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Sample records for adolescent attachment security

  1. Stability and Change in Attachment Security Across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Jodl, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined both continuity and familial, intrapsychic, and environmental predictors of change in adolescent attachment security across a 2-year period from middle to late adolescence. Assessments included the Adult Attachment Interview, observed mother-adolescent interactions, test-based data, and adolescent self-reports obtained from an…

  2. Validity Evidence for the Security Scale as a Measure of Perceived Attachment Security in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the validity of a self-report measure of children's perceived attachment security (the Kerns Security Scale) was tested using adolescents. With regards to predictive validity, the Security Scale was significantly associated with (1) observed mother-adolescent interactions during conflict and (2) parent- and teacher-rated social…

  3. Adolescent Marital Expectations and Romantic Experiences: Associations with Perceptions about Parental Conflict and Adolescent Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Sara J.; Davila, Joanne; Fincham, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This study tested associations between adolescent perceptions of interparental conflict, adolescent attachment security with parents, and adolescent marital expectations and romantic experiences. Participants were 96 early adolescent females from 2 parent families. Insecurity was examined as a mediator of the association between negative…

  4. Parental Attachment Style: Examination of Links with Parent Secure Base Provision and Adolescent Secure Base Use

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason D.; Cassidy, Jude

    2014-01-01

    The secure base construct is a core aspect of attachment theory and, according to Bowlby (1988), represents one of attachment theory’s most important contributions to our understanding of parent-child relationships and child development. The present study represents the first examination of how parents’ self-reported attachment styles relate to parental secure base provision and adolescent (Mage = 16.6 years, SE = .59) secure base use during an observed parent-adolescent interaction. Further, the present study is the first to examine how fathers’, as well as mothers’, attachment styles relate to observed behavior in a parent-child interaction. At the bivariate level, maternal avoidance, but not anxiety, was negatively associated with observed adolescent secure base use. In addition, path analysis revealed that maternal avoidance was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through mothers’ self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents and through adolescents’ less positive perceptions of their mothers. Further, paternal anxiety, but not avoidance, was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through fathers’ self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents. No significant findings emerged in relation to parental secure base provision. We discuss these results in the context of attachment theory and suggest directions for future research. PMID:24897927

  5. Parental attachment style: examination of links with parent secure base provision and adolescent secure base use.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason D; Cassidy, Jude

    2014-01-01

    The secure base construct represents one of attachment theory's most important contributions to our understanding of parent-child relationships and child development. The present study represents the first examination of how parents' self-reported attachment styles relate to parental secure base provision and adolescent (mean age = 16.6 years, SE = .59) secure base use during an observed parent-adolescent interaction. Further, the present study is the first to examine how fathers', as well as mothers', attachment styles relate to observed behavior in a parent-child interaction. At the bivariate level, maternal avoidance, but not anxiety, was negatively associated with observed adolescent secure base use. In addition, path analysis revealed that maternal avoidance was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through mothers' self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents and through adolescents' less positive perceptions of their mothers. Further, paternal anxiety, but not avoidance, was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through fathers' self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents. No significant findings emerged in relation to parental secure base provision. We discuss these results in the context of attachment theory and suggest directions for future research. PMID:24897927

  6. The Relation of Attachment Security to Adolescents' Paternal and Peer Relationships, Depression, and Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances; McFarland, Christy; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Marsh, Penny

    2007-01-01

    The relation of attachment security to multiple domains of psychosocial functioning was examined in a community sample of 167 early adolescents. Security of attachment organization, assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview, was linked to success in establishing autonomy while maintaining a sense of relatedness both with fathers and with…

  7. Adolescent Attachment Security, Family Functioning, and Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, R. Michael; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual’s social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all 3 types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention. PMID:23560608

  8. The Impact of Attachment Security and Emotion Dysregulation on Anxiety in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Patrick K.; Sømhovd, Mikael; Pons, Francisco; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.; Esbjørn, Barbara H.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical views and empirical findings suggest interrelations among attachment security, emotion dysregulation and anxiety in childhood and adolescence. However, the associations among the three constructs have rarely been investigated in children, and no study has yet addressed these associations in adolescence. The aim of the present study was…

  9. Attachment based treatments for adolescents: the secure cycle as a framework for assessment, treatment and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Herres, Joanna; Krauthamer Ewing, E Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of attachment-based treatments (ABTs) for adolescents highlights the need to more clearly define and evaluate these treatments in the context of other attachment based treatments for young children and adults. We propose a general framework for defining and evaluating ABTs that describes the cyclical processes that are required to maintain a secure attachment bond. This secure cycle incorporates three components: (1) the child or adult's IWM of the caregiver; (2) emotionally attuned communication; and (3) the caregiver's IWM of the child or adult. We briefly review Bowlby, Ainsworth, and Main's contributions to defining the components of the secure cycle and discuss how this framework can be adapted for understanding the process of change in ABTs. For clinicians working with adolescents, our model can be used to identify how deviations from the secure cycle (attachment injuries, empathic failures and mistuned communication) contribute to family distress and psychopathology. The secure cycle also provides a way of describing the ABT elements that have been used to revise IWMs or improve emotionally attuned communication. For researchers, our model provides a guide for conceptualizing and measuring change in attachment constructs and how change in one component of the interpersonal cycle should generalize to other components. PMID:25744572

  10. Attachment Based Treatments for Adolescents: The Secure Cycle as a Framework for Assessment, Treatment and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Herres, Joanna; KrauthamerEwing, E. Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of ABTs for adolescents highlights the need to more clearly define and evaluate these treatments in the context of other attachment based treatments for young children and adults. We propose a general framework for defining and evaluating ABTs that describes the cyclical processes that are required to maintain a secure attachment bond. This secure cycle incorporates three components: 1) the child or adult’s IWM of the caregiver; 2) emotionally attuned communication; and 3) the caregiver’s IWM of the child or adult. We briefly review Bowlby, Ainsworth, and Main’s contributions to defining the components of the secure cycle and discuss how this framework can be adapted for understanding the process of change in ABTs. For clinicians working with adolescents, our model can be used to identify how deviations from the secure cycle (attachment injuries, empathic failures and mistuned communication) contribute to family distress and psychopathology. The secure cycle also provides a way of describing the ABT elements that have been used to revise IWMs or improve emotionally attuned communication. For researchers, our model provides a guide for conceptualizing and measuring change in attachment constructs and how change in one component of the interpersonal cycle should generalize to other components. PMID:25744572

  11. Multiple domains of parental secure base support during childhood and adolescence contribute to adolescents' representations of attachment as a secure base script.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Brian E; Waters, Theodore E A; Steele, Ryan D; Roisman, Glenn I; Bost, Kelly K; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S; Booth-Laforce, Cathryn

    2016-08-01

    Although attachment theory claims that early attachment representations reflecting the quality of the child's "lived experiences" are maintained across developmental transitions, evidence that has emerged over the last decade suggests that the association between early relationship quality and adolescents' attachment representations is fairly modest in magnitude. We used aspects of parenting beyond sensitivity over childhood and adolescence and early security to predict adolescents' scripted attachment representations. At age 18 years, 673 participants from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development completed the Attachment Script Assessment from which we derived an assessment of secure base script knowledge. Measures of secure base support from childhood through age 15 years (e.g., parental monitoring of child activity, father presence in the home) were selected as predictors and accounted for an additional 8% of the variance in secure base script knowledge scores above and beyond direct observations of sensitivity and early attachment status alone, suggesting that adolescents' scripted attachment representations reflect multiple domains of parenting. Cognitive and demographic variables also significantly increased predicted variance in secure base script knowledge by 2% each. PMID:27032953

  12. Remaining or becoming secure: parental sensitive support predicts attachment continuity from infancy to adolescence in a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D; Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2012-09-01

    In a longitudinal study with 125 early adopted adolescents, we examined continuity of attachment from infancy to adolescence and the role of parental sensitive support in explaining continuity or discontinuity of attachment. Assessments of maternal sensitive support and infant attachment (Strange Situation Procedure) were completed when infants were 12 months old. When the children were 14 years old, we observed mothers' sensitive support during a conflict discussion. The adolescents' attachment representations were assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview. Mothers of secure adolescents showed significantly more sensitive support during conflicts than did mothers of insecure adolescents. Overall, no continuity of attachment from infancy to adolescence was found. However, maternal sensitive support in early childhood and adolescence predicted continuity of secure attachment from 1 to 14 years, whereas less maternal sensitive support in early childhood but more maternal sensitive support in adolescence predicted children's change from insecurity in infancy to security in adolescence. We conclude that both early and later parental sensitive support are important for continuity of attachment across the first 14 years of life. PMID:22369333

  13. Sex-Specific Relationships among Attachment Security, Social Values, and Sensation Seeking in Early Adolescence: Implications for Adolescents' Externalizing Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarracino, Diego; Presaghi, Fabio; Degni, Silvia; Innamorati, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In early adolescence, attachment security reflects not only the quality of ongoing relationships with parents, but also how adolescents process social relationships with "others"--that is, their "social value orientation"--with possible implications for adolescents' risk-taking. In this study, a sample of Italian early adolescents were…

  14. Infant Attachment Security and Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition Interact to Predict Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Insecure attachment and behavioral inhibition (BI) increase risk for internalizing problems, but few longitudinal studies have examined their interaction in predicting adolescent anxiety. This study included 165 adolescents (ages 14-17 years) selected based on their reactivity to novelty at 4 months. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation. Multi-method BI assessments were conducted across childhood. Adolescents and their parents independently reported on anxiety. The interaction of attachment and BI significantly predicted adolescent anxiety symptoms, such that BI and anxiety were only associated among adolescents with histories of insecure attachment. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was driven by insecure-resistant attachment and that the association between BI and social anxiety was significant only for insecure males. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25522059

  15. Adolescent Attachment and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    1996-01-01

    In relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality, traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Attachment was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Results support a model of…

  16. What I Like about You: The Association between Adolescent Attachment Security and Emotional Behavior in a Relationship Promoting Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershenberg, Rachel; Davila, Joanne; Yoneda, Athena; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Stroud, Catherine B.; Feinstein, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    Because the ability to flexibly experience and appropriately express emotions across a range of developmentally relevant contexts is crucial to adaptive functioning, we examined how adolescent attachment security may be related to more functional emotional behavior during a relationship promoting interaction task. Data were collected from 74 early…

  17. Emotional and Adrenocortical Regulation in Early Adolescence: Prediction by Attachment Security and Disorganization in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Gottfried; Zimmermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine differences in emotion expression and emotion regulation in emotion-eliciting situations in early adolescence from a bio-psycho-social perspective, specifically investigating the influence of early mother-infant attachment and attachment disorganization on behavioural and adrenocortical responses. The…

  18. Attachment security to mothers and fathers and the developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms in adolescence: which parent for which trajectory?

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Stéphane; Ratelle, Catherine F

    2014-04-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the links between adolescents' perceptions of attachment security in their relationships with their mothers and fathers and developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms in a community sample of 414 adolescents (45 % males). The participants were followed annually from age 11 (end of elementary school) to 16 (end of high school). Group-based trajectory modeling analyses conditional on risk and protective factors identified four trajectories of depressive symptoms across adolescence: moderate stable (MS; 54.57 % of the sample), low stable (LS; 27.16 %), moderate increasing (MI; 11.30 %), and high declining (HD; 6.97 %). Membership in the HD versus LS trajectory group was predicted by attachment security to both the mother and father at baseline (age 11), whereas attachment security to the mother increased the odds of belonging to the MS and MI groups. These relationships were statistically significant after controlling for gender, anxiety symptoms, and academic competence. The findings are discussed with respect to their contribution to attachment theory and the research on the complementary contributions of mothers and fathers to the prevention of depressive symptomatology during adolescence. PMID:24114590

  19. Adolescents' Attachment and Coping with Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Michelle S.; Medway, Frederic J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how high school students cope with stress as a function of their attachment style. Data were gathered from 75 adolescent-parent pairs in Texas and included measures of attachment, coping style, life stress, and whom the respondent would turn to in times of stress. Adolescents' attachment security was positively related to…

  20. Perceived Interparental Conflict and Early Adolescents' Friendships: The Role of Attachment Security and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Beate; Stutz, Melanie; Ledermann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence for the effect of interparental conflict on adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems, little is known about the effect on the quality of adolescents' relationships. The current study investigates the link between adolescents' friendships and interparental conflict as reported by both parents and…

  1. Adolescent Mothers' Perceptions of the Coparenting Relationship with Their Child's Father: A Function of Attachment Security and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Futris, Ted G.

    2010-01-01

    This study used data from 75 adolescent mothers to examine relations among adolescent mothers' attachment avoidance and anxiety, their ability to trust their child's father, and their perceptions of the quality of their coparenting relationship with their child's father. Results suggest that mothers with lower avoidance had more trust for their…

  2. Divergence in Siblings' Adult Attachment Security: Potential Contributors and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuna, Keren

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has revealed only modest concordance in attachment security between siblings during childhood and adolescence. The first goal of this dissertation was to estimate sibling concordance in adult attachment security and identify factors contributing to divergence. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered to young adult…

  3. Adolescents' Interactions with a Best Friend: Associations with Attachment Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Barbara L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.; Oldenburg, Christopher M.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested whether adolescents' attachment style is related to friendship interactions and perceptions of friendship quality. Attachment pairings were contrasted to examine whether dyad members' security of attachment or their models of others was more related to friendship. A total of 44 pairs of same-sex adolescent friends were videotaped…

  4. Attachment Styles among Bullies, Victims and Uninvolved Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koiv, Kristi

    2012-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a frame for understanding the role of attachment styles in the development of bullying behaviour in adolescence. The present study examined attachment styles (secure, avoidant and anxious/ambivalent) that differentiated bullies, victims, bully/victims and uninvolved adolescents. A total of 1,921 students (1,006 girls and…

  5. Earned-Secure Attachment Status in Retrospect and Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Padron, Elena; Sroufe, L. Alan; Egeland, Byron

    2002-01-01

    This 23-year longitudinal study examined the attachment history of earned-secure young adults who coherently describe negative childhood experiences. Findings indicated that retrospective earned-secures were not more likely than continuous-secures to have been anxiously attached in infancy, and were observed in childhood and adolescence to have…

  6. Oxytocin enhances the experience of attachment security.

    PubMed

    Buchheim, Anna; Heinrichs, Markus; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Koops, Eva; Henningsen, Peter; O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Gündel, Harald

    2009-10-01

    Repeated interactions between infant and caregiver result in either secure or insecure relationship attachment patterns, and insecure attachment may affect individual emotion-regulation and health. Given that oxytocin enhances social approach behavior in animals and humans, we hypothesized that oxytocin might also promote the subjective experience of attachment security in humans. Within a 3-week interval, 26 healthy male students classified with an insecure attachment pattern were invited twice to an experimental session. At the beginning of each experiment, a single dose of oxytocin or placebo was administered intranasally, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design. In both conditions, subjects completed an attachment task based on the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Thirty-two AAP picture system presentations depicted attachment-related events (e.g. illness, solitude, separation, and loss), and were each accompanied by four prototypical phrases representing one secure and three insecure attachment categories. In the oxytocin condition, a significant proportion of these insecure subjects (N=18; 69%) increased in their rankings of the AAP prototypical "secure attachment" phrases and decreased in overall ranking of the "insecure attachment" phrases. In particular, there was a significant decrease in the number of subjects ranking the pictures with "insecure-preoccupied" phrases from the placebo to the oxytocin condition. We find that a single dose of intranasally administered oxytocin is sufficient to induce a significant increase in the experience of attachment security in insecurely attached adults. PMID:19457618

  7. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  8. Attachment Representations and Time Perspective in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; D'Alessio, Maria; Pallini, Susanna; Baiocco, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attachment to parents and peers, time perspective and psychological adjustment in adolescence. 2,665 adolescents (M age = 17.03 years, SD = 1.48) completed self-report measures about parent and peer attachment, time perspective, sympathy and self-determination. Subjects were divided into four groups…

  9. The role of parent-adolescent attachment in the glycemic control of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Tziporah; Shields, Cleveland G

    2009-09-01

    This pilot study explored the associations between parent and adolescent reports of adolescent attachment and glycemic control in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that more secure attachment would correlate with more optimal diabetes control. Thirty-one families completed written self-report questionnaires about adolescent attachment, demographic data, and diabetes control. Adolescents and parents reported on their perceptions of adolescents' attachment to mothers and fathers. Mean HbA1c for the sample was 7.6% (SD = 1.14). Mothers' perceptions of adolescents' attachment were significantly correlated with adolescents' hemoglobin A1c (r = -.42, p = .022), indicating that maternal perceptions of more secure attachment was associated with better glycemic control. Neither fathers' perceptions nor adolescents' reports of attachment was significantly correlated with glycemic control. Attachment appears to be associated with glycemic control in this population though the mechanisms are unclear. Mothers' perceptions of attachment had the strongest associations with control, not adolescent reports. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which parent reports of adolescent attachment are associated with glycemic control. PMID:19803618

  10. Attachment styles, emotion regulation, and adjustment in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M L; Shaver, P R; Collins, N L

    1998-05-01

    Attachment style differences in psychological symptomatology, self-concept, and risky or problem behaviors were examined in a community sample (N = 1,989) of Black and White adolescents, 13 to 19 years old. Overall, secure adolescents were the best-adjusted group, though not necessarily the least likely to engage in risky behaviors. Anxious adolescents were the worst-adjusted group, reporting the poorest self-concepts and the highest levels of symptomatology and risk behaviors. In contrast, avoidant adolescents reported generally high levels of symptomatology and poor self-concepts but similar levels of risk behaviors to those found among secures. Mediation analyses suggested that the observed differences in problem behaviors were at least partially accounted for by the differential experience of distress symptoms (primarily hostility and depression) and by social competence. Finally, patterns of attachment effects were similar across age, gender, and racial groups, with some important exceptions. PMID:9599450

  11. Oxytocin enhances the experience of attachment security

    PubMed Central

    Buchheim, Anna; Heinrichs, Markus; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Koops, Eva; Henningsen, Peter; O’Connor, Mary-Frances; Gundel, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Summary Repeated interactions between infant and caregiver result in either secure or insecure relationship attachment patterns, and insecure attachment may affect individual emotion-regulation and health. Given that oxytocin enhances social approach behavior in animals and humans, we hypothesized that oxytocin might also promote the experience of attachment security in humans. Within a 3-week interval 26 healthy male students classified with an insecure attachment pattern were invited twice to an experimental session. Within each session, a single dose of oxytocin or placebo was administered, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design. In both conditions, subjects completed an attachment task based on the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Thirty-two AAP picture system presentations depicted attachment-related events (e.g. illness, solitude, separation, loss), and were each accompanied by four prototypical phrases representing one secure and three insecure attachment categories. In the oxytocin condition, a significant proportion of these insecure subjects (N = 18; 69%) changed their rankings of “secure attachment” phrases towards the more appropriate for the AAP picture presentation, and the same subjects decreased in overall rating of the “insecure attachment” phrases. In particular, there was a significant decrease in the number of subjects ranking the pictures with “insecure-preoccupied” phrases from the placebo to the oxytocin condition. We find that a single dose of intranasally administered oxytocin is sufficient to induce a significant increase in the experience of attachment security in adults classified previously as insecure. PMID:19457618

  12. Stability of Attachment Representations during Adolescence: The Influence of Ego-Identity Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Peter; Becker-Stoll, Fabienne

    2002-01-01

    Examines two core assumptions of attachment theory: internal working models of attachment should increase in stability during development, and attachment is related to the adaptive solution of stage-salient issues, in adolescence, specifically to identity formation. Results show secure attachment representation was positively associated with the…

  13. The Role of Adolescent Attachment in Moderating and Mediating the Links between Parent and Adolescent Psychological Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Susan S.; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Warner, Stephanie; Cassidy, Jude

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether adolescent attachment security and attachment-related representations moderate and mediate, respectively, the link between parent symptoms (depressive and anxiety) and adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants were 189 (118 girls) eleventh graders and their parents in a community sample. Results showed that…

  14. Attachment and motivational strategies in adolescence: exploring links.

    PubMed

    Soares, Isabel; Lemos, Marina S; Almeida, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of attachment theory and of motivation goal theory, this study explored the relation between quality of attachment strategies and quality of motivational strategies in a sample of young adolescents. Specifically, this study examined patterns of thoughts, behaviors, and emotions as they related to representations of attachment and motivational functioning in situations that challenge or threaten three psychological needs (emotional security, competence, and autonomy). Forty-four students, aged 11 to 14 years, responded to imagined stressful situations in order to: (a) assess attachment strategies; (b) identify and assess students' motivational strategies in stressful classroom circumstances; (c) assess motivational strategies of students with high and low control and agency beliefs; and (d) examine the relations between attachment and motivational strategies. Four distinct action patterns were identified: flexible action, rigid action, passive behavior, and disorganized behavior. Significant relations were found between control beliefs and motivational strategies, as well as a trend toward relations between attachment and motivational strategies, suggesting that secure adolescents show more constructive motivational strategies and less disorganized strategies when compared to insecure adolescents. PMID:15861622

  15. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted…

  16. Earned-secure attachment status in retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed

    Roisman, Glenn L; Padrón, Elena; Sroufe, L Alan; Egeland, Byron

    2002-01-01

    Past research with the Berkeley Adult Attachment Interview demonstrates that retrospectively defined earned-secures (who coherently describe negative childhood experiences) parent as effectively as do continuous-secures (who coherently describe positive childhood experiences), but manifest liabilities in the form of depressive symptomatology. This article presents data from a 23-year longitudinal study that replicate and extend prior research, testing a key premise that earned-secures so defined actually have a history of insecure attachments that change over time and/or endure consistently harsh or ineffective parenting in their youth. Discrepant with assumptions, retrospective earned-secures were not more likely than continuous-secures to have been anxiously attached in infancy and were observed in childhood and adolescence to have encountered among the most supportive and structured maternal parenting in a high-risk sample. Prospectively defined earned-secures (operationalized using participants' infant attachment classifications) did indeed go on to have success in their close relationships, many without reporting relatively high levels of internalizing distress in adulthood. PMID:12146743

  17. Security Blankets and Children's Security of Attachment to Their Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donate-Bartfield, Evelyn L.; Passman, Richard H.

    This study investigated the relations between toddlers' degree of attachment to their mothers and their development of an attachment to a security blanket. Seventy-four 18-month-olds were separated from their mothers three times; the third time the toddlers were left for 5 minutes in an unfamiliar playroom with their blanket and with a stranger.…

  18. Attachment in Adolescence: Overlap with Parenting and Unique Prediction of Behavioural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Stephen; Briskman, Jacqueline; Woolgar, Matthew; Humayun, Sajid; O'Connor, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attachment theory was conceptualized by Bowlby as relevant across the life span, from "cradle to grave". The research literature on attachment in infants and preschool-aged children is extensive, but it is limited in adolescence. In particular, it is unclear whether or not attachment security is distinguishable from other qualities of…

  19. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adolescent Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearon, Pasco; Shmueli-Goetz, Yael; Viding, Essi; Fonagy, Peter; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Twin studies consistently point to limited genetic influence on attachment security in the infancy period, but no study has examined whether this remains the case in later development. This study presents the findings from a twin study examining the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on attachment in…

  20. Associations Between Parental Attachment and Course of Depression Between Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Agerup, Tea; Lydersen, Stian; Wallander, Jan; Sund, Anne Mari

    2015-08-01

    A study of the associations of maternal, paternal and peer attachment with the course of depression from adolescence to young adulthood. In the Youth and Mental Health study 242 adolescents completed the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version for depressive disorders at age 15 and 20. Attachment was measured with the inventory for parent and peer attachment, separately for mother, father, and peers, at age 15. Multinomial logistic regression, indicated insecure attachment relationships with both parents, but not with peers, and were associated with the course of depression. Less secure attachment to mothers was associated with becoming depressed. Less secure attachment to both parents was associated with becoming well and remaining depressed. These results suggest attachment relationships with parents as potential influences on the course of depression and may provide important framework for clinical work with adolescents and young adults. PMID:25319511

  1. The Freedom to Choose Secure Attachment Relationships in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren, Einat; Mayseless, Ofra

    2013-01-01

    This study was based on the attachment-security hypothesis (H. Latty-Mann & K. E. Davis, 1996) that predicts that all individuals, regardless of attachment style, should demonstrate a preference for secure partners who are most likely to offer attachment security. It was therefore expected that with the transfer of attachment functions from…

  2. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  3. Adolescents in Wilderness Therapy: A Qualitative Study of Attachment Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettmann, Joanna E.; Olson-Morrison, Debra; Jasperson, Rachael A.

    2011-01-01

    Characterized by acute changes in attachment relationships, adolescence is a time of balancing autonomy and attachment needs. For adolescents in wilderness therapy programs, the setting often challenges their understanding of their own attachment relationships. The current study evaluates the narratives of 13 adolescents in a wilderness therapy…

  4. The Role of Attachment Style in Predicting Repetition of Adolescent Self-Harm: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, Katie; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated whether insecure attachment is associated with poorer outcomes at 6-month follow-up in adolescents who self-harm. At baseline the Child Attachment Interview was administered to 52 adolescents (13-17 years) referred to specialist child and adolescent mental health services and with a recent history of self-harm. Participants also completed self-report measures of self-harm, peer attachment, anxiety, and depression and were administered the means end problem-solving task. Self-harm behavior and problem-solving skills were assessed again at 6-month follow-up. At baseline, 14 (27%) were securely attached to their mothers. In the 49 (94%) adolescents followed-up, those with insecure maternal attachment and insecure peer attachment were more likely to have repeated self-harm. In addition, securely attached adolescents showed greater improvement in problem-solving skills. These findings indicate that secure maternal and peer attachments may help recovery from self-harm, possibly by supporting the acquisition of problem-solving skills, and highlights the importance of social connections and attachments for youth with a history of self-harm. PMID:25845416

  5. ATTACHMENT AND CORE RELATIONSHIP THEMES: WISHES FOR AUTONOMY AND CLOSENESS IN THE NARRATIVES OF SECURELY AND INSECURELY ATTACHED ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Waldinger, Robert J.; Seidman, Ethan L.; Gerber, Andrew J.; Liem, Joan H.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hauser, Stuart T.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines links between attachment states of mind and relationship schemas in a sample of 40 young adults, half of whom were hospitalized as adolescents for psychiatric treatment. Participants were interviewed about their closest relationships, and, using the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme method, their narratives about these relationships were analyzed for the relative frequency with which they expressed wishes for closeness and for autonomy in relation to others. Participants were also administered the Adult Attachment Interview and were classified with respect to security of attachment. Security of attachment was associated with the relative frequency with which participants expressed wishes for autonomy in their narratives about close relationships, even after accounting for current levels of psychological functioning and history of serious psychopathology in adolescence. Security of attachment was not associated with the relative frequency with which participants expressed wishes for closeness. The study suggests that core relational wishes for autonomy are linked specifically with subtypes of insecure attachment. These findings extend what is known about connections between the representation of early attachment relationships and the wishes and needs expressed in current relationships with significant others. PMID:16946799

  6. Representations of Attachment to Parents in Adolescent Sibling Pairs: Concordant or Discordant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Furman, Wyndol

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of adolescents have at least one sibling, and most are raised by the same parent or parents. What then might researchers expect two adolescent siblings' representations of attachment to parents to be like? Are both siblings likely to exhibit similarly secure or insecure representations, or is it just as likely that one sibling…

  7. Attachment and culture. Security in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Rothbaum, F; Weisz, J; Pott, M; Miyake, K; Morelli, G

    2000-10-01

    Attachment theorists maintain that cultural differences are relatively minor, and they focus on universals. Here the authors highlight evidence of cultural variations and note ways in which attachment theory is laden with Western values and meaning. Comparisons of the United States and Japan highlight the cultural relativity of 3 core hypotheses of attachment theory: that caregiver sensitivity leads to secure attachment, that secure attachment leads to later social competence, and that children who are securely attached use the primary caregiver as a secure base for exploring the external world. Attachment theorists use measures of sensitivity, competence, and secure base that are biased toward Western ways of thinking: The measures emphasize the child's autonomy, individuation, and exploration. In Japan, sensitivity, competence, and secure base are viewed very differently, calling into question the universality of fundamental tenets of attachment theory. The authors call for an indigenous approach to the psychology of attachment. PMID:11080829

  8. The Development and Validation of an Italian Short Form of the Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiocco, Roberto; Pallini, Susanna; Santamaria, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to validate a short form of the Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale that evaluates best friend's attachment considering three styles: Secure, Anxious, and Avoidant. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three-factor structure as found in the long…

  9. Quality of Parent/Adolescent Attachment and Aggression in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Kevin J.; Paternite, Carl E.; Shore, Cecilia

    2001-01-01

    Examined association between adolescents' perception of parent-adolescent attachment quality and adolescent aggression, as mediated by social cognition and self-esteem. Found that higher social cognition was associated with lower self-reported aggression when parent-adolescent attachments and adolescent self-esteem were controlled. When…

  10. Associations between Attachment Security and Social Competence in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António J.; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theorists suggest that attachment security with parents supports the quality of social adaptation in peer groups during early childhood, and numerous studies supporting this conjecture have been published. Most of these studies used enacted representations rather than mental representations of attachment security, and most studies…

  11. Adolescents' ADHD symptoms and adjustment: The role of attachment and rejection sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Miri; Oshri, Assaf; Eshkol, Varda; Pilowsky, Tammy

    2014-03-01

    The associations between attachment style, ADHD symptoms, and social adjustments were examined in a community sample of adolescents. Five hundred and eight junior high school students completed questionnaires pertaining to attachment style, ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity), and rejection sensitivity, and were rated by homeroom teachers on social adjustment. Analyses supported a 3-profile pattern of attachment styles: secure, dismissing, and preoccupied. The 3 attachment profiles showed differential risk on adolescents' social adjustment, as well as on ADHD symptoms. The secure profile showed the most adaptive outcomes on all of the examined adjustment outcomes, compared with the other 2 profiles. In contrast, the preoccupied attachment profile showed the highest levels of ADHD problems, angry and anxious expectations, while displaying a similar level of maladjustment to the dismissing profile. In addition, structural equation modeling was used and supported a model that tested an indirect link between attachment security and adolescent adjustment via an ADHD latent factor. Findings suggest that clinicians and educators should pay attention to relational patterns (attachment styles) in adolescence, as these may serve as a developmental precursor for ADHD and a range of adjustment problems in school. PMID:24826937

  12. The Association between State Attachment Security and State Mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Pepping, Christopher A.; Davis, Penelope J.; O’Donovan, Analise

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that attachment and mindfulness are related, though the nature of this association is unclear. Here we present two studies examining whether there is a causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness. Study 1 investigated the effects of experimentally increasing state mindfulness on state attachment security. State mindfulness was successfully enhanced, but this led to no change in state attachment security. Study 2 investigated the effects of experimentally enhancing state attachment security on state mindfulness. State attachment security was successfully enhanced, but this did not lead to any change in state mindfulness. These findings suggest that there is not a direct, immediate causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness as a result of brief experimental manipulations. Future research should examine these associations in longer term interventions. PMID:25786134

  13. Healing from Suicide: Adolescent Perceptions of Attachment Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostik, Katherine E.; Everall, Robin D.

    2007-01-01

    Relatively little is known about how adolescents overcome being suicidal. The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of adolescents' perceptions of the role of attachment relationships in the process of overcoming suicidality. Forty-one female and nine male adolescents, previously suicidal between the ages of 13 and 19, were…

  14. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions. PMID:26244914

  15. Attachment Organization and History of Suicidal Behavior in Clinical Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Kenneth S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents in psychiatric treatment (N=133) participated in a case-comparison study investigating the association of attachment patterns with a history of suicidal behaviors. Attachment patterns were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. In accordance with definitions provided in the scoring system, 86% of case and 78% of comparison…

  16. Family Structure: Its Effects on Adolescent Attachment and Identity Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Anthony J.; Edwards, Anne E.; Bauer, Karlin S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the association between family structure, attachment, and identity formation. Results partially support the hypotheses and indicate that unresolved spouse conflict is associated with low levels of attachment in adolescents and attachment to father is linked to identity achieved and the diffused identity status. Findings support a link…

  17. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 2800 - Security Termination Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Termination Statement 2 Attachment 2 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part...

  18. Secure attachment promotes the development of effortful control in boys.

    PubMed

    Viddal, Kristine Rensvik; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Wan, Ming Wai; Green, Jonathan; Hygen, Beate Wold; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Although effortful control (EC), a regulatory aspect of temperament, is associated with a wide range of developmental outcomes, knowledge about EC promoters is scarce. This study explored whether secure attachment promoted the development of EC from preschool to school age in a community sample of 903 Norwegian children. EC was measured using the parent-reported Children's Behavior Questionnaire at four (T1) and six (T2) years of age, and attachment was measured using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task at T1. Previous research has indicated that a child's gender and socioeconomic status are possible covariates of EC; hence, these factors were included in the analyses. Despite considerable rank-order stability in EC, secure attachment contributed to an increase in EC. Furthermore, gender moderated the effect of attachment: secure attachment promoted EC in boys only. These findings emphasize preschool boys' need for emotional security to facilitate effortful capacities in their transition to school. PMID:25659572

  19. Adolescent Attachment Trajectories with Mothers and Fathers: The Importance of Parent-Child Relationship Experiences and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Ruhl, Holly; Dolan, Elaine A.; Buhrmester, Duane

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated how attachment with mothers and fathers changes during adolescence, and how gender and parent-child relationship experiences are associated with attachment trajectories. The relative importance of specific positive and negative relationship experiences on attachment trajectories was also examined. An initial sample of 223 adolescents reported on relationship experiences and attachment avoidance and anxiety with mothers and fathers in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (final N=110; Mage=11.90 years at onset, SD=.43). Mothers and fathers reported on relationship experiences with adolescents. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that security with parents increased during adolescence. Positive relationship experiences (companionship, satisfaction, approval, support) predicted increases in security and negative experiences (pressure, criticism) predicted decreases in security. Females reported less avoidance than males. PMID:26347590

  20. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sub-sample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this paper reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of secure base script knowledge, as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved. Secure base script knowledge was (a) modestly to moderately correlated with more well established assessments of adult attachment, (b) associated with mother-child attachment in the first three years of life and with observations of maternal and paternal sensitivity from childhood to adolescence, and (c) partially accounted for associations previously documented in the SECCYD cohort between early caregiving experiences and Adult Attachment Interview states of mind (Booth-LaForce & Roisman, 2014) as well as self-reported attachment styles (Fraley, Roisman, Booth-LaForce, Owen, & Holland, 2013). PMID:25264703

  1. Attachment-based family therapy for depressed and suicidal adolescents: theory, clinical model and empirical support.

    PubMed

    Ewing, E Stephanie Krauthamer; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) is a manualized family-based intervention designed for working with depressed adolescents, including those at risk for suicide, and their families. It is an empirically informed and supported treatment. ABFT has its theoretical underpinnings in attachment theory and clinical roots in structural family therapy and emotion focused therapies. ABFT relies on a transactional model that aims to transform the quality of adolescent-parent attachment, as a means of providing the adolescent with a more secure relationship that can support them during challenging times generally, and the crises related to suicidal thinking and behavior, specifically. This article reviews: (1) the theoretical foundations of ABFT (attachment theory, models of emotional development); (2) the ABFT clinical model, including training and supervision factors; and (3) empirical support. PMID:25778674

  2. Attachment: Building Secure Relationships in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Attachment describes the unique human ability to form lasting relationships with others, and to maintain these relationships over time and distance. Research into attachment has shown that children have the potential to form many attachment relationships, and that each relationship can contribute to the child's growing sense of self. This booklet…

  3. The influence of representations of attachment, maternal-adolescent relationship quality, and maternal monitoring on adolescent substance use: a 2-year longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Branstetter, Steven A; Furman, Wyndol; Cottrell, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the hypotheses that more secure representations of attachments to parents are associated with less adolescent substance use over time and that this link is mediated through relationship quality and monitoring. A sample of 200 adolescents (M = 14-16 years), their mothers, and close friends were assessed over 2 years. Higher levels of security in attachment styles, but not states of mind, were predictive of higher levels of monitoring and support and lower levels of negative interactions. Higher levels of security in attachment styles had an indirect effect on changes in substance use over time, mediated by maternal monitoring. These findings highlight the roles of representations of attachments, mother-adolescent relationship qualities, and monitoring in the development of adolescent substance use. PMID:19765011

  4. Maternal secure-base scripts and children's attachment security in an adopted sample.

    PubMed

    Veríssimo, Manuela; Salvaterra, Fernanda

    2006-09-01

    Studies of families with adopted children are of special interest to attachment theorists because they afford opportunities to probe assumptions of attachment theory with regard to the developmental timing of interactions necessary to form primary attachments and also with regard to effects of shared genes on child attachment quality. In Bowlby's model, attachment-relevant behaviors and interactions are observable from the moment of birth, but for adoptive families, these interactions cannot begin until the child enters the family, sometimes several months or even years post-partum. Furthermore, because adoptive parents and adopted children do not usually share genes by common descent, any correspondence between attachment representations of the parent and secure base behavior of the child must arise as a consequence of dyadic interaction histories. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether the child's age at the time of adoption or at the time of attachment assessment predicted child attachment security in adoptive families and also whether the adoptive mother's internal attachment representation predicted the child's attachment security. The participants were 106 mother - child dyads selected from the 406 adoptions carried out through the Lisbon Department of Adoption Services over a period of 3 years. The Attachment Behavior Q-Set (AQS; Waters, 1995) was used to assess secure base behavior and an attachment script representation task was used to assess the maternal attachment representations. Neither child's age at the time of adoption, nor age of the child at assessment significantly predicted the AQS security score; however, scores reflecting the presence and quality of maternal secure base scripts did predict AQS security. These findings support the notion that the transmission of attachment security across generations involves mutual exchanges and learning by the child and that the exchanges leading to secure attachment need not begin at birth

  5. Evolved Mechanisms in Adolescent Anxiety and Depression Symptoms: The Role of the Attachment and Social Rank Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, C.; Gilbert, P.

