents not knowing what children do in their free time (OR = 1.34), having fewer meals with their parents (OR = 1.22), reporting that parents do not care (OR = 3.05), or care little (OR = 3.39) if they go home drunk, and having suffered domestic violence (OR = 1.36). CONCLUSIONS The results reinforce the importance of viewing alcohol consumption among adolescents as a complex, multifactorial and socially determined phenomenon. PMID:24789637

  15. Dimensions of Adolescent Alcohol Involvement as Predictors of Young-Adult Major Depression*

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hawkins, J. David; Redmond, Cleve; Spoth, Richard L.; Shin, Chungyeol

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adolescent alcohol involvement may increase risk for young-adult depression; however, findings are mixed and important questions remain unanswered. Because alcohol involvement among teens is multidimensional, this study examined the extent to which four different adolescent alcohol dimensions (i.e., frequency of alcohol use, quantity of consumption, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, and frequency of problem use) were predictive of young-adult major depressive disorder (MDD). Method Participants in this prospective longitudinal study, which extended from age 11 to age 22, were 429 rural teens (including 222 girls) and their families. Self-reports of each dimension of adolescent alcohol involvement were obtained at ages 16 and 18. Depression diagnoses were obtained at age 22, using a structured interview. Analyses included adolescent depressed mood, measured via self-report at ages 16 and 18. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results The multidimensional nature of adolescent alcohol involvement was best represented by a first-order problem-use factor and a second-order alcohol-intake factor comprised of quantity, frequency, and heavy drinking. After controlling for gender and depressed mood, adolescent problem use, but not alcohol intake, was a significant positive predictor of young-adult MDD. Conclusions Findings help clarify the link between alcohol involvement and depression and suggest that harm-reduction strategies may help prevent later mood disorders. PMID:18299769

  16. Alcohol-Specific Parenting as a Mechanism of Parental Drinking and Alcohol Use Disorder Risk on Adolescent Alcohol Use Onset

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Chassin, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of the current study was to examine three dimensions of alcohol-specific parenting (anti-alcohol parenting strategies, parental legitimacy in regulating adolescent drinking, and parental disclosure of negative alcohol experiences) as mechanisms in the prospective relations between parental drinking and alcohol use disorder (recovered, current, and never diagnosed) and adolescent alcohol use initiation. Method: Participants were from an ongoing longitudinal study of the intergenerational transmission of alcoholism. Structural equation modeling was used to test a maternal model (n = 268 adolescents and their mothers) and a paternal model (n = 204 adolescents and their fathers) of alcohol-specific parenting. Results: Results indicated that higher levels of drinking among mothers and current alcohol use disorder among fathers were related to more frequent parental disclosure of personal negative experiences with alcohol. Maternal disclosure of negative alcohol experiences mediated the effect of maternal drinking on adolescent onset of alcohol use such that more disclosure predicted a greater likelihood of adolescent drinking initiation at follow-up over and above general parenting. In addition, currently alcoholic mothers were perceived as having less legitimate authority to regulate adolescent drinking, and low levels of legitimacy among fathers was predictive of drinking onset among adolescents. Conclusions: Alcohol-specific parenting is a distinct and influential predictor of adolescent alcohol use initiation that is partially shaped by parents’ own drinking experiences. Moreover, parental conversations about their own personal experiences with alcohol may not represent a form of parent–child communication about drinking that deters adolescent drinking. PMID:23948527

  17. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking

    PubMed Central

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M.; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol’s aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking. PMID:26052793

  18. Associations Between Human Values and Alcohol Consumption Among Norwegians in the Second Half of Life.

    PubMed

    Nordfjaern, Trond; Brunborg, Geir Scott

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating human values and alcohol consumption have focused on adolescents, so the current study examined associations between human values and alcohol consumption in a cohort of Norwegians in the second half of life (40 years and above). Human values were studied within Schwartz' theory.(1) A survey was conducted in 2002/2003 among Norwegians aged 40 to 79 years (n = 4 149). The respondents completed measures of human values, drinking frequency and typical drinking quantity. Females (9%) were more likely to report abstinence than males (3%). Males also reported a higher consumption level. Individuals with high education had lower levels of abstinence (4%) than those with basic education (7%), and high education was also related to more consumption. People aged 40-60 years were less likely to abstain from alcohol (3%) than individuals aged 61 years and above (10%). Unmarried individuals were more likely to report abstinence, but also reported somewhat higher consumption than married individuals. Multivariate analyses adjusting for demographics as well as somatic and mental health showed that hedonistic values were related to lower probability of abstaining, while Conformity and Universalism values were associated with a higher probability of abstaining. Achivement and Hedonism values were associated with more alcohol consumption, whereas Universialism, Tradition, and Conformity were related to lower alcohol consumption.

  19. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  20. "Risky Business": The College Transition, Loneliness, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Elizabeth M.; Fife, Eric M.; Nelson, C. Leigh

    2008-01-01

    A total of 296 students at a large southeastern university completed a series of measures designed to assess the connection between loneliness and alcohol use in the first college year. Results showed a somewhat surprising negative relationship between loneliness and alcohol consumption: As loneliness decreased, consumption increased. The…

  1. CaMKIIα-GluA1 activity underlies vulnerability to adolescent binge alcohol drinking

    PubMed Central

    Agoglia, Abigail E.; Holstein, Sarah E.; Reid, Grant; Hodge, Clyde W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Binge drinking during adolescence is associated with increased risk for developing alcohol use disorders (AUDs); however, the neural mechanisms underlying this liability are unclear. In this study, we sought to determine if binge-drinking alters expression or phosphorylation of two molecular mechanisms of neuroplasticity, calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα) and the GluA1 subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPAR) in addiction-associated brain regions. We also asked if activation of CaMKIIα-dependent AMPAR activity escalates binge-like drinking. Methods To address these questions, CaMKIIαT286 and GluA1S831 protein phosphorylation and expression were assessed in the amygdala and striatum of adolescent and adult male C57BL/6J mice immediately after voluntary binge-like alcohol drinking (blood alcohol > 80mg/dL). In separate mice, effects of the CaMKIIα-dependent pGluA1S831-enhancing drug tianeptine were tested on binge-like alcohol consumption in both age groups. Results Binge-like drinking decreased CaMKIIαT286 phosphorylation (pCaMKIIαT286) selectively in adolescent amygdala with no effect in adults. Alcohol also produced a trend for reduced pGluA1S831 expression in adolescent amygdala but differentially increased pGluA1S831 in adult amygdala. No effects were observed in the nucleus accumbens or dorsal striatum. Tianeptine increased binge-like alcohol consumption in adolescents but decreased alcohol consumption in adults. Sucrose consumption was similarly decreased by tianeptine pretreatment in both ages. Conclusions These data show that the adolescent and adult amygdalae are differentially sensitive to effects of binge-like alcohol drinking on plasticity-linked glutamate signaling molecules. Tianeptine-induced increases in binge-like drinking only in adolescents suggest that differential CaMKIIα-dependent AMPAR activation may underlie age-related escalation of binge drinking. PMID:26247621

  2. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  3. Beer promotes high levels of alcohol intake in adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Garth A; Wang, Emyo Y J; Lawrence, Andrew J; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that high levels of alcohol consumption can be obtained in laboratory rats by using beer as a test solution. The present study extended these observations to examine the intake of beer and equivalent dilute ethanol solutions with an inbred line of alcohol-preferring P rats. In Experiment 1, male adolescent P rats and age-matched Wistar rats had access to either beer or equivalent ethanol solutions for 1h daily in a custom-built lickometer apparatus. In subsequent experiments, adolescent (Experiment 2) and adult (Experiment 3) male P rats were given continuous 24-h home cage access to beer or dilute ethanol solutions, with concomitant access to lab chow and water. In each experiment, the alcohol content of the beer and dilute ethanol solutions was gradually increased from 0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 5 to 10% EtOH (vol/vol). All three experiments showed a major augmentation of alcohol intake when rats were given beer compared with equivalent ethanol solutions. In Experiment 1, the overall intake of beer was higher in P rats compared with Wistar rats, but no strain difference was found during the 1-h sessions with plain ethanol consumption. Experiment 1 also showed that an alcohol deprivation effect was more readily obtained in rats with a history of consuming beer rather than plain ethanol solutions. In Experiments 2 and 3, voluntary beer intake in P rats represented ethanol intake of 10-15 g/kg/day, among the highest reported in any study with rats. This excessive consumption was most apparent in adolescent rats. Beer consumption markedly exceeded plain ethanol intake in these experiments except at the highest alcohol concentration (10%) tested. The advantage of using beer rather than dilute ethanol solutions in both selected and nonselected rat strains is therefore confirmed. Our findings encourage the use of beer with alcohol-preferring rats in future research that seeks to obtain high levels of alcohol self-administration.

  4. An Intimate Look at Contraception and Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Angela S.; Turrentine, Cathryn G.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the relationship between alcohol consumption and contraceptive methods used by 364 heterosexually active undergraduate students at a large public university. Twenty-six percent of the respondents reported drinking alcohol before their last sexual encounter. Found that men who combined alcohol and sex were less likely to report that their…

  5. An Examination of Drunkorexia, Greek Affiliation, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Rose Marie; Galante, Marina; Trivedi, Rudra; Kahrs, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between Greek affiliation, the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale, alcohol consumption, disordered eating, and drunkorexia (i.e., using disordered eating practices as compensation for calories consumed through alcohol). A total of 349 college students (254 females, 89 males) participated in the…

  6. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Perez, Guillermo Alonso; Calderon-Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition. CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities. PMID:25493668

  7. Reference Group Influence on Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, J. L.; Arndt, Stephan

    2002-01-01

    Study assessed relative influence of perceived level of support for adolescent's alcohol use by best friends, most students in school, live-in parents/guardians, and adults in neighborhood/community. Findings revealed some differences by sex and grade level, and the different kinds of drinking behavior. Prevention programs including all four…

  8. [Alcohol consumption in patients with psychiatric disorders: assessment and treatment].

    PubMed

    Lang, J-P; Bonnewitz, M-L; Kusterer, M; Lalanne-Tongio, L

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol consumption in France exceeds the European average (12.7L of pure alcohol/habitant/year in 2009 for an average of 12.5 L). This consumption has a major professional, social and health impact on the individuals and their families. The cost of such, estimated in Europe to be of 155.8 billion Euros in 2010, is the highest among the central nervous system diseases in Europe, far higher than that of depression or dementia. Patients suffering from psychiatric disorders are more frequently affected by problems related to alcohol use than the general population. They are also more vulnerable to the immediate and subsequent consequences of their consumption. The alcohol related disorders that are often accompanied by risk taking and other addictive behaviour require a global assessment of the addiction, with and without substance, and of the complications. These have a strong impact on risk taking, compliance with care, and the morbidity of somatic and psychiatric disorders, as well as access to optimal care and the life span of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. The development of addictology care, with integrative treatment programs, is recommended in response to these public health issues. Nevertheless, specific addictology practices and partners with addictology care structures are still scarcely developed in psychiatry. Firstly, it would be necessary to set up such integrated treatments through the systematisation of an "addictology" checkup on admission, a global assessment of addictive behaviour and cognitive disorders, using pragmatic tools that are user-friendly for the care teams, maintain the reduction in risk taking, and apply prescriptions for addiction to psychotropic treatments, in liaison with the referring general practitioner. As early as possible, accompanied by specific training in addictology for the psychiatrists and the mental health nursing teams, such care could be enhanced by the development of liaison and advanced psychiatric

  9. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Amplifies the Incentive Value of Reward-Predictive Cues Through Potentiation of Phasic Dopamine Signaling.

    PubMed

    Spoelder, Marcia; Tsutsui, Kimberly T; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Clark, Jeremy J

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent alcohol use remains a major public health concern due in part to well-established findings implicating the age of onset in alcohol use in the development of alcohol use disorders and persistent decision-making deficits in adults. We have previously demonstrated that moderate adolescent alcohol consumption in rats promotes suboptimal decision making and an associated perturbation in mesolimbic dopamine transmission in adulthood. Dopamine-dependent incentive learning processes are an integral component of value-based decision making and a fundamental element to many theoretical accounts of addiction. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adolescent alcohol use selectively alters incentive learning processes through perturbation of mesolimbic dopamine systems. To assess incentive learning, behavioral and neurochemical measurements were made during the acquisition, maintenance, extinction, and reacquisition of a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure in adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol consumption. We show that moderate adolescent alcohol consumption potentiates stimulus-evoked phasic dopamine transmission, measured in vivo by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, in adulthood and biases individuals toward a dopamine-dependent incentive learning strategy. Moreover, we demonstrate that animals exposed to alcohol in adolescence are more sensitive to an unexpected variation in reward outcomes. This pattern of phasic dopamine signaling and the associated bias in learning may provide a mechanism for the well-documented vulnerability of individuals with early-life alcohol use for alcohol use disorders in adulthood.

  10. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Amplifies the Incentive Value of Reward-Predictive Cues Through Potentiation of Phasic Dopamine Signaling.

    PubMed

    Spoelder, Marcia; Tsutsui, Kimberly T; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Clark, Jeremy J

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent alcohol use remains a major public health concern due in part to well-established findings implicating the age of onset in alcohol use in the development of alcohol use disorders and persistent decision-making deficits in adults. We have previously demonstrated that moderate adolescent alcohol consumption in rats promotes suboptimal decision making and an associated perturbation in mesolimbic dopamine transmission in adulthood. Dopamine-dependent incentive learning processes are an integral component of value-based decision making and a fundamental element to many theoretical accounts of addiction. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adolescent alcohol use selectively alters incentive learning processes through perturbation of mesolimbic dopamine systems. To assess incentive learning, behavioral and neurochemical measurements were made during the acquisition, maintenance, extinction, and reacquisition of a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure in adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol consumption. We show that moderate adolescent alcohol consumption potentiates stimulus-evoked phasic dopamine transmission, measured in vivo by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, in adulthood and biases individuals toward a dopamine-dependent incentive learning strategy. Moreover, we demonstrate that animals exposed to alcohol in adolescence are more sensitive to an unexpected variation in reward outcomes. This pattern of phasic dopamine signaling and the associated bias in learning may provide a mechanism for the well-documented vulnerability of individuals with early-life alcohol use for alcohol use disorders in adulthood. PMID:25971592

  11. Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: data from NHANES 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-03-01

    Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption was investigated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2010 were used for this investigation. Urinary levels of total arsenic (UAS) and dimethylarsonic acid (UDMA) were evaluated for children aged 6-12 years and adolescents and adults aged ≥ 12 years. Urinary levels of arsenobetaine (UAB) were evaluated for adolescents and adults only. Regression models were fitted for log transformed values of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. For the models for children, however, gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and fish/shell fish consumption during the last 30 days were the only independent variables that were included in the models. Nonsmokers were found to have higher levels of UAS and UDMA than smokers. Elevated levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA were associated with higher amounts of daily alcohol consumption. The associations were in the opposite direction for daily caffeine consumption. Females were found to have statistically significantly lower adjusted levels of UDMA than males for those aged ≥ 12 years. Irrespective of age, those with unclassified race/ethnicity had the highest levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA and non-Hispanic whites had the lowest levels. Adolescents had the higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA than adults. Higher SES was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA among adolescents and adults. Irrespective of age, fish consumption was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA.

  12. Social anxiety and alcohol consumption: the role of alcohol expectancies and reward sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Booth, Catherine; Hasking, Penelope

    2009-09-01

    Although the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption has been the subject of extensive exploration, previous studies have failed to draw consistent conclusions about the nature of this relationship. Gray [Gray, J.A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extraversion. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8, 249-266] suggested that individuals who are sensitive to reward are likely to place themselves in potentially rewarding environments (e.g. pubs and clubs). As such these individuals will have a greater chance to experience and vicariously observe the effects of alcohol in these environments, leading to the formation and modification of alcohol expectancies. Consequently, reinforcement sensitivity theory and alcohol expectancies are inherently related, yet have remained disparate areas of research. In this study, a total of 454 young adults responded to a questionnaire assessing social anxiety, alcohol consumption, reward sensitivity and alcohol expectancies. Regression analyses revealed a positive relationship between reward sensitivity, expectations of tension reduction and increased confidence, and alcohol consumption. Expectations of tension reduction were observed to moderate the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption. In addition, three-way relationships between reward sensitivity, alcohol expectancies and social anxiety were observed to predict alcohol consumption. Overall, these results suggest that both reward sensitivity and alcohol expectancies play a role in the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption, and that inclusion of these constructs in further research may aid in further clarifying the mechanisms underlying comorbid social anxiety and alcohol abuse.

  13. Adolescent Predictors of Alcohol Use in Adulthood: A 22-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Brook, Judith S.; Nezia, Nasrat; Brook, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The excessive consumption of alcohol is a major issue in the United States and elsewhere. It is associated with a number of adverse health consequences, as well as difficulty in relationships and employment. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates the direct and indirect adolescent predictors of alcohol use in adulthood. Methods Among the 674 participants (53% African Americans, 47% Puerto Ricans), 60% were females (n=405). Mplus software was used to perform structural equation modeling. Results Parental problems with alcohol use in the participants’ late adolescence were related to low parent-child attachment in late adolescence, which in turn, was related to self delinquency in late adolescence. This was related to peer delinquency in emerging adulthood, which in turn, was associated with alcohol use in emerging adulthood and in adulthood. Low parent-child attachment in late adolescence was also related to low satisfaction for school in late adolescence, which in turn, was related to self delinquency in late adolescence. This was associated with alcohol use in emerging adulthood, which in turn, was associated with alcohol use in adulthood. Conclusions and Scientific Significance One of the key implications of this study is that impaired low parent-child attachment relationship is a determinant of children’s engagement in delinquent behavior and ultimately the use of alcohol in adult life. Implications for social interventions from the findings of the current study were also discussed. PMID:27629987

  14. Adolescent Alcohol Use in Spain: Connections with Friends, School, and Other Delinquent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D.; Sánchez-SanSegundo, Miriam; Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia; Perrin, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the connections between adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and variables reflecting adolescents’ academic problems, potentially delinquent behaviors, friends’ alcohol consumption, and friendship quality. Information about alcohol use and a number of school and social variables was collected from adolescent students (N = 567) who completed the National Students School-Based Drug Survey in a classroom setting. Results suggested that gender was not significantly associated with alcohol use, although alcohol use increased with age and was more likely for adolescents enrolled in public schools compared to private. After controlling for age and type of school (public vs. private), academic problems explained 5.1% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use, potentially delinquent behaviors explained 29.0%, friends’ alcohol use 16.8%, and friendship quality 1.6%. When all unique predictors from these four models were included in a comprehensive model, they explained 32.3% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use. In this final model, getting expelled, participating in a fight, going out at night, the hour at which one returns, and the number of friends who have consumed alcohol were uniquely and positively associated with adolescents’ alcohol use. These results provide important information about multi-system influences on adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and suggest potential areas of focus for intervention research. PMID:26973567

  15. [Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments].

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Diestelkamp, Silke; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments In Germany, every year a substantial number of adolescents is treated in emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication. Until now, only few studies have been published investigating psychosocial aspects in this group of adolescents. In the present study 316 adolescents were surveyed in the emergency department regarding their problematic use of alcohol and illicit drugs, their patterns of alcohol consumption, their alcohol-related and mental problems. We reported results for the whole sample. Additionally, the sample was divided in two groups based on the result in an established screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d). To compare the two groups we conducted unpaired t tests, chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Compared to the other group the adolescents exceeding the cut-off value of the CRAFFT-d reported a statistically significant higher past 30-day binge drinking frequency and number of standard-drinks consumed on a typical drinking occasion, more alcohol-related problems, more frequently a problematic use of illicit drugs and more mental problems (regarding antisocial behavior, anger control problems and self-esteem). Antisocial behavior was the most important factor for the affiliation to one of the two groups. The application of the screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d) in the emergency department seems to be a promising approach to identify adolescents with a general higher psychosocial burden.

  16. [Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments].

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Diestelkamp, Silke; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments In Germany, every year a substantial number of adolescents is treated in emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication. Until now, only few studies have been published investigating psychosocial aspects in this group of adolescents. In the present study 316 adolescents were surveyed in the emergency department regarding their problematic use of alcohol and illicit drugs, their patterns of alcohol consumption, their alcohol-related and mental problems. We reported results for the whole sample. Additionally, the sample was divided in two groups based on the result in an established screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d). To compare the two groups we conducted unpaired t tests, chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Compared to the other group the adolescents exceeding the cut-off value of the CRAFFT-d reported a statistically significant higher past 30-day binge drinking frequency and number of standard-drinks consumed on a typical drinking occasion, more alcohol-related problems, more frequently a problematic use of illicit drugs and more mental problems (regarding antisocial behavior, anger control problems and self-esteem). Antisocial behavior was the most important factor for the affiliation to one of the two groups. The application of the screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d) in the emergency department seems to be a promising approach to identify adolescents with a general higher psychosocial burden. PMID:27595810

  17. Early social isolation augments alcohol consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Lesscher, Heidi M B; Spoelder, Marcia; Rotte, Marthe D; Janssen, Martijn J; Hesseling, Peter; Lozeman-van't Klooster, José G; Baars, Annemarie M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2015-10-01

    There is a considerable degree of individual vulnerability for alcohol use disorder (AUD) as only a subpopulation of individuals who regularly consume alcohol develop AUD. It is therefore very important to understand the factors and mechanisms that contribute towards the individual risk for AUD. In this respect, social influences, in particular during development, may be relevant for AUD as disruptions in early social experiences are associated with an increased risk for AUD. Social play, the most prominent form of social behaviour shown by young mammals, is rewarding and considered to be important for social, emotional and cognitive development. Recent studies suggest that early social isolation, effectively depriving animals from social play, increases the risk for addictive behaviour. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the long-term consequences of early social isolation on alcohol consumption and motivation for alcohol. To this end, rats were socially isolated from postnatal days 21-42, followed by 4 weeks of social housing, and voluntary alcohol consumption and operant responding for alcohol were determined in adulthood. We observed enhanced levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood in previously isolated rats, whereas operant responding for alcohol was not altered. The impact of early social isolation was independent of the individual variation in alcohol consumption. These data indicate that social isolation, during a developmental period when social play is highly abundant, enhances the propensity to consume alcohol in adulthood. This implies that early social experience may be a protective factor against excessive alcohol use.

  18. The effectiveness of different approaches to media literacy in modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes

    2013-01-01

    Fearing the negative effect that alcohol advertising might have on adolescents' receptiveness to the consumption of alcohol, health educators have used media literacy as an effective strategy to mitigate the effect of these messages in the media. The present study applied parental mediation to the design and evaluations of a media literacy curriculum that targets alcohol decision-making processes illustrated in the message interpretation process model. The authors conducted a pretest-posttest quasi-experiment of 171 adolescents to examine the effect of a negative evaluative approach and a balanced evaluative approach (a combination of negative and positive evaluative strategies) to media literacy on modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol messages. Results showed that different media literacy approaches had varying degrees of effectiveness on adolescent boys and girls. After receiving a negative media literacy lesson, adolescent boys regarded television characters as less realistic and believed that drinking alcohol had negative consequences. In contrast, adolescent girls benefited more from a balanced evaluative approach as their media skepticism attitude was enhanced. Results suggest that health educators should choose tailored pedagogical approaches that are based on gender to improve decision making regarding alcohol consumption.

  19. Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations between alcohol control policies in four regulatory domains with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), controlling for country-level living standards and drinking patterns. Design Cross-sectional analyses of individual-level alcohol consumption survey data and country-level alcohol policies using multi-level modeling Setting Data from 15 LAMICs collected in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS) Participants Persons aged 18–65 Measurements Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization; individual-level current drinking status, usual quantity and frequency of drinking, binge drinking frequency, and total drinking volume; Gross Domestic Product based on purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP) per capita; detrimental drinking pattern scale; and age and gender as individual-level covariates Findings Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off-premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption. Aggregate relative alcohol price levels were inversely associated with all drinking variables (p<.05) except drinking volume. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly beer advertising, were inversely associated with alcohol consumption (p<.05). Policies that set legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers and random breath testing to enforce BAC limits were not significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with lower alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24716508

  20. Alcohol Prevalence and Attitudes among Adults and Adolescents: Their Relation to Early Adolescent Alcohol Use in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Although research has identified numerous neighborhood mechanisms influencing urban adolescent risk behaviors, less is known about how community contexts influence rural adolescents. This study explores perceived controls against adolescent drinking (i.e., tolerance of community adolescent alcohol use), adolescent perceptions of community…

  1. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    PubMed

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs.

  2. Effect of alcohol consumption selenium bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol consumption on selenium bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/Kg or at 0.085 mg Se/Kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at three levels: 0%, 10% and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, liver Se concentration, and total liver Se content. Alcohol consumption significantly increased liver Se concentrations and total liver Se in rats fed the adequate Se diet. In rates fed the low Se diet, this pattern was not shown. There was a significant interaction between alcohol and Se level in terms of liver Se concentration and total liver Se. In the first week of Se repletion, fecal Se. Se absorption and Se balance were significantly higher in the 10% alcohol group fed the low Se repletion diet compared to rats given 0% and 20% alcohol in the same Se group. In the final week Se repletion the parameters of Se balance were not affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption did not influence whole blood Se and whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity; however alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  3. Why has alcohol consumption declined in countries of southern Europe?

    PubMed

    Gual, A; Colom, J

    1997-03-01

    Alcohol consumption seems to be decreasing in the traditional wine countries of southern Europe. This paper describes the evolution of alcohol consumption over the last 30 years in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain. For this purpose, data on alcohol production and per capita alcohol consumption in southern Europe are examined, and their reliability discussed. To analyse alcohol-related mortality, liver cirrhosis death rates are also reviewed. Since 1980 overall alcohol production has increased by 10%, while wine production has decreased by 13%. The consumption of pure alcohol equivalent per capita has continually decreased, from a peak of 14 litres per year in 1974 to 10.4 litres in 1992. The reduction is dramatic for wine (42.3%) and slight for spirits (4.7%), while beer consumption has grown by 36.6%. These data seem to confirm a European trend towards the homogenization of drinking patterns. Marketing factors, public health policies, the evolution of prices and taxation, European Union agricultural policies, a growing awareness of public opinion about the toxicity of alcohol and competition from non-alcoholic drinks are all factors that may partially explain these observed changes. PMID:9167284

  4. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Tabakoff, Boris; Saba, Laura; Printz, Morton; Flodman, Pam; Hodgkinson, Colin; Goldman, David; Koob, George; Richardson, Heather N; Kechris, Katerina; Bell, Richard L; Hübner, Norbert; Heinig, Matthias; Pravenec, Michal; Mangion, Jonathan; Legault, Lucie; Dongier, Maurice; Conigrave, Katherine M; Whitfield, John B; Saunders, John; Grant, Bridget; Hoffman, Paula L

    2009-01-01

    Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results In the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI) rats, correlation analysis of brain gene expression levels with alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice paradigm, and filtering based on behavioral and gene expression quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, generated a list of candidate genes. A literature-based, functional analysis of the interactions of the products of these candidate genes defined pathways linked to presynaptic GABA release, activation of dopamine neurons, and postsynaptic GABA receptor trafficking, in brain regions including the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum and amygdala. The analysis also implicated energy metabolism and caloric intake control as potential influences on alcohol consumption by the recombinant inbred rats. In the human populations, polymorphisms in genes associated with GABA synthesis and GABA receptors, as well as genes related to dopaminergic transmission, were associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our results emphasize the importance of the signaling pathways identified using the non-human animal models, rather than single gene products, in identifying factors responsible for complex traits such as alcohol consumption. The results suggest cross-species similarities in pathways that influence predisposition to consume alcohol by rats and humans

  5. ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL EXPOSURE: ARE THERE SEPARABLE VULNERABLE PERIODS WITHIN ADOLESCENCE?

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-01-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  6. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Are there separable vulnerable periods within adolescence?

    PubMed

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-09-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  7. Assertiveness Among Young Rural Adolescents: Relationship to Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence of higher prevalence rates for alcohol use among rural adolescents relative to urban adolescents. Strategies aimed at preventing adolescent alcohol use typically include the development of social skills to resist peer pressure; among the social skills frequently targeted is assertiveness. Self-report data were collected from a…

  8. Examining the Changing Influence of Predictors on Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kim A.; Stone, Rosalie Torres; Bersani, Bianca

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the influence of key characteristics on adolescent alcohol misuse (i.e., maternal binge drinking, parenting, peers, school characteristics, and the adolescent's own behavior) change over time and whether predictors of adolescent alcohol misuse vary by gender and race/ethnicity. Using prospective,…

  9. Parenting style and adolescent fruit consumption.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Stef P J; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2003-08-01

    The importance of the social environment for dietary behaviour has been highlighted in the past decade. A type of environmental influence that has received increasing research attention in recent years is the influence that parents can have on their children's dietary behaviour through food-related parenting practices. Much of the work done so far, however, has reported inconsistent findings and poorly understood mechanisms of influence. The present study aimed to explore the possible environmental influence of general parenting style on adolescent food choice patterns. Data were collected at schools (N=643; mean age 16.5 years), using self-administered questionnaires on parenting style, fruit intake behaviour and fruit-specific cognitions. Consistent and theoretically predictable differences were found between adolescents who described their parents as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent or neglectful. Fruit consumption and fruit-specific cognitions were most favourable among adolescents who were being raised with an authoritative parenting style. Children of parents with indulgent parenting styles consumed more fruit than adolescents from authoritarian or neglectful homes. Consequences of these results for the interpretation of earlier studies on the influence of parenting practices are discussed, and a research model is proposed for future studies of parental influences on adolescent dietary behaviours. PMID:12880620

  10. Weaknesses in executive functioning predict the initiating of adolescents' alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Margot; Janssen, Tim; Monshouwer, Karin; Boendermaker, Wouter; Pronk, Thomas; Wiers, Reinout; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2015-12-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that impairments in executive functioning might be risk factors for the onset of alcohol use rather than a result of heavy alcohol use. In the present study, we examined whether two aspects of executive functioning, working memory and response inhibition, predicted the first alcoholic drink and first binge drinking episode in young adolescents using discrete survival analyses. Adolescents were selected from several Dutch secondary schools including both mainstream and special education (externalizing behavioral problems). Participants were 534 adolescents between 12 and 14 years at baseline. Executive functioning and alcohol use were assessed four times over a period of two years. Working memory uniquely predicted the onset of first drink (p=.01) and first binge drinking episode (p=.04) while response inhibition only uniquely predicted the initiating of the first drink (p=.01). These results suggest that the association of executive functioning and alcohol consumption found in former studies cannot simply be interpreted as an effect of alcohol consumption, as weaknesses in executive functioning, found in alcohol naïve adolescents, predict the initiating of (binge) drinking. Though, prolonged and heavy alcohol use might further weaken already existing deficiencies.

  11. Alcohol Use in German Adolescents with Visual Impairments and Sighted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use was studied in 158 adolescents with visual impairments and 537 sighted adolescents in Germany. The students with visual impairments reported lower levels of alcohol use and drunkenness, and between-group differences increased across adolescence. The lower alcohol use by students with visual impairments was explained, in part, by the…

  12. Academic Giftedness and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Peairs, Kristen F.; Eichen, Dawn; Putallaz, Martha; Costanzo, Philip R.; Grimes, Christina L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of development particularly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol use, with recent studies underscoring alcohol's effects on adolescent brain development. Despite the alarming rates and consequences of adolescent alcohol use, gifted adolescents are often overlooked as being at risk for early alcohol use. Although gifted adolescents may possess protective factors that likely inhibit the use of alcohol, some gifted youth may be vulnerable to initiating alcohol use during adolescence as experimenting with alcohol may be one way gifted youth choose to compensate for the social price (whether real or perceived) of their academic talents. To address the dearth of research on alcohol use among gifted adolescents the current study (a) examined the extent to which gifted adolescents use alcohol relative to their nongifted peers and (b) examined the adjustment profile of gifted adolescents who had tried alcohol relative to nongifted adolescents who tried alcohol as well as gifted and nongifted abstainers. More than 300 students in seventh grade (42.5% gifted) participated in the present study. Results indicated gifted students have, in fact, tried alcohol at rates that do not differ from nongifted students. Although trying alcohol was generally associated with negative adjustment, giftedness served as a moderating factor such that gifted students who had tried alcohol were less at risk than their nongifted peers. However, evidence also suggests that gifted adolescents who tried alcohol may be a part of a peer context that promotes substance use, which may place these youth at risk for adjustment difficulties in the future. PMID:21949444

  13. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    PubMed

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses. PMID:23390804

  14. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    PubMed

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses.