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and forty adolescent students were assessed on measures of attachment, social rank (social comparison and submissive behaviour), and depression and anxiety symptoms. Secure attachment was significantly correlated with positive social comparison and inversely with submissive behaviour, depression and anxiety symptoms. In contrast,…

  6. Attachment, Individuation, and Risk of Suicide in Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Marjolein L.

    1992-01-01

    Security of attachment and level of individuation from parents and peers was examined among 42 undergraduates with a history of suicidality, 42 undergraduates with depression, and 42 undergraduate controls. Suicidal students had the least security of attachment, the least degree of individuation, and the highest incidence of parental…

  7. Attachment, Coping, and Explanatory Style in Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberger, Ellen; McLaughlin, Caitlin S.

    1998-01-01

    Self-report data from 157 college students show that, in general, more secure attachments were positively related to support-seeking and active problem-solving coping styles and to females', but not males', tendency to explain hypothetical successes and failures in a positive or self-enhancing manner. Sex differences in security of attachments are…

  8. Attachment and Parental Correlates in Late Adolescent Mexican American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tacon, Anna M.; Caldera, Yvonne M.

    2001-01-01

    Attachment dimensions and styles, parental caregiving styles, and acculturation were investigated among 155 Mexican American and White college women. Results showed no differences between groups on attachment dimensions or styles. For both groups, only paternal variables were associated with attachment security. Implications of measurement and…

  9. [Attachment and attachment-based intervention: the Circle of Security intervention project in Hamburg].

    PubMed

    Ramsauer, Brigitte; Gehrke, Julia; Lotzin, Annett; Powell, Bert; Romer, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Since the early sixties empirical research into early childhood and the parent-infant relationship has increased, commonly informed by attachment theory. The mutually regulated interaction within the attachment and care giving relationship of mother and infant gives this relationship its exceptional emotional quality. Early attachment experiences organize socio-emotional and cognitive development beyond childhood. Attachment theory and research define observable behaviors and the level of internal representations as an intervening variable of the transmission of attachment patterns between mother and child. Basic attachment derived concepts are the starting points of the Circle of Security approach. The Circle of Security Intervention Project in Hamburg for mothers with postpartum mental illness and their infants is described in more detail. Specific aspects are discussed with reference to a diagnostic case study. PMID:21877568

  10. Effects of Infant Massage on Attachment Security: An Experimental Manipulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jump, Vonda K.

    The formation of attachments is an important phenomenon occurring in the realm of socioemotional development. This study examined the impact of infant massage on infants' subsequent attachment security. Fifty-seven mother-infant dyads (48 dyads from Head Start, 9 from the community at large) were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group…

  11. Attachment Security and Attentional Breadth toward the Attachment Figure in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosmans, Guy; Braet, Caroline; Koster, Ernst; De Raedt, Rudi

    2009-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the cognitive processes involved in internal working models of attachment, this study investigated the relationship between secure attachment and attentional breadth to mother using a dual task design. The content of the cues (mother vs. unfamiliar women) and the duration of the presentation of the cues (34 msec,…

  12. Maternal Care and Attachment Security in Ordinary and Emergency Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada, German; Jacobs, Amanda; Carbonell, Olga A.; Alzate, Gloria; Bustamante, Maria R.; Arenas, Angela

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between maternal sensitivity and infant security of attachment in home and hospital contexts. Results are discussed in terms of links between methodology and effect sizes, the generality of links between maternal care and child security, need for research on caregiving in ordinary and emergency situations, and…

  13. Measuring Infant Attachment Security in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta): Adaptation of the Attachment Q-set

    PubMed Central

    Warfield, James J.; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2010-01-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult’s availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant’s typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This paper reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists. PMID:20853398

  14. Measuring infant attachment security in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): adaptation of the attachment Q-set.

    PubMed

    Warfield, James J; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2011-02-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult's availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant's typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This article reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists. PMID:20853398

  15. Parenting, Marital Conflict and Adjustment from Early- To Mid-Adolescence: Mediated by Adolescent Attachment Style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    Contributions of 3 dimensions of parenting (psychological control, warmth, and behavioural control), marital conflict, and attachment style (anxiety and avoidance) to adjustment from early to middle adolescence were assessed. Mediation of marital conflict effects by parenting, and of parenting effects by attachment were examined. Adolescents (n =…

  16. Gendered Patterns in Adolescents' School Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Crosnoe, Robert; Thaden, Lyssa L.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature documents a gender reversal in many aspects of social psychological functioning during adolescence, in which girls fall below boys in domains in which they once enjoyed advantages. This study elaborates upon recent research from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health suggesting that this phenomenon may occur…

  17. Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Promote Secure Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Barry; Edginton, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age <13 years). This article aims to inform clinicians about the parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research. PMID:27583298

  18. Preventive Interventions and Sustained Attachment Security in Maltreated Children

    PubMed Central

    Stronach, Erin Pickreign; Toth, Sheree L.; Rogosch, Fred; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen-month-old maltreated infants (n = 137) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI), and community standard (CS). A fourth group of nonmaltreated infants (n =52) and their mothers served as a normative comparison (NC) group. A prior investigation found that the CPP and PPI groups demonstrated substantial increases in secure attachment at post-intervention, whereas this change was not found in the CS and NC groups. The current investigation involved the analysis of data obtained at a follow-up assessment that occurred 12-months after the completion of treatment. At follow-up, children in the CPP group had higher rates of secure and lower rates of disorganized attachment than did children in the PPI or CS groups. Rates of disorganized attachment did not differ between the CPP and NC groups. Intention-to-treat analyses (ITT) also showed higher rates of secure attachment at follow-up in the CPP group relative to the PPI and CS groups. However, groups did not differ on disorganized attachment. Both primary and ITT analyses demonstrated that maternal reported child behavior problems did not differ among the four groups at the follow-up assessment. This is the first investigation to demonstrate sustained attachment security in maltreated children 12 months after the completion of an attachment theory-informed intervention. Findings also suggest that, while effective in the short term, parenting interventions alone may not be effective in maintaining secure attachment in children over time. PMID:24229539

  19. Do Adolescents and Parents Reconstruct Memories about Their Conflict as a Function of Adolescent Attachment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykas, Matthew J.; Woodhouse, Susan S.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Cassidy, Jude

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether 17-year-old adolescents (n = 189) and their parents reconstructed their memory for an adolescent-parent laboratory conflict over a 6-week period as a function of adolescent attachment organization. It also compared participants' perceptions of conflict over time to observational ratings of the conflict to further…

  20. Toddlers' Attachment Security to Child-Care Providers: The Safe and Secure Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Cathryn L.; Kelly, Jean F.; Spieker, Susan J.; Zuckerman, Tracy G.

    2003-01-01

    Examined attachment relationships of toddlers at 26 months to their child caregivers. Developed a scale describing safe haven and secure base functions of attachment relationships in child care. Found that this Safe and Secure Scale related to proximal indicators of child-care quality, and was a stronger measure than the child-caregiver Q-security…

  1. Another Look Inside the Gap: Ecological Contributions to the Transmission of Attachment in a Sample of Adolescent Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabulsy, George M.; Bernier, Annie; Provost, Marc A.; Maranda, Johanne; Larose, Simon; Moss, Ellen; Larose, Marie; Tessier, Rejean

    2005-01-01

    Ecological contributions to attachment transmission were studied in a sample of 64 adolescent mother-infant dyads. Maternal sensitivity was assessed when infants were 6 and 10 months old, and infant security was assessed at 15 and 18 months. Maternal attachment state of mind was measured with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) after the 1st…

  2. Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Specificity of Perceived Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larose, Simon; And Others

    Research indicates that establishing a secure attachment relationship in childhood affects later perceived social support (PSS). In order to test this relationship empirically and to gather comparative information on the separate elements of PSS, two attachment questionnaires and three measures of PSS were administered to 139 white males and 320…

  3. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities: links with parental attachment style and adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-04-01

    Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. PMID:25730406

  4. Socioemotional development in adolescents at risk for depression: the role of maternal depression and attachment style.

    PubMed

    Murray, Lynne; Halligan, Sarah L; Adams, Gillian; Patterson, Paul; Goodyer, Ian M

    2006-01-01

    We examined the impact on adolescent socioemotional functioning of maternal postnatal depression (PND) and attachment style. We also investigated the role of earlier aspects of the child's development-attachment in infancy, and 5-year representations of family relationships. Ninety-one mother-child pairs, recruited in the postnatal period, were followed up at 13 years. Adolescents were interviewed about their friendships, and their level of emotional sensitivity and maturity were rated. Emotional sensitivity was heightened in girls whose mothers experienced PND; notably, its occurrence was also linked to insecure attachment in infancy and raised awareness of emotional components of family relationships at 5 years. High emotional sensitivity was also associated with adolescent depressed mood. Raised social maturity was predicted by a secure maternal attachment style and, for girls, by exposure to maternal PND. Precursors of adolescent social maturity were evident in the narrative coherence of 5-year family representations. Higher social maturity in the friendship interview was also associated with overall good adjustment. PMID:16600065

  5. Attachment Security Balances Perspectives: Effects of Security Priming on Highly Optimistic and Pessimistic Explanatory Styles.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanhe; Yan, Mengge; Chen, Henry; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Xianglong; Liu, Xiangping; Lye, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Highly optimistic explanatory style (HOES) and highly pessimistic explanatory style (HPES) are two maladaptive ways to explain the world and may have roots in attachment insecurity. The current study aims to explore the effects of security priming - activating supportive representations of attachment security - on ameliorating these maladaptive explanatory styles. 57 participants with HOES and 57 participants with HPES were randomized into security priming and control conditions. Their scores of overall optimistic attribution were measured before and after priming. Security priming had a moderating effect: the security primed HOES group exhibited lower optimistic attribution, while the security primed HPES group evinced higher scores of optimistic attribution. Furthermore, the security primed HOES group attributed positive outcomes more externally, while the security primed HPES group attributed successful results more internally. The results support the application of security priming interventions on maladaptive explanatory styles. Its potential mechanism and directions for future study are also discussed. PMID:27610092

  6. Attachment Security Balances Perspectives: Effects of Security Priming on Highly Optimistic and Pessimistic Explanatory Styles

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yanhe; Yan, Mengge; Chen, Henry; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Xianglong; Liu, Xiangping; Lye, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Highly optimistic explanatory style (HOES) and highly pessimistic explanatory style (HPES) are two maladaptive ways to explain the world and may have roots in attachment insecurity. The current study aims to explore the effects of security priming – activating supportive representations of attachment security – on ameliorating these maladaptive explanatory styles. 57 participants with HOES and 57 participants with HPES were randomized into security priming and control conditions. Their scores of overall optimistic attribution were measured before and after priming. Security priming had a moderating effect: the security primed HOES group exhibited lower optimistic attribution, while the security primed HPES group evinced higher scores of optimistic attribution. Furthermore, the security primed HOES group attributed positive outcomes more externally, while the security primed HPES group attributed successful results more internally. The results support the application of security priming interventions on maladaptive explanatory styles. Its potential mechanism and directions for future study are also discussed. PMID:27610092

  7. Mothers of Securely Attached Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Are More Sensitive than Mothers of Insecurely Attached Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koren-Karie, Nina; Oppenheim, David; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    In the current study we examined the links between maternal sensitivity and children's secure attachment in a sample of 45 preschool-age boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We hypothesized that mothers of securely attached children would be more sensitive to their children than mothers of insecurely attached children. Children's attachment…

  8. Infant attachment predicts bodily freezing in adolescence: evidence from a prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Niermann, Hannah C. M.; Ly, Verena; Smeekens, Sanny; Figner, Bernd; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Roelofs, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Early life-stress, particularly maternal deprivation, is associated with long-lasting deviations in animals’ freezing responses. Given the relevance of freezing for stress-coping, translational research is needed to examine the relation between insecure infant-parent attachment and bodily freezing-like behavior in humans. Therefore, we investigated threat-related reductions in body sway (indicative of freezing-like behavior) in 14-year-old adolescents (N = 79), for whom attachment security was earlier assessed in infancy. As expected, insecure (vs. secure) attachment was associated with less body sway for angry vs. neutral faces. This effect remained when controlling for intermediate life events. These results suggest that the long-lasting effects of early negative caregiving experiences on the human stress and threat systems extend to the primary defensive reaction of freezing. Additionally, we replicated earlier work in adults, by observing a significant correlation (in adolescents assessed as securely attached) between subjective state anxiety and reduced body sway in response to angry vs. neutral faces. Together, this research opens venues to start exploring the role of freezing in the development of human psychopathology. PMID:26557062

  9. Bullying among Korean Adolescents: The Role of Empathy and Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Sukkyung; Lee, June; Lee, Yunoug; Kim, Ann Y.

    2015-01-01

    In efforts to increase the field and society's understanding of bullying, the authors investigated how various forms of attachment (mother, peer, and school) are directly and indirectly related to bullying behavior through empathy, and whether these relationships are moderated by gender. Adolescents, of grades 7 through 9, from one middle school…

  10. Caregiver Sensitivity, Contingent Social Responsiveness, and Secure Infant Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Kassow, Danielle Z.

    2008-01-01

    Findings from two research syntheses of the relationship between caregiver sensitivity and secure infant attachment and one research synthesis of factors associated with increased caregiver use of a sensitive interactional style are presented. The main focus of analysis was the extent to which different measures of caregiver contingent social…

  11. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Parenting Behaviours, Parents' Attachment Relationships and Their Use of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyl, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.; Freeman, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, parenting behaviours (i.e. parent-child involvement, parenting consistency and co-parenting consistency) and parenting context (i.e. parents' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a sample of 235 culturally diverse families. The authors predicted that…

  12. Working Models of Attachment in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents: Relation to Psychopathology and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    This study examined the role of attachment in adolescent psychopathology among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Subjects consisted of 60 adolescents and 27 of their mothers. Measures included the Adult Attachment Interview classification for both the adolescents and their mothers, and a battery of diagnostic and personality assessment of…

  13. Parental Knowledge of Adolescent Activities: Links with Parental Attachment Style and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason D.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, C. W.; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-01-01

    Parents’ knowledge of their adolescents’ whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents’ attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents’ alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (mean age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in two-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers’ and fathers’ insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all three reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers’ and fathers’ attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. PMID:25730406

  14. Adolescents' attachment style and early experiences: a gender difference.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, N; Uji, M; Hiramura, H; Chen, Z; Shikai, N; Kishida, Y; Kitamura, T

    2006-01-01

    We examined gender differences in perceived rearing and adult attachment style in adolescents. A total of 3,912 senior college students (1,149 men and 2,763 women) ages 18-23 (men's M = 20.1 years, women's M = 20.0 years) were administered a set of questionnaires including Relationship Questionnaire (to measure adult attachment), the Parental Bonding Instrument (perceived rearing), and a list of early life events. In the men, positive adult total attachment style was predicted by the scores of paternal care and low scores on maternal overprotection in a hierarchical regression analysis. On the other hand, in the women, positive adult total attachment style was predicted by the scores of paternal and maternal care, and low score on maternal overprotection. Adult attachment was also predicted by fewer Peer Victimization experience as a child in both men and women. However, while men's adult attachment was predicted by Self Disease experiences, women's adult attachment was predicted by Top Star experiences and fewer Relocation experiences. The adult attachment style was predictable from early experiences but there existed some gender differences. PMID:16222424

  15. Reporter Discrepancies among Parents, Adolescents, and Peers: Adolescent Attachment and Informant Depressive Symptoms as Explanatory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Cassidy, Jude; Dykas, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The issue of informant discrepancies about child and adolescent functioning is an important concern for clinicians, developmental psychologists, and others who must consider ways of handling discrepant reports of information, but reasons for discrepancies in reports have been poorly understood. Adolescent attachment and informant depressive…

  16. Comparing Parent-Child and Teacher-Child Relationships in Early Adolescence: Measurement Invariance of Perceived Attachment-Related Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Laet, Steven; Colpin, Hilde; Goossens, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Verschueren, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Through an examination of measurement invariance, this study investigated whether attachment-related dimensions (i.e., secure base, safe haven, and negative interactions as measured with the Network of Relationships Inventory-Behavioral Systems Version) have the same psychological meaning for early adolescents in their relationships with parents…

  17. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gander, Manuela; Sevecke, Kathrin; Buchheim, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. Articles for inclusion in this review were identified from PsychINFO (1966–2013), Sciencedirect (1970–2013), Psychindex (1980–2013), and Pubmed (1980–2013). First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition. PMID:26321974

  18. Traumatic and Adverse Attachment Childhood Experiences are not Characteristic of OCD but of Depression in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Tord; Saavedra, Fanny; Granqvist, Pehr; Broberg, Anders G

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether adverse attachment experience might contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We interviewed 100 adolescents, 25 each with primary OCD, depressive disorder (DD), OCD plus DD and general population controls (CTRs) using the adult attachment interview to assess attachment experiences (AEs), including traumatic and adverse AE (TAE). Adolescents with OCD, OCD+DD and DD had little evidence of secure base/safe haven parental behaviour and their childhood attachment needs judged to be rejected as compared to the controls. Overprotection was not characteristic of OCD, and parents using the child for their own needs (elevated levels of involving/role reversal) occurred only in DD, with low levels in OCD, OCD+DD and CTR. Traumatic experiences, often multiple, and/or attachment related were reported significantly more often in the DD group, and was less common in OCD+DD, CTR and particularly in the OCD group. In OCD, little TAE was reported and adverse AE were less serious and seem unlikely to contribute directly to OCD aetiology. In DD and to some degree in OCD+DD serious AE/TAE may have some etiological significance for the depressive states. PMID:26115697

  19. Trait and social influences in the links among adolescent attachment, depressive symptoms, and coping.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Lisa J; Lakey, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Attachment insecurity and maladaptive coping are associated with depression in adolescence; however, it is unclear whether these links primarily reflect stable individual differences among teens (trait influences), experiential differences in their interactions with relationship partners (social influences) or both. In this study, teens (ages 14-18; N = 150) completed questionnaires to assess their attachment security, depressive symptoms, and coping strategies with different attachment figures. Measures were completed three times, based on experiences with a maternal figure, paternal figure, and closest peer. Generalizability analyses were used to separate each construct into trait and social influence components. Next, multivariate g correlations were computed to examine the correlations among the constructs for the trait component as well as the social component. Correlation magnitudes differed depending on whether the trait or social influence components were examined. PMID:17484692

  20. Neurobiology of secure infant attachment and attachment despite adversity: a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Raineki, C; Salstein, L; Perry, R; Sullivan-Wilson, T A; Sloan, A; Lalji, B; Hammock, E; Wilson, D A; Levitt, P; Okutani, F; Kaba, H; Sullivan, R M

    2013-10-01

    Attachment to an abusive caregiver has wide phylogenetic representation, suggesting that animal models are useful in understanding the neural basis underlying this phenomenon and subsequent behavioral outcomes. We previously developed a rat model, in which we use classical conditioning to parallel learning processes evoked during secure attachment (odor-stroke, with stroke mimicking tactile stimulation from the caregiver) or attachment despite adversity (odor-shock, with shock mimicking maltreatment). Here we extend this model to mice. We conditioned infant mice (postnatal day (PN) 7-9 or 13-14) with presentations of peppermint odor and either stroking or shock. We used (14) C 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) to assess olfactory bulb and amygdala metabolic changes following learning. PN7-9 mice learned to prefer an odor following either odor-stroke or shock conditioning, whereas odor-shock conditioning at PN13-14 resulted in aversion/fear learning. 2-DG data indicated enhanced bulbar activity in PN7-9 preference learning, whereas significant amygdala activity was present following aversion learning at PN13-14. Overall, the mouse results parallel behavioral and neural results in the rat model of attachment, and provide the foundation for the use of transgenic and knockout models to assess the impact of both genetic (biological vulnerabilities) and environmental factors (abusive) on attachment-related behaviors and behavioral development. PMID:23927771

  1. Parental Attachment and Adolescents' Perception of School Alienation: The Mediation Role of Self-Esteem and Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kocayörük, Ercan; Şimşek, Ömer Faruk

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between adolescents' attachment to parents and their feelings of alienation in the school context by considering the mediating role of adjustment and self-esteem. It was proposed that the degree of attachment to one's parents was associated with adjustment and self-esteem, which in turn predicted possible school alienation. A total of 227 students completed self-report measures on parental attachment, adjustment, self-esteem, and alienation from school. Results were consistent with the attachment theory and related literature that posits that (a) secure attachment to parents was associated with adjustment and self-esteem, (b) secure attachment to parents was negatively associated with feelings of school alienation, and (c) adjustment and self-esteem were a crucial mediators between attachment to parents and school alienation. In addition to enhanced adjustment, the self-esteem of adolescents may be an additional factor in reducing alienation at school. The results also supported the mediator role of self-esteem in the relationship between attachment to parents and adjustment. Finally, the relationship between self-esteem and school alienation were shown to be fully mediated by adjustment. The results were discussed in the context of responsibilities of teachers and school counselors, which may provide both students and parents with the skills to improve social functioning in the school context. PMID:26241806

  2. Motivations for providing a secure base: links with attachment orientation and secure base support behavior.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Brooke C; Collins, Nancy L; Van Vleet, Meredith; Tomlinson, Jennifer M

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the importance of underlying motivations in predicting secure base support behavior, as well as the extent to which support motivations are predicted by individual differences in attachment orientation. Participants were 189 married couples who participated in two laboratory sessions. During a questionnaire session, couples completed assessments of their underlying motivations for providing, and for not providing, support for their partner's exploration (i.e., goal-strivings), as well as assessments of their typical secure base support behavior. In an observational session, couples engaged in a discussion of one member's personal goals, during which the partner's secure base support was assessed. Results revealed a variety of distinct motivations for providing, and for not providing, secure base support to one's partner, as well as theoretically expected links between these motivations and both secure base behavior and attachment orientation. This work establishes motivations as important mechanisms that underlie the effective or ineffective provision of relational support. PMID:23581972

  3. Shifts in Attachment Relationships: A Study of Adolescents in Wilderness Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettmann, Joanna E.; Tucker, Anita R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined shifts in adolescents' attachment relationships with parents and peers during a 7-week wilderness therapy program. Ninety-six adolescents, aged 14-17, completed three quantitative measurements evaluating attachment relationships with mother, father and peers pre and post treatment. Adolescents reported improved attachment…

  4. Self-Report Measures of Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Separation-Individuation: A Selective Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…

  5. Parent Attachment and Early Adolescents' Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Effect of Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xu; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2013-01-01

    Research using an attachment theory framework has provided evidence that parent attachment is one of the crucial determinants of psychological adjustment in adolescents, including global life satisfaction (LS). This study investigated the interrelationships among parent attachment, hope, and LS during early adolescence, including the mediation…

  6. Assessing Adolescents' Attachment Hierarchies: Differences across Developmental Periods and Associations with Individual Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Natalie L.; Kobak, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents' attachment hierarchies were assessed in a sample of 212 high school and 198 college students. The Important People Interview (IPI) differentiated attachment bonds from other supportive or affiliative relationships and indicated that adolescents show a hierarchical ordering of preferences for multiple attachment figures. Differences in…

  7. Parental modeling, attachment, and supervision as moderators of adolescent gambling.

    PubMed

    Magoon, Maggie E; Ingersoll, Gary M

    2006-01-01

    Utilizing Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory as a theoretical foundation, 116 male and female students in grades 9-12 (mean age 16.8) from a Midwestern urban high school were surveyed to determine the prevalence and relationship among gambling behavior and parental and peer influences. To measure these variables, the following instruments were used: The SOGS-RA, the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Parent Scale, and The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Parental Monitoring and Supervision Scale. Almost all of the students (91%) reported gambling at least once in their lifetime while 36.2% reported gambling once a week, 19% reported gambling on a daily basis, and 26% were classified as problem gamblers (10% using the "narrow" SOGS-RA criteria). Parental gambling was related to levels of past year gambling as well as increased likelihood of being classified as a problem gambler. Increased parental attachment was also associated with decreased levels of adolescent gambling, while decreased parental trust and communication resulted in increased problem gambling. Measures of parental monitoring and supervision found similar outcomes in that increased monitoring and supervision resulted in lower levels of adolescent gambling. Additionally, when peer influences were moderated by parental influences, there was a moderating effect on gambling behavior. This study illuminates the continued importance parents play in both risk enhancing and risk inhibiting influences on adolescent participation in problem behaviors. PMID:16385392

  8. Collective Efficacy, Family Attachment, and Urban Adolescent Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    The suicide rate among American adolescents between the ages of 14–25 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, and this fact has been the focus of extensive social-scientific investigation. To date, however, research focusing on the joint effects of mental health, family, and contextual-level predictors on adolescents’ suicidal behaviors is scarce. Drawing on Durkheim’s classic macro-level approach to suicide and collective efficacy theory, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effect of informal social controls on adolescents’ suicide attempts. Analyzing reports from 990 youth, we examine the hypothesis that neighborhood-level collective efficacy and family-level integration and social control independently affect suicide attempts. We also examine the extent to which they interact in their effects on suicidal behavior. Overall, results from multilevel logit models support the Durkheimian expectation that family attachment reduces the probability that adolescents will attempt suicide. The effect of collective efficacy is interactive in nature. Specifically, we find that collective efficacy significantly enhances the protective effect of family attachment and support on adolescent suicidal behaviors. We discuss findings within the context of social control theory. PMID:20943592

  9. Attachment Patterns Trigger Differential Neural Signature of Emotional Processing in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Decety, Jean; Huepe, David; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Canales-Johnson, Andres; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Helgiu, Elena; Baez, Sandra; Manes, Facundo; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibañez, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that individuals with different attachment patterns process social information differently, especially in terms of facial emotion recognition. However, few studies have explored social information processes in adolescents. This study examined the behavioral and ERP correlates of emotional processing in adolescents with different attachment orientations (insecure attachment group and secure attachment group; IAG and SAG, respectively). This study also explored the association of these correlates to individual neuropsychological profiles. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a modified version of the dual valence task (DVT), in which participants classify stimuli (faces and words) according to emotional valence (positive or negative). Results showed that the IAG performed significantly worse than SAG on tests of executive function (EF attention, processing speed, visuospatial abilities and cognitive flexibility). In the behavioral DVT, the IAG presented lower performance and accuracy. The IAG also exhibited slower RTs for stimuli with negative valence. Compared to the SAG, the IAG showed a negative bias for faces; a larger P1 and attenuated N170 component over the right hemisphere was observed. A negative bias was also observed in the IAG for word stimuli, which was demonstrated by comparing the N170 amplitude of the IAG with the valence of the SAG. Finally, the amplitude of the N170 elicited by the facial stimuli correlated with EF in both groups (and negative valence with EF in the IAG). Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that individuals with different attachment patterns process key emotional information and corresponding EF differently. This is evidenced by an early modulation of ERP components’ amplitudes, which are correlated with behavioral and neuropsychological effects. In brief, attachments patterns appear to impact multiple domains, such as emotional processing and EFs. PMID:23940552

  10. Parent-Child Attachment Working Models and Self-Esteem in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Cynthia B.; Kennedy, Janice H.

    1994-01-01

    Continuity over time in parent-child attachments and the relationship between these attachments and current self-esteem were studied for 218 nonparent college students. Results indicate continuity over time of attachment. Self-esteem is related to childhood and adolescent styles of attachment and dimensions of independence encouragement and…

  11. Attachment and Self-Evaluation in Chinese Adolescents: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hairong; Thompson, Ross A.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated age and gender differences in the quality of attachment to mothers, fathers, and peers, and the association of attachment with measures of self-evaluation in 584 Chinese adolescents in junior high, high school, and university. Their responses to the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment indexed attachment quality, and…

  12. Is Early Attachment Security Carried Forward into Relationships with Preschool Peers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Emmerson, Natasha A.; Cowan, Philip A.

    2004-01-01

    The association between early parent-child attachment security and peer rejection among preschool children was examined. Children in three preschool classrooms (N = 37) participated. Mothers rated their children's attachment security at age 3 years on the Attachment Q-Set (Waters, 1987). Sociometric ratings were collected from classmates at age 4…

  13. Adolescent-Parent Attachment and Externalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Individual and Social Factors.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior. PMID:25772427

  14. A Comparison of Maternal Attachment between American Adolescent and Adult Mothers of Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Ratchaneewan; Youngblut, JoAnne M.

    2013-01-01

    American adolescent mothers have been viewed as less effective parents than adult mothers. The socioeconomic disadvantages of adolescent mothers should be taken into account. The objectives of this study were to compare maternal attachment between adolescent and adult mothers of preschoolers and to examine changes of adolescents’ maternal attachment over time. A secondary analysis of data from a larger study of maternal employment and low birth weight infant outcomes were used. Data were collected through home visits using structured questionnaires at two different time points. Forty-three pairs of adolescent and adult mothers who could be matched on family structure, maternal race, and child’s gestational status were compared on maternal attachment. The 7-item Attachment subscale of the Parenting Stress Index was used to measure maternal attachment. Results revealed that the adolescent mothers were not less attached to their preschoolers than the adults. This held true when important confounding factors were taken into account using multiple regression. PMID:24860239

  15. Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Parent-Adolescent Attachment Relationship Quality and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eijck, Fenna E. A. M.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the direction of effects between adolescents' generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms and perceived parent-adolescent attachment relationship quality, as well as the moderating role of gender and age. 1,313 Dutch adolescents (48.5% boys) from two age cohorts of early (n = 923, M[subscript age] = 12 at W1) and…

  16. The Reciprocal Relationship between Early Adolescent Attachment and Internalizing and Externalizing Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buist, Kirsten L.; Dekovic, Maja; Meeus, Wim; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the reciprocal relationship between parental attachment and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problem behaviour. In this longitudinal study, 288 adolescents (mean age 13.5 years) reported on their attachment relationships with their parents and on problem behaviour three times, with…

  17. A "Natural Experiment" in Childrearing Ecologies and Adolescents' Attachment and Separation Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri

    2001-01-01

    Explored long-term effects of different childrearing contexts on attachment and separation representations of Israeli 16- to 18-year-olds. Found that adolescents raised in a kibbutz communal setting showed higher incidence of nonautonomous attachment representations and less competent coping with imagined separations than adolescents raised in a…

  18. Stress Regulation in Adolescents: Physiological Reactivity during the Adult Attachment Interview and Conflict Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beijersbergen, Marielle D.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescents' attachment representations were associated with differences in emotion regulation during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1996) and during a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task (Family Interaction Task [FIT]; J. P. Allen et al., 2003). Participants were…

  19. The role of parenting and mother-adolescent attachment in the intergenerational similarity of internalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brenning, Katrijn; Soenens, Bart; Braet, Caroline; Bal, Sarah

    2012-06-01

    Parental depression has been identified as a risk factor for children's and adolescents' internalizing problems. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of maternal parenting behaviors (i.e., responsiveness and autonomy-support) and adolescents' representations of attachment to their mother (i.e., anxiety and avoidance) in the intergenerational similarity of internalizing symptoms. The sample was heterogeneous and consisted of referred (42%) and non-referred adolescents (N=238, 31% female) and their mothers. Both adolescents and mothers reported on internalizing symptoms, parenting behaviors and all adolescents reported on mother-child attachment. Results showed that parenting behaviors and mother-adolescent attachment explain at least part of the intergenerational congruence of internalizing symptoms. Moreover, there were meaningful and specific associations between dimensions of parenting and dimensions of attachment. Higher responsiveness was primarily related to lower avoidance and higher autonomy-support was primarily related to lower anxiety. The current study's results suggest that maternal depressive symptoms relate to maladaptive parenting strategies and insecure attachment representations in adolescents. Further, both attachment anxiety and avoidance seem to relate positively to adolescents' internalizing symptoms. Targeting both parenting and attachment may form a fruitful approach to prevent and treat internalizing problems in adolescence. PMID:22193358

  20. Assessing Attachment Security With the Attachment Q Sort: Meta-Analytic Evidence for the Validity of the Observer AQS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van I Jzendoorn,Marinus H.; Vereijken, Carolus M.J.L.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Riksen-Walraven, Marianne J.

    2004-01-01

    The reliability and validity of the Attachment Q Sort (AQS; Waters & Deane, 1985) was tested in a series of meta-analyses on 139 studies with 13,835 children. The observer AQS security score showed convergent validity with Strange Situation procedure (SSP) security (r=31) and excellent predictive validity with sensitivity measures (r=39). Its…

  1. Attachment and psychological well-being among adolescents with and without disabilities in Kenya: the mediating role of identity formation.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Amina; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Murugami, Margret; Mazrui, Lubna; Arasa, Josephine

    2013-10-01

    The current study is aimed at evaluating the relationship between attachment and identity development, and their influence on psychological well-being in adolescents with and without disabilities in Kenya. The sample was composed of 296 adolescents (151 with disabilities and 145 without any disability). The mean age in our sample was 16.84 years (SD = 1.75). Adolescents with disabilities had significantly lower scores in identity formation, paternal attachment, and life satisfaction. A path model indicated that identity formation partially mediated the relationship between secure attachment and psychological well-being. Our findings indicate that both parent and peer attachment play an important role in the identity formation and psychological well-being of adolescents in Kenya, irrespective of a disabling condition. A multigroup analysis indicated that while the structure of the relationship between variables held for groups, the pattern and strength of the relationships differed. Implications for practice, especially the guidance and counseling services in schools, are discussed. PMID:24011101

  2. Cyber aggression within adolescents' romantic relationships: linkages to parental and partner attachment.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research has examined face-to-face aggression within adolescents' romantic relationships, but little attention has been given to the role of electronic technologies in adolescents' perpetuation of these behaviors. Thus, this study examined the relationship of anxious and avoidant partner attachments to partner-directed cyber aggression, assessed 1 year later among 600 adolescents (54% female). After accounting for gender and previous behaviors, anxious partner attachment was related to later partner-directed cyber aggression. In addition, insecure parental attachment from adolescents' mothers was related positively to insecure partner attachment and had an indirect effect on their partner-directed cyber aggression through the mediation of anxious partner attachment. This study provides insight into the impact of electronic technologies on adolescents' romantic relationships. PMID:25008295

  3. The mediational pathway among parenting styles, attachment styles and self-regulation with addiction susceptibility of adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    Zeinali, Ali; Sharifi, Hassanpasha; Enayati, Mirsalahadine; Asgari, Parviz; Pasha, Gohlamreza

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of present study was to create and test a model that illustrates variables that influence the development of addiction susceptibility and determine how different styles of parenting may indirectly influence the addiction susceptibility of children through the mediators of attachment style and self-regulation. METHODS: Using random cluster sampling, 508 adolescent high school boys and girls aged 14-19 years were enrolled. Data were analyzed using structural equations modeling (path analysis). RESULTS: The results showed that authoritative and permissive parenting styles were associated with secure attachment whereas authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles were associated with insecure attachment. Insecure attachment was associated with a low level of self-regulation whereas secure attachment was associated with a high level of self-regulation. We found that a low level of self-regulation increased the adolescent's addiction susceptibility whereas a high level of self-regulation decreased their addiction susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of present study suggest the authoritative and permissive parenting styles as the most efficient styles and authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles as the most inefficient styles in terms of addiction susceptibility. Accordingly, efficient parenting style training to parents should be the main goal of drug demand reduction program. PMID:22973379

  4. Attachment-security priming attenuates amygdala activation to social and linguistic threat.

    PubMed

    Norman, Luke; Lawrence, Natalia; Iles, Andrew; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek; Karl, Anke

    2015-06-01

    A predominant expectation that social relationships with others are safe (a secure attachment style), has been linked with reduced threat-related amygdala activation. Experimental priming of mental representations of attachment security can modulate neural responding, but the effects of attachment-security priming on threat-related amygdala activation remains untested. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study examined the effects of trait and primed attachment security on amygdala reactivity to threatening stimuli in an emotional faces and a linguistic dot-probe task in 42 healthy participants. Trait attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance were positively correlated with amygdala activation to threatening faces in the control group, but not in the attachment primed group. Furthermore, participants who received attachment-security priming showed attenuated amygdala activation in both the emotional faces and dot-probe tasks. The current findings demonstrate that variation in state and trait attachment security modulates amygdala reactivity to threat. These findings support the potential use of attachment security-boosting methods as interventions and suggest a neural mechanism for the protective effect of social bonds in anxiety disorders. PMID:25326039

  5. Testing For Measurement Invariance of Attachment Across Chinese and American Adolescent Samples.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ling; Zhao, Jihong Solomon; He, Ni Phil; Marshall, Ineke Haen; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhao, Ruohui; Jin, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent attachment to formal and informal institutions has emerged as a major focus of criminological theories since the publication of Hirschi's work in 1969. This study attempts to examine the psychometric equivalence of the factorial structure of attachment measures across nations reflecting Western and Eastern cultures. Twelve manifest variables are used tapping the concepts of adolescent attachment to parents, school, and neighborhood. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to conduct invariance test across approximately 3,000 Chinese and U.S. adolescents. Results provide strong support for a three-factor model; the multigroup invariance tests reveal mixed results. While the family attachment measure appears invariant between the two samples, significant differences in the coefficients of the factor loadings are detected in the school attachment and neighborhood attachment measures. The results of regression analyses lend support to the predictive validity of three types of attachment. Finally, the limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:25586150

  6. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  7. Clinical Assessment of Attachment Patterns and Personality Disorder in Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westen, Drew; Nakash, Ora; Thomas, Cannon; Bradley, Rebekah

    2006-01-01

    The relevance of attachment theory and research for practice has become increasingly clear. The authors describe a series of studies with 3 aims: (a) to validate measures of attachment for use by clinicians with adolescents and adults (b) to examine the relation between attachment and personality pathology, and (c) to ascertain whether factor…

  8. Pre-Adolescents' Representations of Multiple Attachment Relationships: The Role of Perceived Teacher Interpersonal Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalampous, Kyriakos; Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Apota, Ekaterini; Iliadou, Anastasia; Iosifidou, Maria; Moysidou, Sofia; Vriza, Ekaterini

    2016-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that early parent-child relationships provide the basis for all future close relationships of the individual, through childhood and adolescence into later life. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between parental attachment, peer attachment and students' perceptions of their teacher's…

  9. Education Secured? The School Performance of Adolescents in Secure Residential Youth Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Annemiek T.; Huyghen, Anne-Marie N.; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana; Kalverboer, Margrite E.; Köngeter, Stefan; Zeller, Maren; Knorth, Erik J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite poor school performance by adolescents in secure residential care and the potential importance of education during care, little is known about how to achieve academic success with these adolescents. Objective: Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess adolescents' academic achievement during secure residential…

  10. Adolescents with learning disabilities: socioemotional and behavioral functioning and attachment relationships with fathers, mothers, and teachers.

    PubMed

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2012-10-01

    Investigation of the role of adolescents' patterns of close relationships with significant adults may be of particular interest in populations with learning disabilities ("LD") during adolescence, because attachment relationship variables may act as risk or protective factors during this developmental period when trajectories are set that can lead to difficulties in adulthood. Specifically, this study examined a model of protective factors comprising patterns of close relationships between adolescents (n=369; 53 % female; aged 15-17) and significant adults (mother, father, homeroom teacher) for explaining adolescents' socioemotional and behavioral adjustment, comparing adolescents with and without LD. The current assessment of adolescents' socioemotional adjustment included both internalizing aspects (loneliness, affect, and internalizing behavior syndrome) and externalizing aspects (externalizing behavior syndrome). On most measures, significant group differences emerged between adolescents with LD (n=181) and adolescents with typical development (n=188). SEM analysis found high fit between the theoretical model and empirical findings. Both groups showed similar paths between adolescent-mother attachment and adolescent adjustment, whereas significant group differences emerged for the contribution of adolescents' close relationships with fathers and teachers to adolescents' adjustment. The discussion focuses on the possible unique value of close relationships with each attachment figure at home and at school for adolescents with LD versus typical development. PMID:22528372

  11. Predictors of Attachment Security in Preschool Children from Intact and Divorced Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Hira; Murray, Ann D.

    2005-01-01

    The authors selected 58 mother-child dyads from divorced and intact families to participate in a study on the impact of divorce on preschoolers' attachment security. The authors explored pathways that lead to security of attachment. They found that mothers from divorced families were younger, had lower income levels, and had lower levels of…

  12. Psychological Separation, Attachment Security, Vocational Self-Concept Crystallization, and Career Indecision: A Structural Equation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokar, David M.; Withrow, Jason R.; Hall, Rosalie J.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2003-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test theoretically based models in which psychological separation and attachment security variables were related to career indecision and those relations were mediated through vocational self-concept crystallization. Results indicated that some components of separation and attachment security did relate to…

  13. Perceived Attachment Security to Father, Academic Self-Concept and School Performance in Language Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacro, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between 8-12-year-olds' perceived attachment security to father, academic self-concept and school performance in language mastery. One hundred and twenty two French students' perceptions of attachment to mother and to father were explored with the Security Scale and their academic self-concept was assessed with…

  14. Daily Experiences of Emotions and Social Contexts of Securely and Insecurely Attached Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torquati, Julia C.; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2004-01-01

    This study examined daily emotions and social contexts of young adults who differed in global attachment style (secure vs. insecure). Sixty-nine college students (41% male, 59% female) completed self-report measures of attachment and provided time-sampling data on moods, companionship, and activities using the experience sampling method. Secure (n…

  15. Brief Report: Attachment Security in Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haltigan, John D.; Ekas, Naomi V.; Seifer, Ronald; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about attachment security and disorganization in children who are at genetic risk for an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) prior to a possible diagnosis. The present study examined distributions of attachment security and disorganization at 15-months of age in a sample of infant siblings of older children with (ASD-sibs; n = 51) or…

  16. Secure Relationships: Nurturing Infant/Toddler Attachment in Early Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Noting that research and clinical findings confirm the connection to later emotional well-being of a secure attachment between each infant or young child and a warm, stable adult, this book addresses aspects of attachment important for caregivers of infants and toddlers. The book focuses on those aspects of attachment caregivers need to understand…

  17. The Influence of Attachment Security on Preschool Children's Empathic Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the direction of the association between children's attachment security and empathic responding. At 42 and 48 months of age, 69 children's empathic concern was observed, and mothers reported the children's attachment. Results indicated that attachment at 42 months predicted empathic concern at 48 months…

  18. Effects of Gene × Attachment Interaction on Adolescents' Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Hostile Behavior Towards their Mothers during a Computer Game.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Peter; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased emotionality and major changes in emotion regulation often elicited in autonomy-relevant situations. Both genetic as well as social factors may lead to inter-individual differences in emotional processes in adolescence. We investigated whether both 5-HTTLPR and attachment security influence adolescents' observed emotionality, emotional dysregulation, and their aggressive hostile autonomy while interacting with their mothers. Eighty-eight adolescents at age 12 were observed in interaction with their mothers during a standardized, emotion eliciting computer game task. They were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR, a repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Concurrent attachment quality was assessed by the Late Childhood Attachment Interview (LCAI). Results revealed a significant gene × attachment effect showing that ss/sl carriers of 5-HTTLPR show increased emotional dysregulation and aggressive hostile autonomy towards their mothers. The results of the study suggest that secure attachment in adolescence moderates the genetically based higher tendency for emotional dysregulation and aggressive reactions to restrictions of autonomy during emotional social interactions with their mothers. PMID:27378877

  19. Social information processing, security of attachment, and emotion regulation in children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security scale and the children's self-control scale. Study results demonstrated major difficulties in SIP, lower attachment security, and less ER in children with LD compared to children without LD. Attachment as well as the interaction between attachment and ER emerged as important contributors to most SIP steps, suggesting that children with higher security who also have better ER skills will have better SIP capabilities along the different steps, beyond group inclusion. Results were discussed in terms of practical and clinical implications regarding the importance of mother-child attachment and ER skills for social cognitive capabilities in children with LD. PMID:18443148

  20. Kindergarten children's attachment security, inhibitory control, and the internalization of rules of conduct

    PubMed Central

    Heikamp, Tobias; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Druey, Michel D.; Hübner, Ronald; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Starting from research on relations between attachment and the development of self-regulation, the present study aimed to investigate research questions on relations among inhibitory control, internalization of rules of conduct (i.e., behavior regulation, concern occasioned by others transgressions, confession, reparation after wrongdoing), and attachment security. Attachment security and internalization of rules of conduct of German kindergarten children (N = 82) were assessed by maternal reports. Children's inhibitory control was measured with the Stop-task. Regression analyses revealed that inhibitory control was positively related to attachment security and to internalization of rules of conduct. Mediational analysis using a bootstrapping approach indicated an indirect effect of attachment security on internalization processes via inhibitory control. Implications for further research on the development of inhibitory control and internalization of rules of conduct are discussed. PMID:23543810

  1. Adult attachment security and college student substance use.

    PubMed

    Kassel, Jon D; Wardle, Margaret; Roberts, John E

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated strong links between quality of adult attachment styles and various forms of psychological distress. A burgeoning literature further points to a relationship between insecure attachment and drug use, particularly alcohol consumption. In the present study, we expanded upon the existing literature by examining the relationship between adult attachment style and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in a sample of 212 college students. Moreover, based on our previous work [Hankin, B.L., Kassel, J.D., and Abela, J.R.Z. (2005). Adult attachment dimensions and specificity of emotional distress symptoms: prospective investigations of cognitive risk and interpersonal stress generation as mediating mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 136-151.], we proposed a conceptual model positing that adult attachment style influences both frequency of drug use and stress-motivated drug use through its impact on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Initial correlational analyses indicated significant (positive) associations between anxious attachment (tapping neediness and fear of abandonment) and both drug use frequency and stress-motivated drug use. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that, for drug use frequency, the influence of anxious attachment operated primarily through its effect on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Regarding drug use attributable to negative affect reduction, anxious attachment demonstrated direct, independent effects on both cigarette smoking and alcohol use. These findings highlight the potential importance of adult attachment styles as a risk factor for drug use among college students. PMID:16996225

  2. Attachment and the Processing of Social Information in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2007-01-01

    A key proposition of attachment theory is that experience-based cognitive representations of attachment, often referred to as internal working models of attachment, influence the manner in which individuals process attachment-relevant social information (Bowlby, 1969/1982, 1973, 1980; Bretherton & Munholland, 1999; Main, Kaplan, & Cassidy, 1985).…

  3. An Experimental Manipulation of Retrospectively Defined Earned and Continuous Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Fortuna, Keren; Holland, Ashley

    2006-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest that retrospectively defined earned-secures are not more likely than continuous-secures to have been anxiously attached to their mothers in infancy and indeed experience high-quality maternal parenting in childhood. Such findings leave unanswered the question of why earned-secures report negative childhood…

  4. Attention to Faces Expressing Negative Emotion at 7 Months Predicts Attachment Security at 14 Months.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Mikko J; Forssman, Linda; Puura, Kaija; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2015-01-01

    To investigate potential infant-related antecedents characterizing later attachment security, this study tested whether attention to facial expressions, assessed with an eye-tracking paradigm at 7 months of age (N = 73), predicted infant-mother attachment in the Strange Situation Procedure at 14 months. Attention to fearful faces at 7 months predicted attachment security, with a smaller attentional bias to fearful expressions associated with insecure attachment. Attachment disorganization in particular was linked to an absence of the age-typical attentional bias to fear. These data provide the first evidence linking infants' attentional bias to negative facial expressions with attachment formation and suggest reduced sensitivity to facial expressions of negative emotion as a testable trait that could link attachment disorganization with later behavioral outcomes. PMID:26011101

  5. Changes in Parenting Behaviors, Attachment, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation in Attachment-Based Family Therapy for Depressive and Suicidal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shpigel, Maya S.; Diamond, Gary M.; Diamond, Guy S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) was associated with decreases in maternal psychological control and increases in maternal psychological autonomy granting, and whether such changes were associated with changes in adolescents' attachment schema and psychological symptoms. Eighteen suicidal adolescents and their…

  6. Attachment Security in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Compared 34 infants of very low birth weight (VLBW) and 40 full-term infants, using Ainsworth's Strange Situation procedure and Waters' Attachment Q-Set. Found that, at 14 months, VLBW infants were more likely than full-term infants to be insecurely attached when rated using the Q-Set but not when using the Strange Situation. (MDM)

  7. The Adolescent Unresolved Attachment Questionnaire: the assessment of perceptions of parental abdication of caregiving behavior.

    PubMed

    West, M; Rose, S; Spreng, S; Adam, K

    2000-12-01

    This article reports on the Adolescent Unresolved Attachment Questionnaire (AUAQ), a brief questionnaire that assesses the caregiving experiences of unresolved adolescents (as recipients of caregiving). The AUAQ was developed and validated in a large normative sample (n = 691) and a sample of 133 adolescents in psychiatric treatment. It is a self-report questionnaire consisting of 3 scales with Likert-type responses ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The Aloneness/Failed Protection Scale assesses the adolescent's perception of the care provided by the attachment figure. The Fear Scale taps the fear generated by the adolescent's appraisal of failed attachment figure care. The Anger/Dysregulation Scale assesses negative affective responses to the perceived lack of care from the attachment figure. All scales demonstrated satisfactory internal reliability and agreement between scores for adolescents (n = 91) from the normative sample who completed the AUAQ twice. Adolescents in the clinical sample also completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1984/1985/1996); the AUAQ demonstrated high convergent validity with the AAI. PMID:11117104

  8. The Role of Parenting and Mother-Adolescent Attachment in the Intergenerational Similarity of Internalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenning, Katrijn; Soenens, Bart; Braet, Caroline; Bal, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Parental depression has been identified as a risk factor for children's and adolescents' internalizing problems. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of maternal parenting behaviors (i.e., responsiveness and autonomy-support) and adolescents' representations of attachment to their mother (i.e., anxiety and avoidance) in the…

  9. Attachment to Parents, Best Friend, and Romantic Partner: Predicting Different Pathways to Depression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolese, Stephanie K.; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Doyle, Anna Beth

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that insecurely-attached adolescents are at risk for depression, but little is known about factors that may influence or explain this vulnerability. The present study focuses on close relationships during adolescence and their association with depression. Specifically, the objectives were to investigate (1) the role of working…

  10. Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: Socioemotional and Behavioral Functioning and Attachment Relationships with Fathers, Mothers, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of the role of adolescents' patterns of close relationships with significant adults may be of particular interest in populations with learning disabilities ("LD") during adolescence, because attachment relationship variables may act as risk or protective factors during this developmental period when trajectories are set that can lead…

  11. The Relationship between "Theory of Mind" and Attachment-Related Anxiety and Avoidance in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between "theory of mind" and attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adolescence. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test and the "Experiences in Close Relationships--Relationship Structures" questionnaires were administered to 402 14-19 year-old adolescents. Contrary to expectations, anxiety but not…

  12. Attachment-Based Family Therapy for Adolescents with Suicidal Ideation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Guy S.; Wintersteen, Matthew B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Diamond, Gary M.; Gallop, Robert; Shelef, Karni; Levy, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) is more effective than Enhanced Usual Care (EUC) for reducing suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms in adolescents. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial of suicidal adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17, identified in primary care and emergency departments. Of…

  13. Child Attachment and Family Environment Differences of Adolescent Children with ADHD and/or Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, Jennifer; Thompson, Bruce

    This study explored the development of attachment bonds in adolescents with diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or conduct disorder (CD). Participants included 102 mother/adolescent-child dyads from both rural and metropolitan areas and from six states. Subjects had received an ADHD diagnosis, a CD diagnosis, or a…

  14. The Relation between Dimensions of Attachment and Internalizing or Externalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Karlsson, Erika

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between dimensions of attachment and internalizing and externalizing problems in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents (n = 62) who completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ; J. Feeney, P. Noller, & M. Hanrahan, 1994) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR; T. M. Achenbach, 1991). In total, the ASQ dimensions accounted…

  15. How Do School Connectedness and Attachment to Parents Interrelate in Predicting Adolescent Depressive Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shochet, Ian M.; Homel, Ross; Cockshaw, Wendell D.; Montgomery, Danielle T.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we tested whether school connectedness mediated or moderated the effect of parental attachment on adolescent depressive symptoms. A sample of 153 secondary school students ranging from 8th to 12th grade were assessed using measures of parental attachment, school connectedness, and depressive symptoms. Independently, parental…

  16. Autonomy, Attachment and Psychosocial Adjustment during Adolescence: A Double-Edged Sword.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noom, Marc J.; Dekovic, Maja; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the assumption that a high level of autonomy within a context of attachment provides the best constellation for psychosocial adjustments with adolescents (N=400). Results show that attitudinal, emotional, and functional autonomy were connected with attachment to father, mother, and peers to predict indices of psychosocial adjustment:…

  17. Unresolved States of Mind, Disorganized Attachment Relationships, and Disrupted Interactions of Adolescent Mothers and their Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Sheri; Moran, Greg; Pederson, David R.

    2006-01-01

    The links between unresolved maternal attachment status, disrupted maternal interaction in play situations, and disorganized attachment relationships were examined in a study of 82 adolescent mother-infant dyads. Maternal interactive behavior was measured using the Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification coding…

  18. Identity and Intimacy during Adolescence: Connections among Identity Styles, Romantic Attachment and Identity Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Pittman, Joe F.; Cadely, Hans Saint-Eloi; Tuggle, Felicia J.; Harrell-Levy, Marinda K.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of adult attachment and psychosocial development theories suggests that adolescence is a time when capacities for romantic intimacy and identity formation are co-evolving. The current study addressed direct, indirect and moderated associations among identity and romantic attachment constructs with a diverse sample of 2178 middle…

  19. Gender Differences in Attachment Styles regarding Conflict Handling Behaviors among Turkish Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karairmak, Ozlem; Duran, Nagihan Oguz

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine gender differences in attachment styles and explore the relationship between attachment styles and preference for conflict handling behavior in close relationships among Turkish adolescents. The participants comprised 371 Turkish undergraduate students (252 females and 119 males; with a mean age of 21.98 years;…

  20. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  1. Concurrent Validity of the Adult Attachment Scale and the Adolescent Relationship Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingo, Meera; Chambliss, Catherine

    The Adult Attachment Scale (AAS) (N. Collins and S. Read, 1996) and the Adolescent Relationship Questionnaire (ARQ) (E. Scharfe and K. Bartholomew, 1995) widely used self-assessment measures of attachment behavior. This study investigated the validity of these two measures by administering them concurrently to 117 introductory psychology college…

  2. The Role of Attachment as a Protective Factor in Adolescent Violent Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Todd M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined how attachment relationships and cognitive attributes and sociodemographic characteristics functioned as protective and risk factors across a range of violent behaviors. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health highlighted the importance of attachment to family and school as protective factors. While an intact family…

  3. Pathways to Adolescent Internalizing: Early Attachment Insecurity as a Lasting Source of Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milan, Stephanie; Zona, Kate; Snow, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Despite theoretical links between attachment quality in early childhood and subsequent internalizing symptoms, there is limited empirical evidence supporting direct effects. In this article, we test whether early attachment insecurity indirectly contributes to adolescent internalizing by increasing the likelihood of certain pathways leading to…

  4. Attachment Styles and Psychopathology among Adolescent Children of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Erkan, Mustafa; Gencoglan, Salih; Akguc, Leyla; Ozatalay, Esin; Fettahoglu, Emine Cigil

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare attachment styles and psychopathology in adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) with a healthy control group. Material/Methods We studied 25 adolescents who had at least 1 parent with BD (BD group) and 28 adolescents who had no parents with BD (control group). The adolescent participants were between the ages of 12 and 17 years. We used the Adolescent Relationship Scales Questionnaire (A-RSQ) for the adolescents in the BD vs. control groups, and we used the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children – present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Clinician Version for each parent of adolescents in the BD and control groups to rule out psychopathologies. Results Attachment styles of participants were assessed according to A-RSQ, dismissing attachment style scores of adolescents in BD group were found significantly higher compared to the healthy control group (p<0.05). As a result of the assessments, 12 adolescents (48%) out of 25 in the BD group and 5 adolescents (18%) out of 28 in the control group were given DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis, which is a statistically significant result (p<0.05). However, when psychiatric diagnoses were assessed separately, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions We found that the adolescent children of parents with BD have increased risk of developing mental illnesses, and that these adolescents adopt dismissing attachment styles. PMID:25877235

  5. [Attachment Patterns and their Relation to the Development of Anxiety Symptoms in Childhood and Adolescence].

    PubMed

    Achtergarde, Sandra; Müller, Jörg Michael; Postert, Christian; Wessing, Ida; Mayer, Andreas; Romer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of attachment theory, insecure attachment can be seen as a key risk factor for the development of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders. This systematic review addresses the current state of empirical research on the relationship between attachment status and anxiety symptoms respective anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence. 21 current international studies published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this systematic review. These studies were heterogeneous in target populations, methods and study design. The majority of studies supported the assumed correlation between insecure attachment and anxiety symptoms or anxiety disorders. These findings are more evident in studies with school-age children than with preschool children or adolescents. Furthermore, the disorganized-disoriented type of attachment seems to be a particular risk factor for the development of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders. Results were discussed in relation to attachment theory and with reference to the results of previous relevant reviews. PMID:26562083

  6. The relation between attachment, personality, internalizing, and externalizing dimensions in adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vera; Canta, Guilherme; de Castro, Filipa; Leal, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The relation between attachment and personality features is an important field to explore in adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD), and previous research has shown that personality features may be conceptualized within latent internalizing and externalizing dimensions. This cross-sectional study used a structural equation model to examine the association between the BPD participants' perception of attachment and personality features, mediated by the underlying internalizing/externalizing personality dimensions. Data were analyzed for 60 adolescents, ages 15 to 18 years, diagnosed with BPD who completed attachment and personality self-report measures. The authors' results showed a good fit of the model, suggesting a significant association between attachment and the internalizing/externalizing dimensions, which simultaneously congregate and influence personality traits. The perception of attachment anxiety was positively related to the internalizing dimension and at the same time negatively related to the externalizing dimension. However, the perception of attachment avoidance was not related to internalizing or externalizing personality dimensions. PMID:27583810

  7. Child Maltreatment, Adolescent Attachment Style, and Dating Violence: Considerations in Youths with Borderline-to-Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; MacMullin, Jennifer; Waechter, Randall; Wekerle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    One of the most salient developmental tasks of adolescence is the entry into romantic relationship, which often involves developing attachments to partners. Adolescents with a history of maltreatment have been found to be at greater risk of insecure attachments to romantic partners than non-maltreated adolescents, and the interaction of…

  8. Threatened belonging and preference for comfort food among the securely attached.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Jordan D; Gabriel, Shira; Derrick, Jaye L; Geisler, Alyssa

    2015-07-01

    Research has shown that comfort food triggers relationship-related cognitions and can fulfill belongingness needs for those secure in attachment (i.e., for those with positive relationship cognitions) (Troisi & Gabriel, 2011). Building on these ideas, we examined if securely attached individuals prefer comfort food because of its "social utility" (i.e., its capacity to fulfill belongingness needs) in one experiment and one daily diary study using two samples of university students from the United States. Study 1 (n = 77) utilized a belongingness threat essay among half of the participants, and the results showed that securely attached participants preferred the taste of a comfort food (i.e., potato chips) more after the belongingness threat. Study 2 (n = 86) utilized a 14-day daily diary design and found that securely attached individuals consumed more comfort food in response to naturally occurring feelings of isolation. Implications for the social nature of food preferences are discussed. PMID:25728881

  9. Preschoolers' distress and regulatory behaviors vary as a function of infant-mother attachment security.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jin; Leerkes, Esther M; King, Elizabeth K

    2016-08-01

    Children (N=98) with higher attachment security scores, and lower resistance and avoidance scores during the Strange Situation at 16 months demonstrated somewhat more adaptive observed and mother-reported emotion regulation as preschoolers independent of maternal behavior. PMID:27394661

  10. Attachment Representations and Characteristics of Friendship Relations during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that experiences with the primary caregivers are an important basis for the development of close social relationships outside the parent-child relationship. This study examined the association between representations of attachment, as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), representations of friendship and…

  11. Representations of Attachment Security in the Bird's Net Drawings of Clients with Substance Abuse Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Denille M.; Kaiser, Donna; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2003-01-01

    Presents results of a study of the graphic indicators in drawings by patients with substance abuse disorders. The Bird's Nest Drawing, an assessment task previously devised to elicit pictorial representations of attachment security, was used to examine attachment patterns of volunteers. Results showed that those with substance abuse diagnoses were…

  12. The Effects of Secure Attachments on Preschool Children's Conflict Management Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, John

    This study examined the relationship between the security of children's attachment relationships to parents and teachers and how children negotiate and manage conflicts. Sixty-six preschool-aged children participated in story completion tasks regarding their attachment relationship with parents and teachers, and in hypothetical situations…

  13. Newborn Irritability Moderates the Association between Infant Attachment Security and Toddler Exploration and Sociability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupica, Brandi; Sherman, Laura J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation of 84 infants examined whether the effect of 12-month attachment on 18- and 24-month exploration and sociability with unfamiliar adults varied as a function of newborn irritability. As expected, results revealed an interaction between attachment (secure vs. insecure) and irritability (highly irritable vs. moderately…

  14. Preconception Motivation and Pregnancy Wantedness: Pathways to Toddler Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Warren B.; Sable, Marjorie R.; Beckmeyer, Jonathon J.

    2009-01-01

    This research was designed to increase our understanding of how the motivational antecedents to childbearing and emotional responses to pregnancy affect the subsequent attachment bond of a toddler to his or her mother. Using a sample of 1,364 mothers and their newborns from the Study of Early Child Care, we tested a mother-child influence…

  15. Adolescent insecure attachment as a predictor of maladaptive coping and externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Anne E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Marston, Emily G.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether insecure adolescent attachment organization (i.e., preoccupied and dismissing) longitudinally predicted self- and peer-reported externalizing behavior in emerging adulthood. Secondarily, maladaptive coping strategies were examined for their potential role in mediating the relationship between insecure attachment and future externalizing behaviors. Target participants (N = 184) were given the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) at age 14 and re-interviewed seven and eight years later with their closest peer. Qualities of both preoccupied and dismissing attachment organization predicted self-reported externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood eight years later, but only preoccupation was predictive of close-peer reports of emerging adult externalizing behavior. Maladaptive coping strategies only mediated the relationship between a dismissing stance toward attachment and future self-reported externalizing behaviors. Understanding the role of coping and emotional regulation in attachment may help us to understand the unique aspects of both dismissing and preoccupied stances toward attachment. PMID:24995478

  16. Adolescent insecure attachment as a predictor of maladaptive coping and externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Anne E; Allen, Joseph P; Marston, Emily G; Hafen, Christopher A; Schad, Megan M

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether insecure adolescent attachment organization (i.e., preoccupied and dismissing) longitudinally predicted self- and peer-reported externalizing behavior in emerging adulthood. Secondarily, maladaptive coping strategies were examined for their potential role in mediating the relationship between insecure attachment and future externalizing behaviors. Target participants (N = 184) were given the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) at age 14 and re-interviewed seven and eight years later with their closest peer. Qualities of both preoccupied and dismissing attachment organization predicted self-reported externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood eight years later, but only preoccupation was predictive of close-peer reports of emerging adult externalizing behavior. Maladaptive coping strategies only mediated the relationship between a dismissing stance toward attachment and future self-reported externalizing behaviors. Understanding the role of coping and emotional regulation in attachment may help us to understand the unique aspects of both dismissing and preoccupied stances toward attachment. PMID:24995478

  17. A Research Study on Secure Attachment Using the Primary Caregiving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Phoon, Dora Mei Yong; Tan-Chong, Elizabeth Chai Kim; Tan, Marilyn Ai Bee; Goh, Mandy Lian Mui

    2015-01-01

    A child's positive sense of well-being is central to their overall growth and development. With an increasing number of mothers in the workforce, many infants and toddlers spend much time in child care services. Hence it is crucial that caregivers provide a secure base for the child to develop secure attachment with educarers. Given multiple…

  18. Infant Emotion Regulation: Relations to Bedtime Emotional Availability, Attachment Security, and Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo-Ram; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Philbrook, Lauren E.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the influences of mothers’ emotional availability towards their infants during bedtime, infant attachment security, and interactions between bedtime parenting and attachment with infant temperamental negative affectivity, on infants’ emotion regulation strategy use at 12 and 18 months. Infants’ emotion regulation strategies were assessed during a frustration task that required infants to regulate their emotions in the absence of parental support. Whereas emotional availability was not directly related to infants’ emotion regulation strategies, infant attachment security had direct relations with infants’ orienting towards the environment and tension reduction behaviors. Both maternal emotional availability and security of the mother-infant attachment relationship interacted with infant temperamental negative affectivity to predict two strategies that were less adaptive in regulating frustration. PMID:24995668

  19. Collective Efficacy, Family Attachment, and Urban Adolescent Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The suicide rate among American adolescents between the ages of 14-25 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, and this fact has been the focus of extensive social-scientific investigation. To date, however, research focusing on the joint effects of mental health, family, and contextual-level predictors on adolescents' suicidal…

  20. Assessing African American Adolescents' Risk for Suicide Attempts: Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…

  1. The Role of Parental and Peer Attachment in the Psychological Health and Self-Esteem of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Ross B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of 3 studies examining the relationships of parental attachment, peer attachment, and self-esteem to adolescent psychological health. A model is presented in which parental attachment directly influences both psychological health and self-esteem and the influence of peer attachment on psychological health is totally…

  2. Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

  3. Stories of Parents and Self: Relations to Adolescent Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Widaad; Fivush, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    How individuals construct narratives involving attachment figures (e.g., parents) should reflect their representation of those individuals as either comforting or unsupportive (Bowlby, 1969). Similarly, how individuals talk about parents' childhood experiences may also reflect their attachment representation. Sixty-five 13- to 16-year-old…

  4. Interpersonal attraction and personality: what is attractive--self similarity, ideal similarity, complementarity or attachment security?

    PubMed

    Klohnen, Eva C; Luo, Shanhong

    2003-10-01

    Little is known about whether personality characteristics influence initial attraction. Because adult attachment differences influence a broad range of relationship processes, the authors examined their role in 3 experimental attraction studies. The authors tested four major attraction hypotheses--self similarity, ideal-self similarity, complementarity, and attachment security--and examined both actual and perceptual factors. Replicated analyses across samples, designs, and manipulations showed that actual security and self similarity predicted attraction. With regard to perceptual factors, ideal similarity, self similarity, and security all were significant predictors. Whereas perceptual ideal and self similarity had incremental predictive power, perceptual security's effects were subsumed by perceptual ideal similarity. Perceptual self similarity fully mediated actual attachment similarity effects, whereas ideal similarity was only a partial mediator. PMID:14561124

  5. The Relationship of Security of Attachment to Exploration and Cognitive Mapping Abilities in Two-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen-Swann, Nancy L.; Durrett, Mary Ellen

    Children ages 30 to 34 months, assessed at 18 months for security of attachment and categorized as anxious/avoidant, anxious/resistant, or securely attached, were observed exploring with their mothers in a large-scale laboratory space. (Quality of attachment was assessed by means of Ainsworth's standard strange-situation procedure.) After learning…

  6. Genetic Moderation of Stability in Attachment Security from Early Childhood to Age 18 Years: A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    A longstanding question for attachment theory and research is whether genetically based characteristics of the child influence the development of attachment security and its stability over time. This study attempted to replicate and extend recent findings indicating that the developmental stability of attachment security is moderated by oxytocin…

  7. Coping Strategies in Late Adolescence: Relationships to Parental Attachment and Time Perspective.

    PubMed

    Blomgren, Anna-Sara; Svahn, Kajsa; Åström, Elisabeth; Rönnlund, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated adolescents' use of coping strategies in relation to attachment to parents and time perspective. Adolescents in Grade 3 upper secondary school (M age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.6 years; n = 160) completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and the Brief COPE. Correlational analyses showed that attachment to parents was associated with a more favorable view of the past (higher past positive and lower past negative), a less fatalistic view of the present, and a more favorable view of the future (higher future positive and lower future negative). Parental attachment accounted for significant variance in composite coping scores (adaptive and maladaptive) when entered before, but not after, time perspective subscales in hierarchical regression analyses. However, time perspective (mainly present hedonistic and positive or negative future) predicted adaptive or maladaptive coping over and beyond attachment. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that most of the relationship between adolescents' attachment to parents and coping is mediated by individual differences in time perspective. By contrast, factors other than attachment to parents (e.g., temperament) must be considered to fully account for the relationship between time perspective and coping. PMID:27177122

  8. The Effect of Secure Attachment State and Infant Facial Expressions on Childless Adults' Parental Motivation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fangyuan; Zhang, Dajun; Cheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between infant facial expressions and parental motivation as well as the interaction between attachment state and expressions. Two-hundred eighteen childless adults (M age = 19.22, 118 males, 100 females) were recruited. Participants completed the Chinese version of the State Adult Attachment Measure and the E-prime test, which comprised three components (a) liking, the specific hedonic experience in reaction to laughing, neutral, and crying infant faces; (b) representational responding, actively seeking infant faces with specific expressions; and (c) evoked responding, actively retaining images of three different infant facial expressions. While the first component refers to the "liking" of infants, the second and third components entail the "wanting" of an infant. Random intercepts multilevel models with emotion nested within participants revealed a significant interaction between secure attachment state and emotion on both liking and representational response. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the unique contributions of secure attachment state. Findings demonstrated that, after controlling for sex, anxious, and avoidant, secure attachment state positively predicted parental motivations (liking and wanting) in the neutral and crying conditions, but not the laughing condition. These findings demonstrate the significant role of secure attachment state in parental motivation, specifically when infants display uncertain and negative emotions. PMID:27582724

  9. Infant-mother attachment security, contextual risk, and early development: a moderational analysis.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Jay; Fearon, R M Pasco

    2002-01-01

    In light of evidence that the effects of attachment security on subsequent development may be contingent on the social context in which the child continues to develop, we examined the effect of attachment security at age 15 months, cumulative contextual risk from 1 to 36 months, and the interaction of attachment and cumulative risk to predict socioemotional and cognitive linguistic functioning at age 3 years, using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Results indicated that early attachment predicts both socioemotional development and language skills, but not cognitive functioning as indexed by a measure of school readiness, and that the effect of attachment on socioemotional development and expressive language varied as a function of social-contextual risk. Insecure-avoidant infants proved most vulnerable to contextual risk, not children classified as secure or insecure more generally, although in one instance security did prove protective with respect to the adverse effects of cumulative contextual risk. Findings are discussed in terms of risk and resilience and in light of the probabilistic nature of the relation between early attachment and later development. PMID:12030693

  10. The Effect of Secure Attachment State and Infant Facial Expressions on Childless Adults’ Parental Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fangyuan; Zhang, Dajun; Cheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between infant facial expressions and parental motivation as well as the interaction between attachment state and expressions. Two-hundred eighteen childless adults (Mage = 19.22, 118 males, 100 females) were recruited. Participants completed the Chinese version of the State Adult Attachment Measure and the E-prime test, which comprised three components (a) liking, the specific hedonic experience in reaction to laughing, neutral, and crying infant faces; (b) representational responding, actively seeking infant faces with specific expressions; and (c) evoked responding, actively retaining images of three different infant facial expressions. While the first component refers to the “liking” of infants, the second and third components entail the “wanting” of an infant. Random intercepts multilevel models with emotion nested within participants revealed a significant interaction between secure attachment state and emotion on both liking and representational response. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the unique contributions of secure attachment state. Findings demonstrated that, after controlling for sex, anxious, and avoidant, secure attachment state positively predicted parental motivations (liking and wanting) in the neutral and crying conditions, but not the laughing condition. These findings demonstrate the significant role of secure attachment state in parental motivation, specifically when infants display uncertain and negative emotions. PMID:27582724

  11. Adoptive parenting and attachment: association of the internal working models between adoptive mothers and their late-adopted children during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Cecilia S.; Di Folco, Simona; Guerriero, Viviana; Santona, Alessandra; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recent literature has shown that the good outcome of adoption would mostly depend on the quality of adoptive parenting, which is strongly associated with the security of parental internal working models (IWMs) of attachment. Specifically, attachment states-of-mind of adoptive mothers classified as free and autonomous and without lack of resolution of loss or trauma could represent a good protective factor for adopted children, previously maltreated and neglected. While most research on adoptive families focused on pre-school and school-aged children, the aim of this study was to assess the concordance of IWMs of attachment in adoptive dyads during adolescence. Method: Our pilot-study involved 76 participants: 30 adoptive mothers (mean age = 51.5 ± 4.3), and their 46 late-adopted adolescents (mean age = 13.9 ± 1.6), who were all aged 4–9 years old at time of adoption (mean age = 6.3 ± 1.5). Attachment representations of adopted adolescents were assessed by the Friend and Family Interview (FFI), while adoptive mothers’ state-of-mind with respect to attachment was classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Adolescents’ verbal intelligence was controlled for. Results: Late-adopted adolescents were classified as follows: 67% secure, 26% dismissing, and 7% preoccupied in the FFI, while their adoptive mothers’ AAI classifications were 70% free-autonomous, 7% dismissing, and 23% unresolved. We found a significant concordance of 70% (32 dyads) between the secure–insecure FFI and AAI classifications. Specifically adoptive mothers with high coherence of transcript and low unresolved loss tend to have late-adopted children with high secure attachment, even if the adolescents’ verbal intelligence made a significant contribution to this prediction. Discussion: Our results provides an empirical contribution to the literature concerning the concordance of attachment in adoptive dyads, highlighting the beneficial impact of highly coherent

  12. Commitment: Functions, Formation, and the Securing of Romantic Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Scott M.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Whitton, Sarah W.