  15. Social separation increases alcohol consumption in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, G W; McKinney, W T

    1985-01-01

    This study used 16 socially reared juvenile rhesus monkeys as subjects to test the hypothesis that social separation promotes alcohol consumption in this species. In the first part of the study, 12 monkeys were intermittently separated from their social groups, while 4 were separated before the beginning of the study and remained continuously separated. Refrigerated water or aspartame-sweetened water (vehicle) containing 6% alcohol (w/v) were presented after 4.5 h of fluid deprivation. Intermittently separated monkeys drank more alcohol during separation than when they were socially housed, and more than the continuously separated monkeys. Stable individual differences in consumption rate developed over repeated separations. These differences were not correlated with consumption of refrigerated water or vehicle, or with differential behavioral (locomotor) responses to social separation. This suggested that some monkeys were predisposed to drink more alcohol than others. The second part of the study determined whether established alcohol/vehicle consumption rates for all 16 monkeys were altered when the monkeys were not water deprived, and then when water and the vehicle were available at the same time as alcohol/vehicle. Among monkeys that drank the most (mean of 2.4 g/kg/h) and the least (mean of 0.8 g/kg/h), alcohol consumption was not affected. These results, combined with previous reports, suggest a neurobiological linkage between genetically based social attachment mechanisms, social stressors, and vulnerability to alcohol abuse and addiction in primates.

  16. [Personality factors as predictors of alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Natividade, Jean Carlos; Aguirre, Alba Recalde; Bizarro, Lisiane; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to verify differences in personality factors between abstainers and drinkers and between individuals with higher versus lower levels of alcohol consumption in the previous three months, and to test the predictive power of factors for any lifetime alcohol consumption and for at least monthly alcohol consumption. A total of 169 university students participated, of whom 66.7% were women, with a mean age of 21.2 years. Lifetime alcohol consumption was 90.1%; 42.3% had consumed at least twice in the previous three months; and 57.7% consumed alcohol at least monthly. Participants with less frequent consumption in the previous three months showed higher mean scores for personality factors involving socialization and achievement, while those that consumed more frequently scored higher on extroversion. A predictive model showed that increments in extroversion contributed to increased odds of drinking alcohol, while increments in achievement decreased the odds of drinking. Personality characteristics were able to distinguish between different groups of drinkers and predict the frequency of alcohol consumption. PMID:22666813

  17. [Biochemical markers for acute and chronic alcohol consumption].

    PubMed

    Geppert, Bogna; Tezyk, Artur; Zaba, Czesław

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the fact, that ethyl alcohol is a legal and socially accepted recreational drug its abuse may cause numerous problems for the individual and society. Casualties of car accidents caused by drunk drivers, aggressive behavior, family problems and effective less work are the main problems connected with alcohol abuse. The easiest and most effective way of proving recent alcohol consumption is confirming its presence in biological samples taken from the individual. However, the main disadvantage of this method is a short window detection for ethanol, because of its high speed of elimination process. Nowadays, in order to prevent and have a better control of alcohol abuse, markers that could provide a better view of short and long term ethanol consumption are in frequent use. Ethyl alcohol present in the body cause many qualitative and quantitative disturbances in biochemical metabolites that could be used as markers of its consumption. In practice markers of ethanol consumption are usually divided into acute (tests confirm single alcohol intake) and chronic (confirm long term alcohol consumption or lack of teetotalism). Markers of ethanol consumption are valuable alternative and complementation to customary examinations performed in medical practice and forensic medicine.

  18. SY 16-3 HEALTHY ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: MYTH OR REALITY?

    PubMed

    Gaziano, J Michael

    2016-09-01

    The health effects of alcohol have been studied for decades. While it is clear that excessive alcohol consumption is harmful, hundreds of studies have demonstrated that light to moderate alcohol consumption may reduce the risk of certain cardiovascular conditions. Light to moderate alcohol consumption has been consistently associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among a wide variety of population groups including men and women, those with hypertension, diabetes and heart disease. Alcohol has been associated with increases in HDL cholesterol and lower risks of diabetes. It is felt that this is one important mechanism by which alcohol could lower the risk of heart disease.A key issue to understanding the complex relationships of alcohol intake is the shape of the relationship. For example, the shape of the associations appears to be bimodal with lower risk at light to moderate levels of consumption and higher risk at heavy levels of consumption. This strongly suggests that mechanisms for benefit and harm may be distinct. These types of relationships are unusual in epidemiology and make recommendations challenging.Cardiovascular disease is only one component of total mortality. Alcohol has other health effects. For example heavy alcohol has been shown to increase the risk of certain cancers and can cause cardiomyopathy. This makes the overall relationship of alcohol intake on total mortality complicated. Recent meta-analyses suggest that careful attention to the subpopulation may need to be taken when considering specific alcohol recommendations. In this presentation, the factors that go into the complex relationship of alcohol and other conditions will be carefully explored. PMID:27643266

  19. SY 16-3 HEALTHY ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: MYTH OR REALITY?

    PubMed

    Gaziano, J Michael

    2016-09-01

    The health effects of alcohol have been studied for decades. While it is clear that excessive alcohol consumption is harmful, hundreds of studies have demonstrated that light to moderate alcohol consumption may reduce the risk of certain cardiovascular conditions. Light to moderate alcohol consumption has been consistently associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among a wide variety of population groups including men and women, those with hypertension, diabetes and heart disease. Alcohol has been associated with increases in HDL cholesterol and lower risks of diabetes. It is felt that this is one important mechanism by which alcohol could lower the risk of heart disease.A key issue to understanding the complex relationships of alcohol intake is the shape of the relationship. For example, the shape of the associations appears to be bimodal with lower risk at light to moderate levels of consumption and higher risk at heavy levels of consumption. This strongly suggests that mechanisms for benefit and harm may be distinct. These types of relationships are unusual in epidemiology and make recommendations challenging.Cardiovascular disease is only one component of total mortality. Alcohol has other health effects. For example heavy alcohol has been shown to increase the risk of certain cancers and can cause cardiomyopathy. This makes the overall relationship of alcohol intake on total mortality complicated. Recent meta-analyses suggest that careful attention to the subpopulation may need to be taken when considering specific alcohol recommendations. In this presentation, the factors that go into the complex relationship of alcohol and other conditions will be carefully explored.

  20. Influence of unrecorded alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol includes illegally distributed alcohol as well as homemade or surrogate alcohol which is unintended for consumption by humans (e.g., cosmetics containing alcohol). The highest unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in Eastern Europe and some of these countries have an over proportional liver cirrhosis mortality. Compounds besides ethanol have been hypothesized as being responsible for this observation. On the other hand, chemical investigations were unable to prove that unrecorded alcohol regularly contains contaminants above toxicological thresholds. However, illegally produced spirits regularly contain higher percentages of alcohol (above 45% by volume), but for considerably less costs compared with licit beverages, potentially causing more problematic patterns of drinking. In this review, it is investigated whether patterns of drinking rather than product composition can explain the liver cirrhosis mortality rates. Statistical examination of World Health Organization country data shows that the originally detected correlation of the percentage of unrecorded alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality rates disappears when the data is adjusted for the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking. It may be concluded that there is currently a lack of data to demonstrate causality between the composition of illicit spirits (e.g., higher levels of certain contaminants in home-produced products) and liver toxicity on a population scale. Exceptions may be cases of poisoning with antiseptic liquids containing compounds such as polyhexamethyleneguanidine, which were reported to be consumed as surrogate alcohol in Russia, leading to an outbreak of acute cholestatic liver injury, histologically different from conventional alcoholic liver disease. PMID:24966592

  1. Alcohol questionnaires and HDL: screening scores as scaled markers of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Berger, Douglas; Williams, Emily C; Bryson, Chris L; Rubinsky, Anna D; Bradley, Katharine A

    2013-09-01

    Improving the quality of alcohol-related care requires practical approaches to assessing alcohol consumption to guide management and monitor outcomes. Given the increasing use of alcohol screening questionnaires to identify alcohol misuse it would be ideal if scores on screening questionnaires were also indicators of average alcohol consumption. However, the questionnaires were not designed for this purpose and include dimensions of drinking that may not reflect average consumption (e.g. heavy episodic drinking, alcohol-related problems). In a general population sample, scores on the AUDIT-C screen correlated with reports of alcohol consumption in detailed interviews, but the relationship is unknown for clinical populations and other questionnaires. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) is a biomarker routinely obtained in clinical care and is known to rise with average alcohol consumption. This cross-sectional study of 11,175 male U.S. Veterans Affairs patients enrolled in a primary care study used HDL as an objective biomarker to evaluate whether average alcohol consumption increased as scores increased on 3 brief alcohol screens - the AUDIT-C, AUDIT Question #3 (a single-item screen), and the CAGE questionnaire. Mean HDL progressively increased as screening scores increased for the AUDIT-C and AUDIT Question #3: about 12 mg/dL from the lowest to the highest scores. The association was much weaker for the CAGE questionnaire. Results were minimally affected by adjustment for covariates (e.g. age, race, medical comorbidity, smoking, medication count, and depression) but the association was modified (p = 0.008) and mildly attenuated by adherent use of lipid-lowering medications. This study using HDL as a biomarker of average alcohol consumption adds to evidence that some alcohol screening scores may also serve as scaled markers of average alcohol consumption.

  2. Alcohol consumption and sport: a cross-sectional study of alcohol management practices associated with at-risk alcohol consumption at community football clubs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Methods A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Results Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted ‘happy hour’ promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs. PMID:23947601

  3. A multidimensional model of mothers' perceptions of parent alcohol socialization and adolescent alcohol misuse.

    PubMed

    Ennett, Susan T; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J; Cai, Li

    2016-02-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents' mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers' reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: 2 profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and 2 reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from Grade 6 through 10 in the 2 alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Watching and drinking: Expectancies, prototypes, and peer affiliations mediate the effect of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent drinking

    PubMed Central

    Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the psychological processes that underlie the relation between exposure to alcohol use in media with adolescent alcohol use. Design Structural equation modeling analysis of data from four waves of a longitudinal, nationally-representative, random-digit dial telephone survey of adolescents in the United States. Main Outcome Measures Adolescent alcohol consumption and willingness to use alcohol. Tested mediators were alcohol-related norms, prototypes, expectancies, and friends' use. Results Alcohol prototypes, expectancies, willingness, and friends' use of alcohol (but not perceived prevalence of alcohol use among peers) were significant mediators of the relation between movie alcohol exposure and alcohol consumption, even after controlling for demographic, child, and family factors associated with both movie exposure and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Established psychological and interpersonal predictors of alcohol use mediate the effects of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that exposure movie portrayals may operate through similar processes as other social influences, highlighting the importance of considering these exposures in research on adolescent risk behavior. PMID:19594272

  5. Brazilian Twin Registry: A Bright Future for Twin Studies/Twin Research: Twin Study of Alcohol Consumption and Mortality; Oxygen Uptake in Adolescent Twins/In the News: Superfecundated Twins In Vietnam; Adolescent Twin Relations; Twin and Triplet Co-Workers; A Special Twin Ultrasound; Monozygotic Twins With Different Skin Color; Identical Twin Returns from Space.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of the Brazilian Twin Registry for the study of genetic, social, and cultural influences on behavior is one of eleven newly funded projects in the Department of Psychology at the University of São Paulo. These 11 interrelated projects form the core of the university's Center for Applied Research on Well-Being and Human Behavior. An overview of the planned twin research and activities to date is presented. Next, two recent twin studies are reviewed, one on the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality, and the other on factors affecting maximal oxygen uptake. Twins cited in the media include the first identified superfecundated twins in Vietnam, adolescent twin relations, twins and triplets who work together, monozygotic twins with different skin tones and a co-twin control study that addresses the effects of space travel.

  6. Brazilian Twin Registry: A Bright Future for Twin Studies/Twin Research: Twin Study of Alcohol Consumption and Mortality; Oxygen Uptake in Adolescent Twins/In the News: Superfecundated Twins In Vietnam; Adolescent Twin Relations; Twin and Triplet Co-Workers; A Special Twin Ultrasound; Monozygotic Twins With Different Skin Color; Identical Twin Returns from Space.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of the Brazilian Twin Registry for the study of genetic, social, and cultural influences on behavior is one of eleven newly funded projects in the Department of Psychology at the University of São Paulo. These 11 interrelated projects form the core of the university's Center for Applied Research on Well-Being and Human Behavior. An overview of the planned twin research and activities to date is presented. Next, two recent twin studies are reviewed, one on the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality, and the other on factors affecting maximal oxygen uptake. Twins cited in the media include the first identified superfecundated twins in Vietnam, adolescent twin relations, twins and triplets who work together, monozygotic twins with different skin tones and a co-twin control study that addresses the effects of space travel. PMID:27121223

  7. Alcohol consumption in arthritic patients: clinical and laboratory studies.

    PubMed Central

    Bradlow, A; Mowat, A G

    1985-01-01

    In popular belief patients with chronic arthritis take alcohol for its analgesic effect. To test this we studied by validated questionnaire the past and present alcohol consumption of 103 patients with primary osteoarthritis of the hip (OA), 95 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 90 orthopaedic non-arthritic controls. OA men were most likely and RA men least likely to have been heavy drinkers at any time of their lives. Mean red corpuscular volume (MCV), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and serum uric acid (SUA) levels did not correlate with reported alcohol consumption. Two of 93 OA femoral heads examined had avascular change; both were from heavy drinkers. The abstemiousness of RA men compared with their OA counterparts was due to a striking increase in joint pain after drinking alcohol (p = 0.004), fear of adverse drug reactions with alcohol, and a widespread belief not expressed by OA men that 'alcohol and arthritis do not mix'. PMID:2858181

  8. Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A.; Furr, Susan; Jorgensen, Maribeth

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol- related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male…

  9. Alcohol consumption in college students from the pharmacy faculty.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni

    2016-09-15

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency.

  10. Alcohol consumption in college students from the pharmacy faculty.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency. PMID:26437317

  11. Alcohol Consumption in Russia and Some Aspects of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Context The problem of alcohol misuse in Russia is immense; but nonetheless there is a tendency to exaggerate it, which is evident for inside observers. Such exaggeration tends to veil shortcomings of the health care system with responsibility shifted onto the patients, that is, self-inflicted diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this report is to draw attention to the above-mentioned and other problems related to the alcohol consumption in Russia, not clearly perceptible from the literature, e.g. toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages. Evidence Acquisition This report is based on a review of literature and observations by the author during the period 1970 - 2014. Results Predictable increase of alcohol consumption after the anti-alcohol campaign facilitated the economical reforms of the early 1990s: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations of state-owned enterprises partly due to their drunkenness, involvement in workplace theft and use of equipment for profit, which was often tolerated by the management at that and earlier time. Conclusions Last time, a gradual change of the alcohol consumption pattern in Russia has been noticed: less heavy binge drinking of vodka, fortified wine and surrogates; more moderate consumption of beer. PMID:27162763

  12. The Alcohol Perception (AP) Project: A Study of the Perceptions of Adolescents toward Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Marlow; DeGraff, Shawna; Suciu, Gabriel; Perez, Alina; Dodds, John; Burton, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    Four million individuals under the age of 21 admit to consuming alcohol in any given month. This is a significant statistic considering alcohol is responsible for most health problems related to drugs among adolescents. Research has shown that the high influence of alcohol advertising may encourage adolescents to emulate the behaviors seen in…

  13. Alcohol-Specific Socialization Practices and Alcohol Use in Dutch Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koning, Ina M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of alcohol-specific socialization practices and heavy parental drinking with alcohol use in early adolescents. Cross-sectional nationwide survey data from 2599 parent-adolescent (mean age = 12.16) dyads were used to conduct logistic regression analyses. Onset of alcohol use as well as infrequent and…

  14. The Effects of Learned Helplessness on Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Nora E.; Lisman, Stephen A.

    Widely held cultural beliefs assert that alcohol can offer both an ameliorative and preventive solution to the problem of depression. This study attempted to assess the effects of learned helplessness--a possible laboratory analog to reactive depression--on alcohol consumption. Thirty-eight female undergraduates were randomly assigned (within…

  15. Cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Praud, Delphine; Rota, Matteo; Rehm, Jürgen; Shield, Kevin; Zatoński, Witold; Hashibe, Mia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2016-03-15

    Alcohol consumption is a major cause of disease and death. In a previous study, we reported that in 2002, 3.6% of all cases of cancer and a similar proportion of cancer deaths were attributable to the consumption of alcohol. We aimed to update these figures to 2012 using global estimates of cancer cases and cancer deaths, data on the prevalence of drinkers from the World Health Organization (WHO) global survey on alcohol and health, and relative risks for alcohol-related neoplasms from a recent meta-analysis. Over the 10-year period considered, the total number of alcohol-attributable cancer cases increased to approximately 770,000 worldwide (5.5% of the total number of cancer cases)-540,000 men (7.2%) and 230,000 women (3.5%). Corresponding figures for cancer deaths attributable to alcohol consumption increased to approximately 480,000 (5.8% of the total number of cancer deaths) in both sexes combined-360,000 (7.8%) men and 120,000 (3.3%) women. These proportions were particularly high in the WHO Western Pacific region, the WHO European region and the WHO South-East Asia region. A high burden of cancer mortality and morbidity is attributable to alcohol, and public health measures should be adopted in order to limit excessive alcohol consumption.

  16. Effects of Trait Anger on Alcohol Consumption and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibsohn, Matthew T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compared alcohol consumption and its consequences for high- and low-anger college students. High-anger students exhibited more frequent drinking and intoxication, and experienced severer physical, emotional, and behavioral alcohol-related consequences than low-anger students. Some gender differences were noted. Results are discussed in terms of…

  17. Alcohol Consumption among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Veterans Affairs Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emily C.; McFarland, Lynne V.; Nelson, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: United States rural residents tend toward poorer health than urban residents. Although alcohol use is associated with multiple medical conditions and can be reduced via brief primary care-based interventions, it is unknown whether alcohol consumption differs by rurality among primary care patients. We sought to describe alcohol…

  18. Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption among College Students on Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Wagenaar, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and the related consequences associated with college football games are a serious public health issue for university communities. Objective: Examining "Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption" (ERAC), defined as consuming 10 or more drinks on game day for a male, and 8 or more drinks for a female, is the focus of this study.…

  19. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Tailgating, and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Shawn A.; Hall, Thomas; Lancey, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Tailgating has been associated with both problem drinking and high-risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if student participation in game day on-campus tailgating activities is associated with increased alcohol consumption. Employing a convenience sample of 567 university students, the authors compared the alcohol use patterns…

  20. Effect of alcohol consumption status and alcohol concentration on oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Anurag; Ravindra, Shivamurthy; Porwal, Amit; Das, Abhaya C; Kumar, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Indranil

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exposure alters oral mucosa. Patient compliance with mouthwash use may be reduced by oral pain resulting from rinsing with alcohol-containing mouthwash. However, information regarding the effects of alcohol consumption and mouthwash alcohol concentration on oral pain is limited. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled cross-over study, we investigated the effects of alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration on response to and perception of oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash. Fifty healthy men aged 33 to 56 years were enrolled and classified as drinkers and nondrinkers according to self-reported alcohol consumption. All subjects rinsed with two commercially available mouthwash products (which contained high and low concentrations of alcohol) and a negative control, in randomized order. Time of onset of oral pain, time of cessation of oral pain (after mouthwash expectoration), and pain duration were recorded, and oral pain intensity was recorded on a verbal rating scale. Drinkers had later oral pain onset and lower pain intensity. High-alcohol mouthwash was associated with earlier pain onset and greater pain intensity. In addition, oral pain cessation was later and pain duration was longer in nondrinkers rinsing with high-alcohol mouthwash. In conclusion, alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration were associated with onset and intensity of oral pain.

  1. [Benefits in reducing alcohol consumption: how nalmefene can help].

    PubMed

    Bendimerad, P; Blecha, L

    2014-12-01

    Alcohol consumption represents a significant factor for mortality in the world: 6.3% in men and 1.1% in women. Alcohol use disorder is also very common: 5.4% in men, 1.5% in women. Despite its high frequency and the seriousness of this disorder, only 8% of all alcohol-dependents are ever treated. Recent meta-analyses have shown that if we can increase current figures by 40%, we could decrease alcohol-related morality rates by 13% in men and 9% in women. Thus, it is important to motivate both physicians and patients to participate in treatment in alcohol use disorder. Recent epidemiological data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) are currently challenging the notion of alcohol use disorder as a fixed entity. Among a cohort of 4422 subjects initially diagnosed as having alcohol dependency, only 25% of these could still be diagnosed as alcohol-dependent one year later. Among the others, 27% were in partial remission, 12% had risk use, 18% low risk use and 18% were abstinent. Stable remission rates were observed in 30% of these subjects at 5 years. This study also argues in favour of the newer dimensional approach elaborated in the DSM 5. One potentially interesting treatment option is oriented toward reducing alcohol intake. In a study by Rehm and Roerecke (2013), they modelled the impact of reduced consumption in a typical alcoholic patient who drinks 8 glasses of alcohol per day (92 g of pure alcohol). If he decreases his alcohol intake by just one glass per day (12 g of alcohol per day), his one-year mortality risk falls from 180/100,000 to 120/100,000; if he decreases his intake by two glasses per day (24 g), this risk falls to 95/100,000, roughly half his baseline risk. These observations have resulted in integrating reduced consumption as an option into the treatment guidelines of several national institutions such as the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE, UK), European Medicines Agency, as well as

  2. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers. PMID:21477057

  3. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers.

  4. Adolescent Mice, Unlike Adults, Consume More Alcohol in the Presence of Peers than Alone

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Sheree; Chein, Jason; Gould, Thomas; Holliday, Erica; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    One hallmark of adolescent risk taking is that it typically occurs when adolescents are with peers. It has been hypothesized that the presence of peers primes a reward-sensitive motivational state that overwhelms adolescents’ immature capacity for inhibitory control. We examined this hypothesis using a rodent model. A sample of mice were raised in same-sex triads and were tested for alcohol consumption either as juveniles or as adults, with half in each age group tested alone and half tested with their cagemates. The presence of “peers” increased alcohol consumption among adolescent mice, but not adults. The peer effect on human adolescent reward-seeking may reflect a hard-wired, evolutionarily conserved process through which the presence of agemates increases individuals’ sensitivity to potential rewards in their immediate environment. PMID:24341974

  5. Predictors of Alcohol Drinking among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodney, H. Elaine; And Others

    This study sought to investigate the factors that predict alcohol drinking among African-American children of alcoholics (COA). The instruments used were: (1) the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (J. Jones, 1981); (2) the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale (J. Mayer and W. Filstead, 1979); and (3) the New York Self-Esteem Scale (M.…

  6. Risk of Myocardial Infarction Immediately After Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; van der Bom, Johanna G.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Maclure, Malcolm; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Muller, James E.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Habitual moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) whereas heavy (binge) drinking is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. However, less is known about the immediate effects of alcohol consumption on the risk of acute MI and whether any association differs by beverage type or usual drinking patterns. Methods We conducted a case-crossover analysis of 3,869 participants from the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study who were interviewed during hospitalization for acute MI in one of 64 medical centers across the United States in 1989–1996. We compared the observed number of times that each participant consumed wine, beer or liquor in the hour preceding MI symptom onset with the expected frequency based on each participant’s control information, defined as the number of times the participant consumed alcohol in the past year. Results Among 3869 participants, 2119 (55%) reported alcohol consumption in the past year, including 76 within 1 hour before acute MI onset. The incidence rate of acute MI onset was elevated 1.72-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.37–2.16) within 1 hour after alcohol consumption. The association was stronger for liquor than for beer or wine. The higher rate was not apparent for daily drinkers. For the 24 hours after consumption, there was a 14% lower rate (relative risk=0.86 [95% CI=0.79–0.95]) of MI compared with periods with no alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol consumption is associated with an acutely higher risk of MI in the subsequent hour among people who do not typically drink alcohol daily. PMID:25563434

  7. A Multidimensional Model of Mothers’ Perceptions of Parent Alcohol Socialization and Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Ennett, Susan T.; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T.; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A.; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J.; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents’ mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers’ reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: two profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and two reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from grade 6 through 10 in the two alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. PMID:26415053

  8. Consumption of alcoholic beverages and subjective health in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Guallar-Castillon, P; Rodriguez-Artalej..., F; Ganan, L; Banegas, J; Urdinguio, P; Cabrera, R

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To examine the relation between alcohol and main alcoholic beverage consumption and subjective health in Spain.
DESIGN—Logistic regression analysis using a cross sectional survey based on self reported data on alcohol and alcoholic beverage consumption, subjective health and the principal confounding factors (age, sex, civil status, educational level, job status, social support, region of residence, size of town or city, tobacco consumption, physical activity during leisure time and work hours, and chronic disease).
SETTING—The 1993 Spanish National Health Survey.
PARTICIPANTS—A 19 573 person sample, representative of the non-institutionalised Spanish population aged 16 years and over.
MAIN RESULTS—Among Spaniards, 31.4% reported their health as suboptimal (fair, poor or very poor) and 56.9% consumed alcohol regularly, with the majority having a preference for wine. Light (1-2 drinks per day) or moderate consumption (3-4 drinks per day) was the most frequent pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, a negative dose-response relation was observed between consumption of total alcohol, wine and beer, and prevalence of suboptimal health (linear trend: p<0.001 for total alcohol, p=0.023 for wine, and p=0.030 for beer). In contrast, for consumption of spirits the prevalence of ill health in moderate drinkers was lower than in non-drinkers, with no clear relation at higher consumption. While persons reporting a preference for wine had a lower frequency of suboptimal health than did abstainers, they showed no difference in frequency of subjective ill health with respect to persons with preference for other types of drink or no preference whatsoever.
CONCLUSIONS—The higher the consumption of total alcohol, wine and beer, the lower the prevalence of suboptimal health. These results differ from those obtained in several Nordic countries, where a "J shaped" relation has been observed for total alcohol and wine, and suggest that

  9. Urinary 5-hydroxytryptophol: a possible marker of recent alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Voltaire, A; Beck, O; Borg, S

    1992-04-01

    Urinary 5-hydroxytryptophol (5-HTOL) is currently being evaluated as a marker of recent alcohol consumption. To compensate for urinary dilution, the molar ratio between 5-HTOL and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) is used. The 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio showed a satisfactory degree of individual stability when it was followed in a group of teetotallers for 1 month. The mean value of 5-HTOL/5-HIAA in a group of 69 persons abstaining from alcohol was 7.6 (pmoles 5-HTOL/nmoles 5-HIAA). Ninety-seven percent had values ranging from 4 to 17, with no value exceeding 20. A group of healthy volunteers were tested 12 hr after alcohol consumption and showed a dose-dependent and statistically significant elevation in the 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio. Four regular alcohol consumers who were followed during a period of 3 months of drinking had elevated values of the 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio in 60% of their urine samples. The present study indicates that urinary 5-HTOL/5-HIAA is a sensitive and reliable marker of recent alcohol consumption. We propose that a 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio greater than 20 (pmoles/nmoles) can be used to indicate recent alcohol consumption. This limit gives a low frequency of false positives; the statistical probability of having a value greater than 20 during abstinence from alcohol was calculated to be less than 0.001. PMID:1375446

  10. Cancer cases attributable to alcohol consumption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; de Menezes, Raquel Ferreira; Bergmann, Anke

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study specifically estimating the proportion of new cancer cases that could be attributable to alcohol consumption in the year 2012 in Brazil. The proportion of exposed cases and the association between alcohol and lip and oral cavity, nasopharynx, other pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colorectum, female breast, liver, and intrahepatic bile ducts cancers was based on data made available by the Integrator System of Hospital Cancer Registries. The cancer incidence was obtained from the estimates produced by GLOBOCAN. In 2012 there were 437,592 new cancer cases in Brazil, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. Of these, alcohol consumption was responsible for 4.8% of all new cases. The alcohol-attributable fraction was higher for men (7.0%) than for women (2.6%). A total of 21,000 new cancer cases, 15,554 in men and 5,646 in women, could be attributable to alcohol consumption. In Brazil, a significant fraction of cancer cases can be attributed to alcohol consumption, and public health measures to prevent heavy alcohol use should be implemented. PMID:27565752

  11. Effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Ishii, Noriko; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury, we examined aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), together with weekly alcohol consumption calculated from a self-rating questionnaire, in 1113 Japanese salesmen. The thresholds of associations between alcohol consumption and liver markers were estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The AST, ALT and GGT were positively correlated with alcohol intake (p<0.001), as well as age and body mass index (BMI); the relations to alcohol were statistically significant even when controlling for age, BMI and smoking habit. Although the AST and GGT were associated with four types of alcoholic beverage (p<0.01), it was only whiskey that had close relation to the ALT (p<0.05). The thresholds of alcohol consumption (ethanol g/week), i.e., 95% lower confidence limits of the BMD, were 362 for AST, 660 for ALT, and 252 for GGT. The thresholds for GGT and AST in Japanese men seem to be somewhat higher than those reported in Western countries. It is suggested that hepatocellular injury (i.e., AST elevation) in Japanese men may emerge at the ethanol level of more than 50 g/day. PMID:14738322

  12. Genome-wide meta-analysis of longitudinal alcohol consumption across youth and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Adkins, Daniel E.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Copeland, William E.; Kennedy, Martin; Conway, Kevin; Angold, Adrian; Maes, Hermine; Liu, Youfang; Kumar, Gaurav; Erkanli, Alaattin; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Silberg, Judy; Brown, Tyson H.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Eaves, Lindon; van den Oord, Edwin J.C.G.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Costello, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The public health burden of alcohol is unevenly distributed across the life course, with levels of use, abuse and dependence increasing across adolescence and peaking in early adulthood. Here we leverage this temporal patterning to search for common genetic variants predicting developmental trajectories of alcohol consumption. Comparable psychiatric evaluations measuring alcohol consumption were collected in three, longitudinal community samples (N=2,126, obs=12,166). Consumption repeated measurements spanning adolescence and early adulthood were analyzed using linear mixed models, estimating individual consumption trajectories, which were then tested for association with Illumina 660W-Quad genotype data (866,099 SNPs after imputation and QC). Association results were combined across samples using standard meta-analysis methods. Four meta-analysis associations satisfied our pre-determined genome-wide significance criterion (FDR<0.1) and 6 others met our “suggestive” criterion (FDR<0.2). Genome-wide significant associations were highly biological plausible, including associations within GABA transporter 1, SLC6A1 (solute carrier family 6, member 1), and exonic hits in LOC100129340 (mitofusin-1-like). Pathway analyses elaborated single marker results, indicating significant enriched associations to intuitive biological mechanisms including neurotransmission, xenobiotic pharmacodynamics and nuclear hormone receptors. These findings underscore the value of combining longitudinal behavioral data and genome-wide genotype information in order to study developmental patterns and improve statistical power in genomic studies. PMID:26081443

  13. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:21999498

  14. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  15. Preventing suicide in adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Nita J; Sher, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is an escalating crisis that needs to be addressed by clinicians and researchers. Alcohol use has consistently been implicated in adolescent suicide and it is generally assumed that alcohol use leads to an increased risk in suicidality, suicide attempts and completed suicides. It can lead to adolescent suicidality through alcohol myopia, disinhibition, and impaired judgment. Multiple genetically related intermediate phenotypes might contribute to the risk of alcohol misuse and suicidal behavior in adolescents. Genetic variations that enhance the risk for mood and anxiety symptoms or susceptibility to stress might increase risk through different mechanisms. Comorbid disorders such as depression are frequently exhibited in adolescents who misuse alcohol, therefore any adolescent who appears to be at risk for alcoholism or depression should always be screened for all other psychiatric disorders and for suicidality; some signs suicidal adolescents may exhibit include withdrawal, personality change, and a loss of interest in pleasurable activities. While assessment is important, prevention is crucial in any attempt to decrease the incidence of adolescent suicide. The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has established a set of seven guidelines that can be implemented from kindergarten through high school in order to establish alcohol prevention efforts in schools. Through beginning prevention efforts at a young age, it is hopeful that both alcohol misuse and adolescent suicide can be reduced. PMID:17458324

  16. College student employment and drinking: a daily study of work stressors, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Butler, Adam B; Dodge, Kama D; Faurote, Eric J

    2010-07-01

    We examined the within-person relationships between daily work stressors and alcohol consumption over 14 consecutive days in a sample of 106 employed college students. Using a tension reduction theoretical framework, we predicted that exposure to work stressors would increase alcohol consumption by employed college students, particularly for men and those with stronger daily expectancies about the tension reducing properties of alcohol. After controlling for day of the week, we found that hours worked were positively related to number of drinks consumed. Workload was unrelated to alcohol consumption, and work-school conflict was negatively related to consumption, particularly when students expressed strong beliefs in the tension reducing properties of alcohol. There was no evidence that the effects of work stressors were moderated by sex. The results illustrate that employment during the academic year plays a significant role in college student drinking and suggest that the employment context may be an appropriate intervention site to address the problem of student drinking.