    2010-01-01

    In this theoretical paper, we review central concepts in the psychological literature on relationship commitment to provide a foundation to discuss two themes related to long-term romantic relationships and marriages. First, we describe and discuss the role that commitment plays in stabilizing romantic attachment. Second, we use empirical research on cohabitation to highlight how the formation of commitment can be undermined by what are now common trajectories of couple development. The first topic underscores an increasingly important role for commitment in an age of companionate marriage. The second topic draws attention to dynamics that can affect the strength of romantic commitments, especially in marriage. PMID:21339829

  13. Perceived parental security profiles in African American adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system.

    PubMed

    Andretta, James R; Ramirez, Aaron M; Barnes, Michael E; Odom, Terri; Roberson-Adams, Shelia; Woodland, Malcolm H

    2015-12-01

    Many researchers have shown the importance of parent attachment in childhood and adolescence. The present study extends the attachment literature to African Americans involved in the juvenile justice system (N = 213), and provides an initial inquiry using person-oriented methods. The average age was 16.17 years (SD = 1.44), and the sample was predominantly male (71%). Results of a confirmatory factor analysis of Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Short Form (IPPA-S) scores supported a 3-factor model: (a) Communication, (b) Trust, and (c) Alienation. Model-based clustering was applied to IPPA-S scores, and results pointed to 4 perceived parental security profiles: high security, moderately high security, moderately low security, and low security. In keeping with our hypotheses, IPPA-S profiles were associated with prosocial behaviors, depression, anxiety, and oppositional defiance. Contrary to hypotheses, IPPA-S profiles were not associated with perspective taking, emotional concern, or behaviors characteristic of a conduct disorder. Results also showed that gender, age, family member with whom the participant resides, charge severity, and offense history did not have an effect on IPPA-S clustering. Implications for therapeutic jurisprudence in African Americans involved with the juvenile justice system are provided. PMID:26376427

  14. Attachment Security and Language Development in an Italian Sample: The Role of Premature Birth and Maternal Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costantini, Alessandro; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Coppola, Gabrielle; Castoro, Germana

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of biological immaturity and attachment security on linguistic development and tested whether maternal language mediated the impact of security on the child's linguistic abilities. Forty mother-child dyads were followed longitudinally, with the child's attachment security assessed at 24 months of age through trained…

  15. Maternal Depression, Children’s Attachment Security, and Representational Development: An Organizational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Sheree L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Relations among maternal depression, child attachment, and children’s representations of parents and self were examined. Participants included toddlers and their mothers with a history of Major Depressive Disorder (n=63) or no history of mental disorder (n=68). Attachment was assessed at 20 and 36 months and representations of parents and self were assessed at 36 and 48 months. Depressive symptoms were assessed at all three time points. While early occurring maternal depression had a negative impact on children’s negative and positive representations of parents, attachment security mediated the relation between depressive symptoms and negative representations. Attachment security served as an intervening variable between maternal depression and changes in children’s negative representations of self. Implications for prevention are highlighted. PMID:19236401

  16. A Secure Base from Which to Regulate: Attachment Security in Toddlerhood as a Predictor of Executive Functioning at School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Beauchamp, Miriam H.; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Lalonde, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    In light of emerging evidence suggesting that the affective quality of parent-child relationships may relate to individual differences in young children's executive functioning (EF) skills, the aim of this study was to investigate the prospective associations between attachment security in toddlerhood and children's EF skills in kindergarten.…

  17. NARRATIVE AND META-ANALYTIC REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS AIMING TO IMPROVE MATERNAL-CHILD ATTACHMENT SECURITY.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Nicole; Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota; Giesbrecht, Gerald; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Bhogal, Sanjit; Watson, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Early secure maternal-child attachment relationships lay the foundation for children's healthy social and mental development. Interventions targeting maternal sensitivity and maternal reflective function during the first year of infant life may be the key to promoting secure attachment. We conducted a narrative systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting maternal sensitivity and reflective function on maternal-child attachment security, as measured by the gold standard Strange Situation (M. Ainsworth, M. Blehar, B. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978) and Q-set (E. Waters & K. Deane, 1985). Studies were identified from electronic database searches and included randomized or quasi-randomized controlled parallel-group designs. Participants were mothers and their infants who were followed up to 36 months' postpartum. Ten trials, involving 1,628 mother-infant pairs, were included. Examination of the trials that provided sufficient data for combination in meta-analysis revealed that interventions of both types increased the odds of secure maternal-child attachment, as compared with no intervention or standard intervention (n = 7 trials; odds ratio: 2.77; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 4.53, n = 965). Of the three trials not included in the meta-analyses, two improved the likelihood of secure attachment. We conclude that interventions aimed at improving maternal sensitivity alone or in combination with maternal reflection, implemented in the first year of infants' lives, are effective in promoting secure maternal-child attachments. Intervention aimed at the highest risk families produced the most beneficial effects. PMID:26112776

  18. Attachment security representations in institutionalized children and children living with their families: links to problem behaviour.

    PubMed

    Torres, Nuno; Maia, Joana; Veríssimo, Manuela; Fernandes, Marilia; Silva, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    The present work analyses differences in the attachment representations of institutionalized children as compared with children from low and high educational level living with their natural families. Participants were 91 Portuguese children, 52% girls, aged 48-96 months. There were three different groups: 19 institutionalized children, 16 low educational level families' children and 56 from high educational level families'. Attachment representations were assessed for Security of the narratives of the Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT). Psychopathological symptoms were assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist for parents and caretakers. Verbal skills were assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Revised. Results show that institutionalized children have significantly lower security of attachment representations, less verbal skills and higher aggressive behaviour than the other two groups. Attachment representations were associated with social/withdrawal and aggression, independently of age, verbal skills and parents' education. The main effect of institutionalization on externalizing aggressive behaviour was completely mediated by the security of attachment representations.  PMID:21210496

  19. Attachment security and pain--The disrupting effect of captivity and PTSS.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth; Mikulincer, Mario; Solomon, Zahava

    2015-12-01

    The present study assesses the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may be disrupted by PTSS. The study sample included 104 subjects who were combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War comprising of 60 male ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and 44 comparable male combat veterans. Both attachment and pain were investigated experimentally in the laboratory and via questionnaires. We found that ex-POWs showed higher levels of clinical pain and attachment insecurities compared to controls. Moreover, attachment avoidance and soothing effect of attachment (SEA) were both associated with lower levels of clinical pain. Most importantly, PTSS moderated the associations between attachment and pain, as well as the mediation role of attachment between captivity and pain. The results imply that although attachment can be an important resource for coping with pain, it can be severely disrupted by PTSS among trauma survivors. PMID:26652590

  20. Links among Attachment-Related Cognitions and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen R.; Burwell, Rebecca A.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the role of self-evaluative and support-seeking processes as mediators of the relation between maternal representations and depressive symptoms in a sample of 168 young adolescents. Representations of mother as unavailable, unresponsive, and unsupportive were associated with depressive symptoms measured by semistructured interview and…

  1. Secure base representations in middle childhood across two Western cultures: Associations with parental attachment representations and maternal reports of behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Waters, Theodore E A; Bosmans, Guy; Vandevivere, Eva; Dujardin, Adinda; Waters, Harriet S

    2015-08-01

    Recent work examining the content and organization of attachment representations suggests that 1 way in which we represent the attachment relationship is in the form of a cognitive script. This work has largely focused on early childhood or adolescence/adulthood, leaving a large gap in our understanding of script-like attachment representations in the middle childhood period. We present 2 studies and provide 3 critical pieces of evidence regarding the presence of a script-like representation of the attachment relationship in middle childhood. We present evidence that a middle childhood attachment script assessment tapped a stable underlying script using samples drawn from 2 western cultures, the United States (Study 1) and Belgium (Study 2). We also found evidence suggestive of the intergenerational transmission of secure base script knowledge (Study 1) and relations between secure base script knowledge and symptoms of psychopathology in middle childhood (Study 2). The results from this investigation represent an important downward extension of the secure base script construct. PMID:26147774

  2. Secure Base Representations in Middle Childhood Across Two Western Cultures: Associations with Parental Attachment Representations and Maternal Reports of Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bosmans, Guy; Vandevivere, Eva; Dujardin, Adinda; Waters, Harriet S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work examining the content and organization of attachment representations suggests that one way in which we represent the attachment relationship is in the form of a cognitive script. That said, this work has largely focused on early childhood or adolescence/adulthood, leaving a large gap in our understanding of script-like attachment representations in the middle childhood period. We present two studies and provide three critical pieces of evidence regarding the presence of a script-like representation of the attachment relationship in middle childhood. We present evidence that a middle childhood attachment script assessment tapped a stable underlying script using samples drawn from two western cultures, the United States (Study 1) and Belgium (Study 2). We also found evidence suggestive of the intergenerational transmission of secure base script knowledge (Study 1) and relations between secure base script knowledge and symptoms of psychopathology in middle childhood (Study 2). The results from this investigation represent an important downward extension of the secure base script construct. PMID:26147774

  3. Parental attachment, self-control, and depressive symptoms in Chinese and Italian adolescents: Test of a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Delvecchio, Elisa; Lis, Adriana; Nie, Yan-Gang; Di Riso, Daniela

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between parental attachment and depressive symptoms as well as the mediating effect of self-control in two different cultures. Samples were 1305 Chinese and 1327 Italian adolescents. They completed the Inventory of Parental and Peer Attachment, the Self-Restraint Subscale of the Adolescents' Self-Consciousness Scale, and the Children's Depression Inventory that assessed parental attachment, self-control, and depressive symptoms, respectively. Results showed that: (1) Few cultural differences in depressive symptom were observed. (2) Parental attachment and self-control were negatively related to depressive symptoms in both cultures. (3) Self-control mediated the relations between parental attachment and depressive symptoms in both cultures. (4) The direct and indirect effects were invariant across cultures. In conclusion, parental attachment and self-control are important for adolescents' depressive symptoms in Chinese and Italian adolescents. PMID:26132371

  4. Maternal Attachment and Depressive Symptoms in Urban Adolescents: The Influence of Coping Strategies and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Campbell, Cynthya L.; Kesselring, Christine M.; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined coping strategies as mediators of the relation between maternal attachment and depressive symptoms in a sample of urban youth. Participants included 393 adolescents (M age = 12.03, SD = 0.85) participating in a larger study of the impact of stressful life experiences on low-income urban youth. Participants completed…

  5. Problem Behaviors in Adolescence: The Opposite Role Played by Insecure Attachment and Commitment Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined the relations between insecure attachment styles, commitment and behavioral problems, focusing on the unique and common contribution that avoidant and anxious styles and commitment made to internalizing and externalizing problems. 535 adolescents, 267 boys and 268 girls, aged from 16 to 18 years, completed self-report…

  6. Trait and Social Influences in the Links among Adolescent Attachment, Depressive Symptoms, and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Lisa J.; Lakey, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Attachment insecurity and maladaptive coping are associated with depression in adolescence; however, it is unclear whether these links primarily reflect stable individual differences among teens (trait influences), experiential differences in their interactions with relationship partners (social influences) or both. In this study, teens (ages…

  7. Attachment, Self-Esteem and Test Anxiety in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dan, Orrie; Bar Ilan, Omrit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance), self-esteem, and three subscales of test anxiety--cognitive obstruction, social derogation and tenseness are related in two age groups: adolescents and college students. Participants (N?=?327) completed relevant questionnaires. Results showed that college…

  8. Insecure Attachment and Eating Pathology in Early Adolescence: Role of Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Durme, Kim; Braet, Caroline; Goossens, Lien

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether associations exist between attachment dimensions toward mother and different forms of eating pathology (EP) in a group of early adolescent boys and girls, and whether these associations were mediated by maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) strategies. Developmentally appropriate self-report questionnaires were…

  9. Interpersonal Competence Configurations, Attachment to Community, and Residential Aspirations of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrin, Robert A.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents who grow-up in rural areas often experience a tension between their attachment to the rural lifestyle afforded by their home community and a competing desire to gain educational, social, and occupational experiences that are only available in metropolitan areas. While these diverging pressures are well-documented, there is little…

  10. Adolescent Mothers in a Transitional Living Facility: An Exploratory Study of Support Networks and Attachment Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Ann E.; McRoy, Ruth G.; Downs, A. Chris

    2004-01-01

    Most of the research literature on attachment and adolescent transitions has addressed youth in family settings. This article explores these issues with a sample of 25 pregnant and parenting teens living in a transitional shelter. Using case records and interview data as well as results of standardized measures of depression, self-esteem, child…

  11. Parenting Practices, Parental Attachment and Aggressiveness in Adolescence: A Predictive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallarin, Miriam; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: a) to test the mediation role of attachment between parenting practices and aggressiveness, and b) to clarify the differential role of mothers and fathers with regard to aggressiveness. A total of 554 adolescents (330 girls and 224 boys), ages ranging between 16 and 19, completed measures of mothers' and fathers'…

  12. Attachment Style, Vagal Tone, and Empathy during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Butterworth, Molly R.

    2012-01-01

    We tested associations among empathic responsiveness, attachment style, and vagal tone (a physiologic index of emotion regulation) in 103 mother-adolescent dyads. Dyads discussed positive and negative topics and then separately reviewed a videotape of the interaction and rated their own and the other person's affect at one-minute intervals. We…

  13. The mediating role of perceived peer support in the relation between quality of attachment and internalizing problems in adolescence: a longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla; Di Maggio, Rosanna

    2016-10-01

    The study was aimed to verify, from a longitudinal perspective, whether perceived peer support would mediate the relationship between attachment and internalizing problems. Longitudinal participants included 482 adolescents (245 boys) aged 14-15 years in Wave 1 and 17-18 years in Wave 2. Participants in Wave 1 completed the Relationship Questionnaire, and those in Wave 2 completed the Social Support Questionnaire and the Youth Self-Report. Results showed that secure attachment positively predicted high levels of perceived peer support and negatively predicted internalizing problems, whereas fearful and preoccupied attachment negatively predicted perceived peer support and positively predicted internalizing problems. The mediation models showed that perceived peer support partially mediated the relationship between secure attachment and internalizing problems as well as between preoccupied attachment and internalizing problems and between fearful attachment and internalizing problems. Our results confirm the role of subjective perception of peer support in contributing to the prediction of internalizing problems beyond attachment styles. PMID:27354278

  14. Attachment-based family therapy for depressed adolescents: programmatic treatment development.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Guy; Siqueland, Lynne; Diamond, Gary M

    2003-06-01

    Few effective psychosocial treatment models for depressed adolescents have been developed, let alone ones that use the developmentally potent context of the family as the focus of intervention. Attachment-based family therapy (ABFT) is a brief, manualized treatment model tailored to the specific needs of depressed adolescents and their families. Attachment theory serves as the main theoretical framework to guide the process of repairing relational ruptures and rebuilding trustworthy relationships. Empirically supported risk factors for depression are the primary problem states that therapists target with specific treatment strategies or tasks. Parent problem states include criticism/hostility, personal distress, parenting skills, and disengagement. Adolescent problem states include motivation, negative self-concept, poor affect regulation, and disengagement. Intervention tasks include relational reframing, building alliances with the adolescent and with the parent, addressing attachment failures, and building competency. A small, randomized clinical trial provides initial support for the model. Several process research studies, using both qualitative and quantitative methods, have helped refine the clinical guidelines for each treatment task. ABFT is a promising new treatment for depressed adolescents and more research on it is warranted. PMID:12836580

  15. Attachment Security among Families in Poverty: Maternal, Child, and Contextual Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casady, Angela; Diener, Marissa; Isabella, Russell; Wright, Cheryl

    This study examined the relationship of multiple domains of the child's environment and attachment security within a socioeconomically at-risk sample of 101 families. Mothers65% percent of whom were Latinaand their children who were in a home visitor program or on the waiting list for the program were visited at home. Measures included observer…

  16. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…

  17. Subtypes of Attachment Security in School-Age Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2012-01-01

    This study explored children's secure attachment with both parents versus one parent, as well as the unique role of children's patterns of close relationships with father and mother, for a deeper understanding of maladjustment problems among children with learning disabilities (LD). Specifically, this study identified subgroups of children with…

  18. Security of Attachment and the Social Development of Cognition. Essays in Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meins, Elizabeth

    This book investigates children's security of attachment in infancy and its relationship to their cognitive development in the preschool years, presenting evidence that caregivers' proclivity to treat their infants as mental agents and to attribute intentionally to their behavior is critical to their child's cognitive development. The book…

  19. Forecasting Friendship: How Marital Quality, Maternal Mood, and Attachment Security Are Linked to Children's Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

    2007-01-01

    Mothers' perceptions of marital quality and depressed mood and children's attachment security and friendship quality were assessed in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. One month after their birth and again when the children were 3 and 4 years old and in first and third…

  20. Relationships among Stress Coping, Secure Attachment, and the Trait of Resilience among Taiwanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming-hui

    2008-01-01

    College students often live stressful lives, yet some college students appear to adapt better than their peers in similar situations. Active coping appears to be a vital factor that contributes to a successful adaptation. This study explored relative effectiveness among stress, secure attachment, and the trait of resilience in predicting active…

  1. Social Information Processing, Security of Attachment, and Emotion Regulation in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security…

  2. Infant Child Care and Attachment Security: Results of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD. Early Child Care Network.

    A longitudinal study explored the effects of different aspects of child care on infants' attachment security. Child care variables examined included age of entry; the quality, amount, stability, and type of care; and mother's sensitivity to the child's needs. When the validity of the Strange Situation was tested by comparing children with low and…

  3. Male Pregnancy Intendedness and Children's Mental Proficiency and Attachment Security during Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Scott, Mindy E.; Horowitz, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of biological resident fathers and their children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) 9- and 24-month surveys (N = 5,300), this study examines associations and the direct and indirect pathways through which men's pregnancy intentions influence toddlers' mental proficiency and attachment security.…

  4. The Interplay Between Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children's Attachment Security.

    PubMed

    Stelter, Rebecca L; Halberstadt, Amy G

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's feelings of security were tested. Participants were 85 African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian 4(th) and 5(th) grade children and one of their parents. Children reported their feelings of security in the parent-child relationship; parents independently reported on their beliefs and their stress. Parental stress moderated relationships between three of the four parental beliefs about the value of children's emotions and children's attachment security. When parent stress was low, parental beliefs accepting and valuing children's emotions were not related to children's feelings of security; when parent stress was high, however, parental beliefs accepting and valuing children's emotions were related to children's feelings of security. These findings highlight the importance of examining parental beliefs and stress together for children's attachment security. PMID:21731472

  5. Attachment organization and patterns of conflict resolution in friendships predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms over time.

    PubMed

    Chango, Joanna M; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Allen, Joseph P

    2009-07-01

    The current study examined the moderating effects of observed conflict management styles with friends on the link between adolescents' preoccupied attachment organization and changing levels of depressive symptoms from age 13 to age 18 years. Adolescents and their close friends were observed during a revealed differences task, and friends' behaviors were coded for both conflict avoidance and overpersonalizing attacks. Results indicated that preoccupied adolescents showed greater relative increases in depressive symptoms when their friends demonstrated overpersonalizing behaviors, vs. greater relative decreases in depressive symptoms when their friends avoided conflict by deferring to them. Results suggest the exquisite sensitivity of preoccupied adolescents to qualities of peer relationships as predictors of future levels of psychological functioning. PMID:19603299

  6. Looking beyond Maternal Sensitivity: Mother-Child Correlates of Attachment Security among Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Urban India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Aesha; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Halliburton, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined correlates of attachment security among children with intellectual disabilities in urban India. Survey and observational data were gathered from 47 children, mothers, and teachers on children's attachment security, adaptive functioning, and mother-child emotional availability. The data were analyzed to examine whether child…

  7. Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus) Do Not Show Signs of Secure Attachment to Their Owners

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Alice; Mills, Daniel Simon

    2015-01-01

    The Ainsworth Strange Situation Test (SST) has been widely used to demonstrate that the bond between both children and dogs to their primary carer typically meets the requirements of a secure attachment (i.e. the carer being perceived as a focus of safety and security in otherwise threatening environments), and has been adapted for cats with a similar claim made. However methodological problems in this latter research make the claim that the cat-owner bond is typically a secure attachment, operationally definable by its behaviour in the SST, questionable. We therefore developed an adapted version of the SST with the necessary methodological controls which include a full counterbalance of the procedure. A cross-over design experiment with 20 cat-owner pairs (10 each undertaking one of the two versions of the SST first) and continuous focal sampling was used to record the duration of a range of behavioural states expressed by the cats that might be useful for assessing secure attachment. Since data were not normally distributed, non-parametric analyses were used on those behaviours shown to be reliable across the two versions of the test (which excluded much cat behaviour). Although cats vocalised more when the owner rather the stranger left the cat with the other individual, there was no other evidence consistent with the interpretation of the bond between a cat and its owner meeting the requirements of a secure attachment. These results are consistent with the view that adult cats are typically quite autonomous, even in their social relationships, and not necessarily dependent on others to provide a sense of security and safety. It is concluded that alternative methods need to be developed to characterise the normal psychological features of the cat-owner bond. PMID:26332470

  8. Attachment relationships of adolescents who spent their infancy in residential group care: The Greek Metera study.

    PubMed

    Vorria, Panayiota; Ntouma, Maria; Vairami, Maria; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A prospective longitudinal study beginning whilst the infants were living in the Metera Babies Centre showed that the great majority showed a disorganized attachment during the period of residential care, even though neither abuse/neglect nor subnutrition were involved. There was an initial follow-up post-adoption age at four years. This paper concerns a further follow-up of the 52 adopted adolescents aged 13 years who had spent their first two years of life in Metera Babies Centre. They were compared to 36 adolescents reared in their biological families who, during their infancy, attended full-time public day care. The key aim was to examine continuities and discontinuities between early and contemporary relationships. The Child Attachment Interview was employed in adolescence. The main findings were a significant decrease in the rate of disorganization and a lack of a significant difference between the previously institutionalized group and the family care comparison group on attachment qualities in adolescence. There was not sufficient statistical power, however, to detect a small difference. PMID:25862310

  9. Looking beyond maternal sensitivity: mother-child correlates of attachment security among children with intellectual disabilities in urban India.

    PubMed

    John, Aesha; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Halliburton, Amy L

    2012-11-01

    This study examined correlates of attachment security among children with intellectual disabilities in urban India. Survey and observational data were gathered from 47 children, mothers, and teachers on children's attachment security, adaptive functioning, and mother-child emotional availability. The data were analyzed to examine whether child emotional availability mediates the links between maternal emotional availability and child attachment security, and between child functioning and attachment security. The results supported full mediation, indicating that children's emotional availability was a primary mechanism through which maternal emotional availability and child functioning were linked to attachment security among children in our sample. The study findings are discussed in the context of implications for family interventions and research on socio-emotional development among children with intellectual disabilities. PMID:22371146

  10. Social feedback processing from early to late adolescence: influence of sex, age, and attachment style

    PubMed Central

    Vrtička, Pascal; Sander, David; Anderson, Brittany; Badoud, Deborah; Eliez, Stephan; Debbané, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The establishment of an accurate understanding of one's social context is a central developmental task during adolescence. A critical component of such development is to learn how to integrate the objective evaluation of one's behavior with the social response to the latter—here referred to as social feedback processing. Case report We measured brain activity by means of fMRI in 33 healthy adolescents (12–19 years old, 14 females). Participants played a difficult perceptual game with integrated verbal and visual feedback. Verbal feedback provided the participants with objective performance evaluation (won vs. lost). Visual feedback consisted of either smiling or angry faces, representing positive or negative social evaluations. Together, the combination of verbal and visual feedback gave rise to congruent versus incongruent social feedback combinations. In addition to assessing sex differences, we further tested for the effects of age and attachment style on social feedback processing. Results revealed that brain activity during social feedback processing was significantly modulated by sex, age, and attachment style in prefrontal cortical areas, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, caudate, and amygdala/hippocampus. We found indication for heightened activity during incongruent social feedback processing in females, older participants, and individuals with an anxious attachment style. Conversely, we observed stronger activity during processing of congruent social feedback in males and participants with an avoidant attachment style. Conclusion Our findings not only extend knowledge on the typical development of socio-emotional brain function during adolescence, but also provide first clues on how attachment insecurities, and particularly attachment avoidance, could interfere with the latter mechanisms. PMID:25328847

  11. Unresolved attachment status and trauma-related symptomatology in maltreated adolescents: an examination of cognitive mediators.

    PubMed

    Joubert, David; Webster, Linda; Hackett, Rachelle Kisst

    2012-06-01

    Attachment Theory has received increasing interest as a framework allowing for a more refined understanding of the potential consequences of early relational trauma on psychological and social adjustment. Research has provided support for the role of disorganized attachment, both as a sequela of traumatic experiences and as a risk factor for subsequent maladjustment. This study investigated the associations between unresolved/disorganized attachment, cognitive functioning, and dissociative symptomatology in a sample of 60 adolescents with a history of maltreatment. A model with cognitive efficiency as a mediator variable was tested using hierarchical multiple regression analysis, with a bootstrapping procedure to examine indirect effects. Results provided support for the association between unresolved attachment, cognitive efficiency (but not verbal or thinking ability), and dissociation. Working memory was a strong mediator of the link between attachment and dissociation. These results highlight the importance of assessing attachment status and cognitive functioning in the context of clinical work with maltreated youth. In addition, it is proposed that greater attention be paid to internal models of attachment relationships and how they impact psychosocial functioning at different levels in maltreated populations. PMID:22297580

  12. Relational Security Moderates the Effect of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on Stress Generation and Depression among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Lisa R.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najman, Jake

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that carriers of the short allele of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show both greater susceptibility to depression in response to stressful life events and higher rates of generation of stressful events in response to depression. The current study examines relational security (i.e., self-reported beliefs about attachment security) as a moderator of these effects, building on emerging research suggesting that the short allele acts as a marker of sensitivity to the social environment. Participants were 354 Caucasian adolescents oversampled for maternal depression (137 male, 217 female), assessed at ages 15 and 20. Results indicated that the short allele predicted increased stress generation at age 20 among those with low age 15 security but decreased stress generation among those with high security, and revealed a three-way interaction between age 15 depression, age 15 security, and genotype, where depression predicted stress generation only among short allele carriers with low security. Further, among boys only, security interacted with genotype to predict longitudinal changes in depression diagnosis, with the s-allele predicting relative increases in probability of depression among boys with low security but decreases among boys with high security. Results support the notion of the short allele as a marker of social reactivity, and suggest that attachment security may buffer against the genetic vulnerability introduced by the short allele, in line with predictions of the differential susceptibility theory. PMID:23080078

  13. Relational security moderates the effect of serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on stress generation and depression among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Starr, Lisa R; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A; Najman, Jake M

    2013-04-01

    Previous research demonstrates that carriers of the short allele of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show both greater susceptibility to depression in response to stressful life events and higher rates of generation of stressful events in response to depression. The current study examines relational security (i.e., self-reported beliefs about attachment security) as a moderator of these effects, building on emerging research suggesting that the short allele acts as a marker of sensitivity to the social environment. Participants were 354 Caucasian adolescents oversampled for maternal depression (137 male, 217 female), assessed at ages 15 and 20. Results indicated that the short allele predicted increased stress generation at age 20 among those with low age 15 security but decreased stress generation among those with high security, and revealed a three-way interaction between age 15 depression, age 15 security, and genotype, where depression predicted stress generation only among short allele carriers with low security. Further, among boys only, security interacted with genotype to predict longitudinal changes in depression diagnosis, with the s-allele predicting relative increases in probability of depression among boys with low security but decreases among boys with high security. Results support the notion of the short allele as a marker of social reactivity, and suggest that attachment security may buffer against the genetic vulnerability introduced by the short allele, in line with predictions of the differential susceptibility theory. PMID:23080078

  14. Sleep architecture and sleep-related mentation in securely and insecurely attached people.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patrick; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Johnson, Patricia; Harris, Erica; Auerbach, Sanford

    2011-03-01

    Based on REM sleep's brain activation patterns and its participation in consolidation of emotional memories, we tested the hypothesis that measures of REM sleep architecture and REM sleep-related mentation would be associated with attachment orientation. After a habituation night in a sleep lab, a convenience sample of 64 healthy volunteers were awakened 10 minutes into a REM sleep episode and 10 minutes into a control NREM sleep episode in counterbalanced order, then asked to report a dream and to rate themselves and a significant other on a list of trait adjectives. Relative to participants classified as having secure attachment orientations, participants classified as anxious took less time to enter REM sleep and had a higher frequency of REM dreams with aggression and self-denigrating themes. There were no significant differences across attachment groups in other measures of sleep architecture or in post REM-sleep awakening ratings on PANAS subscales reflecting mood and alertness. Selected aspects of REM sleep architecture and mentation appeared to be associated with attachment orientation. We suggest that REM sleep plays a role in processing experiences and emotions related to attachment, and that certain features of sleep and dreaming reflect attachment orientations. PMID:21390907

  15. Within-person variation in security of attachment: a self-determination theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being.

    PubMed

    La Guardia, J G; Ryan, R M; Couchman, C E; Deci, E L

    2000-09-01

    Attachment research has traditionally focused on individual differences in global patterns of attachment to important others. The current research instead focuses primarily on within-person variability in attachments across relational partners. It was predicted that within-person variability would be substantial, even among primary attachment figures of mother, father, romantic partner, and best friend. The prediction was supported in three studies. Furthermore, in line with self-determination theory, multilevel modeling and regression analyses showed that, at the relationship level, individuals' experience of fulfillment of the basic needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness positively predicted overall attachment security, model of self, and model of other. Relations of both attachment and need satisfaction to well-being were also explored. PMID:10981840

  16. Children's perceptions of emotion regulation strategy effectiveness: links with attachment security.

    PubMed

    Waters, Sara F; Thompson, Ross A

    2016-08-01

    Six- and nine-year-old children (N = 97) heard illustrated stories evoking anger in a story character and provided evaluations of the effectiveness of eight anger regulation strategies. Half the stories involved the child's mother as social partner and the other half involved a peer. Attachment security was assessed via the Security Scale. Children reported greater effectiveness for seeking support from adults and peers in the peer context than the mother context, but perceived venting as more effective with mothers. Children with higher security scores were more likely to endorse problem solving and less likely to endorse aggression in both social contexts than those with lower security scores. Early evidence for gender differences was found in that boys endorsed the effectiveness of distraction while girls endorsed venting their emotion. PMID:27121493

  17. Examining antecedents of infant attachment security with mothers and fathers: An ecological systems perspective☆

    PubMed Central

    Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Taking an ecological systems perspective, early parent–child relationships can be affected by interactions between systems where some are more proximally linked to the child than others. Socioeconomic status, a distal factor, is associated with social functioning during childhood, but research on its association with functioning during infancy, particularly attachment, is scant and inconsistent. Moreover, it is not clear how distal factors affect infant functioning. Other systems such as marital adjustment and parenting may moderate or mediate relations between distal factors and infant attachment. The current longitudinal study (n = 135) examined the role of various systems – parental resources, marital functioning, parental sensitivity and involvement – in early infancy (3-, 5-, 7-months) on infant–mother (12-months) and infant–father (14-months) attachment security. Findings supported moderating processes but in different ways for infant–mother versus infant–father dyads. Implications for future studies and interventions are discussed. PMID:25890261

  18. Female domestic violence offenders: their attachment security, trauma symptoms, and personality organization.

    PubMed

    Goldenson, Julie; Geffner, Robert; Foster, Sharon L; Clipson, Clark R

    2007-01-01

    Unlike male domestic violence offenders, female domestic violence offenders have traditionally been overlooked in research and theory, despite the fact that females also have high rates of domestic violence perpetration. Towards the aim of extending extant research on male and female pepetrators of domestic violence, we examined attachment style, trauma symptoms, and personality organization in 33 female offenders receiving mandated treatment for domestic violence. These offenders were compared to 32 nonoffending women receiving psychological treatment. The Experiences in Close Relationships Revised (ECR-Revised) was used to examine adult attachment, the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) was used to examine trauma symptomology, and finally, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III (MCMI-III) was used to examine cluster B personality traits. Analyses indicated that female domestic violence offenders reported less attachment security, more trauma-related symptoms, and more personality psychopathology (Antisocial, Borderline, and Dependent Subscales) than did nonoffender clinical comparison women. PMID:18064968

  19. Contribution of parents' adult attachment and separation attitudes to parent-adolescent conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, María José; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Máiquez, María Luisa

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the contribution to parent-adolescent conflict resolution of parental adult attachment styles and attitudes toward adolescent separation. Questionnaires were completed by 295 couples with early to late adolescent children. Structural equation models were used to test self and partner influences on conflict resolution for three attachment orientations: confidence (model A), anxiety (model B) and avoidance (model C). Model A showed self influences between parents' confidence orientation and negotiation and also via positive attitudes towards separation. Also, the fathers' use of negotiation was facilitated by the mothers' confidence orientation and vice versa, indicating partner influences as well. Model B showed self influences between parents' anxiety orientation and the use of dominance and withdrawal and also via negative attitudes towards separation. Model C showed self influences between parents' avoidance orientation and dominance and withdrawal, and a partner influence between fathers' avoidance and mothers' use of dominance. The results indicated that the parents' adult attachment system and the parenting system were related in the area of conflict resolution, and that self influences were stronger than partner influences. PMID:24117437

  20. 24 CFR 350.11 - Notice of Attachment for Ginnie Mae Securities in Book-entry System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Securities in Book-entry System. 350.11 Section 350.11 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 350.11 Notice of Attachment for Ginnie Mae Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by a creditor...

  1. 24 CFR 350.11 - Notice of Attachment for Ginnie Mae Securities in Book-entry System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Securities in Book-entry System. 350.11 Section 350.11 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 350.11 Notice of Attachment for Ginnie Mae Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by a creditor...

  2. 24 CFR 350.11 - Notice of Attachment for Ginnie Mae Securities in Book-entry System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Securities in Book-entry System. 350.11 Section 350.11 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 350.11 Notice of Attachment for Ginnie Mae Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by a creditor...

  3. Attachment security and parenting quality predict children's problem-solving, attributions, and loneliness with peers.

    PubMed

    Raikes, H Abigail; Thompson, Ross A

    2008-09-01

    The influence of early relational experience on later social understanding has evoked rich theoretical discussion but relatively little empirical inquiry. Enlisting data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, measures of the security of attachment in infancy, toddlerhood, and early childhood, together with measures of parenting quality (maternal sensitivity and depressive symptoms) gathered longitudinally throughout infancy and early childhood, were used to predict differences in children's thoughts and feelings about peers (i.e., social problem solving, negative attributional biases, aggressive solutions to ambiguous social situations, and self-reported loneliness) when children were 54 months and in first grade. Relational experiences, especially before 36 months, were significantly predictive of later peer-related representations. Attachment security at 24 and 36 months was associated with enhanced social problem-solving skills and less loneliness, but security of attachment at 15 months was nonpredictive. Early maternal sensitivity was positively associated with later social problem-solving and negatively with aggressive responses, and early maternal depressive symptoms were positively associated with children's negative attributions. Concurrent parenting quality was also associated with children's thoughts and feelings about peers, but less consistently. These findings shed new light on how early relational experiences may contribute to social information processing with peers at the end of the preschool years, and that the timing of relational influences may be crucial. PMID:18821341

  4. Security of attachment to spouses in late life: Concurrent and prospective links with cognitive and emotional wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Waldinger, Robert J.; Cohen, Shiri; Schulz, Marc S.; Crowell, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Social ties are powerful predictors of late-life health and wellbeing. Although many adults maintain intimate partnerships into late life, little is known about mental models of attachment to spouses and how they influence aging. Eighty-one elderly heterosexual couples (162 individuals) were interviewed to examine the structure of attachment security to their partners and completed measures of cognition and wellbeing concurrently and 2.5 years later. Factor analysis revealed a single factor for security of attachment. Higher security was linked concurrently with greater marital satisfaction, fewer depressive symptoms, better mood, and less frequent marital conflicts. Greater security predicted lower levels of negative affect, less depression, and greater life satisfaction 2.5 years later. For women, greater security predicted better memory 2.5 years later and attenuated the link between frequency of marital conflict and memory deficits. Late in life, mental models of attachment to partners are linked to wellbeing concurrently and over time. PMID:26413428

  5. Early Adolescent Attachment to Parents, Emotional Problems, and Teacher-Academic Worries about the Middle School Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, Stephane; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Poitras, Sarah-Caroline; Drouin, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how attachment to mother and father predicts worries about academic demands and relationships with teachers generated by the transition from elementary to middle school through its contribution to adolescents' emotional problems (depression and anxiety). The study sample includes 626 young adolescents (289 boys and 337 girls)…

  6. Attachment Representations in Mothers, Fathers, Adolescents, and Clinical Groups: A Meta-analytic Search for Normative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    1996-01-01

    This meta-analysis on 33 studies, including more than 2,000 Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications, presents distributions of AAI classifications in samples of nonclinical fathers and mothers, in adolescents, in samples from different cultures, and in clinical groups. Fathers, adolescents, and participants from different countries show…

  7. Disorganized Behavior in Adolescent-Parent Interaction: Relations to Attachment State of Mind, Partner Abuse, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obsuth, Ingrid; Hennighausen, Katherine; Brumariu, Laura E.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2014-01-01

    Disoriented, punitive, and caregiving/role-confused attachment behaviors are associated with psychopathology in childhood, but have not been assessed in adolescence. A total of 120 low-income late adolescents (aged 18-23 years) and parents were assessed in a conflict-resolution paradigm. Their interactions were coded with the Goal-Corrected…

  8. Adolescents' Perceptions of Attachments to Their Mothers and Fathers in Families with Histories of Domestic Violence: A Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Lamb, Michael E.; Guterman, Eva; Abbott, Craig B.; Dawud-Noursi, Samia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The effects of both childhood and teenage experiences of domestic violence on adolescent-parent attachments were examined. Method: Israeli adolescents (M=15.9 years) who were either victims of physical abuse, witnesses of physical spouse abuse, victims and witnesses of abuse, or neither victims nor witnesses of abuse were questioned…

  9. Representations of Mother-Child Attachment Relationships and Social-Information Processing of Peer Relationships in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granot, David; Mayseless, Ofra

    2012-01-01

    We examined the concurrent associations between early adolescents' representations of mother-child attachment relationships and how they process social information in their peer relationships. Attachment representations were examined in a normative sample of 97 males and 88 females (mean age = 10.35 years), using an adaptation of the Attachment…

  10. Insecure Attachment, Dysfunctional Attitudes, and Low Self-Esteem Predicting Prospective Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the existing adult literature on insecure attachment as a predictor of depression and anxiety by examining these pathways in a sample of adolescents. In addition, dysfunctional attitudes and low self-esteem were tested as mediators of the association between insecure attachment and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Youth (N =…

  11. The Moderating Role of Father's Care on the Onset of Binge Eating Symptoms among Female Late Adolescents with Insecure Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents…

  12. Subgingival bacteria in Ghanaian adolescents with or without progression of attachment loss

    PubMed Central

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Claesson, Rolf; Åberg, Carola Höglund; Haubek, Dorte; Johansson, Anders; Kwamin, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study describes subgingival bacterial profiles associated with clinical periodontal status in Ghanaian adolescents with or without progression of attachment loss. Materials and methods Among 500 adolescents included in a cohort study, 397 returned 2 years later for a periodontal re-examination, including full-mouth CAL measurements. At follow-up, a subgroup of 98 adolescents was also subjected to bacterial sampling with paper points at four periodontal sites (mesial aspect of 11, 26, 31, and 46) and analyzed with the checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization technique against DNA-probes from nine periodontitis-associated bacterial species. Results The 98 Ghanaian adolescents examined in the present study were similar to the entire group examined at the 2-year follow-up with respect to age, gender, and CAL ≥3 mm. A high detection frequency of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia (>99%) using checkerboard analysis was found, while for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans the detection frequency was <50%. A strong correlation was found at the individual level between the presence of P. intermedia and the total CAL change, and P. intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis were strongly correlated with a change in CAL and probing pocket depth (PPD) at the sampled sites. In a linear regression model, a significant discriminating factor for the total CAL change in the dentition during the 2-year follow-up period was obtained for P. intermedia and public school. Conclusion This study indicates that subgingival bacterial species other than A. actinomycetemcomitans, for example, P. intermedia, have a significant association with periodontal breakdown (change in CAL) in Ghanaian adolescents with progression of periodontal attachment loss. PMID:24834145

  13. Attachment security and HPA axis reactivity to positive and challenging emotional situations in child-mother dyads in naturalistic settings.

    PubMed

    Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela; Oliveira, Tania F; Oliveira, Rui F

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated adrenocortical activity in response to different challenging and positive affect emotional contexts in child-mother dyads, as function of attachment security (children's secure base behaviors and mothers' attachment representations). Fifty-one children ranging in age from 18 to 26 months and their mothers participated in this study. Secure children showed significant increases in their cortisol levels after fear episodes and significant decreases, after positive affect ones. No significant changes were found for frustration/anger episodes. Insecure children did not show significant differences in cortisol levels in any of the episodes, which suggests that insecure attachment may be related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression in response to challenging and positive contexts. Mothers of insecure children showed significantly higher cortisol concentrations in pre- and post-session samples, than mothers of secure children. Mothers' personal attachment representations influenced their own cortisol responses, as well as their children's (in a marginal significant way). PMID:22487942

  14. Attachment as a mediator between community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents with a history of maltreatment.

    PubMed

    London, Melissa J; Lilly, Michelle M; Pittman, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Experiences that are detrimental to the attachment relationship, such as childhood maltreatment, may reduce feelings of safety among survivors and exacerbate the effects of exposure to subsequent violence, such as witnessing community violence. Though attachment style has been examined in regard to posttraumatic stress in adults who have a history of exposure to violence in childhood, less is known about the influence of attachment on the relationship between exposure to violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in children and adolescents. The current study aimed to explore the role of attachment in the link between exposure to community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. Participants included adolescents (aged 15-18 years) who had a history of maltreatment (N=75) and a matched sample without a childhood abuse history (N=78) from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect (Salzinger, Feldman, & Ng-Mak, 2008). A conditional process model using bootstrapping to estimate indirect effects showed a significant indirect effect of insecure attachment on the relationship between exposure to community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms for adolescents with a history of childhood physical abuse, but not for adolescents without this history. Implications for a cumulative risk model for post-trauma pathology starting in adolescence are discussed. PMID:25465319

  15. Adult Attachment Security and Young Adults' Dating Relationships over Time: Self-Reported, Observational, and Physiological Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Ashley S.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developmental significance of adult attachment security--as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview--for romantic relationship functioning concurrently and approximately 1 year later in a sample of heterosexual dating couples between the ages of 18 and 25 (115 dyads at Time 1 [T1] and 57 dyads at T2, 74% White). The…

  16. Genetic Contributions to Continuity and Change in Attachment Security: A Prospective, Longitudinal Investigation from Infancy to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Cicchetti, Dante; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Egeland, Byron; Collins, W. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal research has demonstrated that individual differences in attachment security show only modest continuity from infancy to adulthood. Recent findings based on retrospective reports suggest that individuals' genetic variation may moderate the developmental associations between early attachment-relevant relationship…

  17. Dopaminergic, Serotonergic, and Oxytonergic Candidate Genes Associated with Infant Attachment Security and Disorganization? In Search of Main and Interaction Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luijk, Maartje P. C. M.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haltigan, John D.; Tiemeier, Henning; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Belsky, Jay; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tharner, Anne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and methods: In two birth cohort studies with genetic, sensitive parenting, and attachment data of more than 1,000 infants in total, we tested main and interaction effects of candidate genes involved in the dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin systems ("DRD4", "DRD2", "COMT", "5-HTT", "OXTR") on attachment security and disorganization.…

  18. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, Cathy A

    2013-09-11

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2013). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  19. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2013 Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, C.

    2014-09-09

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2013). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  20. Linguistic indicators of wives' attachment security and communal orientation during military deployment.

    PubMed

    Borelli, Jessica L; Sbarra, David A; Randall, Ashley K; Snavely, Jonathan E; St John, Heather K; Ruiz, Sarah K

    2013-09-01

    Military deployment affects thousands of families each year, yet little is known about its impact on nondeployed spouses (NDSs) and romantic relationships. This report examines two factors-attachment security and a communal orientation with respect to the deployment-that may be crucial to successful dyadic adjustment by the NDS. Thirty-seven female NDSs reported on their relationship satisfaction before and during their partner's deployment, and 20 also did so 2 weeks following their partner's return. Participants provided a stream-of-consciousness speech sample regarding their relationship during the deployment; linguistic coding of sample transcripts provided measures of each participant's (a) narrative coherence, hypothesized to reflect attachment security with respect to their deployed spouse; and (b) frequency of first person plural pronoun use (we-talk), hypothesized to reflect a communal orientation to coping. More frequent first person plural pronounuse-we-talk-was uniquely associated with higher relationship satisfaction during the deployment, and greater narrative coherence was uniquely associated with higher relationship satisfaction during postdeployment. Discussion centers on the value of relationship security and communal orientations in predicting how couples cope with deployment and other types of relationship stressors. PMID:24033247

  1. Adult Attachment Interview differentiates adolescents with Childhood Sexual Abuse from those with clinical depression and non-clinical controls.

    PubMed

    van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; Speekenbrink, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    Although attachment representation is considered to be disturbed in traumatized adolescents, it is not known whether this is specific for trauma, as comparative studies with other clinical groups are lacking. Therefore, attachment representation was studied by means of the Adult Attachment Interview in adolescents with Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA) (N = 21), clinical depression (N = 28) and non-clinical controls (N = 28). Coherence of mind and unresolved loss or trauma, as well as the disorganized attachment classification differentiated the CSA group from the clinical depression group and controls, over and above age, IQ, and psychiatric symptomatology. In the current era of sustained criticism on criteria-based classification, this may well carry substantial clinical relevance. If attachment is a general risk or vulnerability factor underlying specific psychopathology, this may guide diagnostic assessment as well as treatment. PMID:26047034

  2. Emotional attachment security as the origin of liberal-conservative differences in vigilance to negative features of the environment.

    PubMed

    Buck, Ross

    2014-06-01

    This commentary advances the hypothesis that differences between liberal and conservative orientations noted in the target article are emotional in nature and caused by differences in attachment security: Conservatives are more vigilant to negative features of the environment because of a general sense of insecurity, whereas liberals are relatively more secure. PMID:24970430

  3. Attachment and Social Problem Solving in Juvenile Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Saritha S.; And Others

    This study investigates characteristics of juvenile delinquency and youth violence by examining attachment and social problem skills. Attachment theory integrates features of psychoanalytic theory, ethology, and cognitive psychology. Research on adolescent attachment suggests that parents continue to function as a secure base for their teenage…

  4. Mothers who are securely attached in pregnancy show more attuned infant mirroring at 7 months postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sohye; Fonagy, Peter; Allen, Jon; Martinez, Sheila; Iyengar, Udita; Strathearn, Lane

    2014-01-01

    This study contrasted two forms of mother-infant mirroring: the mother's imitation of the infant's facial, gestural, or vocal behavior (i.e., “direct mirroring”) and the mother's ostensive verbalization of the infant's internal state, marked as distinct from the infant's experience (i.e., “intention mirroring”). Fifty mothers completed the Adult Attachment Interview during the third trimester of pregnancy. Mothers returned with their infants 7 months postpartum and completed a modified still-face procedure. While direct mirroring did not distinguish between secure and insecure/dismissing mothers, secure mothers were observed to engage in intention mirroring more than twice as frequently as did insecure/dismissing mothers. Infants of the two mother groups also demonstrated differences, with infants of secure mothers directing their attention toward their mothers at a higher frequency than did infants of insecure/dismissing mothers. The findings underscore marked and ostensive verbalization as a distinguishing feature of secure mothers’ well-attuned, affect-mirroring communication with their infants. PMID:25020112

  5. Are maternal reflective functioning and attachment security associated with preadolescent mentalization?

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Anna Maria; Viterbori, Paola; Scopesi, Alda M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of maternal reflective functioning (RF) and attachment security on children’s mentalization. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered to mothers in a sample of 41 mother–preadolescent dyads. AAI transcripts were rated in terms of the Berkeley AAI System (Main and Goldwyn, 1998) and the Reflective Functioning Scale (RFS; Fonagy et al., 1998). Preadolescent mentalization was assessed using a semi-structured interview adapted from O’Connor and Hirsch (1999) and also by analyzing mental-state talk produced during an autobiographical interview. Relationships between maternal RF and children’s mentalization were analyzed, with consideration given to the different RFS markers and references to positive, negative, and mixed-ambivalent mental states. Children’s mentalization was positively correlated with the mother’s RF, particularly the mother’s ability to mentalize negative or mixed-ambivalent mental states. No significant differences in mentalization were observed between children of secure and insecure mothers. PMID:26300824

  6. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011 Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2012-09-12

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011. Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  7. Associations between Community Attachments and Adolescent Substance Use in Nationally Representative Samples

    PubMed Central

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Social capital and social attachment theories of substance use argue that positive bonds to society and the conventional values they promote deter adolescents from substance use. Using nationally representative samples of U.S. high school seniors, we hypothesized that adolescents’ community attachments, measured by social trust, social responsibility, and religiosity, would be negatively associated with lifetime and 30-day substance use. Method We used repeated cross-sectional nationally representative high school senior data from 1976–2008 Monitoring the Future Study cohorts (weighted N = 64,246; 51.6% female). Participation rate ranged from 77% to 86% across years. A series of multiple linear and logistic regressions examined unique associations of adolescents’ social trust, social responsibility, and religiosity with lifetime and 30-day use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, hallucinogens, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates, tranquilizers, and narcotics. Models controlled for gender, race, college aspirations, high school grades, parents’ education, and survey year. Results Social trust, social responsibility, and religiosity showed independent negative associations with use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and six other types of drugs. After accounting for controls, community attachments related to lower lifetime and past 30-day use. Associations were consistent across measures, except social responsibility was not associated with binge drinking or lifetime illicit drugs besides marijuana. Conclusions Study strengths included the nationally representative sample, diverse substance use measures, and inclusion of controls. We extend theory by suggesting that distinct aspects of adolescents’ community attachments uniquely relate to lower substance use. Results suggest potential public health benefits of integrating promotion of community attachments with substance use prevention. PMID:22999832

  8. Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Promote Secure Attachment: Findings From a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barry; Edginton, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age <13 years). This article aims to inform clinicians about the parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research. PMID:27583298

  9. The reporting of maltreatment experiences during the Adult Attachment Interview in a sample of pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Sheri; Vaillancourt, Kyla; McKibbon, Amanda; Benoit, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This present student examines maltreatment experiences reported by 55 high-risk pregnant adolescents in response to a slightly adapted version of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996 ). Previous research has suggested that the rates of unresolved states of mind regarding trauma in response to the AAI may be underestimated due to the lack of direct questions and associated probes regarding physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. We address this concern by including behaviorally phrased questions and probes regarding maltreatment experiences into the original format of the AAI and examine the concordance between reports of maltreatment experiences in response to the AAI and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Maltreatment experiences in response to the AAI were evaluated using the Maltreatment Classification Scale developed by Barnett, Manly, and Cicchetti (1993). We also examine the association between unresolved states of mind and dissociation using the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale. Results revealed a significant concordance between reports of maltreatment in response to the AAI and CTQ measures. Reports of maltreatment were prevalent in this sample: across the AAI and CTQ measures, 96% of pregnant adolescents reported some form of emotional abuse, 84% physical abuse, 59% sexual abuse, and 88% reported neglect. Sexual abuse history uniquely predicted unresolved status in response to the AAI. Self-reports of dissociation were significantly associated with unresolved states of mind. Results suggest that the inclusion of behaviorally focused questions and probes regarding maltreatment in the AAI protocol can further contribute to the clinical and theoretical value of this tool. PMID:22385310

  10. Secure Base Representations in Middle Childhood across Two Western Cultures: Associations with Parental Attachment Representations and Maternal Reports of Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bosmans, Guy; Vandevivere, Eva; Dujardin, Adinda; Waters, Harriet S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work examining the content and organization of attachment representations suggests that 1 way in which we represent the attachment relationship is in the form of a cognitive script. This work has largely focused on early childhood or adolescence/adulthood, leaving a large gap in our understanding of script-like attachment representations in…

  11. Disparity of Ego-Identity Components in Relation to Psychological Security of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Diyar, Mosaad Abu; Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the Ego-identity components and the disparity of these components in relation to the psychological security of adolescents in Egypt. The sample of the study consisted of (400) male and female adolescents. The researchers used two main instruments; the psychological security scale and the Ego-identity scale.…

  12. Adolescent Same-Sex Attraction and Academic Outcomes: The Role of School Attachment and Engagement.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2007-11-01

    Schools create environments in which some sexual feelings, behaviors, and relationships are stigmatized, and this may have negative consequences for adolescents with nonheterosexual romantic attractions. This stigma can lead them to withdraw and disengage from school at a critical time of preparation for adulthood, which can compromise opportunities for future success. Previous research has demonstrated that sexual minority youth report greater levels of school-related problems, including a weaker sense of attachment to school and more trouble with teachers and peers. This lack of social integration is likely to affect their educational success. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the newly collected Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study provide the first opportunity to fully explore whether and to what extent same-sex attracted youth enter adulthood with an educational disadvantage. In this study, we examine (1) whether same-sex attracted adolescents have lower levels of academic success, (2) if their lower academic success is explained by a lack of social integration at school, and (3) whether these relationships differ for boys and girls. Results suggest that same-sex attracted students, particularly boys, do suffer academically, and that this is in part a result of school-related problems and risk factors such as emotional distress and substance use; however, a great deal of the disadvantage fails to be explained by these factors. Additionally, while same-sex attracted boys show poorer academic performance, same-sex attracted girls do not, suggesting that gender may shape how sexual minority youth experience and respond to marginalizing school environments. PMID:20221417

  13. Adolescent Same-Sex Attraction and Academic Outcomes: The Role of School Attachment and Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Schools create environments in which some sexual feelings, behaviors, and relationships are stigmatized, and this may have negative consequences for adolescents with nonheterosexual romantic attractions. This stigma can lead them to withdraw and disengage from school at a critical time of preparation for adulthood, which can compromise opportunities for future success. Previous research has demonstrated that sexual minority youth report greater levels of school-related problems, including a weaker sense of attachment to school and more trouble with teachers and peers. This lack of social integration is likely to affect their educational success. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the newly collected Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study provide the first opportunity to fully explore whether and to what extent same-sex attracted youth enter adulthood with an educational disadvantage. In this study, we examine (1) whether same-sex attracted adolescents have lower levels of academic success, (2) if their lower academic success is explained by a lack of social integration at school, and (3) whether these relationships differ for boys and girls. Results suggest that same-sex attracted students, particularly boys, do suffer academically, and that this is in part a result of school-related problems and risk factors such as emotional distress and substance use; however, a great deal of the disadvantage fails to be explained by these factors. Additionally, while same-sex attracted boys show poorer academic performance, same-sex attracted girls do not, suggesting that gender may shape how sexual minority youth experience and respond to marginalizing school environments PMID:20221417

  14. Culture-general and -specific associations of attachment avoidance and anxiety with perceived parental warmth and psychological control among Turk and Belgian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H

    2010-10-01

    Both the adolescent peer attachment and perceived parenting style literatures emphasize the role of the quality of the parent-child relationship in children's healthy adjustment beyond the family, but few studies have investigated links between adolescents' peer attachment and perceptions of parenting. We investigate relations of adolescents' perceptions of warmth and psychological control from parents with avoidance and anxiety in attachment to close friends in two contrasting cultures. Altogether, 262 Turk and 263 Belgian youth between 14 and 18 years of age participated. Cross-culturally, attachment avoidance was negatively related to maternal warmth, and attachment anxiety positively related to maternal and paternal control and negatively to paternal warmth. Beyond these general relations, attachment avoidance was associated with paternal psychological control in Belgians but not in Turks. The study provides cross-cultural evidence for specific relations between peer attachment and perceived parenting and suggests a culture-specific pathway for the development of attachment avoidance. PMID:20079527

  15. Self-esteem and the quest for felt security: how perceived regard regulates attachment processes.

    PubMed

    Murray, S L; Holmes, J G; Griffin, D W

    2000-03-01

    The authors proposed that personal feelings of self-esteem foster the level of confidence in a partner's regard critical for satisfying attachments. Dating and married couples described themselves, their partners, how they thought their partners saw them, and how they wanted their partners to see them on a variety of interpersonal qualities. The results revealed that low self-esteem individuals dramatically underestimated how positively their partners saw them. Such unwarranted and unwanted insecurities were associated with less generous perceptions of partners and lower relationship well-being. The converse was true for high self-esteem individuals. A longitudinal examination of the dating couples revealed that the vulnerabilities of lows were only exacerbated over time. A dependency regulation model is proposed, wherein felt security in a partner's perceived regard is suggested as a prime mechanism linking self-esteem to relational well-being. PMID:10743875

  16. Emotion regulation and attachment: relationships with children's secure base, during different situational and social contexts in naturalistic settings.

    PubMed

    Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela; Fernandes, Marília; Rebelo, Ana

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the relationships between children's secure base and emotion regulation, namely their behavioral strategies and emotional expressiveness, during different situational and social contexts in naturalistic settings. Fifty-five children ranging in age from 18 to 26 months of age and their mothers participated in this study. Children were exposed to three situational (fear, positive affect and frustration/anger) and two social (maternal constraint and involvement) contexts. Toddlers' behavioral strategies differed as function of emotion-eliciting context, maternal involvement and attachment quality. Emotional expressiveness varied as function of an interaction involving situational contexts, maternal involvement and children's attachment security. PMID:23542812

  17. The Secure Base Script and the Task of Caring for Elderly Parents: Implications for Attachment Theory and Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cory K.; Waters, Harriet Salatas; Hartman, Marilyn; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Miklowitz, David J.; Waters, Everett

    2013-01-01

    This study explores links between adults’ attachment representations and the task of caring for elderly parents with dementia. Participants were 87 adults serving as primary caregivers of a parent or parent-in-law with dementia. Waters and Waters’ (2006) Attachment Script Assessment was adapted to assess script-like attachment representation in the context of caring for their elderly parent. The quality of adult-elderly parent interactions was assessed using the Level of Expressed Emotions Scale (Cole & Kazarian, 1988) and self-report measures of caregivers’ perception of caregiving as difficult. Caregivers’ secure base script knowledge predicted lower levels of negative expressed emotion. This effect was moderated by the extent to which participants experienced caring for elderly parents as difficult. Attachment representations played a greater role in caregiving when caregiving tasks were perceived as more difficult. These results support the hypothesis that attachment representations influence the quality of care that adults provide their elderly parents. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23582012

  18. The secure base script and the task of caring for elderly parents: implications for attachment theory and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cory K; Waters, Harriet Salatas; Hartman, Marilyn; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Miklowitz, David J; Waters, Everett

    2013-01-01

    This study explores links between adults' attachment representations and the task of caring for elderly parents with dementia. Participants were 87 adults serving as primary caregivers of a parent or parent-in-law with dementia. Waters and Waters' ( 2006 ) Attachment Script Assessment was adapted to assess script-like attachment representation in the context of caring for their elderly parent. The quality of adult-elderly parent interactions was assessed using the Level of Expressed Emotions Scale (Cole & Kazarian, 1988 ) and self-report measures of caregivers' perception of caregiving as difficult. Caregivers' secure base script knowledge predicted lower levels of negative expressed emotion. This effect was moderated by the extent to which participants experienced caring for elderly parents as difficult. Attachment representations played a greater role in caregiving when caregiving tasks were perceived as more difficult. These results support the hypothesis that attachment representations influence the quality of care that adults provide their elderly parents. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23582012

  19. A Longitudinal Study of the Developmental Trajectories of Parental Attachment and Career Maturity of South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sumi; Hutchison, Brian; Lemberger, Matthew E.; Pope, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the developmental trajectories of career maturity (CM) and parental attachment (PA), the longitudinal influence of both, and gender as a moderator. Findings showed developmental progressions in adolescents' PA and CM over 4 years. The change in PA was positively related to the developmental change in CM. For gender, there was a…

  20. Parental Attachment and Adjustment to Higher Learning Institutions: The Role of Stress for a Malaysian Sample of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Ng, Ee Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of stress in the linkages between attachment to parents and adjustment to attending higher learning institutions in another country. Self-reports from 114 Malaysian late adolescents studying in Singapore supported the primacy of stress for adjustment; more pertinent, stress mediated all the…

  1. [Design and development of a secure DICOM-Network Attached Server].

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Hidenobu; Omatsu, Masahiko; Higuchi, Ko; Umeda, Tokuo

    2006-04-20

    It is not easy to connect a Web-based server with an existing DICOM server, and using a Web-based server on the Internet has risks. In this study, we designed and developed a secure DICOM-Network Attached Server (DICOM-NAS) through which the DICOM server in a hospital LAN was connected to the Internet. After receiving a client's image export request, the DICOM-NAS sent it to the DICOM server using the DICOM protocol. The server then provided DICOM images to the DICOM-NAS, which transferred them to the client, using HTTP. The DICOM-NAS plays an important role between the DICOM protocol and HTTP, and stores the requested images only temporarily. The DICOM server keeps all of the original DICOM images. If an unauthorized user attempts to access the DICOM-NAS, medical images cannot be accessed because images are not stored in the DICOM-NAS. Furthermore, the DICOM-NAS has features related to reporting and MPR. Therefore, the DICOM-NAS does not require a large storage capacity, but can greatly improve information security. PMID:16639395

  2. Design and development of a secure DICOM-Network Attached Server.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Hidenobu; Omatsu, Masahiko; Higuchi, Ko; Umeda, Tokuo

    2006-03-01

    It is not easy to connect a web-based server with an existing DICOM server, and using a web-based server on the INTERNET has risks. In this study, we designed and developed the secure DICOM-Network Attached Server (DICOM-NAS) through which the DICOM server in a hospital-Local Area Network (LAN) was connected to the INTERNET. After receiving a Client's image export request, the DICOM-NAS sent it to the DICOM server with DICOM protocol. The server then provided DICOM images to the DICOM-NAS, which transferred them to the Client using HTTP. The DICOM-NAS plays an important role between DICOM protocol and HTTP, and only temporarily stores the requested images. The DICOM server keeps all of the original DICOM images. When unwanted outsiders attempt to get into the DICOM-NAS, they cannot access any medical images because these images are not stored in the DICOM-NAS. Therefore, the DICOM-NAS does not require large storage, but can greatly improve information security. PMID:16503366

  3. Effectiveness of an Attachment-Based Intervention Program in Promoting Emotion Regulation and Attachment in Adolescent Mothers and their Infants: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Albizzati, Alessandro; Downing, George

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effectiveness of an attachment-based intervention program, PRERAYMI, based on video technique, psychological counseling and developmental guidance in improving the style of interaction and emotion regulation of adolescent mothers and their infants after 3 and 6 months of intervention. Analyses revealed that adolescent mothers who participated in the intervention (vs. control group adolescent mothers) increased their Sensitivity and reduced their Controlling style after both 3 and 6 months of treatment. Infants who participated in the intervention (vs. control group infants) increased their Cooperative style and reduced their Passive style from 3 to 9 months. Moreover, the intervention group dyads (vs. control group dyads) increased the amount of time spent in affective positive coordination states (matches), decreased the amount of time spent in affective mismatches, and had a greater ability to repair mismatches from 3 to 9 months. Furthermore, the intervention group dyads (vs. control group dyads) increased the amount of time spent in reciprocal involvement in play with objects from 3 to 9 months. The quality of maternal attachment did not affect the intervention effect. PMID:26941673

  4. Maternal Insightfulness and Resolution of the Diagnosis Are Associated with Secure Attachment in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    In the current study (a) maternal insightfulness into the experience of the child and (b) resolution with respect to the child's diagnosis and their associations with children's security of attachment were examined in a sample of 45 preschoolers (mean age = 49 months) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It was hypothesized that mothers who were…

  5. A Behavior-Genetic Study of Parenting Quality, Infant Attachment Security, and Their Covariation in a Nationally Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2008-01-01

    A number of relatively small-sample, genetically sensitive studies of infant attachment security have been published in the past several years that challenge the view that all psychological phenotypes are heritable and that environmental influences on child development--to the extent that they can be detected--serve to make siblings dissimilar.…

  6. The Significance of Attachment Security for Children’s Social Competence with Peers: A Meta-Analytic Study

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Ashley M.; Fearon, R. Pasco; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Steele, Ryan D.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analytic review examines the association between attachment during the early life course and social competence with peers during childhood, and compares the strength of this association with those for externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. Based on eighty independent samples (N = 4,441), the association between security and peer competence was significant (d = 0.39, CI 0.32; 0.47) and not moderated by the age at which peer competence was assessed. Avoidance (d = 0.17, CI 0.05; 0.30), resistance (d = 0.29, CI 0.09; 0.48), and disorganization (d = 0.25, CI 0.10; 0.40) were significantly associated with lower peer competence. Attachment security was significantly more strongly associated with peer competence than internalizing (but not externalizing) symptomatology. Discussion focuses on the significance of early attachment for the development of peer competence versus externalizing and internalizing psychopathology. PMID:24547936

  7. Secure Infant-Mother Attachment Buffers the Effect of Early-Life Stress on Age of Menarche.

    PubMed

    Sung, Sooyeon; Simpson, Jeffry A; Griskevicius, Vladas; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Schlomer, Gabriel L; Belsky, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Prior research indicates that being reared in stressful environments is associated with earlier onset of menarche in girls. In this research, we examined (a) whether these effects are driven by exposure to certain dimensions of stress (harshness or unpredictability) during the first 5 years of life and (b) whether the negative effects of stress on the timing of menarche are buffered by secure infant-mother attachment. Results revealed that (a) exposure to greater harshness (but not unpredictability) during the first 5 years of life predicted earlier menarche and (b) secure infant-mother attachment buffered girls from this effect of harsh environments. By connecting attachment research to its evolutionary foundations, these results illuminate how environmental stressors and relationships early in life jointly affect pubertal timing. PMID:26980153

  8. The Interplay Between Parental Beliefs about Children’s Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children’s Attachment Security

    PubMed Central

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children’s emotions and parental stress relate to children’s feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children’s feelings of security were tested. Participants were 85 African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian 4th and 5th grade children and one of their parents. Children reported their feelings of security in the parent-child relationship; parents independently reported on their beliefs and their stress. Parental stress moderated relationships between three of the four parental beliefs about the value of children’s emotions and children’s attachment security. When parent stress was low, parental beliefs accepting and valuing children’s emotions were not related to children’s feelings of security; when parent stress was high, however, parental beliefs accepting and valuing children’s emotions were related to children’s feelings of security. These findings highlight the importance of examining parental beliefs and stress together for children’s attachment security. PMID:21731472

  9. Attachment, Parenting, and Separation-Individuation in Adolescence: A Comparison of Hospitalized Adolescents, Institutionalized Delinquents, and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delhaye, Marie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Burton, Julie; Linkowski, Paul; Stroobants, Rob; Goossens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    The authors compared parent-related perceptions by hospitalized adolescents (i.e., who were admitted to a specialized psychiatric unit; n = 50) and delinquent adolescents (i.e., who were placed at a juvenile treatment institution; n = 51) with adolescents from the general population (n = 51). All adolescents completed a broad set of measures of…

  10. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality. PMID:25143437

  11. In Search of Shared and Nonshared Environmental Factors in Security of Attachment: A Behavior-Genetic Study of the Association between Sensitivity and Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearon, R. M. Pasco; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Fonagy, Peter; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Schuengel, Carlo; Bokhorst, Caroline L.

    2006-01-01

    The current article presents results from a twin study of genetic and environmental components of maternal sensitivity and infant attachment and their association. The sample consisted of 136 twin pairs from 2 sites: Leiden, the Netherlands, and London, UK. Maternal sensitivity was assessed in the home at 9-10 months, and infant attachment…

  12. Predictors and Consequences of Developmental Changes in Adolescent Girls’ Self-Reported Quality of Attachment to their Primary Caregiver

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lori N.; Whalen, Diana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Beeney, Joseph E.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.

    2013-01-01

    In an at-risk community sample of 2,101 girls, we examined trajectories, predictors, and consequences of changes in a central aspect of adolescents’ perceived quality of attachment (QOA), i.e., their reported trust in the availability and supportiveness of the primary caregiver. Results demonstrated two distinct epochs of change in this aspect of girls’ perceived QOA, with a significant linear decrease in early adolescence (ages 11 to 14) followed by a plateau from 14 to 16. Baseline parent-reported harsh punishment, low parental involvement, single parent status, and child-reported depression symptoms predicted steeper decreases in attachment during early adolescence, which in turn predicted greater child-reported depression and conduct disorder symptoms in later adolescence. Results suggest that both parent and child factors contribute to trajectories of self-reported QOA in adolescence, and a faster rate of decrease in girls’ perceived QOA to caregivers during early adolescence may increase risk for both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. PMID:24011095

  13. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010, Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    C. Wills, ed.

    2011-09-13

    Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  14. Variability in social reasoning: the influence of attachment security on the attribution of goals

    PubMed Central

    Dunfield, Kristen A.; Johnson, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last half decade there has been a growing move to apply the methods and theory of cognitive development to questions regarding infants’ social understanding. Though this combination has afforded exciting opportunities to better understand our species’ unique social cognitive abilities, the resulting findings do not always lead to the same conclusions. For example, a growing body of research has found support for both universal similarity and individual differences in infants’ social reasoning about others’ responses to incomplete goals. The present research examines this apparent contradiction by assessing the influence of attachment security on the ability of university undergraduates to represent instrumental needs versus social-emotional distress. When the two varieties of goals were clearly differentiated, we observed a universally similar pattern of results (Experiments 1A/B). However, when the goals were combined, and both instrumental need and social-emotional distress were presented together, individual differences emerged (Experiments 2 and 3). Taken together, these results demonstrate that by integrating the two perspectives of shared universals and individual differences, important points of contact can be revealed supporting a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the nature of human social reasoning. PMID:26500574

  15. Reduced visual cortex grey matter volume in children and adolescents with reactive attachment disorder.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Koji; Takiguchi, Shinichiro; Mizushima, Sakae; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Saito, Daisuke N; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Tomoda, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk for psychiatric disorders throughout childhood and into adulthood. One negative outcome of child maltreatment can be a disorder of emotional functioning, reactive attachment disorder (RAD), where the child displays wary, watchful, and emotionally withdrawn behaviours. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the potential neurobiological consequences of RAD. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether RAD was associated with alterations in grey matter volume (GMV). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging datasets were obtained for children and adolescents with RAD (n = 21; mean age = 12.76 years) and typically developing (TD) control subjects (n = 22; mean age = 12.95 years). Using a whole-brain voxel-based morphometry approach, structural images were analysed controlling for age, gender, full scale intelligence quotient, and total brain volume. The GMV was significantly reduced by 20.6% in the left primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17) of the RAD group compared to the TD group (p = .038, family-wise error-corrected cluster level). This GMV reduction was related to an internalising problem measure of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. The visual cortex has been viewed as part of the neurocircuit regulating the stress response to emotional visual images. Combined with previous studies of adults with childhood maltreatment, early adverse experience (e.g. sensory deprivation) may affect the development of the primary visual system, reflecting in the size of the visual cortex in children and adolescents with RAD. These visual cortex GMV abnormalities may also be associated with the visual emotion regulation impairments of RAD, leading to an increased risk for later psychopathology. PMID:26288752

  16. Reduced visual cortex grey matter volume in children and adolescents with reactive attachment disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Koji; Takiguchi, Shinichiro; Mizushima, Sakae; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Saito, Daisuke N.; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Tomoda, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk for psychiatric disorders throughout childhood and into adulthood. One negative outcome of child maltreatment can be a disorder of emotional functioning, reactive attachment disorder (RAD), where the child displays wary, watchful, and emotionally withdrawn behaviours. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the potential neurobiological consequences of RAD. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether RAD was associated with alterations in grey matter volume (GMV). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging datasets were obtained for children and adolescents with RAD (n = 21; mean age = 12.76 years) and typically developing (TD) control subjects (n = 22; mean age = 12.95 years). Using a whole-brain voxel-based morphometry approach, structural images were analysed controlling for age, gender, full scale intelligence quotient, and total brain volume. The GMV was significantly reduced by 20.6% in the left primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17) of the RAD group compared to the TD group (p = .038, family-wise error-corrected cluster level). This GMV reduction was related to an internalising problem measure of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. The visual cortex has been viewed as part of the neurocircuit regulating the stress response to emotional visual images. Combined with previous studies of adults with childhood maltreatment, early adverse experience (e.g. sensory deprivation) may affect the development of the primary visual system, reflecting in the size of the visual cortex in children and adolescents with RAD. These visual cortex GMV abnormalities may also be associated with the visual emotion regulation impairments of RAD, leading to an increased risk for later psychopathology. PMID:26288752

  17. Mothers' attachment styles and their children's self-reported security, as related to maternal socialization of children's positive affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Gentzler, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Black, Katelyn R

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how mothers' attachment was related to their responses to their own and their children's positive events and positive affect (PA). Ninety-seven mothers reported on their attachment and their responses to their own and their 7-12-year-old children's positive events and emotions. Children reported on their mothers' responses to the children's positive events and their attachment security with their mothers. The results indicated that more avoidant mothers reported less intense PA in response to their own and their children's positive events. More avoidant mothers also were less likely to encourage their children to savor positive events (through expressing PA, reflecting on PA or themselves, giving rewards, and affectionate responses). Mothers higher on anxiety reported greater likelihood of dampening (e.g., minimizing the event's importance) their own positive events and reported being more likely to feel discomfort and to reprimand their children for expressing PA. Children's security was predicted by mothers' lower likelihood of encouraging children's dampening and of reprimanding children for PA displays. This study advances the literature on how mothers' attachment is related to the ways in which they regulate their own and their children's PA, which may have implications for children's attachment and developing PA regulation. PMID:26095911

  18. The Great Mother and the Terrible Mother: mimesis, alterity and attachment in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rytovaara, Marica

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses attachment, the longing for familiarity and sameness (mimesis), the search for difference and separateness (alterity) and the problem with the Other seen through the lens ofthe individuation process in adolescence. These are explored with reference to relational aspects and Levinas and Girard's divergent views of the Other. The relational space, which in Phillip Bromberg's (2003) words is 'uniquely relational, but still uniquely individual' and in which analyst and patient 'stand together in the space between realities', might under exceptional circumstances be transformed into 'a twilight space where the impossible becomes possible' (p. 573). I will sketch a developmental trajectory starting from primitive states, in which the presence of the Other,as a separate entity cannot be tolerated and where the patient strives for total mimesis. Should the analyst prematurely shatter this illusion, she becomes an alien 'Other'; a wolf in sheep's clothing. I trace the current psychoanalytic paradigm shift to an emphasis on the co-creation of meaning in the interpersonal space and explore what alterity consists of and how much of the other's unknowability can be tolerated and respected without a translation into one's own idiom. The clinical vignettes illustrate aspects of therapy which normally lie outside the analytical remit and are culled from an inpatient setting and private practice. PMID:24673275

  19. Goodness of fit between prenatal maternal sleep and infant sleep: Associations with maternal depression and attachment security.