  17. Neighbourhood availability of alcohol outlets and hazardous alcohol consumption in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ayuka, Francis; Barnett, Ross; Pearce, Jamie

    2014-09-01

    The socio-spatial arrangement of alcohol retailers is potentially important in understanding the relationship between neighbourhood context and 'excessive' alcohol consumption. This New Zealand study examines whether the availability of alcohol products is associated with individual-level alcohol consumption. Measures capturing the availability of alcohol retailers were calculated for neighbourhoods across the country and then appended to a national health survey. At the national level there was no evidence for an association between hazardous consumption and alcohol outlet access. However, there was evidence of associations with neighbourhood retailing for younger Māori and Pacific peoples males; younger European females; middle-aged European men; and older men. The findings provide evidence that 'alcogenic' environments are associated with excessive drinking in New Zealand, albeit that the associations are restricted to particular vulnerable groups. PMID:25128780

  18. Biomarkers for detection of alcohol consumption in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Staufer, Katharina; Yegles, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is an established, yet controversial, indication for liver transplantation. Although an abstinence period of up to 6 mo prior to transplantation is mandatory, alcohol relapse after transplantation is a common event. In case of recurrence of heavy drinking, graft survival is significantly impaired. Guidelines on detection and surveillance of alcohol consumption in this patient cohort are lacking. This review summarizes the challenge of patient selection as well as the current knowledge on established and novel alcohol biomarkers with special focus on liver transplant candidates and recipients. PMID:27076757

  19. Relationships Between Local Enforcement, Alcohol Availability, Drinking Norms, and Adolescent Alcohol Use in 50 California Cities

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Grube, Joel W.; Thomas, Sue; Cannon, Carol; Treffers, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated relationships between local alcohol policies, enforcement, alcohol outlet density, adult alcohol use, and underage drinking in 50 California cities. Method: Eight local alcohol policies (e.g., conditional use permit, social host ordinance, window/billboard advertising) were rated for each city based on their comprehensiveness. Local alcohol enforcement was based on grants received from the California Alcoholic Beverage Control agency for enforcement of underage drinking laws. Outlet density was based on the number of on- and off-premise outlets per roadway mile. Level of adult alcohol use was ascertained from a survey of 8,553 adults and underage drinking (frequency of past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking) from surveys of 1,312 adolescents in 2009 and 2010. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of policies, enforcement, and other community-level variables on adolescent drinking, controlling for youth demographic characteristics. Mediating effects of adolescents' perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, perceived enforcement, and perceived acceptability of alcohol use also were examined. Results: None of the eight local alcohol-policy ratings were associated with adolescent drinking. Funding for underage drinking enforcement activities was inversely related to frequency of past-year alcohol use, whereas outlet density and adult drinking were positively related to both past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking. These relationships were attenuated when controlling for perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, enforcement, and acceptability of alcohol use, providing evidence for mediation. Conclusions: Adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking appear to be influenced by enforcement of underage drinking laws, alcohol outlet density, and adult alcohol use. These community-level influences may be at least partially mediated through adolescents' perceptions of alcohol availability, acceptability of alcohol use

  20. [Trends in alcohol consumption in Switzerland from 1975-1992].

    PubMed

    Schmid, H; Gmel, G

    1996-06-22

    Based on four representative surveys independently conducted at 6-year intervals, the study presented here delineates the development of alcohol consumption in the general population of Switzerland between 1975 and 1992. A description of changes in the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption by sex is presented, as well as specific changes by beverage type. Even though Switzerland remains one of the high consumption countries, a marked decline can be observed. Compared to 1975 when 28% of respondents reported daily alcohol consumption, this figure dropped to 20% in 1992. Although 10% consumed more than 60 grams of pure alcohol in the 1975 sample, this proportion fell to only 3% in 1992. This downward trend, which is also reflected in secondary statistics such as sales and mortality figures, can be mainly attributed to male consumers. In contrast to international trends, which in general demonstrate converging drinking patterns, reduced consumption in Switzerland, a wine-producing country, is mainly due to a decline in beer consumption and not in wine consumption.

  1. Health Warnings on Alcoholic Beverages: Perceptions of the Health Risks and Intentions towards Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Wigg, Sophie; Stafford, Lorenzo D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research has demonstrated that packaging which includes pictorial health warnings are more effective in altering smokers’ perceptions and intentions as well as changing smoking behaviours compared to text-only health warnings. However, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of health warnings on alcoholic beverages Methods Participants (N = 60) viewed alcoholic beverages presenting one of three health warnings (No health warning, Text-only, Pictorial) and then responded to questions relating to level of fear arousal and their perceptions toward alcohol use. Results We found that pictorial health warnings were associated with significantly higher fear arousal, increased perceptions of the health risks of consuming alcohol as well as greater intentions to reduce and quit alcohol consumption compared to the control. Conclusions These novel findings suggest pictorial health warnings on alcoholic beverages may be an important way of making the public aware of the health risks of alcohol consumption. PMID:27105210

  2. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  3. A community survey of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Farrow, S C; Charny, M C; Lewis, P C

    1988-01-01

    A survey by 150 trained medical students was carried out in 1986 on a random sample of adults from the electoral register of Cardiff. The survey explored attitudes, knowledge and behaviour over a wide range of health related topics. 4266 self-completed questionnaires were returned for analysis and this paper reports the answers to the question 'how much did you drink last week'. The total units of alcohol were calculated and the drinking characteristics of the respondents are presented by age, sex, marital status, social class, accommodation and occupation. The contribution that such community surveys play in the development of local alcohol policy is discussed. PMID:3166631

  4. A community survey of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Farrow, S C; Charny, M C; Lewis, P C

    1988-01-01

    A survey by 150 trained medical students was carried out in 1986 on a random sample of adults from the electoral register of Cardiff. The survey explored attitudes, knowledge and behaviour over a wide range of health related topics. 4266 self-completed questionnaires were returned for analysis and this paper reports the answers to the question 'how much did you drink last week'. The total units of alcohol were calculated and the drinking characteristics of the respondents are presented by age, sex, marital status, social class, accommodation and occupation. The contribution that such community surveys play in the development of local alcohol policy is discussed.

  5. Loneliness and Alcoholism Risk in Late Adolescence: A Comparative Study of Adults and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Cole, Galen E.

    1991-01-01

    Administered Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test to subjects over age 18. Among late adolescents (aged 18 to 20), lonely females had highest mean scores, indicating higher degree of alcoholism risk than lonely males and nonlonely subjects. For males, loneliness appeared to increase alcoholism risk, not in late adolescence, but during early…

  6. Adolescent vulnerabilities to chronic alcohol or nicotine exposure: findings from rodent models.

    PubMed

    Barron, Susan; White, Aaron; Swartzwelder, H Scott; Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Slawecki, Craig J; Ehlers, Cindy L; Levin, Edward D; Rezvani, Amir H; Spear, Linda P

    2005-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the proceedings from a symposium entitled "Is adolescence special? Possible age-related vulnerabilities to chronic alcohol or nicotine exposure," organized by Susan Barron and Linda Spear and held at the 2004 Research Society on Alcoholism Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia. This symposium, co-sponsored by the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Study Group and the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society, focused on our current knowledge regarding the long-term consequences of ethanol and/or nicotine exposure during adolescence with the emphasis on data from rodent models. The support from these two societies represents the understanding by these research groups that adolescence represents a unique developmental stage for the effects of chronic drug exposure and also marks an age in which many risky behaviors including alcohol consumption and smoking typically begin. The speakers included (1) Aaron White, who presented data on the effects of adolescent ethanol exposure on subsequent motor or cognitive response to an ethanol challenge in adulthood; (2) Richard Bell, who presented data suggesting that genetic differences could play a role in adolescent vulnerability to ethanol; (3) Craig Slawecki, who presented data looking at the effects of chronic exposure to alcohol or nicotine on neurophysiologic and behavioral end points; and (4) Ed Levin, who presented data on acute and long-term consequences of adolescent nicotine exposure. Finally, Linda Spear provided some summary points and recommendations regarding unresolved issues and future directions.

  7. The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Information on the economic impact of alcohol consumption can provide important evidence in supporting policies to reduce its associated harm. To date, several studies on the economic costs of alcohol consumption have been conducted worldwide. This study aims to review the economic impact of alcohol worldwide, summarizing the state of knowledge with regard to two elements: (1) cost components included in the estimation; (2) the methodologies employed in works conducted to date. Methods Relevant publications concerning the societal cost of alcohol consumption published during the years 1990-2007 were identified through MEDLINE. The World Health Organization's global status report on alcohol, bibliographies and expert communications were also used to identify additional relevant studies. Results Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for full review while an additional two studies were considered for partial review. Most studies employed the human capital approach and estimated the gross cost of alcohol consumption. Both direct and indirect costs were taken into account in all studies while intangible costs were incorporated in only a few studies. The economic burden of alcohol in the 12 selected countries was estimated to equate to 0.45 - 5.44% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Conclusion Discrepancies in the estimation method and cost components included in the analyses limit a direct comparison across studies. The findings, however, consistently confirmed that the economic burden of alcohol on society is substantial. Given the importance of this issue and the limitation in generalizing the findings across different settings, further well-designed research studies are warranted in specific countries to support the formulation of alcohol-related policies. PMID:19939238

  8. Impulsivity moderates the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on adolescents' willingness to drink.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Kingsbury, John H; Wills, Thomas A; Finneran, Stephanie D; Dal Cin, Sonya; Gerrard, Meg

    2016-05-01

    This study examined impulsivity as a moderator of adolescents' reactions to positive versus negative portrayals of drinking in American movie clips. Impulsivity, along with willingness and intentions to drink in the future, were assessed in a pretest session. In the experimental sessions, adolescents viewed a series of clips that showed drinking associated with either positive outcomes (e.g., social facilitation) or negative outcomes (fights, arguments). A third group viewed clips with similar positive or negative outcomes, but no alcohol consumption. All participants then responded to an implicit measure of attentional bias regarding alcohol (a dot probe), followed by explicit alcohol measures (self-reports of willingness and intentions to drink). Hypotheses, based on dual-processing theories, were: (a) high-impulsive adolescents would respond more favorably than low-impulsive adolescents to the positive clips, but not the negative clips; and (b) this difference in reactions to the positive clips would be larger on the willingness than the intention measures. Results supported the hypotheses: Adolescents high in impulsivity reported the highest willingness to drink in the positive-clip condition, but were slightly less willing than others in the negative-clip condition. In addition, results on the dot probe task indicated that RTs to alcohol words were negatively correlated with changes in alcohol willingness, but not intention; that is, the faster their response to the alcohol words, the more their willingness increased. The results highlight the utility of a dual-processing perspective on media influence. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27099959

  9. [Changes in adolescents' alcohol drinking in the time of accession to European Union: Polish and Lithuanian experiences].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr; Wysocki, Mirosław J; Berzanskytez, Ausra; Valinteliene, Rolanda

    2006-01-01

    The greatest increase in the late nineties in adolescent's alcohol consumption in Europe were in the countries that were candidates for European Union. The aim of the papers is: 1) to examine the changes of adolescent's alcohol drinking in fife-year period preceding the accession of Poland to European Union and 2) to compare regular alcohol drinking and attitude toward alcohol drinking among Polish and Lithuanian adolescents. The surveys in 1999 and 2004 in Warsaw junior secondary schools and in 2004 in Vilnius junior secondary schools were carried out, and the data from 14-15 years old adolescents were obtained. The analysis confirmed significant increase in frequency of alcohol consumption as well as in more positive attitude toward usefulness of alcohol drinking. This process took place more dynamically among girls. The comparison of Warsaw and Vilnius samples showed that Lithuanian girls were more likely to drink alcohol regularly and Lithuanian adolescents were more likely to access higher the usefulness of alcohol drinking for coping with everyday troubles. The findings were widely discussed in respect to other studies and changes in alcohol control policy.

  10. Nonhuman primate model of alcohol abuse: effects of early experience, personality, and stress on alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Higley, J D; Hasert, M F; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-two 50-month-old rhesus monkeys were provided concurrent free access to an aspartame-sweetened 7% ethanol solution and an aspartame-sweetened vehicle before, during, and after social separation. Subjects had been reared for their first 6 months of life either without access to adults but with constant access to age mates (peer reared), a condition producing reduced exploration and increased fear-related behaviors, or as controls with their mothers; thereafter, all subjects received identical treatment. During home-cage periods, for 1 hr each day, 4 days a week, when the ethanol solution and vehicle were freely available, peer-reared subjects consumed significantly more alcohol than mother-reared subjects. When stress was increased via social separation, mother-reared animals increased their alcohol consumption to a level nearly as high as that of peer-reared monkeys. Average individual differences in alcohol consumption were markedly stable over time. In addition, there were strong positive correlations between alcohol consumption and distress behaviors. Biological indices of increased stress, such as plasma cortisol and corticotropin, were higher in peer-reared subjects. Within the peer- and mother-reared groups, these indices were positively correlated with alcohol consumption. The results suggest that early rearing experiences that predispose monkeys to increased fear-related behaviors produce excessive alcohol consumption under normal living conditions. Furthermore, a major challenge such as social separation increases alcohol consumption to levels producing intoxication even in monkeys not particularly vulnerable to stress. Images PMID:1871131

  11. Nonhuman primate model of alcohol abuse: effects of early experience, personality, and stress on alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Higley, J D; Hasert, M F; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1991-08-15

    Twenty-two 50-month-old rhesus monkeys were provided concurrent free access to an aspartame-sweetened 7% ethanol solution and an aspartame-sweetened vehicle before, during, and after social separation. Subjects had been reared for their first 6 months of life either without access to adults but with constant access to age mates (peer reared), a condition producing reduced exploration and increased fear-related behaviors, or as controls with their mothers; thereafter, all subjects received identical treatment. During home-cage periods, for 1 hr each day, 4 days a week, when the ethanol solution and vehicle were freely available, peer-reared subjects consumed significantly more alcohol than mother-reared subjects. When stress was increased via social separation, mother-reared animals increased their alcohol consumption to a level nearly as high as that of peer-reared monkeys. Average individual differences in alcohol consumption were markedly stable over time. In addition, there were strong positive correlations between alcohol consumption and distress behaviors. Biological indices of increased stress, such as plasma cortisol and corticotropin, were higher in peer-reared subjects. Within the peer- and mother-reared groups, these indices were positively correlated with alcohol consumption. The results suggest that early rearing experiences that predispose monkeys to increased fear-related behaviors produce excessive alcohol consumption under normal living conditions. Furthermore, a major challenge such as social separation increases alcohol consumption to levels producing intoxication even in monkeys not particularly vulnerable to stress.

  12. Cannabis consumption initiation among adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Anna; Ariza, Carles; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Nebot, Manel

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors related to initiation of cannabis consumption among adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to 2043 14-15-year-olds from Barcelona who were followed-up and re-interviewed after 15 months. A bivariate analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with consumption, and multivariate logistic regression was carried out to model cannabis initiation. Among matched students, 23.7% of non-users at baseline had started to consume 15 months later (23.0% boys and 24.2% girls). Among those who had reported occasional cannabis use, 30.3% reported consumption during the previous month at the follow-up survey. Factors associated with cannabis initiation among boys and girls were smoking, risky alcohol use and intention to consume cannabis. Among boys, other associated factors were frequenting bars or discotheques and not having organized activities in leisure time. Among girls, another risk factor for initiation was having cannabis-using friends. Cannabis initiation was facilitated by legal drug use, favorable attitudes and context-related variables. These results highlight the role of behavioral and contextual variables and support the importance of reinforcing social skills in preventive programs.

  13. How well does the theory of planned behaviour predict alcohol consumption? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard; Dahdah, Mary; Norman, Paul; French, David P

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to quantify correlations between theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and (i) intentions to consume alcohol and (ii) alcohol consumption. Systematic literature searches identified 40 eligible studies that were meta-analysed. Three moderator analyses were conducted: pattern of consumption, gender of participants and age of participants. Across studies, intentions had the strongest relationship with attitudes (r+ = .62), followed by subjective norms (r+ = .47) and perceived behavioural control (PBC; r+ = .31). Self-efficacy (SE) had a stronger relationship with intentions (r+ = .48) compared with perceived control (PC; r+ = -.10). Intention had the strongest relationship with alcohol consumption (r+ = .54), followed by SE (r+ = .41). In contrast, PBC and PC had negative relationships with alcohol consumption (r+ = -.05 and -.13, respectively). All moderators affected TPB relationships. Patterns of consumption with clear definitions had stronger TPB relations, females reported stronger attitude-intention relations than males, and adults reported stronger attitude-intention and SE-intention relations than adolescents. Recommendations for future research include targeting attitudes and intentions in interventions to reduce alcohol consumption, using clear definitions of alcohol consumption in TPB items to improve prediction and assessing SE when investigating risk behaviours.

  14. How well does the theory of planned behaviour predict alcohol consumption? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Richard; Dahdah, Mary; Norman, Paul; French, David P.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify correlations between theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and (i) intentions to consume alcohol and (ii) alcohol consumption. Systematic literature searches identified 40 eligible studies that were meta-analysed. Three moderator analyses were conducted: pattern of consumption, gender of participants and age of participants. Across studies, intentions had the strongest relationship with attitudes (r + = .62), followed by subjective norms (r + = .47) and perceived behavioural control (PBC; r + = .31). Self-efficacy (SE) had a stronger relationship with intentions (r + = .48) compared with perceived control (PC; r + = −.10). Intention had the strongest relationship with alcohol consumption (r + = .54), followed by SE (r + = .41). In contrast, PBC and PC had negative relationships with alcohol consumption (r + = −.05 and −.13, respectively). All moderators affected TPB relationships. Patterns of consumption with clear definitions had stronger TPB relations, females reported stronger attitude–intention relations than males, and adults reported stronger attitude–intention and SE–intention relations than adolescents. Recommendations for future research include targeting attitudes and intentions in interventions to reduce alcohol consumption, using clear definitions of alcohol consumption in TPB items to improve prediction and assessing SE when investigating risk behaviours. PMID:25089611

  15. How well does the theory of planned behaviour predict alcohol consumption? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard; Dahdah, Mary; Norman, Paul; French, David P

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to quantify correlations between theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and (i) intentions to consume alcohol and (ii) alcohol consumption. Systematic literature searches identified 40 eligible studies that were meta-analysed. Three moderator analyses were conducted: pattern of consumption, gender of participants and age of participants. Across studies, intentions had the strongest relationship with attitudes (r+ = .62), followed by subjective norms (r+ = .47) and perceived behavioural control (PBC; r+ = .31). Self-efficacy (SE) had a stronger relationship with intentions (r+ = .48) compared with perceived control (PC; r+ = -.10). Intention had the strongest relationship with alcohol consumption (r+ = .54), followed by SE (r+ = .41). In contrast, PBC and PC had negative relationships with alcohol consumption (r+ = -.05 and -.13, respectively). All moderators affected TPB relationships. Patterns of consumption with clear definitions had stronger TPB relations, females reported stronger attitude-intention relations than males, and adults reported stronger attitude-intention and SE-intention relations than adolescents. Recommendations for future research include targeting attitudes and intentions in interventions to reduce alcohol consumption, using clear definitions of alcohol consumption in TPB items to improve prediction and assessing SE when investigating risk behaviours. PMID:25089611

  16. Alcohol consumption and venous thromboembolism: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    A light to moderate consumption of certain types of alcoholic beverages may exert a favorable effect on cardiovascular risk, but no conclusive information is available on the putative relationship between alcohol intake and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We performed an electronic search on Medline and Scopus, using the keywords "venous thromboembolism", "venous thrombosis" and "alcohol", to identify clinical studies linking alcohol intake and VTE risk. The literature search generated 16 studies, 4 of which are case-control, 1 cross-sectional and 11 prospective. Significant reduction of VTE associated with alcohol intake is observed in only 4/16 studies, and in all these the association is only meaningful for a moderate amount of alcohol (i.e., 2-4 glasses). Unlike these trials, two other studies observe that alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of VTE, whereas the association is insignificant in the remainder. Binge drinking increases the VTE risk in one study but not in another. The consumption of beer is associated with a decreased VTE risk in one study but not in two others. We hence conclude that the relationship between intake of alcoholic beverages and increased or decreased risk of VTE is largely elusive. PMID:26446524

  17. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work.

  18. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  19. The link between testosterone and amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex connectivity in adolescent alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sabine; Jolles, Dietsje J; Van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol consumption is one of the most problematic and widespread forms of risk taking in adolescence. It has been hypothesized that sex hormones such as testosterone play an important role in risk taking by influencing the development of brain networks involved in emotion and motivation, particularly the amygdala and its functional connections. Connectivity between the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may be specifically related to alcohol use, given the association of this tract with top-down control over behavioral approach tendencies. In line with this, prior studies in adults indicate a link between alcohol use and functional connectivity between the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as well as between testosterone and amygdala-OFC connectivity. We consolidated these research lines by investigating the association between alcohol use, testosterone and resting state functional brain connectivity within one large-scale adolescent sample (n=173, aged 12-25 years). Mediation analyses demonstrated an indirect effect of testosterone levels on alcohol use through amygdala-OFC intrinsic functional connectivity, but only in boys. That is, increased testosterone in boys was associated with reduced amygdala-OFC connectivity, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol intake. This study is the first to demonstrate the interplay between adolescent alcohol use, sex hormones and brain mechanisms, thus taking an important step to increase our understanding of the mechanisms behind this form of adolescent risk-taking.

  20. Voluntary exercise decreases ethanol preference and consumption in C57BL/6 adolescent mice: sex differences and hippocampal BDNF expression.

    PubMed

    Gallego, X; Cox, R J; Funk, E; Foster, R A; Ehringer, M A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of high vulnerability for alcohol use and abuse. Early alcohol use has been shown to increase the risk for alcohol-related problems later in life; therefore effective preventive treatments targeted toward adolescents would be very valuable. Many epidemiological and longitudinal studies in humans have revealed the beneficial effects of exercise for prevention and treatment of alcohol addiction. Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that access to a running wheel leads to decreased voluntary alcohol consumption in adult mice, hamsters, and rats. However, age and sex may also influence the effects of exercise on alcohol use. Herein, we studied male and female C57BL/6 adolescent mice using a 24-hour two-bottle choice paradigm to evaluate 21 days of concurrent voluntary exercise on alcohol consumption and preference. Given previously known effects of exercise in increasing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and its role in regulating the reward system, BDNF mRNA and protein levels were measured at the end of the behavioral experiment. Our results demonstrate sex differences in the efficacy of voluntary exercise and its effects on decreasing alcohol consumption and preference. We also report increased BDNF expression after 21 days of voluntary exercise in both male and female mice. Interestingly, the distance traveled played an important role in alcohol consumption and preference in female mice but not in male mice. Overall, this study demonstrates sex differences in the effects of voluntary exercise on alcohol consumption in adolescent mice and points out the importance of distance traveled as a limiting factor to the beneficial effects of wheel running in female mice. PMID:25447477

  1. Voluntary Exercise Decreases Ethanol Preference and Consumption in C57BL/6 Adolescent Mice: Sex Differences and Hippocampal BDNF Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, X.; Cox, R.J.; Funk, E.; Foster, R.A.; Ehringer, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of high vulnerability for alcohol use and abuse. Early alcohol use has been shown to increase the risk for alcohol-related problems later in life; therefore effective preventive treatments targeted toward adolescents would be very valuable. Many epidemiological and longitudinal studies in humans have revealed the beneficial effects of exercise for prevention and treatment of alcohol addiction. Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that access to a running wheel leads to decreased voluntary alcohol consumption in adult mice, hamsters, and rats. However, age and sex may also influence the effects of exercise on alcohol use. Herein, we studied male and female C57BL/6 adolescent mice using a 24-h two bottle choice paradigm to evaluate 21 days of concurrent voluntary exercise on alcohol consumption and preference. Given previously known effects of exercise in increasing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and its role in regulating the reward system, BDNF mRNA and protein levels were measured at the end of the behavioral experiment. Our results demonstrate sex differences in the efficacy of voluntary exercise and its effects on decreasing alcohol consumption and preference. We also report increased BDNF expression after 21 days of voluntary exercise in both male and female mice. Interestingly, the distance travelled played an important role in alcohol consumption and preference in female mice but not in male mice. Overall, this study demonstrates sex differences in the effects of voluntary exercise on alcohol consumption in adolescent mice and points out the importance of distance travelled as a limiting factor to the beneficial effects of wheel running in female mice. PMID:25447477

  2. Alcohol consumption and dry eye syndrome: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    You, Yong-Sheng; Qu, Nai-Bin; Yu, Xiao-Ning

    2016-01-01

    AIM To quantify the association between alcohol consumption and dry eye syndrome (DES) with Meta-analysis of published case-control and cross-sectional studies. METHODS Three databases were screened for potentially eligible studies through Nov. 30, 2015, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Odds ratios (ORs) were pooled with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and DES risk. Subgroup analyses were performed according to diagnostic criteria, publication year, sample size, alcohol intake and adjusted factors. RESULTS A total of 10 (9 case-control and 1 cross-sectional) studies from 8 articles were included in this Meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that alcohol consumption would significantly increase the risk of DES (OR 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02-1.30), and the results were independent of smoking, hypertension, diabetes and thyroid disease history. And the results of subgroup analyses indicated an increased incidence of DES diagnosed by typical DES symptoms and positive objective tests together (OR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.39) among drinkers, but not by typical DES symptoms alone (OR 1.11, 95% CI: 0.94-1.32). What's more, any drinkers were at higher risk of suffering from DES (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.31-1.34), while heavy drinkers not (OR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.18). CONCLUSION The present Meta-analysis suggests that alcohol consumption may be a significant risk factor for DES. Alcohol-induced peripheral neuropathymay falsely reduce the prevalence of DES among heavy drinkers. Future prospective studies of alcohol consumption and DES risk are needed to confirm our results. PMID:27803869

  3. Changes in Alcohol Behaviour among Adolescents in North-West Russia between 1995 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    Verho, Anastasiya; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Background. Among Russian adults, alcohol consumption with binge drinking was high and increased during past decades. Little is known regarding adolescents' drinking. The present study investigates changes in alcohol-related behaviour among Russian youth between 1995 and 2004. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the 15-year-old youths from all schools in Pitkäranta, Republic of Karelia, Russia. In 1995, 385 students participated (response 95%), in 2004—395 (response 85%). Results. The proportion of abstainers decreased: boys from 26% to 13% (P = 0.002), girls from 23% to 12% (P = 0.007). The age of first alcohol consumption decreased among both genders. First alcohol drinking with friends increased among boys from 65% to 79% (P = 0.031), among girls from 49% to 70% (P = 0.001). Weekly drinking increased: boys from 13% to 28% (P < 0.001), girls from 6% to 15% (P = 0.001). The prevalence on inebriation increased among girls from 45% to 60% (P = 0.012), beer consumption from 8% to 21% (P = 0.006) by 2004. Gender differences were less prominent in 2004. Conclusion. Negative changes: early drinking initiation and more frequent alcohol consumption were observed among Russian youth by 2004. Regular monitoring, effective policy measures, and health education are necessary to prevent further increase in alcohol consumption and subsequent burden of alcohol-related diseases in Russia. PMID:23056064

  4. Is alcohol consumption associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease?*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shao-hua; Wang, Jie-wei; Li, You-ming

    2010-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common disorders with an increasing incidence and prevalence. Alcohol consumption may be a risk factor for GERD; however, the relationship remains to be fully elucidated. The results of different studies are diverse and contradictory. Systematic investigations concerning this matter are inappropriate and further well-designed prospective studies are needed to clarify the effect of alcohol on GERD. PMID:20506572

  5. Association between alcohol consumption and rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    Passaretti, Daniele; Candela, Vittorio; Venditto, Teresa; Giannicola, Giuseppe; Gumina, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Long-term alcohol intake is associated with various negative effects on capillary microcirculation and tissue perfusion. We hypothesized that alcohol consumption might be a risk factor for both the occurrence and the severity of rotator cuff tears (RCTs). Patients and methods — A case-control study was performed. We studied 249 consecutive patients (139 men and 110 women; mean age 64 (54–78) years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Tear size was determined intraoperatively. The control group had 356 subjects (186 men and 170 women; mean age 66 (58–82) years) with no RCT. All participants were questioned about their alcohol intake. Participants were divided into: (1) non-drinkers if they consumed less than 0.01 g of ethanol per day, and (2) moderate drinkers and (3) excessive drinkers if women (men) consumed > 24 g (36 g) per day for at least 2 years. Results — Total alcohol consumption, wine consumption, and duration of alcohol intake were higher in both men and women with RCT than in both men and women in the control group. Excessive alcohol consumption was found to be a risk factor for the occurrence of RCT in both sexes (men: OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–3.9; women: OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.94–4.1). Massive tears were associated with a higher intake of alcohol (especially wine) than smaller lesions. Interpretation — Long-term alcohol intake is a significant risk factor for the occurrence and severity of rotator cuff tear in both sexes. PMID:26610042

  6. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Katherine R.; Largo, Thomas W.; Miller, Corinne; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. Methods The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Results Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Conclusions Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking. PMID:26564010

  7. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior. PMID:25489875

  8. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  9. Lymphocyte measures in treatment-naïve 13-15-year old adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Naude, Celeste E; Bouic, Patrick; Senekal, Marjanne; Kidd, Martin; Ferrett, Helen L; Fein, George; Carey, Paul D

    2011-08-01

    Many adolescents have chronic exposure to hazardous levels of alcohol. This is likely to be a significant predictor of health outcomes, including those related to immunity. We assessed substance use and biochemical immunological parameters in heavy drinking adolescents (meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence) and light/nondrinking control adolescents in Cape Town. Lifetime alcohol dose, measured in standard units of alcohol, was orders of magnitude higher in alcohol-dependent (AD) participants than controls. All adolescent AD had a "weekends-only" style of alcohol consumption. The AD group was chosen to represent relatively "pure" AD, with minimal other drug use and no psychiatric diagnoses. With these narrow parameters in place, we found that AD adolescents were lymphopenic compared with controls, with significantly lower mean numbers of absolute circulating CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes. On conclusion, we found that adolescent AD individuals with excessive alcohol intake, in a weekend binge-drinking style but without comorbid drug or psychiatric disorders, may be at increased risk of lymphopenia. This alcohol misuse may increase infectious disease susceptibility (including TB and HIV) by reducing immune system capabilities. Complex interactions of alcohol with other documented high-risk activities may further compound health risks. PMID:21624786

  10. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    PubMed

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs. PMID:26668039

  11. The Effect of Religiosity and Campus Alcohol Culture on Collegiate Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gayle M.

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity and campus culture were examined in relationship to alcohol consumption among college students using reference group theory. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 530) at a religious college and at a state university complete questionnaires on alcohol use and religiosity. Statistical tests and logistic regression were…

  12. Contingency Management in the Treatment of Adolescent Alcohol Drinking Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Steven L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Three case studies demonstrated excessive alcohol drinking in adolescents could be reduced by self-monitoring and extrinsic reinforcement procedures. Behavioral interventions resulted in complete abstinence for a male with 10 years of excessive alcohol abuse. However, alcohol abuse increased markedly for two females once intervention procedures…

  13. Effects of Naltrexone on Adolescent Alcohol Cue Reactivity and Sensitivity: An Initial Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Robert; Ray, Lara; Blanchard, Alexander; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Monti, Peter M.; Chun, Thomas; Justus, Alicia; Swift, Robert M.; Tidey, Jennifer; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Ramirez, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is associated with myriad adverse consequences and contributes to the leading causes of mortality among youth. Despite the magnitude of this public health problem, evidenced-based treatment initiatives for alcohol use disorders in youth remain inadequate. Identifying promising pharmacological approaches may improve treatment options. Naltrexone is an opiate receptor antagonist that is efficacious for reducing drinking in adults by attenuating craving and the rewarding effects of alcohol. Implications of these findings for adolescents are unclear, however, given that randomized trials of naltrexone with youth are nonexistent. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study, comparing naltrexone (50 mg/daily) and placebo in 22 adolescent problem drinkers aged 15 – 19 years (M = 18.36, SD = 0.95; 12 females). The primary outcome measures were alcohol use, subjective responses to alcohol consumption, and alcohol-cue-elicited craving assessed in the natural environment using ecological momentary assessment methods, and craving and physiological reactivity assessed using standard alcohol cue reactivity procedures. Results showed that naltrexone reduced the likelihood of drinking and heavy drinking (p’s ≤ .03), blunted craving in the laboratory and in the natural environment (p’s ≤ .04), and altered subjective responses to alcohol consumption (p’s ≤ .01). Naltrexone was generally well tolerated by participants. This study provides the first experimentally controlled evidence that naltrexone reduces drinking and craving, and alters subjective responses to alcohol in a sample of adolescent problem drinkers, and suggests larger clinical trials with long-term follow ups are warranted. PMID:23489253

  14. Early substance consumption and problematic use of video games in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Coëffec, Adélaïde; Romo, Lucia; Cheze, Nathalie; Riazuelo, Hélène; Plantey, Sophie; Kotbagi, Gayatri; Kern, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Substance use as well as use of video games is frequent among young people. The purpose of this research was to study the links between the use of video games and the consumption of various substances such as alcohol, tobacco or cannabis at adolescence. In order to do so, 1423 students from middle and high schools filled an auto-questionnaire that included questions on age, gender, year of study, use of video games and consumptions of alcohol (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Short version, AUDIT-C), tobacco (Heaviness of Smoking Index, HSI), and cannabis (Cannabis Abuse Screening Test, CAST). We found that 92.1% of teens use video games and 17.7% have a problematic use of video games (PUVG). Furthermore, results show that substance consumption seems frequent with 19.8 and 8.3% of participants having hazardous alcohol and cannabis consumptions respectively and 5.2% having a moderate to high tobacco dependence. Video gamers consumed significantly more alcohol and gamers with PUVG started their substance consumption (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) earlier. PUVG was found to be negatively correlated to age at first substance consumption, but positively correlated to the time spent playing video games. However, it was not correlated to risks of substance dependence (scores of AUDIT-C, HSI, and CAST). Finally, our results are consistent with the literature, in regard to frequency of substance use and use of video games in adolescence. These data will allow for a better consideration of prevention strategies and future care in this particular field. PMID:25972826

  15. Early substance consumption and problematic use of video games in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Coëffec, Adélaïde; Romo, Lucia; Cheze, Nathalie; Riazuelo, Hélène; Plantey, Sophie; Kotbagi, Gayatri; Kern, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Substance use as well as use of video games is frequent among young people. The purpose of this research was to study the links between the use of video games and the consumption of various substances such as alcohol, tobacco or cannabis at adolescence. In order to do so, 1423 students from middle and high schools filled an auto-questionnaire that included questions on age, gender, year of study, use of video games and consumptions of alcohol (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Short version, AUDIT-C), tobacco (Heaviness of Smoking Index, HSI), and cannabis (Cannabis Abuse Screening Test, CAST). We found that 92.1% of teens use video games and 17.7% have a problematic use of video games (PUVG). Furthermore, results show that substance consumption seems frequent with 19.8 and 8.3% of participants having hazardous alcohol and cannabis consumptions respectively and 5.2% having a moderate to high tobacco dependence. Video gamers consumed significantly more alcohol and gamers with PUVG started their substance consumption (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) earlier. PUVG was found to be negatively correlated to age at first substance consumption, but positively correlated to the time spent playing video games. However, it was not correlated to risks of substance dependence (scores of AUDIT-C, HSI, and CAST). Finally, our results are consistent with the literature, in regard to frequency of substance use and use of video games in adolescence. These data will allow for a better consideration of prevention strategies and future care in this particular field.

  16. Optimum alcohol taxation: balancing consumption and external costs.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J; Crowley, S

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers alternative approaches to the evaluation of the total cost of alcohol consumption in Australia. It calculates the impact of alternative tax rates on beer, wine and spirits separately and the 'consumption cost' of these taxes in terms of the distortion caused to consumption patterns. Two separate analyses are carried out. First optimal taxation is calculated which minimises the total loss from the 'consumption cost' of taxation plus the external cost of alcohol consumption. Secondly, the benefits of life are separated from other benefits and the impact of tax expressed in terms of the cost per life year gained. Conceptualised in this way, the results of this 'tax' program may be expressed in the same way as other health programs, namely as a net cost per life year gained. Alcohol taxation may then be compared with other life saving interventions. The chief conclusion reached is that in Australia there is a very compelling case for a new tax base and for a very significant increase in the rate of alcohol taxation. PMID:8044214

  17. Parental Alcohol-Specific Rules and Alcohol Use from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Burk, William J.; van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies stress the importance of alcohol-specific rules during adolescence to prevent them from drinking early and heavily. However, most studies have short follow-up periods and do not cover the relevant developmental period in which direct parental control diminishes and adolescent alcohol use increases. The current study…

  18. Temporal pattern of alcohol consumption in the United States.

    PubMed

    Arfken, C L

    1988-02-01

    Alcohol is a major risk factor for many causes of injuries. A preliminary assessment of alcohol's involvement in specific causes of injuries must take into account when people are drinking. This study quantified the weekly and diurnal rhythm of alcohol consumption for the general U.S. population using data collected in a national survey. The data showed a strong temporal pattern consisting of more drinking on weekends with daily peaks in the early evening and troughs in the early morning. The national temporal drinking pattern was positively correlated (0.22 to 0.56) with national temporal patterns of motor vehicle accidents, a cause of injury commonly associated with drinking.

  19. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. PMID:25887930

  20. Effect of alcohol consumption on selenium (Se) bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.; Snook, J.T.; Yang, F.L.

    1986-03-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol ingestion on Se bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient (0.012 mg/kg) basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/kg or at 0.085 mg Se/kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at 3 levels: 0%, 10%, and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly (P < .0001) affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance, whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, and liver Se. In rats fed the higher Se diet total liver Se increased 50% when 20% rather than 0% alcohol was given. In rats fed the lower Se diet total liver Se decreased 12% as dietary alcohol increased from 0 to 20%. There was a significant (P < .0015) interaction between alcohol and Se level. All the other parameters for Se bioavailability were not affected by alcohol consumption. However, alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  1. The effect of cancer warning statements on alcohol consumption intentions.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with attitudinal, intentions and demographic items, the survey included an online simulation that exposed respondents to one of six cancer warning statements delivered across a range of situational contexts. Half of the statements made general reference to cancer and half mentioned specific forms of cancer. Respondents reported on the believability, convincingness and personal relevance of the warning statements. Pre- and post-exposure data were captured relating to respondents' alcohol consumption intentions. Of the six statements tested, Alcohol increases your risk of bowel cancer produced the highest scores across all outcome measures. All statements produced favorable changes in alcohol consumption intentions, including among high-risk drinkers. There is thus the potential for these and similar statements to be used as a suite of rotating warning messages located on alcoholic beverage labels and applied in various public education contexts. PMID:26787351

  2. Moderate Alcohol Consumption is Protective Against Colorectal Adenomas in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Galanko, Joseph A.; Martin, Christopher F.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although some studies have shown an association between alcohol consumption and colorectal adenomas, the effect of moderate alcohol consumption is not well-defined, nor is the interaction between alcohol and smoking. Aim To investigate the relationship between different levels of alcohol consumption and colorectal adenomas and to determine whether smoking modifies this relationship. Methods Eligible patients who underwent a complete colonoscopy were included (179 cases and 466 controls). Alcohol consumption was obtained from a lifestyle questionnaire. Patients were divided into three groups: 1) Abstainers: 0 drinks/week; 2) Moderate drinkers: >0-<7 drinks/week; 3) Heavy drinkers: >=7 drinks/week. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using logistic regression, controlling for gender, age, body mass index, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Results were stratified by the number of years smoked. Results The proportion of patients with adenomas was 29.6% in abstainers, 22.1% in moderate drinkers, and 36.7% in heavy drinkers. There was significant modification of the relationship between alcohol consumption and colorectal adenomas by smoking. For individuals who had never smoked, heavy drinkers were at significantly increased odds of having an adenoma compared to moderate drinkers (OR 3.08; 95% CI: 1.50-6.32), while no difference was seen for abstainers (OR 0.99; 95% CI: 0.52-1.89). Similarly, among individuals who had smoked 1-14 years, heavy drinkers were at increased odds of having an adenoma compared to moderate drinkers (OR 2.61; 95% CI: 1.04-6.51), and no difference was seen for abstainers (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 0.33-3.10). Somewhat unexpectedly, among individuals who had smoked for 15 or more years, abstainers were at increased odds of having an adenoma compared to moderate drinkers (OR 2.04; 95% CI: 0.91-4.59), while heavy drinkers were not at increased odds of having an adenoma (OR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.27-1.97). Conclusions Consumption of less

  3. Alcohol consumption, Lewis phenotypes, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, H.O.; Suadicani, P.; Gyntelberg, F. . Epidemiological Research Unit); Sorenson, H. . Dept. of Chemical Immunology); Hein, H.O. . Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1993-02-13

    The authors have previously found an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men with the Lewis phenotype Le(a[minus]b[minus]) and suggested that the Lewis blood group has a close genetic relation with insulin resistance. The authors have investigated whether any conventional risk factors explain the increased risk in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men. 3,383 men aged 53-75 years were examined in 1985-86, and morbidity and mortality during the next 4 years were recorded. At baseline, the authors excluded 343 men with a history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, or stroke. The potential risk factors examined were alcohol consumption, physical activity, tobacco smoking, serum cotinine, serum lipids, body-mass index, blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and social class. In 280 (9.6%) men with Le(a[minus]b[minus]), alcohol was the only risk factor significantly associated with risk of IHD. There was a significant inverse dose-effect relation between alcohol consumption and risk; trend tests, with adjustment for age, were significant for fatal IHD (p=0.02), all IHD (p=0.03), and all causes of death (p=0.02). In 2649 (90.4%) men with other phenotypes, there was a limited negative association with alcohol consumption. In Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men, a group genetically at high risk of IHD, alcohol consumption seems to be especially protective. The authors suggest that alcohol consumption may modify insulin resistance in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men.

  4. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Braams, Barbara R; Peper, Jiska S; van der Heide, Dianne; Peters, Sabine; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-02-01

    During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12-17 years old) and young adults (18-26 years old). Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development. PMID:26771250

  5. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Braams, Barbara R; Peper, Jiska S; van der Heide, Dianne; Peters, Sabine; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-02-01

    During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12-17 years old) and young adults (18-26 years old). Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development.

  6. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Braams, Barbara R.; Peper, Jiska S.; van der Heide, Dianne; Peters, Sabine; Crone, Eveline A.

    2016-01-01

    During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12–17 years old) and young adults (18–26 years old). Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development. PMID:26771250

  7. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  8. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Prehypertension: An Investigation of University Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Randall S.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Prehypertension and heavy alcohol consumption increase the risk for primary hypertension (PH), a major predictor of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Although undergraduate college students have exhibited prehypertensive blood pressure (BP) levels and more than 40% of undergraduates drink heavily, few researchers have examined both…

  10. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Undergraduates: The Impact of Family Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Catherine M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports the results of a study concerning college student characteristics and alcohol consumption. In general, family income was positively associated with likelihood of drinking. In the lowest income category, men were more likely to drink than women; in the highest income category, women were more likely to drink than men. (LKS)

  11. MMPI Response Patterns and Alcohol Consumption in DUI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Although men arrested for driving under the influence of intoxicants shared mild antisocial tendencies, profile patterns associated with higher levels of self-reported drinking were isolated. The relationship between higher levels of estimated alcohol consumption and patterns of elevated levels of depression and social deviance were most…

  12. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  13. The possible impact of an alcohol welfare surcharge on consumption of alcoholic beverages in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The abuse of alcoholic beverages leads to numerous negative consequences in Taiwan, as around the world. Alcohol abuse not only contributes to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, but it is also an underlying cause of many other serious problems, such as traffic accidents, lost productivity, and domestic violence. International leaders in health policy are increasingly using taxation as an effective tool with which to lower alcohol consumption. In this study, we assessed how consumption patterns in Taiwan would be affected by levying a welfare surcharge on alcoholic beverages of 20%, 40% or 60% in accordance with the current excise tax. We also assessed the medical savings Taiwan would experience if consumption of alcoholic beverages were to decrease and how much additional revenue a welfare surcharge would generate. Methods We estimated the elasticity of four types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whisky and brandy) using the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Demand Model. Specifically, we estimated alcohol’s price elasticity by analyzing the sales prices and time statistics of these products from 1974 to 2009. Results Alcoholic beverages in Taiwan have the following price elasticities: beer (−0.820), wine (−0.955), whisky (−0.587), brandy (−0.958). A welfare surcharge tax of 40% in accordance with the excise tax would decrease overall consumption of beer, wine, whisky and brandy between 16.24% and 16.42%. It would also generate New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) revenues of 5.782 billion to 5.993 billion. Savings in medical costs would range from NT$871.07 million to NT$897.46 million annually. Conclusions A social and welfare surcharge of 40% on alcoholic beverages in Taiwan would successfully lower consumption rates, decrease medical costs, and generate revenue that could be used to educate consumers and further decrease consumption rates. Consequently, we strongly recommend that such a tax be imposed in Taiwan. PMID:24010885

  14. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of

  15. Intake of volatile nitrosamines from consumption of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Walker, E A; Castegnaro, M; Garren, L; Toussaint, G; Kowalski, B

    1979-10-01

    Volatile nitrosamines were determined in alcoholic drinks during epidemiologic studies on the relationship between esophageal cancer incidence and alcohol consumption in Normandy, France. Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was found commonly in most alcoholic drinks tested, with the exception of wine. The average level, about 2 micrograms/liter in beers, was higher than that for other drinks; the range was 0.2--8.6 micrograms/liter. Traces of nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were also detected in spirits and ciders. No significant increases in levels were found after nitrosation. Calculation of daily intake in the study region showed that the main intake of volatile nitrosamine is from NDMA in beer. The intake of NDEA through consumption of cider is about one-third that of NDMA from all sources. PMID:480387

  16. Alcohol consumption inhibits bone growth and development in young actively growing rats.

    PubMed

    Sampson, H W; Perks, N; Champney, T H; DeFee, B

    1996-11-01

    Adolescence is an age of widespread alcohol abuse, but the effect of alcohol consumption on bone formation has not been studied in the young population. This study addresses the effect of alcohol on the early phases of bone growth and development in an animal model. Four-week-old, female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. Alcohol-treated animals were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet ad libitum containing 35% ethanol-derived calories, whereas the pair-fed animals (weight-matched to ethanol rats) received an isocaloric liquid diet in which maltose-dextrin substituted calories supplied by ethanol. Chow animals were fed a standard rat chow ad libitum. Proximal tibiae (primarily cancellous bone) and femora (primarily cortical bone) were removed for analysis after 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks on the diets. Serum was collected for analysis of calcium levels, osteocalcin, corticosterone, growth hormone, parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The most rapid weight gain occurred between 6 and 8 weeks of age, it was significantly delayed in alcohol and pair-fed animals. Almost all morphological parameters of bone were lower in the alcohol groups. No significant difference in serum calcium levels, osteocalcin, or growth hormone levels were found, and small difference in calciotropic hormone levels was found between groups. The results indicated that chronic alcohol consumption during the age of bone development reduces bone density and peak bone mass in both cortical and cancellous bone. The mechanism whereby this effect occurs is not fully understood, but, our results suggest that the negative impact of alcohol on growing bone is not due to the secondary effects of altered bone mineral regulating hormones.

  17. Associations of Personality with Alcohol Use Behaviour and Alcohol Problems in Adolescents Receiving Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sherry Heather; McGonnell, Melissa; Wekerle, Christine; Adlaf, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Four specific personality factors have been theorized to put adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse: hopelessness (HOP), anxiety sensitivity (AS), sensation seeking (SS), and impulsivity (IMP). We examined relations of these personality factors to various alcohol-related indices in a sample at high risk for alcohol problems--specifically, a child…

  18. Adolescent Alcohol Use: Protective and Predictive Parent, Peer, and Self-Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Handren, Lindsay M; Donaldson, Candice D; Crano, William D

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent alcohol use has been linked with a multitude of problems and a trajectory predictive of problematic use in adulthood. Thus, targeting factors that enhance early prevention efforts is vital. The current study highlights variables that mitigate or predict alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. Using Monitoring the Future (MTF) data, multiple path analytic models revealed links between parental involvement and alcohol abstinence and initiation. Parental involvement predicted enhanced self-esteem and less self-derogation and was negatively associated with peer alcohol norms for each MTF grade sampled, with stronger associations for 8th and 10th graders than 12th graders. For younger groups, self-esteem predicted increased perceptions of alcohol risk and reduced drinking. Self-derogation was associated with peers' pro-alcohol norms, which was linked to lower risk perceptions, lower personal disapproval of use, and increased drinking. Peer influence had a stronger association with consumption for 8th and 10th graders, whereas 12th graders' drinking was related to personal factors of alcohol risk perception and disapproval. In all grades, general alcohol use had a strong connection to heavy episodic drinking within the past 2 weeks. Across-grade variations in association of parent, peer, and personal factors suggest the desirability of tailored interventions focused on specific factors for each grade level, with the overall goal of attenuating adolescent alcohol use. PMID:27562038

  19. Acute Alcohol Consumption Elevates Serum Bilirubin, an Endogenous Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Jatlow, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with both negative and favorable effects on health. The mechanisms responsible for reported favorable effects remain unclear. Higher (not necessarily elevated) concentrations of serum bilirubin, an antioxidant, have also been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. This study tests the hypothesis that single dose alcohol consumption elevates bilirubin providing a potential link between these observations. Methods 18 healthy individuals (8 cigarette smokers) were administered alcohol, calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80 and 120 mg/dL, in random order in 3 laboratory sessions separated by a week. Each session was preceded by and followed by 5–7 days of alcohol abstinence. Serum bilirubin was measured at 7:45 am prior to drinking, at 2 pm, and at 7:45 the next morning. Mixed effects regression models compared baseline and 24 hr. post-drinking bilirubin concentrations. Results Total serum bilirubin (sum of indirect and direct) concentration increased significantly after drinking from baseline to 24 hours in non-smokers (from Mean=0.38, SD=0.24 to Mean=0.51 SD=0.30, F(1, 32.2) =24.24, p<.0001) but not in smokers (from Mean=0.25, SD=0.12 to Mean=0.26, SD=0.15, F(1, 31.1) =0.04, p=0.84). In nonsmokers the indirect bilirubin concentration and the ratio of indirect (unconjugated) to direct (conjugated) bilirubin also increased significantly. Conclusions Alcohol consumption leads to increases in serum bilirubin in nonsmokers. Considering the antioxidant properties of bilirubin, our findings suggest one possible mechanism for the reported association between alcohol consumption and reduced risk of some disorders that could be tested in future longitudinal studies. PMID:25707709

  20. An explanation for enhanced perceptions of attractiveness after alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Halsey, L G; Huber, J W; Bufton, R D J; Little, A C

    2010-06-01

    Acute alcohol consumption increases ratings of attractiveness to faces. This may help to explain increased frequencies of sexual encounters during periods of alcohol intoxication. At least in part, such increased attraction may be the result of alcohol consumption decreasing ability to detect bilateral asymmetry, presumably because of the reductions in the levels of visual function. We tested the hypotheses that acute alcohol consumption decreases ability to detect asymmetry in faces and reduces preference for symmetrical faces over asymmetrical faces. Twenty images of a pair of faces and then 20 images of a single face were displayed on a computer, one at a time. Participants were instructed to state which face of each of the face pairs displayed was most attractive and then whether the single face being displayed was symmetrical or not. Data were collected near campus bars at Roehampton University. Sixty-four self-selecting students who undertook the study were classified as either sober (control) or intoxicated with alcohol. For each face pair or single face displayed, participant response was recorded and details of the alcohol consumption of participants that day were also obtained. Sober participants had a greater preference for symmetrical faces and were better at detecting whether a face was symmetrical or otherwise, supporting the hypotheses. A further, unexpected finding was that males made fewer mistakes than did females when determining whether individual faces were asymmetrical. The reduced ability of inebriated people to perceive asymmetry may be an important mechanism underlying the higher ratings of facial attractiveness they give for members of the opposite sex and hence their increased frequency of mate choice. PMID:20570085

  1. Alcohol consumption in Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K; Yeo, P P; Lun, K C; Thai, A C; Wang, K W; Cheah, J S

    1990-05-01

    A population based survey has measured alcohol consumption by questionnaire in persons aged 18 to 69 years in Singapore. The majority were "occasional/none" drinkers, being males (Chinese 87%, Malays 99% and Indians 80%) and females (Chinese 98%, Malays 100% and Indians 100%). "Heavy" consumption was uncommon in males (Chinese 0.6%, Malays 0% and Indians 1.3%) and absent in females, while "heavy/moderate" drinking was males (Chinese 5.7%, Malays 0.5% and Indians 3.8%) and females (Chinese 0.3%, Malays 0% and Indians 0%). For males, "light" drinking was highest in Indians (15.9%), then Chinese (7.8%) and then Malays (0.5%). This survey indicates that alcohol consumption is not yet a major public health problem in Singapore.

  2. Effectiveness of public health programs for decreasing alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Kelly-Weeder, Susan; Phillips, Kathryn; Rounseville, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and the associated negative consequences are a major public health concern in the United States and throughout the world. Historically, there have been numerous attempts to develop policies and prevention programs aimed at decreasing high-risk alcohol use. Policy initiatives have demonstrated considerable effectiveness and include changes in the minimum legal drinking age, reductions in acceptable legal limits for blood alcohol concentration while operating a motor vehicle, as well as decreasing availability and access to alcohol for underage individuals. Primary prevention programs that have used exclusively educational approaches have received mixed results. Increasing effectiveness has been associated with prevention programs that have utilized a multi-component approach and have included educational initiatives with environmental changes. PMID:23180975

  3. Adolescents and Alcohol: Acute Sensitivities, Enhanced Intake, and Later Consequences*

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental period characterized by notable maturational changes in brain along with various age-related behavioral characteristics, including the propensity to initiate alcohol and other drug use and consume more alcohol per occasion than adults. After a brief review of adolescent neurobehavioral function from an evolutionary perspective, the paper will turn to assessment of adolescent alcohol sensitivity and consequences, with a focus on work from our laboratory. After summarizing evidence showing that adolescents differ considerably from adults in their sensitivity to various effects of alcohol, potential contributors to these age-typical sensitivities will be discussed, and the degree to which these findings are generalizable to other drugs and to human adolescents will be considered. Recent studies are then reviewed to illustrate that repeated alcohol exposure during adolescence induces behavioral, cognitive, and neural alterations that are highly specific, replicable, persistent and dependent on the timing of the exposure. Research in this area is in its early stages, however, and more work will be necessary to characterize the extent of these neurobehavioral alterations and further determine the degree to which observed effects are specific to alcohol exposure during adolescence. PMID:24291291

  4. Differential Effects of Neighborhood Type on Adolescent Alcohol Use in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Nicki; Denny, Simon; Sheridan, Janie; Zhao, Jinfeng; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2016-10-01

    Identifying neighborhood typologies associated with adolescent alcohol use can inform the development of harm reduction strategies. Utilizing data from a nationally representative youth survey (n = 4267) in New Zealand, latent class analysis was used to categorize neighborhood types (defined by 10 demographic, social and environmental indicators) to investigate their association with alcohol consumption and related harm. Three neighborhood types were distinguished: (1) "high outlet density and economic deprivation" (30 % of all neighborhoods); (2) "high deprivation, social disorganization, and unsafe" (38 %); and (3) "higher income, safe, and socially organized" (32 %). Significant ethnic variation was evident between neighborhood types. There was an age-group interaction in the main effects with significant associations between neighborhood type and drinking measures and harm most apparent among younger adolescents (<16 years), as described next. Compared to students residing in "higher income, safe, and socially organized" neighborhoods, the frequency of binge drinking and high typical consumption was significantly higher in students residing in "high outlet density and economic deprivation" and "high deprivation, social disorganization, and unsafe", with students residing in "high outlet density and economic deprivation" also experiencing higher levels of alcohol-related harm. The findings that neighborhoods characterized by high deprivation and alcohol outlet density and low social organization and perceptions of safety were associated with risky drinking patterns and harm, specifically among young adolescents, underscores the importance of adopting a developmental approach to the study of contextual effects on adolescents. PMID:27396901

  5. Differential Effects of Neighborhood Type on Adolescent Alcohol Use in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Nicki; Denny, Simon; Sheridan, Janie; Zhao, Jinfeng; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2016-10-01

    Identifying neighborhood typologies associated with adolescent alcohol use can inform the development of harm reduction strategies. Utilizing data from a nationally representative youth survey (n = 4267) in New Zealand, latent class analysis was used to categorize neighborhood types (defined by 10 demographic, social and environmental indicators) to investigate their association with alcohol consumption and related harm. Three neighborhood types were distinguished: (1) "high outlet density and economic deprivation" (30 % of all neighborhoods); (2) "high deprivation, social disorganization, and unsafe" (38 %); and (3) "higher income, safe, and socially organized" (32 %). Significant ethnic variation was evident between neighborhood types. There was an age-group interaction in the main effects with significant associations between neighborhood type and drinking measures and harm most apparent among younger adolescents (<16 years), as described next. Compared to students residing in "higher income, safe, and socially organized" neighborhoods, the frequency of binge drinking and high typical consumption was significantly higher in students residing in "high outlet density and economic deprivation" and "high deprivation, social disorganization, and unsafe", with students residing in "high outlet density and economic deprivation" also experiencing higher levels of alcohol-related harm. The findings that neighborhoods characterized by high deprivation and alcohol outlet density and low social organization and perceptions of safety were associated with risky drinking patterns and harm, specifically among young adolescents, underscores the importance of adopting a developmental approach to the study of contextual effects on adolescents.

  6. Moderate alcohol consumption and loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    PubMed Central

    Karhunen, P. J.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Laippala, P.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the dose-response effect of alcohol consumption on the number of cerebellar Purkinje cells. DESIGN--A prospective necropsy study combined with detailed reports on use of alcohol from a relative or friend. The number of Purkinje cells was counted in the anterior midsagittal section of the cerebellar vermis, the area of which was measured by computer assisted morphometry. SETTING--Department of forensic medicine, University of Helsinki. SUBJECTS--66 men, aged 35 to 69 years, subjected to medicolegal necropsy because of sudden or violent death. The average all year daily alcohol consumption over the year was 0 to 10 g in 17 men, 11 to 80 g in 24 men, and more than 80 g in 25 men. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number of Purkinje cells, alcohol consumption. RESULTS--The numbers and density of Purkinje cells in the cross section of vermis showed a consistent but weak decrease with increasing daily alcohol intake but not with age. A wide variation in the cell counts was observed, especially in men drinking more than 80 g, suggesting differences in the susceptibility to effects of alcohol. Compared with men drinking 40 g or less, a long term moderate consumption of an average of 41 to 80 g daily was associated with a significant average loss of 242 (95% confidence interval 45 to 439) Purkinje cells (15.2%) from a mean of 1583 to 1341 cells. In those drinking 81 to 180 g the average loss was 535 (259 to 811) cells (33.4%) to a mean of 1048 cells. The density of cells in the cross section of vermis also fell significantly by 0.9 cell/mm (0.1 to 1.7) when the daily consumption exceeded 40 g and by 1.4 cell/mm (0.3 to 2.5) when the intake was 81 to 180 g. Only three cases (4.5%) in the series showed macroscopical cerebellar atrophy. CONCLUSION--Long term intake of moderate doses of alcohol daily for 20-30 years may damage the cerebellum before the onset of macroscopical atrophy. Despite distinct individual differences an all year average daily alcohol intake of

  7. Fraction of stroke mortality attributable to alcohol consumption in Russia.

    PubMed

    Y E, Razvodovsky

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is an international health problem with high associated human and economic costs. The mortality rate from stroke in Russia is one of the highest in the world. Risk factors identification is therefore a high priority from the public health perspective. Epidemiological evidence suggests that binge drinking is an important determinant of high stroke mortality rate in Russia. The aim of the present study was to estimate the premature stroke mortality attributable to alcohol abuse in Russia on the basis of aggregate-level data of stroke mortality and alcohol consumption. Age-standardized sex-specific male and female stroke mortality data for the period 1980-2005 and data on overall alcohol consumption were analyzed by means ARIMA time series analysis. The results of the analysis suggest that 26.8% of all male stroke deaths and 18.4% female stroke deaths in Russia could be attributed to alcohol. The estimated alcohol-attributable fraction for men ranged from 16.2% (75+ age group) to 57,5% (30-44 age group) and for women from 21.7% (60-74 age group) and 43.5% (30- 44 age group). The outcomes of this study provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol is an important contributor to the high stroke mortality rate in Russian Federation. Therefore prevention of alcohol-attributable harm should be a major public health priority in Russia. Given the distribution of alcohol-related stroke deaths, interventions should be focused on the young and middle-aged men and women.

  8. Effects of rearing conditions on behaviour and endogenous opioids in rats with alcohol access during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Palm, Sara; Daoura, Loudin; Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Causal links between early-life stress, genes and later psychiatric diagnoses are not possible to fully address in human studies. Animal models therefore provide an important complement in which conditions can be well controlled and are here used to study and distinguish effects of early-life stress and alcohol exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour in young rats and if these changes could be followed over time and to examine interaction effects between early-life environment and adolescent alcohol drinking on behaviour and immunoreactive levels of the opioid peptides dynorphin B, met-enkephalin-Arg(6)Phe(7) and beta-endorphin. We employed a rodent model, maternal separation, to study the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour, voluntary alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced effects. The consequences of short, 15 min (MS 15), and long, 360 min (MS 360), maternal separation in combination with adolescent voluntary alcohol consumption on behaviour and peptides were examined. A difference in the development of risk taking behaviour was found between the MS15 and MS360 while the development of general activity was found to differ between intake groups. Beta-endorphin levels in the pituitary and the periaqueductal gray area was found to be higher in the MS15 than the MS360. Adolescent drinking resulted in higher dynorphin B levels in the hippocampus and higher met-enkephalin-Arg(6)Phe(7) levels in the amygdala. Amygdala and hippocampus are involved in addiction processes and changes in these brain areas after adolescent alcohol drinking may have consequences for cognitive function and drug consumption behaviour in adulthood. The study shows that individual behavioural profiling over time in combination with neurobiological investigations provides means for studies of causality between early-life stress, behaviour and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24098535

  9. Effects of Rearing Conditions on Behaviour and Endogenous Opioids in Rats with Alcohol Access during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Causal links between early-life stress, genes and later psychiatric diagnoses are not possible to fully address in human studies. Animal models therefore provide an important complement in which conditions can be well controlled and are here used to study and distinguish effects of early-life stress and alcohol exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour in young rats and if these changes could be followed over time and to examine interaction effects between early-life environment and adolescent alcohol drinking on behaviour and immunoreactive levels of the opioid peptides dynorphin B, met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 and beta-endorphin. We employed a rodent model, maternal separation, to study the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour, voluntary alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced effects. The consequences of short, 15 min (MS 15), and long, 360 min (MS 360), maternal separation in combination with adolescent voluntary alcohol consumption on behaviour and peptides were examined. A difference in the development of risk taking behaviour was found between the MS15 and MS360 while the development of general activity was found to differ between intake groups. Beta-endorphin levels in the pituitary and the periaqueductal gray area was found to be higher in the MS15 than the MS360. Adolescent drinking resulted in higher dynorphin B levels in the hippocampus and higher met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 levels in the amygdala. Amygdala and hippocampus are involved in addiction processes and changes in these brain areas after adolescent alcohol drinking may have consequences for cognitive function and drug consumption behaviour in adulthood. The study shows that individual behavioural profiling over time in combination with neurobiological investigations provides means for studies of causality between early-life stress, behaviour and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24098535

  10. Adolescent Brain Development and the Risk for Alcohol and Other Drug Problems

    PubMed Central

    Bava, Sunita

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic changes in neurochemistry, fiber architecture, and tissue composition occur in the adolescent brain. The course of these maturational processes is being charted with greater specificity, owing to advances in neuroimaging and indicate grey matter volume reductions and protracted development of white matter in regions known to support complex cognition and behavior. Though fronto-subcortical circuitry development is notable during adolescence, asynchronous maturation of prefrontal and limbic systems may render youth more vulnerable to risky behaviors such as substance use. Indeed, binge-pattern alcohol consumption and comorbid marijuana use are common among adolescents, and are associated with neural consequences. This review summarizes the unique characteristics of adolescent brain development, particularly aspects that predispose individuals to reward seeking and risky choices during this phase of life, and discusses the influence of substance use on neuromaturation. Together, findings in this arena underscore the importance of refined research and programming efforts in adolescent health and interventional needs. PMID:20953990

  11. Parent attitudes, family dynamics and adolescent drinking: qualitative study of the Australian parenting guidelines for adolescent alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Parents play a critical role in their children’s introduction to alcohol. A range of parenting factors have been associated with the progression to risky drinking among adolescents, and have recently formed the basis of the Australian ‘Parenting Guidelines for Adolescent Alcohol Use’ designed to help parents delay or reduce their adolescents’ alcohol use. Methods This study aimed to explore the experiences and attitudes of parents of adolescents to gain insight into: (1) the extent to which the behaviours of parents follow the recommendations made in the guidelines; and (2) approaches to reduce hazardous drinking among adolescents. Thirty-two telephone and face-to-face interviews were conducted with parents, and the content of discussions was examined using thematic analysis. Results Parents used approaches they thought would minimise harm and promote healthy development in their children. The guidelines address key areas of concern for parents but their adherence to these approaches is low in certain areas. Many parents provided some alcohol to their adolescents and often cited the social norm of drinking among their adolescents’ peers as a source of pressure to supply. Conclusions Further dissemination of the guidelines may be the first step in a public health strategy, but it is likely that parents will require support to effectively adopt the recommendations. Understanding the influences on parents’ beliefs about their children’s drinking and the functions of social networks in the creation of behavioural norms relating to alcohol consumption and supply may be necessary to address adolescent risky drinking. PMID:22747699

  12. Determinants of positive and negative consequences of alcohol consumption in college students: alcohol use, gender, and psychological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Park, Crystal L; Grant, Christoffer

    2005-05-01

    To examine the influence of alcohol consumption, gender, and psychological risk and protective factors on college students' experiences of negative and positive consequences, the present study of 181 students assessed frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, negative and positive consequences of alcohol use, positive alcohol expectancies, constructive thinking, and positive and negative affect. Results indicated that men and women differed in their experience of some consequences and that while alcohol consumption was generally more strongly related to consequences for women than for men, it was unrelated to most consequences. Further, when controlling for alcohol consumption, positive alcohol expectancies and negative affect were positively related to experiencing positive and negative consequences while constructive thinking was related to fewer positive and fewer negative consequences. Results indicate that consequences are much more strongly related to psychological risk and protective factors than to alcohol consumption. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for intervention efforts.