    PubMed

    Newland, Rebecca P; Parade, Stephanie H; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald

    2016-08-01

    The current study prospectively examined the ways in which goodness of fit between maternal and infant sleep contributes to maternal depressive symptoms and the mother-child relationship across the first years of life. In a sample of 173 mother-child dyads, maternal prenatal sleep, infant sleep, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-child attachment security were assessed via self-report, actigraphy, and observational measures. Results suggested that a poor fit between mothers' prenatal sleep and infants' sleep at 8 months (measured by sleep diary and actigraphy) was associated with maternal depressive symptoms at 15 months. Additionally, maternal depression mediated the association between the interplay of mother and infant sleep (measured by sleep diary) and mother-child attachment security at 30 months. Findings emphasize the importance of the match between mother and infant sleep on maternal wellbeing and mother-child relationships and highlight the role of mothers' perceptions of infant sleep. PMID:27448324

  20. Early Manifestations of Children's Theory of Mind: The Roles of Maternal Mind-Mindedness and Infant Security of Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laranjo, Jessica; Bernier, Annie; Meins, Elizabeth; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated two aspects of mother-child relationships--mothers' mind-mindedness and infant attachment security--in relation to two early aspects of children's theory of mind development (ToM). Sixty-one mother-child dyads (36 girls) participated in testing phases at 12 (T1), 15 (T2), and 26 months of age (T3), allowing for assessment…

  1. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who were exposed only to domestic violence, the relationship between exposure types and youth outcomes did not differ by level of attachment to parents. However, stronger bonds of attachment to parents in adolescence did appear to predict a lower risk of antisocial behavior independent of exposure status. Preventing child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence could lessen the risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence, as could strengthening parent-child attachments in adolescence. However, strengthening attachments between parents and children after exposure may not be sufficient to counter the negative impact of earlier violence trauma in children. PMID:20457846

  2. Longitudinal study on the effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence, parent-child attachments, and antisocial behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Moylan, Carrie A; Tajima, Emiko A; Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, for those who were abused only and those who were exposed only to domestic violence, the relationship between exposure types and youth outcomes did not differ by level of attachment to parents. However, stronger bonds of attachment to parents in adolescence did appear to predict a lower risk of antisocial behavior independent of exposure status. Preventing child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence could lessen the risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence, as could strengthening parent-child attachments in adolescence. However, strengthening attachments between parents and children after exposure may not be sufficient to counter the negative impact of earlier violence trauma in children. PMID:20457846

  3. Attachment discontinuity in a high-risk sample.

    PubMed

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated complex patterns of attachment discontinuity across time in 133 individuals from the Minnesota Study of Risk and Adaptation. In addition to individuals who were either insecure or secure across infancy, late adolescence, and adulthood (Stably Insecure and Stably Secure, respectively), we found three additional groups: Infant/Adolescent Secure, Infant/Adult Secure, and Infant-only Secure. Changes in attachment representations in these groups across time corresponded to stresses and supports in the socio-emotional context. The two groups classified as secure in adulthood (Stably Secure and Infant/Adult Secure) experienced more positive relationship-based outcomes than the other three groups. Our results suggest that continuity may be a reflection of a stable social context as much as it is an artifact of early working models, and illustrate "homeorhetic" pathways of development, in which not only the direction but the length of a developmental pathway can constrain future developmental trajectories. PMID:21718224

  4. Maternal Depression, Children's Attachment Security, and Representational Development: An Organizational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Sheree L.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Relations among maternal depression, child attachment, and children's representations of parents and self were examined. Participants included toddlers and their mothers with a history of major depressive disorder (n=63) or no history of mental disorder (n=68). Attachment was assessed at 20 and 36 months and representations of parents and self…

  5. Secure Attachment in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Maternal Insightfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2008-01-01

    Do children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) form attachments to their caregivers? This article reviews research challenging the conventional view that children with autism are unable to form healthy attachment relationships. The authors describe a study examining the role of maternal insightfulness into the inner world of the child in…

  6. Early Temperament and Attachment Security with Mothers and Fathers as Predictors of Toddler Compliance and Noncompliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Ekas, Naomi V.; Zentall, Shannon R.; Oshio, Toko; Planalp, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study (n?=?106) examined associations between temperament, attachment, and styles of compliance and noncompliance. Infant negative temperamental reactivity was reported by mothers at 3, 5 and 7?months. Infant attachment was assessed (Strange Situation) at 12 (mothers) and 14?months (fathers). Toddlers' styles of…

  7. Attachment Security and Child's Empathy: The Mediating Role of Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panfile, Tia M.; Laible, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the influence of multiple factors on individual differences in empathy; namely, attachment, negative emotionality, and emotion regulation. A total of 63 mothers completed the Attachment Q-set and questionnaires about their children's empathy, negative emotionality, and emotion regulation when children were 3 years old.…

  8. Building Secure Attachments for Primary School Children: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubha, Neerose; Cahill, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide implications of attachment theory there remains a lack of research exploring interventions which encapsulate the principles of an attachment-based framework in the school context. The aim of this research was to address this gap by implementing an intervention for a group of five primary-aged pupils with identified insecure…

  9. The Quality of Children's Home Environment and Attachment Security in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevalkink, Jolien; Riksen-walravenn, J. Marianne; Bradley, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the relation of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory (B. M. Caldwell & R. H. Bradley, 1984) for 0- to 6-year-old Sundanese Indonesian children with the quality of the mother-child attachment relationship (n = 44) and attachment-related behaviors during play interactions (n = 37) and with…

  10. Factors Promoting Secure Attachment Relationships between Employed Mothers and Their Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, Rita K.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates factors associated with outcomes in attachment relationships between 30 well-educated, full-time working mothers and their 18-month-old firstborn sons. Suggests maternal employment effects on mother-son attachment are mediated primarily by a woman's affective state, which becomes manifested in her style of caregiving and child-care…

  11. Postpartum depression and infant-mother attachment security at one year: The impact of co-morbid maternal personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Steele, Howard; Cordes, Katharina; Mehlhase, Heike; Vaever, Mette Skovgaard

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies on effects of postpartum depression (PPD) on infant-mother attachment have been divergent. This may be due to not taking into account the effects of stable difficulties not specific for depression, such as maternal personality disorder (PD). Mothers (N=80) were recruited for a longitudinal study either during pregnancy (comparison group) or eight weeks postpartum (clinical group). Infants of mothers with depressive symptoms only or in combination with a PD diagnosis were compared with infants of mothers with no psychopathology. Depression and PD were assessed using self-report and clinical interviews. Infant-mother attachment was assessed when infants were 13 months using Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Attachment (in)security was calculated as a continuous score based on the four interactive behavioral scales of the SSP, and the conventional scale for attachment disorganization was used. PPD was associated with attachment insecurity only if the mother also had a PD diagnosis. Infants of PPD mothers without co-morbid PD did not differ from infants of mothers with no psychopathology. These results suggest that co-existing PD may be crucial in understanding how PPD impacts on parenting and infant social-emotional development. Stable underlying factors may magnify or buffer effects of PPD on parenting and child outcomes. PMID:27400381

  12. Genetic and Attachment Influences on Adolescents' Regulation of Autonomy and Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Peter; Mohr, Cornelia; Spangler, Gottfried

    2009-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a time when intense emotions are elicited within the parent-adolescent relationship, often when autonomy subjectively is endangered. As emotion dysregulation is one of the risk processes for the development of psychopathology, adolescence may be perceived as a highly sensitive period for maladjustment. Inter-individual…

  13. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…

  14. The Mediating Role of Rumination in the Relation between Quality of Attachment Relations and Depressive Symptoms in Non-Clinical Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruijten, Tamara; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Rood, Lea

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations between indices of the quality of attachment relationships of adolescents with parents and peers, rumination, and symptoms of depression. More specifically, a mediation model was investigated in which rumination was hypothesized to mediate the relation between quality of attachment relations and symptoms of…

  15. Continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns across two generations.

    PubMed

    Raby, K Lee; Steele, Ryan D; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns within a higher-risk longitudinal sample of 55 female participants born into poverty. Infant attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation when participants were 12 and 18 months as well as several decades later with participants' children. Paralleling earlier findings from this sample on the stability of attachment patterns from infancy to young adulthood, results provided evidence for intergenerational continuities in attachment disorganization but not security. Children of adults with histories of infant attachment disorganization were at an increased risk of forming disorganized attachments. Although changes in infant attachment patterns across the two generations were not correlated with individuals' caregiving experiences or interpersonal stresses and supports during childhood and adolescence, higher quality social support during adulthood was associated with intergenerational changes from insecure to secure infant-caregiver attachment relationships. PMID:26213155

  16. Continuities and Changes in Infant Attachment Patterns Across Two Generations

    PubMed Central

    Raby, K. Lee; Steele, Ryan D.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns within a higher-risk longitudinal sample of 55 female participants born into poverty. Infant attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation when participants were 12 and 18 months as well as several decades later with participants’ children. Paralleling earlier findings from this sample on the stability of attachment patterns from infancy to young adulthood, results provided evidence for intergenerational continuities in attachment disorganization but not security. Children of adults with histories of infant attachment disorganization were at an increased risk of forming disorganized attachments. Although changes in infant attachment patterns across the two generations were not correlated with individuals’ caregiving experiences or interpersonal stresses and supports during childhood and adolescence, higher quality social support during adulthood was associated with intergenerational changes from insecure to secure infant-caregiver attachment relationships. PMID:26213155

  17. Vitamin D status of adolescent inpatients in a secure psychiatric hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Simon A.; Riordan-Eva, Elliott; Bhandari, Bharathi; Ferdinandez, Uresh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to use routinely collected data on vitamin D levels of adolescents detained in a secure psychiatric hospital to see if this at-risk group for vitamin D deficiency do in fact have low vitamin D levels. Methods: Vitamin D blood levels were collated from clinical records of inpatients admitted to Bluebird House, a medium secure adolescent unit, since 2012. Corresponding data were gathered to include gender, ethnic status and age. Blood levels were assessed on admission to the unit and after treatment with vitamin D supplementation, if indicated. Results: Only 3 out of the 35 patients (8.6%) had adequate vitamin D levels (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-OHD] > 50 nmol/l). A total of 23 patients (65.7%) had levels consistent with deficiency (25-OHD < 30 nmol/l) with the remaining 9 patients (25.7%) showing levels indicating possible deficiency (25-OHD 30–50 nmol/l. Conclusions: Vitamin D levels were low in our sample of young people admitted to a secure psychiatric hospital. This is the first published study of vitamin D levels in a secure adolescent psychiatric hospital. The results point to the need for routine prescription of vitamin D to adolescents held in secure conditions such as hospitals, secure children’s homes and youth offender institutes. PMID:27536343

  18. The relationship between clinical attachment loss and the duration of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Firatli, E; Yilmaz, O; Onan, U

    1996-04-01

    The periodontal status of 77 diabetic children and adolescents, and 77 paired, systemically-healthy, sex- and age-matched control subjects, was clinical examined. Fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1) values were determined. The mean periodontal pocket depths, clinical attachment levels and the parameters to assess diabetes mellitus from the diabetic group were significantly higher than those of the controls. We found a positive correlation between the duration of diabetes and clinical attachment loss, but not with periodontal probing depth, plaque index and gingival index in the diabetic group. A positive correlation was also assessed between the present serum fructosamine and gingival index in the diabetic group, but not in controls. PMID:8739168

  19. Intimate Relationship Aggression in College Couples: Family-of-Origin Violence, Egalitarian Attitude, Attachment Security

    PubMed Central

    Karakurt, Günnur; Keiley, Margaret; Posada, German

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence among college aged couples has become a growing concern with increasing prevalence. The current study investigated the interplay among witnessing violence during childhood (both parental conflict and parent to child aggression), attachment insecurity, egalitarian attitude within the relationship, and dating aggression. Participants of this study included 87 couples. Results from the structural equation model indicated that the proposed model provided a good fit to the with a χ2 to df ratio of 1.84. In particular, both female and male participants who reported higher levels of attachment insecurity were more likely to be victim of dating aggression in their relationships. Furthermore, female participants who reported having witnessed parental conflict were more likely to be victimized by their partners. In conclusion, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of intimate relationship violence with dyadic data showing, for both genders, attachment insecurity is a crucial factor in both victimization and perpetration of aggression. PMID:24039343

  20. Mind-Mindedness in Adult and Adolescent Mothers: Relations to Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, Isabelle; Bernier, Annie; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the quality of maternal mind-mindedness among adult and adolescent mothers, using an assessment of the appropriateness and emotional valence of maternal mind-related comments while interacting with their infants. Twenty-nine adult mothers and 69 adolescent mothers participated in two assessments with their 18-month-old…

  1. School Connectedness, Peer Attachment, and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millings, Abigail; Buck, Rhiannon; Montgomery, Alan; Spears, Melissa; Stallard, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that school connectedness (SC) may be a key determinant of adolescent mental health. Specifically, SC has been found to have a negative relationship with adolescent depression. In the current, cross sectional study, we examine whether the relationship between SC and symptoms of low mood is dampened or moderated by…

  2. Adult attachment as a predictor of posttraumatic stress and dissociation.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, David A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether K. Bartholomew's (1990) self-report dimensions of adult attachment (secure, dismissing, preoccupied, and fearful) mediate or moderate links from victimization/abuse to posttraumatic stress and dissociation. Participants were 199 college women with and without a history of childhood physical abuse, childhood sexual victimization, and adolescent/adult sexual victimization. Path analysis revealed no significant mediation effects for attachment; however, hierarchical multiple linear regression indicated that dismissing attachment moderated the link between victimization/abuse and posttraumatic stress (i.e., the relationship was strongest for women with high dismissing scores). All 4 attachment dimensions uniquely predicted posttraumatic stress, whereas only fearful attachment uniquely predicted dissociation. PMID:20603764

  3. Internal Working Models of Caregiving and Security of Attachment at Age Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Carol; Solomon, Judith

    A study concerning the mother's mental representation of herself as a caregiver focused on: (1) a conceptual framework developed for the purpose of describing and explaining internal working models of caregiving; and (2) efforts to define caregivers' representations of content and process that seem to be associated with attachment insecurity.…

  4. Maternal Employment, Infant Child Care and Security of Attachment at Age 12 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, L. J.; Ungerer, J. A.

    This study examined the relationship between varying patterns of maternal employment, the use of child care, and the infant's establishment of a reciprocal, responsive relationship with the mother. Parental and non-parental caregivers were located within a family system to examine attachment theory within an ecological framework. The subjects were…

  5. Parent Alcohol Problems and Peer Bullying and Victimization: Child Gender and Toddler Attachment Security as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Colder, Craig R.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Edwards, Ellen P.; Orrange-Torchia, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between parents' alcoholism and peer bullying and victimization in middle childhood in 162 community-recruited families (80 girls and 82 boys) with and without alcohol problems. Toddler-mother attachment was assessed at 18 months of child age, and child reports of peer bullying and victimization were obtained in…

  6. Attachment and Affect Regulation in Depressed Mothers and Their Adolescent Daughters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homann, Erika

    This study assessed the associations of maternal attachment classification with mother and daughter depression and affect regulation, with the hypothesis that affect regulation might mediate between attachment and depression both within and between generations. Twenty-five dysthymic mothers, 25 non-depressed mothers, and their adolescent…

  7. Contributions of Attachment and Self-Concept on Internalizing and Externalizing Problems among Japanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishikawa, Saori; Hagglof, Bruno; Sundbom, Elisabet

    2010-01-01

    We examined the associations and likely pathways underlying the relationships between peer attachment style, self-concept, and Internalizing/Externalizing Problems among high school students in Japan. A total of 228 senior high school students (186 boys and 82 girls; mean age = 16.4) completed the Attachment Questionnaire for Children,…

  8. Suicidal Ideation in an Adolescent Clinical Sample: Attachment Patterns and Clinical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard, Jocelyne C.; Moretti, Marlene M.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between attachment patterns and suicidal ideation is investigated. Participants (N=116) were assessed on level of current ideation through self-report questionnaires. Lethality of methods contemplated was rated on a subset (N=16) by interview. Categorical analyses relate ideation to attachment styles. Lethality was correlated with…

  9. Anxious Attachment Style and Salivary Cortisol Dysregulation in Healthy Female Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attachment style has been linked with basal cortisol secretion in healthy adult women. We investigated whether dysregulation in basal cortisol secretion may be evident in younger healthy females. Methods: Sixty healthy females aged 9-18 years (mean 14.16, SD [plus or minus] 2.63 years) participated in the Attachment Style Interview…

  10. Unresolved Attachment Status and Trauma-Related Symptomatology in Maltreated Adolescents: An Examination of Cognitive Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert, David; Webster, Linda; Hackett, Rachelle Kisst

    2012-01-01

    Attachment Theory has received increasing interest as a framework allowing for a more refined understanding of the potential consequences of early relational trauma on psychological and social adjustment. Research has provided support for the role of disorganized attachment, both as a sequela of traumatic experiences and as a risk factor for…

  11. Attachment representation and emotion regulation in adolescents: a psychobiological perspective on internal working models.

    PubMed

    Spangler, G; Zimmermann, P

    1999-12-01

    Attachment theory claims that inner working models of attachment substantially control behavioral and emotional regulation. There are different levels of organization of the attachment system following a developmental sequence from basic attachment behaviors at newborn age to a procedural organization in terms of behavioral strategies at the end of the first year to a representational organization later on. Also, the organismic systems underlying emotions and emotional regulation may occur and may be described on different organizational levels. Inner working models are seen as regulatory mechanisms for the interplay between the different organismic systems underlying emotions and emotional regulation. This paper will concentrate on biobehavioral organization. Combining assumptions of attachment theory with assumptions about biobehavioral function may provide the possibility of validating theoretically derived interpretations of the attachment system. Including the physiological processes in addition to the psychological processes enables us to test assumptions about the function of the inner working model with respect to processes that are not accessible by verbal communication and that are not expressed through overt behavior. The paper will provide theoretical and empirical evidence for the contribution of the inner working model of attachment to emotional perception, emotional expression and the coherence of inter-modal organization. The empirical findings suggest that from a developmental perspective the inclusion of different levels of regulation may provide possibilities of studying continuity and stability of individual differences of the attachment system during the life-course both within and across levels. PMID:11708227

  12. Predictors of Level of Voice in Adolescent Girls: Ethnicity, Attachment, and Gender Role Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theran, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study empirically examined predictors of level of voice (ethnicity, attachment, and gender role socialization) in a diverse sample of 108 14-year-old girls. Structural equation modeling results indicated that parental attachment predicted level of voice with authority figures, and gender role socialization predicted level of voice with…

  13. The transmission of trauma in refugee families: associations between intra-family trauma communication style, children's attachment security and psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, Nina Thorup; Todd, Brenda Kathryn; Daniel, Sarah I F; Montgomery, Edith

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the transmission of trauma in 30 Middle Eastern refugee families in Denmark, where one or both parents were referred for treatment of PTSD symptoms and had non-traumatized children aged 4-9 years. The aim of the study was to explore potential risk and protective factors by examining the association between intra-family communication style regarding the parents' traumatic experiences from the past, children's psychosocial adjustment and attachment security. A negative impact of parental trauma on children might be indicated, as children's Total Difficulties Scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were significantly higher than the Danish norms. A negative association between children's attachment security as measured by the Attachment and Traumatization Story Task and higher scores on the SDQ Total Difficulties Scale approached significance, suggesting that the transmission of trauma may be associated with disruptions in children's attachment representations. Furthermore a significant association between parental trauma communication and children's attachment style was found. PMID:26608277

  14. The influence of school-based natural mentoring relationships on school attachment and subsequent adolescent risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Black, David S; Grenard, Jerry L; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise A

    2010-10-01

    A relatively new area of research suggests that naturally occurring mentoring relationships may influence the development of adolescents by protecting against risk behaviors. Few studies have explored how these relationships function to reduce risk behavior among youth, especially in the school context. Based on previous research and theory, we proposed and tested a mediation model, which hypothesized that school attachment mediated the longitudinal association between school-based natural mentoring relationships and risk behaviors, including eight indicators of substance use and violence. Students (N = 3320) from 65 high schools across eight states completed a self-report questionnaire at baseline and 1-year follow-up. The sample was comprised of youth with an average age of 14.8 years and an almost equal percentage of females (53%) and males from various ethnic backgrounds. Tests for mediation were conducted in Mplus using path analysis with full information maximum likelihood procedures and models adjusted for demographic covariates and baseline level of the dependent variable. Results suggested that natural mentoring relationships had a protective indirect influence on all eight risk behaviors through its positive association on the school attachment mediator. Implications are discussed for strengthening the association between school-based natural mentoring and school attachment to prevent risk behaviors among youth. PMID:20675354

  15. Negative Attachment Cognitions and Emotional Distress in mainland Chinese Adolescents: A Prospective Multi-Wave Test of Vulnerability-Stress and Stress Generation Models

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joseph R.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Gibb, Brandon E.; Hammen, Constance; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Ma, Denise; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiong Zhao; Abela, John R.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study examined the relation between attachment cognitions, stressors, and emotional distress in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Specifically, it was examined whether negative attachment cognitions predicted depression and anxiety symptoms, and if a vulnerability-stress or stress generation model best explained the relation between negative attachment cognitions and internalizing symptoms. Method Participants included 558 adolescents (310 females and 248 males) from an urban school in Changsha, and 592 adolescents (287 females and 305 males) from a rural school in Liuyang, both in Hunan province located in mainland China. Participants completed self-report measures of negative attachment cognitions at baseline, and self-report measures of negative events, depression symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at baseline and at regular one month intervals for an overall 6-month follow-up (i.e., six follow-up assessments). Results Higher levels of negative attachment cognitions predicted prospective depression and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, support was found for a stress generation model that partially mediated this longitudinal association. No support was found for a vulnerability-stress model. Conclusion Overall, these findings highlight new developmental pathways for development of depression and anxiety symptoms in mainland Chinese adolescents. PMID:23237030

  16. Negative attachment cognitions and emotional distress in mainland Chinese adolescents: a prospective multiwave test of vulnerability-stress and stress generation models.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joseph R; Hankin, Benjamin L; Gibb, Brandon E; Hammen, Constance; Hazel, Nicholas A; Ma, Denise; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiong Zhao; Abela, John R Z

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between attachment cognitions, stressors, and emotional distress in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Specifically, it was examined whether negative attachment cognitions predicted depression and anxiety symptoms, and if a vulnerability-stress or stress generation model best explained the relation between negative attachment cognitions and internalizing symptoms. Participants included 558 adolescents (310 females and 248 males) from an urban school in Changsha and 592 adolescents (287 female, 305 male) from a rural school in Liuyang, both in Hunan province located in mainland China. Participants completed self-report measures of negative attachment cognitions at baseline, and self-report measures of negative events, depression symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at baseline and at regular 1-month intervals for an overall 6-month follow-up (i.e., six follow-up assessments). Higher levels of negative attachment cognitions predicted prospective depression and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, support was found for a stress generation model that partially mediated this longitudinal association. No support was found for a vulnerability-stress model. Overall, these findings highlight new developmental pathways for development of depression and anxiety symptoms in mainland Chinese adolescents. PMID:23237030

  17. A longitudinal study of interpersonal relationships among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents and young adults: mediational pathways from attachment to romantic relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tyrel J; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-10-01

    The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:26108898

  18. Maternal Emotional Expressiveness and Attachment Security: Links to Representations of Relationships and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laible, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether the security of the relationship between mothers and children influenced the relation between maternal emotional expressiveness and aspects of children's social development. Fifty-one preschool children (M age = 52.80 months) and their mothers took part in the study. At their homes, mothers completed…

  19. The Interplay between Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children's Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's…

  20. Mother-Child Attachment and Preschool Behavior Problems in Children with Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMont, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Secure mother-child attachment has been found to be an important factor in the healthy emotional development of children and has been shown to have effects on child, adolescent, and adult behavior. Previous research has primarily focused on attachment in children who are typically developing. However, little research has been conducted in…

  1. An Attachment Parenting Intervention to Prevent Adolescents' Problem Behaviors: A Pilot Study in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ortega, Enrique; Stattin, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Background: In spite of the proven effectiveness of parenting based programs to prevent adolescent risk behaviors, such programs are rarely implemented in Mediterranean countries. Objective: This pilot study was aimed at assessing the feasibility and the effects of a parenting based universal prevention program (Connect) in Italy. Methods: Our…

  2. Indian Adolescents' Cyber Aggression Involvement and Cultural Values: The Moderation of Peer Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle F.; Kamble, Shanmukh V.; Soudi, Shruti P.

    2015-01-01

    Although research on cyberbullying and cyber aggression is growing, little attention has been given to examinations of these behaviors among adolescents in Asian countries, particularly in India. The present study examined the relationships among cyber aggression involvement and cultural values (i.e. individualism, collectivism), along with peer…

  3. Origins of Early Adolescents' Hope: Personality, Parental Attachment, and Stressful Life Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Kristin L.; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    Psychology has recently increased attention to identifying psychological qualities in individuals that indicate positive mental health, such as hope. In an effort to understand further the origins of hope, we examined the relations among parental attachment, stressful life events, personality variables, and hope in a sample of 647 middle school…

  4. Bullying and Victimization in Early Adolescence: Associations with Attachment Style and Perceived Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between self-reported bullying, victimization, attachment styles and parenting in a nonclinical sample of 601 Greek preadolescents. Results showed that both bullying and victimization were related to perceived parenting (positively with rejection and negatively with emotional warmth). Insecurely attached…

  5. Autism and Attachment: The Attachment Q-Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Anna H.; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.

    2007-01-01

    Children with autism are able to show secure attachment behaviours to their parents/caregivers. Most studies on attachment in children with autism used a (modified) Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to examine attachment security. An advantage of the Attachment Q-Sort (AQS) over the SSP is that it can be attuned to the secure-base behaviour of…

  6. Preliminary Evidence for Impaired Brain Activity of Neural Reward Processing in Children and Adolescents with Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, Akemi

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment, which markedly increases risks for psychopathology, is associated with structural and functional brain differences. Especially, exposure to parental verbal abuse (PVA) or interparental violence during childhood is associated with negative outcomes such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and reduced cognitive abilities. Other forms of childhood maltreatment have been associated with brain structure or developmental alteration. Our earlier studies elucidated potential discernible effects of PVA and witnessing domestic violence during childhood on brain morphology, including gray matter volume or cortical thickness. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse might be modified specifically by such experiences, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in the corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that sensory cortices are highly plastic structures. Using tasks with high and low monetary rewards while subjects underwent functional MRI, we also examined whether neural activity during reward processing was altered, or not, in children and adolescents with reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Significantly reduced activity in the caudate and nucleus accumbens was observed during a high monetary reward condition in the RAD group compared to the typically developed group. The striatal neural reward activity in the RAD group was also markedly decreased. The present results suggest that dopaminergic dysfunction occurred in the striatum in children and adolescents with RAD, potentially leading to a future risk of psychiatric disorders such as dependence. PMID:27150924

  7. Predictors of level of voice in adolescent girls: ethnicity, attachment, and gender role socialization.

    PubMed

    Theran, Sally A

    2009-09-01

    The current study empirically examined predictors of level of voice (ethnicity, attachment, and gender role socialization) in a diverse sample of 108 14-year-old girls. Structural equation modeling results indicated that parental attachment predicted level of voice with authority figures, and gender role socialization predicted level of voice with authority figures and peers. Both masculinity and femininity were salient for higher levels of voice with authority figures whereas higher scores on masculinity contributed to higher levels of voice with peers. These findings suggest that, contrary to previous theoretical work, femininity itself is not a risk factor for low levels of voice. In addition, African-American girls had higher levels of voice with teachers and classmates than did Caucasian girls, and girls who were in a school with a greater concentration of ethnic minorities had higher levels of voice with peers than did girls at a school with fewer minority students. PMID:19636768

  8. Do attachment representations predict depression and anxiety in psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Goodman, Geoff; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-six prepubertal inpatients were videotaped completing five stories thematically related to attachment experiences and classified by their attachment representations. Children also completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised. Mothers completed demographic questionnaires. Percentage of secure (B) attachment was only about one tenth of the normative percentage, anxious-ambivalent (C) attachment was between two and three times the normative percentage, and disorganized (D) attachment was almost twice the normative percentage. Both D attachment and the total number of disorganized story responses were associated with negative self-esteem and clinical-range depression. Anxious-avoidant (A) attachment decreased the likelihood, while C and D attachment increased the likelihood, of separation anxiety disorder. Clinical intervention needs to focus on the meaning of parental relationships represented in the child's mind, specifically the negative self-esteem and separation anxiety associated with the lack of felt security provided by the parents. PMID:22988901

  9. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  10. Adolescents' True-Self Behavior and Adjustment: The Role of Family Security and Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Limor; Berenshtein-Dagan, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Associations between security within the family, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, true-self behavior, and knowledge of true self, as well as levels of adjustment, were explored in a sample of early adolescents and midadolescents in Israel (N = 302, mean age = 14.19 years). Both security within the family and needs satisfaction were found…

  11. The roles of maternal mind-mindedness and infant security of attachment in predicting preschoolers' understanding of visual perspective taking and false belief.

    PubMed

    Laranjo, Jessica; Bernier, Annie; Meins, Elizabeth; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2014-09-01

    This study is a follow-up to a previous study that examined two aspects of mother-child relationships-mothers' mind-mindedness and infant attachment security-in relation to toddlers' early manifestations of theory of mind understanding at 2 years of age. The current study aimed to assess the same two aspects of mother-child relationships in relation to children's (N=59) theory of mind performance at 4 years of age. Results of the current study confirmed and expanded on relations observed at 2 years. Mothers' use of appropriate mind-related comments specifically during toy-based free play at 12 months of age predicted preschoolers' understanding of false belief and Level 2 visual perspective taking over and above earlier perspective-taking abilities. Furthermore, more securely attached boys, but not girls, performed better on a task requiring Level 2 visual perspective taking. The similarity of results across the two time points suggests the reliability of associations among mothers' use of mind-related comments during toy-based play, boys' attachment security, and children's subsequent social understanding. The current results also suggest that maternal mind-mindedness may be most relevant to children's social cognition when assessed in toy-based play contexts. PMID:24814206

  12. Dyslipidemia and Food Security in Low-Income US Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Leung, Cindy W.; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low levels of food security are associated with dyslipidemia and chronic disease in adults, particularly in women. There is a gap in knowledge about the relationship between food security among youth and dyslipidemia and chronic disease. We investigated the relationship between food security status and dyslipidemia among low-income adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years (N = 1,072) from households with incomes at or below 200% of the federal poverty level from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2010. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between household food security status and the odds of having abnormalities with fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TG/HDL-C ratio, and apolipoprotein B (Apo B). Models included age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, partnered status in the household, and maternal education, with additional adjustment for adiposity. Results Household food security status was not associated with elevated TC or LDL-C. Adolescents with marginal food security were more likely than food-secure peers to have elevated TGs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–3.05), TG/HDL-C ratio (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.11–2.82), and Apo B (OR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.17–3.36). Female adolescents with marginal food security had greater odds than male adolescents of having low HDL-C (OR = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.14–6.37). No elevated odds of dyslipidemia were found for adolescents with low or very low food security. Adjustment for adiposity did not attenuate estimates. Conclusion In this nationally representative sample, low-income adolescents living in households with marginal food security had increased odds of having a pattern consistent with atherogenic dyslipidemia, which represents a cardiometabolic burden above their risk from adiposity

  13. Multi-Risk Infants: Predicting Attachment Security from Sociodemographic, Psychosocial, and Health Risk among African-American Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. Methods: One hundred and twelve high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads…

  14. Relationships between Maternal Adult Attachment Security, Child Perceptions of Maternal Support, and Maternal Perceptions of Child Responses to Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Myra; Kilbane, Teresa; Skolnick, Linda I.

    2002-01-01

    Study assessed the relationships between maternal adult attachment style, children's perceptions of maternal support following disclosure of sexual abuse, and maternal perceptions of children's behavioral and emotional responses to sexual abuse. Findings indicate that fostering parent-child attachment is important in order to decrease the risk for…

  15. Separation and Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    Developing secure attachments with babies gives them a very special gift--the foundation for good infant mental health! In this article, the author discusses how to develop secure attachments with babies. Babies who are in the care of others during the day often suffer from separations from their special adults. Thirteen "tips" to ensure that…

  16. The Relationship Between Developmental Assets and Food Security In Adolescents From A Low-Income Community

    PubMed Central

    Shtasel-Gottlieb, Zoë; Palakshappa, Deepak; Yang, Fanyu; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore the association between developmental assets (characteristics, experiences, and relationships that shape healthy development) and food insecurity among adolescents from a low-income, urban community. Methods This mixed methods study occurred in two phases. In Phase 1, using a census approach, 2350 6-12th graders from the public school district completed an anonymous survey that included the Development Assets Profile (DAP), youth self-report form of the Core Food Security Module, and demographic questions. Logistic and multinomial regression analyses determined independent associations between developmental assets and food security adjusting for demographics. In Phase 2, 20 adult key informant interviews and four semi-structured student focus groups were performed to explain findings from Phase 1. Results On average, DAP scores were consistent with national norms. Food insecurity was prevalent; 14.9% reported low food security and 8.6% very low food security (VLFS). Logistic regression revealed that higher DAP was associated with lower odds of food insecurity (OR=.96, 95% CI=.95-.97); family assets drove this association(OR=.93, 95% CI=.91-.95). In multinomial regression modeling, these associations persisted and, paradoxically, higher community assets were also associated with VLFS (ORVLFS=1.08, 95% CI=1.04-1.13). Qualitative analyses suggested that greater need among VLFS youth led to increased connections to community resources despite barriers to access such as stigma, home instability, and cultural differences. Conclusion Food insecurity is a pervasive problem among adolescents from low-income communities and is associated with lower developmental assets, particularly family assets. That community assets were higher among VLFS youth underscores the importance of community-level resources in struggling areas. PMID:25620305

  17. Interpersonal factors associated with depression in adolescents: are these consistent with theories underpinning interpersonal psychotherapy?