  13. Prediction of alcohol drinking in adolescents: Personality-traits, behavior, brain responses, and genetic variations in the context of reward sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Angela; Müller, Kathrin U; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Papadopoulos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Smolka, Michael; Ströhle, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter; Nees, Frauke

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a time that can set the course of alcohol abuse later in life. Sensitivity to reward on multiple levels is a major factor in this development. We examined 736 adolescents from the IMAGEN longitudinal study for alcohol drinking during early (mean age=14.37) and again later (mean age=16.45) adolescence. Conducting structural equation modeling we evaluated the contribution of reward-related personality traits, behavior, brain responses and candidate genes. Personality seems to be most important in explaining alcohol drinking in early adolescence. However, genetic variations in ANKK1 (rs1800497) and HOMER1 (rs7713917) play an equal role in predicting alcohol drinking two years later and are most important in predicting the increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that the initiation of alcohol use may be driven more strongly by personality while the transition to increased alcohol use is more genetically influenced. PMID:27180911

  14. Prediction of alcohol drinking in adolescents: Personality-traits, behavior, brain responses, and genetic variations in the context of reward sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Angela; Müller, Kathrin U; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Papadopoulos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Smolka, Michael; Ströhle, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter; Nees, Frauke

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a time that can set the course of alcohol abuse later in life. Sensitivity to reward on multiple levels is a major factor in this development. We examined 736 adolescents from the IMAGEN longitudinal study for alcohol drinking during early (mean age=14.37) and again later (mean age=16.45) adolescence. Conducting structural equation modeling we evaluated the contribution of reward-related personality traits, behavior, brain responses and candidate genes. Personality seems to be most important in explaining alcohol drinking in early adolescence. However, genetic variations in ANKK1 (rs1800497) and HOMER1 (rs7713917) play an equal role in predicting alcohol drinking two years later and are most important in predicting the increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that the initiation of alcohol use may be driven more strongly by personality while the transition to increased alcohol use is more genetically influenced.

  15. The Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Bai, Yinglong; Sun, Guozhe; Guan, Yufan; Sun, Yingxian; Roselle, Abraham Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The results of previous studies on the relation between alcohol consumption and heart failure (HF) have been inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in a general population. A total of 10,824 adults were examined using a multistage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of individuals who were at least 35-years old. The participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Echocardiograms were obtained, and LVEF was calculated using modified Simpson's rule. Of the 10,824 participants included in the present study, 46.1% were males, and the mean participant age was 54 years; age ranged from 35 to 93 years. The overall prevalence of LVEF< 0.50 and LVEF < 0.40 in the studied population was 11.6% and 2.9%, respectively. The prevalence of LVEF < 0.5 and LVEF < 0.04 was higher in both the moderate and heavy drinker groups than in the nondrinker group (P <0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses corrected according to the different levels of alcohol consumption showed that moderate and heavy drinkers had an –1.3-fold and 1.2-fold higher risk of LVEF <0.5, respectively, than nondrinkers (OR: 1.381, 95% CI: 1.115–1.711, P = 0.003 for moderate drinkers; OR: 1.246, 95% CI: 1.064–1.460, P = 0.006 for heavy drinkers). Heavy drinkers had an ∼1.5-fold higher risk of decreased LVEF < 0.4 than nondrinkers (OR: 1.482, 95% CI: 1.117–1.965, P = 0.006). Moderate drinkers did not show a risk of decreased LVEF < 0.4 that was significantly higher than that of nondrinkers (OR: 1.183, 95% CI: 0.774–1.808, P = 0.437). According to these results, we concluded that increased alcohol consumption was associated with decreased LVEF compared with no alcohol consumption in this general population. PMID:27227945

  16. College Student Employment and Drinking: A Daily Study of Work Stressors, Alcohol Expectancies, and Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Adam B.; Dodge, Kama D.; Faurote, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the within-person relationships between daily work stressors and alcohol consumption over 14 consecutive days in a sample of 106 employed college students. Using a tension reduction theoretical framework, we predicted that exposure to work stressors would increase alcohol consumption by employed college students, particularly for men and those with stronger daily expectancies about the tension reducing properties of alcohol. After controlling for day of the week, we found that hours worked were positively related to number of drinks consumed. Workload was unrelated to alcohol consumption, and work-school conflict was negatively related to consumption, particularly when students expressed strong beliefs in the tension reducing properties of alcohol. There was no evidence that the effects of work stressors were moderated by gender. The results illustrate that employment during the academic year plays a significant role in college student drinking and suggest that the employment context may be an appropriate intervention site to address the problem of student drinking. PMID:20604635

  17. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related harms in Spain, and the effect of treatment-based interventions on alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in Spain has traditionally followed the Mediterranean drinking pattern, featuring daily drinking with meals, beer as the preferred beverage, and comparatively little drinking to intoxication. Alcohol dependence (AD), one of the most detrimental disorders caused by alcohol, was prevalent in 0.2% of women and 1.2% of men, corresponding to 31,200 women and 186,000 men in Spain with AD in 2005 in the age group of 15 to 64 year. These prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence are likely underestimated due to limitations in the World Mental Health Survey which cannot be fully corrected for; however, the estimates of AD for Spain represent the most accurate and up to date estimates available. Alcohol creates a significant health burden in Spain with 11.3 premature deaths in women per 100,000 aged 15 to 64 years, and 40.9 premature deaths in men per 100,000 in the same age group were due to alcohol consumption (data for 2004). This amounts to 8.4% of all female deaths and 12.3% of all the male deaths in this age group being attributable to alcohol consumption. A large percentage of these harms were due to heavy alcohol consumption and AD. AD is undertreated in Spain, with less than 10% of all people with AD treated. For those who are treated, psychotherapy is the most utilized form of treatment to avoid relapse. If 40% of AD patients in Spain were treated with pharmacological treatment (the most effective treatment method), 2.2% of female and 6.2% of male deaths due to AD would be prevented within one year. Thus by increasing treatment rates is an important means of reducing the alcohol-attributable mortality and health burden in Spain.

  18. Adolescent Responses to the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Karen P.; Erbaugh, Susan E.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the ability of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC) to indicate drug abuse in high school students (N=135), adolescent psychiatric patients (N=171), and residents of a drug abuse treatment center (N=100). Results suggested the MAC can help discriminate between groups of adolescents with and without significant drug abuse. (JAC)

  19. Adolescent Work and Alcohol Use Revisited: Variations by Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocheleau, Gregory C.; Swisher, Raymond R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research finds adolescent work hours to be associated with increased alcohol use. Most studies, however, fail to account for possible selection effects that lead youth to both work and substance use. Using data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 12,620), a fixed effects regression method…

  20. Positivity Coping Style and Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, M. Dolores; Bermudez, Jose; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescence is a period when at-risk health behaviors often begin, such as tobacco and alcohol use; thus, it is a critical period for implementing preventive strategies. Method: In this context, 106 adolescents took part in this research (54 females and 52 males; mean age for both groups = 14.10). The main objectives were to first…

  1. Brief Alcohol Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports findings from a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents (age 11-18) and young adults (age 19-30). We identified 185 eligible study samples using a comprehensive literature search and synthesized findings using random-effects meta-analyses with robust standard errors. Overall, brief alcohol interventions led to significant reductions in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems among adolescents (ḡ = 0.27 and ḡ = 0.19) and young adults (ḡ = 0.17 and ḡ = 0.11). These effects persisted for up to one year after intervention and did not vary across participant demographics, intervention length, or intervention format. However, certain intervention modalities (e.g., motivational interviewing) and components (e.g., decisional balance, goal-setting exercises) were associated with larger effects. We conclude that brief alcohol interventions yield beneficial effects on alcohol-related outcomes for adolescents and young adults that are modest but potentially worthwhile given their brevity and low cost. PMID:25300577

  2. Prevalence and Predictors of Adolescent Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Because alcohol use typically is initiated during adolescence and young adulthood and may have long-term consequences, the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study annually assesses various measures of alcohol use among 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students. These analyses have found that although alcohol use among these age groups overall has been declining since 1975, levels remain high. Thus, in 2011 about one-quarter of 8th graders, one-half of 10th graders, and almost two-thirds of 12th graders reported drinking alcohol in the month preceding the interview. Binge drinking (i.e., consumption of five or more drinks in a row) was also prevalent. Specific rates of drinking, binge drinking, and getting drunk varied among different student subgroups based on gender and race/ethnicity. The MTF study has also identified numerous factors that influence the risk of alcohol use among adolescents, including parents and peers, school and work, religiosity and community attachment, exercise and sports participation, externalizing behavior and other drug use, risk taking and sensation seeking, well-being, and drinking attitudes and reasons for alcohol use. Drinking during adolescence can have long-term effects on a person’s life trajectory. Therefore, these findings have broad implications for prevention and intervention efforts with this population. PMID:24881328

  3. Gender Differences in Factors Influencing Alcohol Use and Drinking Progression Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Marya T.; Ramo, Danielle; Brown, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    While prevalence rates for alcohol use and related disorders differ widely between adult men and women, male and female adolescents do not exhibit the same disparity in alcohol consumption. Previous research and reviews do not address the emergence of differences in drinking patterns that occur during late adolescence. Therefore, a developmental perspective is presented for understanding how various risk and protective factors associated with problematic drinking affect diverging alcohol trajectories as youth move into young adulthood. This review examines factors associated with risk for developing an alcohol use disorder in adolescent girls and boys separately. Findings indicate that certain biological (i.e., genetic risk, neurological abnormalities associated with P300 amplitudes) and psychosocial (i.e., impact of positive drinking expectancies, personality characteristics, and deviance proneness) factors appear to impact boys and girls similarly. In contrast, physiological and social changes particular to adolescence appear to differentially affect boys and girls as they transition into adulthood. Specifically, boys begin to manifest a constellation of factors that place them at greater risk for disruptive drinking: low response to alcohol, later maturation in brain structures and executive function, greater estimates of perceived peer alcohol use, and socialization into traditional gender roles. On an individual level, interventions which challenge media-driven stereotypes of gender roles while simultaneously reinforcing personal values are suggested as a way to strengthen adolescent autonomy in terms of healthy drinking decisions. Moreover, parents and schools must improve consistency in rules and consequences regarding teen drinking across gender to avoid mixed messages about acceptable alcohol use for boys and girls. PMID:19592147

  4. Gender differences in factors influencing alcohol use and drinking progression among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Marya T; Ramo, Danielle; Brown, Sandra A

    2009-08-01

    While prevalence rates for alcohol use and related disorders differ widely between adult men and women, male and female adolescents do not exhibit the same disparity in alcohol consumption. Previous research and reviews do not address the emergence of differences in drinking patterns that occur during late adolescence. Therefore, a developmental perspective is presented for understanding how various risk and protective factors associated with problematic drinking affect diverging alcohol trajectories as youth move into young adulthood. This review examines factors associated with risk for developing an alcohol use disorder in adolescent girls and boys separately. Findings indicate that certain biological (i.e., genetic risk, neurological abnormalities associated with P300 amplitudes) and psychosocial (i.e., impact of positive drinking expectancies, personality characteristics, and deviance proneness) factors appear to impact boys and girls similarly. In contrast, physiological and social changes particular to adolescence appear to differentially affect boys and girls as they transition into adulthood. Specifically, boys begin to manifest a constellation of factors that place them at greater risk for disruptive drinking: low response to alcohol, later maturation in brain structures and executive function, greater estimates of perceived peer alcohol use, and socialization into traditional gender roles. On an individual level, interventions which challenge media-driven stereotypes of gender roles while simultaneously reinforcing personal values are suggested as a way to strengthen adolescent autonomy in terms of healthy drinking decisions. Moreover, parents and schools must improve consistency in rules and consequences regarding teen drinking across gender to avoid mixed messages about acceptable alcohol use for boys and girls.

  5. Gender differences in factors influencing alcohol use and drinking progression among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Marya T; Ramo, Danielle; Brown, Sandra A

    2009-08-01

    While prevalence rates for alcohol use and related disorders differ widely between adult men and women, male and female adolescents do not exhibit the same disparity in alcohol consumption. Previous research and reviews do not address the emergence of differences in drinking patterns that occur during late adolescence. Therefore, a developmental perspective is presented for understanding how various risk and protective factors associated with problematic drinking affect diverging alcohol trajectories as youth move into young adulthood. This review examines factors associated with risk for developing an alcohol use disorder in adolescent girls and boys separately. Findings indicate that certain biological (i.e., genetic risk, neurological abnormalities associated with P300 amplitudes) and psychosocial (i.e., impact of positive drinking expectancies, personality characteristics, and deviance proneness) factors appear to impact boys and girls similarly. In contrast, physiological and social changes particular to adolescence appear to differentially affect boys and girls as they transition into adulthood. Specifically, boys begin to manifest a constellation of factors that place them at greater risk for disruptive drinking: low response to alcohol, later maturation in brain structures and executive function, greater estimates of perceived peer alcohol use, and socialization into traditional gender roles. On an individual level, interventions which challenge media-driven stereotypes of gender roles while simultaneously reinforcing personal values are suggested as a way to strengthen adolescent autonomy in terms of healthy drinking decisions. Moreover, parents and schools must improve consistency in rules and consequences regarding teen drinking across gender to avoid mixed messages about acceptable alcohol use for boys and girls. PMID:19592147

  6. Developmental Associations between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across Grades 8 through 12, controlling for shared risk factors…

  7. Alcohol Use. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2012-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Vaughn, Brigitte; Barry, Megan; Terzian, Mary

    2012-01-01

    A substantial proportion of high school students consume alcohol, with nearly a quarter of 12th grade students reporting binge drinking in the past two weeks. Drinking alcohol in adolescence is associated with a variety of other risky behaviors, as well as with an increased likelihood of long-term problems reaching into adulthood. This "Adolescent…

  8. Alcohol Use Growth Trajectories in Young Adolescence: Pathways and Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamblen, Stephen R.; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Clark, Heddy K.; Hanley, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    New analytical tools have facilitated the exploration of the trajectories of alcohol use; however, there are a limited number of studies that explore early adolescence. A sample of 5,903 youths followed from sixth through eighth grade was used to (1) examine the trajectories of alcohol use and (2) determine the degree to which common correlates…

  9. An Investigation of Alcohol Use among Turkish High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gursoy, Figen; Bicacki, Mudriye Yildiz; Aral, Neriman

    2007-01-01

    Among the chief reasons for adolescent alcohol use are demographic characteristics, family relationships, social relationships, peer relationships, low self-esteem, social pressure, rebellion, and depression. It has been shown that alcohol users display a tendency for violence and aggressive behavior. The present study explores the relationship…

  10. The Neurobiology of Alcohol Consumption and Alcoholism: An Integrative History1

    PubMed Central

    Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the neurobiological predisposition to consume alcohol (ethanol) and to transition to uncontrolled drinking behavior (alcoholism), as well as studies of the effects of alcohol on brain function, started a logarithmic growth phase after the repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Although the early studies were primitive by current technological standards, they clearly demonstrated the effects of alcohol on brain structure and function, and by the end of the 20th century left little doubt that alcoholism is a “disease” of the brain. This review traces the history of developments in the understanding of ethanol’s effects on the most prominent inhibitory and excitatory systems of brain (GABA and glutamate neurotransmission). This neurobiological information is integrated with knowledge of ethanol’s actions on other neurotransmitter systems to produce an anatomical and functional map of ethanol’s properties. Our intent is limited in scope, but is meant to provide context and integration of the actions of ethanol on the major neurobiologic systems which produce reinforcement for alcohol consumption and changes in brain chemistry that lead to addiction. The developmental history of neurobehavioral theories of the transition from alcohol drinking to alcohol addiction is presented and juxtaposed to the neurobiological findings. Depending on one’s point of view, we may, at this point in history, know more, or less, than we think we know about the neurobiology of alcoholism. PMID:24141171

  11. Alcohol Consumption and Dietary Patterns: The FinDrink Study

    PubMed Central

    Fawehinmi, Timothy O.; Ilomäki, Jenni; Voutilainen, Sari; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to investigate differences in dietary patterns in relation to the level of alcohol consumption among Finnish adults. This study was part of the FinDrink project, an epidemiologic study on alcohol use among Finnish population. It utilized data from the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. A total of 1720 subjects comprising of 816 men and 904 women aged 53–73 years were included in the study in 1998–2001. Food intake was collected via a 4-day food diary method. Self-reported alcohol consumption was assessed with quantity-frequency method based on the Nordic Alcohol Consumption Inventory. Weekly alcohol consumption was categorized into three groups: non-drinkers (<12 grams), moderate drinkers (12–167.9 grams for men, 12–83.9 grams for women) and heavy drinkers (≥168 grams for men, ≥84 grams for women). Data were analyzed for men and women separately using multiple linear regression models, adjusted for age, occupational status, marital status, smoking, body mass index and leisure time physical activity. In women, moderate/heavy drinkers had lower fibre intake and moderate drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Male heavy drinkers had lower fibre, retinol, calcium and iron intake, and moderate/heavy drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Fish intake was higher among women moderate drinkers and men moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In men, moderate drinkers had lower fruit intake and heavy drinkers had lower milk intake than non-drinkers. Moderate drinkers had higher energy intake from total fats and monosaturated fatty acids than non-drinkers. In contrast, energy intake from carbohydrates was lower among moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In conclusion, especially male heavy drinkers had less favorable nutritional intake than moderate and non-drinkers. Further studies on the relationship between alcohol consumption and dietary habits are needed to

  12. Smoking Behavior and Alcohol Consumption in Individuals With Panic Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Buckner, Julia D.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with anxiety often report greater smoking and drinking behaviors relative to those without a history of anxiety. In particular, smoking and alcohol use have been directly implicated among individuals experiencing panic attacks, diagnosed with panic disorder, or high on panic-relevant risk factors such as anxiety sensitivity. Less is known, however, about specific features of panic that may differentiate among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. The purpose of the current study was to replicate previous research findings of an association between panic symptomatology, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption, as well as extend findings by examining whether specific symptoms of panic attacks differentiated among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. Participants (n = 489) completed the Panic Attack Questionnaire-IV, a highly detailed assessment of panic attacks and symptoms, as well as self-report measures of smoking history and alcohol use. Consistent with previous research, participants who reported a history of panic attacks (n = 107) were significantly more likely to report current daily or lifetime daily cigarette smoking, and significantly greater hazardous or harmful alcohol use than participants with no panic history (n = 382). Although smoking and hazardous alcohol use were highly associated regardless of panic status, participants with panic attacks showed elevated hazardous alcohol use after controlling for daily or lifetime smoking. Surprisingly, although participants who reported having had at least one panic attack were more likely to smoke, panic attack symptoms, intensity, or frequency did not differentiate panickers who did or did not smoke. Furthermore, panic-related variables were not shown to differentially relate to problematic drinking among panickers. Implications for understanding the complex relationship between panic attacks and smoking and drinking behaviors are discussed. PMID:21915160

  13. Nitrogen narcosis and alcohol consumption--a scuba diving fatality.

    PubMed

    Michalodimitrakis, E; Patsalis, A

    1987-07-01

    Nitrogen narcosis can cause death among experienced scuba divers. Nitrogen under pressure affects the brain by acting as an anesthetic agent. Furthermore, the consumption of ethanol along with diving will cause the symptoms of nitrogen narcosis to occur at depths less than 30 m. Our case deals with an experienced diver who drank alcoholic beverages before diving and developed symptoms of nitrogen narcosis at a shallow depth. These two conditions contributed to his death by drowning.

  14. Activation of Melatonin Receptors Reduces Relapse-Like Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, Valentina; Noori, Hamid R; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous synchronizer of biological rhythms and a modulator of physiological functions and behaviors of all mammals. Reduced levels of melatonin and a delay of its nocturnal peak concentration have been found in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. Here we investigated whether the melatonergic system is a novel target to treat alcohol addiction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to long-term voluntary alcohol consumption with repeated abstinence phases. Circadian drinking rhythmicity and patterns were registered with high temporal resolution by a drinkometer system and analyzed by Fourier analysis. We examined potential antirelapse effect of the novel antidepressant drug agomelatine. Given that agomelatine is a potent MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and a 5-HT2C antagonist we also tested the effects of melatonin itself and the 5-HT2C antagonist SB242084. All drugs reduced relapse-like drinking. Agomelatine and melatonin administered at the end of the light phase led to very similar changes on all measures of the post-abstinence drinking behavior, suggesting that effects of agomelatine on relapse-like behavior are mostly driven by its melatonergic activity. Both drugs caused a clear phase advance in the diurnal drinking pattern when compared with the control vehicle-treated group and a reduced frequency of approaches to alcohol bottles. Melatonin given at the onset of the light phase had no effect on the circadian phase and very small effects on alcohol consumption. We conclude that targeting the melatonergic system in alcohol-dependent individuals can induce a circadian phase advance, which may restore normal sleep architecture and reduce relapse behavior.

  15. Hybrid Mice as Genetic Models of High Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ozburn, A. R.; Walker, D.; Ahmed, S.; Belknap, J. K.; Harris, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    We showed that F1 hybrid genotypes may provide a broader variety of ethanol drinking phenotypes than the inbred progenitor strains used to create the hybrids (Blednov et al. in Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29:1949–1958–2005). To extend this work, we characterized alcohol consumption as well as intake of other tastants (saccharin, quinine and sodium chloride) in five inbred strains of mice (FVB, SJL, B6, BUB, NZB) and in their reciprocal F1 hybrids with B6 (FVBxB6; B6xFVB; NZBxB6; B6xNZB; BUBxB6; B6xBUB; SJLxB6; B6xSJL). We also compared ethanol intake in these mice for several concentrations before and after two periods of abstinence. F1 hybrid mice derived from the crosses of B6 and FVB and also B6 and SJL drank higher levels of ethanol than their progenitor strains, demonstrating overdominance for two-bottle choice drinking test. The B6 and NZB hybrid showed additivity in two-bottle choice drinking, whereas the hybrid of B6 and BUB demonstrated full or complete dominance. Genealogical origin, as well as non-alcohol taste preferences (sodium chloride), predicted ethanol consumption. Mice derived from the crosses of B6 and FVB showed high sustained alcohol preference and the B6 and NZB hybrids showed reduced alcohol preference after periods of abstinence. These new genetic models offer some advantages over inbred strains because they provide high, sustained, alcohol intake, and should allow mapping of loci important for the genetic architecture of these traits. PMID:19798565

  16. Activation of Melatonin Receptors Reduces Relapse-Like Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, Valentina; Noori, Hamid R; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous synchronizer of biological rhythms and a modulator of physiological functions and behaviors of all mammals. Reduced levels of melatonin and a delay of its nocturnal peak concentration have been found in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. Here we investigated whether the melatonergic system is a novel target to treat alcohol addiction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to long-term voluntary alcohol consumption with repeated abstinence phases. Circadian drinking rhythmicity and patterns were registered with high temporal resolution by a drinkometer system and analyzed by Fourier analysis. We examined potential antirelapse effect of the novel antidepressant drug agomelatine. Given that agomelatine is a potent MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and a 5-HT2C antagonist we also tested the effects of melatonin itself and the 5-HT2C antagonist SB242084. All drugs reduced relapse-like drinking. Agomelatine and melatonin administered at the end of the light phase led to very similar changes on all measures of the post-abstinence drinking behavior, suggesting that effects of agomelatine on relapse-like behavior are mostly driven by its melatonergic activity. Both drugs caused a clear phase advance in the diurnal drinking pattern when compared with the control vehicle-treated group and a reduced frequency of approaches to alcohol bottles. Melatonin given at the onset of the light phase had no effect on the circadian phase and very small effects on alcohol consumption. We conclude that targeting the melatonergic system in alcohol-dependent individuals can induce a circadian phase advance, which may restore normal sleep architecture and reduce relapse behavior. PMID:25994077

  17. Overcoming mixed messages on alcohol consumption: a teaching strategy.

    PubMed

    Willsher, Kerre A

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this discussion paper is to outline the teaching of nursing students using a health promotion approach to guide young people on issues involving alcohol consumption. Health promotion uses a holistic approach involving the individual, attempts to understand complexities of human behaviour and attempts to address environmental and social issues which impact upon health. There are several models of health promotion but the health assessment tool chosen was HEEADSSS which focuses upon assessment of the Home environment, Education and Employment, eating disorders, peer related activities, Drugs, Sexuality, Suicide/depression and Safety from injury or violence . Society's approach to alcohol consumption is considered ambiguous therefore it is essential to teach health promotion. Research based on demographic and epidemiological information and anecdotal media reports indicates a high incidence of binge drinking among young people on the Eyre Peninsula. The plan was to develop and provide developmentally appropriate health promotion using the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Recommendations on alcohol consumption and the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council Competencies for the Registered Nurse. PMID:20181532

  18. Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption among Youth in Jujuy Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, Ethel; Kaplan, Celia P; Nah, Gregory; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems among youth in Jujuy, Argentina. Material and Methods A survey was conducted in 2005 with a representative sample of 9th grade youth (12 to 17 years old) including sociodemographic and consumption data, and the AUDIT-C test. Results Nine percent of girls and 11% of boys reported hazardous drinking; 12% of girls and 19% of boys reported dependence symptoms. The odds ratio for dependence symptoms (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) and for hazardous drinking (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) was significantly lower for girls compared with boys. Older age, working, and attending night school were risk factors for hazardous drinking, dependence symptoms, and harmful drinking. Conclusions A significant proportion of youth reported problematic patterns of alcohol drinking, highlighting the need to implement prevention and treatment interventions tailored to the adolescent population. PMID:18670721

  19. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  20. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Adolescent Sexual Risk and Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Ryman, Sephira G; Gillman, Arielle S; Weiland, Barbara J; Thayer, Rachel E; Bryan, Angela D

    2016-01-01

    Human adolescents engage in very high rates of unprotected sex. This behavior has a high potential for unintended, serious, and sustained health consequences including HIV/AIDS. Despite these serious health consequences, we know little about the neural and cognitive factors that influence adolescents' decision-making around sex, and their potential overlap with behaviorally co-occurring risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Thus, in this review, we evaluate the developmental neuroscience of sexual risk and alcohol use for human adolescents with an eye to relevant prevention and intervention implications.

  1. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs). Methods: The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. Results: EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1–3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%), followed by price (21%). One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. Conclusions: EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour. PMID:27483299

  2. Progressions of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Duncan, S C; Duncan, T E; Hops, H

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the progressive relations among adolescent use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana using latent growth curve analyses. Specifically, the present study examined three models to determine (1) the effect of prior cigarette use on alcohol use and development and the relationship between change in cigarette use and the development of alcohol use (N = 115), (2) the effect of prior alcohol use on cigarette use and development and the relationship between change in alcohol use and the development of cigarette use (N = 199); and (3) the effect of prior alcohol and cigarette use on marijuana use and development, and the relationship between change in alcohol use and cigarette use and the development, of marijuana use (N = 287). Support was found for the relation between prior levels of substance use and involvement in other substances. Cigarette use, in particular, was particularly important in the subsequent involvement of alcohol and marijuana.

  3. Polymorphisms in Alcohol Metabolism Genes ADH1B and ALDH2, Alcohol Consumption and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Rennert, Gad; Cuadras, Daniel; Salazar, Ramon; Cordero, David; Saltz Rennert, Hedy; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Kopelovich, Levy; Monroe Lipkin, Steven; Bernard Gruber, Stephen; Moreno, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epidemiological risk factors for CRC included alcohol intake, which is mainly metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase; consequently, the role of genes in the alcohol metabolism pathways is of particular interest. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between SNPs in ADH1B and ALDH2 genes and CRC risk, and also the main effect of alcohol consumption on CRC risk in the study population. Methodology/Principal Findings SNPs from ADH1B and ALDH2 genes, included in alcohol metabolism pathway, were genotyped in 1694 CRC cases and 1851 matched controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. Information on clinicopathological characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits were also obtained. Logistic regression and association analysis were conducted. A positive association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk was observed in male participants from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (MECC) study (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.18-1.81). Moreover, the SNPs rs1229984 in ADH1B gene was found to be associated with CRC risk: under the recessive model, the OR was 1.75 for A/A genotype (95%CI = 1.21-2.52; p-value = 0.0025). A path analysis based on structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of ADH1B gene polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis and also an indirect effect mediated through alcohol consumption. Conclusions/Significance Genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolism pathways have a potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis, probably due to the differences in the ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde oxidation of these enzyme variants. PMID:24282520

  4. Sleep and circadian contributions to adolescent alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Brant P; Soehner, Adriane M; Clark, Duncan B

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence is a time of marked changes across sleep, circadian rhythms, brain function, and alcohol use. Starting at puberty, adolescents' endogenous circadian rhythms and preferred sleep times shift later, often leading to a mismatch with the schedules imposed by secondary education. This mismatch induces circadian misalignment and sleep loss, which have been associated with affect dysregulation, increased drug and alcohol use, and other risk-taking behaviors in adolescents and adults. In parallel to developmental changes in sleep, adolescent brains are undergoing structural and functional changes in the circuits subserving the pursuit and processing of rewards. These developmental changes in reward processing likely contribute to the initiation of alcohol use during adolescence. Abundant evidence indicates that sleep and circadian rhythms modulate reward function, suggesting that adolescent sleep and circadian disturbance may contribute to altered reward function, and in turn, alcohol involvement. In this review, we summarize the relevant evidence and propose that these parallel developmental changes in sleep, circadian rhythms, and neural processing of reward interact to increase risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD).

  5. "Other Teens Drink, But Not My Kid": Does Parental Awareness of Adolescent Alcohol Use Protect Adolescents from Risky Consequences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogenschneider, Karen; Wu, Ming-yeh; Raffaelli, Marcela; Tsay, Jenner C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines white mothers (n=199) and white fathers (n=144) of adolescents reporting regular alcohol use. Less than one third of parents were aware of their adolescents' drinking. Parental awareness of adolescent alcohol use served to protect adolescents by moderating the reaction of parents' responsiveness to episodes of drinking and driving.…

  6. Sex, Temperament, and Family Context: How the Interaction of Early Factors Differentially Predict Adolescent Alcohol Use and Are Mediated by Proximal Adolescent Factors

    PubMed Central

    Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Klein, Marjorie H.; Strauman, Timothy J.; Costanzo, Phillip; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is common and has serious immediate and long-term ramifications. While concurrent individual and context factors are robustly associated with adolescent alcohol use, the influence of early childhood factors, particularly in interaction with child sex, are less clear. Using a prospective community sample of 362 (190 girls), this study investigated sex differences in the joint influence of distal childhood and proximal adolescent factors on Grade 10 alcohol use. All risk factors and 2-way early individual-by-context interactions, and interactions of each of these with child sex, were entered into the initial regression. Significant sex interactions prompted the use of separate models for girls and boys. In addition to the identification of early (family socioeconomic status, authoritative parenting style) and proximal adolescent (mental health symptoms, deviant friends) risk factors for both girls and boys, results highlighted important sex differences. In particular, girls with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished by the interaction of early temperamental disinhibition and exposure to parental stress; boys with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished primarily by early temperamental negative affect. Results have implications for the timing and type of interventions offered to adolescents. PMID:21443307

  7. Music video viewing as a marker of driving after the consumption of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This study has two main objectives. First, it is examined whether the frequent exposure to music video viewing is associated with driving after the consumption of alcohol. Second, it is examined which theoretical framework, a combination of Cultivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior or the Problem Behavior Theory, is suited best to explain this relationship. Participants were 426 Flemish adolescents who took part in a two-wave panel survey (2006-2008) about media use, risk-taking attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. In line with Cultivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior, the results showed that adolescents' music video viewing is a significant marker of later risky driving behavior and that this relationship is mediated through their attitudes and intentions. No support was found for the hypothesis that music video viewing is part of a cluster of problem behaviors (Problem Behavior Theory). Thus, the results of this study seem to indicate that a combination of Cultivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior provides a more useful framework for explaining the relationship between music video viewing and driving after the consumption of alcohol. The implications for prevention and the study's limitations are discussed.

  8. Why is adolescence a key period of alcohol initiation and who is prone to develop long-term problem use?: A review of current available data

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Géraldine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Cimochowska, Agnieska; Campanella, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Background Early adolescence is a key developmental period for the initiation of alcohol use, and consumption among adolescents is characterized by drinking in high quantities. At the same time, adolescence is characterized by rapid biological transformations including dramatic changes in the brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Methods This article begins with an overview of the unique neural and behavioural characteristics of adolescent development that predispose these individuals to seek rewards and take risks such as initiation of drinking and high levels of alcohol intake. The authors then outline important factors associated with an increased risk for developing alcohol problems in later adolescence and young adulthood. Thereafter they address causality and the complex interplay of risk factors that lead to the development of alcohol use problems in late adolescence and young adults. Conclusions A few recommendations for the prevention of underage drinking are presented. PMID:24693359

  9. Family functioning and adolescent alcohol use: A moderated mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Flannery, Kaitlin M; Simpson, Emily; Russell, Beth S

    2016-06-01

    The primary goals of this longitudinal study were to examine the relationship between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use and to examine whether depressed mood mediates this relationship. An additional goal was to explore whether these relations were moderated by gender. The sample included 1031 high school students from the Mid-Atlantic United States. Participants completed surveys in school during the spring of 2007, 2008, and 2009. Path analysis results indicated that family functioning predicted alcohol use for girls. Moreover, depressed mood mediated this relationship. None of the direct paths between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use were significant for boys. However, similar to girls, depressed mood negatively predicted alcohol use for boys. Taken together, the findings highlight the need for prevention programs targeting adolescent substance use to consider gender-specific trajectories. PMID:26994346

  10. The impact of television advertising on alcohol consumption: an experiment.

    PubMed

    Kohn, P M; Smart, R G

    1984-07-01

    A videotaped indoor soccer game was shown to 125 men college students, ostensibly to evaluate the sport's televiewing appeal. Different versions of the videotape included zero, four or nine beer commercials. Refreshments, including beer, were available to the subjects. Half the subjects had immediate access to beer, and half had access delayed by one half hour. Exposure to the first few commercials increased consumption; however, continued exposure did not. Over the entire experiment, advertising had no significant effect on total beer consumption. Delayed access to beer led to compensatory beer consumption, notably in the third half hour. The results of the present study were interpreted as not supporting strong concern about television advertising's impact on immediate consumption of available alcohol. The results suggest that experiments on alcohol advertising are likely to produce negative results where drinking is measured over a substantial period (e.g., an hour or more), and positive results where drinking is measured over a brief period (e.g., half an hour or less). PMID:6482432

  11. Movie exposure to alcohol cues and adolescent alcohol problems: a longitudinal analysis in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-03-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother's responsiveness and for adolescent's school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19290687

  12. Increased vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescent maternal separated mice.

    PubMed

    García-Gutiérrez, María S; Navarrete, Francisco; Aracil, Auxiliadora; Bartoll, Adrián; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Lanciego, José L; Rubio, Gabriel; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of early life stress on the vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescence. To this aim, mice were separated from their mothers for 12 hours/day on postnatal days 8 and 12. Emotional behavior (light-dark box, elevated plus maze and tail suspension tests) and pre-attentional deficit (pre-pulse inhibition) were evaluated in adolescent maternal separated (MS) mice. Alterations of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), mu-opioid receptor (MOr), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neurofilament heavy (NF200)-immunoreactive fibers were studied in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) or hippocampus (HIP). The effects of maternal separation (alone or in combination with additional stressful stimuli) on ethanol consumption during adolescence were evaluated using the oral ethanol self-administration paradigm. MS mice presented mood-related alterations and pre-attentional deficit. Increased CRF, MOr and TH, and reduced BDNF, NR3C1, NeuN, MAP2 and NF200-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the PVN, NAc and HIP of adolescent MS mice. In the oral ethanol self-administration test, adolescent MS mice presented higher ethanol consumption and motivation. Exposure to additional new stressful stimuli during adolescence significantly increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption induced by maternal separation. These results clearly demonstrated that exposure to early life stress increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption, potentiated the effects of stressful stimuli exposure during adolescence on ethanol consumption and modified the expression of key targets involved in the response to stress, ethanol reinforcing properties and cognitive processes. PMID:25988842

  13. Image Advertisements for Alcohol Products: Is Their Appeal Associated with Adolescents' Intention to Consume Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to determine if adolescents who drink, or have intentions to drink, find image advertisements for alcohol more appealing than product advertisements. Results indicate that image advertising was preferred to product advertising, particularly by younger adolescents. Evidence of an association between preference for image advertisements and…

  14. Daily marijuana users with past alcohol problems increase alcohol consumption during marijuana abstinence.

    PubMed

    Peters, Erica N; Hughes, John R

    2010-01-15

    Drug abuse treatment programs typically recommend complete abstinence because of a fear that clients who stop use of one drug will substitute another. A within-subjects study investigated whether consumption of alcohol and other substances changes during marijuana abstinence. Twenty-eight daily marijuana users who were not trying to stop or reduce their marijuana consumption completed an 8-day baseline period in which they used marijuana and other drugs as usual, a 13-day marijuana abstinence period, and a 7-day return-to-baseline period. Participants provided self-report of substance use daily and submitted urine samples twice weekly to verify marijuana abstinence. A diagnosis of past alcohol abuse or dependence significantly moderated the alcohol increase from baseline to marijuana abstinence (p<0.01), such that individuals with this diagnosis significantly increased alcohol use (52% increase) but those without this history did not (3% increase). Increases in marijuana withdrawal discomfort scores and alcohol craving scores from baseline to marijuana abstinence significantly and positively correlated with increases in alcohol use. Increases in cigarettes, caffeine, and non-marijuana illicit drugs did not occur. This study provides empirical validation of drug substitution in a subgroup of daily marijuana users, but results need to be replicated in individuals who seek treatment for marijuana problems.

  15. Alcohol consumption and negative sex-related consequences among college women: the moderating role of alcohol protective behavioral strategies.

    PubMed

    Moorer, Kayla D; Madson, Michael B; Mohn, Richard S; Nicholson, Bonnie C

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS-controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction strategies-on the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related risky sexual behavior and sexual victimization. Participants were 459 undergraduate women (ages 18-25) who had consumed alcohol within the past 30 days. Both types of PBS significantly qualified the alcohol-sexual victimization link, but neither type of PBS qualified the alcohol-risky sexual behavior link.

  16. Cigarette smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Piers; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Moore, David R; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Fortnum, Heather; Munro, Kevin J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, and hearing loss. The study sample was a subset of the UK Biobank Resource, 164,770 adults aged between 40 and 69 years who completed a speech-in-noise hearing test (the Digit Triplet Test). Hearing loss was defined as speech recognition in noise in the better ear poorer than 2 standard deviations below the mean with reference to young normally hearing listeners. In multiple logistic regression controlling for potential confounders, current smokers were more likely to have a hearing loss than non-smokers (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.21). Among non-smokers, those who reported passive exposure to tobacco smoke were more likely to have a hearing loss (OR 1.28, 95 %CI 1.21-1.35). For both smoking and passive smoking, there was evidence of a dose-response effect. Those who consume alcohol were less likely to have a hearing loss than lifetime teetotalers. The association was similar across three levels of consumption by volume of alcohol (lightest 25 %, OR 0.61, 95 %CI 0.57-0.65; middle 50 % OR 0.62, 95 %CI 0.58-0.66; heaviest 25 % OR 0.65, 95 %CI 0.61-0.70). The results suggest that lifestyle factors may moderate the risk of hearing loss. Alcohol consumption was associated with a protective effect. Quitting or reducing smoking and avoiding passive exposure to tobacco smoke may also help prevent or moderate age-related hearing loss. PMID:24899378

  17. The Role of Immigrant Concentration Within and Beyond Residential Neighborhoods in Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Aubrey L; Browning, Christopher R; Krivo, Lauren J; Kwan, Mei-Po; Washington, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhoods are salient contexts for youth that shape adolescent development partly through informal social controls on their behavior. This research examines how immigrant concentration within and beyond the residential neighborhood influences adolescent alcohol use. Residential neighborhood immigrant concentration may lead to a cohesive, enclave-like community that protects against adolescent alcohol use. But heterogeneity in the immigrant concentrations characterizing the places residents visit as they engage in routine activities outside of the neighborhood where they live may weaken the social control benefits of the social ties and shared cultural orientations present in enclave communities. This study investigates whether the protective influence of residential neighborhood immigrant concentration on adolescent alcohol consumption diminishes when youth live in communities where residents collectively are exposed to areas with more diverse immigrant concentrations. This study tests this contention by analyzing survey and geographic routine activity space data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, and the 2000 census. The sample includes 793 adolescents (48.7% female, 16.5% foreign-born Latino, 42.5% US-born Latino, 11.0% black, 30% white/other) between the ages of 12 and 17 who live in 65 neighborhoods in Los Angeles County. Immigrant concentration among these neighborhoods derives primarily from Latin America. The results from multilevel models show that immigrant concentration protects against adolescent alcohol use only when there is low neighborhood-level diversity of exposures to immigrant concentration among the contexts residents visit outside of their residential neighborhood. This research highlights the importance of considering the effects of aggregate exposures to non-home contexts on adolescent wellbeing.

  18. Pattern and predictors of dairy consumption during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Louie, Jimmy Cy; Baur, Louise A; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to prospectively assess dairy intake among adolescents, and determine the predictors of adequate dairy consumption during adolescence. 634 Sydney schoolchildren (351 girls and 283 boys) who had dietary data at both age 12 and 17 were included for analyses. Dairy consumption was assessed from validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. At age 12, mean total dairy intake was 1.62 serves/day which decreased to 1.40 by age 17 (p<0.0001). Mean serves/day of milk decreased from 1.11 to 0.92 during adolescence. Moreover, 90% of the decrease in serves/day of total dairy was due to reduced milk consumption. At age 12, 8.5% of children consumed >=3.5 serves/day of total dairy and this decreased to 6.2%, 5 years later at age 17 (p=0.001). A lower proportion of girls compared with boys consumed >=3 serves/day of total dairy at both ages 12 (p=0.005) and 17 (p=0.01). Participants with tertiary qualified parents at baseline were 85% more likely to have intakes of the dairy food group above the median during the 5 years, OR 1.85 (95% CI 1.18-2.91). Frequent flavored milk consumption (>=2 serves/week) at baseline was associated with ~5-fold greater likelihood of maintaining intakes of dairy foods above the median during adolescence. Dairy food consumption decreased significantly during adolescence, driven primarily by a decrease in milk consumption. Most adolescents did not meet national recommended guidelines for the dairy food group intake. These findings highlight the need for further research into intervention strategies aimed at sustaining dairy consumption.

  19. Do Alcohol Expectancy Outcomes and Valuations Mediate Peer Influences and Lifetime Alcohol Use among Early Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Olthuis, Janine V.

    2009-01-01

    Building on the theory of reasoned action (I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1973, 1980; M. Fishbein & I. Ajzen, 1975) and expectancy theory, the authors examined the mediating role of alcohol expectancies in adolescent drinking behaviors by testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations (the extent to which these outcomes are perceived as good…

  20. Adolescent Alcohol Abuse. Fastback Series No. 217.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    This booklet examines the problem of alcohol use among American teenagers. The role that alcohol plays in adult society is presented and its potential danger for causing teenage alcohol addiction is considered. A discussion on why some teenagers abuse alcohol focuses on familial, peer, sociocultural, environmental, personality, and behavioral…

  1. The Relation between Stress and Alcohol Use among Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Cervantes, Richard C.; Duan, Lei

    2015-01-01

    We explored the relation between eight domains of Hispanic stress and alcohol use and frequency of use in a sample of Hispanic adolescents between 11 and 19 years old (N = 901). Independent t-tests were used to compare means of domains of Hispanic stress between adolescents who reported alcohol use and those who reported no use. In addition, multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether domains of Hispanic stress were related to alcohol use and whether the relation differed by gender and age. Multiple imputation was used to address missing data. In the analytic sample, 75.8% (n = 683) reported no use and 24.2% (n = 218) reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days. Higher mean Hispanic stress scores were observed among youths who reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days in five domains: acculturation gap, community and gang violence, family economic, discrimination, and family and drug-related stress. Increased community and gang violence, family and drug, and acculturative gap stress were found to be associated with some alcohol use categories beyond the effect of other domains. Few differences in the association between Hispanic stress and alcohol use by gender and age were observed. Study findings indicate that family and drug-related, community and gang violence, and acculturative gap stress domains are salient factors related to alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents, and their implications for prevention science are discussed. PMID:26551265

  2. The relation between stress and alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Cervantes, Richard C; Duan, Lei

    2015-12-01

    We explored the relation between 8 domains of Hispanic stress and alcohol use and frequency of use in a sample of Hispanic adolescents between 11 and 19 years old (N = 901). Independent t tests were used to compare means of domains of Hispanic stress between adolescents who reported alcohol use and those who reported no use. In addition, multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether domains of Hispanic stress were related to alcohol use and whether the relation differed by gender and age. Multiple imputation was used to address missing data. In the analytic sample, 75.8% (n = 683) reported no use and 24.2% (n = 218) reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days. Higher mean Hispanic stress scores were observed among youths who reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days in 5 domains: acculturation gap, community and gang violence, family economic, discrimination, and family and drug-related stress. Increased community and gang violence, family and drug, and acculturative gap stress were found to be associated with some alcohol use categories beyond the effect of other domains. Few differences in the association between Hispanic stress and alcohol use by gender and age were observed. Study findings indicate that family and drug-related, community and gang violence, and acculturative gap stress domains are salient factors related to alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents, and their implications for prevention science are discussed. PMID:26551265

  3. The relation between stress and alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Cervantes, Richard C; Duan, Lei

    2015-12-01

    We explored the relation between 8 domains of Hispanic stress and alcohol use and frequency of use in a sample of Hispanic adolescents between 11 and 19 years old (N = 901). Independent t tests were used to compare means of domains of Hispanic stress between adolescents who reported alcohol use and those who reported no use. In addition, multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether domains of Hispanic stress were related to alcohol use and whether the relation differed by gender and age. Multiple imputation was used to address missing data. In the analytic sample, 75.8% (n = 683) reported no use and 24.2% (n = 218) reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days. Higher mean Hispanic stress scores were observed among youths who reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days in 5 domains: acculturation gap, community and gang violence, family economic, discrimination, and family and drug-related stress. Increased community and gang violence, family and drug, and acculturative gap stress were found to be associated with some alcohol use categories beyond the effect of other domains. Few differences in the association between Hispanic stress and alcohol use by gender and age were observed. Study findings indicate that family and drug-related, community and gang violence, and acculturative gap stress domains are salient factors related to alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents, and their implications for prevention science are discussed.

  4. The influence of alcohol expectancy priming and mood manipulation on subsequent alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Stein, K D; Goldman, M S; Del Boca, F K

    2000-02-01

    Studies showing that verbal priming can implicitly affect alcohol consumption have been used to support cognitive models of expectancies. However, because expectancy words reflect affective states as well as drinking outcomes, mediation through an affective pathway remains theoretically plausible (i.e., such words inadvertently may affect mood, which in turn influences drinking). The primary pathway was identified (and expectancy theory was tested) by comparing memory priming (using alcohol expectancy or neutral words) with mood induction (using positive or neutral music); an unrelated experiment paradigm allowed the priming manipulation to implicitly affect drinking. Men in the alcohol priming group drank significantly more than men in each of the other conditions, and, consistent with theory, men with histories of heavier drinking drank the most when primed with alcohol expectancies, indicating that expectancies can function as automatic memory processes.

  5. [Alcohol use in young adolescents. A survey in French secondary schools].

    PubMed

    Bailly, D; Rouchaud, A; Garcia, C; Roehrig, C; Ferley, J-P

    2015-05-01

    Among young adolescents, early use of alcohol has been shown to be related to later alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems in numerous epidemiologic studies. However, if drinking problems are now well documented in young people, few data are available on alcohol use in children and young adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions and attitudes with respect to alcohol use among young adolescents entering their first year of secondary school (mean age, 11.5 years). Data were collected from the ESPACE program, a preventive program conducted in the educational district of Limoges, France. Of the 2268 respondents with complete data, 73.4% (77.1% in males vs. 69.9% in females; P<0.001) reported having tasted alcohol drinks and 3.7% (4.9% in males vs. 2.6% in females; P=0.004) having experienced drunkenness at least once. Of these adolescents, 5.4% (8.5% in males vs. 2.4% in females, P<0.001) reported consuming alcohol at least once per month, which may be considered as a sort of regular drinking pattern. Taking age, sex, and level of alcohol consumption into account, experience of drunkenness (21.9% in regular users vs. 3.7% in occasional users), tobacco use (25.8% in regular users vs. 12.6% in occasional users and 1.5% in nonusers) and cannabis use (6.0% in regular users vs. 0.9% in occasional users and 0.2% in nonusers) were found to be significantly more frequent in regular alcohol users than in other students (P<0.001). Data analysis also showed that regular alcohol users felt significantly more frequently depressed, lacking self-assurance, dissatisfied with their physical appearance and their way of life, and they felt that they exhibited significantly more impairments in their interactions with parents, peers, and the school environment. Similarly, they were found to have significantly more frequently an inclination for risk behaviors and a significantly more positive view of drinking than other students. These results look

  6. [Alcohol use in young adolescents. A survey in French secondary schools].

    PubMed

    Bailly, D; Rouchaud, A; Garcia, C; Roehrig, C; Ferley, J-P

    2015-05-01

    Among young adolescents, early use of alcohol has been shown to be related to later alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems in numerous epidemiologic studies. However, if drinking problems are now well documented in young people, few data are available on alcohol use in children and young adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions and attitudes with respect to alcohol use among young adolescents entering their first year of secondary school (mean age, 11.5 years). Data were collected from the ESPACE program, a preventive program conducted in the educational district of Limoges, France. Of the 2268 respondents with complete data, 73.4% (77.1% in males vs. 69.9% in females; P<0.001) reported having tasted alcohol drinks and 3.7% (4.9% in males vs. 2.6% in females; P=0.004) having experienced drunkenness at least once. Of these adolescents, 5.4% (8.5% in males vs. 2.4% in females, P<0.001) reported consuming alcohol at least once per month, which may be considered as a sort of regular drinking pattern. Taking age, sex, and level of alcohol consumption into account, experience of drunkenness (21.9% in regular users vs. 3.7% in occasional users), tobacco use (25.8% in regular users vs. 12.6% in occasional users and 1.5% in nonusers) and cannabis use (6.0% in regular users vs. 0.9% in occasional users and 0.2% in nonusers) were found to be significantly more frequent in regular alcohol users than in other students (P<0.001). Data analysis also showed that regular alcohol users felt significantly more frequently depressed, lacking self-assurance, dissatisfied with their physical appearance and their way of life, and they felt that they exhibited significantly more impairments in their interactions with parents, peers, and the school environment. Similarly, they were found to have significantly more frequently an inclination for risk behaviors and a significantly more positive view of drinking than other students. These results look

  7. Alcohol consumption in relation to food intake and smoking habits in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, J; Schenkel, J A; van Erp-Baart, A M; Brants, H A; Hulshof, K F; Kistemaker, C; Schaafsma, G; Ockhuizen, T

    1993-07-01

    The interrelationships between alcohol consumption, energy and food intake and smoking habits were studied in 1145 men and 1171 women, aged 22-49 years, in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, in which a 48-h dietary record method was used. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on dietary habits and smoking. A strong relationship between alcohol consumption and energy intake was found. The energy derived from alcohol was not compensated for by lower intake of other nutrients. There was no increase in Quetelet's index with increasing alcohol consumption, except for non-smoking men who were heavy drinking on midweek days. Possible explanations for this apparent lack of an overall effect of alcohol calories are discussed. Alcohol consumption was much higher on weekend days than on midweek days. No differences in nutrient intake were found between non-drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers on midweek days. On weekend days, however, there was a slightly higher total fat and saturated fat intake in moderately drinking men. For women cholesterol intake was found to be higher in moderate and heavy drinkers. Finally, a strong positive relationship between alcohol consumption and smoking was observed. It is concluded that the observations with respect to energy and nutrient intake and smoking habits are not indicative of a healthier lifestyle in moderate alcohol users between 22 and 49 years of age. Consequently, the more favourable prognosis of moderate drinkers cannot be ascribed to a more healthy lifestyle.

  8. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424

  9. [Alcohol consumption and stress in second year nursing students].

    PubMed

    Tam Phun, Elena; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the consumption of alcohol and academic stress in nursing students. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study, performed in 2005. The questionnaires Academic Stress Inventory and AUDIT were applied to 82 students of a private University in Lima, Peru. The students had a mean age of 20.4 years, 92.7% were single, 69.5% did not work, 91.5% had no children and 86.6% lived with their parents. The academic overload represented the stressor of highest prevalence. Regarding the consumption of alcohol, 56.1% consumed alcohol once a month, 48.0% consumed 1-2 glasses a day, and 51.2% more than three glasses during a normal day; 11.0% failed to comply with their obligations. One third reported smoking, drinking or eating in excess. All situations, related to the factor activity/time, generated various levels of stress, with worry reported as the main response to stress.

  10. Sleep and Circadian Contributions to Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hasler, Brant P.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Clark, Duncan B.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of marked changes across sleep, circadian rhythms, brain function, and alcohol use. Starting at puberty, adolescents’ endogenous circadian rhythms and preferred sleep times shift later, often leading to a mismatch with the schedules imposed by secondary education. This mismatch induces circadian misalignment and sleep loss, which have been associated with affect dysregulation, increased drug and alcohol use, and other risk-taking behaviors in adolescents and adults. In parallel to developmental changes in sleep, adolescent brains are undergoing structural and functional changes in the circuits subserving the pursuit and processing of rewards. These developmental changes in reward processing likely contribute to the initiation of alcohol use during adolescence. Abundant evidence indicates that sleep and circadian rhythms modulate reward function, suggesting that adolescent sleep and circadian disturbance may contribute to altered reward function, and in turn, alcohol involvement. In this review, we summarize the relevant evidence and propose that these parallel developmental changes in sleep, circadian rhythms, and neural processing of reward interact to increase risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). PMID:25442171

  11. A clinical laboratory paradigm for evaluating medication effects on alcohol consumption: naltrexone and nalmefene.

    PubMed

    Drobes, David J; Anton, Raymond F; Thomas, Suzanne E; Voronin, Konstantin

    2003-04-01

    Opiate antagonist medications have been shown to improve alcoholism treatment, but few human laboratory-based studies investigating mechanisms for these effects have been conducted on alcohol dependent persons. The present study was designed to determine the impact of two opiate antagonists on alcohol consumption among nontreatment-seeking alcoholics (n=125) and social drinkers (n=90). Participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo, naltrexone (titrated to 50 mg/day), or nalmefene (titrated to 40 mg/day) for 8 days with an alcohol laboratory session on the final day. Alcohol consumption was monitored in the natural environment during the first 5 medication days, and during a choice consumption paradigm following a standard 'priming' alcohol dose in a bar-laboratory setting. Social drinkers consumed less alcohol than alcoholics during the prelab medication period and the laboratory choice consumption paradigm, and they attained lower blood alcohol levels than alcoholics following the priming drink. Both opiate antagonist medications equally reduced drinking amounts and frequency among alcoholics but not social drinkers, relative to placebo, during natural environment and bar-lab alcohol consumption evaluations. Greater medication side effects, mostly mild in nature, were observed in participants taking nalmefene. These findings demonstrate that both naltrexone and nalmefene can lead to reductions in alcohol consumption among alcoholics who are not attempting to reduce drinking. Similar laboratory paradigms may offer substantial advantages for observing these effects during evaluation of other medications as well.

  12. Alcohol consumption enhances antiretroviral painful peripheral neuropathy by mitochondrial mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Luiz F.; Levine, Jon D.

    2010-01-01

    A major dose-limiting side effect of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) chemotherapies, such as the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), is a small-fiber painful peripheral neuropathy, mediated by its mitochondrial toxicity. Co-morbid conditions may also contribute to this dose-limiting effect of HIV/AIDS treatment. Alcohol abuse, which alone also produces painful neuropathy, is one of the most important co-morbid risk factors for peripheral neuropathy in patients with HIV/AIDS. Despite the prevalence of this problem and its serious impact on the quality of life and continued therapy in HIV/AIDS patients, the mechanisms by which alcohol abuse exacerbates highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced neuropathic pain has not been demonstrated. In this study, performed in rats, we investigated the cellular mechanism by which consumed alcohol impacts antiretroviral-induced neuropathic pain. NRTI 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) (50 mg/kg) neuropathy was mitochondrial dependent and PKCε independent, and alcohol-induced painful neuropathy, PKCε dependent and mitochondrial independent. At low doses, ddC (5 mg/kg) and alcohol (6.5% ethanol diet for one week), which alone do not affect nociception, together produce profound mechanical hyperalgesia. This hyperalgesia is mitochondrial dependent but PKCε independent. These experiments, which provide the first model for studying the impact of co-morbidity in painful neuropathy, support the clinical impression that alcohol consumption enhances HIV/AIDS therapy neuropathy, and provide evidence for a role of mitochondrial mechanisms underlying this interaction. PMID:20726883

  13. Seasonal variation in survey and sales estimates of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, P H; Knibbe, R A

    1993-03-01

    Time variation of drinking is substantial and has an effect on aggregate estimates of consumption. In this article it is shown that because of a considerable seasonal variation in consumption (+/- 20%) a serious bias in annual consumption estimates can be expected in surveys with a limited time frame. The present study analyzes drinking data collected in the general population of the Netherlands from March 1985 through December 1985 (including Christmas and New Year's Eve). Since it was expected that sensitivity to temporal fluctuations might not be equal for different methods of measurement, several indices of consumption were compared. Although the assessed seasonal effect varies indeed across types of measurement, across male and female subsample and across types of alcoholic beverage, the general tendency is for consumption to be highest in the spring season and lowest in the autumn. Sales figures fluctuate accordingly. It is evident that the risk of biased estimates is larger the shorter the time frame of the survey. Seasonal variation was highest in the frequency domain. Furthermore, exclusion from the time frame of collective holidays, during which people drink more often and more per occasion (viz., Christmas), increases the risk of biased estimates. Even estimates of abstention, but also regular heavy drinking among women, appear to vary considerably over the three seasons in this study. The main conclusion is that results of comparisons of survey data on drinking, particularly those over time, are more or less invalid if the respective time frames of the surveys do not correspond.

  14. The Effect of Pubertal and Psychosocial Timing on Adolescents' Alcohol Use: What Role Does Alcohol-Specific Parenting Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Burk, William J.

    2011-01-01

    In scientific literature, early pubertal timing emerges as a risk factor of adolescents' drinking, whereas alcohol-specific rules (the degree to which parents permit their children to consume alcohol in various situations) showed to protect against adolescents' drinking. This study investigated whether alcohol-specific rules mediate and/or…

  15. Folate and alcohol consumption and the risk of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bandera, E.V.; Graham, S.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.; Brasure, J.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Because both folate deficiency and alcohol intake have been hypothesized to be lung cancer risk factors, the authors examined the effect of folate and alcohol consumption on risk of lung cancer in a case-control study conducted 1980-1984. Usual dietary intake of 450 histologically confirmed lung cancer cases and 902 controls, all Western New York residents, was ascertained using a modified food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was not associated with lung cancer risk. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, education, and carotene intake, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest category of folate intake was 1.59 in males and 1.34 in females. There was some indication of a protective effect of folate only among women who never smoked. There was a suggestion of a positive association of alcohol intake with lung cancer risk in males, independent of age, education, cigarette smoking, and carotene. Consumers of more than 9 beers per month had an OR of 1.51 compared to non-drinkers. In both sexes, there was an indication of an interaction between beer ingestion and cigarette smoking. While folate intake did not appear to affect risk of lung cancer, the association of alcohol intake with risk independent of cigarette smoking deserves further inquiry.

  16. The relationship between alcohol consumption and menstrual cycle: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Haley A; Lustyk, M Kathleen B; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use affects men and women differently, with women being more affected by the health effects of alcohol use (NIAAA, 2011). Yet, a dearth of information investigating the alcohol use in women exists (SAMSHA, 2011). In particular, one dispositional factor hypothesized to contribute to alcohol consumption in women is the menstrual cycle. However, only 13 empirical papers have considered the menstrual cycle as related to alcohol consumption in women. These studies fall out with somewhat mixed findings suggesting that the premenstrual week is associated with increased, decreased, or no change in alcohol consumption, likely due to methodological differences in menstrual cycle determination and measures of alcohol consumption. These methodological differences and possible other contributing factors are discussed here with recommendations for future research in this area. Understanding the contribution of the menstrual cycle to alcohol consumption is one step in addressing an important women's health concern.

  17. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  18. Breakfast consumption and cognitive function in adolescent schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nevill, Mary E

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the effects of breakfast consumption on cognitive function, mood and blood glucose concentration in adolescent schoolchildren. With the institution's ethical advisory committee approval, 96 adolescents (12 to 15 years old) completed two randomly assigned trials (one following breakfast consumption and one following breakfast omission), scheduled 7 days apart. Cognitive function tests (visual search test, Stroop test and Sternberg paradigm), a mood questionnaire and a finger prick blood sample (in a subgroup of 60 participants) were completed immediately following breakfast and 120 min after the baseline measures. Following breakfast consumption, accuracy on the more complex level of the visual search test was higher than following breakfast omission (p=0.021). Similarly, accuracy on the Stroop test was better maintained across the morning following breakfast consumption when compared to breakfast omission (p=0.022). Furthermore, responses on the Sternberg paradigm were quicker later in the morning following breakfast consumption, particularly on the more complex levels (p=0.012). Breakfast consumption also produced higher self-report energy and fullness, lower self-report tiredness and hunger and higher blood glucose concentrations (all p<0.0005). Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that breakfast consumption enhances cognitive function in an adolescent population when compared to breakfast omission. PMID:21439306

  19. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (p<.001). Additionally, listening to energetic music (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use. PMID:26400900

  20. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (p<.001). Additionally, listening to energetic music (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use.

  1. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in Busselton, 1966-1978.

    PubMed

    Cullen, K J; Stenhouse, N S; McCall, M G; Wearne, K L; Murphy, B P

    1980-07-26

    In Busselton, mass health examination (MHE) questionnaires about alcohol consumption indicate that more people are drinking wine and fewer people are drinking beer. The evidence suggests an increase in the number of women consuming alcohol. The proportion of drinkers was higher among patients attending doctors with interests in wineries and/or vineyards compared with those patients attending doctors without such interests. More patients of doctors who smoked were smokers compared with those patient of doctors who were non-smokers. Smoking in Busselton appears to be declining at the rate of 0.5% to 1% of the population per annum; this decline is more marked in people who had attended one or more MHEs than in newcomers to MHEs. These trends have encouraged a more active approach to the prevention of smoking in school children.

  2. Effects of Alcohol and Combined Marijuana and Alcohol Use During Adolescence on Hippocampal Volume and Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Converging lines of evidence suggest that the hippocampus may be particularly vulnerable to deleterious effects of alcohol and marijuana use, especially during adolescence. The goal of this study was to examine hippocampal volume and asymmetry in adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana. Methods Participants were adolescent (aged 15–18) alcohol (ALC) users (n=16), marijuana and alcohol (MJ+ALC) users (n=26), and demographically similar controls (n=21). Extensive exclusionary criteria included prenatal toxic exposure, left handedness, and psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Substance use, cognitive, and anatomical measures were collected after at least 2 days of abstinence from all substances. Results Adolescent ALC users demonstrated a significantly different pattern of hippocampal asymmetry (p<.05) and reduced left hippocampal volume (p<.05) compared to MJ+ALC users and non-using controls. Increased alcohol abuse/dependence severity was associated with increased right > left (R>L) asymmetry and smaller left hippocampal volumes while marijuana abuse/dependence was associated with increased L>R asymmetry and larger left hippocampal volumes. Although MJ+ALC users did not differ from controls in asymmetry, functional relationships with verbal learning were found only among controls, among whom greater right than left hippocampal volume was associated with superior performance (p<.05). Conclusions Aberrations in hippocampal asymmetry and left hippocampal volumes were found for adolescent heavy drinkers. Further, the functional relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and verbal learning was abnormal among adolescent substance users compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest differential effects of alcohol and combined marijuana and alcohol use on hippocampal morphometry and the relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and verbal learning performance among adolescents. PMID:17169528

  3. Drinking Places: Young People and Cultures of Alcohol Consumption in Rural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Gill; Holloway, Sarah; Knell, Charlotte; Jayne, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contemporary British moral panic about young people and the consumption of alcohol in public space. Most of this public debate has focused on binge drinking in urban areas as a social problem. Here, we consider instead the role of alcohol in rural communities, and in particular alcohol consumption in domestic and informal…

  4. Nursing students' premature pregnancy and consumption of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Martha Lucio

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive research aimed to analyze pregnancy dynamics, experienced by a group of women who, at the time, were at most 19 years old, and identify the role attributed to the consumption of alcohol in such dynamics. The research was developed with a group of 20 students from the Colombia National University. Six of them were selected for in dept investigation through interviews, which were analyzed by content analysis. Based on the literature and the subjects' life history, the study examines the following categories: pregnancy, making love, maternity, being a woman, and drinking. Through these categories, was possible to identify the dynamics experienced by these women during pregnancy.