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Gabrielle; Spence, Susan H; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressed adolescents differed from non-depressed adolescents in terms of constructs consistent with those that are proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy. In particular, it was hypothesized that compared with non-depressed adolescents, depressed adolescents would demonstrate a greater number of negative life events associated with interpersonal loss and major life transitions, a more insecure attachment style and poorer communication skills, interpersonal relationships and social support. Thirty-one clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents were matched with 31 non-depressed adolescents on age, gender and socio-economic status. The 62 participants were aged between 12 and 19 years and comprised 18 male and 44 female adolescents. On a self-report questionnaire, depressed adolescents reported a greater number of negative interpersonal life events, a less secure attachment style and scored higher on all insecure attachment styles compared with the non-depressed adolescents. In addition, depressed adolescents demonstrated lower levels of social skill (on both adolescent and parent report), a poorer quality of relationship with parents (on both adolescent and parent report) and lower social competence (adolescent report only). Parents of depressed adolescents also reported more negative parental attitudes and behaviours towards their adolescent compared with parents of non-depressed adolescents. Thus, the results of this study are consistent with the constructs underlying interpersonal psychotherapy and suggest their usefulness in the assessment, conceptualization and treatment of adolescent depression. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23801523

  18. Attachment Discontinuity in a High-Risk Sample

    PubMed Central

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated complex patterns of attachment discontinuity across time in 133 individuals from the Minnesota Study of Risk and Adaptation. In addition to individuals who were either insecure or secure across infancy, late adolescence, and adulthood (Stably Insecure and Stably Secure, respectively), we found three additional groups: Infant/Adolescent Secure, Infant/Adult Secure, and Infant-only Secure. Changes in attachment representations in these groups across time corresponded to stresses and supports in the socio-emotional context. The two groups classified as secure in adulthood (Stably Secure and Infant/Adult Secure) experienced more positive relationship-based outcomes than the other three groups. Our results (1) suggest that continuity may be a reflection of a stable social context as much as it is an artifact of early working models, and (2) illustrate “homeorhetic” pathways of development, in which not only the direction but the length of a developmental pathway can constrain future developmental trajectories. PMID:21718224

  19. Adolescents' Perception of the Psychological Security of School Environment, Emotional Development and Academic Performance in Secondary Schools in Gombe Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Meshak, Bibi; Sagir, Jummai Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine adolescents' perceptions of the psychological security of their schools environments and their relationship with their emotional development and academic performance in secondary schools in Gombe Metropolis. A sample of 239 (107 males and 133 females) secondary school students selected via stratified…

  20. How do I love thee? Let me count the ways: parenting during adolescence, attachment styles, and romantic narratives in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nosko, Amanda; Tieu, Thanh-Thanh; Lawford, Heather; Pratt, Michael W

    2011-05-01

    In this longitudinal study, a quantitative and qualitative examination of the associations among parent-child relations, adult attachment styles, and relationship quality and theme in romantic narratives was conducted. Parenting and adult attachment style were assessed through questionnaires, whereas overall quality of romantic relationships (regard and importance), intimacy, and romantic story theme were examined with a life story approach (McAdams, 1993). At ages 17 and 26 years, 100 participants completed a series of questionnaires and also, at age 26, told a story about a "relationship-defining moment" with a romantic partner. Parent-child relations when participants were 17 years old were related predictably to all three attachment styles. About 70% of the sample told romantic stories with a "true love" type of theme. Associations between parent-child relations when the child was 17 and this type of theme in the story told when the participant was 26 were mediated by a more secure (and a less avoidant) attachment style when the participant was 26, as predicted. The implications of these findings for links between attachment models and the life story are discussed. PMID:21219065

  1. An Examination of Three Models of the Relationships between Parental Attachments and Adolescents' Social Functioning and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yih-Lan

    2008-01-01

    Three models of attachment relationships--the hierarchy model, the integrative model and the independent model--were compared in order to elucidate which best described the relationship between attachments to fathers versus mothers and its developmental consequences among 1,289 eighth grade students in Taiwan. These consequences included…

  2. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…

  3. Pathways to Self-Esteem in Late Adolescence: The Role of Parent and Peer Attachment, Empathy, and Social Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laible, Deborah J.; Carlo, Gustavo; Roesch, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine both the direct and indirect relations of parent and peer attachment with self-esteem and to examine the potential mediating roles of empathy and social behaviour. 246 college students ("Mage" = 18.6 years, s.d. = 1.61) completed self-report measures of parent and peer attachment, empathy, social behaviour,…

  4. Keeping Kids on Track: Impacts of a Parenting-Focused Early Head Start Program on Attachment Security and Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggman, Lori A.; Boyce, Lisa K.; Cook, Gina A.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The home-based Early Head Start program in this local study aimed to promote children's early attachment and cognitive development by establishing supportive relationships with parents and guiding responsive parenting and positive parent-child play interactions. To test the effectiveness of this approach, we studied the…

  5. Infant Distress and Regulatory Behaviors Vary as a Function of Attachment Security Regardless of Emotion Context and Maternal Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Wong, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in infant distress and regulatory behaviors based on the quality of attachment to mother, emotion context (frustration versus fear), and whether or not mothers were actively involved in the emotion-eliciting tasks were examined in a sample of ninety-eight 16-month-old infants and their mothers. Dyads participated in the Strange…

  6. Understanding Cortisol Reactivity across the Day at Child Care: The Potential Buffering Role of Secure Attachments to Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badanes, Lisa S.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2012-01-01

    Full-day center-based child care has been repeatedly associated with rising cortisol across the child care day. This study addressed the potential buffering role of attachment to mothers and lead teachers in 110 preschoolers while at child care. Using multi-level modeling and controlling for a number of child, family, and child care factors,…

  7. Assessing Attachment Security at Age Three: Q-Sort Home Observations and the MacArthur Strange Situation Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada, German

    2006-01-01

    The construction of developmentally appropriate and valid assessments is central to the study of attachment relationships beyond infancy. A common procedure has been that of validating new measures for older children against strange situation classifications obtained in infancy. Although reasonable, a key criterion against which to validate new…

  8. The Role of Emotion in Parent-Child Relationships: Children's Emotionality, Maternal Meta-Emotion, and Children's Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fu Mei; Lin, Hsiao Shih; Li, Chun Hao

    2012-01-01

    This study was intended to examine the relationship among children's emotionality, parental meta-emotion, and parent-child attachment. The sample consisted of 546 5th and 6th grade children and their mothers. The test instruments used in this study were the Emotionality subscale of the EAS Temperament Survey (mothers' ratings only), the Parental…

  9. An Investigation of the Security of Caregiver Attachment during Middle Childhood in Children with High-Functioning Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Felicity; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has investigated caregiver attachment relationships in children with autism during early childhood, with few differences found from matched control groups. However, little is known of this relationship during middle childhood (ages 8-12 years). In this study, the aim was to establish whether there are differences in the security…

  10. Building a secure internal attachment: an intra-relational approach to ego strengthening and emotional processing with chronically traumatized clients.

    PubMed

    Lamagna, Jerry; Gleiser, Kari A

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce Intra-Relational AEDP (I-R) as an attachment-based experiential approach to trauma treatment. Integrating Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy (AEDP) (Fosha, 2000a,b, 2002, 2003) with ego-state methodology, intra-relational interventions specifically seeks to help clients by (1) fostering capacities for self-regulation through shared states of affective resonance between therapist, client, and dissociated self-states; (2) facilitating authentic, open internal dialogue between self-states which can alter engrained patterns of intra-psychic conflict and self-punishment; (3) developing abilities for self-reflection and emotional processing by co-mingling previously disowned affect and emotional memories with here and now experience; and (4) attending to positive affects evoked through experiences of transformation, self-compassion, and self-affirmation. Drawing from object relations and attachment theory, intra-relational interventions places particular emphasis on internal attachment relationships formed through interactions between the client's subjective selves (internal subjects) and reflective selves (internal objects). Through visual imagery, internal dialogue, and explicit relational techniques, intra-relational interventions aims to develop this subjective-reflective dyad's capacity for reciprocal attunement, resonance, and responsiveness. Such clinical strategies aim to foster healing and psychological integration between the client and heretofore disavowed aspects of self. PMID:17409053

  11. Comparative validity of the Adult Attachment Interview and the Adult Attachment Projective.

    PubMed

    Jones-Mason, Karen; Allen, I Elaine; Hamilton, Steve; Weiss, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and the Adult Attachment Projective (AAP) purport to measure the same attachment classifications. The aims of this study were to determine the concurrent validity of the AAI and AAP, and to compare their ability to predict indicators of risk associated with socioeconomic status (SES), depression, and 5-HTTLPR genotype. Results indicated no agreement between AAI and AAP attachment classifications in a sample of late adolescents. As predicted, individuals classified as "unresolved" with regard to loss or trauma were significantly more likely to be of lower SES, have higher levels of depression, and have the 5-HTTLPR "ss" genotype than individuals with secure, preoccupied, or dismissing attachments. These associations, however, were only significant when attachment was classified with the AAI. Results suggest that the AAI and AAP measure different facets of attachment as a result of their unique methodologies and coding criteria. Further research is needed to support their comparability before investigators can assume that the AAP is a valid substitute for the AAI. PMID:26362584

  12. The role of attachment in recovery after a school-shooting trauma

    PubMed Central

    Turunen, Tuija; Haravuori, Henna; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Suomalainen, Laura; Marttunen, Mauri

    2014-01-01

    Background Survivors of life-endangering trauma use varying resources that help them to recover. Attachment system activates in the times of distress, and is expected to associate with stress responses, arousal regulation, and mental health. Objective We examined the associations of attachment style with posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) symptoms and dissociative symptoms, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among students exposed to a school shooting in Finland in a three-wave follow-up setting. Method Participants were students (Mage=24.9 years; 95% female) who were followed 4 (T1, N=236), 16 (T2, N=180), and 28 months (T3, N=137) after the shooting. The assessments included the Attachment Style Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale, part of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Results Securely attached survivors had lower levels of posttraumatic stress and dissociative symptoms than preoccupied at T1 and T2 as hypothesized. At T3 survivors with avoidant attachment style had higher levels of intrusive and hyperarousal symptoms than those with secure style. Concerning PTG, survivors with avoidant attachment style scored lower in PTG at T3 than survivors with both secure and preoccupied style. Conclusion Secure attachment style was beneficial in trauma recovery. A challenge to the health care systems is to acknowledge that survivors with preoccupied and avoidant attachment styles react uniquely to trauma, and thus need help in different doses, modalities, and timings. PMID:25018861

  13. The Specificity of Autobiographical Memories in Early Adolescence: The Role of Mother-Child Communication and Attachment-Related Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosmans, Guy; Dujardin, Adinda; Raes, Filip; Braet, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Although autobiographical memory specificity is an important developmental feature fostering adaptation throughout life, little is known about factors related to interindividual differences in autobiographical memory specificity. The current study investigated associations with early adolescents' communication with mother about their…

  14. School Attachment among Taiwanese Adolescents: The Roles of Individual Characteristics, Peer Relationships, and Teacher Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of individual characteristics (school grade and gender), peer relationships (peer support and peer victimization), and the subjective well-being of teachers (depression and job satisfaction) on students' attachment to school. Twenty-four classes in grades 7 through 9 at two middle schools in Taipei were selected as…

  15. Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. Andrew; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current Relationship Interview (CRI). Two-way ANOVAs tested interactive associations of AAI and CRI security with infant attachment, early parenting quality, preschool ego resiliency, adolescent friendship quality, and adult romantic functioning. Both representations were associated with earlier parenting and core attachment-related romantic behavior, but romantic representations had distinctive links to ego resiliency and relationship-specific romantic behaviors. Attachment representations were independent and did not interactively predict romantic functioning, suggesting that they confer somewhat distinctive benefits for romantic functioning. PMID:22694197

  16. Effectiveness of an Attachment-Focused Manualized Intervention for Parents of Teens at Risk for Aggressive Behaviour: The Connect Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Marlene M.; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. "Connect" is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment:…

  17. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  18. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  19. Applying attachment theory to effective practice with hard-to-reach youth: the AMBIT approach.

    PubMed

    Bevington, Dickon; Fuggle, Peter; Fonagy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent Mentalization-Based Integrative Treatment (AMBIT) is a developing approach to working with "hard-to-reach" youth burdened with multiple co-occurring morbidities. This article reviews the core features of AMBIT, exploring applications of attachment theory to understand what makes young people "hard to reach," and provide routes toward increased security in their attachment to a worker. Using the theory of the pedagogical stance and epistemic ("pertaining to knowledge") trust, we show how it is the therapeutic worker's accurate mentalizing of the adolescent that creates conditions for new learning, including the establishment of alternative (more secure) internal working models of helping relationships. This justifies an individual keyworker model focused on maintaining a mentalizing stance toward the adolescent, but simultaneously emphasizing the critical need for such keyworkers to remain well connected to their wider team, avoiding activation of their own attachment behaviors. We consider the role of AMBIT in developing a shared team culture (shared experiences, shared language, shared meanings), toward creating systemic contexts supportive of such relationships. We describe how team training may enhance the team's ability to serve as a secure base for keyworkers, and describe an innovative approach to treatment manualization, using a wiki format as one way of supporting this process. PMID:25782529

  20. Interparental Conflict in Kindergarten and Adolescent Adjustment: Prospective Investigation of Emotional Security as an Explanatory Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; George, Melissa R. W.; McCoy, Kathleen P.; Davies, Patrick T.

    2012-01-01

    Advancing the long-term prospective study of explanations for the effects of marital conflict on children’s functioning, relations were examined between interparental conflict in kindergarten, children’s emotional insecurity in the early school years, and subsequent adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Based on a community sample of 235 mothers, fathers and children (M = 6.00, 8.02, 12.62 years), and multi-method and multi-reporter assessments, structural equation model (SEM) tests provided support for emotional insecurity in early childhood as an intervening process related to adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems, even with stringent auto-regressive controls over prior levels of functioning for both mediating and outcome variables. Discussion considers implications for understanding pathways between interparental conflict, emotional insecurity and adjustment in childhood and adolescence. PMID:22694264

  1. The Role of Attachment to Family, School, and Peers in Adolescents' Use of Alcohol: A Longitudinal Study of Within-Person and Between-Persons Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Kimberly L.; Oetting, Eugene R.; Slater, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    A great deal of time and money has been spent to understand why adolescents abuse alcohol. Some of the most fruitful work considers the social context navigated by adolescents, including family, school, and peer contexts. However, most of this work focuses on differences between adolescents in these contexts. The present study adds to the…

  2. Interparental Conflict in Kindergarten and Adolescent Adjustment: Prospective Investigation of Emotional Security as an Explanatory Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; George, Melissa R. W.; McCoy, Kathleen P.; Davies, Patrick T.

    2012-01-01

    Advancing the long-term prospective study of explanations for the effects of marital conflict on children's functioning, relations were examined between interparental conflict in kindergarten, children's emotional insecurity in the early school years, and subsequent adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Based on a community sample…

  3. Adolescent Online Cyberbullying in Greece: The Impact of Parental Online Security Practices, Bonding, and Online Impulsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floros, Georgios D.; Siomos, Konstantinos E.; Fisoun, Virginia; Dafouli, Evaggelia; Geroukalis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Background: The introduction of new technological media worldwide has had a number of unfortunate side effects for some adolescents, including cases of bullying others through the new media (cyberbullying) and over-involvement to the point of addiction. We examine the epidemiology of cyberbullying in a Greek setting, compare it with earlier data,…

  4. Health-protective effects of attachment among African American girls in psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R; Wilson, Helen W

    2012-02-01

    African American girls in psychiatric care are at increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) through sexual risk taking. Adolescent sexual behavior often reflects peer norms and behavior. Secure attachment patterns with mothers and peers might lessen the effects of negative peer influences and reduce sexual risk taking among African American girls. This study examined the relationships among mother-daughter and peer attachment, peer norms, and sexual-risk behaviors in African American girls seeking outpatient psychiatric care. A group of 12-16-year-old African American girls (N = 262; M age = 14.45 years) reported on their attachment to their mothers and peers, peer risk-taking and dating behaviors, peer pressure, and sexual-risk behaviors (e.g., number of partners, high-risk partners, and condom use). Structural equation modeling examined whether peer attachment and peer norms mediated the relationship between mother attachment and sexual risk. Findings supported peer norms, but not peer attachment, as a mediator of mother attachment and girls' sexual-risk behaviors. Findings revealed important family and peer factors for African American girls in psychiatric care. HIV prevention programs may be strengthened by improving mother-daughter relationships, addressing the importance of peer relationships, and emphasizing how secure mother-daughter relationships can temper the impact of peer norms. PMID:22182334

  5. Effects of Gene × Attachment Interaction on Adolescents’ Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Hostile Behavior Towards their Mothers during a Computer Game

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Peter; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased emotionality and major changes in emotion regulation often elicited in autonomy-relevant situations. Both genetic as well as social factors may lead to inter-individual differences in emotional processes in adolescence. We investigated whether both 5-HTTLPR and attachment security influence adolescents’ observed emotionality, emotional dysregulation, and their aggressive hostile autonomy while interacting with their mothers. Eighty-eight adolescents at age 12 were observed in interaction with their mothers during a standardized, emotion eliciting computer game task. They were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR, a repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Concurrent attachment quality was assessed by the Late Childhood Attachment Interview (LCAI). Results revealed a significant gene × attachment effect showing that ss/sl carriers of 5-HTTLPR show increased emotional dysregulation and aggressive hostile autonomy towards their mothers. The results of the study suggest that secure attachment in adolescence moderates the genetically based higher tendency for emotional dysregulation and aggressive reactions to restrictions of autonomy during emotional social interactions with their mothers. PMID:27378877

  6. Child-parent attachment and children's peer relations: a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B H; Atkinson, L; Tardif, C

    2001-01-01

    The central premise of attachment theory is that the security of the early child-parent bond is reflected in the child's interpersonal relationships across the life span. This meta-analysis was based on 63 studies that reported correlations between child-parent attachment and children's peer relations. The overall effect size (ES) for child-mother attachment was in the small-to-moderate range and was quite homogeneous. ESs were similar in studies that featured the Strange Situation and Q-sort methods. The effects were larger for peer relations in middle childhood and adolescence than for peer relations in early childhood. ESs were also higher for studies that focused on children's close friendships rather than on relations with other peers. Gender and cultural differences in ESs were minimal. The results for the few studies on father-child attachment were inconclusive. PMID:11206436

  7. Attachment Disorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Judith, Ed.; George, Carol, Ed.

    Disorganized attachment relationships were first formally identified on the basis of the anomalous behavior of some infants during laboratory separations and reunions with the parent. This book presents new research and theory on the topic of attachment disorganization, an area of investigation that is of increasing importance in the study of…

  8. Attachment and early maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Egeland, B; Sroufe, L A

    1981-03-01

    Attachment outcomes of 31 maltreatment cases (extreme neglect or abuse) selected from a total poverty sample of 267 high-risk mothers were compared at 12 and 18 months to a subsample of 33 cases with a history of excellent care. In accordance with the Bowlby-Ainsworth hypothesis, the maltreatment group was characterized by a low proportion of secure attachment (Ainsworth's group B) at 12 months (38% compared to 75% in the excellent care group and 55% in the remaining total sample); however, differences at 18 months were not significant. Specifically, 50% of the cases with a history of neglect were in Ainsworth's group C (anxious/resistant attachment) at 12 months, compared to usual reports of approximately 10% and compared to 21% in the total poverty sample. Patterns of attachment between 12 and 18 months remained stable for the mother-infant pairs in the excellent care group, however, 52% of the mistreated infants changed classifications. For the neglect subgroup there was considerable movement toward Ainsworth's group A (anxious/avoidant attachment) at 18 months and some movement toward group B. An examination of the case histories of mother-infant pairs indicated that changes in attachment between 12 and 18 months were related to changing life events, support from family, and out-of-home care. These findings are highly tentative as were the findings which suggested that secure attachment within the maltreatment group was associated with the presence of a supportive family member, less chaotic life-style, and, in some instances, a more robust infant. PMID:7238152

  9. Maternal and Paternal Parenting during Adolescence: Forecasting Early Adult Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of maternal and paternal parenting behavior during adolescence to four domains of early adult functioning. Higher levels of maternal firm control were associated with more secure early adult romantic attachment and lower levels of educational achievement. There were no main effects for fathers, but paternal parenting…

  10. The Conditional Effect of Parental Drug Use on Parental Attachment and Adolescent Drug Use: Social Control and Social Development Model Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapela, Laurie A.; Mosher, Clayton

    2007-01-01

    The effect of parental deviance on adolescent deviance has been a source of considerable debate in the criminological literature. Classic theoretical explanations of the relationships between parental and adolescent deviance posit additive effects of parental deviance on youth behavior. Proponents of the Social Development Model have hypothesized…

  11. Spindly attachments

    PubMed Central

    Çivril, Filiz; Musacchio, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules during mitosis is a delicate and intricate process on which eukaryotic cells critically depend to maintain their ploidy. In this issue of Genes & Development, Gassmann and colleagues (pp. 2385–2399 present an analysis of the recently discovered Spindly/SPDL-1 protein that casts new lights onto the attachment process and the way it relates to the control of cell cycle progression. PMID:18765786

  12. Superego: an attachment perspective.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Jeremy

    2011-10-01

    With the help of attachment theory and research, the paper attempts to broaden and build on classical and current views on the superego. Attachment theory's epigenetic approach and the concept of the subliminal superego are described. The superego, it is argued, is as much concerned with safety as sex. The superego is 'heir', not just to the Oedipus complex or Klein's pre-oedipal constellation, but also to the attachment relationship. Under favourable developmental conditions a 'mature superego' emerges, facilitating, in the presence of an internal secure base, maturational boundary crossings towards adult sexuality. In the light of the above, the paper reviews Lear's updating of Strachey's model of psychic change and explores the concept of transgression in relation to the 'professional superego', its development and maturation. Theoretical arguments are illustrated with clinical examples. PMID:22014367

  13. Attachment, Temperament, and Preschool Children's Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szewczyk-Sokolowski, Margaret; Bost, Kelly K.; Wainwright, Ada B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations between preschool children's attachment security, temperament, and peer acceptance. Ninety-eight preschool children and their mothers were recruited through childcare centers in the southeast. Mothers and their children participated in two two-hour home observations. Attachment security was assessed using the…

  14. Genetic and Environmental Influence on Attachment Disorganization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Gottfried; Johann, Monika; Ronai, Zsolt; Zimmermann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background: Empirical studies demonstrate that maternal sensitivity is associated with attachment security in infancy, while maternal frightening/frightened behavior is related to attachment disorganization. However, attachment disorganization is also predicted by individual dispositions in infancy. Indeed, recent studies indicate a link between…

  15. How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways: Parenting during Adolescence, Attachment Styles, and Romantic Narratives in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosko, Amanda; Tieu, Thanh-Thanh; Lawford, Heather; Pratt, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, a quantitative and qualitative examination of the associations among parent-child relations, adult attachment styles, and relationship quality and theme in romantic narratives was conducted. Parenting and adult attachment style were assessed through questionnaires, whereas overall quality of romantic relationships…

  16. Attachment dismissal predicts frontal slow-wave ERPs during rejection by unfamiliar peers.

    PubMed

    White, Lars O; Wu, Jia; Borelli, Jessica L; Rutherford, Helena J V; David, Daryn H; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    Attachment representations are thought to provide a cognitive-affective template, guiding the way individuals interact with unfamiliar social partners. To examine the neural correlates of this process, we sampled event-related potentials (ERPs) during exclusion by unfamiliar peers to differentiate insecure-dismissing from securely attached youth, as indexed by the child attachment interview. Thirteen secure and 10 dismissing 11- to 15-year-olds were ostensibly connected with two peers via the Internet to play a computerized ball-toss game. Actually, peers were computer generated, first distributing the ball evenly, but eventually excluding participants. Afterward children rated their distress. As in previous studies, distress was related to a negative left frontal slow wave (500-900 ms) during rejection, a waveform implicated in negative appraisals and less approach motivation. Though attachment classifications were comparable in frontal ERPs and distress, an attachment-related dismissal dimension predicted a negative left frontal slow wave during rejection, suggesting that high dismissal potentially involves elevated anticipation of rejection. As expected, dismissal and self-reported distress were uncorrelated. Yet, a new approach to quantifying the dissociation between self-reports and rejection-related ERPs revealed that dismissal predicted underreporting of distress relative to ERPs. Our findings imply that evaluations and regulatory strategies linked to attachment generalize to distressing social contexts in early adolescence. PMID:22251047

  17. Attachment at work and performance.

    PubMed

    Neustadt, Elizabeth A; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relations between self-reported attachment orientation at work and personality, self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence (aka emotional self-efficacy), and independently assessed career potential and job performance. Self-report data were collected from 211 managers in an international business in the hospitality industry; independent assessments of these managers' job performance and career potential were separately obtained from the organization. A self-report measure of romantic attachment was adapted for application in the work context; a two-factor solution was found for this measure. Secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work was positively related to self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and also to job performance. Not only was secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work statistically predictive of job performance, but the new measure also made a distinct contribution, beyond conscientiousness, to this prediction. PMID:21838647

  18. Parenting and Preschooler Attachment among Low-Income Urban African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Douglas; Kidwell, Shari L.; Leung, Kwan Ho

    1998-01-01

    Examined parental correlates of child attachment in preschool-aged, economically disadvantaged, urban, African-American sample. Found that 61% were securely attached, with girls more likely to be securely attached than boys. Parents of securely attached children were rated as more warm and accepting, less controlling, and less likely to use…

  19. Association of Home Visitors' and Mothers' Attachment Style with Family Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Elizabeth; Burrell, Lori; Fuddy, Loretta; Tandon, Darius; Derauf, D. Christian; Leaf, Philip; Duggan, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Family engagement in home visiting (HV) is challenging. This study related attachment security of home visitors (n=48) and mothers (n=328) to family engagement in an HV program to prevent child maltreatment. Attachment security was assessed by using the Attachment Style Questionnaire to measure attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Family…

  20. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    PubMed

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  1. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  16. Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Alcoholism in One versus Two Parents and the Implications for Child Attachment and Self-Regulation in Infancy through Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study's purpose was to determine whether the influence of combined parental disorders can cause greater frequency in the occurrence of insecure child attachment and dysfunctions in self-regulation as opposed to the influence of one parent having a disorder. The research design is a quantitative meta-analysis that combined effects from 10 studies to establish differences in the frequency of occurrence for insecure child attachment and dysfunctions in self-regulation through an examination of Cohen's d. Global analysis of Cohen's effect (d) indicated that children being reared by two disordered parents had higher frequency in occurrence of insecure attachment and self-regulation dysfunction than those children reared by only one disordered parent. By addressing the issues surrounding the child population where both parents are disordered, children would have a better chance at healthy development by way of interventions that minimize the occurrence of child psychopathology and foster improvements in the social and overall human condition. PMID:27347512

  17. Life after the pan and the fire: Depression, order, attachment, and the legacy of abuse among North Korean refugee youth and adolescent children of North Korean refugees.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Lee, Jung Yun; Kang, Chulhee

    2015-07-01

    Given previous research on depression, history of physical abuse, family order, attachment, and parenting, we hypothesized that the physical abuse-depression relationship would be moderated by (a) family order and (b) attachment, and that (c) attachment and family order would interact significantly in predicting depression. Hypotheses were tested in South Korea in a random cluster sample of 82 youth aged 15-25 who were either themselves North Korean refugees (n=39) or who were born to North Korean refugee mothers in China (n=43). A qualitative interview was used to shed further light on the findings. Family order appears to be a protective factor against depression in that more order is associated with a weakened past abuse-depression relationship. PMID:25712047

  18. Romantic Relationships in Intra-Ethnic and Inter-Ethnic Adolescent Couples in Germany: The Role of Attachment to Parents, Self-Esteem, and Conflict Resolution Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2010-01-01

    We investigated romantic relationships in a sample of 380 adolescents who formed 190 heterosexual couples (mean age: females 17 years; males 18 years): 173 intra-ethnic (German) couples and 17 inter-ethnic couples. Factor analyses revealed two types of love experiences: (a) experiences of attraction and a passionate focus on the partner…

  19. Being Lonely, Falling in Love: Perspectives from Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Phillip

    Love and loneliness hold special interest at a time when divorce and geographical mobility pull so many people apart. Attachment theory offers a useful integrative framework to study adolescent and adult love and loneliness. Attachment theory has three propositions: (1) when an individual is confident an attachment figure will be available when he…

  20. Preschool Teacher Attachment, School Readiness and Risk of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commodari, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Attachment is the emotional bond between children and their caregivers (parents or otherwise). Infants and young children usually have more than one selective attachment, and all of these attachment relationships, including those between children and teachers, have important effects on cognitive and social development. Secure attachment to a…

  1. Attachment from infancy to early adulthood in a high-risk sample: continuity, discontinuity, and their correlates.

    PubMed

    Weinfield, N S; Sroufe, L A; Egeland, B

    2000-01-01

    This study explores the stability of attachment security and representations from infancy to early adulthood in a sample chosen originally for poverty and high risk for poor developmental outcomes. Participants for this study were 57 young adults who are part of an ongoing prospective study of development and adaptation in a high-risk sample. Attachment was assessed during infancy by using the Ainsworth Strange Situation (Ainsworth & Wittig) and at age 19 by using the Berkeley Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main). Possible correlates of continuity and discontinuity in attachment were drawn from assessments of the participants and their mothers over the course of the study. Results provided no evidence for significant continuity between infant and adult attachment in this sample, with many participants transitioning to insecurity. The evidence, however, indicated that there might be lawful discontinuity. Analyses of correlates of continuity and discontinuity in attachment classification from infancy to adulthood indicated that the continuous and discontinuous groups were differentiated on the basis of child maltreatment, maternal depression, and family functioning in early adolescence. These results provide evidence that although attachment has been found to be stable over time in other samples, attachment representations are vulnerable to difficult and chaotic life experiences. PMID:10953936

  2. Loneliness and depression in middle and late childhood: the relationship to attachment and parental styles.

    PubMed

    Richaud de Minzi, María Cristina

    2006-06-01

    In this study, the author analyzed the relationship between (a) parenting and attachment and (b) self-competence, loneliness, and depression in children aged 8-12 years. The author administered (a) the Argentine Scale of Perception of the Relationships with Parents (M. C. Richaud de Minzi, 2004), (b) the Kerns' Security Scale (K. A. Kerns, L. Klepac, & A. K. Cole, 1996; M. C. Richaud de Minzi, C. Sacchi, & J. E. Moreno, 2001, Argentine adaptation), (c) the Self-Perception Profile for Children (S. Harter, 1985; M. C. Richaud de Minzi et al.), (d) the Dimensions of Depression Profile for Children and Adolescents (S. Harter & M. Nowakowski, 1987), and (e) the Louvain Loneliness Scale for Children and Adolescents (A. Marcoen, L. Goossens, & P. Caes, 1987; M. C. Richaud de Minzi et al.) to 1,019 children (8-12 years of age, 483 boys, 536 girls). Results indicated that attachment and parent-child relationship styles were differentiated constructs. Parents' acceptance promoted secure attachment and positive outcomes in children. Moreover, fathers' lack of interest had a marked negative effect. The author found differences in the perceptions and influences of fathers and mothers, which follow the cultural patterns of gender attribution. PMID:16910210

  3. Inter-Relationships among Attachment to Mother and Father, Self-Esteem, and Career Indecision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmanuelle, Vignoli

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating role of adolescents' global self-esteem, based on the relationship between adolescents' mother or father attachment and their career indecision; as well as the mediating role of adolescents' career indecision on the relationship between mother or father attachment and self-esteem. Two hundred and forty-one…

  4. Attachment in adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Emma L; Target, Mary; Charman, Tony

    2008-06-01

    This study assessed attachment security in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders, using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996). Of 20 participants, three were classified as securely attached, the same proportion as would be expected in a general clinical sample. Participants' AAIs were less coherent and lower in reflective function than those of controls, who were matched for attachment status and mood disorder. A parallel interview suggested that some aspects of participants' responses were influenced by their general discourse style, while other AAI scale scores appeared to reflect their state of mind with respect to attachment more specifically. There was little evidence that attachment security was related to IQ, autistic symptomatology or theory of mind. This study suggests that adults with autism can engage with the AAI and produce scoreable narratives of their attachment experiences, and a minority demonstrate secure attachment. PMID:18773316

  5. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    PubMed

    Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy; Mueller, Sven C; De Raedt, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years) completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information. PMID:25061662

  6. Attachment in Chronically Underweight Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Marta

    1990-01-01

    Assessed mother-infant attachment in a low-income population in Chile. Underweight children and children with adequate weight were classified as secure or anxious by means of the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Underweight children showed more anxious attachment, and anxious children showed the most serious weight deficits. (BC)

  7. Attachment in romantic relationships and somatization.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Eva; Sattel, Heribert; Gündel, Harald; Henningsen, Peter; Kruse, Johannes

    2015-02-01

    Adult attachment representations have been considered to play a role in the development and treatment of somatizing behavior. In this study, the associations between the two attachment dimensions avoidance and anxiety and dimensions of psychopathology (somatization, depression, and general anxiety) were explored. The sample consists of 202 outpatients diagnosed with a somatoform disorder. Data were collected via self-report measures. A path analysis shows that the two attachment dimensions are not directly associated with somatization. There are, however, significant indirect associations between attachment and somatization mediated by depression and general anxiety, which are more pronounced for attachment anxiety than for attachment avoidance. The findings reveal that a low level of attachment security in romantic relationships, especially an anxious stance toward the partner, comes along with poor mental health, which in turn is related to a preoccupation with somatic complaints. Implications for the treatment of somatizing patients are discussed. PMID:25594785

  8. Play it again: neural responses to reunion with excluders predicted by attachment patterns.

    PubMed

    White, Lars O; Wu, Jia; Borelli, Jessica L; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Reunion behavior following stressful separations from caregivers is often considered the single most sensitive clue to infant attachment patterns. Extending these ideas to middle childhood/early adolescence, we examined participants' neural responses to reunion with peers who had previously excluded them. We recorded event-related potentials among nineteen 11- to 15-year-old youth previously classified on attachment interviews (11 secure and 8 insecure-dismissing) while they played a virtual ball-toss game (Cyberball) with peers that involved fair play, exclusion and reunion phases. Compared to secure participants, dismissing participants displayed a greater increment in the N2 during reunion relative to fair play, a neural marker commonly linked to expectancy violation. These data suggest a greater tendency toward continued expectations of rejection among dismissing children, even after cessation of social exclusion. In turn, the link between self-reported ostracism distress and neural signs of negative expectancy at reunion was moderated by attachment, such that self-reports were discordant with the neural index of expectancy violation for dismissing, but not for secure children. PMID:24118712

  9. Attachment, parenting styles and bullying during pubertal years.

    PubMed

    van der Watt, Ronél

    2014-01-01

    Research that focuses on combining attachment, parenting styles, bullying and the reciprocal nature thereof in the parent-adolescent and peer relationships is limited. The bio-psychosocial changes that adolescents experience open up broader social realities and are perceived differently by parents and adolescents. Attachment processes and parenting styles may elicit dissimilar perceptions. These processes are also associated with the multifaceted dynamics of bullying. The aim of the article is to advocate for research on the possible link between the implications of attachment, parenting styles and bullying. Exploring the association between attachment, parenting styles and bullying can deepen the understanding of the developmental challenges within the parent-adolescent relationship, add insight to the different perceptions of adolescents and parents, and complement intervention programmes accordingly. Firstly, this article outlines bio-psychosocial changes in the pubertal years as related to the social realities of the adolescent. Secondly, a discussion on the concepts 'attachment', 'parenting styles', 'bullying', and the potential link between these concepts will follow. Thirdly, an outline of the clinical implications of the apparent association between these concepts is given. The article concludes with recommendations that researchers can consider while exploring the relationship between attachment, parenting styles, and bullying and the delineation thereof in the parent-adolescent relationship. PMID:25533411

  10. A Longitudinal Examination of Links between Mother-Child Attachment and Children's Friendships in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Kathryn A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined associations between attachment quality and children's friendships at 4 and 5 years of age as a follow-up of the sample used in an earlier study by Park and Waters (1989) of secure-secure and secure-insecure friend pairs. Found that the pattern of relations between friendship and attachment changed over time, but attachment pairing…

  11. Relation of attachment style with marital conflict.

    PubMed

    Besharat, Mohammad Ali

    2003-06-01

    During the last decade attachment theory has been used as a framework for understanding how adult relationships function. Attachment theory should focus exploration of whether attachment history might be related to later marital conflicts. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationship of attachment styles with marital conflicts. Subjects were 20 couples who entered couples therapy for their marital conflict and a sample of 20 university student couples. All answered the Adult Attachment Inventory and the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Marital State. The university couples described themselves as more securely attached to their partners than the married couples. The Anxious and Avoidant styles were associated with greater problems in the marital relationship. Secure, Anxious, and Avoidant attachment styles seemed to be associated with the quality of marital relationships. Couples who exhibited a Secure attachment style tended to be involved in relationships characterized by greater interdependence, trust, commitment, and satisfaction whereas those with insecure styles tended to be characterized by more problems. PMID:12931932

  12. Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Adolescent and Child Psychiatry. Facts for families, No. 85: Reactive attachment disorder. 2011. Available at http://www.aacap.org/App_Themes/AACAP/docs/facts_for_families/85_reactive_ ...

  13. Are There Really Patterns of Attachment? Comment on Fraley and Spieker (2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Everett; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on three questions related to attachment theory: whether it requires distinct patterns of attachment, how taxonomic analysis contributes to understanding individual differences in attachment security, and whether attachment theorists are asking the right questions. Asserts that attachment theory is indifferent to the structure of…

  14. 48 CFR 2052.204-70 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2052.204-70 Security. As prescribed...: Security (OCT 1999) (a) Security/Classification Requirements Form. The attached NRC Form 187 (See List of Attachments) furnishes the basis for providing security and classification requirements to prime...

  15. Partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kilmann, Peter R; Finch, Holmes; Parnell, Michele M; Downer, Jason T

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics in 134 nonclinical couples in long-term marriages. Irrespective of gender, spouses with greater anxiety over abandonment or discomfort with closeness endorsed dysfunctional relationship beliefs to a greater extent. On the anxiety over abandonment dimension, husbands with higher scores were rated less aggressive, less controlling, and more rebellious, whereas wives with higher scores were rated more dependent, more self-critical, and less competitive. Husbands higher on discomfort with closeness were rated less cooperative and responsible and were rated more aggressive and rebellious. Matched secure couples reported lower marital dissatisfaction than matched insecure or mismatched couples. Future research should contrast samples of nonclinical and clinical couples by marital duration to identify specific partner behaviors that are likely to foster marital dissatisfaction within particular attachment pairings. The authors' findings suggest the importance of marital therapists being attuned to the attachment-related beliefs and interpersonal styles uniquely operating within each couple. PMID:23252639

  16. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  1. Device and process for attachment of parts to rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagla, Jon J.; Lowry, Robert W.; Mears, Otho L.

    1992-04-01

    An attachment platform positioned longitudinally on a rocket motor chamber and secured with laser welding techniques is described. Each attachment platform is continuously sealed longitudinally to the rocket motor chamber through the application of laser welding and optical seam tracking. Application of laser welding techniques allows for repair and installation of attachment platforms on rocket motors fully loaded with live propellant.

  2. Early Attachment Relationships and the Early Childhood Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortazar, Alejandra; Herreros, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between attachment theory and the early childhood curriculum. During the first years of life children develop early attachment relationships with their primary caregivers. These attachment relationships, either secure or insecure, will shape children's socio-emotional development. In the USA, the predominant…

  3. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  4. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches. PMID:27056466

  5. Attachment, Trauma, and Healing: Understanding and Treating Attachment Disorder in Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Terry M.; Orlans, Michael

    Attachment is the deep and enduring connection established between a child and caregiver in the first few years of life. It profoundly influences every component of the human condition: mind, body, emotions, relationships, and values. Children lacking secure attachments with caregivers experience many difficulties in life and may grow up to be…

  6. Attachment-Based Family Therapy: "Adherence" and Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Gary M.; Diamond, Guy S.; Hogue, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the fidelity of attachment-based family therapy (ABFT) for depressed adolescents. Trained observers used the therapist behavior rating scale (3rd version) to code therapist behaviors in 45 sessions of ABFT and 45 sessions each from two empirically based treatments for adolescent substance abusers: multidimensional family…

  7. Parenting and preschooler attachment among low-income urban African American families.

    PubMed

    Barnett, D; Kidwell, S L; Leung, K H

    1998-12-01

    This study examined the parental correlates of child attachment in a preschool-aged, economically disadvantaged, urban, African American sample. Sixty-nine 4- to 5-year-olds and their primary caregivers participated in the Strange Situation assessment procedure. Based on Cassidy and Marvin's classification system for preschoolers, 61% of the children were classified as securely attached, with girls being significantly more likely to be securely attached than boys (74% versus 45%). The majority of the insecure attachments were of the avoidant variety. Consistent with attachment theory, parents of securely attached children were rated as significantly more warm and accepting and less controlling with their children than were parents of insecurely attached preschoolers. Relative to parents of securely attached preschoolers, parents of children judged to be insecurely attached reported being more likely to use corporal punishment and less likely to use verbal reminders when their children misbehaved. Parenting was associated with attachment over and above the effects of child sex. PMID:9914645

  8. Peer Attachment: A Meta-Analytic Review of Gender and Age Differences and Associations with Parent Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorrese, Anna; Ruggieri, Ruggero

    2012-01-01

    In adolescence, peers represent key actors within individual social network. Given the relevance of peer connections and the growing literature examining them, the purpose of this article was to review, through a meta-analytic approach, studies on adolescent and youth peer relationships within the theoretical framework of attachment. First, we…

  9. Effects of parental relations and upbringing in troubled adolescent eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bäck, Emma A

    2011-01-01

    Family relations may constitute a risk for developing eating problems. Not enough is known about parent-child relationship quality and upbringing in food situations. Self-report data from 80 high school students (45 males) showed that females had more eating problems than males, and their problems were related both to insecure mother attachment, controlling for body/weight dissatisfaction, and to more memories of childhood food rules. Secure mother attachment was related to decreased eating problems, via increasing body/weight satisfaction. Especially the mother- daughter relationship seems to affect adolescent girls' eating habits and can either protect against or enhance the risk for eating problems. PMID:21932971

  10. Separation anxiety in parents of adolescents: theoretical significance and scale development.

    PubMed

    Hock, E; Eberly, M; Bartle-Haring, S; Ellwanger, P; Widaman, K F

    2001-01-01

    Parents of adolescents commonly face separation-related issues associated with children's increasing independence and imminent leave-taking. The aims of this investigation were (1) to develop a reliable and valid measure of parental emotions associated with separation and (2) to validate the measure by relating it to other attributes (attachment relationship quality, parent-child communication, and parent-adolescent differentiation) assessed in mothers, fathers, and their adolescents. The newly constructed, 35-item Parents of Adolescents Separation Anxiety Scale (PASAS) was administered to 686 parents of teenagers in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 or college-bound freshmen and seniors. Factor analyses supported formation of two subscales: Anxiety about Adolescent Distancing (AAD) and Comfort with Secure Base Role (CSBR); both subscales showed distinctive patterns of change with child age. Parents' reports indicated that healthy adult attachment styles were associated with lower AAD and higher CSBR scores; children of parents who had higher AAD scores reported lower quality of attachment to both mothers and fathers. PMID:11280485

  11. Understanding and promoting attachment.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Samantha L

    2009-08-01

    Interest in early relationships has led to increased use of terms such as attachment disorder, attachment problems, and attachment therapy when describing behavioral/emotional regulation in young children. Unfortunately, such terms are vague and lead to clinical confusion and diagnostic inaccuracies. This article will introduce attachment theory, with a discussion of reactive attachment disorder and implications for treatment of children who have problems with social-emotional development. PMID:19681518

  12. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Hayat, Matthew J.; Gross, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers’ attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95% CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95% CI [.96-.99], p = .03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad. PMID:23737011

  13. Attachment device for an inflatable protective cushion

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Luna, Daniel A.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    An inflatable cushion assembly for use with an inflator comprises an inflatable cushion having an inner surface, outer surface, and at least one protrusion extending from one of the inner or outer surfaces. The inflatable cushion defines an opening between the inner surface and the outer surface for receiving the inflator. An attachment member contacts the one of the inner or outer surfaces adjacent the opening and includes a groove for receiving the protrusion, the attachment member securing the inflator within the opening.

  14. Relational Security Moderates the Effect of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on Stress Generation and Depression among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa R.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that carriers of the short allele of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show both greater susceptibility to depression in response to stressful life events and higher rates of generation of stressful events in response to depression. The current study examines relational security (i.e., self-reported beliefs…

  15. Young Adults' Attachment: Does Maternal Employment Make a Difference? Attachments Correlates of Maternal Employment after Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingo, Meera; Keppley, Sharon; Chambliss, Catherine

    As growing numbers of mothers enter the workforce, understanding the effects of maternal employment on children and adolescents has become increasingly important. The effects of maternal employment after infancy on adult attachment, and how these effects vary as a function of children's personality style are examined in this paper. It was…

  16. Nuclear reactor fuel rod attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-09-17

    A reusable system is described for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. A locking cap is secured to the fuel rod and a locking strip is fastened to the support member. The locking cap has two opposing fingers shaped to form a socket having a body portion. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion. The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip causing the extension to temporarily deflect open the fingers to engage the socket's body portion. For removal, the process is reversed.

  17. Preschoolers' Attachment to Mother and Risk for Adjustment Problems in Kindergarten: Can Teachers Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyse, Evelien; Verschueren, Karine; Doumen, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Based on attachment theory, two aims were addressed. Firstly, we tested whether close teacher-child relationships may buffer children who are less securely attached to their mothers against negative outcomes, such as aggressive behavior. Secondly, our study evaluated whether teacher sensitivity may protect less securely attached children against…

  18. Preschool teacher attachment and attention skills.

    PubMed

    Commodari, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Attention underlies and energizes all cognitive and behavioral activities. Many studies showed that the quality of child attachment (both to parental and non parental figures) influences cognitive functions and attention. This study aimed to investigate the relationships among attachment to preschool teachers and attention in a sample of preschoolers. In particular, the study analyzed whether child attachment security to preschool teachers influences the different aspects of their attention skills. In addition, gender- and age-related differences in attention and teacher attachment were explored. Research was conducted using two standardized instruments: the Attention and Concentration Battery, and the Attachment Q Sort. Participants were 279 children (147 male, 132 female) who attended two preschools in a town in Southern Italy. Descriptive analyses, t-tests analyses, and correlation and regression analyses were carried out. Findings highlighted several interesting points concerning the relationships that occur among attachment to preschool teachers and attention. Children with secure attachments presented higher reaction time and better auditory, visual, and visual spatial selectivity and maintenance. PMID:24386619

  19. Measuring Infant-Mother Attachment: Is the Strange Situation Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Goossens, Frits A.; Allhusen, Virginia D.

    2001-01-01

    Examined validity of the California Attachment Procedure (CAP), which does not involve mother-child separations. Overall, toddlers were more likely to be classified as secure in the CAP than in the Strange Situation (SS) test. The CAP yielded higher rates of security, particularly for children in day care, and security in the CAP correlated more…

  20. Belt attachment and system

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  1. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  2. The Relation between Insecure Attachment and Child Anxiety: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colonnesi, Cristina; Draijer, Evalijn M.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Van der Bruggen, Corine O.; Bogels, Susan M.; Noom, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory suggests that children's attachment insecurity plays a key role in the development of anxiety. In the present study we evaluated the empirical evidence for the link between insecure attachment and anxiety from early childhood to adolescence. A meta-analysis of 46 studies, from 1984 to 2010, including 8,907 children, was…

  3. Attachment Representations in 6-Year-Old Children from One and Two Parent Families in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Konig, Lilith

    2007-01-01

    Viewed from the perspective of attachment theory, coping with the separation and divorce of parents requires that children reorganize their mental model of attachment. Secure attachment models may be disrupted, while insecure attachment models may be strengthened. According to findings from research on divorce, this process of family…

  4. Adult Attachment Styles: Relations with Emotional Well-Being, Marriage, and Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volling, Brenda L.; Notaro, Paul C.; Larsen, Joelle J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the pairings of adult attachment styles among married couples raising young children. There was no relation between adult attachment styles, parenting behavior, and the security of infant/parent attachments. Future work would benefit by focusing on the dyadic constellations of adult attachment styles and their implications for family…

  5. Split ring containment attachment device

    DOEpatents

    Sammel, Alfred G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device 10 for operatively connecting a glovebag 200 to plastic sheeting 100 covering hazardous material. The device 10 includes an inner split ring member 20 connected on one end 22 to a middle ring member 30 wherein the free end 21 of the split ring member 20 is inserted through a slit 101 in the plastic sheeting 100 to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting 100. A collar potion 41 having an outer ring portion 42 is provided with fastening means 51 for securing the device 10 together wherein the glovebag 200 is operatively connected to the collar portion 41.

  6. Breast cancer screening: the role of attachment.

    PubMed

    Tuck, Natalie L; Consedine, Nathan S

    2015-01-01

    Attachment style is the dispositional way in which a person relates to others, and differences in attachment characteristics may offer insight into why many women do not adhere to breast screening guidelines. While mammograms involve contact with medical professionals, breast self-examination (BSE) does not, and may be preferable for women who dislike interpersonal vulnerability. As such, differences in the attachment characteristics that predict mammography versus BSE utilisation may indicate whether attachment related motivations are relevant to both interpersonal examinations and independent self-care behaviours. The current report examined how attachment dimensions predicted the frequency of mammography and BSE in a sample of 1204 ethnically diverse women from Brooklyn, New York. Participants completed measures of mammography and BSE frequency, and attachment, together with demographic, health care context and emotional predictors of screening. Multiple regressions showed that attachment dimensions predicted both mammography and BSE screening even when controlling for established predictors and emotion relevant variables. As hypothesised, fearful avoidance predicted fewer mammograms and BSEs, while preoccupation predicted more frequent BSEs. Consistent with some prior work in male cancer screening, greater attachment security also predicted fewer mammograms while degree of dismissiveness was not associated with screening frequencies. Understanding the psychosocial predictors of screening may help identify low screeners, and guide the development of targeted interventions that are better suited to the interpersonal preferences of older women. PMID:25192017

  7. The Effect of Attachment on Adolescent Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    Violence among American youth is a significant societal problem. The past decade witnessed juvenile arrests for violence, weapons, drugs, and curfew violations peak in the mid 90's. Analogous to the arrest trends for older juveniles, the arrest rate for young offenders rose 63% from 1987 until 1994 when it declined slightly. Since that time,…

  8. Neurobiology of infant attachment.

    PubMed

    Moriceau, Stephanie; Sullivan, Regina M

    2005-11-01

    A strong attachment to the caregiver is critical for survival in altricial species, including humans. While some behavioral aspects of attachment have been characterized, its neurobiology has only recently received attention. Using a mammalian imprinting model, we are assessing the neural circuitry that enables infant rats to attach quickly to a caregiver, thus enhancing survival in the nest. Specifically, the hyper-functioning noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) enables pups to learn rapid, robust preference for the caregiver. Conversely, a hypo-functional amygdala appears to prevent the infant from learning aversions to the caregiver. Adult LC and amygdala functional emergence correlates with sensitive period termination. This study suggests the neonatal brain is not an immature version of the adult brain but is uniquely designed to optimize attachment to the caregiver. Although human attachment may not rely on identical circuitry, the work reviewed here suggests a new conceptual framework in which to explore human attachments, particularly attachments to abusive caregivers. PMID:16252291

  9. American Academy of Pediatrics: The continued importance of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) for children and adolescents with disabilities.

    PubMed

    2001-04-01

    In 1996, as part of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation (Welfare Reform) Act, Congress redefined the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) definition of disability for children and removed the individual functional assessment (IFA) step from the disability determination process. As a result, an estimated 100 000 SSI child beneficiaries have lost or will lose their SSI benefits. The publicity associated with this Congressionally mandated change might also have reduced the number of families applying for SSI benefits on behalf of their children because of a widely held belief that the eligibility criteria for disability benefits are now so restrictive that almost no children are determined to be eligible. The purpose of this statement is to provide updated information about the SSI Program's disability and financial eligibility criteria and disability determination process. This statement also discusses how pediatricians can help to ensure that all eligible children receive the SSI monies and associated benefits to which they are entitled. PMID:11335762

  10. Reactive Attachment Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adolescent from Harper Collins Related Facts for Families School Refusal Foster Care Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises Anxiety and Children Adopted Children ...

  11. Attachment and Temperament Revisited: Infant Distress, Attachment Disorganization, and the Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Brumariu, Laura E.; Bureau, Jean-François; Nemoda, Zsofia; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study's aim was to evaluate whether infant disorganized attachment and infant proneness to distress exhibited differential relations to infant genetic factors as indexed by the serotonin transporter polymorphism. Background The role of the short allele of the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in enhancing sensitivity to fearful and negative affect has been well-established (Canli & Lesch, 2007). In the current study, we used this known property of the short allele to provide a test of an important postulate of attachment theory, namely that infant attachment security or disorganization is not a function of the infant's proneness to distress. Methods Participants were 39 parents and infants assessed between 12 and 18 months in the Strange Situation procedure. Genotype categories for the 5-HTTLPR (and rs25531) were created by both the original and the reclassified grouping system; infant proneness to distress was assessed directly in the Strange Situation Procedure. We also assessed maternal behavior at 18 months to evaluate whether any observed genetic effect indicated a passive effect through the mother. Results Consistent with previous findings, the 5-HTTLPR short allele was significantly related to the infant's wariness and distress, but was not related to attachment security or attachment disorganization. In addition, maternal disrupted interaction with the infant was not related to infant genotype or infant distress. Conclusion Results support the concept that infant proneness to distress is associated with serotonergic factors while infant attachment security or disorganization is not a function of either 5-HTTLPR or behaviorally rated proneness to distress. PMID:26912941

  12. Attachment in integrative neuroscientific perspective.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Radovan; Hasto, Jozef; Minarik, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory is a very influential general concept of human social and emotional development, which emphasizes the role of early mother-infant interactions for infant's adaptive behavioural and stress copying strategies, personality organization and mental health. Individuals with disrupted development of secure attachment to mother/primary caregiver are at higher risk of developing mental disorders. This theory consists of the complex developmental psycho-neurobiological model of attachment and emerges from principles of psychoanalysis, evolutionary biology, cognitive-developmental psychology, ethology, physiology and control systems theory. The progress of modern neuroscience enables interpretation of neurobiological aspects of the theory as multi-level neural interactions and functional development of important neural structures, effects of neuromediattors, hormones and essential neurobiological processes including emotional, cognitive, social interactions and the special key role of mentalizing. It has multiple neurobiological, neuroendocrine, neurophysiological, ethological, genetic, developmental, psychological, psychotherapeutic and neuropsychiatric consequences and is a prototype of complex neuroscientific concept as interpretation of modern integrated neuroscience. PMID:21552202

  13. Interpersonal predictors of early therapeutic alliance in a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral treatment for adolescents with anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Levin, Laura; Henderson, Heather A; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2012-06-01

    The importance of therapeutic alliance in predicting treatment success is well established, but less is known about client characteristics that predict alliance. This study examined alliance predictors in adolescents with anxiety and/or depressive disorders (n=31) who received a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral treatment, the Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Youth (Ehrenreich, Buzzella, Trosper, Bennett, & Barlow, 2008) in the context of a larger randomized controlled trial. Alliance was assessed at session three by therapists, clients, and independent observers. Results indicated that alliance ratings across the three informant perspectives were significantly associated with one another, but that pretreatment interpersonal variables (e.g., social support, attachment security, and social functioning in current family and peer relationships) were differentially associated with varying informant perspectives. Adolescent and observer ratings of alliance were both predicted by adolescent self-reports on measures reflecting how they perceive their interpersonal relationships. In addition, adolescent-reported symptom severity at pretreatment predicted observer ratings of alliance such that adolescents who indicated greater anxiety and depressive symptoms were rated as having stronger early alliances by independent observers. Therapists perceived having weaker early alliances with adolescents evidencing clinically significant depression at intake as compared with adolescents diagnosed with anxiety disorders alone. Future research is needed to examine whether identification of relevant interpersonal factors at intake can help improve initial therapeutic engagement and resulting outcomes for the psychosocial treatment of adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders. PMID:22642525

  14. Family and Individual Predictors of Late Adolescents' Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese-Weber, Marla; Marchand, Jennifer F.

    2002-01-01

    Studied parent-adolescent conflict and late adolescents' attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms as predictors of late adolescents' romantic relationships. Findings based on questionnaire responses of 256 college students highlight the differential roles of familial and individual attributes in female and male adolescents' romantic relationship…

  15. Adolescent Sexual Activity: An Ecological, Risk-Factor Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Stephen A.; Luster, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationship between adolescent sexual intercourse and history of physical abuse, neighborhood monitoring, and adolescent's attachment to school. Findings from 2,108 adolescents suggest that there are many significant risk factors related to whether adolescents are sexually experienced and that importance of some factors vary by gender.…

  16. Blade attachment assembly

    DOEpatents

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  17. College Students' Ended Love Relationships: Attachment Style and Emotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, Carole M.

    1995-01-01

    Probed attachment-related differences in emotional responses to ended romantic relationships. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that securely attached students recalled a more positive emotional experience after a relationship concluded, whereas persons with fearful and preoccupied styles reported a more negative experience overall.…

  18. Autism and Attachment: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Anna H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2004-01-01

    Method: Sixteen studies on attachment in children with autism were reviewed, and ten studies with data on observed attachment security (N = 287) were included in a quantitative meta-analysis. Results: Despite the impairments of children with autism in reciprocal social interaction, the majority of the studies found evidence for attachment…

  19. Attachment, Autonomy, and Emotional Reliance: A Multilevel Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a test of a multilevel model investigating how attachment security and autonomy contribute to emotional reliance, or the willingness to seek interpersonal support. Participants ("N" = 247) completed online measures of attachment, autonomy, emotional reliance, and vitality with respect to several everyday…

  20. Children's Family Drawings: A Study of Attachment, Personality, and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Limor; Scharf, Miri

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between children's attachment security, as manifested in their family drawings, and their personality and adjustment. Family drawings were collected from 222 Israeli children, as well as data regarding their personality and adjustment. Each drawing was coded and classified into 1 of 4 attachment categories…

  1. Coping, Attachment, and Mother-Child Narratives of Stressful Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fivush, Robyn; Sales, Jessica McDermott

    2006-01-01

    Based on attachment theory and recent findings with adults on relations between narrative coherence and well-being, we hypothesized that mothers who are more securely attached and who cope more effectively would be more engaged and more emotionally expressive in mother-child co-constructed narratives about stressful events. Twenty-seven mostly…

  2. Environmental and genetic influences on early attachment

    PubMed Central

    Gervai, Judit

    2009-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts and subsequent empirical research has amply demonstrated that individual variations in patterns of early attachment behaviour are primarily influenced by differences in sensitive responsiveness of caregivers. However, meta-analyses have shown that parenting behaviour accounts for about one third of the variance in attachment security or disorganisation. The exclusively environmental explanation has been challenged by results demonstrating some, albeit inconclusive, evidence of the effect of infant temperament. In this paper, after reviewing briefly the well-demonstrated familial and wider environmental influences, the evidence is reviewed for genetic and gene-environment interaction effects on developing early attachment relationships. Studies investigating the interaction of genes of monoamine neurotransmission with parenting environment in the course of early relationship development suggest that children's differential susceptibility to the rearing environment depends partly on genetic differences. In addition to the overview of environmental and genetic contributions to infant attachment, and especially to disorganised attachment relevant to mental health issues, the few existing studies of gene-attachment interaction effects on development of childhood behavioural problems are also reviewed. A short account of the most important methodological problems to be overcome in molecular genetic studies of psychological and psychiatric phenotypes is also given. Finally, animal research focusing on brain-structural aspects related to early care and the new, conceptually important direction of studying environmental programming of early development through epigenetic modification of gene functioning is examined in brief. PMID:19732441

  3. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  4. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  5. Attachment and Early Maltreatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L. Alan

    1981-01-01

    Attachment outcomes of 31 maltreatment cases (involving extreme neglect or abuse), selected from a total poverty sample of 267 high-risk mothers and their children, were compared to those of a subsample of 33 cases with a history of excellent care. Attachment was assessed when infants were 12 and 18 months old. (Author/MP)

  6. Your love lifts me higher! The energizing quality of secure relationships.

    PubMed

    Luke, Michelle Anne; Sedikides, Constantine; Carnelley, Kathy

    2012-06-01

    Three studies tested and confirmed the hypothesis that secure attachment relationships lead to feelings of security and energy, as well as willingness to explore. In Study 1, priming a secure attachment relationship increased felt security and energy. In Studies 2 and 3, felt energy mediated the effect of (primed) secure attachment relationships on willingness to explore. In Study 3, the effect of (primed) secure attachment relationships on felt energy and willingness to explore was independent of general positive affect. Secure attachments energize partners, thus enabling exploration. PMID:22378830

  7. Attachment device for an inflatable protective cushion

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Luna, D.A.; Gwinn, K.W.

    1997-11-18

    An inflatable cushion assembly for use with an inflator comprises an inflatable cushion having an inner surface, outer surface, and at least one protrusion extending from one of the inner or outer surfaces. The inflatable cushion defines an opening between the inner surface and the outer surface for receiving the inflator. An attachment member contacts the one of the inner or outer surfaces adjacent the opening and includes a groove for receiving the protrusion, the attachment member securing the inflator within the opening. 22 figs.

  8. Attachment and group psychotherapy: introduction to a special section.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A

    2014-03-01

    The application of attachment theory to adult psychotherapy represents a growing area of research and practice. Despite the conceptual overlap between group therapeutic factors, attachment theory, and therapeutic tasks as outlined by Bowlby (1988), there is little research on attachment functioning in group therapy. Hence, there remain substantial questions about the role of attachment theory in understanding group therapy processes and outcomes. The three studies in this special section advance the research in some of these important areas, including showing that positive changes in self-reported attachment insecurity among clients persist long after group therapy ends; attachment anxiety affects the level and rate of interpersonal learning in groups; and change in attachment to the therapy group has an impact on longer term change in individual group members' attachment. Each article also examines the impact of these attachment concepts on treatment outcomes. Numerous areas remain to be explored when it comes to the implications of attachment theory for understanding and conducting group therapy, including the conceptual and practical overlap between attachment concepts such as security and exploration with group therapeutic factors such as cohesion and interpersonal learning. The articles in this special section begin to address some of these issues related to attachment theory and its implications for group therapists. PMID:24377399

  9. Unraveling the "new morbidity": adolescent parenting and developmental delays.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, J G; Whitman, T L; Passino, A W; Rellinger, E A; Sommer, K; Keogh, D

    1992-01-01

    Baumeister's concept of the "new morbidity" pertains to the linkages between poverty, adolescent mothers, and a series of developmental delays in their children. Outlined are three possible causes of the mild mental retardation and learning disabilities that are found disproportionately among the offspring of adolescents. First, there may be a direct genetic transmission of mild mental retardation. Second, adolescent mothers are likely to have a lack of support from a social network, be unprepared cognitively and emotionally to assume responsibility for child rearing, and to look to an infant to meet their own needs. Third, the interaction of genetic and environmental deficits leads to a parenting style that deprives the child of stimulation that could potentially overcome these deficits. A secure mother-infant attachment relationship provides the foundation for the development of social, emotional, attentional, and self-regulatory processes. When this attachment relationship is insecure, as a result of the mother's unreadiness to parent, the child cannot proceed to exploration of the environment--a critical component of cognitive development. If the infant has a difficult temperament, the risk of physical and emotional abuse increases, further compromising the child's future development. By 3 years of age, many of these children are showing declines in mental functioning, delays in receptive language skills, and poor motor and social skills. Research is urged to identify events in this chain that can be targeted for early intervention. PMID:12319317

  10. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95 % CI [.96-.99], p = 0.03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad. PMID:23737011

  11. Attachment and cancer: a conceptual integration.

    PubMed

    Tacón, Anna M

    2002-12-01

    Cancer traditionally has been explained by the biomedical model; however, it is limited in comprehensively accounting for all factors in this disease. Recently, it has been suggested that a broader theoretical framework that includes psychosocial components in cancer is needed to complement the traditional approach. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to explore the utility of attachment theory as a biopsychosocial model of both development and health. Attachment, a developmental theory, explains how repeated interactions between caregiver and child in the early years establish lifelong psychosocial, physiological, affective, and cognitive patterns as well as enduring patterns of stress response to threat or illness. Despite attachment theory's biopsychosocial foundation, the application of attachment security as a factor in physical health and psychosomatic medicine is relatively recent. The current work reviews attachment theory and psychosocial literature with regard to cancer and follows with a novel attempt to conceptually integrate both bodies of literature. A concluding integrative model of attachment theory and the type C behavior pattern is provided to illustrate potential links and integrative processes that may lead to disease resilience or vulnerability. PMID:14664730

  12. High Prevalence of Insecure Attachment in Patients with Primary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Balint, Elisabeth M; Gander, Manuela; Pokorny, Dan; Funk, Alexandra; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is predicted by heightened CV reactivity to stress in healthy individuals. Patients with hypertension also show an altered stress response, while insecure attachment is linked to a heightened stress reactivity as well. This is the first study aiming to assess attachment representations in patients with primary hypertension and to investigate their CV responses when their attachment system is activated. We studied 50 patients (38 men, 12 women) with primary hypertension. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a widely used and validated interview, was performed to measure the patients' attachment representations, and to activate their attachment system. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured after 10 min at rest prior to and directly after the AAP interview. Mood and state anxiety were assessed using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (MDBF) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S) before and after the experiment. The prevalence of insecure attachment (dismissing, preoccupied, unresolved) in hypertensive patients was predominant (88%), while in non-clinical populations, only about 50% of individuals had insecure attachment patterns. Blood pressure (p < 0.001), heart rate (p = 0.016), and rate pressure product (p < 0.001) significantly increased in response to the attachment interview. Secure attached patients showed the highest rise in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.020) and the lowest heart rate compared to the other attachment groups (p = 0.043). However, attachment representation showed no significant group or interaction effects on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and rate pressure product. Insecure attachment was highly over-represented in our sample of patients with primary hypertension. Additionally, a robust CV response to the attachment-activating stimulus was observed. Our data suggest that insecure attachment is significantly linked to primary hypertension

  13. High Prevalence of Insecure Attachment in Patients with Primary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Balint, Elisabeth M.; Gander, Manuela; Pokorny, Dan; Funk, Alexandra; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is predicted by heightened CV reactivity to stress in healthy individuals. Patients with hypertension also show an altered stress response, while insecure attachment is linked to a heightened stress reactivity as well. This is the first study aiming to assess attachment representations in patients with primary hypertension and to investigate their CV responses when their attachment system is activated. We studied 50 patients (38 men, 12 women) with primary hypertension. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a widely used and validated interview, was performed to measure the patients' attachment representations, and to activate their attachment system. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured after 10 min at rest prior to and directly after the AAP interview. Mood and state anxiety were assessed using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (MDBF) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S) before and after the experiment. The prevalence of insecure attachment (dismissing, preoccupied, unresolved) in hypertensive patients was predominant (88%), while in non-clinical populations, only about 50% of individuals had insecure attachment patterns. Blood pressure (p < 0.001), heart rate (p = 0.016), and rate pressure product (p < 0.001) significantly increased in response to the attachment interview. Secure attached patients showed the highest rise in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.020) and the lowest heart rate compared to the other attachment groups (p = 0.043). However, attachment representation showed no significant group or interaction effects on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and rate pressure product. Insecure attachment was highly over-represented in our sample of patients with primary hypertension. Additionally, a robust CV response to the attachment-activating stimulus was observed. Our data suggest that insecure attachment is significantly linked to primary hypertension

  14. Childhood Attachment and Abuse: Long-Term Effects on Adult Attachment, Depression, and Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Thomas; Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaire responses by 879 college students found respondents who indicated they had been abused as children reported less secure relationships, more depression, and greater use of destructive behaviors than their nonabused counterparts. Abuse history was substantially stronger than parental attachment in predicting conflict…

  15. Attachment and Health-Related Physiological Stress Processes

    PubMed Central

    Pietromonaco, Paula R.; Powers, Sally I.

    2015-01-01

    People who are more securely attached to close partners show health benefits, but the mechanisms underlying this link are not well specified. We focus on physiological pathways that are potential mediators of the connection between attachment in childhood and adulthood and health and disease outcomes. Growing evidence indicates that attachment insecurity (vs. security) is associated with distinctive physiological responses to stress, including responses involving the HPA, SAM and immune systems, but these responses vary with type of stressor (e.g., social/nonsocial) and contextual factors (e.g., partner’s attachment style). Taking this more nuanced perspective will be important for understanding the conditions under which attachment shapes health-related physiological processes as well as downstream health and disease consequences. PMID:25729755

  16. Infant-mother attachment among the Dogon of Mali.

    PubMed

    True, M M; Pisani, L; Oumar, F

    2001-01-01

    This study of mothers and infants from the Dogon ethnic group of Mali, West Africa examined three attachment hypotheses: (1) that infant attachment security is linked to the quality of mother-infant communication, (2) that mothers of secure infants respond more sensitively to their infants than do mothers of insecure infants, and (3) that infant disorganization is linked to maternal frightened or frightening behaviors. Participants were 27 mother-infant pairs from a rural town and 15 mother-infant pairs from two agrarian villages; infants ranged in age from 10 to 12.5 months at the first assessment. The distribution of the Strange Situation classifications was 67% secure, 0% avoidant, 8% resistant, and 25% disorganized. Infant attachment security was significantly related to the quality of mother-infant communication as observed in a well-infant exam. The correlation between infant attachment security ratings and maternal sensitivity (assessed in the home) was modest and approached significance. Mothers of disorganized infants had significantly higher ratings of frightened or frightening behaviors. Maternal sensitivity predicted little of the variance in infant security; however, the addition of the frightened/frightening variable in the regression equation tripled the explained variance. The findings are discussed in light of Dogon childrearing practices and key tenets of attachment theory. PMID:11699681

  17. The Quality of Maternal Secure-Base Scripts Predicts Children's Secure-Base Behavior at Home in Three Sociocultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Brian E.; Coppola, Gabrielle; Verissimo, Manuela; Monteiro, Ligia; Santos, Antonio Jose; Posada, German; Carbonell, Olga A.; Plata, Sandra J.; Waters, Harriet S.; Bost, Kelly K.; McBride, Brent; Shin, Nana; Korth, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    The secure-base phenomenon is central to the Bowlby/Ainsworth theory of attachment and is also central to the assessment of attachment across the lifespan. The present study tested whether mothers' knowledge about the secure-base phenomenon, as assessed using a recently designed wordlist prompt measure for eliciting attachment-relevant stories,…

  18. The generalization of attachment representations to new social situations: predicting behavior during initial interactions with strangers.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Brooke C; Cassidy, Jude; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima

    2008-12-01

    The idea that attachment representations are generalized to new social situations and guide behavior with unfamiliar others is central to attachment theory. However, research regarding this important theoretical postulate has been lacking in adolescence and adulthood, as most research has focused on establishing the influence of attachment representations on close relationship dynamics. Thus, the goal of this investigation was to examine the extent to which attachment representations are predictive of adolescents' initial behavior when meeting and interacting with new peers. High school adolescents (N=135) participated with unfamiliar peers from another school in 2 social support interactions that were videotaped and coded by independent observers. Results indicated that attachment representations (assessed through interview and self-report measures) were predictive of behaviors exhibited during the discussions. Theoretical implications of the results and contributions to the existing literature are discussed. PMID:19025297

  19. The Relationship Between Attachment Styles and Lifestyle With Marital Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Korosh; Samavi, Abdolvahab; Ghazavi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Marital satisfaction is one of the deepest and the most basic human pleasures and should be established within the family environment; if not, couples might suffer emotionally. Several factors are involved, including attachment and lifestyle. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between styles of attachment and lifestyle with marital satisfaction. Materials and Methods The population in this study included all of the Bandar Abbas oil refining (BAOR) company employees, for a total of 292 people (146 couples). They were selected by multistage random sampling. The enrich marital satisfaction scale was used to measure marital satisfaction, the Collins and read’s revised adult attachment scale (RAAS) for adult attachment to determine attachment style, and the life style questionnaire (LSQ) for lifestyle. This research was a descriptive-correlative one, and for the data analysis, we used Pearson’s correlation factor and multivariable regression. Results The results indicate that attachment style and lifestyle factors can predict marital satisfaction. There was also a meaningful negative relationship between insecure attachment avoidant and insecure attachment anxious-ambivalent styles and marital satisfaction. However, there was no meaningful relationship between secure attachment style and marital satisfaction. Conclusions The results showed that the early relationship within the family environment supports a certain attachment style and the effects of the avoidant insecure and ambivalent insecure styles affect the interpersonal relations of the couples in adulthood. The effect of attachment styles on interpersonal relations is far greater than that of lifestyle. PMID:27433349

  20. Micromechanical die attachment surcharge

    DOEpatents

    Filter, William F.; Hohimer, John P.

    2002-01-01

    An attachment structure is disclosed for attaching a die to a supporting substrate without the use of adhesives or solder. The attachment structure, which can be formed by micromachining, functions purely mechanically in utilizing a plurality of shaped pillars (e.g. round, square or polygonal and solid, hollow or slotted) that are formed on one of the die or supporting substrate and which can be urged into contact with various types of mating structures including other pillars, a deformable layer or a plurality of receptacles that are formed on the other of the die or supporting substrate, thereby forming a friction bond that holds the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure can further include an alignment structure for precise positioning of the die and supporting substrate to facilitate mounting the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure has applications for mounting semiconductor die containing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device, a microsensor or an integrated circuit (IC), and can be used to form a multichip module. The attachment structure is particularly useful for mounting die containing released MEM devices since these devices are fragile and can otherwise be damaged or degraded by adhesive or solder mounting.