  5. A Moving Target: Reasons Given by Adolescents for Alcohol and Narcotics Use, 1984 and 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmqvist, Riia A.; Martikainen, Liisa K.; von Wright, Maijaliisa Rauste

    2003-01-01

    Studied the reasons given by Finnish adolescents for alcohol use and the use of alcohol and narcotics by others. Findings for 396 adolescents in 1984 and 488 in 1999 suggest that adolescents' attitudes have become more liberal toward alcohol and narcotics use and that prevention campaigns may be aiming at a moving target of cultural opinion. (SLD)

  6. Real use or "real cool": adolescents speak out about displayed alcohol references on social networking websites.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Briner, Leslie R; Williams, Amanda; Walker, Leslie; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2009-10-01

    Adolescents frequently display alcohol references on social networking Websites (SNSs). We conducted focus groups to determine adolescents' interpretations of these displayed alcohol references. Regardless of whether displayed alcohol references represent actual use, adolescents typically interpret these references as representing actual use and acknowledge their potential influence on peer behavior. PMID:19766949

  7. Self-Control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    PubMed Central

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18–30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie. PMID:25691873

  8. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  9. Movie Exposure to Alcohol Cues and Adolescent Alcohol Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis in a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother’s responsiveness and for adolescent’s school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:19290687

  10. Parental Influences on Adolescent Fruit Consumption: The Role of Adolescent Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Natalie; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether adolescent self-efficacy mediates the associations between parental control, perceptions of the importance of healthy nutrition for child health and barriers to buying fruits and vegetables and adolescent fruit consumption using a theoretically derived explanatory model. Data were drawn from a…

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPOSURE TO ALCOHOL ADVERTISING IN STORES, OWNING ALCOHOL PROMOTIONAL ITEMS, AND ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL USE

    PubMed Central

    HURTZ, SHANNON Q.; HENRIKSEN, LISA; WANG, YUN; FEIGHERY, ELLEN C.; FORTMANN, STEPHEN P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This paper describes adolescents’ exposure to alcohol advertising in stores and to alcohol-branded promotional items and their association with self-reported drinking. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered in non-tracked required courses to sixth, seventh, and eighth graders (n = 2125) in three California middle schools. Logistic regressions compared the odds of ever (vs. never) drinking and current (vs. ever) drinking after controlling for psychosocial and other risk factors for adolescent alcohol use. Results Two-thirds of middle school students reported at least weekly visits to liquor, convenience, or small grocery stores where alcohol advertising is widespread. Such exposure was associated with higher odds of ever drinking, but was not associated with current drinking. One-fifth of students reported owning at least one alcohol promotional item. These students were three times more likely to have ever tried drinking and 1.5 times more likely to report current drinking than students without such items. Conclusions This study provides clear evidence of an association of adolescent drinking with weekly exposure to alcohol advertising in stores and with ownership of alcohol promotional items. Given their potential influence on adolescent drinking behaviour, retail ads, and promotional items for alcohol deserve further study. PMID:17218364

  12. The Relationship between Parental Alcoholism and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Systematic Examination of Parental Comorbid Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Nurnberger, John I., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between parental alcohol dependence (with and without comorbid psychopathology) and adolescent psychopathology was examined in a sample of 665 13-17 year-old adolescents and their parents. Results indicated that adolescents who had parents diagnosed with alcohol dependence only did not significantly differ from adolescents who had…

  13. Medical net cost of low alcohol consumption - a cause to reconsider improved health as the link between alcohol and wage?

    PubMed Central

    Jarl, Johan; Gerdtham, Ulf G; Selin, Klara Hradilova

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies have found a positive effect of low/moderate alcohol consumption on wages. This has often been explained by referring to epidemiological research showing that alcohol has protective effects on certain diseases, i.e., the health link is normally justified using selected epidemiological information. Few papers have tested this link between alcohol and health explicitly, including all diseases where alcohol has been shown to have either a protective or a detrimental effect. Aim Based on the full epidemiological information, we study the effect of low alcohol consumption on health, in order to determine if it is reasonable to explain the positive effect of low consumption on wages using the epidemiological literature. Methods We apply a non-econometrical cost-of-illness approach to calculate the medical care cost and episodes attributable to low alcohol consumption. Results Low alcohol consumption carries a net cost for medical care and there is a net benefit only for the oldest age group (80+). Low alcohol consumption also causes more episodes in medical care then what is saved, although inpatient care for women and older men show savings. Conclusion Using health as an explanation in the alcohol-wage literature appears invalid when applying the full epidemiological information instead of selected information. PMID:19852776

  14. Tackling risky alcohol consumption in sport: a cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention with community football clubs

    PubMed Central

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Tindall, Jennifer; Rowland, Bosco C; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Gillham, Karen E; Dodds, Pennie; Sidey, Maree N; Rogerson, John C; McElduff, Patrick; Crundall, Ian; Wiggers, John H

    2015-01-01

    Background An increased prevalence of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm has been reported for members of sporting groups and at sporting venues compared with non-sporting populations. While sports clubs and venues represent opportune settings to implement strategies to reduce such risks, no controlled trials have been reported. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of an alcohol management intervention in reducing risky alcohol consumption and the risk of alcohol-related harm among community football club members. Method A cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention was undertaken with non-elite, community football clubs and their members in New South Wales, Australia. Risky alcohol consumption (5+ drinks) at the club and risk of alcohol-related harm using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were measured at baseline and postintervention. Results Eighty-eight clubs participated in the trial (n=43, Intervention; n=45, Control) and separate cross-sectional samples of club members completed the baseline (N=1411) and postintervention (N=1143) surveys. Postintervention, a significantly lower proportion of intervention club members reported: risky alcohol consumption at the club (Intervention: 19%; Control: 24%; OR: 0.63 (95% CI 0.40 to 1.00); p=0.05); risk of alcohol-related harm (Intervention: 38%; Control: 45%; OR: 0.58 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.87); p<0.01); alcohol consumption risk (Intervention: 47%; Control: 55%; OR: 0.60 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.87); p<0.01) and possible alcohol dependence (Intervention: 1%; Control: 4%; OR: 0.20 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.65); p<0.01). Conclusions With large numbers of people worldwide playing, watching and sports officiating, enhancing club-based alcohol management interventions could make a substantial contribution to reducing the burden of alcohol misuse in communities. Trial registration number ACTRN12609000224224. PMID:26038252

  15. Chronic intermittent toluene inhalation initiated during adolescence in rats does not alter voluntary consumption of ethanol in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Dick, Alec L W; Lawrence, Andrew J; Duncan, Jhodie R

    2014-09-01

    Voluntary inhalation of organic solvents, such as toluene, is particularly prevalent in adolescent populations and is considered to be a contributing factor to substance use and dependence later in life. While inhalants are often the initial "drug" experienced during this period, alcohol is another substance readily abused by adolescent populations. Although both substances are thought to have similar actions within the brain, our understanding of the implications of adolescent inhalant abuse upon subsequent exposure to alcohol remains to be investigated. Thus, this study aimed to assess locomotor responses to acute ethanol and voluntary ethanol consumption following a period of toluene inhalation throughout adolescence/early adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day [PN] 27) inhaled air or toluene (3000 ppm) for 1 h/day, 3 days/week for 4 (PN 27-52) or 8 weeks (PN 27-80) to mimic the patterns observed in human inhalant abusers. Following the exposure period, cross-sensitization to acute ethanol challenge (0.5 g/kg, intra-peritoneally [i.p.]), and voluntary consumption of 20% ethanol in a chronic intermittent 2-bottle choice paradigm, were assessed. Hepatic ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolism and liver histopathology were also investigated. Chronic intermittent toluene (CIT) exposure throughout adolescence for up to 8 weeks did not alter the behavioral response to acute ethanol or voluntary consumption of ethanol in adulthood, although an age-dependent effect on ethanol consumption was observed (p<0.05). Both liver function and pathology did not differ between treatment groups. Thus, in the paradigm employed, CIT exposure throughout adolescence and early adulthood did not predispose rats to subsequent locomotor sensitivity or voluntary consumption of ethanol in adulthood.

  16. Predictors of Adolescent Breakfast Consumption: Longitudinal Findings from Project EAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Meg; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of breakfast consumption among adolescents. Methods: Five-year longitudinal study Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Baseline surveys were completed in Minneapolis-St. Paul schools and by mail at follow-up by youth (n = 800) transitioning from middle to high school. Linear regression models examined associations…

  17. Mood and Implicit Alcohol Expectancy Processes: Predicting Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.; Curtin, John J.; Merrill, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAEs) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli – including mood states – and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, the present study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. Method College students (N=146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. Results The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the lab, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the lab. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak BAC in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the lab for females. Conclusions The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs – as indicated by longer RTs – predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores

  18. Determining the best population-level alcohol consumption model and its impact on estimates of alcohol-attributable harms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goals of our study are to determine the most appropriate model for alcohol consumption as an exposure for burden of disease, to analyze the effect of the chosen alcohol consumption distribution on the estimation of the alcohol Population- Attributable Fractions (PAFs), and to characterize the chosen alcohol consumption distribution by exploring if there is a global relationship within the distribution. Methods To identify the best model, the Log-Normal, Gamma, and Weibull prevalence distributions were examined using data from 41 surveys from Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) and from the European Comparative Alcohol Study. To assess the effect of these distributions on the estimated alcohol PAFs, we calculated the alcohol PAF for diabetes, breast cancer, and pancreatitis using the three above-named distributions and using the more traditional approach based on categories. The relationship between the mean and the standard deviation from the Gamma distribution was estimated using data from 851 datasets for 66 countries from GENACIS and from the STEPwise approach to Surveillance from the World Health Organization. Results The Log-Normal distribution provided a poor fit for the survey data, with Gamma and Weibull distributions providing better fits. Additionally, our analyses showed that there were no marked differences for the alcohol PAF estimates based on the Gamma or Weibull distributions compared to PAFs based on categorical alcohol consumption estimates. The standard deviation of the alcohol distribution was highly dependent on the mean, with a unit increase in alcohol consumption associated with a unit increase in the mean of 1.258 (95% CI: 1.223 to 1.293) (R2 = 0.9207) for women and 1.171 (95% CI: 1.144 to 1.197) (R2 = 0. 9474) for men. Conclusions Although the Gamma distribution and the Weibull distribution provided similar results, the Gamma distribution is recommended to model alcohol consumption from population

  19. Alcohol and Other Drug Resistance Strategies Employed by Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to identify how rural adolescents make health decisions and utilize communication strategies to resist influence attempts in offers of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 113 adolescents from rural school districts to solicit information on ATOD norms, past ATOD experiences, and substance offer-response episodes. Rural youths’ resistance strategies were similar to previous findings with urban adolescents – refuse, explain, avoid, and leave (the REAL typology) – while unique features of these strategies were identified including the importance of personal narratives, the articulation of a non-user identity, and being “accountable” to self and others. PMID:21552345

  20. Sex differences in alcohol consumption and alterations in nucleus accumbens endocannabinoid mRNA in alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Angela M; Berger, Anthony L; Lugo, Janelle M; Baxter-Potter, Lydia N; Bieniasz, Kennedy V; Craft, Rebecca M; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2016-10-29

    Chronic intermittent alcohol (CIA) exposure produces altered motivational states characterized by anxiety and escalated alcohol consumption during withdrawal. The endocannabinoid (ECB) system contributes to these symptoms, and sex differences in alcohol dependence, as well as bidirectional interactions between ECBs and gonadal hormones have been documented. Thus, we evaluated sex differences in alcohol consumption, anxiety-like behavior, and ECB mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of alcohol-dependent rats during acute withdrawal. Male rats exposed to six weeks of CIA showed escalated alcohol consumption during acute withdrawal and reductions in NAc N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPEPLD), DAG lipase alpha (DAGLα), and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) mRNA. Intact alcohol-dependent female rats also escalated their consumption, but notably, this effect was also present in non-dependent females. No differences in NAc ECB mRNA were observed between CIA- and air-exposed females during acute withdrawal. However, when these data were analyzed according to estrous stage, significant differences in NAPEPLD and MAGL mRNA expression emerged in the NAc of air-exposed control rats, which were absent in alcohol-dependent females. We subsequently measured alcohol consumption and NAc ECB mRNA in ovariectomized (OVX) females with or without estradiol (E2) replacement during withdrawal. Neither E2 nor CIA altered alcohol consumption in OVX females. However, E2 reduced both DAGLα and MAGL mRNA, suggesting that E2 may influence the biosynthesis and degradation of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the NAc. Collectively, these studies indicate sexual dimorphism in alcohol consumption in non-dependent rats and suggest that E2-mediated alterations in NAc ECB mRNA expression during withdrawal may be a mechanism by which sex differences in alcohol dependence emerge. PMID:27578612

  1. Attributional style and life events: a diathesis-stress theory of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, B I; Abela, J R; Buchanan, G M; Seligman, M E

    2000-12-01

    The role of a cognitive diathesis-stress model in predicting changes in alcohol consumption was examined. This study evaluated the interaction of attributional style with negative life events in predicting changes in beer, wine, spirits, and overall alcohol consumption. 93 undergraduate participants completed the Khavari Alcohol Test, Negative Life Events Questionnaire, and Attributional Style Questionnaire. The interaction of attributional style with negative life events predicted increases in spirits consumption between Time 1 and Time 2.

  2. The Influence of Alcohol-Related Cognitions on Personality-Based Risk for Alcohol Use during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekman, Nicole M.; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether expectancies about the impact of not drinking or reducing alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use partially mediated risk incurred by sensation seeking for adolescent alcohol involvement. High school drinkers (N = 3,153) completed a survey assessing substance use, sensation seeking, perceived peer alcohol use,…

  3. The Acute Effects of Alcohol on Sleep Architecture in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Julia K. M.; Trinder, John; Andrewes, Holly E.; Colrain, Ian M.; Nicholas, Christian L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is prevalent in late adolescence, however little is known about its effect on sleep in this group. In mature adults, alcohol decreases sleep onset latency (SOL) and sleep efficiency (SE) and increases wake after sleep onset (WASO). It also increases slow wave sleep (SWS) and decreases REM sleep in the first half of the night, with the inverse occurring in the second half. Alcohol’s effect on sleep during late adolescence is of interest given that this age group shows both dramatic increases in alcohol consumption, and significant developmental changes in the central nervous system. This study examined the effect of alcohol on sleep architecture in women and men aged 18–21 years and whether previously reported sleep architecture effects may have been as an artificial result of changes to sleep cycle length. Methods 24 (12 female) healthy 18–21 year old light social drinkers (19.1±1.0yrs) underwent two conditions: pre-sleep alcohol (Target BAC 0.10%) and placebo administered under controlled conditions, followed by standard polysomnography. Results In the alcohol condition, mean breath alcohol concentration (BAC) at lights out was 0.084 ±0.016%. Time in bed, total sleep time and sleep onset latency (all p>.05) did not differ between conditions. However, there was less REM (p=.011) and more stage 2 sleep (p=.035) in the alcohol condition. Further, alcohol increased SWS (p=.02) and decreased REM sleep (p<.001) in the first half of the night and disrupted sleep in the second half, with increased WASO (interaction: p=.034), and decreased SE (p=.04) and SWS (p=.01) and no REM sleep rebound in the second half of the night (p=.262). Additionally, alcohol had no effect on sleep cycle length (p=.598). Conclusions The results were broadly consistent with the adult literature with the novel extension that half night sleep architecture effects could not be attributed to changes in sleep cycle length. However, alcohol did not reduce SOL, or

  4. Adolescent alcohol and other substance use: sharing the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Y

    2003-01-01

    Substance use is common among adolescents. Although substance use may be a manifestation of experimentation in adolescent development, it may have more serious implications. It may be an indicator of emotional disturbance, or may be associated with several other health risk behaviours in adolescence. Substance use may also progress to harmful levels that can have a significant impact on a young person's health. Health professionals are increasingly being exposed to teenagers who use alcohol and drugs. The following article aims to provide, based on clinical and research experience in a number of institutions in Melbourne, Australia, an overview of the epidemiology of adolescent drug use, a clinical approach to assess substance use in young people and the principles of management of drug use in adolescence.

  5. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  6. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-12-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required. Therefore, this UK student survey assessed both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks, using a within-subject design. A total of 1873 students completed the survey, including 732 who consumed AMED. It was found that AMED consumers drank significantly less alcohol when they consumed AMED compared to when they drank AO (p < 0.001). In line with reduced alcohol consumption significantly fewer negative alcohol-related consequences were reported on AMED occasions compared to AO occasions (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that mixing alcohol with energy drinks does not increase total alcohol consumption or alcohol-related negative consequences.

  7. Media exposure and marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Kraemer, Kevin L; Fine, Michael J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:19306219

  8. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality.

    PubMed

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n=101) or quit smoking (n=254), and a sample of women who continued (n=110) or quit alcohol consumption (n=1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (p<0.05). The association between conscientiousness and continued alcohol consumption was partly explained by both anxiety and depressive symptoms. No associations between personality and continued smoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.

  9. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  10. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predisposed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance.

  11. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Brandon M.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predis-posed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance. PMID:25454537

  12. Developmental Associations Between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Dating Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    While numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 controlling for shared risk factors (common causes) that predict both behaviors. Associations between trajectories of alcohol use and dating aggression were reduced substantially when common causes were controlled. Concurrent associations between the two behaviors were significant across nearly all grades but no evidence was found for prospective connections from prior alcohol use to subsequent dating aggression or vice versa. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should target common causes of alcohol use and dating aggression. PMID:23589667

  13. Adolescents' Sexual Inferences about Girls Who Consume Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Amy M.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document whether adolescents make inferences regarding male and female vignette characters in terms of the characters' sexuality, social skills, impairment, and aggressiveness when the characters consume alcohol. A Web-based survey of 1,691 middle and high school students (grades 6-11) from diverse socioeconomic…

  14. Adolescents, Alcohol, and Substance Abuse: Reaching Teens through Brief Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Peter M., Ed.; Colby, Suzanne M., Ed.; O'Leary, Tracy A., Ed.

    This publication reviews a variety of empirically supported approaches to dealing with alcohol and drug problems in adolescents. Its focus is to provide motivationally based brief interventions that can be delivered in a variety of contexts address key developmental considerations and draw on the latest knowledge about the processes of addictive…

  15. Autos, Alcohol, and Adolescence: Forgotten Concerns and Overlooked Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusbaumer, Michael R.; Zusman, Marty E.

    1981-01-01

    Studied the characteristics of adolescents who ride with a drinking driver but do not drink and drive themselves. Selected socio-demographic characteristics and alcohol related attitudes and behaviors are investigated. Findings suggest riding with a drinking driver may lead to the eventual practice of drinking and driving. (Author)

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bert, Cynthia R. Greene; Bert, Minnie

    Persons with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) may be diagnosed at birth based on specific symptoms and anomalies. These are history of prenatal alcohol exposure, mental retardation, central nervous system dysfunctions, growth deficiency, particular physical anomalies, and speech and language anomalies. With aging, cranial and skeletal anomalies become…

  17. What do temporal profiles tell us about adolescent alcohol use? Results from a large sample in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    McKay, Michael T; Andretta, James R; Magee, Jennifer; Worrell, Frank C

    2014-12-01

    The psychological construct broadly known as time perspective is potentially useful in understanding a range of adolescent behaviours, including alcohol use. However, the utility of the construct has been hindered by measurement and conceptual problems. To date the vast majority of studies have assessed the relationship between time perspective and other measures in a variable-focussed (correlational) rather than a person-centred way. The present series of studies used a person-centred approach to assess the relationship between temporal profiles and alcohol use in a large sample (n = 1620) of adolescents from High Schools in Northern Ireland. Although a 'Balanced' time perspective has been suggested as optimal, the present study suggests that having a 'Future' temporal profile is associated with less problematic use of alcohol, while having a 'Past Negative' or 'Hedonist' profile is associated with more problematic consumption. Results are discussed in the context of the time perspective and alcohol use literatures.

  18. Adolescent Alcohol Use Before and After the High School Transition

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background An important question is whether the high-school entry is a critical developmental event associated with escalation of alcohol use. The present study examined trajectories of adolescent alcohol use as a function of a normative developmental event, the high-school entry. In addition, given that at-risk youth may be particularly vulnerable to the stress associated with this transition, we examined how these alcohol use trajectories may be shaped by a measure of early behavioral risk, early adolescent delinquency. Methods Participants included 891 12-year olds from the prospective National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1997 (NLSY97) for whom relevant longitudinal school data were available (51.2% boys; 61.4% White). Results Alcohol use after high-school entry increased at a significantly greater rate than did use during the middle-school years, even after accounting for students’ age at transition. In addition, early delinquency emerged as a risk factor such that differences in alcohol use existed prior to the transition. That is, children with early delinquency characteristics displayed more rapid progression in alcohol use, but this effect was evident only during middle school. Conclusions High-school entry appears to be a critical developmental event associated with increased social risk for greater alcohol use that goes beyond the simple maturational (i.e., ageing) factors. Youth with behavioral problems appear to be at greater risk in middle school, in contrast to lower risk youth for whom high school entry may be a more critical event, in part because high school is a less restrictive environment and/or because alcohol use becomes more normative at that time. Adolescent substance use may be described as a series of distinct developmental stages that closely correspond to school transitions, and suggest a critical period for targeted intervention that may differ as a function of pre-existing risk. PMID:25939277

  19. Adolescent depression, alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151

  20. Alcohol and drug use among adolescents: an educational overview.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Alfredo; Sher, Leo

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol and drug use continues to be a significant global problem with many health and economic consequences. Multiple studies have shown that the majority of adults who end up with an alcohol/drug use disorder have their first contact with these substances as adolescents. This article aims to briefly summarize current prevalence and impact on society, as well as its etiology, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and treatment and prevention of adolescent drug and alcohol use. Alcohol and substance use impacts both the user and society at large, from health risks to the user to increased early pregnancies, car accidents, financial cost, and productivity cost. Substance use and abuse results from intricate interactions between genetic and environmental influences. Also, substance abuse along with a comorbid psychiatric disorder is more common than a solitary substance use disorder in adolescents. Current options for the treatment of substance abuse disorders range from various therapy-based strategies, including behavioral and family-based therapies, to the use of medications. More attention must be placed on the importance of prevention of use, as well as progression of use to dependence. Successful prevention requires a comprehensive plan that needs to include, but should not be limited to, increasing education of all gatekeepers and limiting access of substances and alcohol through policy and reinforcement of those policies. Education of parents, pediatricians, school nurses, teachers, and mental health workers is essential to ensure that children at risk are identified in time to provide appropriate interventions.

  1. Neuropsychosocial profiles of current and future adolescent alcohol misusers

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Robert; Watts, Richard; Orr, Catherine A.; Althoff, Robert R.; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Büche, Christian; Carvalho, Fabiana M.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Flor, Herta; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Juergen; Gan, Gabriela; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Ortiz, Nick; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W.; Smolka, Michael N.; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Garavan, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive account of the causes of alcohol misuse must accommodate individual differences in biology, psychology and environment, and must disentangle cause and effect. Animal models1 can demonstrate the effects of neurotoxic substances; however, they provide limited insight into the psycho-social and higher cognitive factors involved in the initiation of substance use and progression to misuse. One can search for pre-existing risk factors by testing for endophenotypic biomarkers2 in non-using relatives; however, these relatives may have personality or neural resilience factors that protect them from developing dependence3. A longitudinal study has potential to identify predictors of adolescent substance misuse, particularly if it can incorporate a wide range of potential causal factors, both proximal and distal, and their influence on numerous social, psychological and biological mechanisms4. Here we apply machine learning to a wide range of data from a large sample of adolescents (n = 692) to generate models of current and future adolescent alcohol misuse that incorporate brain structure and function, individual personality and cognitive differences, environmental factors (including gestational cigarette and alcohol exposure), life experiences, and candidate genes. These models were accurate and generalized to novel data, and point to life experiences, neurobiological differences and personality as important antecedents of binge drinking. By identifying the vulnerability factors underlying individual differences in alcohol misuse, these models shed light on the aetiology of alcohol misuse and suggest targets for prevention. PMID:25043041

  2. Alcohol and drug use among adolescents: an educational overview.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Alfredo; Sher, Leo

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol and drug use continues to be a significant global problem with many health and economic consequences. Multiple studies have shown that the majority of adults who end up with an alcohol/drug use disorder have their first contact with these substances as adolescents. This article aims to briefly summarize current prevalence and impact on society, as well as its etiology, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and treatment and prevention of adolescent drug and alcohol use. Alcohol and substance use impacts both the user and society at large, from health risks to the user to increased early pregnancies, car accidents, financial cost, and productivity cost. Substance use and abuse results from intricate interactions between genetic and environmental influences. Also, substance abuse along with a comorbid psychiatric disorder is more common than a solitary substance use disorder in adolescents. Current options for the treatment of substance abuse disorders range from various therapy-based strategies, including behavioral and family-based therapies, to the use of medications. More attention must be placed on the importance of prevention of use, as well as progression of use to dependence. Successful prevention requires a comprehensive plan that needs to include, but should not be limited to, increasing education of all gatekeepers and limiting access of substances and alcohol through policy and reinforcement of those policies. Education of parents, pediatricians, school nurses, teachers, and mental health workers is essential to ensure that children at risk are identified in time to provide appropriate interventions. PMID:25411992

  3. Adolescent brain development and underage drinking in the United States: identifying risks of alcohol use in college populations.

    PubMed

    Silveri, Marisa M

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol use typically is initiated during adolescence, a period that coincides with critical structural and functional maturation of the brain. Brain maturation and associated improvements in decision making continue into the third decade of life, reaching a plateau within the period referred to as emerging adulthood (18-24 years). This particular period covers that of traditionally aged college students, and includes the age (21 years) when alcohol consumption becomes legal in the United States. This review highlights neurobiological evidence indicating the vulnerabilities of the emerging-adult brain to the effects of alcohol. Factors increasing the risks associated with underage alcohol use include the age group's reduced sensitivity to alcohol sedation and increased sensitivity to alcohol-related disruptions in memory. On the individual level, factors increasing those risks are a positive family history of alcoholism, which has a demonstrated effect on brain structure and function, and emerging comorbid psychiatric conditions. These vulnerabilities-of the age group, in general, as well as of particular individuals-likely contribute to excessive and unsupervised drinking in college students. Discouraging alcohol consumption until neurobiological adulthood is reached is important for minimizing alcohol-related disruptions in brain development and decision-making capacity, and for reducing the negative behavioral consequences associated with underage alcohol use.

  4. [The analysis of structure of alcohol consumption in Russia in professional groups].

    PubMed

    Ankudinov, A B; Lebedev, O V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of study of character of consumption of alcohol products by representatives of different professional groups. The research data was obtained from representative sampling of working population of Russia. On the basis of probit-modeling estimates of possibility of even if once consumption of alcohol were calculated. On the basis of tobit-modeling relative volume of consumed alcohol was evaluated. The results of analysis indicate that professional membership exerts significant but not determining influence on the character of alcohol consumption. The clear-cut age structure of volume consumption of particular alcohol beverages was established. The stable decrease of consumption of alcohol beverages during last years is mainly determined by financial economic crisis and not by measures of antialcoholic campaign.

  5. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.

  6. Comparing distributions of alcohol consumption: empirical probability plots.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, P H; Tan, E S; Knibbe, R A

    1990-06-01

    Parametric approaches to the problem of the distribution of alcohol consumption have not been very successful. In this article, it is shown that regulatory in distribution can be studied without making assumptions about a distribution model underlying the data. For this purpose, a method is used with which distributions are compared graphically in so-called probability plots. It appears that, up to a proper linear transformation on a logarithmic scale, a surprisingly large regularity over time can be observed between distributions taken from Dutch samples in 1970, 1981 and 1985. Equally, distributions from male and female sub-samples do not appear to differ up to a linear shift. The finding of a relative equality in distributional form is in accordance with the Ledermann model. However, the difference with the Ledermann's model is that no assumptions about the exact shape of the distributions are being made.

  7. Alcohol consumption in older adults and Medicare costs.

    PubMed

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Lumley, Thomas; Luepker, Russell V; Lapin, Pauline; Mittleman, Murray A; McBean, A Marshall; Crum, Rosa M; Siscovick, David S

    2006-01-01

    We determined the relationship of alcohol consumption and Medicare costs among 4,392 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a longitudinal, population-based cohort study of adults age 65 or over in four U.S. communities. We assessed 5-year Parts A and B costs and self-reported intake of beer, wine, and liquor at baseline. Among both sexes, total costs were approximately $2,000 lower among consumers of > 1-6 drinks per week than abstainers. The lower costs associated with moderate drinking were most apparent among participants with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and for hospitalization costs for CVD among healthy participants. Former drinkers had the highest costs. PMID:17290648

  8. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  9. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students' education level. The study was conducted in 2013-2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  10. Reactance theory and alcohol consumption laws: further confirmation among collegiate alcohol consumers.

    PubMed

    Allen, D N; Sprenkel, D G; Vitale, P A

    1994-01-01

    By the late 1980s, the United States legal drinking age had increased to 21 years. Based on psychological reactance theory, one would predict that these law changes would cause underage collegiate consumers to drink more alcohol because of the belief that their behavioral freedom was being reduced. It was hypothesized that underage collegiate alcohol consumers (UC) would drink more than their legal-age peers (LC) if psychological reactance was a contributing factor to consumption, whereas no differences would be present between the UC and LC groups' usage of illicit drugs, as these had not been affected by recent law changes. To test this hypothesis, a sample of 2,142 college students from 10 midwestern postsecondary educational facilities responded to the Alcohol and Other Drug Use Needs Assessment Survey in the spring of 1990. Mann-Whitney U analyses revealed significant differences between groups on alcohol use measures, but no differences were present on illicit substance use measures. These results are interpreted as supporting reactance theory. PMID:8189723

  11. Alcohol Involvement in First Sexual Intercourse Experiences of Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Testa, Maria; Windle, Michael; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether use of alcohol at first coitus is associated with increased sexual risk for young women. First coitus is the focus of the investigation because it is a memorable, formative experience that has implications for subsequent sexual health. A community sample of young women ages 18 – 19 years (N = 227) completed retrospective interviews. Characteristics and perceptions of the first coital event were examined using chi squares and one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to determine if there were differences based on alcohol-involvement. Alcohol-involved first coitus events occurred in social settings with risky partners, were rated less positively, and were non-consensual relative to those that did not involve alcohol. Alcohol use was not related to condom use. Alcohol-involvement was associated with subsequent pairing of alcohol with sex and incapacitated rape. Adolescent alcohol use occurs in contexts that increases young women’s sexual risk through exposure to risky partners. PMID:26121927

  12. A Review of Epigenetic Markers of Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Philibert, Robert; Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two decades, advances in genetic technologies have posed unexpected challenges to the ethical and legal framework guiding the application of the most recent advances in healthcare technologies. By and large, these challenges have been successfully met by the introduction by statutes such as the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA). However, over the past several years, these advances in the ability to measure genetic (or heritable) contributions to medical illness have been joined by advances in epigenetic (or acquired) contributions to common medical illnesses. Unfortunately, the moral and legal framework for the use of these epigenetic technologies, which can objectively determine the presence of medical illnesses such as diabetes or the consumption of substances of abuse, is not as well developed. This communication provides an introduction to the fundamentals of epigenetics and then reviews how some of the latest advances in this technology can now be used to assess the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Next, the possible mechanisms through which these tools could be employed clinically are discussed. Finally, the authors outline the potential for misuse of this technology and suggest that well-informed policy could play a critical role in shaping the optimal implementation of epigenetic technologies.

  13. A Naturalistic Experiment on Alcohol Availability Patterns of Consumption and the Context for Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin; Alsop, Brent

    Reduced alcohol availability following the closure of the sole hotels in two rural towns afforded a naturalistic experiment to study the effects of alcohol availability and context for drinking on consumption. Measures of consumption derived from interviews, total dollars of liquor sales, and police drink-driving data were compared across two…

  14. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  15. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  16. Alcohol Consumption and Academic Retention in First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Gary; Lonbaken, Barb

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study attempted to identify relationships between alcohol consumption and first-to-second-year student retention among college students. Methods: 820 students in general education courses completed an online wellness assessment at four separate time points, including questions related to alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed…

  17. Alcohol Consumption and Abuse among College Students: Alarming Rates among the Best and the Brightest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Hoffman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined alcohol consumption at two college campuses, a "dry" urban campus and a "wet" rural campus. We examined alcohol consumption as a function of students' membership in: Greek Organizations, NCAA Varsity Athletic teams, or as being Unaffiliated in these groups. Participants: Two hundred eighty-eight…

  18. Academic Demands Are Associated with Reduced Alcohol Consumption by College Students: Evidence from a Daily Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Adam B.; Spencer, Desiree; Dodge, Kama

    2011-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence linking academic demands or rigor to alcohol consumption by college students. In a 3-week daily study of full-time college students at a public, residential campus in the United States, both current day and next day's academic demands were negatively related to alcohol consumption, and these relationships were…

  19. Alcohol and Other Chemicals. Adolescent Alcoholism: Recognizing, Intervening, and Treating Series No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gougelet, Robert M.; Nelson, E. Don

    This document is one of seven publications contained in a series of materials for physicians on recognizing, intervening with, and treating adolescent alcoholism. The materials in this unit of study are designed to help the physician know the different classes of drugs, recognize common presenting symptoms of drug overdose, and place use and abuse…

  20. Drinking to Cope: a Latent Class Analysis of Coping Motives for Alcohol Use in a Large Cohort of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stapinski, Lexine A; Edwards, Alexis C; Hickman, Matthew; Araya, Ricardo; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Heron, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol consumption during adolescence is widespread, although there is considerable variation in patterns of use. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of coping-motivated alcohol use in a UK birth cohort and examine individual and family characteristics associated with the resulting drinker profiles. At age 17, participants (n = 3957; 56 % female) reported their alcohol and drug use, internalising symptoms and use of alcohol to cope with a range of emotions. Socio-demographic data were collected via maternal report. Latent class analysis identified drinker subtypes based on the coping motives reported. Association between these profiles and socio-demographic characteristics and internalising disorders was examined. The vast majority (92 %) of adolescents reported alcohol consumption in the past year, and 26 % of those drank weekly or more often. Four distinct motive profiles were identified. These profiles were associated with different socio-demographic characteristics: adolescents from higher socio-economic backgrounds drank primarily for increased confidence, whereas adolescents from low socio-economic backgrounds were more likely to drink to cope with low mood. Adolescents with an anxiety or depressive disorder were six times more likely to fall within the high-risk subtype, characterised by a generalised pattern of drinking to cope with emotions across the board. Coping motives for drinking vary with individual and family factors. Adolescents from low versus high socio-economic backgrounds were characterised by distinct drinking profiles; thus, prevention messages may need to be tailored accordingly. Internalising disorders were strongly associated with a high-risk profile of coping-motivated drinking. PMID:27129479

  1. Europe. An analysis of changes in the consumption of alcoholic beverages: the interaction among consumption, related harms, contextual factors and alcoholic beverage control policies.

    PubMed

    Allamani, Allaman; Pepe, Pasquale; Baccini, Michela; Massini, Giulia; Voller, Fabio

    2014-10-01

    This AMPHORA study's aim was to investigate selected factors potentially affecting changes in consumption of alcoholic beverages in 12 European countries during the 1960s-2008 (an average increase in beer, decreases in wine and spirits, total alcohol drinking decrease). Both time series and artificial neural networks-based analyses were used. Results indicated that selected socio-demographic and economic factors showed an overall major impact on consumption changes; particularly urbanization, increased income, and older mothers' age at their childbirths were significantly associated with consumption increase or decrease, depending on the country. Alcoholic beverage control policies showed an overall minor impact on consumption changes: among them, permissive availability measures were significantly associated with consumption increases, while drinking and driving limits and availability restrictions were correlated with consumption decreases, and alcohol taxation and prices of the alcoholic beverages were not significantly correlated with consumption. Population ageing, older mother's age at childbirths, increased income and increases in female employment, as well as drink driving limitations were associated with the decrease of transport mortality. Study's limitations are noted.

  2. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. Methods: The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and product awareness among younger consumers. The study was carried out in junior and senior high schools in Poland (n = 2629). Results: EDs were consumed by 67% of students (quite frequently by 16%). Students who practiced sports were more willing to drink EDs. Also, boys drank them more often than girls. When selecting a particular ED, young people looked at the taste, price and effect. Most respondents consumed one ED (250 mL) daily, although there were individuals consuming two or more drinks daily. Most respondents knew the ingredients of EDs, and 24% admitted to mixing EDs with alcohol. Conclusions: EDs are extremely popular among adolescents. Young people drinking EDs every day are potentially at risk of taking an overdose of caffeine. PMID:26184263

  3. Alcohol and drug usage; and adolescents' sexual behaviour in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwagu, Evelyn N

    2016-06-01

    This study determined students' perception of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a researcher-made questionnaire. The population for the study comprised all students in government secondary schools in Enugu state, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 600 students randomly selected from the population. Means, t-test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The result of the study revealed that there were significant differences at 0.05 level of significance in the mean perception of the students of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours when they were classified by gender and class. All the students irrespective of age agreed that alcohol and drug usage negatively influence sexual behaviour. The students perceived that students who do not take alcohol usually control their sexual desires while rape is common with students who are drug users. It was recommended among others that preventive health programmes meant to address adolescents' sexuality should be combined with appropriate drug education for maximum benefit.

  4. Social anxiety, disengagement coping, and alcohol use behaviors among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Ham, Lindsay S.; Cloutier, Renee M.; Bacon, Amy K.; Douglas, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although research indicates that social anxiety (SA) is associated with problematic drinking, few studies have examined these relations among adolescents, and all alcohol-related assessments have been retrospective. Socially anxious youth may be at risk to drink in an effort to manage negative affectivity, and a proclivity towards disengagement coping (e.g., avoidance of aversive stimuli) may enhance the desire to drink and learning of coping-related use. Design Adding to research addressing adolescent SA and alcohol use, the current study examined (1) proportional drinking motives (subscale scores divided by the sum of all subscales), (2) current desire to drink in a socially-relevant environment (introduction to research laboratory), and (3) the indirect effect of retrospectively-reported disengagement in social stress contexts on proportional coping motives and desire to drink. Method Participants were 70 community-recruited adolescents who reported recent alcohol use. Level of SA, disengagement coping, drinking motives, and desire to drink following laboratory introduction were assessed. Results Proclivity toward disengagement in prior socially-stressful contexts accounted for significant variance in the positive relations between SA and both proportional coping motives and current desire to drink. Conclusions These data complement existing work. Continued efforts in building developmentally-sensitive models of alcohol use are needed. PMID:26235528

  5. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students. PMID:26990389

  6. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-03-02

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.

  7. Alcohol Use among Rural Middle School Students: Adolescents, Parents, Teachers, and Community Leaders' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although rural adolescents use of alcohol is at some of the highest rates nationally, rural adolescent alcohol use has not been studied extensively. This study examines how community attitudes and behaviors are related to adolescent drinking in rural environments. Methods: Data were gathered in 22 rural communities in the Upper Midwest…

  8. Televised Entertainment-Education to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol Use: Perceived Realism, Enjoyment, and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Leeuwen, Lonneke; Renes, Reint Jan; Leeuwis, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is a concern in the Netherlands because of its high prevalence and risks. To discourage adolescents from drinking alcohol, a televised entertainment-education (E-E) intervention was developed. This study investigated responses of adolescents on perceived realism and enjoyment of the E-E intervention, as well as its…

  9. Provider, Patient, and Family Perspectives of Adolescent Alcohol Use and Treatment in Rural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Adam J.; Ettaro, Lorraine; Rodriguez, Keri L.; Mocik, John; Clark, Duncan B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We examined rural primary care providers' (PCPs) self-reported practices of screening, brief interventions, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) on adolescent alcohol use and examined PCPs', adolescents', and parents' attitudes regarding SBIRT on adolescent alcohol use in rural clinic settings. Methods: In 2007, we mailed surveys that…

  10. Personality Correlates of Alcohol Consumption and Aggression in a Hispanic College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Grange, Linda; Hojnowski, Natalya; Nesterova, Svitlana

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the association between alcohol consumption and aggression from a personality trait perspective with 92 self-identified Hispanic college students. They partially replicated a study by Quigley, Corbett, and Tedeshi, which examined the relationships between desired image of power, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related…

  11. Consumption of nutritional supplements among adolescents: usage and perceived benefits.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2003-02-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain rich qualitative data about the type of nutritional supplements and drinks consumed by adolescents, and the reasons for their consumption, with particular emphasis on the perceived benefits of nutritional supplementation. Semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 16) were conducted among 78 adolescents aged 11-18 years from a co-educational government high school. Participants reported consuming sports drinks, vitamin and mineral supplements, energy drinks, herbal supplements, guarana, creatine, high protein milk supplements, and coenzyme Q10. Reasons for supplement use included perceived short-term health benefits, prevention of illness, improved immunity, parental supply of supplements, taste, energy boost, better sports performance and to rectify a poor diet. Results suggest that some adolescents consume nutritional supplements, sports drinks and energy drinks for their perceived physiological benefits, and that they may not be aware of any potential risks. Health educators should be aware that adolescents seek specific health benefits from nutritional supplements and drinks, which may be better achieved through appropriate consumption of a nutritious diet. Health education programmes should incorporate the perceptions, aspirations and motivations of young people into the planning of interventions and activities in order to make them most relevant and effective.

  12. Practitioner Review: Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorders--Assessment and Treatment Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perepletchikova, Francheska; Krystal, John H.; Kaufman, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use disorders in adolescents are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning of research on adolescent alcohol use disorders. Methods: A summary of the alcohol assessment tools is provided, and randomized studies reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of state…

  13. Surrender To Win: How Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Users Change Their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Courtney; Long, Wesley

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the uniqueness and complexity of adolescent drug and alcohol abuse recovery, particularly the early years and events catalyzing the surrender process. Offers individual interviews of seven adolescents who surrendered their alcohol and drug addictions and constructed sober identities through participation in Alcoholics Anonymous. (GCP)

  14. Attitudinal and Normative Predictors of Alcohol Use by Older Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuther, Tara L.; Higgins-D'Alessandro, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Examines a model of alcohol use based on the theory of planned behavior, and expectancy theory on the influence of parents and peers with older adolescents and young adults. Results suggest that, during adolescence, decisions to consume alcohol are rational, based on the consideration of the positive consequences of alcohol use; however, the…

  15. Modifying Alcohol Consumption among High School Students: An Efficacy Trial of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Kallmen, Hakan; Andreasson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted for use among Swedish high-school students (age 18-19). The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the program on youth alcohol consumption (including…

  16. Peer effects, fast food consumption and adolescent weight gain.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account. PMID:25935739

  17. Alcohol consumption and risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage: A meta-analysis of 14 observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiyang; Zhang, Kai; Bian, Jieyong; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The association between alcohol consumption and the risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is inconsistent. Thus, meta- and a dose-response analyses are presented with the purpose of assessing their associations. A systematic literature search was performed using Pubmed and Embase electronic databases for pertinent observational studies. Random-effects or fixed-effect models were employed to combine the estimates of the relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A dose-response pattern was conducted for further analysis. The current meta-analysis includes 14 observational studies reporting data on 483,553 individuals and 2,556 patients. The combined RRs of light alcohol consumption (<15 g/day) and moderate alcohol consumption (15–30 g/day) compared with teetotal individuals were 1.27 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.68) and 1.33 (95% CI: 0.84, 2.09), respectively, which indicated no significant association between light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and SAH. An increased risk of SAH was noted in heavy alcohol consumption (>30 g/day) when compared with no alcohol consumption, as demonstrated by a result of 1.78 (95% CI: 1.46, 2.17). Dose-response analysis showed evidence of a linear association (P=0.0125) between alcohol consumption and SAH. The risk of SAH increased by 12.1% when alcohol consumption was increased by 10 g/day. Therefore, heavy alcohol consumption was found to be associated with an increased risk of SAH. Furthermore, the association between SAH and alcohol consumption has clinical relevance with regard to risk factor modification and the primary and secondary prevention of SAH. PMID:27699009

  18. Alcohol consumption and risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage: A meta-analysis of 14 observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiyang; Zhang, Kai; Bian, Jieyong; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The association between alcohol consumption and the risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is inconsistent. Thus, meta- and a dose-response analyses are presented with the purpose of assessing their associations. A systematic literature search was performed using Pubmed and Embase electronic databases for pertinent observational studies. Random-effects or fixed-effect models were employed to combine the estimates of the relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A dose-response pattern was conducted for further analysis. The current meta-analysis includes 14 observational studies reporting data on 483,553 individuals and 2,556 patients. The combined RRs of light alcohol consumption (<15 g/day) and moderate alcohol consumption (15–30 g/day) compared with teetotal individuals were 1.27 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.68) and 1.33 (95% CI: 0.84, 2.09), respectively, which indicated no significant association between light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and SAH. An increased risk of SAH was noted in heavy alcohol consumption (>30 g/day) when compared with no alcohol consumption, as demonstrated by a result of 1.78 (95% CI: 1.46, 2.17). Dose-response analysis showed evidence of a linear association (P=0.0125) between alcohol consumption and SAH. The risk of SAH increased by 12.1% when alcohol consumption was increased by 10 g/day. Therefore, heavy alcohol consumption was found to be associated with an increased risk of SAH. Furthermore, the association between SAH and alcohol consumption has clinical relevance with regard to risk factor modification and the primary and secondary prevention of SAH.

  19. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui Zhang, Faya; Zhu, Zhaohui; Luong, Dung; Meadows, Gary G.

    2015-01-15

    Alcohol consumption exhibits diverse effects on different types of immune cells. NKT cells are a unique T cell population and play important immunoregulatory roles in different types of immune responses. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on NKT cells remain to be elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, we found that alcohol increases the percentage of NKT cells, especially iNKT cells in the thymus and liver, but not in the spleen or blood. Alcohol consumption decreases the percentage of NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells in the total iNKT cell population in all of the tissues and organs examined. In the thymus, alcohol consumption increases the number of NK1.1{sup +}CD44{sup hi} mature iNKT cells but does not alter the number of NK1.1{sup −} immature iNKT cells. A BrdU incorporation assay shows that alcohol consumption increases the proliferation of thymic NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells, especially the NK1.1{sup −}CD44{sup lo} Stage I iNKT cells. The percentage of NKG2A{sup +} iNKT cells increases in all of the tissues and organs examined; whereas CXCR3{sup +} iNKT cells only increases in the thymus of alcohol-consuming mice. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the percentage of IFN-γ-producing iNKT cells and increases the blood concentration of IFN-γ and IL-12 after in vivo α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) stimulation. Consistent with the increased cytokine production, the in vivo activation of iNKT cells also enhances the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and NK, B, and T cells in the alcohol-consuming mice. Taken together the data indicate that chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation, which favors the Th1 immune response. - Highlights: • Chronic alcohol consumption increases iNKT cells in the thymus and liver • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances thymic Stage I iNKT cell proliferation • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation in thymus and periphery • Chronic alcohol

  20. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors. PMID:27472357

  1. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors. PMID:27472357

  2. Context effects and false memory for alcohol words in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zack, Martin; Sharpley, Justin; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2009-03-01

    This study assessed incidental recognition of Alcohol and Neutral words in adolescents who encoded the words under distraction. Participants were 171 (87 male) 10th grade students, ages 14-16 (M=15.1) years. Testing was conducted by telephone: Participants listened to a list containing Alcohol and Neutral (Experimental--Group E, n=92) or only Neutral (Control--Group C, n=79) words, while counting backwards from 200 by two's. Recognition was tested immediately thereafter. Group C exhibited higher false recognition of Neutral than Alcohol items, whereas Group E displayed equivalent false rates for both word types. The reported number of alcohol TV ads seen in the past week predicted higher false recognition of Neutral words in Group C and of Alcohol words in Group E. False memory for Alcohol words in Group E was greater in males and high anxiety sensitive participants. These context-dependent biases may contribute to exaggerations in perceived drinking norms previously found to predict alcohol misuse in young drinkers. PMID:19081200

  3. Prevalence and Predictors of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy in South-Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onwuka, Chidinma Ifechi; Dim, Cyril Chukwudi; Menuba, Ifeanyi Emmanuel; Iloghalu, Emeka Ifeanyi; Onwuka, Chidozie Ifechi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a major public health problem because of the enormous deleterious effects on a developing fetus. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is among the highest per capita rates of alcohol consumption in the world, thus suggesting a high burden of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder (FASD) in the sub-region. Despite this, there is limited data on alcohol exposed pregnancies for most SSA countries including Nigeria. Aim To determine the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional study of 380 consecutive consenting parturients accessing antenatal care at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. The information sought for, included the women’s socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use in pregnancy, awareness of the harmful effects of alcohol on the babies including FASD, sources of initial information on awareness, type and quantity of alcohol ingested, reasons for taking alcohol and willingness to stop alcohol ingestion in pregnancy after counseling on the risk of alcohol use in pregnancy. Statistical analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The prevalence of alcohol consumption in pregnancy was 22.6%. The most common brand of alcoholic beverage consumed was stout beer (62.8%, 54/86). A total of 135 (35.5%) respondents were aware that alcohol is harmful to the fetus. Maternal age 30 years or less, nulliparity, less than tertiary education, pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption and lack of awareness of the harmful effect of alcohol on the fetus, were associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy (p< 0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among women in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria is high and lack of awareness of harmful effect of alcohol on fetus was a major

  4. Longitudinal Associations of Alcohol Involvement with Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Prediction to Alcohol Problems in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and…

  5. Alcohol Consumption Modulates Host Defense in Rhesus Macaques by Altering Gene Expression in Circulating Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Barr, Tasha; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic alcohol use disorder leads to increased susceptibility to several viral and bacterial infections, whereas moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of colds and improves immune responses to some pathogens. In line with these observations, we recently showed that heavy ethanol intake (average blood ethanol concentrations > 80 mg/dl) suppressed, whereas moderate alcohol consumption (blood ethanol concentrations < 50 mg/dl) enhanced, T and B cell responses to modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination in a nonhuman primate model of voluntary ethanol consumption. To uncover the molecular basis for impaired immunity with heavy alcohol consumption and enhanced immune response with moderate alcohol consumption, we performed a transcriptome analysis using PBMCs isolated on day 7 post-modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination, the earliest time point at which we detected differences in T cell and Ab responses. Overall, chronic heavy alcohol consumption reduced the expression of immune genes involved in response to infection and wound healing and increased the expression of genes associated with the development of lung inflammatory disease and cancer. In contrast, chronic moderate alcohol consumption upregulated the expression of genes involved in immune response and reduced the expression of genes involved in cancer. To uncover mechanisms underlying the alterations in PBMC transcriptomes, we profiled the expression of microRNAs within the same samples. Chronic heavy ethanol consumption altered the levels of several microRNAs involved in cancer and immunity and known to regulate the expression of mRNAs differentially expressed in our data set.

  6. Alcohol Consumption Modulates Host Defense in Rhesus Macaques by Altering Gene Expression in Circulating Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Barr, Tasha; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic alcohol use disorder leads to increased susceptibility to several viral and bacterial infections, whereas moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of colds and improves immune responses to some pathogens. In line with these observations, we recently showed that heavy ethanol intake (average blood ethanol concentrations > 80 mg/dl) suppressed, whereas moderate alcohol consumption (blood ethanol concentrations < 50 mg/dl) enhanced, T and B cell responses to modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination in a nonhuman primate model of voluntary ethanol consumption. To uncover the molecular basis for impaired immunity with heavy alcohol consumption and enhanced immune response with moderate alcohol consumption, we performed a transcriptome analysis using PBMCs isolated on day 7 post-modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination, the earliest time point at which we detected differences in T cell and Ab responses. Overall, chronic heavy alcohol consumption reduced the expression of immune genes involved in response to infection and wound healing and increased the expression of genes associated with the development of lung inflammatory disease and cancer. In contrast, chronic moderate alcohol consumption upregulated the expression of genes involved in immune response and reduced the expression of genes involved in cancer. To uncover mechanisms underlying the alterations in PBMC transcriptomes, we profiled the expression of microRNAs within the same samples. Chronic heavy ethanol consumption altered the levels of several microRNAs involved in cancer and immunity and known to regulate the expression of mRNAs differentially expressed in our data set. PMID:26621857

  7. A nonhuman primate model of type II excessive alcohol consumption? Part 1. Low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations and diminished social competence correlate with excessive alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Higley, J D; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1996-06-01

    Developmental, biochemical, and behavioral concomitants of excessive alcohol consumption were investigated using a nonhuman primate model. The variables of interest were: (1) interindividual stability of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) from infancy to adulthood, (2) effect of parental deprivation early in life on adult CSF 5-HIAA concentrations; (3) correlations between CSF 5-HIAA and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) concentrations and alcohol consumption; and (4) correlation between the frequency of competent social behaviors and alcohol consumption. Twenty-nine rhesus macaques were reared for their first 6 months either with their mothers or without adults in peer-only conditions. At 6 and 50 months of age, each subject underwent a series of four, 4-day social separations. Cisternal CSF was sampled before and during the first and last separations; concomitantly, observational data were collected on social dominance behavior in the home-cage. When they reached 50 months of age, the monkeys were provided free access to a palatable alcohol solution daily for 1-hr periods before, during, and after the social separations. Before and after the 50-month separations, data were collected on all types of social behavior in the home-cage. Results showed that peer-reared subjects consumed more alcohol than mother-reared subjects during baseline conditions. Mother-reared subjects, however, increased their rates of consumption to equal peer-reared subjects' rates of consumption during the conditions of a social separation stressor. Peer-reared subjects also exhibited lower CSF 5-HIAA concentrations in infancy and adulthood than their mother-reared counterparts. With rearing condition held constant, interindividual differences in CSF 5-HIAA, MHPG, and homovanillic acid were stable from infancy to adulthood, and high rates of alcohol were consumed by the young adult monkeys with low CSF 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations, particularly when the CSF

  8. Rational and Developmental-Contextual Predictors of Alcohol Consumption by Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuther, Tara L.; Higgins-D'Alessandro, Ann

    This paper examines the relation of cognitive and developmental-contextual variables to alcohol use in adolescence and early adulthood in an attempt to increase the understanding of alcohol use during this age period. Components for each of the rational decision making theories, specifically attitude, subjective norm, and self-efficacy, were…

  9. Association of Alcohol Consumption and Sleep Disordered Breathing In Men And Women

    PubMed Central

    Peppard, Paul E.; Austin, Diane; Brown, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: Experimental evidence indicates that alcohol use near bedtime may exacerbate sleep disordered breathing (SDB). However, scarce research has examined the relation between moderate habitual alcohol use and objectively assessed SDB, and it is unclear whether patients with SDB, or those at risk for SDB, should be counseled to avoid alcohol regardless of proximity to bedtime. In this population-based epidemiology study, our objective is to measure the association of SDB with usual alcohol consumption habits. Methods: Men (N = 775) and women (N = 645)—initially randomly selected from a working population—participating in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study were evaluated for alcohol consumption and SDB. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, events/hour) was determined by in-laboratory polysomnography. AHI>5 defined “mild or worse” SDB and AHI>15 defined “moderate or worse” SDB. Alcohol consumption (drinks/day) was assessed by questionnaire. Potential confounding or interacting variables such as smoking, body mass index, and medication use, were measured by clinical assessment and questionnaire. Results: Relative to men who consumed less alcohol, for each increment of one drink per day, men who consumed more alcohol had 25% greater odds of mild or worse SDB (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.07–1.46, p = 0.006). Among women, minimal to moderate alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with increased risk of SDB. Discussion: In men, increased usual alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of mild or worse SDB. Persons with SDB might benefit from generally reduced alcohol consumption and not just avoidance near bedtime. Citations: Peppard P; Austin D; Brown R. Association of Alcohol Consumption and Sleep Disordered Breathing In Men And Women. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(3):265–270 PMID:17561593

  10. U.S. mortality from liver cirrhosis and alcoholic liver disease in 1999-2004: regional and state variation in relation to per capita alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Polednak, Anthony P

    2012-02-01

    Apparent per-capita alcohol consumption in 2001 in four U.S. regions (West, Northeast, South, and Midwest), and in 50 states was examined in relation to mortality rates (1999-2004) from liver cirrhosis and for the subcategory alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol consumption and mortality rates were highest in the west. The alcoholic liver disease mortality rate by state was strongly correlated with alcohol consumption, but several outlier or mismatch states were identified. Per-capita alcohol consumption should be useful for US public health policy, as suggested for Europe and Canada, but outlier states require further study.

  11. Pattern of alcohol consumption and its effect on gastrointestinal symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Garth R; Sedghi, Shahriar; Farhadi, Ashkan; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2010-05-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential trigger for flare in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) flare because of alcohol's pro-oxidant effects and its deleterious effects on gut barrier function. The association with alcohol consumption and IBD flare is unclear. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the pattern of alcohol consumption and its self-reported effect on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with IBD. We recruited 129 consecutive patients: 52 patients with Crohn's disease, 38 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 39 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). All the participants completed a validated questionnaire on disease activity (the Crohn's disease activity index or ulcerative colitis clinical activity index, respectively) validated questionnaires to quantify alcohol consumption by National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criteria, and two structured questionnaires we designed to access patients' perception of the effect of alcohol on their GI symptoms and on overall GI symptom severity. The pattern of current, light, moderate, and heavy alcohol consumption in inactive IBD was similar to the general U.S. population. Specifically, of the 90 inactive IBD patients, 56 (62%) were current drinkers, compared with 61% in the general U.S. population. Of current drinkers, 75% of IBD (N=42) and 43% of IBS (N=9) reported a worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol consumption (P=.01); however, overall GI symptom severity did not differ when compared with quantity of alcohol consumed. Patients with inactive IBD drink alcohol in quantities similar to the general population. Current drinkers with inactive IBD are more likely to report worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol than current drinkers with IBS. PMID:20682190

  12. Effects of alcohol consumption on cognition and regional brain volumes among older adults.

    PubMed

    Downer, Brian; Jiang, Yang; Zanjani, Faika; Fardo, David

    2015-06-01

    This study utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort to examine the relationship between midlife and late-life alcohol consumption, cognitive functioning, and regional brain volumes among older adults without dementia or a history of abusing alcohol. The results from multiple linear regression models indicate that late life, but not midlife, alcohol consumption status is associated with episodic memory and hippocampal volume. Compared to late life abstainers, moderate consumers had larger hippocampal volume, and light consumers had higher episodic memory. The differences in episodic memory according to late life alcohol consumption status were no longer significant when hippocampal volume was included in the regression model. The findings from this study provide new evidence that hippocampal volume may contribute to the observed differences in episodic memory among older adults and late life alcohol consumption status.

  13. Association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a meta-analysis of five observational studies.

    PubMed

    E, Meng; Yu, Sufang; Dou, Jianrui; Jin, Wu; Cai, Xiang; Mao, Yiyang; Zhu, Daojian; Yang, Rumei

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Published literature on the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was retrieved from the PubMed and Embase databases. Two authors independently extracted the data. The quality of the identified studies was evaluated according to the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed and publication bias was assessed. Five articles, including one cohort study and seven case-control studies, and a total of 431,943 participants, were identified. The odds ratio for the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 0.57 (95 % confidence interval 0.51-0.64). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses confirmed the result. Evidence for publication bias was detected. Alcohol consumption reduced the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis compared with non-drinking. Alcohol, therefore, has a potentially neuroprotective effect on the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  14. Effectiveness of brief school-based interventions for adolescents: A meta-analysis of alcohol use prevention programs

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Emily A.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of school-based brief alcohol interventions (BAIs) among adolescents, and to examine possible iatrogenic effects due to deviancy training in group-delivered interventions. Method A systematic search for eligible studies was undertaken, current through December 31, 2012. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they used an experimental/quasi-experimental design; focused on school-based BAIs; enrolled adolescent participants; and reported an alcohol-related outcome measure. Studies were coded for key variables, and outcome effect sizes were analyzed as standardized mean differences adjusted for small samples (Hedges’ g). Analyses were conducted using inverse-variance weighted mixed effects meta-regression models. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. Results Across all 17 studies eligible for inclusion, school-based BAIs were associated with significant improvements among adolescents, whereby adolescents in the BAI groups reduced their alcohol consumption relative to the control groups (ḡ = 0.34, 95% CI [0.11, 0.56]). Subgroup analyses indicated that whereas individually-delivered BAIs were effective (ḡ = 0.58, 95% CI [0.23, 0.92]), there was no evidence that group-delivered BAIs were associated with reductions in alcohol use (ḡ = −0.02, 95% CI [−0.17, 0.14]). Delivery format was confounded with program modality, however, such that motivational enhancement therapy was the most effective modality, but was rarely implemented in group-delivered interventions. Conclusions Some school-based BAIs are effective in reducing adolescent alcohol consumption, but may be ineffective if delivered in group settings. Future research should explore whether group-delivered BAIs that use motivational enhancement therapy components may yield beneficial outcomes like those observed in individually-delivered programs. PMID:25294110

  15. Self-Reported Consumption of Alcohol and Other Drugs in a Spanish University Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaldivar, Flor; Lopez, Francisca; Garcia-Montes, Jose Manuel; Molina, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to explore the consumption of alcohol and other drugs in university students and to verify whether there are gender differences in the consumption of these substances. Method: A descriptive study using self-reports. Drug consumption was evaluated in 506 students from the University of Almeria (60.9% women and 34.6%…

  16. Alcohol consumption, strength of religious beliefs, and risky sexual behavior in college students.

    PubMed

    Poulson, R L; Eppler, M A; Satterwhite, T N; Wuensch, K L; Bass, L A

    1998-03-01

    Relationships among alcohol use, strength of religious convictions, and unsafe sexual practices of 210 students at a large public university in the "bible belt" were examined. The women with strong religious beliefs consumed less alcohol and were less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior than were female participants with weaker religious convictions. Among the men, religious conviction was not significantly correlated with alcohol consumption or risky sexual behavior, but alcohol consumption and inconsistent use of condoms and multiple sexual partners were significantly correlated. Men had higher rates of alcohol consumption and unprotected sexual activity than women did, yet the two groups did not differ in overall frequency of sexual activity. Future research is needed to (a) provide greater understanding of gender differences in alcohol use, risky sexual behavior, and religious beliefs of college students in the region and (b) determine whether similar correlations exist in other areas of the country.

  17. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Leads to a Tissue Specific Expression of Uncoupling Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Graw, Jan A.; von Haefen, Clarissa; Poyraz, Deniz; Möbius, Nadine; Sifringer, Marco; Spies, Claudia D.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are anion channels that can decouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain. "Mild uncoupling" of internal respiration reduces free radical production and oxidative cell stress. Chronic alcohol consumption is a potent inducer of oxidative stress in multiple tissues and regulates UCP-2 and -4 expression in the brain. To analyse the impact of chronic alcohol intake on UCP-2 expression in tissues with high endogenous UCP-2 contents, male Wistar rats (n=34) were treated with a 12-week 5% alcohol diet. In the lungs and the spleen of rats with a chronic alcohol diet cytochrome c release from mitochondria was significantly increased. Both organs did not show any altered gene and protein expression of UCP-2. Different to cerebral tissue chronic alcohol consumption has no regulatory effect on UCP-2 gene and protein expression in organs with a high endogenous UCP-2 content. Therefore, chronic alcohol consumption leads to a tissue specific expression of UCP-2. PMID:26664262

  18. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Leads to a Tissue Specific Expression of Uncoupling Protein-2.

    PubMed

    Graw, Jan A; von Haefen, Clarissa; Poyraz, Deniz; Möbius, Nadine; Sifringer, Marco; Spies, Claudia D

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are anion channels that can decouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain. "Mild uncoupling" of internal respiration reduces free radical production and oxidative cell stress. Chronic alcohol consumption is a potent inducer of oxidative stress in multiple tissues and regulates UCP-2 and -4 expression in the brain. To analyse the impact of chronic alcohol intake on UCP-2 expression in tissues with high endogenous UCP-2 contents, male Wistar rats (n=34) were treated with a 12-week 5% alcohol diet. In the lungs and the spleen of rats with a chronic alcohol diet cytochrome c release from mitochondria was significantly increased. Both organs did not show any altered gene and protein expression of UCP-2. Different to cerebral tissue chronic alcohol consumption has no regulatory effect on UCP-2 gene and protein expression in organs with a high endogenous UCP-2 content. Therefore, chronic alcohol consumption leads to a tissue specific expression of UCP-2. PMID:26664262

  19. Low-fat Milk Consumption among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2007-2008

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Low-fat Milk Consumption Among Children and Adolescents in the ... results not shown). What type of milk, by fat content, do children and adolescents consume? Among children ...

  20. ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guang; Naito, Mariko; Wakai, Kenji; Morita, Emi; Kawai, Sayo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Morita, Makiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Associations between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk are inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. This study investigated the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with fasting blood glucose levels, and the impact of the associations of alcohol consumption with fasting blood glucose levels in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study included 907 men and 912 women, aged 35–69 years. The subjects were selected from among the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort study across six areas of Japan. The ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms were genotyped by Invader Assays. The ALDH2 Glu504Lys genotypes were associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose in men (P = 0.04). Mean fasting glucose level was positively associated with alcohol consumption in men with the ALDH2 504 Lys allele (Ptrend = 0.02), but not in men with the ALDH2 504Glu/Glu genotype (Ptrend = 0.45), resulting in no statistically significant interaction (P = 0.38). Alcohol consumption was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels compared with non-consumers in men (Ptrend = 0.002). The ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism was not associated with FBG levels overall or after stratification for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that the ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men. The interaction of ALDH2 polymorphisms in the association between alcohol consumption and fasting blood glucose warrants further investigation. PMID:27303105

  1. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Methods Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. Results A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included “I like the taste” (58.6%), “To keep me awake” (54.3%), “It gives me energy” (44.3%), “It helps concentrating when studying” (33.9%), “It increases alertness” (28.8%), “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%), and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%), “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%), and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. Conclusion The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were

  2. Food Consumption Patterns in Mediterranean Adolescents: Are There Differences between Overweight and Normal-Weight Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Brussee, Sandra E.; Drichoutis, Andreas C.; Kalea, Anastasia Z.; Yiannakouris, Nikolaos; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To quantify food consumption (based on food group classification) during several time periods in a sample of adolescents and to identify potential differences in food patterns between normal-weight and overweight participants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants were classified as normal weight and overweight/obese. Dietary…

  3. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian;