Science.gov

Sample records for adolescent baseball pitcher

  1. A Biomechanical Comparison of Pitching From a Mound Versus Flat Ground in Adolescent Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Carl W.; Solomito, Matthew; Garibay, Erin; Õunpuu, Sylvia; Westwell, Melany

    2013-01-01

    Background: Baseball professionals believe that pitching from a mound can increase the stresses placed on the body. Hypothesis: There is no difference in kinematics or kinetics in pitching from a mound versus flat-ground conditions in adolescent baseball pitchers. Study Design: Laboratory investigation. Methods: The fastball pitching motions of 15 adolescent baseball pitchers, including upper extremity kinematics and kinetics and lead- and trail-leg kinematics, were evaluated while pitching from the mound and flat ground. Student t tests were used to determine the differences between the 2 testing conditions. Results: Maximum external glenohumeral rotation was similar between the 2 conditions (134° ± 14° mound vs 133° ± 14° flat ground, P = 0.10). Ankle plantar flexion of the lead leg at ball release was greater in the flat-ground condition (−20° ± 10° mound vs −15° ± 12° flat ground, P = 0.01). A statistically significant increase in glenohumeral internal rotation moment (33.6 ± 12.1 Nm mound vs 31.7 ± 11.6 Nm flat ground, P = 0.01) and an increase in elbow varus moment (33.3 ± 12.3 Nm mound vs 31.4 ± 11.8 Nm flat ground, P = 0.02) was measured when pitching from the mound as compared with flat ground. Conclusion: Pitching from the mound causes increased stress on the shoulder and elbow of adolescent pitchers as compared with that from flat ground. Clinical Relevance: The differences in kinematics as well as increased moments in the shoulder and elbow are helpful for pitchers and their coaches to know at the beginning of their season or as they return from injury or surgery. Pitchers in these situations should start their pitching progression on flat ground and progress to the mound. PMID:24427428

  2. Shoulder proprioception in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Safran, M R; Borsa, P A; Lephart, S M; Fu, F H; Warner, J J

    2001-01-01

    We examined proprioceptive differences between the dominant and nondominant shoulders of 21 collegiate baseball pitchers without a history of shoulder instability or surgery. A proprioceptive testing device was used to measure kinesthesia and joint position sense. Joint position sense was significantly (P =.05) more accurate in the nondominant shoulder than in the dominant shoulder when starting at 75% of maximal external rotation and moving into internal rotation. There were no significant differences for proprioception in the other measured positions or with kinesthesia testing. Six pitchers with recent shoulder pain had a significant (P =.04) kinesthetic deficit in the symptomatic dominant shoulder compared with the asymptomatic shoulder, as measured in neutral rotation moving into internal rotation. The net effect of training, exercise-induced laxity, and increased external rotation in baseball pitchers does not affect proprioception, although shoulder pain, possibly due to rotator cuff inflammation or tendinitis, is associated with reduced kinesthetic sensation. PMID:11641701

  3. Difference between adolescent and collegiate baseball pitchers in the kinematics and kinetics of the lower limbs and trunk during pitching motion.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences between adolescent and collegiate baseball pitchers in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower limbs during the pitching motion. The subjects were thirty-two adolescent baseball pitchers aged 12-15 years (APG) and thirty collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18-22 years (CPG). Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground reaction forces (GRFs) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated by the inverse-dynamics computation of musculoskeletal human models using motion-capture data. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRFs data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The velocity of a pitched ball was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in CPG (35.2 ± 1.9 m·s(-1)) than in the APG (30.7 ± 2.7 m·s(-1)). Most kinematic parameters for the lower limbs were similar between the CPG and the APG. Maximum Fy (toward the throwing direction) on the pivot leg and Fy and resultant forces on the stride leg at ball release were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05). Hip and knee joint torques on the lower limbs were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05). The present study indicates that the kinematics of lower limbs during baseball pitching are similar between adolescent and collegiate pitchers, but the momentum of the lower limbs during pitching is lower in adolescent pitchers than in collegiate ones, even when the difference in body mass is considered. Key pointsCollegiate baseball pitchers can generate the hip and knee joint torques on the pivot leg for accelerating the body forward.Collegiate baseball pitchers can generate the hip and knee joint torques to control/stabilize the stride leg in order to

  4. Difference Between Adolescent and Collegiate Baseball Pitchers in the Kinematics and Kinetics of the Lower Limbs and Trunk During Pitching Motion

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences between adolescent and collegiate baseball pitchers in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower limbs during the pitching motion. The subjects were thirty-two adolescent baseball pitchers aged 12-15 years (APG) and thirty collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18-22 years (CPG). Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground reaction forces (GRFs) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated by the inverse-dynamics computation of musculoskeletal human models using motion-capture data. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRFs data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The velocity of a pitched ball was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in CPG (35.2 ± 1.9 m·s-1) than in the APG (30.7 ± 2.7 m·s-1). Most kinematic parameters for the lower limbs were similar between the CPG and the APG. Maximum Fy (toward the throwing direction) on the pivot leg and Fy and resultant forces on the stride leg at ball release were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05). Hip and knee joint torques on the lower limbs were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05). The present study indicates that the kinematics of lower limbs during baseball pitching are similar between adolescent and collegiate pitchers, but the momentum of the lower limbs during pitching is lower in adolescent pitchers than in collegiate ones, even when the difference in body mass is considered. Key points Collegiate baseball pitchers can generate the hip and knee joint torques on the pivot leg for accelerating the body forward. Collegiate baseball pitchers can generate the hip and knee joint torques to control/stabilize the stride leg in order to

  5. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF PITCH VOLUME IN SOUTHEASTERN CONFERENCE BASEBALL PITCHERS

    PubMed Central

    Love, Shawn; Aytar, Aydan; Bush, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Background: Representative data on typical pitch volume for collegiate pitchers functioning in their specific roles is sparse and is needed for training specificity. Objective: To report pitch volumes in Division I collegiate pitchers. The authors hypothesize that pitcher role will result in different pitch volumes. Methods: Pitchers from twelve Division I collegiate baseball teams pitch volume during the 2009 baseball season was retrospectively reviewed through each team's website. The number of pitches and innings pitched for each pitcher were recorded. Pitchers were categorized based on their role as “Starter-only” (n=15), “Reliever-only” (n=76), or “Combined Starter/Reliever” (n=94) and compared using ANOVA. Results: “Starter-only” pitchers threw the most pitches (97±10) and pitched the most innings (6.0±1.0) per appearance (p=<.001). “Combined Starter/Reliever” functioning as a starter threw significantly more pitches (68±19) and pitched more innings (4.0±1.3) per appearance compared to “Combined Starter/Reliever” functioning as a reliever and “Reliever-only” pitchers (p=<.001). The cumulative volume during a 13 week regular season revealed that “Starter-only” pitchers threw significantly more total pitches (1204±387) compared to “Combined Starter/Reliever” pitchers (613±182) who threw significantly more than “Reliever-only” pitchers (254±77) (P<.001). Discussion: Pitcher's specific roles and representative volumes should be used to design training and rehabilitation programs. Comparison of this data to reported adolescent pitch volumes reveal that adolescent pitch volume per appearance approaches collegiate levels. Conclusions: Collegiate pitcher roles dictate their throwing volume. Starter-only pitchers (8%) throw the greatest cumulative number of pitches and should be trained differently than the majority of college pitchers (92%) who function primarily as a reliever or in combination starter/reliever roles

  6. Shoulder injuries in the skeletally immature baseball pitcher and recommendations for the prevention of injury.

    PubMed

    Zaremski, Jason L; Krabak, Brian J

    2012-07-01

    Since 1996, when the first article on pitch restriction recommendations was published, the number of research articles involving skeletally immature pitchers has increased. Potential shoulder injuries in this age group are proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, glenohumeral instability, rotator cuff dysfunction, and superior labrum anteroposterior lesions. Fatigue, improper biomechanics, and overuse are the most common reasons for these injuries. In the hopes of preventing injury to young pitchers, numerous organizations, including the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee, The American Sports Medicine Institute, Little League Baseball & Softball, and the Long Term Athlete Development Program for Baseball Canada, have developed recommendations on pitching restrictions that include limits on pitch count, pitches per week, pitches per season, and rest between pitching. Awareness by sports medicine providers, coaches, and parents/guardians of the most up-to-date recommendations on injury prevention and return to play guidelines should reduce the incidence of acute and chronic injuries in adolescent baseball pitchers. PMID:22814728

  7. Optimal management of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Brown, J Rodney; Hoffer, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes the elbow joint from valgus stress associated with the throwing motion. During baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to tremendous stress and injury if the force on the ulnar collateral ligament during pitching exceeds the physiological limits of the ligament. Injuries to the throwing elbow in baseball pitchers result in significant time loss and typically surgical intervention. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of current information to sports medicine clinicians on injury epidemiology, injury mechanics, injury risk factors, injury prevention, surgical interventions, nonsurgical interventions, rehabilitation, and return to play outcomes in baseball pitchers of all levels. PMID:26635490

  8. Optimal management of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Brown, J Rodney; Hoffer, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes the elbow joint from valgus stress associated with the throwing motion. During baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to tremendous stress and injury if the force on the ulnar collateral ligament during pitching exceeds the physiological limits of the ligament. Injuries to the throwing elbow in baseball pitchers result in significant time loss and typically surgical intervention. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of current information to sports medicine clinicians on injury epidemiology, injury mechanics, injury risk factors, injury prevention, surgical interventions, nonsurgical interventions, rehabilitation, and return to play outcomes in baseball pitchers of all levels. PMID:26635490

  9. Chronic pain due to Little Leaguer’s Shoulder in an adolescent baseball pitcher: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wasylynko, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of chronic Little Leaguer’s Shoulder in reference to pain presentation, physical capabilities, and recovery time. Clinical Features: A 17-year-old, junior baseball pitcher presented with shoulder pain when performing high velocity pitching. Conservative treatment for an assumed soft tissue injury failed to resolve the pain, which was regularly aggravated by pitching, and which subsequently prompted further evaluation, and eventual confirmation of Little Leaguer’s Shoulder on subsequent computerized tomography (CT) imaging. Intervention and Outcome: Prior to proper diagnosis, conservative treatment had consisted of activity modification, spinal adjusting, laser therapy, shockwave therapy, Active Release Techniques®, Kinesiotape,® and rehabilitation. Later, rehabilitation, consisting of general muscle and core strengthening, continued for a further six months under the supervision of college athletic trainers. The athlete was able to return to normal pitching duties approximately 12 months later. Summary: In this case, a potentially damaging bone injury masquerading as a simple musculo-tendinous injury created a diagnostic challenge. The patient eventually recovered with rest, time, strengthening, and eventual compliance to prescribed activity modification. PMID:26815884

  10. Prevention of Elbow Injuries in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Although baseball is a relatively safe sport, numerous reports suggest a rapid rise in elbow injury rate among youth baseball pitchers. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanical, and clinical studies of elbow injuries in baseball (keywords: “youth OR adolescent” AND baseball AND pitching AND “ulnar collateral ligament OR elbow”; published January 2000 – April 2012). Studies with relevance to youth baseball pitchers were reviewed. Relevant references from these articles were also retrieved and reviewed. Original data, insight, and recommendations were added. Results: The majority of baseball elbow injuries are noncontact injuries to the dominant arm resulting from repetitive pitching. Five percent of youth pitchers suffer a serious elbow or shoulder injury (requiring surgery or retirement from baseball) within 10 years. The risk factor with the strongest correlation to injury is amount of pitching. Specifically, increased pitches per game, innings pitched per season, and months pitched per year are all associated with increased risk of elbow injury. Pitching while fatigued and pitching for concurrent teams are also associated with increased risk. Pitchers who also play catcher have an increased injury risk, perhaps due to the quantity of throws playing catcher adds to the athlete’s arm. Another risk factor is poor pitching biomechanics. Improper biomechanics may increase the torque and force produced about the elbow during each pitch. Although throwing breaking pitches at a young age has been suggested as a risk factor, existing clinical, epidemiologic, and biomechanical data do not support this claim. Conclusions: Some elbow injuries to youth baseball pitchers can be prevented with safety rules, recommendations, education, and common sense. Scientific and medical organizations have published safety rules and recommendations, with emphasis on prevention of overuse and pitching while fatigued. Strength

  11. Change in pitching biomechanics in the late-inning in Taiwanese high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Pei-Hsi Chou, Paul; Huang, Yen-Po; Gu, Yi-Hsuan; Liu, Chiang; Chen, Shen-Kai; Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Wang, Rong-Tyai; Huang, Ming-Jer; Lin, Hwai-Ting

    2015-06-01

    Repetitive overhead throwing may result in overuse injuries and a change in the pitching mechanics of a baseball pitcher. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to quantify the changes in the muscle strength and pitching motion kinematics in the late-innings stage of a baseball game. Sixteen healthy baseball pitchers (16.77 ± 0.73 years) recruited from a high school, which won the National High School Baseball Championship in Taiwan in 2011; each performed 100 pitches in a bullpen throwing session. Isometric muscle strength measurements and joint kinematic data were obtained before and after the throwing session. The mean Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion index was found to have a value of 14.14, indicating a medium-to-large degree of perceived tiredness. The results showed that the ball velocity and horizontal abduction angle decreased significantly as the pitchers became tired. Moreover, the upper torso forward tilt and knee flexion angle both increased significantly at the moment of ball release. Finally, the muscle strength of the upper extremity remained decreased 2 days after the bullpen throwing session. Overall, the results suggest that an adequate amount of rest and specific strengthening programs for the shoulder external rotator, shoulder internal rotator, shoulder flexor, shoulder extensor, shoulder adductor, and shoulder abductor muscles are recommended to the coaches and for adolescent baseball pitchers. In addition, the changes in pitching mechanics noted in this study should be carefully monitored during the course of a baseball game to minimize the risk for overuse injuries. PMID:25474340

  12. THORACOLUMBAR RANGE OF MOTION IN BASEBALL PITCHERS AND POSITION PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Lynall, Robert; Williams, Jeffrey G.; Wong, Regan; Onuki, Takashi; Meister, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Introduction/Background: Optimal baseball throwing mechanics require a significant contribution of thoracolumbar motion, particularly in the sagittal and transverse planes. This motion is key for proper transmission of forces from the lower to upper extremity, thereby minimizing a throwing athlete's risk of injury and maximizing athletic performance. Purpose: To define the active‐assisted thoracolumbar ROM of both baseball pitchers and position players and to compare these motions both within and between groups. Methods: Fifty‐six asymptomatic, collegiate and minor league baseball pitchers and 42 position players volunteered to participate. Active‐assisted thoracolumbar flexion, extension, and bilateral rotation ROM, were measured in a standing position, using two bubble inclinometers. Two‐tailed t tests were used to determine differences in ROM between and within the pitchers and position players. Results: The pitchers had significantly more rotation to the non‐throwing arm side as compared to the position players (p = .007, effect size = .61). The pitchers also had more rotation to the non‐throwing arm side as compared to their throwing side (p = .006, effect size = .47). There were no other significant differences between the pitchers and the position players (p > .53). Furthermore, the position players did not have a side‐to‐side rotation difference (p = .99). Conclusions: Pitchers have a greater amount of rotation ROM towards the non‐throwing arm side as compared to position players. Pitchers also have a greater amount of rotation ROM to the non‐throwing arm side as compared to their throwing side rotation. Because pitchers often present with posterior shoulder tightness and subsequent altered shoulder horizontal adduction and internal rotation ROM, the increase in non‐throwing side rotation ROM may occur in response to these adaptations. More specifically, this increase in non‐throwing side trunk rotation ROM may allow such athletes to

  13. Lumbopelvic control and pitching performance of professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ajit M W; McKenzie, Christopher S; Borchers, James R; Best, Thomas M

    2011-08-01

    This study assessed the correlation between lumbopelvic control during a single-leg balancing task and in-game pitching performance in Minor-League baseball pitchers. Seventy-five healthy professional baseball pitchers performed a standing lumbopelvic control test during the last week of spring training for the 2008 and 2009 seasons while wearing a custom-designed testing apparatus, the "Level Belt." With the Level Belt secured to the waist, subjects attempted to transition from a 2-leg to a single-leg pitching stance and balance while maintaining a stable pelvic position. Subjects were graded on the maximum sagittal pelvic tilt from a neutral position during the motion. Pitching performance, number of innings pitched (IP), and injuries were compared for all subjects who pitched at least 50 innings during a season. The median Level Belt score for the study group was 7°. Two-sample t-tests with equal variances were used to determine if pitchers with a Level Belt score <7° or ≥7° were more likely to perform differently during the baseball season, and chi-square analysis was used to compare injuries between groups. Subjects scoring <7° on the Level Belt test had significantly fewer walks plus hits per inning than subjects scoring ≥7° (walks plus hits per inning pitched, 1.352 ± 0.251 vs. 1.584 ± 0.360, p = 0.013) and significantly more IP during the season (IP, 78.89 ± 38.67 vs. 53.38 ± 42.47, p = 0.043). There was no significant difference in the number of pitchers injured between groups. These data suggest that lumbopelvic control influences overall performance for baseball pitchers and that a simple test of lumbopelvic control can potentially identify individuals who have a better chance of pitching success. PMID:21760550

  14. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility. PMID:26559562

  15. Gluteus medius and scapula muscle activations in youth baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Weimar, Wendi H; Plummer, Hillary A

    2015-06-01

    The baseball pitching motion is a total kinetic chain activity that must efficiently use both the upper and lower extremity. Of particular importance is the scapular motion, which is critical for humeral positioning and proper alignment of shoulder musculature. It was hypothesized that scapular stability is enhanced by pelvic girdle stability. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to determine the muscle activations of selected pelvic and scapular stabilizing muscles during a fastball pitch in youth baseball pitchers. Twenty youth baseball pitchers (age: 11.3 + 1.0 years; height: 152.4 + 9.0 cm; weight: 47.5 + 11.3 kg) were recorded throwing 4-seam fastballs for strikes. Data revealed moderate (20-39% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]) to moderately strong (>40% MVIC) activation of the ipsilateral (throwing arm side) gluteus medius, upper trapezius, and serratus anterior throughout phases 2 (maximum shoulder external rotation to ball release) and 3 (ball release to maximum shoulder internal rotation). Moderately strong activation (>40% MVIC) of the upper trapezius and serratus anterior was noted during phases 2 and 3 of the pitching motion. Pearson's product-moment correlation revealed significant relationships between bilateral gluteus medius and the force couples about the scapula during all 3 phases of the pitching motion. The results of this study provide important data that improve the understanding of the muscular relationship between the pelvic and scapular stabilizers during the fastball pitch. Training and rehabilitation programs should consider focusing on lumbopelvic-hip and scapular muscle strengthening as well as coordinated strengthening of the pelvic and scapular stabilizers, in baseball pitchers. PMID:25546449

  16. Lower-extremity ground reaction forces in collegiate baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Guido, John A; Werner, Sherry L

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ground reaction forces (GRF) in collegiate baseball pitchers and their relationship to pitching mechanics. Fourteen healthy collegiate baseball pitchers participated in this study. High-speed video and force plate data were collected for fastballs from each pitcher. The average ball speed was 35 ± 3 m/sec (78 ± 7 mph). Peak GRFs of 245 ± 20% body weight (BW) were generated in an anterior or braking direction to control descent. Horizontal GRFs tended to occur in a laterally directed fashion, reaching a peak of 45 ± 63% BW. The maximum vertical GRF averaged 202 ± 43% BW approximately 45 milliseconds after stride foot contact. A correlation between braking force and ball velocity was evident. Because of the downward inclination and rotation of the pitching motion, in addition to volume, shear forces may occur in the musculoskeletal tissues of the stride limb leading to many of the lower-extremity injuries seen in this athletic population. PMID:22344047

  17. Hip and upper extremity kinematics in youth baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Holt, Taylor; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dynamic hip rotational range of motion and upper extremity kinematics during baseball pitching. Thirty-one youth baseball pitchers (10.87 ± 0.92 years; 150.03 ± 5.48 cm; 44.83 ± 8.04 kg) participated. A strong correlation was found between stance hip rotation and scapular upward rotation at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = 0.531, P = 0.002) and at ball release (r = 0.536, P = 0.002). No statistically significant correlations were found between dynamic hip rotational range of motion and passive hip range of motion. Hip range of motion deficits can constrain pelvis rotation and limit energy generation in the lower extremities. Shoulder pathomechanics can then develop as greater responsibility is placed on the shoulder to generate the energy lost from the proximal segments, increasing risk of upper extremity injury. Additionally, it appears that passive seated measurements of hip range of motion may not accurately reflect the dynamic range of motion of the hips through the progression of the pitch cycle. PMID:26256828

  18. The effects of extended play on professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Murray, T A; Cook, T D; Werner, S L; Schlegel, T F; Hawkins, R J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate kinematic and kinetic changes as a result of extended play in baseball pitching. Seven major league baseball pitchers were videotaped with high-speed (120 Hz) cameras during multiple innings of the same game. For each athlete, two fastballs (one thrown during the initial inning of play and one from the final inning) were chosen for analysis. Twenty-one physical landmarks were manually digitized from the video data. Kinematic and kinetic parameters were subsequently calculated relative to four phases of the pitching motion: windup, cocking, acceleration, and follow-through. Paired t-tests revealed that seven parameters changed significantly between early and late innings. These included decreases in maximum external rotation of the shoulder, knee angle at ball release, ball velocity, maximum distraction force at both the shoulder and elbow, and horizontal adduction torque at both release and its maximum value. Ultimately, a decline in performance was evident by a 2 m/s (5 mph) drop in ball speed. It is unclear whether the kinematic and kinetic changes occurred because of fatigue or if protective mechanisms were adopted. PMID:11292037

  19. Hand Blisters in Major League Baseball Pitchers: Current Concepts and Management.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Andrew R; Ensell, Scott; Farley, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Friction blisters are a common sequela of many athletic activities. Their significance can range from minor annoyance to major performance disruptions. The latter is particularly true in baseball pitchers, who sustain repeated trauma between the baseball seams and the fingers of the pitching hand, predominately at the tips of the index and long fingers. Since 2010, 6 Major League Baseball (MLB) players accounted for 7 stints on the disabled list (DL) due to blisters. These injuries resulted in a total of 151 days spent on the DL. Since 2012, 8 minor league players spent time on the DL due to blisters. Moreover, there have been several documented and publicized instances of professional baseball pitchers suffering blisters that did not require placement on the DL but did result in injury time and missed starts. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology and pathophysiology of friction blisters with particular reference to baseball pitchers; provide an overview of past and current prevention methods; and discuss our experience in treating friction blisters in MLB pitchers. PMID:26991565

  20. Does Geographic Location Matter on the Prevalence of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers?

    PubMed Central

    Zaremski, Jason L.; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Donlan, Robert M.; Brisbane, Sonya Tang; Farmer, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been a significant amount of research in the prevention of throwing injuries. However, one area of research that is lacking is geographic location of play. Warm climates may permit year-round play and increased exposure to throwing arm injury risk. Hypotheses: (1) Pitchers from southern institutions would have greater rates of ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCL-R) compared with pitchers from northern institutions. (2) Pitchers originating from high school teams in warm weather states would have a greater risk of undergoing UCL-R while in college. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: This study was completed by reviewing publicly obtained records of male collegiate baseball players during the 2008 through 2014 seasons. Data were accessed through online search engines, online baseball media guides, and school websites. Results: A total of 5315 player-years and 2575 pitcher-years were identified. Fifty-eight UCL-R cases were found in collegiate pitchers, 40 of which occurred in the Southeastern Conference (SEC) and 18 in the Big Ten. More injuries (36/58) occurred in pitchers who participated in high school baseball in southern states as compared with northern states (22/58), regardless of location of collegiate participation (χ2 = 28.8, P < .05). The injury rate for pitchers who participated in high school baseball in southern states was 25.3 per 1000 player-years versus 19.1 per 1000 player-years in northern states, with a risk ratio of 1.32 (χ2 = 0.89, P = .35). The injury rate for the SEC versus Big Ten pitchers was 13.3 per 1000 player-years versus 7.8 per 1000 player-years, with a risk ratio of 1.71 (χ2 = 1.45, P = .23). Conclusion: There is a greater likelihood of undergoing UCL-R in the SEC compared with the Big Ten. There is also an increased risk for UCL-R for pitchers who played high school baseball in southern states versus northern states, irrespective of collegiate play location. Clinical Relevance

  1. Humeral Retrotorsion in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers With Throwing-Related Upper Extremity Injury History

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Joseph B.; Oyama, Sakiko; Rucinski, Terri Jo; Creighton, R. Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background: Collegiate baseball pitchers, as well as position players, exhibit increased humeral retrotorsion compared with individuals with no history of overhead sport participation. Whether the humeral retrotorsion plays a role in the development of throwing-related injuries that are prevalent in collegiate baseball pitchers is unknown. Hypotheses: Humeral retrotorsion will be significantly different in collegiate pitchers with throwing-related shoulder or elbow injury history compared with pitchers with no injury history. Humeral retrotorsion can also discriminate participants with and without shoulder or elbow injury. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Comparisons of ultrasonographically-obtained humeral retrotorsion were made between 40 collegiate pitchers with and without history of throwing-related shoulder or elbow injury. The ability of humeral retrotorsion to discriminate injury history was determined from the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve. Results: Participants with an elbow injury history demonstrated a greater humeral retrotorsion limb difference (mean difference = 7.2°, P = 0.027) than participants with no history of upper extremity injury. Participants with shoulder injury history showed no differences in humeral torsion compared with participants with no history of injury. Humeral retrotorsion limb difference exhibited a fair ability (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve = 0.74) to discriminate elbow injury history. Conclusions: Collegiate pitchers with a history of elbow injury exhibited a greater limb difference in humeral retrotorsion compared with pitchers with no history of injury. No differences in humeral retrotorsion variables were present in participants with and without shoulder injury history. Clinical Relevance: Baseball players with a history of elbow injury demonstrated increased humeral retrotorsion, suggesting that the amount of retrotorsion and the development of elbow injury

  2. Lumbopelvic control and days missed due to injury in professional baseball pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.; McKenzie, Christopher S.; Pan, Xueliang; Oñate, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently lumbopelvic control has been linked to pitching performance, kinematics and loading; however, poor lumbopelvic control has not been prospectively investigated as a risk factor for injury in baseball pitchers. Hypothesis Pitchers with poor lumbopelvic control during spring training are more likely to miss 30 or more days due to injury through an entire baseball season than pitchers with good lumbopelvic control. Study design Cohort study. Methods Three hundred forty-seven professional baseball pitchers were enrolled into the study during the last 2 weeks of spring training and stayed with the same team for the entire season. Lumbopelvic control was quantified by peak anterior-posterior deviation of the pelvis relative to starting position during a single leg raise test (APScore). Days missed due to injury through the entire season were recorded by each team's medical staff. Results Higher APScore was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of missing 30 days or more (Chi-Square, p=0.023). When divided into tertiles based on their APScore, participants in the highest tertile were 3.0 times and 2.2 times more likely to miss at least 30 days throughout the course of a baseball season relative to those in the lowest or middle tertiles, respectively. Higher APScore was also significantly associated with missing more days due to injury within participants who missed at least one day to injury (ANOVA, p=0.018), with the highest tertile missing significantly more days (mean=98.6 d) than the middle tertile (mean=45.8d, p=0.017) or the lowest tertile (mean=43.8, p=0.017). Conclusion This study found that poor lumbopelvic control in professional pitchers was associated with increased risk of missing significant time due to injury. PMID:25159541

  3. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)) and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)). Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces) on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). Furthermore, Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching. Key pointsHigh-ball-velocity pitchers are characterized by greater momentum of the lower limbs during pitching motion.For high-pitched-ball velocity, stabilizing lower limbs during pitching plays an important role in order to increase the rotation and forward motion of the trunk.Computation of the lower

  4. Should We Limit Innings Pitched Following Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Baseball Pitchers?

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Cvetanovich, Gregory; Bach, Bernard R.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure amongst major league baseball (MLB) pitchers. It is unclear if a limit on innings pitched following UCLR should be instituted to prevent revision UCLR. Purpose: To determine whether the number of innings pitched or number of pitches thrown in the first full season following UCLR, as well as the pitcher’s overall MLB career, correlated with need for a revision UCLR Hypothesis: Number of innings pitched and number of pitches thrown following UCLR will not affect whether a pitcher undergoes a revision UCLR. Methods: Methods: All MLB pitchers between 1974-2015 who pitched at least one full season following UCLR were included. Pitch counts and innings pitched for the first full season following UCLR as well as total pitch count and total innings pitched following UCLR were recorded. Pitch counts and innings pitched were compared amongst players who required revision UCLR and those who did not. Results: Results: Overall, 154 pitchers were included. Of these, 135 pitchers did not require revision UCLR while 19 underwent revision UCLR. No significant difference existed between pitchers who underwent revision UCLR and those who did not in: number of innings pitched in the season following UCLR (p=0.9016), number of pitches thrown in the season following UCLR (p=0.7337), number of innings pitched in the pitcher’s career following UCLR (p=0.6945), and number of pitches thrown in the pitcher’s career following UCLR (p=0.4789). Furthermore, no difference existed in revision rate between pitchers who pitched more or less than 180 innings in the first full season following UCLR (p=0.6678). Conclusion: Conclusion: The number of innings pitched and number of pitches thrown in the first full season as well as over a player’s career following UCLR does not appear to increase a player’s risk of revision UCLR.

  5. Valgus torque in youth baseball pitchers: A biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Sabick, Michelle B; Torry, Michael R; Lawton, Richard L; Hawkins, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical and anthropometric factors contributing to elbow valgus torque during pitching. Video data of 14 youth pitchers throwing fastballs were used to calculate shoulder and elbow kinematics and kinetics. Peak elbow valgus torque averaged 18 Nm and occurred just before maximal shoulder external rotation. The magnitude of valgus torque was most closely correlated with the thrower's weight. When subject weight and height were controlled for, maximum shoulder abduction torque and maximum shoulder internal rotation torque were most strongly associated with elbow valgus torque, accounting for 85% of its variance (P <.001). When only kinematic variables were considered, maximum shoulder external rotation accounted for 33% of the variance in valgus torque. Given that the biomechanical variables correlated with peak valgus torque are not easily modifiable, limiting the number of innings pitched is likely the best way to reduce elbow injury in youth pitchers. PMID:15111908

  6. Effects of a Simulated Game on Muscle Activation in Youth Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Weimar, Wendi H; Henning, Lisa E

    2016-02-01

    It is generally accepted that playing with fatigue is a primary predictor of injury in youth baseball because muscular fatigue is believed to alter mechanics during the arm cocking and acceleration phases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively describe gluteal and upper extremity muscle activations in youth baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-three youth baseball players (11.2 ± 0.8 years; 151.4 ± 8.7 cm; 47.5 ± 10.8 kg) participated. Data were collected through a Delsys Bagnoli-8-channel electromyography system. Single differential electrodes (interelectrode distance: 10 mm) were attached to the bilateral gluteus maximus and medius and throwing side latissimus dorsi, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior and upper trapezius. After warm-up, participants were instructed to throw randomly provided game situations over a regulation distance (46 feet; 14.02 meters) to a catcher. Three, 4-seam fastballs for strikes, thrown in the first and last innings of the simulated game were selected for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences in muscle activity at the 3 phases of the throw, between first and last innings of the simulated game with an observed power of 0.274 (phase 1: foot contact to maximum shoulder external rotation), 0.297 (phase 2: maximum shoulder external rotation to ball release), and 0.226 (phase 3: ball release to maximum shoulder internal rotation). Examining muscle activations as a pitcher approaches fatigue provides information on how long a pitcher can perform before mechanical alterations occur. Although this study did not reveal significant changes, it did reiterate the fact that pitch counts may be working in possibly preventing a youth pitcher throwing to fatigue. PMID:26815175

  7. A Biomechanical Model Correlating Shoulder Kinetics to Pain in Young Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Keeley, David W.; Oliver, Gretchen D.; Dougherty, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has postulated that shoulder pain may be associated with increases in both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. Unfortunately these relationships have yet to be quantified. Thus, the purpose of this study was to associate these kinetic values with reported shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. Nineteen healthy baseball pitchers participated in this study. Segment based reference systems and established calculations were utilized to identify peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. A medical history questionnaire was utilized to identify shoulder pain. Following collection of these data, the strength of the relationships between both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force and shoulder pain were analyzed. Although peak anterior force was not significantly correlated to shoulder pain, peak proximal force was. These results lead to the development of a single variable logistic regression model able to accurately predict 84.2% of all cases and 71.4% of shoulder pain cases. This model indicated that for every 1 N increase in peak proximal force, there was a corresponding 4.6% increase in the likelihood of shoulder pain. The magnitude of peak proximal force is both correlated to reported shoulder pain and capable of being used to accurately predict the likelihood of experiencing shoulder pain. It appears that those pitchers exhibiting high magnitudes of peak proximal force are significantly more likely to report experiencing shoulder pain than those who generate lower magnitudes of peak proximal force. PMID:23486209

  8. Prevention of arm injury in youth baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Kerut, Edmund Kenneth; Kerut, Denise Goodfellow; Fleisig, Glenn S; Andrews, James R

    2008-01-01

    The advent of youth year-round baseball has come with an increased incidence of pitching related injury and surgery, most notably involving the shoulder and elbow (ulnar collateral ligament). These injuries become evident in high school and college, but begin at the youth level. Several studies have identified baseball pitching risk factors during youth that increase likelihood for injury and surgery in subsequent years. Based on these studies, the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee has published guidelines for pitching that include limits on pitch count and pitches per week and season as well as recommendations for number of rest days between pitching. Also, recommendations include the restriction of breaking balls prior to puberty, the importance of instruction for proper pitching mechanics as early as possible in development, and at least three months of rest after a season. This review is intended to help guide primary care physicians and pediatricians when discussing youth pitching and injury prevention with parents and coaches. PMID:18681352

  9. The relationship between balance and pitching error in college baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Darrin W; Richard, Leon A; Williams, L Alexis; Lynch, Kelly J

    2004-08-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between balance and pitching error in college baseball pitchers. Sixteen college baseball pitchers, 9 National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) and 7 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III, participated in the study. Balance ability, expressed as average sway velocity (deg.s(-1)), during dominant leg unilateral stance with eyes open and eyes closed was quantified for each subject utilizing the Balance Master System 7.04 (long force plate). Additionally, each subject underwent sensory organization testing on the SMART EquiTest System providing information regarding the effective use of the somatosensory, visual, and vestibular inputs. Pitching error was assessed with a high-speed video camera recorder during spring practice. A JUGS radar gun measured pitch velocity. The mean pitching error was 37.50 cm with a mean pitch velocity of 78 miles.h(-1) (35 m.s(-1)). No significant correlation was demonstrated between unilateral stance eyes open and pitching error (r = -0.24; p = 0.36) or unilateral stance eyes closed and pitching error (r = -0.29; p = 0.27). A significant negative correlation was demonstrated between sensory organization test 5 and pitching error (r = -0.50; p = 0.05) and between sensory organization test 5/1 and pitching error (r = -0.50; p = 0.05). Additionally, unilateral stance eyes closed demonstrated a positive correlation with pitch velocity (r = 0.52; p = 0.04). The results reveal that low levels of vestibular input utilization may lead to high levels of pitching error in college baseball pitchers. PMID:15320675

  10. Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Injuries in Major League Baseball Pitchers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Syed K; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the upper extremity in baseball pitchers are not uncommon, with extensive literature on shoulder and elbow pathology. However, there is minimal literature on isolated teres major (TM) and latissimus dorsi (LD) injuries. As a result, there is no consensus on an optimal treatment method. An extensive Medline search on studies focusing on the treatment of isolated LD and TM injuries in professional baseball pitchers was performed to explore this topic. Of the 20 retrieved articles, 5 met our inclusion criteria. There were a total of 29 patients who underwent conservative treatment and 1 who underwent surgical treatment. The average time required to return to pitching was 99.8 days in the conservative group and 140 days in the surgically treated group. Five patients in the conservative group suffered from complications and/or setbacks during their treatment and rehabilitation. The lone surgical patient suffered no complications, returned to preinjury form, and was elected an all-star the following year. The goal of this review is to provide a concise summary of the current literature in order to assist physicians when discussing treatment options with their patients. PMID:26991570

  11. Factors related to injury in youth and adolescent baseball pitching, with an eye toward prevention.

    PubMed

    Popchak, Adam; Burnett, Thomas; Weber, Nicholas; Boninger, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The baseball and medical communities have recognized injuries of the upper extremity associated with the overhead throwing motion and have examined manners in which to reduce risk. The authors examine special features of the adolescent pitcher as compared with skeletally mature pitchers and characteristics of pitch mechanics, type, velocity, fatigue, and overuse. A summary is presented on previously identified risk factors as they relate to pitching injuries. Development, use, and compliance with the most current pitching guidelines in youth baseball, based on the available evidence, will be presented and examined. In an increasingly competitive environment, identifying known risk factors and potential signs of pathology as well as implementing the current best evidence in a consistent manner are important steps in decreasing injury risk of youth baseball pitchers. More research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of pitching guidelines in the short and long term and to focus on manners in which to increase compliance with best practice procedures throughout youth baseball organizations. PMID:25251251

  12. Stress Sonography of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament of the Elbow in Professional Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Ciccotti, Michael G.; Atanda, Alfred; Nazarian, Levon N.; Dodson, Christopher C.; Holmes, Laurens; Cohen, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Background An injury to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow is potentially career threatening for elite baseball pitchers. Stress ultrasound (US) of the elbow allows for evaluation of both the UCL and the ulnohumeral joint space at rest and with stress. Hypothesis Stress US can identify morphological and functional UCL changes and may predict the risk of a UCL injury in elite pitchers. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A total of 368 asymptomatic professional baseball pitchers underwent preseason stress US of their dominant and non-dominant elbows over a 10-year period (2002-2012). Stress US examinations were performed in 30° of flexion at rest and with 150 N of valgus stress by a single musculoskeletal radiologist. Ligament thickness, ulnohumeral joint space width, and ligament abnormalities (hypoechoic foci and calcifications) were documented. Results There were 736 stress US studies. The mean UCL thickness in the dominant elbow (6.15 mm) was significantly greater than that in the nondominant elbow (4.82 mm) (P < .0001). The mean stressed ulnohumeral joint space width in the dominant elbow (4.56 mm) was significantly greater than that in the nondominant elbow (3.72 mm) (P < .02). In the dominant arm, hypoechoic foci and calcifications were both significantly more prevalent (28.0% vs 3.5% and 24.9% vs 1.6%, respectively; P < .001). In the 12 players who incurred a UCL injury, there were nonsignificant (P > .05) increases in baseline ligament thickness, ulnohumeral joint space gapping with stress, and incidence of hypoechoic foci and calcifications. More than 1 stress US examination was performed in 131 players, with a mean increase of 0.78 mm in joint space gapping with subsequent evaluations. Conclusion Stress US indicates that the UCL in the dominant elbow of elite pitchers is thicker, is more likely to have hypoechoic foci and/or calcifications, and has increased laxity with valgus stress over time. PMID:24473498

  13. The Impact of Fatigue on the Kinematics of Collegiate Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Grantham, W. Jeffrey; Byram, Ian R.; Meadows, Molly C.; Ahmad, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many factors are believed to contribute to throwing injuries in baseball pitchers, in particular overuse and poor throwing mechanics. The impact of fatigue on pitching biomechanics in live-game situations is not well understood. Hypothesis: Pitchers will demonstrate significant deviation in their pitching motions with increasing levels of fatigue. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Eleven National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I collegiate baseball pitchers were filmed in multiple live-game situations throughout a single season using 2 orthogonal high-speed cameras at 120 Hz. The first fastball of each inning and, when available, the fastball subsequent to the 15th and 30th pitch of each inning were recorded and analyzed for 26 kinematic parameters. Pitch count and velocity were recorded. Kinematic differences were assessed for association with pitch count and subjective fatigue measures over the course of each inning and game through the season. Results: Twenty-six games were recorded. Pitchers had a mean of 97.2 ± 16.1 pitches per start and 1079 ± 251 pitches per collegiate season. Increased hip lean at hand separation, elbow height at foot contact, and hip flexion and shoulder tilt at maximum external rotation were seen in innings lasting longer than 15 pitches. Maximum external rotation of the shoulder and elbow height at foot contact decreased over the course of a game. Hip lean at hand separation and elbow height at foot contact increased over the course of the season. Season pitch count was weakly correlated with increased shoulder external rotation and shoulder alignment at maximum external rotation and with shoulder abduction at ball release. Elbow flexion decreased with greater season pitch counts. Conclusion: Hip lean, elbow height, and shoulder external rotation were the most sensitive kinematic parameters to inning, game, and season fatigue. Pitch count and fatigue have a significant impact on live

  14. Effort Thrombosis Presenting as Pulmonary Embolism in a Professional Baseball Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Bushnell, Brandon D.; Anz, Adam W.; Dugger, Keith; Sakryd, Gary A.; Noonan, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Effort thrombosis, or Paget-Schroetter’s syndrome, is a rare subset of thoracic outlet syndrome in which deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity occurs as the result of repetitive overhead motion. It is occasionally associated with pulmonary embolism. This case of effort thrombosis and pulmonary embolus was in a 25-year-old major league professional baseball pitcher, in which the only presenting complaints involved dizziness and shortness of breath without complaints involving the upper extremity—usually, a hallmark of most cases of this condition. The patient successfully returned to play for 5 subsequent seasons at the major league level after multimodal treatment that included surgery for thoracic outlet syndrome. Objective: Though rare, effort thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of throwing athletes with traditional extremity-focused symptoms and in cases involving pulmonary or thoracic complaints. Rapid diagnosis is a critical component of successful treatment. PMID:23015912

  15. Evaluation of wrist and forearm motion in college-aged baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Solomito, Matthew J; Garibay, Erin J; Woods, Jessica R; Ounpuu, Sylvia; Nissen, Carl W

    2014-11-01

    Current pitching literature focuses primarily on the elbow and glenohumeral joints. This has led to a paucity of information regarding the forearm and wrist, and the limited data available are inconsistent. Therefore, this article seeks to provide a comprehensive description of the kinematics and kinetics of the wrist and forearm for the fastball, curveball, slider/cutter, and change-up for college-level baseball pitchers. Thirty-six collegiate pitchers were evaluated using motion analysis techniques. Results indicated that pitching the curveball generated the greatest forearm supination (16 ± 13°) compared with the other three pitch types (p < 0.05). The curveball and slider/cutter were pitched with less wrist extension and greater ulnar deviation compared with the fastball and change-up. The curveball was found to produce the greatest ulnar moment (7.3 ± 2.2 Nm) and was significantly different from the moments noted when pitching the fastball and change-up (5.1 ± 1.9 and 4.9 ± 1.9 Nm, respectively; p < 0.05). These results indicate that it may be possible to objectively determine pitch type from kinematic data of the wrist and forearm. It may also be possible that coaches may be able to identify abnormal pitching mechanics from more proximal segments by understanding the motion of the wrist. PMID:25203486

  16. Unusual chest wall pain caused by thoracic disc herniation in a professional baseball pitcher.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kinshi; Yabuki, Shoji; Otani, Koji; Nikaido, Takuya; Otoshi, Ken-Ichi; Watanabe, Kazuyuki; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    Symptomatic thoracic disc herniation is clinically rare. There are few cases of disc herniation of the thoracic spine in top athletes described in the literature. We herein present a rare case of chest wall pain due to thoracic disc herniation in a professional baseball pitcher. A 30-year-old, left-handed pitcher complained of left-sided chest wall pain in the region of his lower ribs during a game. Neurological examination revealed hypoesthesia of the left side of the chest at the level of the lower thoracic spine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracic spine showed a left-sided paramedian disc herniation at the T9-T10 level. The player was initially prescribed rest, administration of pregabalin (150 mg twice a day), and subsequent physical rehabilitation. He was able to resume full training and pitching without medication 6 months after the onset. A follow-up MRI of the thoracic spine showed a reduction in the size of the herniated disc compared to the initial findings. Though relatively rare, thoracic disc herniation should be considered in cases of chest wall pain in athletes. PMID:26983590

  17. Early Cocking Phase Mechanics and Upper Extremity Surgery Risk in Starting Professional Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Douoguih, Wiemi A.; Dolce, Donald L.; Lincoln, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early cocking phase pitching mechanics may affect risk of upper extremity injury requiring surgery in professional baseball players. Purpose: To assess the occurrence of inverted-W arm positioning and early trunk rotation in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers and to determine whether this throwing position is associated with upper extremity injury requiring surgery. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: For 250 MLB pitchers in the 2010 season, 15 to 20 pitches from the start and end of an outing were reviewed using slow-motion game video for presence of an inverted-W position and early trunk rotation. Previous or current incidence of upper extremity injury requiring surgery for each player was determined using the MLB injury database, minor league injury records, available collegiate data, and publicly available online injury databases. Upper extremity surgery associated with an injury was considered to result from pitching. Results: Consensus between investigators was achieved for 99% of players for inverted-W positioning (248 players) and in 97% of players for early trunk rotation (243 players) for videos reviewed independently. Rate of surgery with and without inverted-W position was 28 of 93 (30%) and 42 of 155 (27%), respectively. Rate of surgery with and without early trunk rotation was 37 of 111 (33%) and 30 of 132 (23%), respectively. Using a Cox proportional hazards model for risk analysis using the measured number of innings pitched at time of surgery as an approximate index of exposure and adjusting for age and fastball speed at time of surgery, early trunk rotation was associated with significantly increased risk of shoulder and/or elbow surgery with hazard ratio estimate of 1.69 (95% CI, 1.02-2.80). Presence of the inverted-W position was not associated with significantly increased risk (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.79-2.14). Conclusion: The inverted-W throwing position was not associated with significantly

  18. Correlation of Shoulder and Elbow Kinetics With Ball Velocity in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Post, Eric G.; Laudner, Kevin G.; McLoda, Todd A.; Wong, Regan; Meister, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Context Throwing a baseball is a dynamic and violent act that places large magnitudes of stress on the shoulder and elbow. Specific injuries at the elbow and glenohumeral joints have been linked to several kinetic variables throughout the throwing motion. However, very little research has directly examined the relationship between these kinetic variables and ball velocity. Objective To examine the correlation of peak ball velocity with elbow-valgus torque, shoulder external-rotation torque, and shoulder-distraction force in a group of collegiate baseball pitchers. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Motion-analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Sixty-seven asymptomatic National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I baseball pitchers (age = 19.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 186.2 ± 5.7 cm, mass = 86.7 ± 7.0 kg; 48 right handed, 19 left handed). Main Outcome Measure(s) We measured peak ball velocity using a radar gun and shoulder and elbow kinetics of the throwing arm using 8 electronically synchronized, high-speed digital cameras. We placed 26 reflective markers on anatomical landmarks of each participant to track 3-dimensional coordinate data. The average data from the 3 highest-velocity fastballs thrown for strikes were used for data analysis. We calculated a Pearson correlation coefficient to determine the associations between ball velocity and peak elbow-valgus torque, shoulder-distraction force, and shoulder external-rotation torque (P < .05). Results A weak positive correlation was found between ball velocity and shoulder-distraction force (r = 0.257; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02, 0.47; r2 = 0.066; P = .018). However, no significant correlations were noted between ball velocity and elbow-valgus torque (r = 0.199; 95% CI = −0.043, 0.419; r2 = 0.040; P = .053) or shoulder external-rotation torque (r = 0.097; 95% CI = −0.147, 0.329; r2 = 0.009; P = .217). Conclusions Although a weak positive correlation was present between ball velocity

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Throwing Elbow in the Uninjured, High School–Aged Baseball Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Wendy J.; Eby, Sarah; Kaufman, Kenton R.; Murthy, Naveen S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tissue adaptations in response to pitching are an expected finding during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of the throwing elbow of adult pitchers. These changes are considered normal in the absence of symptom complaints. It is unclear when during the playing career these tissue adaptations are initiated. Hypothesis Abnormalities in the appearance of the throwing elbow compared with the nonthrowing elbow would be visible during MRI assessment of this asymptomatic population of high school–aged throwers. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods Twenty-three uninjured, asymptomatic male high school–aged baseball pitchers (mean age, 16 years) with no history of elbow injury were recruited for the study. Participants had a minimum of 3 years’ experience with pitching as their primary position (mean experience, 6 years). Bilateral elbow MRI examinations were performed using a standardized protocol including fast spin-echo proton-density (axial and coronal), T1-weighted (sagittal), and T2-weighted fat-saturated (axial, sagittal, and coronal) sequences. Osteoarticular, ligamentous, musculotendinous, and neural structures were evaluated and compared bilaterally. The images were reviewed by a musculoskeletal radiologist who was blinded to all the gathered data on these athletes, including limb dominance. Results Three participants (13%) had no abnormalities. Fifteen individuals (65%) had asymmetrical anterior band ulnar collateral ligament thickening, including 4 individuals who also had mild sublime tubercle/anteromedial facet edema. Fourteen participants (61%) had posteromedial subchondral sclerosis of the ulnotrochlear articulation, including 8 (35%) with a posteromedial ulnotrochlear osteophyte, and 4 (17%) with mild posteromedial ulnotrochlear chondromalacia. Ten individuals (43%) had multiple abnormal findings in the throwing elbow. Conclusion Thickening of the anterior band of the ulnar collateral ligament and

  20. Performance After Rotator Cuff Tear and Operative Treatment: A Case-Control Study of Major League Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Namdari, Surena; Baldwin, Keith; Ahn, Albert; Huffman, G. Russell; Sennett, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Little is known about pitching performance or lack of it among Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who undergo operative treatment of rotator cuff tears. Objective: To assess pitching performance outcomes in MLB players who needed operative treatment of rotator cuff tears and to compare performance in these athletes with that in a control group of MLB players. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Publicly available player profiles, press releases, and team injury reports. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-three MLB pitchers with documented surgery to treat rotator cuff tears and 117 control pitchers who did not have documented rotator cuff tears were identified. Main Outcome Measure(s): Major League Baseball pitching attrition and performance variables. Results: Players who underwent rotator cuff surgery were no more likely not to play than control players. Performance variables of players who underwent surgery improved after surgery but never returned to baseline preoperative status. Players who needed rotator cuff surgery typically were more experienced and had better earned run averages than control players. Conclusions: Pitchers who had symptomatic rotator cuff tears that necessitated operative treatment tended to decline gradually in performance leading up to their operations and to improve gradually over the next 3 seasons. In contrast to what we expected, they did not have a greater attrition rate than their control counterparts; however, their performances did not return to preoperative levels over the course of the study. PMID:21669100

  1. An inferential and descriptive statistical examination of the relationship between cumulative work metrics and injury in Major League Baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Karakolis, Thomas; Bhan, Shivam; Crotin, Ryan L

    2013-08-01

    In Major League Baseball (MLB), games pitched, total innings pitched, total pitches thrown, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game are used to measure cumulative work. Often, pitchers are allocated limits, based on pitches thrown per game and total innings pitched in a season, in an attempt to prevent future injuries. To date, the efficacy in predicting injuries from these cumulative work metrics remains in question. It was hypothesized that the cumulative work metrics would be a significant predictor for future injury in MLB pitchers. Correlations between cumulative work for pitchers during 2002-07 and injury days in the following seasons were examined using regression analyses to test this hypothesis. Each metric was then "binned" into smaller cohorts to examine trends in the associated risk of injury for each cohort. During the study time period, 27% of pitchers were injured after a season in which they pitched. Although some interesting trends were noticed during the binning process, based on the regression analyses, it was found that no cumulative work metric was a significant predictor for future injury. It was concluded that management of a pitcher's playing schedule based on these cumulative work metrics alone could not be an effective means of preventing injury. These findings indicate that an integrated approach to injury prevention is required. This approach will likely involve advanced cumulative work metrics and biomechanical assessment. PMID:23090322

  2. Stride Leg Ground Reaction Forces Predict Throwing Velocity in Adult Recreational Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    McNally, Michael P; Borstad, John D; Oñate, James A; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2015-10-01

    Ground reaction forces produced during baseball pitching have a significant impact in the development of ball velocity. However, the measurement of only one leg and small sample sizes in these studies curb the understanding of ground reaction forces as they relate to pitching. This study aimed to further clarify the role ground reaction forces play in developing pitching velocity. Eighteen former competitive baseball players with previous high school or collegiate pitching experience threw 15 fastballs from a pitcher's mound instrumented to measure ground reaction forces under both the drive and stride legs. Peak ground reaction forces were recorded during each phase of the pitching cycle, between peak knee height and ball release, in the medial/lateral, anterior/posterior, and vertical directions, and the peak resultant ground reaction force. Stride leg ground reaction forces during the arm-cocking and arm-acceleration phases were strongly correlated with ball velocity (r2 = 0.45-0.61), whereas drive leg ground reaction forces showed no significant correlations. Stepwise linear regression analysis found that peak stride leg ground reaction force during the arm-cocking phase was the best predictor of ball velocity (r2 = 0.61) among drive and stride leg ground reaction forces. This study demonstrates the importance of ground reaction force development in pitching, with stride leg forces being strongly predictive of ball velocity. Further research is needed to further clarify the role of ground reaction forces in pitching and to develop training programs designed to improve upper extremity mechanics and pitching performance through effective force development. PMID:26402471

  3. Whole-body and segmental muscle volume are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yosuke; Yamashita, Daichi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Matsui, Tomoyuki; Seo, Kazuya; Azuma, Yoshikazu; Kida, Yoshikazu; Morihara, Toru; Kimura, Misaka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between pitching ball velocity and segmental (trunk, upper arm, forearm, upper leg, and lower leg) and whole-body muscle volume (MV) in high school baseball pitchers. Forty-seven male high school pitchers (40 right-handers and seven left-handers; age, 16.2 ± 0.7 years; stature, 173.6 ± 4.9 cm; mass, 65.0 ± 6.8 kg, years of baseball experience, 7.5 ± 1.8 years; maximum pitching ball velocity, 119.0 ± 9.0 km/hour) participated in the study. Segmental and whole-body MV were measured using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maximum ball velocity was measured with a sports radar gun. The MV of the dominant arm was significantly larger than the MV of the non-dominant arm (P < 0.001). There was no difference in MV between the dominant and non-dominant legs. Whole-body MV was significantly correlated with ball velocity (r = 0.412, P < 0.01). Trunk MV was not correlated with ball velocity, but the MV for both lower legs, and the dominant upper leg, upper arm, and forearm were significantly correlated with ball velocity (P < 0.05). The results were not affected by age or years of baseball experience. Whole-body and segmental MV are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers. However, the contribution of the muscle mass on pitching ball velocity is limited, thus other fundamental factors (ie, pitching skill) are also important. PMID:24379713

  4. Whole-body and segmental muscle volume are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yosuke; Yamashita, Daichi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Matsui, Tomoyuki; Seo, Kazuya; Azuma, Yoshikazu; Kida, Yoshikazu; Morihara, Toru; Kimura, Misaka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between pitching ball velocity and segmental (trunk, upper arm, forearm, upper leg, and lower leg) and whole-body muscle volume (MV) in high school baseball pitchers. Forty-seven male high school pitchers (40 right-handers and seven left-handers; age, 16.2 ± 0.7 years; stature, 173.6 ± 4.9 cm; mass, 65.0 ± 6.8 kg, years of baseball experience, 7.5 ± 1.8 years; maximum pitching ball velocity, 119.0 ± 9.0 km/hour) participated in the study. Segmental and whole-body MV were measured using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maximum ball velocity was measured with a sports radar gun. The MV of the dominant arm was significantly larger than the MV of the non-dominant arm (P < 0.001). There was no difference in MV between the dominant and non-dominant legs. Whole-body MV was significantly correlated with ball velocity (r = 0.412, P < 0.01). Trunk MV was not correlated with ball velocity, but the MV for both lower legs, and the dominant upper leg, upper arm, and forearm were significantly correlated with ball velocity (P < 0.05). The results were not affected by age or years of baseball experience. Whole-body and segmental MV are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers. However, the contribution of the muscle mass on pitching ball velocity is limited, thus other fundamental factors (ie, pitching skill) are also important. PMID:24379713

  5. Biologic Augmentation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in the Elbow of a Professional Baseball Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, James K.; Protzman, Nicole M.; Malhotra, Amit D.

    2015-01-01

    Tears of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow are common injuries in overhead athletes. Although surgical reconstruction of the UCL has improved outcomes, not all athletes return to their previous level of competition and when this goal is achieved, the time required averages one to two years. Therefore, additional techniques are needed to further improve return to play and the rate of return to play in overhead athletes. A construct comprising a dermal allograft, platelet rich plasma (PRP), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to successfully improve healing in the rotator cuff. Given the promising provisional findings, we postulated that this construct could also improve healing if applied to the UCL. Therefore, the purpose of the present report was to examine the feasibility of utilizing a dermal allograft, PRP, and MSC construct to augment UCL reconstruction in a professional baseball pitcher. No complications were encountered. Although limited to minimal follow-up, the patient has demonstrated excellent progress and has returned to activity. PMID:26240769

  6. Relationship Between Grip, Pinch Strengths and Anthropometric Variables, Types of Pitch Throwing Among Japanese High School Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Okura, Chisa; Kanazawa, Saeko; Nagai, Ayako; Takagishi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Grip and pinch strength are crucially important attributes and standard parameters related to the functional integrity of the hand. It seems significant to investigate normative data for grip and pinch strength of baseball players to evaluate their performance and condition. Nevertheless, few reports have explained the association between grip and pinch strength and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing for baseball pitchers. Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate clinical normative data for grip and tip, key, palmar pinch strength and to assess the relationship between these data and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing among Japanese high-school baseball pitchers. Materials and Methods: One hundred-thirty three healthy high school baseball pitchers were examined and had completed a self-administered questionnaire including items related to age, hand dominance, throwing ratio of type of pitch. A digital dynamometer was used to measure grip strength and a pinch gauge to measure tip, key and palmer pinch in both dominant and nondominant side. Body composition was measured by the multi frequency segmental body composition analyzer. Results: Grip strength and tip and palmer pinch strength in dominant side were statistically greater than them in nondominant side (P < 0.05). There were significant associations between grip strength and height (r = 0.33, P < 0.001), body mass (r = 0.50, P < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.37, P < 0.001), muscle mass of upper extremity (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), fat free mass (r = 0.57, P < 0.001), fat mass (r = 0.22, P < 0.05) in dominant side. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that fat free mass and tip, palmer, key pinch strength were predictors of grip strength in dominant side. No statistical significant correlations were found between the throwing ratio of types of pitches thrown and grip strength and tip, key, palmar pinch strength. Conclusions: Our result provides

  7. The impact of pitch counts and days of rest on performance among major-league baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, John C; Forman, Sean L

    2012-05-01

    Although the belief that overuse can harm pitchers is widespread, there exists little evidence to show that the number of pitches thrown and the days of rest affect future performance and injury among adults. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of pitches thrown and the days of rest on pitcher performance. We examined performances of major-league baseball starting pitchers from 1988 to 2009 using fractional polynomial multiple regression to estimate the immediate and cumulative impact of pitches thrown and the days of rest on performance, while controlling for other factors that likely affect pitcher effectiveness. Estimates indicate each pitch thrown in the preceding game increased earned run average (ERA) by 0.007 in the following game. Each pitch averaged in the preceding 5 and 10 games increased the ERA by 0.014 and 0.022, respectively. Older pitchers were more sensitive to cumulative pitching loads than younger pitchers were, but they were less affected by pitches thrown in the preceding game. Rest days were weakly associated with performance. In summary, we found that there is a negative relationship between past pitches thrown and future performance that is virtually linear. The impact of the cumulative pitching load is larger than the impact of a single game. Rest days do not appear to have a large impact on performance. This study supports the popular notion that high pitching loads can dampen future performance; however, because the effect is small, pitch-count benchmarks have limited use for maintaining performance and possibly preventing injury. PMID:22344048

  8. Olecranon Stress Injury in an Adolescent Overhand Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Brucker, Jason; Sahu, Novneet; Sandella, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity stress fractures, which are relatively rare, have become increasingly common, with olecranon stress injuries representing a subset primarily affecting throwing athletes. Olecranon stress fractures have been classified to fit specific radiographic patterns, with most of these injuries typified by a fracture line. Only a handful of olecranon stress injury cases report magnetic resonance imaging findings of osseous edema within the olecranon, as in our case of a 17-year-old competitive overhand baseball pitcher with elbow pain. The patient was treated conservatively and had resolution of pain after 6 weeks of rest, followed by a 6-week throwing progression with full return to pitching. PMID:26137175

  9. The Effect of Excessive Glenhumeral Internal Rotation Deficit on Subacromial Joint Space and Forward Scapular Posture among Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Laudner, Kevin G.; Wong, Regan; Latal, Jim; Meister, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Baseball pitchers frequently present with varying levels of glenohumeral internal rotation deficits (GIRD) in their throwing arms when compared to their non-throwing arms. However, excessive bilateral differences in internal rotation motion have been associated with several shoulder pathologies including both subacromial and internal impingement. Additionally, patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement commonly present with decreased subacromial joint space and increased forward scapular posture. These characteristics have not been, as of yet, evaluated and associated to those pitchers who present with excessive GIRD. The purpose of this study was to determine if a group of baseball pitchers with excessive GIRD have differences in subacromial joint space and forward scapular posture when compared to a control group. Methods: Twenty-five asymptomatic professional baseball pitchers with excessive GIRD were matched with 25 pitchers with acceptable levels of GIRD. Excessive GIRD was classified as an amount greater than 10% of the total arc of motion (i.e. dominant shoulder total arc=160°; 0.10x160°=16°; excessive GIRD=>16°). A digital inclinometer was used to measure glenohumeral internal and external rotation range of motion with participants in a supine position and their scapula stabilized. Diagnostic ultrasound was used to measure the distance of the subacromial joint space with the throwing arm resting at the side of the participant’s body (0° abduction). Bilateral forward scapular posture was assessed with each participant standing against a wall and then the distance between the wall and their anterior acromion was measured using the double square technique. The bilateral difference between these measurements was used to determine the amount of forward scapular posture for the throwing arm. Separate t-tests were run to determine significant differences between groups (p<0.05). Results: Results are summarized in Figure 1. The total arc of

  10. DIAGNOSIS OF AN ULNAR COLLATERAL LIGAMENT TEAR USING MUSCULOSKELETAL ULTRASOUND IN A COLLEGIATE BASEBALL PITCHER: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Konin, Jeff G.; Nofsinger, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate a comparative diagnostic approach between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and musculoskeletal ultrasound for detecting UCL trauma of the elbow in a collegiate baseball pitcher. Background: A 19 year-old male baseball pitcher with no previous history of an elbow injury presented with left medial elbow pain after experiencing a popping sensation during a bull pen throwing session. Patient initially demonstrated palpable tenderness directly over the UCL and a positive milking maneuver. Minimal swelling and no observable discoloration were noted upon examination. Diagnostic ultrasound was utilized to assess the elbow anatomical structures. The differential diagnosis included medial epicondylitis, flexor pronator muscle strain, ulnar collateral ligament tear Treatment: Initial treatment was conservative while preparing for a ligament reconstruction. Goals included pain control, restoration of range of motion, and reduction of inflammation. Uniqueness: Accurate diagnosis of UCL disruption was made using dynamic diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound despite a negative MRI. The ability to accurately identify the injury contributed to the timeliness of the appropriate surgical intervention and the facilitation of a timely and successful rehabilitation program. Conclusions: Dynamic musculoskeletal ultrasound may offer an effective option for diagnosing UCL tears of the elbow. Diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound is an affordable, accessible, and portable option that provides a clinician with real-time information and accurate observations in the hands of a skilled operator. Diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound may play an increased role as a diagnostic tool in the sports medicine community. PMID:21655381

  11. MRI Predictors of Failure in Non-operative Management of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries in Professional Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Thomas Sean; Frangiamore, Salvatore; Vaughn, Michael Derek; Soloff, Lonnie; Schickendantz, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Ulnar collateral injuries (UCL) of the elbow are prevalent among professional baseball pitchers. The decision on initial operative versus nonoperative management of these injuries remains subjective in many cases, with reported success rates with nonoperative management ranging from 42 to 93% in professional throwing athletes. No studies to date have identified objective characteristics specific to success or failure of nonoperative intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify radiologic predictors for success or failure in nonoperative management of ulnar collateral ligament injuries in professional pitchers. Methods: A retrospective review of pitchers sustaining UCL injuries between 2006 and 2015 from one professional baseball organization (one major league team and all minor league teams included) was performed. UCL injuries were identified in 38 players based on clinical and radiographic findings. Six players underwent initial surgical intervention without attempted nonoperative intervention and were excluded from analysis. This left 32 (84%) professional pitchers who underwent an initial trail of nonoperative treatment for partial UCL tears. Success was defined as return to same level of play (RTSP) or higher for >1 year. Failure was defined as recurrent pain or weakness requiring surgical intervention after a minimum of 3 months’ rest when attempting a return to throw rehabilitation program. MRI findings were classified as high or low grade sprains, proximal or distal location of injury, and with or without the presence of concomitant chronic findings. Results: Of the 32 patients who underwent nonoperative management, 10 (36%) failed and required subsequent ligament reconstruction. Between the success and failure groups, there was no significant difference seen in total shoulder arc of motion (P=.7776), shoulder internal rotation deficit (P=.3846) or loss in elbow extension (P=.0644) at the time of injury. When comparing MRI findings

  12. Arthroscopic Management of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears in Major League Baseball Pitchers: The Lateralized Footprint Repair Technique.

    PubMed

    Dines, Joshua S; Jones, Kristofer; Maher, Patrick; Altchek, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of surgical management of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in professional baseball players have been uniformly poor. We conducted a study to investigate return-to-play data and functional performance using a novel arthroscopic repair technique. We hypothesized that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would result in a high rate of return to professional pitching and favorable functional outcomes. We identified 6 consecutive Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who underwent surgical repair of full-thickness rotator cuff injuries using the lateralized footprint repair technique. At most recent follow-up, patients were evaluated to determine their ability to return to athletic activity. Functional outcomes were also assessed using player performance statistics. By mean follow-up of 66.7 months (range, 23.2-94.6 months), 5 (83%) of the 6 pitchers had returned to their preinjury level of competition for at least 1 full season. Despite the high rate of return to MLB play, few pitchers resumed pitching productivity at their preoperative level; mean number of innings pitched decreased from 1806.5 to 183.7. A slight performance reduction was also found in a comparison of preoperative and postoperative pitching statistics. Of note, the return rate was higher for players over age 30 years than for those under 30 years. Overhead athletes require a delicate balance of shoulder mobility and stability to meet functional demands. Anatomical adaptations at the glenohumeral joint should be considered when performing rotator cuff repair in these patients in order to preserve peak functional performance. This novel repair technique affords a high rate of return to MLB play, though elite overhead throwers should be counseled that pitching productivity might decrease after surgery. PMID:26991564

  13. Comparison of pitching kinematics between youth and adult baseball pitchers: a meta-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Wicke, Jason; Keeley, David W; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2013-11-01

    Coaches teach proper mechanics at a young age in an effort to increase pitching efficiency (i.e., proper pitching mechanics). Unfortunately, the mechanics taught to beginning pitchers are based on the findings from adult pitchers and may result in techniques that are detrimental to younger pitchers. The purpose of this study was to compare kinematics published for pitchers across various ages in an effort to determine whether the pitching techniques vary across developmental periods. A meta-analysis of papers published describing pitching kinematics for youth and adult pitchers was conducted. Maximal rotational velocity of the trunk and maximum external rotation of the shoulder were observed during the arm cocking phase. Peak magnitudes for abduction, horizontal adduction, and shoulder internal rotation were observed during the deceleration phase of the movement. In addition, by comparing previously published data across youth and adult pitchers, valuable insight into the differences in mechanics was gained. The results demonstrated that there are some distinct differences between youth and adult pitching mechanics. This finding may allow increased focus to be applied to those parameters observed to differ across age, increasing the knowledge base available for coaches to properly instruct youth pitchers. PMID:24466644

  14. Influence of Combinations of Shoulder, Elbow and Trunk Orientation on Elbow Joint Loads in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toyohiko; Inui, Hiroaki; Ninomiya, Hiroki; Muto, Tomoyuki; Nobuhara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball pitchers is a well-recognized phenomenon. Common problems in pitching mechanics that can lead to injury begin with stride foot contact. The purpose of this study was to address the relationships between the combinations of shoulder, elbow and trunk orientation at the instant of stride foot contact and elbow joint loads in youth baseball pitchers. Methods: A total of 143 Japanese male youth baseball pitchers participated in this study after providing written informed consents approved by the hospital’s institutional review board. The procedures to be performed were also explained to their parent(s) or legal guardian(s). Each participant was not currently injured or recovering from an injury at time of testing. For data collection of baseball pitching, a set of 14-mm spherical reflective markers was placed on the skin overlying 34 anatomical landmarks determined. Subsequently, a motion capture three-dimensional automatic digitizing system was used to collect 500-Hz from 7 charge-coupled-device synchronized cameras was set up around the regulation pitching mound in an indoor laboratory. After performing a preparation routine of stretching and warm-up pitching, each player pitch to 5 fastball pitches off the pitching mound to a catcher at the regulation distance of 16 m for youth pitchers. The best pitch thrown for a strike was chosen for kinematic and kinetic analysis. The local coordinate systems were used to calculate 3-dimesional rotation at the trunk, shoulder and elbow using the typical Eulerian sequence. Afterward, the standard inverse dynamic equation was used to estimate resultant joint forces and torques at throwing shoulder and elbow. In order to normalize data between subjects, forces and torques were expressed as percent using body weight and height. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to assess the combined effects of shoulder (external rotation, abduction and horizontal adduction), elbow

  15. Adolescent baseball pitching technique: lower extremity biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Milewski, Matthew D; Õunpuu, Sylvia; Solomito, Matthew; Westwell, Melany; Nissen, Carl W

    2012-11-01

    Documentation of the lower extremity motion patterns of adolescent pitchers is an important part of understanding the pitching motion and the implication of lower extremity technique on upper extremity loads, injury and performance. The purpose of this study was to take the initial step in this process by documenting the biomechanics of the lower extremities during the pitching cycle in adolescent pitchers and to compare these findings with the published data for older pitchers. Three-dimensional motion analysis using a comprehensive lower extremity model was used to evaluate the fast ball pitch technique in adolescent pitchers. Thirty-two pitchers with a mean age of 12.4 years (range 10.5-14.7 years) and at least 2 years of experience were included in this study. The pitchers showed a mean of 49 ± 12° of knee flexion of the lead leg at foot contact. They tended to maintain this position through ball release, and then extended their knee during the follow through phase (ball release to maximal internal glenohumeral rotation). The lead leg hip rapidly progressed into adduction and flexion during the arm cocking phase with a range of motion of 40 ± 10° adduction and 30 ± 13° flexion. The lead hip mean peak adduction velocity was 434 ± 83°/s and flexion velocity was 456 ± 156°/s. Simultaneously, the trailing leg hip rapidly extended approaching to a mean peak extension of -8 ± 5° at 39% of the pitch cycle, which is close to passive range of motion constraints. Peak hip abduction of the trailing leg at foot contact was -31 ± 12°, which also approached passive range of motion constraints. Differences and similarities were also noted between the adolescent lower extremity kinematics and adult pitchers; however, a more comprehensive analysis using similar methods is needed for a complete comparison. PMID:22660979

  16. [Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, John, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This student newsletter issue speaks to the subject of baseball. The first article, on who rules baseball, discusses the problems that the developing sport had with gambling, and the struggle between the owners and gangsters for control of the game. The article describes the scandal involving the Chicago White Sox in the 1919 World Series and the…

  17. Effects of Three Recovery Protocols on Range of Motion, Heart Rate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Blood Lactate in Baseball Pitchers During a Simulated Game.

    PubMed

    Warren, Courtney D; Szymanski, David J; Landers, Merrill R

    2015-11-01

    Baseball pitching has been described as an anaerobic activity from a bioenergetics standpoint with short bouts of recovery. Depending on the physical conditioning and muscle fiber composition of the pitcher as well as the number of pitches thrown per inning and per game, there is the possibility of pitchers fatiguing during a game, which could lead to a decrease in pitching performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 recovery protocols: passive recovery, active recovery (AR), and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on range of motion (ROM), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration in baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-one Division I intercollegiate baseball pitchers (age = 20.4 ± 1.4 years; height = 185.9 ± 8.4 cm; weight = 86.5 ± 8.9 kg; percent body fat = 11.2 ± 2.6) volunteered to pitch 3 simulated 5-inning games, with a maximum of 70 fastballs thrown per game while wearing an HR monitor. Range of motion was measured pre, post, and 24 hours postpitching for shoulder internal and external rotation at 90° and elbow flexion and extension. Heart rate was recorded after each pitch and after every 30 seconds of the 6-minute recovery period. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded after the last pitch of each inning and after completing each 6-minute recovery period. Immediately after throwing the last pitch of each inning, postpitching blood lactate concentration (PPLa-) was measured. At the end of the 6-minute recovery period, before the next inning started, postrecovery blood lactate concentration (PRLa-) was measured. Pitchers were instructed to throw each pitch at or above 95% of their best-pitched fastball. This was enforced to ensure that each pitcher was throwing close to maximal effort for all 3 simulated games. All data presented represent group mean values. Results revealed that the method of recovery protocol did not significantly influence ROM (p > 0

  18. Lower body predictors of glenohumeral compressive force in high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Keeley, David W; Oliver, Gretchen D; Dougherty, Christopher P; Torry, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how lower body kinematics relate to peak glenohumeral compressive force and develop a regression model accounting for variability in peak glenohumeral compressive force. Data were collected for 34 pitchers. Average peak glenohumeral compressive force was 1.72% ± 33% body weight (1334.9 N ± 257.5). Correlation coefficients revealed 5 kinematic variables correlated to peak glenohumeral compressive force (P < .01, α = .025). Regression models indicated 78.5% of the variance in peak glenohumeral compressive force (R2 = .785, P < .01) was explained by stride length, lateral pelvis flexion at maximum external rotation, and axial pelvis rotation velocity at release. These results indicate peak glenohumeral compressive force increases with a combination of decreased stride length, increased pelvic tilt at maximum external rotation toward the throwing arm side, and increased pelvis axial rotation velocity at release. Thus, it may be possible to decrease peak glenohumeral compressive force by optimizing the movements of the lower body while pitching. Focus should be on both training and conditioning the lower extremity in an effort to increase stride length, increase pelvis tilt toward the glove hand side at maximum external rotation, and decrease pelvis axial rotation at release. PMID:25734579

  19. Coordination pattern of baseball pitching among young pitchers of various ages and velocity levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Liu, Chiang; Yang, Wen-Wen

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the whole-body movement coordination of pitching among 72 baseball players of various ages and velocity levels. Participants were classified as senior, junior, and little according to their age, with each group comprising 24 players. The velocity levels of the high-velocity (the top eight) and low-velocity (the lowest eight) groups were classified according to their pitching velocity. During pitching, the coordinates of 15 markers attached to the major joints of the whole-body movement system were collected for analysis. Sixteen kinematic parameters were calculated to compare the groups and velocity levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to quantify the coordination pattern of pitching movement. The results were as follows: (1) five position and two velocity parameters significantly differed among the age groups, and two position and one velocity parameters significantly differed between the high- and low-velocity groups. (2) The coordination patterns of pitching movement could be described using three components, of which the eigenvalues and contents varied according to age and velocity level. In conclusion, the senior and junior players showed greater elbow angular velocity, whereas the little players exhibited a wider shoulder angle only at the beginning of pitching. The players with high velocity exhibited higher trunk and shoulder rotation velocity. The variations among groups found using PCA and kinematics parameter analyses were consistent. PMID:26757065

  20. Performance enhancement among adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate baseball weights.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Wen; Liu, Ya-Chen; Lu, Lee-Chang; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Chou, Paul Pei-Hsi; Liu, Chiang

    2013-12-01

    Compared with regulation-weight baseballs, lightweight baseballs generate lower torque on the shoulder and elbow joints without altering the pitching movement and timing. This study investigates the throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and maximum shoulder external rotation (MSER) of adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate lightweight baseballs. We assigned 24 adolescent players to a lightweight baseball group (group L) and a regulation-weight baseball group (group R) based on their pretraining throwing velocity. Both groups received pitching training 3 times per week for 10 weeks with 4.4- and 5-oz baseballs. The players' throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and MSER were measured from 10 maximum efforts throws using a regulation-weight baseball before and after undergoing the pitching training. The results showed that the players in group L significantly increased their throwing velocity and arm swing velocity (p < 0.05) after 10 weeks of pitching training with the 4.4-oz baseball, whereas group R did not (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the percentage change in the throwing velocity and arm swing velocity of group L was significantly superior to that of group R (p < 0.05). Thus, we concluded that the 10 weeks of pitching training with an appropriate lightweight baseball substantially enhanced the arm swing velocity and throwing velocity of the adolescent baseball players. These findings suggest that using a lightweight baseball, which can reduce the risk of injury without altering pitching patterns, has positive training effects on players in the rapid physical growth and technique development stage. PMID:23603999

  1. Conservative management of posterior interosseous neuropathy in an elite baseball pitcher's return to play: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Robb, Andrew; Sajko, Sandy

    2009-12-01

    This report documents retrospectively a case of Posterior Interosseous Neuropathy (PIN) occurring in an elite baseball pitcher experiencing a deep ache in the radial aspect of the forearm and altered sensation in the dorsum of the hand on the throwing arm during his pitching motion. The initial clinical goal was to control for inflammation to the nerve and muscle with active rest, microcurrent therapy, low-level laser therapy, and cessation of throwing. Minimizing mechanosensitivity at the common extensor region of the right elbow and PIN, was achieved by employing the use of myofascial release and augmented soft tissue mobilization techniques. Neurodynamic mobilization technique was also administered to improve neural function. Implementation of a sport specific protocol for the purposes of maintaining throwing mechanics and overall conditioning was utilized. Successful resolution of symptomatology and return to pre-injury status was achieved in 5 weeks. A review of literature and an evidence-based discussion for the differential diagnoses, clinical examination, diagnosis, management and rehabilitation of PIN is presented. PMID:20037695

  2. Cumulative Incidence of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Capitellum in Child and Adolescent Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Iwame, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    playing baseball, playing period of baseball, number of training hours per week, and history of elbow pain. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression models and presented as odds ratio (OR) and profile likelihood 95% confidence interval (CI) values. Results: The mean age that players were introduced to baseball was 6.6 ±1.1 years; the mean duration of play baseball was 2.7 ±1.1 years; and the proportion of players with elbow pain when throwing was 24.1%. There were 138 (10.8%) pitchers, 114 (8.9%) catchers, 524 (41.2%) infielders, and 499 (39.1%) outfielders. The initial ultrasonographic screening revealed an irregularity of the subchondral bone in 33 players (2.6%). Of the 33 players, all the players agreed to undergo radiography. Of them, 23 players were confirmed OCD. These results showed that cumulative incidence of OCD was 1.8%. Univariate analysis showed that OCD occurrence was significantly associated with age of 11-12 years (p<.01) and more than 3 years of experimental year (p<.01). Beginning age of playing baseball, number of training hours per week, playing position, and history of elbow pain were not significantly associated with OCD. Multivariate analysis showed that age of 11-12 years (OR, 3.96; 95% CI, 1.10-18.97) was risk factors significantly associated with OCD. Experimental year was not significantly associated with OCD occurrence. Conclusion: It is expected that 1.8% of youth baseball players have OCD each year. The age of 11 and 12, increased training hours per week are risk factors for OCD.

  3. Bilateral midshaft femoral fractures in an adolescent baseball player.

    PubMed

    Ju, D G; Mogayzel, P J; Sponseller, P D; Familiari, F; McFarland, E G

    2016-07-01

    Bone disease, specifically low bone mineral density, is a common and undertreated complication that begins during childhood in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This case describes a male baseball player, aged 14years, with undiagnosed CF who sustained a left midshaft femoral fracture while running toward base; 8months later, he sustained a right midshaft femoral fracture under similar conditions. After the second fracture, further evaluation revealed low bone mineral density and CF. There is no previously published report of pathologic fractures occurring in the femoral shaft in an athlete with undiagnosed CF. Patients with CF have a higher fracture rate. Low-energy fractures of major bones in athletically active individuals should be viewed with suspicion for an underlying process. PMID:26927602

  4. A 12-week rehabilitation program improves body composition, pain sensation, and internal/external torques of baseball pitchers with shoulder impingement symptom

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jun-Youl; Kim, Jae-Hak; Hong, Ju; Choi, Young-Tae; Kim, Min-Ho; Cho, Ji-Hyun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program on body composition, shoulder pain, and isokinetic internal/external torques of pitchers with impingement syndrome. A total of 30 pitchers were divided into 2 groups: experimental group (EG, n = 16) and control group (CG, n= 14). The rehabilitation program consisted of physical therapy, warm-up, work-out, and cool-down. As results, body weight and fat mass of EG were decreased whereas muscle mass of EG was significantly increased after the experiment. The pain degrees in resting, normal daily activity, and strenuous activity on the numeric pain rating scale were significantly decreased in the EG. The internal and external peak torques (PTs) of uninvolved and involved sides of EG were increased in EG after 12 weeks. Such results provide a deficit ratio of both sides in EG close to normal values. The ratios of internal/external PTs in EG were also close to the reference values. The internal and external total works of both sides in EG were similar to the values of PT. The fatigue indices of internal and external rotators of both sides in EG were decreased. As a conclusion, a 12-week rehabilitation program reduced the shoulder pain, improved the body composition and enhanced the isokinetic shoulder internal/external rotators in EG with impingement symptoms. Also the study suggested that the rehabilitation program evened out the ratio between internal and external rotators and lowered the fatigue level after the experiment. PMID:24678503

  5. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball.

    PubMed

    Cheshin, Arik; Heerdink, Marc W; Kossakowski, Jolanda J; Van Kleef, Gerben A

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from the Major League Baseball World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports. PMID:26909062

  6. Challenges to Cognitive Bases for an Especial Motor Skill at the Regulation Baseball Pitching Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jeffery P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Wilson, Gabriel J.; Theall, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We tested expert baseball pitchers for evidence of especial skills at the regulation pitching distance. Seven college pitchers threw indoors to a target placed at 60.5 feet (18.44 m) and four closer and four further distances away. Accuracy at the regulation distance was significantly better than predicted by regression on the nonregulation…

  7. Improvements in Shoulder Endurance Following a Baseball-Specific Strengthening Program in High School Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Stephanie D.; Uhl, Tim L.; Kibler, W. Ben

    2013-01-01

    Background: The posterior shoulder muscles play key roles in maintaining shoulder function in throwing. Arm fatigue has been identified as a risk factor for shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball pitchers. However, endurance of the posterior shoulder muscles in overhead athletes is not routinely examined or conditioned. Hypothesis: Upper extremity muscular endurance can be improved in adolescent baseball players during a 20-week preseason training program. Secondarily, strength will be improved. Finally, these improvements will be associated with maintenance of range of motion. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Fourteen baseball players (age, 16 ± 2 years) attended 3 supervised training sessions per week for 20 weeks. Strengthening of the upper extremity was performed with a specific progression that utilized readily available equipment. Testing was completed at baseline and at 4, 8, and 20 weeks. The posterior shoulder endurance test was performed to assess muscular endurance. Glenohumeral internal and external rotation range of motion and strength were measured. Results: Posterior shoulder endurance improved from 30 ± 14 repetitions at baseline to 66 ± 26 at 4 weeks and 88 ± 36 at 20 weeks (P < 0.05). Glenohumeral internal rotation range of motion and the glenohumeral internal/external rotation strength ratio remained similar over the course of the program. Conclusion: Implementation of a preseason training program effectively increased shoulder muscular endurance while maintaining strength ratios and range of motion throughout the 20-week program. Clinical Relevance: This program improved a key parameter known to be associated with shoulder function and injury risk. This study describes a simple clinical tool to assess muscular endurance of the posterior shoulder. PMID:24427394

  8. Subscapularis strain from swinging a baseball bat in an adolescent with closed physis.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Brendan T; Teixeira, Rafael P; Johnson, Alan R; Carrino, John A; McFarland, Edward G

    2011-05-01

    A healthy 16-year-old female baseball player was referred by her pediatrician for evaluation of pain in her right, dominant shoulder. The pain had begun insidiously 4 weeks previously after several sessions of batting practice and had worsened until she could not participate in baseball, even with low doses of ibuprofen. She was not participating in any other sports or weight lifting and had had no previous incidents of shoulder pain, but she did have a history of being able to voluntarily subluxate the right shoulder since she was a child. Her voluntary shoulder subluxation and reduction did not reproduce or worsen her pain. Results from her physical examination and radiographs were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed edema in the subscapularis muscle consistent with acute muscle strain. She was treated with 6 weeks of rest, ice, and anti-inflammatory medication as needed. She returned to baseball and hitting during the following 6 weeks with no limitations. PMID:23016019

  9. Glenohumeral Range of Motion in Major League Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Freehill, Michael T.; Ebel, Brian G.; Archer, Kristin R.; Bancells, Richard L.; Wilckens, John H.; McFarland, Edward G.; Cosgarea, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although overhead throwing athletes may develop unique glenohumeral range of motion characteristics, to our knowledge these characteristics have not been studied longitudinally in major league pitchers. Hypothesis: Major league pitchers (starters and relievers) experience an increase in glenohumeral external rotation and a decrease in internal rotation and total range of motion. Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit worsens over a regular playing season. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: In 21 major league baseball pitchers (29 individual playing seasons), glenohumeral range of motion was measured in external and internal rotation for the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders before and at the conclusion of the regular season. The total range of motion (the sum of external rotation and internal rotation) and the glenohumeral internal rotation deficit were calculated (the difference between internal rotation of the nonthrowing shoulder minus that of the throwing shoulder), and data were compared between starting and relief pitchers. Results: The overall mean changes in external rotation (+1.5°), internal rotation (+2.7°), and total range of motion (+3.3°) were not statistically significant. However, starting pitchers showed statistically significant increases in internal rotation (+6.5°, P = 0.01) and total range of motion (+7.9°, P = 0.04), whereas relief pitchers had significant worsening of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (+5.3°, P = 0.04). Conclusions: The characteristics of glenohumeral range of motion in major league pitchers did not differ significantly from the beginning to the end of a season, but significant changes did occur between starting and relief pitchers. Clinical Relevance: Adaptations to the daily routines of starter and reliever pitchers may be warranted on the basis of these findings. PMID:23015997

  10. A Field Study of Traditional and Nontraditional Children's Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rainer; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Younger children often have problems playing baseball using adult rules because pitchers lack ability to throw consistently and batters have trouble hitting erratically thrown balls. A modification of adult rules allowed the team coach to pitch to batters. More offensive and defensive activity occurred in the nontraditional games than in…

  11. Binomial Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Eugene M.

    1981-01-01

    Student access to programmable calculators and computer terminals, coupled with a familiarity with baseball, provides opportunities to enhance their understanding of the binomial distribution and other aspects of analysis. (MP)

  12. Factors Influencing Ball-Player Impact Probability in Youth Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Philip A.; Myers, Joseph B.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Altering the weight of baseballs for youth play has been studied out of concern for player safety. Research has shown that decreasing the weight of baseballs may limit the severity of both chronic arm and collision injuries. Unfortunately, reducing the weight of the ball also increases its exit velocity, leaving pitchers and nonpitchers with less time to defend themselves. The purpose of this study was to examine impact probability for pitchers and nonpitchers. Hypothesis: Reducing the available time to respond by 10% (expected from reducing ball weight from 142 g to 113 g) would increase impact probability for pitchers and nonpitchers, and players’ mean simple response time would be a primary predictor of impact probability for all participants. Study Design: Nineteen subjects between the ages of 9 and 13 years performed 3 experiments in a controlled laboratory setting: a simple response time test, an avoidance response time test, and a pitching response time test. Methods: Each subject performed these tests in order. The simple reaction time test tested the subjects’ mean simple response time, the avoidance reaction time test tested the subjects’ ability to avoid a simulated batted ball as a fielder, and the pitching reaction time test tested the subjects’ ability to avoid a simulated batted ball as a pitcher. Results: Reducing the weight of a standard baseball from 142 g to 113 g led to a less than 5% increase in impact probability for nonpitchers. However, the results indicate that the impact probability for pitchers could increase by more than 25%. Conclusion: Pitching may greatly increase the amount of time needed to react and defend oneself from a batted ball. Clinical Relevance: Impact injuries to youth baseball players may increase if a 113-g ball is used. PMID:25984261

  13. Visual search strategies and decision making in baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Takayuki; Inomata, Kimihiro

    2009-06-01

    The goal was to examine the differences in visual search strategies between expert and nonexpert baseball batters during the preparatory phase of a pitcher's pitching and accuracy and timing of swing judgments during the ball's trajectory. 14 members of a college team (Expert group), and graduate and college students (Nonexpert group), were asked to observe 10 pitches thrown by a pitcher and respond by pushing a button attached to a bat when they thought the bat should be swung to meet the ball (swing judgment). Their eye movements, accuracy, and the timing of the swing judgment were measured. The Expert group shifted their point of observation from the proximal part of the body such as the head, chest, or trunk of the pitcher to the pitching arm and the release point before the pitcher released a ball, while the gaze point of the Nonexpert group visually focused on the head and the face. The accuracy in swing judgments of the Expert group was significantly higher, and the timing of their swing judgments was significantly earlier. Expert baseball batters used visual search strategies to gaze at specific cues (the pitching arm of the pitcher) and were more accurate and relatively quicker at decision making than Nonexpert batters. PMID:19725330

  14. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Cheshin, Arik; Heerdink, Marc W.; Kossakowski, Jolanda J.; Van Kleef, Gerben A.

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers’ facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from the Major League Baseball World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher’s face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers’ facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports. PMID:26909062

  15. Differences among fastball, curveball, and change-up pitching biomechanics across various levels of baseball.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Laughlin, Walter A; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Andrews, James R

    2016-06-01

    Controversy continues whether curveballs are stressful for young baseball pitchers. Furthermore, it is unproven whether professional baseball pitchers have fewer kinematic differences between fastballs and off-speed pitches than lower level pitchers. Kinematic and kinetic data were measured for 111 healthy baseball pitchers (26 youth, 21 high school, 20 collegiate, 26 minor league, and 18 major league level) throwing fastballs, curveballs, and change-ups in an indoor biomechanics laboratory with a high-speed, automated digitising system. Differences between pitch types and between competition levels were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA. Shoulder and elbow kinetics were greater in fastballs than in change-ups, while curveball kinetics were not different from the other two types of pitches. Kinematic angles at the instant of ball release varied between pitch types, while kinematic angles at the instant of lead foot contact varied between competition levels. There were no significant interactions between pitch type and competition level, meaning that kinetic and kinematic differences between pitch types did not vary by competition level. Like previous investigations, this study did not support the theory that curveballs are relatively more stressful for young pitchers. Although pitchers desire consistent kinematics, there were differences between pitch types, independent of competition level. PMID:27110899

  16. Temper, temperature, and temptation: heat-related retaliation in baseball.

    PubMed

    Larrick, Richard P; Timmerman, Thomas A; Carton, Andrew M; Abrevaya, Jason

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we analyzed data from 57,293 Major League Baseball games to test whether high temperatures interact with provocation to increase the likelihood that batters will be hit by a pitch. Controlling for a number of other variables, we conducted analyses showing that the probability of a pitcher hitting a batter increases sharply at high temperatures when more of the pitcher's teammates have been hit by the opposing team earlier in the game. We suggest that high temperatures increase retaliation by increasing hostile attributions when teammates are hit by a pitch and by lowering inhibitions against retaliation. PMID:21350182

  17. Indicators of throwing arm fatigue in elite adolescent male baseball players: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Freeston, Jonathan; Adams, Roger; Ferdinands, René E D; Rooney, Kieron

    2014-08-01

    Throwing carries an inherent risk of injury that worsens in the presence of arm fatigue. The purpose of this study was to identify markers that could facilitate the early detection of this type of fatigue, by comparing the response to bouts of throwing-specific and running-based exercise. Thirteen elite junior male baseball players were tested twice, 7 days apart with a randomized crossover design. They were assessed for shoulder proprioception, maximal throwing velocity, and throwing accuracy before and after a 10-minute bout of either throwing-specific (THROW) or general (RUN) exercise. Maximal throwing velocity was reduced similarly after both THROW and RUN bouts (-1.0 ± 0.4 vs. -0.6 ± 0.2 m·s-1, respectively; p ≤ 0.05); however, accuracy was only reduced after THROW (7.6 ± 3.4 cm; p ≤ 0.05). Arm soreness increased significantly more after THROW than RUN (3.5 ± 0.7 vs. 1.4 ± 0.5 km·h-1, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). Shoulder proprioception did not change after either exercise bout. The results suggest that throwing velocity is an indicator of general fatigue, whereas throwing accuracy and arm soreness are markers of arm fatigue. Shoulder proprioception does not seem to be a sensitive marker of either type of fatigue. Throwing velocity should be monitored to gauge overall fatigue levels, whereas accuracy and arm soreness should be closely monitored to gauge arm fatigue and throwing-induced injury risk. PMID:24513620

  18. Return to Sport Following Shoulder Surgery in the Elite Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Joshua D.; Frank, Jonathan M.; Jordan, Mark A.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Gupta, Anil K.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; McCormick, Frank M.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The ability to return to elite pitching, performance, and clinical outcomes of shoulder surgery in elite baseball pitchers are not definitively established. Objective: To determine (1) the rate of return to sport (RTS) in elite pitchers following shoulder surgery, (2) postoperative clinical outcomes upon RTS, and (3) performance upon RTS and to compare RTS rates in different types of shoulder surgery. Data Sources: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and checklist, Medline, SciVerse Scopus, SportDiscus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Study Selection: Levels I-IV evidence were eligible for inclusion if performance-based (eg, RTS) and/or clinical outcome–based reporting of outcomes were reported following surgical treatment of shoulder pathology in elite pitchers (major or minor league or collegiate). Data Extraction: Subject, shoulder, and pre- and postoperative performance-based variables of interest were extracted. All shoulder surgery types were potentially inclusive (eg, open, arthroscopic, rotator cuff, labrum, biceps, acromioclavicular joint, fracture). Study methodological quality was analyzed using the Modified Coleman Methodology Score (MCMS). Results: Six studies were analyzed (287 elite male pitchers [mean age, 27 years] who underwent shoulder surgery, with 99% on the dominant, throwing shoulder). MCMS was 38 (poor). Most pitchers were professional, with a mean career length of 6.58 years and postoperative clinical follow-up of 3.62 years. In 5 of 6 studies, multiple diagnoses were addressed concomitantly at surgery. Rate of RTS was 68% at mean 12 months following surgery. Twenty-two percent of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers never RTS in MLB. Overall performance did improve following surgery; however, this did not improve to pre-injury levels. Conclusion: In this systematic review, the rate of return to elite baseball pitching following surgery was

  19. EVALUATION OF PAINFUL SHOULDER IN BASEBALL PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Junior, Adriano Fernando Mendes; Soares, André Lopes; Aihara, Leandro Jun; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between shoulder mobility and strength and the presence of pain among baseball players. Methods: Between April and July 2009, 55 baseball players were assessed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the School of Medical Sciences, Santa Casa de Misericórdia, São Paulo. They were all males, aged between 15 and 33 years (mean of 21); they attended an average of three training sessions per week and had been doing this sport for a mean of 10 years. Results: 14 of the 55 players evaluated were pitchers, and 20 reported pain during the pitching motion. The mean values for lateral and medial rotation and range of motion (ROM) in the dominant shoulder were, respectively, 110 °, 61 ° and 171 °, with a statistically significant difference in relation to the non-dominant limb. Pitchers had greater gains in lateral rotation and deficits in medial rotation than did non-pitchers. Pain presented a statistically significant correlation with diminished ROM, greater length of time playing the sport and situations of “shoulder at risk”. Conclusions: Statistically significant differences in dominant shoulder mobility were found, with increased lateral rotation, diminished medial rotation and smaller ROM, in relation to the contralateral limb. There was a statistically significant relationship between the pitcher's position and greater gain in lateral rotation and diminished medial rotation. There were statistically significant correlations between pain and diminished ROM, greater length of time playing the sport and situations of “shoulder at risk”. There was a statistical tendency suggesting that players with diminished medial rotation of the dominant shoulder presented a relationship with pain. PMID:27028320

  20. SHOULDER RANGE OF MOTION, PITCH COUNT, AND INJURIES AMONG INTERSCHOLASTIC FEMALE SOFTBALL PITCHERS: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Michener, Lori A.; Ellenbecker, Todd S.; Rauh, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Injury rates for softball players are similar to baseball players yet information regarding risk factors, pitching, and physical characteristics for high school windmill softball pitchers is limited. This information is needed to guide prevention, training, and rehabilitation efforts. The purpose of this study was to report descriptive data regarding the physical characteristics and pitching volume experienced by high school softball pitchers during one academic season. A secondary aim was to track and describe upper extremity injuries suffered by high school softball pitchers throughout the course of the 2009 season. Methods: Twelve uninjured female softball pitchers (13‐18y) from 5 Greenville, South Carolina high schools participated. Prior to the 2009 season, the pitchers' shoulder internal, external, total arc of rotation and horizontal adduction PROM was measured. During the 10‐week season, aggregate pitch counts (pitch volume) and occurrence of upper extremity injury were tracked for each pitcher. Results: Mean preseason internal, external, and total arc of rotation PROM was observed to be similar between the pitchers' dominant and non‐dominant shoulders. The PROM measures of horizontal abduction (HA) appear to demonstrate a side‐to‐side difference with less HA on the dominant arm of the pitchers who were examined. Subjects threw in an average of 10.1 games (±4.9) during the season. Six pitchers threw in 60% or more of the team's games and 3 of 12 pitchers pitched less than 25% of games. Pitchers averaged 61.8 pitches per game (±31.5) and 745.8 (±506.4) per season. Pitch count data did not appear to be different between injured and non‐injured pitchers. Conclusions: Knowledge of pitch volume can be used to prepare windmill softball pitchers for the seasonal stresses, guide establishment of goals when recovering from injury, or assist in training for an upcoming season. Further research is needed to examine larger samples of

  1. Frequency-dependent performance and handedness in professional baseball players (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2008-02-01

    I used data on handedness and pitching and hitting performance in annual cohorts of professional baseball players (1957-2005) to test the hypothesis that handedness among pitchers was subject to negative frequency-dependent selection. As predicted by this hypothesis, right-handed pitchers were more successful (i.e., opposing batters hit more poorly against them) when they were relatively rare in the population. Contrary to the predictions of this hypothesis, however, left-handed pitchers were more successful when they were relatively common. Both right- and left-handed batters performed better in years dominated by right-handed pitchers, despite the fact that right-handed batters perform relatively poorly against right-handed pitchers. I suggest that batters form cognitive representations based on pitcher handedness, and that these representations are strengthened by repeated exposure or priming. When the pitcher handedness polymorphism is more balanced (e.g., 67% right-handed, 33% left-handed), these cognitive representations are less effective, which leads to decreased batting averages and improved performance by all pitchers. Furthermore, these cognitive representations are likely to be more critical to the success of right-handed hitters, who have reduced visuomotor skills relative to left-handed hitters. PMID:18298283

  2. Body type and performance of elite cuban baseball players.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Wiliam; Ríos, Andrés; Echevarría, Ivis; Martínez, Miriam; Miñoso, Julio; Rodríguez, Dialvis

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Appropriate stature and adequate somatotype are not the only attributes determining athletic performance, but they are important prerequisites for sports participation and success. However, there is scant literature on baseball players' kinanthropometric profiles and their association with performance. Given that Cuban baseball players have been among the world's top performers in recent decades, characterization of their morphological features linked to their performance may contribute to developing the evidence base in this area. Objective Describe the kinanthropometric profile related to sports performance of elite Cuban baseball players, classified by playing position. Methods Body composition, somatotype, proportionality, and performance were measured in 100 elite baseball players grouped by playing position and performance. Data from the 2002-2003 baseball season was gathered for players participating in the 43rd Cuban National Baseball Series (November 2003-May 2004). Slugging percentage (SLG) was used to measure performance of all players except pitchers, whose performance was measured as end-of-season win-loss record. Mean and standard deviation values were calculated for anthropometric and performance results, presented in tables for comparison. ANOVA and MANOVA analyses were applied to determine magnitudes of difference between the variables studied, as well as statistical significance of the differences established (p≤0.05 and p≤0.01). Results Performance and body type varied by playing position, and statistically significant differences were found in performance, body composition and somatotype variables between some positions. No significant differences in proportionality were found. First basemen and outfielders (center, left, and right fielders) were the best offensive players with the highest mean SLG, body weight and muscle mass values. Infielders (second basemen, shortstops, and third basemen) had the lowest mean body weight and

  3. Medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow in major league baseball players: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J; Bach Jr, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is a vital structure to the overhead athlete, especially the baseball pitcher. For reasons not completely understood, UCL injuries have become increasingly more common in major league baseball (MLB) pitchers over the past 10 years. UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is the current gold standard of treatment for these injuries in MLB pitchers who wish to return to sport (RTS) at a high level and who have failed a course of non-operative treatment. Results following UCLR in MLB pitchers have been encouraging, with multiple RTS rates now cited at greater than 80%. Unfortunately, with the rising number of UCLR, there has also been a spike in the number of revision UCLR in MLB pitchers. Similar to primary UCLR, the etiology of the increase in revision UCLR, aside from an increase in the number of pitchers who have undergone a primary UCLR, remains elusive. The current literature has attempted to address several questions including those surrounding surgical technique (method of exposure, graft choice, management of the ulnar nerve, concomitant elbow arthroscopy, etc.), post-operative rehabilitation strategies, and timing of RTS following UCLR. While some questions have been answered, many remain unknown. The literature surrounding UCLR in MLB pitchers will be reviewed, and future directions regarding this injury in these high level athletes will be discussed. PMID:27335810

  4. Medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow in major league baseball players: Where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Bach, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-06-18

    The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is a vital structure to the overhead athlete, especially the baseball pitcher. For reasons not completely understood, UCL injuries have become increasingly more common in major league baseball (MLB) pitchers over the past 10 years. UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is the current gold standard of treatment for these injuries in MLB pitchers who wish to return to sport (RTS) at a high level and who have failed a course of non-operative treatment. Results following UCLR in MLB pitchers have been encouraging, with multiple RTS rates now cited at greater than 80%. Unfortunately, with the rising number of UCLR, there has also been a spike in the number of revision UCLR in MLB pitchers. Similar to primary UCLR, the etiology of the increase in revision UCLR, aside from an increase in the number of pitchers who have undergone a primary UCLR, remains elusive. The current literature has attempted to address several questions including those surrounding surgical technique (method of exposure, graft choice, management of the ulnar nerve, concomitant elbow arthroscopy, etc.), post-operative rehabilitation strategies, and timing of RTS following UCLR. While some questions have been answered, many remain unknown. The literature surrounding UCLR in MLB pitchers will be reviewed, and future directions regarding this injury in these high level athletes will be discussed. PMID:27335810

  5. Predicting and Preventing Injury in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players are at significant risk for both chronic, repetitive overuse injuries as well as acute traumatic injuries. Pitchers have been shown to be at higher risk for sustaining injuries, especially upper extremity injuries, than position players. The past several MLB seasons have seen a dramatic rise in the number of ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions performed in MLB pitchers. Several recent prospective studies have identified risk factors for injuries to both the shoulder and elbow in MLB pitchers. These risk factors include a lack of external rotation, a lack of total rotation, and a lack of flexion in the throwing arm. Thus far, no study has demonstrated a correlation between cumulative work (number of games pitched, total pitches thrown, total innings pitched, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game) and injuries in MLB pitchers, despite several studies showing this correlation in youth pitchers. Although many risk factors have been translated into guidelines for prevention, no study has been conducted to determine whether adherence to these guidelines effectively prevents injuries. Further studies are necessary to define exactly how injuries in MLB players can be prevented. PMID:26991568

  6. Study on Impact Loading and Humerus Injury for Baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Shinobu; Oda, Juhachi; Yonemura, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Jiro

    In the United States and Japan, baseball is a very popular sport played by many people. However, the ball used is hard and moves fast. A professional baseball pitcher in good form can throw a ball at speeds upwards of 41.7m/s (150km/hr). If a ball at this speed hits the batter, serious injury can occur. In this paper we will describe our investigations on the impact of a baseball with living tissues by finite element analysis. Baseballs were projected at a load cell plate using a specialized pitching machine. The dynamic properties of the baseball were determined by comparing the wall-ball collision experimentally measuring the time history of the force and the displacement using dynamic finite element analysis software (ANSYS/ LS-DYNA). The finite element model representing a human humerus and its surrounding tissue was simulated for balls pitched at variable speeds and pitch types (knuckle and fastball). In so doing, the stress distribution and stress wave in the bone and soft tissue were obtained. From the results, the peak stress of the bone nearly yielded to the stress caused by a high fast ball. If the collision position or direction is moved from the center of the upper arm, it is assumed that the stress exuded on the humerus will be reduced. Some methods to reduce the severity of the injury which can be applied in actual baseball games are also discussed.

  7. Little League Baseball and Players' Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donna B.; Gruber, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of a season of little league baseball on the self-esteem of 94 pre-adolescent players was investigated. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and a newly devised Baseball-Self scale were administered. Significant improvements in players' total Self-esteem, Home-Parents and School-Academic scores were found. (Author/PN)

  8. Perception-action coupling and anticipatory performance in baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Carlton, Les G

    2007-09-01

    The authors examined 10 expert and 10 novice baseball batters' ability to distinguish between a fastball and a change-up in a virtual environment. They used 2 different response modes: (a) an uncoupled response in which the batters verbally predicted the type of pitch and (b) a coupled response in which the batters swung a baseball bat to try and hit the virtual ball. The authors manipulated visual information from the pitcher and ball in 6 visual conditions. The batters were more accurate in predicting the type of pitch when the response was uncoupled. In coupled responses, experts were better able to use the first 100 ms of ball flight independently of the pitcher's kinematics. In addition, the skilled batters' stepping patterns were related to the pitcher's kinematics, whereas their swing time was related to ball speed. Those findings suggest that specific task requirements determine whether a highly coupled perception-action environment improves anticipatory performance. The authors also highlight the need for research on interceptive actions to be conducted in the performer's natural environment. PMID:17827114

  9. Pitching Speed and Glenohumeral Adaptation in High School Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Keller, Robert A; Marshall, Nathan E; Mehran, Nima; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2015-08-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotational deficit and increased glenohumeral external rotation are common findings in baseball pitchers. To the authors' knowledge, no study has focused on the adaptation of glenohumeral internal rotational deficit and increased glenohumeral external rotation in relation to pitching speed. This study evaluated changes in range of motion in the throwing shoulder in high school pitchers to determine whether changes in internal and external rotation directly correlate with pitch velocity. The shoulders of 22 high school varsity pitchers were evaluated. Standard goniometric technique was used to measure passive external and internal glenohumeral range of motion in both arms. Measurements were evaluated for statistically significant differences in range of motion. Demographic features, including height, weight, and age, were assessed. Fifteen consecutive in-game pitch speeds were recorded, and the fastest pitch was used for evaluation. Pitch speeds were correlated to the player's glenohumeral internal rotational deficit, increased glenohumeral external rotation, and physical demographics. Average age was 16.9 years. Average external rotation of the throwing arm was significantly greater than that of the nonthrowing arm (143.00° vs 130.32°, P=.005). Average internal rotation of the throwing arm was significantly less than that of the nonthrowing arm (49.50° vs 65.90°, P=.006). Both shoulders had similar total arc of motion (throwing shoulder, 192.54; nonthrowing shoulder, 196.23; P=.822). Average maximum velocity was 77.7 mph (maximum, 88 mph; minimum, 66 mph). Maximum pitch velocity did not correlate with changes in glenohumeral internal rotational deficit (P=.683) or increased glenohumeral external rotation (P=.241). There was also no evidence of correlation between pitch velocity and player age, height, weight, or dominant hand. The stress of pitching creates adaptations to the throwing shoulder, even in young athletes. There appears to be

  10. Effect of age on anthropometric and physical performance measures in professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Fragala, Maren S; Vazquez, Jose; Krause, Matthew C; Gillett, Javair; Pichardo, Napoleon

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related changes in anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players. Baseball players (n = 1,157) from several professional baseball organizations were categorized into 7 cohorts based upon age. All adolescent athletes were categorized as age group 1 (AG1), whereas the next 5 groups (AG2-AG6) consisted of players 20-22, 23-25, 26-28, 29-31, and 31-34 years, respectively. The final group (AG7) comprised athletes ≥35 years. All performance assessments were part of the athlete's normal preseason training camp testing routine. Field assessments were used to analyze lower-body power, speed, agility, grip strength, and body composition. The players were heaviest between the ages of 29 and 31 (AG5), and their body mass in that age group was 10.1% (p = 0.004) greater than that of AG1. A 7.0% increase (p = 0.000) in lean body mass occurred between AG1 and AG5. No differences in 10-yd sprint times or agility were seen across any age group or position. A 2.0 seconds (p = 0.001) slower run time for the 300-yd shuttle was seen between AG4 and AG5 for all positions combined. Elevations in grip strength were seen at AG4 compared with AG1 (p = 0.001) and AG2 (p = 0.007) for all positions combined. No other differences were noted. Lower-body power was increased for all positions combined from AG1 to AG3 (p = 0.007). This pattern was similar to that observed in position players, but a 12.4% decrease (p = 0.024) in VJMP was seen between AG7 and AG5 in pitchers. Results of this study indicate that lower-body power is maintained in baseball players until the age of 29-31, whereas speed, agility, and grip strength are maintained in players able to play past the age of 35 years. Age-related differences observed in this study suggest that athletes focus on their strength and conditioning programs to extend the length of their professional careers. PMID:22505124

  11. Kinematic and kinetic comparison of baseball pitching among various levels of development.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, G S; Barrentine, S W; Zheng, N; Escamilla, R F; Andrews, J R

    1999-12-01

    Proper biomechanics help baseball pitchers minimize their risk of injury and maximize performance. However previous studies involved adult pitchers only. In this study, 23 youth, 33 high school, 115 college, and 60 professional baseball pitchers were analyzed. Sixteen kinematic (11 position and five velocity), eight kinetic, and six temporal parameters were calculated and compared among the four levels of competition. Only one of the 11 kinematic position parameters showed significant differences among the four levels, while all five velocity parameters showed significant differences. All eight kinetic parameters increased significantly with competition level. None of the six temporal parameters showed significant differences. Since 16 of the 17 position and temporal parameters showed no significant differences, this study supports the philosophy that a child should be taught 'proper' pitching mechanics for use throughout a career. Kinetic differences observed suggest greater injury risk at higher competition levels. Since adult pitchers did not demonstrate different position or temporal patterns than younger pitchers, increases in joint forces and torques were most likely due to increased strength and muscle mass in the higher level athlete. The greater shoulder and elbow angular velocities produced by high-level pitchers were most likely due to the greater torques they generated during the arm cocking and acceleration phases. The combination of more arm angular velocity and a longer arm resulted in greater linear ball velocity for the higher level pitcher. Thus, it appears that the natural progression for successful pitching is to learn proper mechanics as early as possible, and build strength as the body matures. PMID:10569718

  12. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  13. Dynamic stereoacuity: a test for hitting a baseball?

    PubMed

    Solomon, H; Zinn, W J; Vacroux, A

    1988-07-01

    Vision is a critical ingredient in professional sports such as baseball. It would, therefore, be logical to assume that vision testing should be able to discriminate between good and bad performance. Past attempts to establish this vision/performance relationship have not been successful. We believe the fault is anchored in the fact that all routine vision testing is static and unable to measure motion parameters. Using an instrument of our design to test dynamic stereoacuity, we have been able to detect subtle differences among individuals. The data show a segregation between major league hitters and pitchers. Such information could be used as one clue to predict hitting performance. PMID:3403900

  14. Peak athletic performance and ageing: evidence from baseball.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, John Charles

    2009-04-01

    Baseball players exhibit a pattern of improvement and decline in performance; however, differing lengths of careers and changes in rules and characteristics of the game complicate assessments of age-related effects on performance. This study attempts to isolate the impact of age on several player skills while controlling for relevant outside factors using longitudinal data from 86 seasons of Major League Baseball. The results indicate that players age in different skills in accord with studies of ageing in other athletic contests. For overall performance, multiple-regression estimates indicate that hitters and pitchers peak around the age of 29 - later than previous estimates. Athletic skills such as hitting and running peak earlier than skills that rely heavily on experience and knowledge, such as issuing and drawing walks. PMID:19308873

  15. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  16. Experience Rate of Elbow Pain and Morphological Abnormality of Humeral Medial Epicondyle among Youth Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Kotoura, Yoshihiro; Morihara, Toru; Kida, Yoshikazu; Sukenari, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryuhei; Kabuto, Yukichi; MInami, Masataka; Onishi, Okihiro; Tsujihara, Takashi; Hojo, Tatsuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the experience rate of elbow pain and to clarify the relationship between morphological abnormality of the humeral medial epicondyle and positions among baseball players in elementary school (ES), junior high school (JHS) and high school (HS). Methods: In this study, 4353 baseball players who participated in our medical screening (2008-2015) were enrolled. There were 1545 players from ES, 1934 players from JHS, and 874 players from HS. We asked them to answer the questionnaire to investigate the experience of elbow pain, and the position they played. Ultrasonography of the humeral medial epicondyle was examined and irregularity, fragmentation, and malunion of the humeral medial epicondyle. The results were analyzed statistically. P < 0.05 was considered significant for all statistical analyses. Results: The experience rates of elbow pain among players in ES, JHS, and HS were 26.0%, 27.0%, and 68.3%. The rates of abnormality of humeral medial epicondyle among players in ES, JHS, and HS were 18.2%, 36.3%, and 39.9% (Table 1). The experience rate of elbow pain among pitchers and catchers was significantly higher than the fielders in ES (Table 2), however, there were no significant differences between positions in JHS and HS (Table 3,4). According to the rate of morphological abnormalities of humeral medial epicondyle, pitchers and catchers were significantly higher than fielders in ES, while only pitchers were significantly higher than the fielders in JHS and HS (Table 2,3,4). Conclusion: The experience rate of elbow pain among baseball players rose as the age increased, and the rate in HS was almost 70%. The rates of morphological abnormality of humeral medial epicondyle among pitchers and catchers were high and the tendency was observed from a young age. The primary prevention of elbow injuries in youth baseball players of all ages should be considered.

  17. Carthage High School Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodfin, Samantha, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This is the third issue of the magazine to focus on baseball in Panola County (Texas). The issue salutes the Carthage High School baseball program during two periods of its history. The first period was the early 1940's under Coach E. B. Morrison, whose teams were State Finalists in 1941 and 1942. The second period covered is the era of Coach…

  18. A Highly Miniaturized, Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit for Characterizing the Dynamics of Pitched Baseballs and Softballs

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Ryan S.; Perkins, Noel C.

    2012-01-01

    Baseball and softball pitch types are distinguished by the path and speed of the ball which, in turn, are determined by the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center at the instant of release from the pitcher's hand. While radar guns and video-based motion capture (mocap) resolve ball speed, they provide little information about how the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center develop and change during the throwing motion. Moreover, mocap requires measurements in a controlled lab environment and by a skilled technician. This study addresses these shortcomings by introducing a highly miniaturized, wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU) that is embedded in both baseballs and softballs. The resulting “ball-embedded” sensor resolves ball dynamics right on the field of play. Experimental results from ten pitches, five thrown by one softball pitcher and five by one baseball pitcher, demonstrate that this sensor technology can deduce the magnitude and direction of the ball's velocity at release to within 4.6% of measurements made using standard mocap. Moreover, the IMU directly measures the angular velocity of the ball, which further enables the analysis of different pitch types.

  19. Comparison of three baseball-specific 6-week training programs on throwing velocity in high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Ionno, Michele; deMahy, M Scott; Fleisig, Glenn S; Wilk, Kevin E; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2012-07-01

    Throwing velocity is an important baseball performance variable for baseball pitchers, because greater throwing velocity results in less time for hitters to make a decision to swing. Throwing velocity is also an important baseball performance variable for position players, because greater throwing velocity results in decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base. This study compared the effects of 3 baseball-specific 6-week training programs on maximum throwing velocity. Sixty-eight high school baseball players 14-17 years of age were randomly and equally divided into 3 training groups and a nontraining control group. The 3 training groups were the Throwers Ten (TT), Keiser Pneumatic (KP), and Plyometric (PLY). Each training group trained 3 d·wk(-1) for 6 weeks, which comprised approximately 5-10 minutes for warm-up, 45 minutes of resistance training, and 5-10 for cool-down. Throwing velocity was assessed before (pretest) and just after (posttest) the 6-week training program for all the subjects. A 2-factor repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc paired t-tests was used to assess throwing velocity differences (p < 0.05). Compared with pretest throwing velocity values, posttest throwing velocity values were significantly greater in the TT group (1.7% increase), the KP group (1.2% increase), and the PLY group (2.0% increase) but not significantly different in the control group. These results demonstrate that all 3 training programs were effective in increasing throwing velocity in high school baseball players, but the results of this study did not demonstrate that 1 resistance training program was more effective than another resistance training program in increasing throwing velocity. PMID:22549085

  20. Detection of methanogenic archaea in the pitchers of the Northern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea ).

    PubMed

    Krieger, Joseph R; Kourtev, Peter S

    2012-02-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Sarracenia rely on microorganisms in their pitchers to decompose drowned insects. The environment inside pitchers is considered to be aerobic; however, there might be zones, such as at the bottom of the pitcher, where anaerobic conditions develop. Samples of the sediment at the bottom of Sarracenia purpurea pitchers were analyzed for the presence of archaea, using PCR and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Archaeal DNA was detected in 20% of sampled pitchers. All sequences were closely related to Methanobrevibacter . Therefore, pitchers may contain anoxic zones inhabited by methanogens. PMID:22263906

  1. Aerodynamics and Baseball

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is known for rocket science and airplanes, but for baseball? NASA researchers like to solve down-to-Earth problems like how far will a batted ball travel or what makes a curve ball curve? Aero...

  2. Elbow and Shoulder Lesions of Baseball Players*

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    George Eli Bennett was born in Claryville, NY, in the Catskill Mountains, in 1885 [3]. His parents both died by the time he was 11, leaving him the need to work while going to school, but he excelled in school and sports. He played semipro baseball at the age of 16. After high school he work in various jobs in the Midwest before he could afford to attend the University of Maryland Medical School, from which he graduated in 1908. At the age of 25 in 1910, he joined the staff at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, where he remained until his resignation in 1947. Dr. Bennett was one of a few men who served as President of both the American Orthopaedic Association and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. While Dr. Bennett made many contributions to orthopaedic surgery, including children’s and nonoperative orthopaedics, he was best known for his work in sports medicine (undoubtedly related to his being a gifted athlete). His fame extended well beyond the orthopaedic community, for he treated many famous athletes. Sports Illustrated recognized him upon his death in an article entitled, “Mender of Immortals” [4]. His intimate knowledge of sports undoubtedly contributed to his sage judgments. At an emotional dinner in 1958 many famous athletes sometimes tearfully paid tribute to Dr. Bennett. Joe Garagiola commented on the occasion, “After listening to that all-star team of players Dr. Bennett has mended, I’m sorry I didn’t break my leg” [4]. Among Dr. Bennett’s many publications, including those related to sports, we have chosen one [2] of two articles [1,2] he wrote on elbow and shoulder problems in baseball players. He described the now well-known degenerative changes and periarticular calcific deposits that occur in the elbows and shoulders of pitchers. Some of these, he suggested, were not symptomatic and he advised against treatment. Dr. Bennett commented, however, “Since professional athletes are human beings, not supermen, general health often

  3. Ball Speed and Release Consistency Predict Pitching Success in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, David; Martini, Douglas N; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goulet, Grant C

    2016-07-01

    Whiteside, D, Martini, DN, Zernicke, RF, and Goulet, GC. Ball speed and release consistency predict pitching success in Major League Baseball. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2015-This study aimed to quantify how ball flight kinematics (i.e., ball speed and movement), release location, and variations therein relate to pitching success in Major League Baseball (MLB). One hundred ninety starting MLB pitchers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Ball trajectory information was collected for 76,000 pitches and inserted into a forward stepwise multiple regression model, which examined how (a) pitch selection, (b) ball speed, (c) ball movement (horizontal and lateral), (d) release location (horizontal and lateral), (e) variation in pitch speed, (f) variation in ball movement, and (g) variation in release location related to pitching success (as measured by fielding independent pitching-FIP). Pitch speed, release location variability, variation in pitch speed, and horizontal release location were significant predictors of FIP and, collectively, accounted for 24% of the variance in FIP. These findings suggest that (a) maximizing ball speed, (b) refining a consistent spatial release location, and (c) using varied pitch speeds should be primary foci for the pitching coach. However, between-pitcher variations underline how training interventions should be administered at the individual level, with consideration given to the pitcher's injury history. Finally, despite offering significant predictors of success, these three factors explained only 22% of the variance in FIP and should not be considered the only, or preeminent, indicators of a pitcher's effectiveness. Evidently, traditional pitching metrics only partly account for a pitcher's effectiveness, and future research is necessary to uncover the remaining contributors to success. PMID:26677832

  4. Glenohumeral Rotational Motion and Strength and Baseball Pitching Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Wendy J.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Addressing loss of shoulder range of motion and rotator cuff weakness in injury-prevention programs might be an effective strategy for preventing throwing arm injuries in baseball pitchers. However, the influence of these clinical measures on pitching biomechanics is unclear. Objective: To evaluate the relationships among clinical measures of shoulder rotational motion and strength and 3-dimensional pitching biomechanics and to evaluate the presence of coupling between the shoulder and the elbow during pitching to provide insight into the influence of clinical shoulder characteristics on elbow biomechanics. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 27 uninjured male high school baseball pitchers (age  =  16 ± 1.1 years, height  =  183 ± 7 cm, mass  =  83 ± 12 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical measures included shoulder internal- and external-rotation range of motion and peak isometric internal- and external-rotator strength. Three-dimensional upper extremity biomechanics were assessed as participants threw from an indoor pitching mound to a target at regulation distance. Linear regressions were used to assess the influence of clinical measures on the peak shoulder internal and external rotation moments and the peak elbow-adduction moment. Results: We found a positive relationship between clinically measured internal-rotator strength and shoulder external-rotation moment (R2  =  0.181, P  =  .04) during pitching. We also noted an inverse relationship between clinically measured external-rotation motion and the elbow-adduction moment (R2  =  0.160, P  =  .04) and shoulder internal-rotation moment (R2  =  0.250, P  =  .008) during pitching. We found a positive relationship between peak shoulder internal-rotation moment and the peak elbow-adduction moment (R2  =  0.815, P < .001) during pitching. Conclusions: This study provides insight into the

  5. Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Fleisig, Glenn S; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Dunning, Russell; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2010-12-01

    Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity. This study examined the effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on maximum throwing velocity. Thirty-four youth baseball players (11-15 years of age) were randomly and equally divided into control and training groups. The training group performed 3 sessions (each 75 minutes) weekly for 4 weeks, which comprised a sport specific warm-up, resistance training with elastic tubing, a throwing program, and stretching. Throwing velocity was assessed initially and at the end of the 4-week conditioning program for both control and training groups. The level of significance used was p < 0.05. After the 4-week conditioning program, throwing velocity increased significantly (from 25.1 ± 2.8 to 26.1 ± 2.8 m·s) in the training group but did not significantly increase in the control group (from 24.2 ± 3.6 to 24.0 ± 3.9 m·s). These results demonstrate that the short-term 4-week baseball conditioning program was effective in increasing throwing velocity in youth baseball players. Increased throwing velocity may be helpful for pitchers (less time for hitters to swing) and position players (decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base). PMID:21068687

  6. Models of baseball bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Howard

    1990-08-01

    By observing the vibrations of a hand-held baseball bat, it is possible to show that the bat behaves as if it were a free body at the impact of the bat and the ball. The hand-held bat shows none of the behavior of a bat with one end firmly clamped in a vise.

  7. Dominant-Limb Range-of-Motion and Humeral-Retrotorsion Adaptation in Collegiate Baseball and Softball Position Players

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E.; Oyama, Sakiko; Tatman, Justin; Myers, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Biomechanically, the motions used by baseball and softball pitchers differ greatly; however, the throwing motions of position players in both sports are strikingly similar. Although the adaptations to the dominant limb from overhead throwing have been well documented in baseball athletes, these adaptations have not been clearly identified in softball players. This information is important in order to develop and implement injury-prevention programs specific to decreasing the risk of upper extremity injury in softball athletes. Objective: To compare range-of-motion and humeral-retrotorsion characteristics of collegiate baseball and softball position players and of baseball and softball players to sex-matched controls. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Research laboratories and athletic training rooms at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-three collegiate baseball players, 35 collegiate softball players, 25 male controls (nonoverhead athletes), and 19 female controls (nonoverhead athletes). Intervention(s): Range of motion and humeral retrotorsion were measured using a digital inclinometer and diagnostic ultrasound. Main Outcome Measure(s): Glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, external-rotation gain, total glenohumeral range of motion, and humeral retrotorsion. Results: Baseball players had greater glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, total–range-of-motion, and humeral-retrotorsion difference than softball players and male controls. There were no differences between glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, total–range-of-motion, and humeral-retrotorsion difference in softball players and female controls. Conclusions: Few differences were evident between softball players and female control participants, although range-of-motion and humeral-retrotorsion adaptations were significantly different than baseball players. The throwing motions are similar between softball and baseball, but the

  8. Biomechanical Comparison of the Interval Throwing Progression and Baseball Pitching

    PubMed Central

    Slenker, Nicholas; Limpisvasti, Orr; Mohr, Karen; ElAttrache, Neal S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The interval throwing progression is a hallmark of the rehabilitation program designed for baseball pitchers or position players returning from shoulder or elbow injury. It typically begins with flat-ground throws at a short distance and progressively increases to 180 feet or more. For pitchers, this phase is then followed by throwing off the mound, progressing from partial-effort to full-effort pitches. Theoretically, the progression of throwing phases allows an injured athlete to gradually recover his flexibility, arm strength, and mechanics while moving from less stressful activities to more stressful activities. While this throwing program has been a part of baseball rehabilitation and conditioning for decades, little is known about the biomechanical stresses generated during flat-ground throwing or variable effort pitching off the mound. Methods: Twenty-nine healthy, college baseball pitchers were analyzed using a quantitative motion analysis system. The participants threw from flat ground at distances of 60-ft, 90-ft, 120-ft, and 180-ft, being instructed to throw “hard, on a horizontal line”. The pitchers then threw fastballs from a mound at 3 different efforts: 60% effort, 80% effort, and full-effort. Biomechanical parameters of position, velocity, and kinetic values were recorded. Mean values were calculated for humeral internal rotation torque (HIRT) and elbow valgus load (EVL) for each throw type. This data was then used to compare shoulder and elbow stresses between the various throws. The differences among mean values were analyzed with a repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Post hoc paired t tests were performed when the ANOVA revealed a significant difference. Results: Statistically significant differences exist across all mound intensities (60%, 80%, and 100% effort) for nHIRT (p=0.03) and nEVL (p=0.04), as both parameters increased with percentage throwing effort. No statistically significant differences were found across

  9. On the distribution of career longevity and the evolution of home-run prowess in professional baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Jung, Woo-Sung; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2008-09-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that the level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power law probability density functions, a hallmark of many complex systems that are driven by competition, govern career longevity in baseball. We also find similar power laws in the density functions of all major performance metrics for pitchers and batters. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has a dark history, emerging as a problem for both amateur and professional sports. We find statistical evidence consistent with performance-enhancing drugs in the analysis of home runs hit by players in the last 25 years. This is corroborated by the findings of the Mitchell Report (2007), a two-year investigation into the use of illegal steroids in Major League Baseball, which recently revealed that over 5 percent of Major League Baseball players tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs in an anonymous 2003 survey.

  10. Changes in baseball batters' brain activity with increased pitch choice.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Kim, Jingu; Ali, Asif; Kim, Woojong; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    In baseball, one factor necessary for batters to decide whether to swing or not depends on what type of pitch is thrown. Oftentimes batters will look for their pitch (i.e., waiting for a fastball). In general, when a pitcher has many types of pitches in his arsenal, batters will have greater difficulty deciding upon the pitch thrown. Little research has been investigated the psychophysiology of a batters decision-making processes. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine how brain activation changes according to an increase in the number of alternatives (NA) available. A total of 15 male college baseball players participated in this study. The stimuli used in this experiment were video clips of a right-handed pitcher throwing fastball, curve, and slider pitches. The task was to press a button after selecting the fastball as the target stimulus from two pitch choices (fastball and curve), and then from three possibilities (fastball, curve, and slider). Functional and anatomic image scanning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) runs took 4 and 5[Formula: see text]min, respectively. According to our analysis, the right precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were activated when the NA was one. The supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortex were activated when there were two alternatives to choose from and the inferior orbitofrontal gyrus was specifically activated with three alternatives. Contrary to our expectations, the NA was not a critical factor influencing the activation of related decision making areas when the NA was compared against one another. These findings highlight that specific brain areas related to decision making were activated as the NA increased. PMID:26227537

  11. Safety Tips: Baseball (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and base runners and fielders frequently collide while running at top speed. Gear Guidelines As with all ... player is at bat, waiting to bat, or running the bases. Some leagues may even require pitchers ...

  12. Fastball velocity trends in short-season minor league baseball.

    PubMed

    Crotin, Ryan L; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Tom; Ramsey, Dan K

    2013-08-01

    Diminishing baseball velocities are objective measures to delineate pitching fatigue. Yet, velocity changes over the course of a competitive season vs. a single game remain unknown. This study examined fastball velocity (FBV) trends of minor league pitchers over an 8-game span. We assumed that accumulation of pitches would cause similar velocity decreases within games to produce velocity decreases between games pitched. Retrospective analysis of major league-affiliated pitching charts indicated mean FBVs, game pitches thrown, game innings pitched, rest days, and pitching work to rest ratios (PWRRs) for 12 pitchers over 8 games. Regression analyses (p < 0.05) were performed using the ordinary least squares method. The FBV was the dependent variable, where the explanatory variable was the game number (representing cumulative workload). Further analyses were performed on ball velocity differences predicted by days rest and PWRRs. The FBV increased linearly for the first 8 games of the season (R = 0.91, F(1,7) = 64.67, p < 0.001). Over the 8 - game period, mean FBVs increased 0.25 m/s (0.56 mph) with the greatest velocity increase occurring between the first and eighth game at 1.97 m/s (4.4 mph). Days rest and PWRRs did not impact FBV differences. When compared with previous research, minor league pitchers at the Class A Short Season level did not show similar exertion responses to cumulative workloads (pitches and innings pitched). Recovery factors (rest days, PWRRs, and training) also did not impact FBVs. Velocity increases may be attributable to biomechanical compensations, skill development, strength and conditioning regimens, multistarter rotations, and other performance-related factors. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of ball velocity trends, as apparent changes may infer neuromuscular fatigue and increased injury susceptibility, which require in-season training modifications. PMID:23222081

  13. Baseball Pitching Biomechanics in Relation to Injury Risk and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Fortenbaugh, Dave; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Baseball pitching kinematics, kinetics, ball velocity, and injuries at the shoulder and elbow are related. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and Sport Discus were searched for original studies published between 1994 and 2008. Relevant references in these studies were retrieved. Inferential studies that tested relationships between kinematics and kinetics were included, as were studies that tested relationships between kinematics and ball velocity. Descriptive studies that simply quantified kinematics and/or kinetics were excluded. Results: Several kinematic parameters at the instant of foot contact were associated with increased upper extremity kinetics: front foot position, front foot orientation, shoulder abduction, and shoulder horizontal adduction. The timing of shoulder external rotation, pelvis rotation, and upper trunk rotation was associated with increased kinetics and decreased ball velocity. Low braking force of the lead leg and a short stride were associated with decreased ball velocity. Decreased maximum shoulder external rotation, shoulder abduction, knee extension, and trunk tilt were also associated with decreased ball velocity. As pitchers develop, kinematic values remain similar, their variability reduces, and kinetic values gradually increase. Slight kinematic variations were seen among pitch types, although the kinetics of fastballs and curveballs were relatively the same; changeup kinetics were the lowest. As pitchers fatigued, kinetic values remained constant, but increases in arm pain were reported. Conclusions: Several kinematic parameters were related to joint kinetics and ball velocity. To enhance performance and reduce injury risk, pitchers need to learn proper fastball mechanics at an early age. A changeup is recommended as a safe secondary pitch to complement the fastball; the curveball can be added after fastball and changeup mechanics are mastered. Avoiding overuse and pitching while fatigued is necessary to minimize the risk of

  14. Real Time Baseball Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  15. Baseball and Canadian Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humber, William

    2005-01-01

    Baseball research generally acts as a window into the game--a means as it were to understand its underlying order and disorder, its hidden beauty and historic complexity. Less common is the view from the other side of the window in which the patterns of the game are a lens as it were into the outside world, a channel for making sense of a…

  16. Baseball and American Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan exploring social values and historical periods as it is reflected in the sport of baseball. Suggests that teachers start with an overview of the game's history and rules in the nineteenth century. Includes four sets of quotes relating to baseball and race, capitalism, community, and cultural context. (DK)

  17. Fantasy Baseball with a Statistical Twist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koban, Lori; McNelis, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Fantasy baseball, a game invented in 1980, allows baseball fans to become managers of pretend baseball teams. In most fantasy baseball leagues, participants choose teams consisting of major league players who they believe will do well in five offensive categories (batting average, home runs, runs batted in, stolen bases, and runs scored) or in…

  18. Anthropometric characteristics of Columbia, South Carolina, youth baseball players and Dixie Youth World Series players.

    PubMed

    French, Karen E; Spurgeon, John H; Nevett, Michael E

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare measures of body size in two samples of youth baseball players with normative data from the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts. One sample of youth baseball players participated in a local little league. The second sample of youth baseball players were members of eight of the twelve teams participating in the 1995 Dixie Youth World Series. Normative data for the United States (NCHS) were used as comparative data. Two trained anthropometrists measured standing height, sitting height, lower limb height, upper limb length, arm girth, calf girth, tricep skinfold, and abdomen skinfold on all participants. In both samples, pitchers, short stops, and first basemen were a more highly skilled group and exhibited larger body size (greater standing height, sitting height, lower limb height, upper limb length) than children who played at other positions. The standing height of local little league players was similar to the median of reference data at ages 7, 8, and 9 years. The standing height and weight of skilled players in both samples approximated the 75th percentile for standing height and weight at ages 10, 11, 12, and 13 years. The results suggest that baseball players exhibit larger body size than the normal population at young ages. Body size may be an important criterion used by coaches to select and assign young players to certain positions. PMID:17679491

  19. Risk Stratification for Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury in Major League Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    DeFroda, Steven F.; Kriz, Peter K.; Hall, Amber M.; Zurakowski, David; Fadale, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury has become increasingly common in Major League Baseball (MLB) players in recent years. Hypothesis: There is a significant difference in preinjury fastball velocity between MLB pitchers with tears and matched controls without UCL injury. Pitchers with injuries are throwing harder and getting injured earlier in their MLB careers. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: From 2007 to 2014, a total of 170 documented UCL injuries (156 pitchers, 14 position players) occurred in MLB. Inclusion criteria for this study consisted of any player who tore his UCL in MLB during this time frame. There were 130 regular-season tears (April-September). From this group, 118 players who pitched more than 100 innings prior to tear were matched to subjects with no tear and were compared using a logistic regression analysis. A subgroup of “early tear” players who threw less than 100 career innings (n = 37) was also identified and compared with the larger tear group using a logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 130 tears that occurred during the regular season, a significantly larger number (62%) occurred in the first 3 months (P = .011). The rate of UCL tears per MLB player (P = .001) was statistically significant. In the group of 118 matched tears, the mean fastball velocity was greater in the tear group (91.7 mph) compared with the control group (91.0 mph; P = .014). Furthermore, relief pitchers made up a greater percentage of the early tear group (<100 innings) compared with the later tear group (P = .011). Sixteen of the 170 UCL tears (9.4%) were recurrent tears, with 5 of 16 experiencing both tear and retear within the past 4 years. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant difference in the mean fastball velocity of pitchers who injure their UCL. Small increases in pitcher fastball velocity are a main contribution to the increased rate of tear in MLB. In addition, there has been an increased

  20. Performance of baseball headgear.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, W; Kabo, J M

    1982-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to ascertain the effectiveness of commercially available baseball headgear in a simulated environment where the head of the batter is struck. Using a compressed air cannon, baseballs were fired at an instrumented headform at frontal and temporal locations with and without a helmet. Striking velocities ranged from 50 to 120 mph and rebound velocities were 1/3 to 1/2 of that of the initial speed. Additional impact tests were conducted on equivalent flat helmet sections backed by a rigid steel plate, the results of which seemed to indicate that the materials and configurations currently employed do little to dissipate the energy of the striker. Head accelerations in excess of 1,000 G were measured, but quantitative injury potential could not be assessed since no applicable tolerances currently exist. We concluded that the incorporation of additional external padding on the plastic shell of the helmet and/or modifications of the suspension would significantly improve the energy absorption capabilities of the helmet and further minimize the possibility of head trauma. PMID:7053634

  1. The effects of forearm fatigue on baseball fastball pitching, with implications about elbow injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Hwa; Lo, Kuo-Cheng; Jou, I-Ming; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Tai, Ta-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of flexor muscles to the forearm through fatigue; therefore, the differences in forearm mechanisms on the pitching motion in fastball were analysed. Fifteen baseball pitchers were included in this study. Ultrasonographical examination of participants' ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel with the elbow extended and at 45°, 90° and 120° of flexion was carried. A three-dimensional motion analysis system with 14 reflective markers attached on participants was used for motion data collection. The electromyography system was applied over the flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis muscles of the dominant arm. Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activity showed a significant difference during the acceleration phase, with a peak value during fastball post-fatigue (P = 0.02). Significant differences in the distance between ulnar nerve and medial condyle on throwing arm and non-throwing arm were observed as the distance increased with the elbow movement from 0° to 120° of flexion (P = 0.01). The significant increase of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activity might be responsible for maintaining the stability of the wrist joint. The increased diameter might compress the ulnar nerve and cause several pathological changes. Therefore, fatigue in baseball pitchers still poses a threat to the ulnar nerve because the flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi radialis all originate from the medial side of the elbow, and the swelling tendons after fatigue might be a key point. PMID:26484578

  2. Intersegmental dynamics of 3D upper arm and forearm longitudinal axis rotations during baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kozo; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Norimasa; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    The shoulder internal rotation (IR) and forearm pronation (PR) are important elements for baseball pitching, however, how rapid rotations of IR and PR are produced by muscular torques and inter-segmental forces is not clear. The aim of this study is to clarify how IR and PR angular velocities are maximized, depending on muscular torque and interactive torque effects, and gain a detailed knowledge about inter-segmental interaction within a multi-joint linked chain. The throwing movements of eight collegiate baseball pitchers were recorded by a motion capture system, and induced-acceleration analysis was used to assess the respective contributions of the muscular (MUS) and interactive torques associated with gyroscopic moment (GYR), and Coriolis (COR) and centrifugal forces (CEN) to maximum angular velocities of IR (MIRV) and PR (MPRV). The results showed that the contribution of MUS account for 98.0% of MIRV, while that contribution to MPRV was indicated as negative (-48.1%). It was shown that MPRV depends primarily on the interactive torques associated with GYR and CEN, but the effects of GYR, COR and CEN on MIRV are negligible. In conclusion, rapid PR motion during pitching is created by passive-effect, and is likely a natural movement which arises from 3D throwing movement. Applying the current analysis to IR and PR motions is helpful in providing the implications for improving performance and considering conditioning methods for pitchers. PMID:25303496

  3. Evaluation of the peak torque, total work, average power of flexor-estensor and prono-supinator muscles of the elbow in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Cosimo; Vaienti, Enrico; Pogliacomi, Francesco

    2003-08-01

    The Authors, after a short analysis on biomechanics of the elbow during throwing in baseball, show the movements of the elbow during the different phases of the throw and the stabilizing action of the ulnar collateral ligament, flexor-pronator muscles of the wrist, anconeus and brachial triceps muscles. Aim of this study is the evaluation of the peak torque, total work and average power of the flexor-extensor and pronator-supinator muscles of the elbows in professional baseball players. Isokinetic test data show that a mayor peak torque in flexo-extension at power and resistance test in the pitchers compared to the strikers. Whereas the strikers show a higher peak torque in pronation at the resistance test. This may happen because during a baseball match the ball is hit many times by the bat and the pronator muscle of the wrist are notably stimulated and reinforced. PMID:14509917

  4. Elbow Joint Active Replication in College Pitchers Following Simulated Game Throwing

    PubMed Central

    Manske, Robert; Stovak, Mark; Cox, Kara; Smith, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: Elbow injuries are common in college baseball players. Pitching creates stress and fatigue in and around the elbow. Lack of joint proprioception can contribute to nonphysiological joint loading and injury. Hypothesis: There will be no difference in elbow joint active reproduction sense following a simulated 3-inning pitching sequence. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Seventeen collegiate pitchers participated. Each pitcher was bilaterally tested for active elbow range of motion using goniometric technique. Percentages of motion determined positions for further study of elbow joint active replication sense (20%, 35%, 50%, 80%). The elbow was passively taken to a position and held for 10 seconds, then returned to full extension. Pitchers were asked to actively reproduce the angle. The opposite elbow was tested in the same manner. One week later, prethrowing joint position reproduction was tested; then a simulated 3-inning game was thrown. Immediately afterward, elbow joint active replication testing was performed. A repeated-measures analysis of variance analyzed differences. Results: No change in active joint reproduction occurred in the nondominant elbow at any angle tested. Dominant elbows demonstrated significant losses of active joint reproduction following throwing. Significant differences occurred at the 35% and 80% angles (P < .05). Conclusion: Active elbow joint replication sense may be compromised following 3 innings of throwing. Because joint proprioception is thought to be an important component of joint stabilization, an alteration in joint position sense may increase the risk of elbow injury during throwing. Clinical Relevance: Pitching may cause a loss of active elbow joint replication. PMID:23015958

  5. The Effect of Intermittent Arm and Shoulder Cooling on Baseball Pitching Velocity.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Ryan, Gregory A; Katica, Charles P; Bishop, Phillip A

    2016-04-01

    The throwing arm of a baseball pitcher is subjected to high stress as a result of the repetitive activity of pitching. Intermittent cryotherapy may facilitate recovery from this repeated high stress, but few researchers have investigated cryotherapy's efficacy in an ecologically valid setting. This study investigated the effects of intermittent cryotherapy on pitching velocity and subjective measures of recovery and exertion in a simulated baseball game. Trained college-aged male baseball pitchers (n = 8) threw 12 pitches (1 pitch every 20 seconds) per inning for 5 total innings during a simulated pitching start. Between each inning, pitchers received shoulder and arm cooling (AC) or, on a separate occasion, no cooling (NC). All sessions took place in a temperate environment (18.3 ± 2.8° C; 49 ± 4% relative humidity). Pitch speeds were averaged for each participant each inning and overall for 5 innings. Perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) was recorded at the end of each simulated inning. Perceived recovery (perceived recovery scale [PRS]) was recorded after treatment between each inning. Mean pitching velocity for all-innings combined was higher (p = 0.04) for shoulder and elbow cooling (AC) (31.2 ± 2.1 m·s) than for no cooling (NC) (30.6 ± 2.1 m·s). Average pitch speed was significantly higher in the fourth (p = <0.01) and fifth (p = 0.02) innings in AC trial (31.3 ± 2 m·s for both innings) compared with NC trial (30.0 ± 2.22 m·s and 30.4 ± 1.99 m·s, for the fourth and fifth innings, respectively. AC resulted in a significantly lower RPE (p ≤ 0.01) and improved PRS (p ≤ 0.01) compared with NC. Intermittent cryotherapy attenuated velocity loss in baseball pitching, decreased RPE, and facilitated subjective recovery during a 5-inning simulated game. PMID:24077378

  6. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Watanabe, Masakazu; Isaka, Tadao; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms) after the ball release (R+150), occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150), and a condition with no occlusion (NO). Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1). Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat's long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat's short axis direction than in the bat's long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001), additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat's short axis direction (p < 0.05). The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay. PMID:26848742

  7. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Watanabe, Masakazu; Isaka, Tadao; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms) after the ball release (R+150), occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150), and a condition with no occlusion (NO). Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1). Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat’s long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat’s short axis direction than in the bat’s long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001), additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat’s short axis direction (p < 0.05). The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay. PMID:26848742

  8. Modulation of Motor Area Activity by the Outcome for a Player during Observation of a Baseball Game

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Sotaro

    2009-01-01

    Background Observing competitive games such as sports is a pervasive entertainment among humans. The inclination to watch others play may be based on our social-cognitive ability to understand the internal states of others. The mirror neuron system, which is activated when a subject observes the actions of others, as well as when they perform the same action themselves, seems to play a crucial role in this process. Our previous study showed that activity of the mirror neuron system was modulated by the outcome of the subject's favored player during observation of a simple competitive game (rock-paper-scissors). However, whether the mirror neuron system responds similarly in a more complex and naturalistic sports game has not yet been fully investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we measured the activity of motor areas when the subjects, who were amateur baseball field players (non-pitchers), watched short movie clips of scenes in professional baseball games. The subjects were instructed to support either a batter or a pitcher when observing the movie clip. The results showed that activity in the motor area exhibited a strong interaction between the subject's supported side (batter or pitcher) and the outcome (a hit or an out). When the subject supported the batter, motor area activity was significantly higher when the batter made an out than when he made a hit. However, such modulation was not apparent when the subject supported the pitcher. Conclusions/Significance This result indicates that mirror neuron system activity is modulated by the outcome for a particular player in a competitive game even when observing a complex and naturalistic sports game. We suggest that our inclination to watch competitive games is facilitated by this characteristic of the mirror neuron system. PMID:19946372

  9. Bacterial communities associated with the pitcher fluids of three Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) pitcher plant species growing in the wild.

    PubMed

    Chou, Lee Yiung; Clarke, Charles M; Dykes, Gary A

    2014-10-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants produce modified jug-shaped leaves to attract, trap and digest insect prey. We used 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing to compare bacterial communities in pitcher fluids of each of three species, namely Nepenthes ampullaria, Nepenthes gracilis and Nepenthes mirabilis, growing in the wild. In contrast to previous greenhouse-based studies, we found that both opened and unopened pitchers harbored bacterial DNA. Pitchers of N. mirabilis had higher bacterial diversity as compared to other Nepenthes species. The composition of the bacterial communities could be different between pitcher types for N. mirabilis (ANOSIM: R = 0.340, p < 0.05). Other Nepenthes species had similar bacterial composition between pitcher types. SIMPER showed that more than 50 % of the bacterial taxa identified from the open pitchers of N. mirabilis were not found in other groups. Our study suggests that bacteria in N. mirabilis are divided into native and nonnative groups. PMID:25005571

  10. On the potential of a chemical Bonds: Possible effects of steroids on home run production in baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years several baseball players have hit a remarkable number of home runs, and there has been speculation that their achievements were enhanced by the use of anabolic steroids. Basic mechanics and physiology, combined with simple but reasonable models, show that steroid use by a player who is already highly skilled could produce such dramatic increases in home run production. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even modest changes in bat speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 50-100%. The possible effect of steroid use by pitchers is briefly considered.

  11. Differences in the head movement during baseball batting between skilled players and novices.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Miura, Akito; Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the pattern of head movement during baseball batting in 8 skilled players and 9 unskilled novices, using a high-speed video camera. The 2 directions of head movement were analyzed as an X-axis (from the home plate to the pitcher's plate) and Z-axis (vertical downward). On the X-axis, peak latency, peak value, the distance from the peak to the value at bat-ball impact, and data variability were compared between the 2 groups. On the Z-axis, peak latency, downward distance, and data variability were analyzed. Peak latency on the X-axis occurred significantly earlier in baseball players than in novices (p < 0.001), and the difference between the minimum peak and impact was significantly larger in the players (p < 0.05). The variability in peak latency on the X-axis was significantly larger in the novices (p < 0.05). The variability in peak value on the Z-axis was also significantly larger in the novices (p < 0.05). Our findings showed that the significant differences in head movement between the 2 groups should help baseball players, beginners, coaches, and strength and conditioning professionals to improve performance, be effectively applied to actual practice, and enhance coaching for batting. PMID:22130405

  12. The Flight of a Baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Alan

    2010-03-01

    The trajectory of a baseball moving through the air is very different from the one we teach in our introductory classes in which the only force is that due to gravity. In reality, the aerodynamic drag force (which retards the motion) and the Magnus force on a spinning baseball (which causes the ball to curve) play very important roles that are crucial to many of the subtleties of the game. These forces are governed by three phenomenological quantities: the coefficients of drag, lift, and moment, the latter determining the spin decay time constant. In past years, these quantities were studied mainly in wind tunnel experiments, whereby the forces on the baseball are measured directly. More recently, new tools have been developed that focus on measuring accurate baseball trajectories, from which the forces can be inferred. These tools include high-speed motion analysis, video tracking (the so-called PITCHf/x and HITf/x systems), and Doppler radar tracking via the TrackMan system. In this talk, I will discuss how these new tools work, what they are teaching us about baseball aerodynamics, and how they have the potential to revolutionize the analysis of the game itself.

  13. Bacterial diversity in three distinct sub-habitats within the pitchers of the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Joseph R; Kourtev, Peter S

    2012-03-01

    Pitcher plants have been widely used in ecological studies of food webs; however, their bacterial communities are poorly characterized. Pitchers of Sarracenia purpurea contain several distinct sub-habitats, namely the bottom sediment, the liquid, and the internal pitcher wall. We hypothesized that those three sub-habitats within pitcher plants are inhabited by distinct bacterial populations. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize bacterial populations in pitchers from three bogs. DGGE and sequencing revealed that in any given pitcher, the three sub-habitats contain significantly different bacterial populations. However, there was significant variability between bacterial populations inhabiting the same type of habitat in different pitchers, even at the same site. Therefore, no consistent set of bacterial populations was enriched in any of the three sub-habitats. All sub-habitats appeared to be dominated by alpha- and betaproteobacteria in differing proportions. In addition, sequences from the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were obtained from all three sub-habitats. We conclude that container aquatic habitats such as the pitchers of S. purpurea possess a very high bacterial diversity, with many unique bacterial populations enriched in individual pitchers. Within an individual pitcher, populations of certain bacterial families may be enriched in one of the three studied sub-habitats. PMID:22092381

  14. Pick-up of early visual information to guide kinetics and kinematics within a group of highly skilled baseball batters.

    PubMed

    MüLler, Sean; Lalović, Alex; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Rosalie, Simon M; Harbaugh, Allen G

    2014-10-01

    This pilot study integrated sport expertise and biomechanics methodologies within a baseball batting task. Purpose was to examine differences within a highly skilled group of baseball batters to use visual information to guide weight transfer and bat movements. One batter who played at Major League Baseball (MLB) level was compared to five batters who played at Australian Baseball League (ABL) level in a case-control design. Batters faced pitchers in a simulated competition and attempted to hit pitches, while vision was temporally occluded during ball flight or not occluded. Time of weight transfer (kinetics), as well as bat downswing initiation and duration (kinematics) from the point of ball release, were compared between the MLB batter and ABL batters. Results indicated that the MLB batter coordinated his striking pattern by completing his weight transfer earlier than the ABL batters. His bat downswing was also initiated earlier than some ABL batters, but there was no difference in duration of bat downswing between batters. All batters initiated bat downswing prior to completion of weight transfer. Understanding of motor expertise is furthered using a novel methodology. PMID:25244553

  15. Switch hitting in baseball: apparent rule-following, not matching.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Weeden, Marc A; Redner, Ryan; Foster, T Mary

    2011-09-01

    Many studies, including some dealing with shot selection in basketball and play selection in football, demonstrate that the generalized matching equation provides a good description of the allocation of time and effort to alternative responses as a function of the consequences of those alternatives. We examined whether it did so with respect to left- and right-handed at bats (alternative responses) and left- and right-handed total bases earned, runs batted in, and home runs (three consequences) for the outstanding baseball switch-hitters Mickey Mantle, Eddie Murray, and Pete Rose. With all hitters, undermatching, suggesting insensitivity to the consequences of behavior (reinforcement), was evident and there was substantial bias towards left-handed at bats. These players apparently chose handedness based on the rule "bat opposite the pitcher," not on differential consequences obtained in major league games. The present findings are significant in representing a counter-instance of demonstrations of a matching relationship in sports in particular and in human behavior in general and in calling attention to the need for further study of the variables that affect choice. PMID:21909169

  16. Switch Hitting in Baseball: Apparent Rule-following, not Matching

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Weeden, Marc A; Redner, Ryan; Foster, T. Mary

    2011-01-01

    Many studies, including some dealing with shot selection in basketball and play selection in football, demonstrate that the generalized matching equation provides a good description of the allocation of time and effort to alternative responses as a function of the consequences of those alternatives. We examined whether it did so with respect to left- and right-handed at bats (alternative responses) and left- and right-handed total bases earned, runs batted in, and home runs (three consequences) for the outstanding baseball switch-hitters Mickey Mantle, Eddie Murray, and Pete Rose. With all hitters, undermatching, suggesting insensitivity to the consequences of behavior (reinforcement), was evident and there was substantial bias towards left-handed at bats. These players apparently chose handedness based on the rule “bat opposite the pitcher,” not on differential consequences obtained in major league games. The present findings are significant in representing a counter-instance of demonstrations of a matching relationship in sports in particular and in human behavior in general and in calling attention to the need for further study of the variables that affect choice. PMID:21909169

  17. Aerodynamics of the curve-ball: An investigation of the effects of angular velocity on baseball trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaways, Leroy Ward

    In this dissertation the aerodynamic force and initial conditions of pitched baseballs are estimated from high-speed video data. Fifteen parameters are estimated including the lift coefficient, drag coefficient and the angular velocity vector using a parameter estimation technique that minimizes the residual error between measured and estimated trajectories of markers on the ball's surface and the center of mass of pitched baseballs. Studies are carried out using trajectory data acquired from human pitchers and, in a more controlled environment, with a pitching machine. In all 58 pitch trajectories from human pitchers and 20 pitching machine pitches with spin information are analyzed. In the pitching machine trials four markers on the ball are tracked over the first 4 ft (1.22 m) and the center of mass of the ball is tracked over the last 13 ft (3.96 m) of flight. The estimated lift coefficients are compared to previous measured lift coefficients of Sikorsky (Alaways & Lightfoot, 1998) and Watts & Ferrer (1987) and show that significant differences exists in the lift coefficients of two- and four-seam curve balls at lower values of spin parameter, S. As S increased the two- and four-seam lift coefficients merge becoming statistically insignificant. The estimated drag coefficients are compared to drag coefficients of smooth spheres and golf-balls and show that these data sets bound the drag-coefficient of the baseball. Finally, it is shown that asymmetries of the ball associated with the knuckleball can influence the trajectory of the more common curve and fastball.

  18. Rotator Interval Lesion and Damaged Subscapularis Tendon Repair in a High School Baseball Player

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Tomoyuki; Ninomiya, Hiroki; Inui, Hiroaki; Komai, Masahiko; Nobuhara, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, a 16-year-old baseball pitcher visited Nobuhara Hospital complaining of shoulder pain and limited range of motion in his throwing shoulder. High signal intensity in the rotator interval (RI) area (ball sign), injured subscapularis tendon, and damage to both the superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments were identified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Repair of the RI lesion and partially damaged subscapularis tendon was performed in this pitcher. During surgery, an opened RI and dropping of the subscapularis tendon were observed. The RI was closed in a 90° externally rotated and abducted position. To reconfirm the exact repaired state of the patient, arthroscopic examination was performed from behind. However, suture points were not visible in the >30° externally rotated position, which indicates that the RI could not be correctly repaired with the arthroscopic procedure. One year after surgery, the patient obtained full function of the shoulder and returned to play at a national convention. Surgical repair of the RI lesion should be performed in exactly the correct position of the upper extremity. PMID:26618017

  19. Musculoskeletal trauma: the baseball bat.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, D. D.; Greenfield, R.; Martin, E.

    1992-01-01

    Between July 1987 and December 1990 in Washington, DC, 116 patients sustained 146 fractures and seven dislocations due to an assault with a baseball bat. The ulna was the most common site of trauma (61 fractures), followed by the hand (27 injuries) and the radius (14 injuries). Forty-two of the 146 fractures were significantly displaced and required open reduction and internal fixation to restore satisfactory alignment. Twenty-nine of the 146 fractures were open fractures. Treatment protocol for open fractures consisted of irrigation and debridement, antibiotic therapy, and bone stabilization with either internal or external fixation, or casting. Recognition of the severity of the soft tissue and bone damage is important in the management of musculoskeletal trauma secondary to the baseball bat. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1460683

  20. Le Golf, El Golf, and Le Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Philip

    Three bilingual booklets are presented listing technical terms for golf and baseball. The golf terms are in French-English and Spanish-English lists; the baseball terms are in French-English. The French terms are taken from French-Canadian newspapers, books, and periodicals, while the Spanish terms are taken from Mexican newspapers, books, and…

  1. Computing muscle, ligament, and osseous contributions to the elbow varus moment during baseball pitching

    PubMed Central

    Buffi, James H.; Werner, Katie; Kepple, Tom; Murray, Wendy M.

    2014-01-01

    Baseball pitching imposes a dangerous valgus load on the elbow that puts the joint at severe risk for injury. The goal of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal modeling approach to enable evaluation of muscle-tendon contributions to mitigating elbow injury risk in pitching. We implemented a forward dynamic simulation framework that used a scaled biomechanical model to reproduce a pitching motion recorded from a high school pitcher. The medial elbow muscles generated substantial, protective, varus elbow moments in our simulations. For our subject, the triceps generated large varus moments at the time of peak valgus loading; varus moments generated by the flexor digitorum superficialis were larger, but occurred later in the motion. Increasing muscle-tendon force output, either by augmenting parameters associated with strength and power or by increasing activation levels, decreased the load on the ulnar collateral ligament. Published methods have not previously quantified the biomechanics of elbow muscles during pitching. This simulation study represents a critical advancement in the study of baseball pitching and highlights the utility of simulation techniques in the study of this difficult problem. PMID:25281409

  2. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  3. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf. PMID:25774486

  4. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf. PMID:25774486

  5. Nepenthes ampullaria (Nepenthaceae) Pitchers Are Unattractive to Gravid Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Chou, Lee Yiung; Dykes, Gary A; Wilson, Robyn F; Clarke, Charles M

    2016-02-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants are colonized by a variety of specialized arthropods. As Aedes mosquitoes are container breeders, Nepenthes pitchers are a potential candidate oviposition site for vector species, such as Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse). However, Aedes spp. are not commonly encountered in Nepenthes pitchers, and the environment inside the pitchers of some species is lethal to them. One exception is Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, whose pitchers are known to be colonized by Ae. albopictus on very rare occasions. Given that Ae. albopictus larvae can survive in N. ampullaria pitcher fluids, we sought to determine why pitcher colonization is rare, testing the hypothesis that gravid Aedes mosquitoes are deterred from ovipositing into container habitats that have similar characteristics to N. ampullaria pitchers. Using plastic ovitraps of different sizes, colors, and with different types of fluids (based on the characteristics of N. ampullaria pitchers), we compared oviposition rates by Aedes mosquitoes in urban and rural areas within the geographical range of N. ampullaria near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitraps that were black and large (>250-ml capacity) accumulated significantly more eggs than ovitraps that were smaller, or green in color. In terms of size and color, small, green ovitraps are analogous to N. ampullaria pitchers, indicating that these pitchers are not particularly attractive to gravid Ae. albopictus. Although Aedes spp. are capable of colonizing N. ampullaria pitchers, the pitchers are relatively unattractive to gravid females and do not represent a significant habitat for larvae of dengue vectors at present. PMID:26518035

  6. Predicting zygoma fractures from baseball impact.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Joseph M; Stitzel, Joel D; Hurst, William J; Porta, David J; Jones, Jeryl; Duma, Stefan M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop injury risk functions that predict zygoma fracture based on baseball type and impact velocity. Zygoma fracture strength data from published experiments were mapped with the force exerted by a baseball on the orbit as a function of ball velocity. Using a normal distribution, zygoma fracture risk functions were developed. Experimental evaluation of these risk functions was performed using six human cadaver tests and two baseballs of different stiffness values. High speed video measured the baseball impact velocity. Post test analysis of the cadaver skulls was performed using CT imaging including three-dimensional reconstruction as well as autopsy. The developed injury risk functions accurately identify the risk of zygoma fracture as a result of baseball impact. The experimental results validated the zygoma risk functions at the lower and upper levels. The injuries observed in the post test analysis included fractures of the zygomatic arch, frontal process and the maxilla, zygoma suture, with combinations of these creating comminuted, tripod fractures of the zygoma. Tests with a softer baseball did result in injury but these had fewer resulting zygoma bone fragments and occurred at velocities 50% higher than the major league ball. PMID:16817599

  7. Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Maintaining that baseball presents a view of American society in microcosm, this article reviews the Cold War history of American baseball, showing how the statements and concerns of the players and managers reflected popular values of that era. (JDH)

  8. Effect of pitcher age on trapping efficiency and natural prey capture in carnivorous Nepenthes rafflesiana plants

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Ulrike; Willmes, Christoph; Federle, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Nepenthes pitchers are sophisticated traps that employ a variety of mechanisms to attract, capture and retain prey. The underlying morphological structures and physiological processes are subject to change over the lifetime of a pitcher. Here an investigation was carried out on how pitcher properties and capture efficiency change over the first 2 weeks after pitcher opening. Methods Prey capture, trapping efficiency, extrafloral nectar secretion, pitcher odour, as well as pH and viscoelasticity of the digestive fluid in N. rafflesiana pitchers were monitored in the natural habitat from pitcher opening up to an age of 2 weeks. Key Results Pitchers not only increased their attractiveness over this period by becoming more fragrant and secreting more nectar, but also gained mechanical trapping efficiency via an enhanced wettability of the upper pitcher rim (peristome). Consistently, natural prey capture was initially low and increased 3–6 d after opening. It was, however, highly variable within and among pitchers. At the same time, the pH and viscoelasticity of the digestive fluid decreased, suggesting that the latter is not essential for effective prey capture. Conclusions Prey capture and attraction by Nepenthes are dynamic processes strongly influenced by the changing properties of the pitcher. The results confirm insect aquaplaning on the peristome as the main capture mechanism in N. rafflesiana. PMID:19307189

  9. Evidence for alternative trapping strategies in two forms of the pitcher plant, Nepenthes rafflesiana

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Ulrike; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Nepenthes pitchers are specialized leaves that function as insect traps. Several pitcher components may contribute to trapping, including the pitcher fluid, slippery wax crystals and downward-pointing epidermal cells on the inner pitcher wall, and the wetness-dependent pitcher rim (peristome), but the relative importance of these traits is unclear. Mechanisms of prey capture and retention in the field were investigated by quantifying the effect of ‘knock-out’ manipulations of individual pitcher structures, and by testing the ability of pitcher fluids and water to retain insects. Two forms of Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack (‘elongate’ and ‘typical’) with contrasting combinations of pitcher traits were compared. Wax crystals on the inner pitcher wall were found to be the most important trapping structure in the elongate form, whereas the typical form relied primarily on the peristome. The pitcher fluids of both forms, differing markedly in the degree of viscoelasticity, retained significantly more ants than water. The present results show that pitcher plants utilize several mechanisms for prey capture and retention, varying in efficiency and relative importance between forms. It is proposed that these differences represent alternative prey capture strategies that may provide a mechanism to reduce competition and facilitate species co-existence in nutrient-limited habitats. PMID:21459766

  10. Evidence for alternative trapping strategies in two forms of the pitcher plant, Nepenthes rafflesiana.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Ulrike; Grafe, T Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2011-06-01

    Nepenthes pitchers are specialized leaves that function as insect traps. Several pitcher components may contribute to trapping, including the pitcher fluid, slippery wax crystals and downward-pointing epidermal cells on the inner pitcher wall, and the wetness-dependent pitcher rim (peristome), but the relative importance of these traits is unclear. Mechanisms of prey capture and retention in the field were investigated by quantifying the effect of 'knock-out' manipulations of individual pitcher structures, and by testing the ability of pitcher fluids and water to retain insects. Two forms of Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack ('elongate' and 'typical') with contrasting combinations of pitcher traits were compared. Wax crystals on the inner pitcher wall were found to be the most important trapping structure in the elongate form, whereas the typical form relied primarily on the peristome. The pitcher fluids of both forms, differing markedly in the degree of viscoelasticity, retained significantly more ants than water. The present results show that pitcher plants utilize several mechanisms for prey capture and retention, varying in efficiency and relative importance between forms. It is proposed that these differences represent alternative prey capture strategies that may provide a mechanism to reduce competition and facilitate species co-existence in nutrient-limited habitats. PMID:21459766

  11. Carnivorous Syndrome in Asian Pitcher Plants of the Genus Nepenthes

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Masarovičová, Elena; Hudák, Ján

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Pitcher plants Nepenthes alata and N. mirabilis are carnivorous species with leaves composed of a photosynthetic part (lamina) and a pitcher trap. This characteristic permitted direct physiological and anatomical comparison between these two distinct parts of the leaves to determine those features involved in the ‘carnivorous syndrome’, which include low net photosynthetic assimilation rate (AN) and low photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). Methods Photosynthetic rate (AN) and respiration rate (Rd) were measured gasometrically, chlorophyll concentration was determined spectrophotometrically and nitrogen concentration was determined using a CHN elemental analyser in lamina and trap separately. Anatomy of N. alata was observed using light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. AN, foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll concentration were also compared with values for other carnivorous plant species (genera Sarracenia, Drosera) that combine both autotrophic and carnivorous functions into the same physical organ. Key Results It was found that the AN in Nepenthes lamina was low and PNUE was only slightly higher or similar in comparison with other carnivorous plants. It was not observed that the pitcher had a higher Rd than the lamina, but AN in the pitcher was significantly lower than in the lamina. Nepenthes possesses a cluster of characters that could result in reduced photosynthesis in the pitcher and be responsible for carnivorous function of the leaf: replacement of chlorophyll-containing cells with digestive glands, low chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration, compact mesophyll with a small portion of intercellular spaces, absence of palisade parenchyma and low stomatal density. Conclusion Low photosynthetic capacity, nitrogen efficiency, chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration of Nepenthes pitchers was found, together with a set of features that characterized the carnivorous syndrome. Dual use of leaves for photosynthesis and

  12. Ion fluxes across the pitcher walls of three Bornean Nepenthes pitcher plant species: flux rates and gland distribution patterns reflect nitrogen sequestration strategies.

    PubMed

    Moran, Jonathan A; Hawkins, Barbara J; Gowen, Brent E; Robbins, Samantha L

    2010-03-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plant species differ in their prey capture strategies, prey capture rates, and pitcher longevity. In this study, it is investigated whether or not interspecific differences in nutrient sequestration strategy are reflected in the physiology and microstructure of the pitchers themselves. Using a non-invasive technique (MIFE), ion fluxes in pitchers of Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, Nepenthes bicalcarata Hook.f., and Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack were measured. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to characterize the distribution of glandular and other structures on the inner pitcher walls. The results demonstrate that nutrient sequestration strategy is indeed mirrored in pitcher physiology and microstructure. Species producing long-lived pitchers with low prey capture rates (N. ampullaria, N. bicalcarata) showed lower rates of NH(4)(+) uptake than N. rafflesiana, a species producing short-lived pitchers with high capture rates. Crucially, species dependent upon aquatic commensals (N. ampullaria, N. bicalcarata) actively manipulated H(+) fluxes to maintain less acid pitcher fluid than found in 'typical' species; in addition, these species lacked the lunate cells and epicuticular waxes characteristic of 'typical' insectivorous congeners. An unexpected finding was that ion fluxes occurred in the wax-covered, non-glandular zones in N. rafflesiana. The only candidates for active transport of aqueous ions in these zones appear to be the epidermal cells lying beneath the lunate cells, as these are the only sites not visibly coated with epicuticular waxes. PMID:20150519

  13. Ion fluxes across the pitcher walls of three Bornean Nepenthes pitcher plant species: flux rates and gland distribution patterns reflect nitrogen sequestration strategies

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Jonathan A.; Hawkins, Barbara J.; Gowen, Brent E.; Robbins, Samantha L.

    2010-01-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plant species differ in their prey capture strategies, prey capture rates, and pitcher longevity. In this study, it is investigated whether or not interspecific differences in nutrient sequestration strategy are reflected in the physiology and microstructure of the pitchers themselves. Using a non-invasive technique (MIFE), ion fluxes in pitchers of Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, Nepenthes bicalcarata Hook.f., and Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack were measured. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to characterize the distribution of glandular and other structures on the inner pitcher walls. The results demonstrate that nutrient sequestration strategy is indeed mirrored in pitcher physiology and microstructure. Species producing long-lived pitchers with low prey capture rates (N. ampullaria, N. bicalcarata) showed lower rates of NH4+ uptake than N. rafflesiana, a species producing short-lived pitchers with high capture rates. Crucially, species dependent upon aquatic commensals (N. ampullaria, N. bicalcarata) actively manipulated H+ fluxes to maintain less acid pitcher fluid than found in ‘typical’ species; in addition, these species lacked the lunate cells and epicuticular waxes characteristic of ‘typical’ insectivorous congeners. An unexpected finding was that ion fluxes occurred in the wax-covered, non-glandular zones in N. rafflesiana. The only candidates for active transport of aqueous ions in these zones appear to be the epidermal cells lying beneath the lunate cells, as these are the only sites not visibly coated with epicuticular waxes. PMID:20150519

  14. Going, Going, Gone! The Making of a Baseball Bat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Diana

    2012-01-01

    From little league players to professional athletes, baseball has become a sport that is not only fun to play and watch, but also a sport driven by innovation and technology. One particular piece of baseball equipment that has undergone many changes is the baseball bat. Prior to the early 1970s, wooden bats were the only choice available. Today,…

  15. Effects of acute static stretching of the throwing shoulder on pitching performance of national collegiate athletic association division III baseball players.

    PubMed

    Haag, Samuel J; Wright, Glenn A; Gillette, Cordial M; Greany, John F

    2010-02-01

    Stretching is a common component of an athletic warm-up even though many studies have demonstrated that pre-event static stretching can decrease strength and power performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute static stretching of the throwing shoulder on pitching velocity and accuracy of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III baseball players. Twelve collegiate baseball players, including 6 pitchers and 6 position players, participated in the study. Each participant completed 2 separate testing protocols over a span of 4-6 days. In the experimental condition (SS), 6 static stretches were applied to the throwing shoulder after an active warm-up. After a rest period of 5-10 minutes, participants were allowed 5 warm-up pitches from a pitching mound. Participants then threw 10 pitches measured for velocity and accuracy. The control condition (NS) followed the same procedure but did not include the 6 static stretches. Testing was conducted in an indoor practice facility during normal team practice. No significant differences were found in average velocity, maximum velocity, or accuracy measures when comparing the SS and NS conditions. These results suggest that acute static stretching of the throwing shoulder does not have a significant impact on baseball pitching performance. Static stretching of the shoulder may be performed during a warm-up before a throwing activity. PMID:20072054

  16. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-10-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as swing weight.2-3 A number of recent field studies4-7 have confirmed that the speed with which a player can swing a baseball or softball bat depends more on the bat's moment of inertia than on its mass. In this paper we investigate the moment of inertia (swing weight) of a variety of baseball and softball bats.

  17. Scattering of a baseball by a bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod; Nathan, Alan M.

    2006-10-01

    A ball can be hit faster if it is projected without spin, but it can be hit farther if it is projected with backspin. Measurements of the tradeoff between the speed and spin for a baseball impacting a baseball bat are presented. The results are inconsistent with a collision model in which the ball rolls off the bat and instead imply tangential compliance in the ball, the bat, or both. If the results are extrapolated to the higher speeds that are typical of the game of baseball, they suggest that a curveball can be hit with greater backspin than a fastball, but by an amount that is less than would be the case in the absence of tangential compliance.

  18. Microbiome and Biocatalytic Bacteria in Monkey Cup (Nepenthes Pitcher) Digestive Fluid.

    PubMed

    Chan, Xin-Yue; Hong, Kar-Wai; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Tropical carnivorous plant, Nepenthes, locally known as "monkey cup", utilises its pitcher as a passive trap to capture insects. It then secretes enzymes into the pitcher fluid to digest the insects for nutrients acquisition. However, little is known about the microbiota and their activity in its pitcher fluid. Eighteen bacteria phyla were detected from the metagenome study in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria are the dominant phyla in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. We also performed culturomics approach by isolating 18 bacteria from the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. Most of the bacterial isolates possess chitinolytic, proteolytic, amylolytic, and cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Fifteen putative chitinase genes were identified from the whole genome analysis on the genomes of the 18 bacteria isolated from Nepenthes pitcher fluid and expressed for chitinase assay. Of these, six clones possessed chitinase activity. In conclusion, our metagenome result shows that the Nepenthes pitcher fluid contains vast bacterial diversity and the culturomic studies confirmed the presence of biocatalytic bacteria within the Nepenthes pitcher juice which may act in symbiosis for the turn over of insects trapped in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. PMID:26817720

  19. Microbiome and Biocatalytic Bacteria in Monkey Cup (Nepenthes Pitcher) Digestive Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Xin-Yue; Hong, Kar-Wai; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Tropical carnivorous plant, Nepenthes, locally known as “monkey cup”, utilises its pitcher as a passive trap to capture insects. It then secretes enzymes into the pitcher fluid to digest the insects for nutrients acquisition. However, little is known about the microbiota and their activity in its pitcher fluid. Eighteen bacteria phyla were detected from the metagenome study in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria are the dominant phyla in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. We also performed culturomics approach by isolating 18 bacteria from the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. Most of the bacterial isolates possess chitinolytic, proteolytic, amylolytic, and cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Fifteen putative chitinase genes were identified from the whole genome analysis on the genomes of the 18 bacteria isolated from Nepenthes pitcher fluid and expressed for chitinase assay. Of these, six clones possessed chitinase activity. In conclusion, our metagenome result shows that the Nepenthes pitcher fluid contains vast bacterial diversity and the culturomic studies confirmed the presence of biocatalytic bacteria within the Nepenthes pitcher juice which may act in symbiosis for the turn over of insects trapped in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. PMID:26817720

  20. Influence of a humidor on the aerodynamics of baseballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Edmund R.; Bohn, John L.

    2008-11-01

    We investigate whether storing baseballs in a controlled humidity environment significantly affects their aerodynamic properties. We measure the change in diameter and weight of baseballs as a function of relative humidity in which the balls are stored. The trajectories of pitched and batted baseballs are modeled to assess the difference between those stored at 30% relative humidity versus 50% relative humidity. We find that a drier baseball will curve slightly more than a humidified one for a given pitch velocity and rotation rate. We also find that aerodynamics alone would add 2ft to the distance a wetter baseball ball is hit. This increased distance is compensated by a 6ft reduction in the batted distance due to the change in the coefficient of restitution of the ball. We discuss consequences of these results for baseball played at Coors Field in Denver, where baseballs have been stored in a humidor at 50% relative humidity since 2002.

  1. Dynamic and Performance Characteristics of Baseball Bats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Fred O.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic and performance characteristics of wooden and aluminum baseball bats were investigated in two phases; the first dealing with the velocity of the batted balls, and the second with a study of centers of percussion and impulse response at the handle. (MJB)

  2. No Dummies: Deafness, Baseball, and American Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, R. A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This article begins by examining the historical and social factors that led to 1901 being the "deafest" year in major league baseball history with four deaf players. In particular, the author discusses the career of William Ellsworth "Dummy" Hoy, a deaf man from Ohio who became the most celebrated deaf player in history and explores the reasons…

  3. Baseball--Beisbol: Spanish--English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Philip

    This pamphlet is an alphabetical English-Spanish listing of more than three hundred words, phrases, and sentences related to the game of baseball as it is reported in Mexico City, in border towns, and in Spanish language newspapers in the United States. At the end of this dictionary are listed the major league teams of the United States and Canada…

  4. The Shape of a Baseball Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Milton P.

    1993-01-01

    Uses conic sections, trigonometric functions, and polar coordinates to solve the problem of determining the shape of a baseball outfield fence, given the distances along the foul lines and to straightaway center field. Graphing programs and calculators are utilized to plot different solutions. (MDH)

  5. The use of light in prey capture by the tropical pitcher plant Nepenthes aristolochioides

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Jonathan A.; Clarke, Charles; Gowen, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants deploy tube-shaped pitchers to catch invertebrate prey; those of Nepenthes aristolochioides possess an unusual translucent dome. The hypothesis was tested that N. aristolochioides pitchers operate as light traps, by quantifying prey capture under three shade treatments. Flies are red-blind, with visual sensitivity maxima in the UV, blue, and green wavebands. Red celluloid filters were used to reduce the transmission of these wavebands into the interior of the pitchers. Those that were shaded at the rear showed a 3-fold reduction in Drosophila caught, relative to either unshaded control pitchers, or pitchers that were shaded at the front. Thus, light transmitted through the translucent dome is a fundamental component of N. aristolochioides' trapping mechanism. PMID:22836498

  6. The use of light in prey capture by the tropical pitcher plant Nepenthes aristolochioides.

    PubMed

    Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles; Gowen, Brent E

    2012-08-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants deploy tube-shaped pitchers to catch invertebrate prey; those of Nepenthes aristolochioides possess an unusual translucent dome. The hypothesis was tested that N. aristolochioides pitchers operate as light traps, by quantifying prey capture under three shade treatments. Flies are red-blind, with visual sensitivity maxima in the UV, blue, and green wavebands. Red celluloid filters were used to reduce the transmission of these wavebands into the interior of the pitchers. Those that were shaded at the rear showed a 3-fold reduction in Drosophila caught, relative to either unshaded control pitchers, or pitchers that were shaded at the front. Thus, light transmitted through the translucent dome is a fundamental component of N. aristolochioides' trapping mechanism. PMID:22836498

  7. Ball flight kinematics, release variability and in-season performance in elite baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, D; McGinnis, R S; Deneweth, J M; Zernicke, R F; Goulet, G C

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify ball flight kinematics (ball speed, spin rate, spin axis orientation, seam orientation) and release location variability in the four most common pitch types in baseball and relate them to in-season pitching performance. Nine NCAA Division I pitchers threw four pitching variations (fastball, changeup, curveball, and slider) while a radar gun measured ball speed and a 600-Hz video camera recorded the ball trajectory. Marks on the ball were digitized to measure ball flight kinematics and release location. Ball speed was highest in the fastball, though spin rate was similar in the fastball and breaking pitches. Two distinct spin axis orientations were noted: one characterizing the fastball and changeup, and another, the curveball and slider. The horizontal release location was significantly more variable than the vertical release location. In-season pitching success was not correlated to any of the measured variables. These findings are instructive for inferring appropriate hand mechanics and spin types in each of the four pitches. Coaches should also be aware that ball flight kinematics might not directly relate to pitching success at the collegiate level. Therefore, talent identification and pitching evaluations should encompass other (e.g., cognitive, psychological, and physiological) factors. PMID:25809339

  8. Relation Between Lift Force and Ball Spin for Different Baseball Pitches.

    PubMed

    Nagami, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nakata, Hiroki; Yanai, Toshimasa; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-04-01

    Although the lift force (F(L)) on a spinning baseball has been analyzed in previous studies, no study has analyzed such forces over a wide variety of spins. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between F(L) and spin for different types of pitches thrown by collegiate pitchers. Four high-speed video cameras were used to record flight trajectory and spin for 7 types of pitches. A total of 75 pitches were analyzed. The linear kinematics of the ball was determined at 0.008-s intervals during the flight, and the resultant fluid force acting on the ball was calculated with an inverse dynamics approach. The initial angular velocity of the ball was determined using a custom-made apparatus. Equations were derived to estimate the F(L) using the effective spin parameter (ESp), which is a spin parameter calculated using a component of angular velocity of the ball with the exception of the gyro-component. The results indicate that F(L) could be accurately explained from ESp and also that seam orientation (4-seam or 2-seam) did not produce a uniform effect on estimating F(L) from ESp. PMID:26576060

  9. Purple Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and Partial Community Disassembly following Experimental Storm Surge in a Coastal Pitcher Plant Bog

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Matthew J.; Battaglia, Loretta L.

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

  10. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Matthew J; Battaglia, Loretta L

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

  11. Modeling deformation behavior of the baseball.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Rochelle Llewelyn; Miller, Karol; Elliott, Bruce C

    2005-02-01

    Regulating ball response to impact is one way to control ball exit velocity in baseball. This is necessary to reduce injuries to defensive players and maintain the balance between offense and defense in the game. This paper presents a model for baseball velocity-dependent behavior. Force-displacement data were obtained using quasi-static compression tests to 50% of ball diameter (n = 70 baseballs). The force-displacement curves for a very stiff baseball (Model B) and a softer type (Model C) were characterized by a Mooney-Rivlin model using implicit finite element analysis (ANSYS software, version 6.1). Agreement between experimental and numerical results was excellent for both Model B (C(10) = 0, C(01) = 3.7e(6) Pa) and Model C (C(10) = 0, C(01) = 2.6e(6) Pa). However, this material model was not available in the ANSYS/LSDYNA explicit dynamic software (version 6.1) used to quantify the transient behavior of the ball. Therefore the modeling process was begun again using a linear viscoelastic material. G(infinity), the long-term shear modulus of the material, was determined by the same implicit FEA procedure. Explicit FEA was used to quantify the time-dependent response of each ball in terms of instantaneous shear modulus (G0) and a decay term (beta). The results were evaluated with respect to published experimental data for the ball coefficient of restitution at five velocities (13.4-40.2 ms(-1)) and were in agreement with the experimental values. The model forms the basis for future research on baseball response to impact with the bat. PMID:16131702

  12. Efficiency of insect capture by Sarracenia purpurea (Sarraceniaceae), the northern pitcher plant.

    PubMed

    Newell, S; Nastase, A

    1998-01-01

    Pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea L.) attract insects to pitchers and then capture them in fluid-filled, pitfall traps, but how efficient are pitcher plants at capturing prey in their natural environment? We monitored insect activity by videotaping pitchers and analyzing videotapes for several variables including identity of each visitor and outcome of each visit (e.g., departure or capture). Efficiency of capture (i.e., number of captures per number of visits) was low. Overall efficiency of capture was 0.83-0.93%, depending on whether potential prey were broadly or narrowly defined. Ants constituted 74% of the potential prey. Efficiency of capture of ants was even lower at 0.37%. Potential prey were more likely to visit pitchers with greater red venation and less water in the pitcher. There was no correlation between number of potential prey visiting a pitcher and pitcher age, length, or mouth width. Also, number of potential prey visits did not correlate with plant size, air temperature, time of day or date of videotaping. While the overall efficiency of prey capture was very low, pitcher plants may still benefit from the additional nutrients. However, the relationship between ants and S. purpurea remains an enigma, since it is unclear whether the plants capture enough ants to compensate for nectar lost to ants. PMID:21684883

  13. A novel type of nutritional ant-plant interaction: ant partners of carnivorous pitcher plants prevent nutrient export by dipteran pitcher infauna.

    PubMed

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G; Grafe, T Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect-plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant-plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated (15)N/(14)N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ(15)N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants' nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a (15)N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ(15)N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers' trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna). Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants' prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant. PMID:23717446

  14. Different pitcher shapes and trapping syndromes explain resource partitioning in Nepenthes species.

    PubMed

    Gaume, Laurence; Bazile, Vincent; Huguin, Maïlis; Bonhomme, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants display interspecific diversity in pitcher form and diets. This species-rich genus might be a conspicuous candidate for an adaptive radiation. However, the pitcher traits of different species have never been quantified in a comparative study, nor have their possible adaptations to the resources they exploit been tested. In this study, we compare the pitcher features and prey composition of the seven Nepenthes taxa that grow in the heath forest of Brunei (Borneo) and investigate whether these species display different trapping syndromes that target different prey. The Nepenthes species are shown to display species-specific combinations of pitcher shapes, volumes, rewards, attraction and capture traits, and different degrees of ontogenetic pitcher dimorphism. The prey spectra also differ among plant species and between ontogenetic morphotypes in their combinations of ants, flying insects, termites, and noninsect guilds. According to a discriminant analysis, the Nepenthes species collected at the same site differ significantly in prey abundance and composition at the level of order, showing niche segregation but with varying degrees of niche overlap according to pairwise species comparisons. Weakly carnivorous species are first characterized by an absence of attractive traits. Generalist carnivorous species have a sweet odor, a wide pitcher aperture, and an acidic pitcher fluid. Guild specializations are explained by different combinations of morpho-functional traits. Ant captures increase with extrafloral nectar, fluid acidity, and slippery waxy walls. Termite captures increase with narrowness of pitchers, presence of a rim of edible trichomes, and symbiotic association with ants. The abundance of flying insects is primarily correlated with pitcher conicity, pitcher aperture diameter, and odor presence. Such species-specific syndromes favoring resource partitioning may result from local character displacement by competition and/or previous

  15. Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies.

    PubMed

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Rogers, Richard G; Krueger, Patrick M

    2008-07-17

    OBJECTIVE: We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. METHODS: We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. RESULTS: Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  16. Traveling baseball players' problem in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyang Min; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Younguk; Kim, Aaram J.; Eun, Jonghyoun; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-08-01

    We study the so-called traveling tournament problem (TTP) to find an optimal tournament schedule. Differently from the original TTP, in which the total travel distance of all the participants is the objective function to minimize, we instead seek to maximize the fairness of the round robin tournament schedule of the Korean Baseball League. The standard deviation of the travel distances of teams is defined as the energy function, and the Metropolis Monte-Carlo method combined with the simulated annealing technique is applied to find the ground-state configuration. The resulting tournament schedule is found to satisfy all the constraint rules set by the Korean Baseball Organization, but with drastically increased fairness in traveling distances.

  17. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered. PMID:26654988

  18. Major League Baseball Players’ Life Expectancies*

    PubMed Central

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  19. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  20. Valgus Extension Overload in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Franklin E; Villacis, Diego C; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive throwing, such as in baseball pitching, applies massive stress on the elbow. This can often lead to a predictable constellation of elbow injuries, such as valgus extension overload syndrome (VEO). The following review of VEO provides an understanding of relevant anatomy, explanation of pathomechanics, key aspects to clinical evaluation, effective treatment options, and indications for surgery. In addition, we provide the senior author's (CSA) preferred arthroscopic technique for cases of VEO refractory to conservative management. PMID:26991567

  1. Pearl Harbor: A Failure for Baseball?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepeau, Richard C.

    The history of sports is closely tied to the larger history of the society in which they are played. Baseball in the United States in the 1920's and l930's assumed a major role in spreading the ideals of fair play, sportsmanship, and democracy to the Far East, with tours by amateur athletes and professionals such as Lou Gehrig and Babe Ruth. Even…

  2. Understanding baseball team standings and streaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sire, C.; Redner, S.

    2009-02-01

    Can one understand the statistics of wins and losses of baseball teams? Are their consecutive-game winning and losing streaks self-reinforcing or can they be described statistically? We apply the Bradley-Terry model, which incorporates the heterogeneity of team strengths in a minimalist way, to answer these questions. Excellent agreement is found between the predictions of the Bradley-Terry model and the rank dependence of the average number team wins and losses in major-league baseball over the past century when the distribution of team strengths is taken to be uniformly distributed over a finite range. Using this uniform strength distribution, we also find very good agreement between model predictions and the observed distribution of consecutive-game team winning and losing streaks over the last half-century; however, the agreement is less good for the previous half-century. The behavior of the last half-century supports the hypothesis that long streaks are primarily statistical in origin with little self-reinforcing component. The data further show that the past half-century of baseball has been more competitive than the preceding half-century.

  3. Comparative Study of Bacterial Communities in Nepenthes Pitchers and Their Correlation to Species and Fluid Acidity.

    PubMed

    Kanokratana, Pattanop; Mhuanthong, Wuttichai; Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Kruetreepradit, Trongtham; Mayes, Shawn; Champreda, Verawat

    2016-08-01

    Pitchers are specialized digestive organs of carnivorous plants which evolved for trapping prey and represent a unique environment harboring hidden diversity of unexplored microbes forming transient hydrolytic microcosms. In this study, the diversity of bacterial communities in the pitcher fluids of seven local Nepenthes found in Thailand was assessed by tagged 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing on an Ion PGM™ platform. A total of 1,101,000 filtered sequences were obtained which were taxonomically classified into 20 phyla, 48 classes, 72 orders, 153 families, and 442 genera while the remainder (1.43 %) could not be assigned to any existing taxa. Proteobacteria represented the predominant members in closed pitchers and more diversified bacterial taxa particularly Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria, showed increasing abundance in open pitchers containing insect bodies. Principal coordinate analysis revealed that distribution of bacterial taxa was not significantly related to the Nepenthes species but strongly correlated to the pH of the pitcher fluids (pH 1.7-6.7). Acidicella was a highly dominant bacterial genus in acidic pitcher fluids while Dyella and Mycobacterium were also common genera in most pitchers. A unique microbial community structure was found in Nepenthes ampullaria which could reflect their adaptation to digest leaf litter, in addition to insect prey. The work revealed the highly unexplored nature of bacterial microcosms in Nepenthes pitcher fluids and provides insights into their community structure in this unique ecological system. PMID:27287538

  4. A keystone predator controls bacterial diversity in the pitcher-plant (Sarracenia purpurea) microecosystem.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Celeste N; Day, Stephanie; Wolfe, Benjamin E; Ellison, Aaron M; Kolter, Roberto; Pringle, Anne

    2008-09-01

    The community of organisms inhabiting the water-filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher-plant Sarracenia purpurea includes arthropods, protozoa and bacteria, and serves as a model system for studies of food web dynamics. Despite the wealth of data collected by ecologists and zoologists on this food web, very little is known about the bacterial assemblage in this microecosystem. We used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis to quantify bacterial diversity within the pitchers as a function of pitcher size, pH of the pitcher fluid and the presence of the keystone predator in this food web, larvae of the pitcher-plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii. Results were analysed at two spatial scales: within a single bog and across three isolated bogs. Pitchers were sterile before they opened and composition of the bacterial assemblage was more variable between different bogs than within bogs. Measures of bacterial richness and diversity were greater in the presence of W. smithii and increased with increasing pitcher size. Our results suggest that fundamental ecological concepts derived from macroscopic food webs can also be used to predict the bacterial assemblages in pitcher plants. PMID:18479443

  5. Degradation of a peptide in pitcher fluid of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata Blanco.

    PubMed

    An, Chung-Il; Takekawa, Shoji; Okazawa, Atsushi; Fukusaki, Ei-Ichiro; Kobayashi, Akio

    2002-07-01

    Carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nitrogen from insects. The tropical carnivorous plant Nepenthes produces trapping organs called pitchers at the tips of tendrils elongated from leaf ends. Acidic fluid is secreted at the bottoms of the pitchers. The pitcher fluid includes several hydrolytic enzymes, and some, such as aspartic proteinase, are thought to be involved in nitrogen acquisition from insect proteins. To understand the nitrogen-acquisition process, it is essential to identify the protein-degradation products in the pitcher fluid. To gain insight into protein degradation in pitcher fluid, we used the oxidized B-chain of bovine insulin as a model substrate, and its degradation by the pitcher fluid of N. alata was investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). LC-MS analysis of the degradation products revealed that the oxidized B-chain of bovine insulin was initially cleaved at aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine and tyrosine. These cleavage sites are similar to those of aspartic proteinases from other plants and animals. The presence of a series of peptide fragments as degradation products suggests that exopeptidase(s) is also present in the pitcher fluid. Amino acid analysis and peptide fragment analysis of the degradation products demonstrated that three amino acids plus small peptides were released from the oxidized B-chain of bovine insulin, suggesting that insect proteins are readily degraded to small peptides and amino acids in the pitcher fluid of N. alata. PMID:12111230

  6. Did Babe Ruth Have a Comparative Advantage as a Pitcher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Advocates using baseball statistics to illustrate the advantages of specialization in production. Using Babe Ruth's record as an analogy, suggests a methodology for determining a player's comparative advantage as a teaching illustration. Includes the team's statistical profile in five tables to explain comparative advantage and profit maximizing.…

  7. A novel resource–service mutualism between bats and pitcher plants

    PubMed Central

    Grafe, T. Ulmar; Schöner, Caroline R.; Kerth, Gerald; Junaidi, Anissa; Schöner, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Mutualistic relationships between vertebrates and plants apart from the pollen and seed-dispersal syndromes are rare. At first view, carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes seem to be highly unlikely candidates for mutualistic interactions with animals, as they form dimorphic terrestrial and aerial pitchers that trap arthropods and small vertebrates. Surprisingly, however, the aerial pitchers of Nepenthes rafflesiana variety elongata are poor insect traps, with low amounts of insect-attractive volatile compounds and low amounts of digestive fluid. Here, we show that N. rafflesiana elongata gains an estimated 33.8 per cent of the total foliar nitrogen from the faeces of Hardwicke's woolly bats (Kerivoula hardwickii hardwickii) that exclusively roost in its aerial pitchers. This is the first case in which the faeces-trapping syndrome has been documented in a pitcher plant that attracts bats and only the second case of a mutualistic association between a carnivorous plant and a mammal to date. PMID:21270023

  8. Proteome analysis of pitcher fluid of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Naoya; Hamada, Tatsuro

    2008-02-01

    The genus Nepenthes comprises carnivorous plants that digest insects in pitcher fluid to supplement their nitrogen uptake. In a recent study, two acid proteinases (nepenthesins I and II) were purified from the pitcher fluid. However, no other enzymes involved in prey digestion have been identified, although several enzyme activities have been reported. To identify all the proteins involved, we performed a proteomic analysis of Nepenthes pitcher fluid. The secreted proteins in pitcher fluid were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and several protein bands were detected by silver staining. The proteins were identified by in-gel tryptic digestion, de novo peptide sequencing, and homology searches against public databases. The proteins included homologues of beta-D-xylosidase, beta-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and thaumatin-like protein, most of which are designated "pathogenesis-related proteins". These proteins presumably inhibit bacterial growth in the pitcher fluid to ensure sufficient nutrients for Nepenthes growth. PMID:18183948

  9. A Novel Type of Nutritional Ant–Plant Interaction: Ant Partners of Carnivorous Pitcher Plants Prevent Nutrient Export by Dipteran Pitcher Infauna

    PubMed Central

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G.; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect–plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant–plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated 15N/14N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ15N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants’ nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a 15N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ15N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers’ trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna). Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants’ prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant. PMID:23717446

  10. Training the Baseball Hitter: What Does Research Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Robin J.; Heefner, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Former baseball star Jim Lefebvre (1983) claimed that hitting a baseball may be the most talked about but least understood skill in all of sports. Historically, hitting instruction has been based on intuitive thinking by "hitting gurus," rather than on scientific fact, which has contributed to this lack of understanding (DeRenne, Stellar, &…

  11. Expert Baseball Batters Have Greater Sensitivity in Making Swing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This study used signal detection theory to conceptualize the problem a baseball batter faces when deciding whether or not to swing at a pitch. It examined the launch angle (LA) criteria used by expert (college players) and less experienced (recreational league players) batters using a baseball batting simulation. This study showed that, although…

  12. "Chief": The American Indian Integration of Baseball, 1897-1945.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers-Beck, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Beginning in 1897, American Indians endured their own integration experience in professional baseball. The experience was propelled by government boarding schools, which used baseball as a tool for assimilation and for prestige and profit. But the players on boarding-school teams often found in the sport their own means of cultural resistance and…

  13. Designing IS Curricula for Practical Relevance: Applying Baseball's "Moneyball" Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surendra, Nanda C.; Denton, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Baseball's "Moneyball" theory states that the baseball market undervalues some attributes (and players with these attributes) that are key contributors to wins while overvaluing other attributes. Teams who correctly evaluate attributes that contribute to wins have higher winning percentages with relatively low payrolls. We applied the Moneyball…

  14. Baseball/Beisbol. Spanish-English, English-Spanish. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Philip

    The bilingual glossary, in both English-to-Spanish and Spanish-to-English, defines words and phrases related to the game of baseball as it is reported by Spanish-language newspapers and magazines in Mexico and the United States. A list of U.S. and Mexican baseball league teams is appended. (MSE)

  15. Evaluation of Hip Internal and External Rotation Range of Motion as an Injury Risk Factor for Hip, Abdominal and Groin Injuries in Professional Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Richard; Zhou, Hanbing; Thompson, Matthew; Dawson, Courtney; Nguyen, Joseph; Coleman, Struan

    2015-01-01

    Normal hip range of motion (ROM) is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc) and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201) in one professional organization (major and minor league) during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011). Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201) with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37). Both pitchers (N=93) and catchers (N=22) had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86). Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries. PMID:26793294

  16. Evaluation of Hip Internal and External Rotation Range of Motion as an Injury Risk Factor for Hip, Abdominal and Groin Injuries in Professional Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Ma, Richard; Zhou, Hanbing; Thompson, Matthew; Dawson, Courtney; Nguyen, Joseph; Coleman, Struan

    2015-12-28

    Normal hip range of motion (ROM) is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc) and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201) in one professional organization (major and minor league) during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011). Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201) with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37). Both pitchers (N=93) and catchers (N=22) had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86). Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries. PMID:26793294

  17. 76 FR 37007 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July... Stockton Ports Baseball Club will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display... read as follows: Sec. 165.T11-422 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July...

  18. Relationship between performance variables and baseball ability in youth baseball players.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Kiwako; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the relationship of performance variables and anthropometric measurements on baseball ability in 164 youth baseball players (age: 6.4-15.7 years). To evaluate their baseball performance, ball speeds in pitching and batting were recorded and kinetic energies of the pitched and hit balls were calculated. To record anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics, height and weight were measured and a battery of physical fitness tests covering standing long jump, side steps, sit-ups, 10-m sprint, trunk flexion, back strength, and grip strengths of both hands were conducted. The results of a multiple regression analysis revealed several significant predictors: age, body mass index (BMI), standing long jump, 10-m sprint, and grip strength for pitched ball kinetic energy and age, BMI, standing long jump, and back strength for hit ball kinetic energy. This study provides scientific evidence that relates certain specific physical performance tests and body characteristics with high achievement in the actual performance of pitching and batting. Youth players, their parents, coaches, and trainers would benefit by addressing these characteristics when planning training programs to improve the baseball performance of youth players. PMID:23838977

  19. A Viscoelastic Deadly Fluid in Carnivorous Pitcher Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaume, Laurence; Forterre, Yoel

    2008-07-01

    We study the rheology of the digestive fluid secreted by the carnivorous pitcher plants Nepenthes rafflesiana and its role in the mechanism of insects trapping. Using a combination of physical measurements (surface tension, wetting properties, extensional and shear rheometry), insects bioessays and high-speed video, we show that the digestive fluid of Nepenthes rafflesiana is a highly viscoelastic fluid and that this property is crucial for the retention of insect in its trap. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements (large Deborah numbers).

  20. Ulnar Shaft Stress Fracture in a High School Softball Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Bigosinski, Krystian; Palmer, Trish; Weber, Kathleen; Evola, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a case of a 17-year-old softball pitcher with insidious onset of right forearm pain. On presentation, the patient had tenderness on palpation of the midshaft of the ulna, pain with resisted pronation, and pain with fulcrum-type stressing of the forearm. A bone scan revealed increased uptake in the right ulna, and a subsequent magnetic resonance imaging revealed bone marrow edema and numerous small ulnar stress fractures. She was treated with bone stimulation and complete rest and is in the process of returning to pitching. PMID:23015929

  1. Bacterial diversity and composition in the fluid of pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yayoi; Chaffron, Samuel; Salcher, Michaela M; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Kobayashi, Masaki J; Diway, Bibian; von Mering, Christian; Pernthaler, Jakob; Shimizu, Kentaro K

    2015-07-01

    Pitchers are modified leaves used by carnivorous plants for trapping prey. Their fluids contain digestive enzymes from the plant and they harbor abundant microbes. In this study, the diversity of bacterial communities was assessed in Nepenthes pitcher fluids and the composition of the bacterial community was compared to that in other environments, including the phyllosphere of Arabidopsis, animal guts and another pitcher plant, Sarracenia. Diversity was measured by 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 232,823 sequences were obtained after chimera and singleton removal that clustered into 3260 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (3% dissimilarity), which were taxonomically distributed over 17 phyla, 25 classes, 45 orders, 100 families, and 195 genera. Pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization yielded similar estimates of community composition. Most pitchers contained high proportions of unique OTUs, and only 22 OTUs (<0.6%) were shared by ≥14/16 samples, suggesting a unique bacterial assemblage in each pitcher at the OTU level. Diversity analysis at the class level revealed that the bacterial communities of both opened and unopened pitchers were most similar to that of Sarracenia and to that in the phyllosphere. Therefore, the bacterial community in pitchers may be formed by environmental filtering and/or by phyllosphere bacteria. PMID:26138047

  2. The carnivorous pale pitcher plant harbors diverse, distinct, and time-dependent bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Margaret M; Fuselier, Danielle M; Hird, Sarah; Carstens, Bryan C

    2010-03-01

    The ability of American carnivorous pitcher plants (Sarracenia) to digest insect prey is facilitated by microbial associations. Knowledge of the details surrounding this interaction has been limited by our capability to characterize bacterial diversity in this system. To describe microbial diversity within and between pitchers of one species, Sarracenia alata, and to explore how these communities change over time as pitchers accumulate and digest insect prey, we collected and analyzed environmental sequence tag (454 pyrosequencing) and genomic fingerprint (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) data. Microbial richness associated with pitcher plant fluid is high; more than 1,000 unique phylogroups were identified across at least seven phyla and 50 families. We documented an increase in bacterial diversity and abundance with time and observed repeated changes in bacterial community composition. Pitchers from different plants harbored significantly more similar bacterial communities at a given time point than communities coming from the same genetic host over time. The microbial communities in pitcher plant fluid also differ significantly from those present in the surrounding soil. These findings indicate that the bacteria associated with pitcher plant leaves are far from random assemblages and represent an important step toward understanding this unique plant-microbe interaction. PMID:20097807

  3. The Carnivorous Pale Pitcher Plant Harbors Diverse, Distinct, and Time-Dependent Bacterial Communities▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, Margaret M.; Fuselier, Danielle M.; Hird, Sarah; Carstens, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of American carnivorous pitcher plants (Sarracenia) to digest insect prey is facilitated by microbial associations. Knowledge of the details surrounding this interaction has been limited by our capability to characterize bacterial diversity in this system. To describe microbial diversity within and between pitchers of one species, Sarracenia alata, and to explore how these communities change over time as pitchers accumulate and digest insect prey, we collected and analyzed environmental sequence tag (454 pyrosequencing) and genomic fingerprint (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) data. Microbial richness associated with pitcher plant fluid is high; more than 1,000 unique phylogroups were identified across at least seven phyla and 50 families. We documented an increase in bacterial diversity and abundance with time and observed repeated changes in bacterial community composition. Pitchers from different plants harbored significantly more similar bacterial communities at a given time point than communities coming from the same genetic host over time. The microbial communities in pitcher plant fluid also differ significantly from those present in the surrounding soil. These findings indicate that the bacteria associated with pitcher plant leaves are far from random assemblages and represent an important step toward understanding this unique plant-microbe interaction. PMID:20097807

  4. The dynamical theory of the baseball bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, L. L.

    1992-02-01

    A theory of the elastic behavior of an irregularly shaped, cylindrically symmetric object is developed and applied to the study of the familiar baseball bat. The normal mode, standing wave patterns of elastic vibrations are obtained and displayed graphically. The lowest 20 normal modes, extending in frequency up to about 3 kHz, are used to study and display the elastic response of the bat in the first few milliseconds after striking a ball. The contribution of the normal mode elastic vibrations to the hit ball speed is also developed, and the consequences for the batter (and fielders) are explored.

  5. Are Avid Readers Lurking in Your Language Arts Classroom? Myths of the Avid Adolescent Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Nance S.; Kelley, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study conducted with 10 identified avid adolescent readers who completed the Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile (AMRP) (Pitcher, Albright, DeLaney, Walker, Seunarienesingh, & Moggie, 2007) that includes both a survey to determine students' self-concept and value of reading and an interview that sheds light on what…

  6. Dynamics of the baseball-bat collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Alan M.

    2000-11-01

    A model is developed for the collision between the baseball and bat, taking into account the transverse bending vibrations of the bat. By coupling the flexible bat to the ball via a parametrized force that each mutually exerts on the other, a complete description of the collision process is obtained, including the exit speed of the ball vf. It is shown that vibrations play an important role in determining vf. The model is in excellent agreement with experimental data at low impact velocities. At the higher velocities more appropriate to the game of baseball, vf is shown to coincide with the rigid-body value only over a very small region in the barrel of the bat and to drop off sharply for impacts removed from that region. Some interesting insights into the collision process are obtained, including the observation that for impacts in the barrel of the bat, the momentum transferred to the ball is essentially complete by the time the elastic wave first arrives at the handle and that any clamping action of the hands will affect the bat at the impact point only after the ball and bat have separated. This suggests that vf is independent of the size, shape, and method of support of the bat at distances far from the impact location.

  7. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Gretchen; Weimar, Wendi

    2015-01-01

    Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly. PMID:26839605

  8. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen; Weimar, Wendi

    2015-12-22

    Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly. PMID:26839605

  9. Sox and Drugs: Baseball, Steroids and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The sports world is in an uproar over performance-enhancing drugs. In the United States steroids in baseball have received the most attention, in part because the purported effects are much more dramatic than in any other sport. From 1995-2003 a few players hit home runs at rates 20-50% higher than the best sluggers of the preceding century. Could steroids really increase home-run performance that much? I will describe a model that combines estimates of the physiological effects of steroids, known baseball physics, and reasonable models of batting effectiveness for highly skilled hitters. A 10% increase in muscle mass, which can reasonably be expected from steroid use, increases the speed of a batted ball by 3%. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even this modest change in ball speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 30 -- 70%, enough to account for the record-shattering performances of the recent past. I will also describe some of the attention -- both welcome and not -- that comes to the unsuspecting physicist who wades into such emotionally troubled waters.

  10. Adductor Pollicis Longus Strain in a Professional Baseball Player

    PubMed Central

    Pinkowsky, Gregory J.; Roberts, John; Allred, Jeff; Pujalte, George G.; Gallo, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Thenar pain can represent a significant morbidity for a baseball player who relies on manual dexterity for gripping a bat and precise and accurate throws. While osseous, ligamentous, and neurovascular pathologies are commonly considered, musculotendinous injuries are often neglected in the differential diagnosis of thenar pain. We present a case of adductor pollicis longus strain as a cause of acute thenar pain in a baseball player. Adductor pollicis longus strains should be considered in any baseball player sustaining a hyperabduction force to the thumb. PMID:24459545

  11. Concussions experienced by Major League Baseball catchers and umpires: field data and experimental baseball impacts.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jeffrey A; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-01-01

    Some reports have shown that head injuries in baseball may comprise up to 18.5% of all competitive sports-related head injuries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of catcher and umpire masks to impacts at these different regions to discover the impact conditions that represent the greatest risk of injury. A series of 10 events in which a catcher or umpire in Major League Baseball, who experienced a foul ball to the mask that resulted in a concussion, were analyzed through video and data on pitch characteristics. It was found that the impacts were distributed across the face, and the median plate speed was approximately 38 m/s (84 mph). To determine the relative severity of each identified impact location, an instrumented Hybrid III head outfitted with a catcher or umpire mask was impacted with baseballs. Testing at 27 and 38 m/s (60 and 84 mph) suggested that impacts to the center-eyebrow and chin locations were the most severe. Peak linear and rotational accelerations were found to be lower than the suggested injury thresholds. While impacts to a mask result in head accelerations which are near or below levels commonly associated with the lower limits for head injury, the exact injury mechanism is unclear, as concussions are still experienced by the mask wearers. PMID:22012084

  12. Major league baseball career length in the twentieth century*

    PubMed Central

    Witnauer, William D.; Rogers, Richard G.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2011-01-01

    Although baseball is considered “the” American pastime, little is known about the career prospects of the individuals who play the game. This study fills that void by examining the careers of baseball players over the last century. Between 1902 and 1993, 5,989 position players started their careers and played 33,272 person years of major league baseball. A rookie position player can expect to play 5.6 years; one in five position players will have only a single-year career, and at every point of a player’s career, the chance of exiting is at least 11%. Position players who start younger and begin their career in more recent decades all have longer and more stable careers; nevertheless, baseball careers are not compressed versions of normal careers, but are substantially skewed toward early exit. PMID:21976782

  13. The Integration of Baseball: An Annotated Bibliography of Nonfiction Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Ron

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of nonfiction books on the integration of baseball focuses on the Negro leagues, books for young readers, individual teams, autobiographies and biographies of the pioneers, and autobiographies and biographies of the African American major leaguers. (SM)

  14. Baseball field looking North from same camera station as previous ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Baseball field looking North from same camera station as previous view - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  15. 2. Missile Alert Facility, south side, view from baseball bleachers. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Missile Alert Facility, south side, view from baseball bleachers. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  16. Motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using forearm electrical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takao; Kusuhara, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    The extroversion or hyperextension of elbow joint cause disorders of elbow joint in throwing a baseball. A method, which is easy handling and to measure motion objectively, can be useful for evaluation of throwing motion. We investigated a possibility of motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using electrical impedance method. The parameters of frequency characteristics (Cole-Cole arc) of forearm electrical impedance were measured during four types of throwing a baseball. Multiple discriminant analysis was used and the independent variables were change ratios of 11 parameters of forearm electrical impedance. As results of 120 data with four types of throwing motion in three subjects, hitting ratio was very high and 95.8%. We can expect to discriminate throwing a baseball using multiple discriminant analysis of impedance parameters.

  17. Medical management of youth baseball and softball tournaments.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Matthew; Ray, Tracy R

    2013-01-01

    The medical management of youth baseball and softball tournaments requires both proper planning and a basic awareness of commonly seen sport-specific injuries. While youth sporting events are designed to be a fun experience for all, injuries and emergencies will occur. With proper planning, and supplies, the impact of these issues can be minimized. This article will outline some basic principles for the medical personnel that may be involved in youth baseball and softball events. PMID:23669084

  18. Tree shrew lavatories: a novel nitrogen sequestration strategy in a tropical pitcher plant.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Charles M; Bauer, Ulrike; Lee, Ch'ien C; Tuen, Andrew A; Rembold, Katja; Moran, Jonathan A

    2009-10-23

    Nepenthes pitcher plants are typically carnivorous, producing pitchers with varying combinations of epicuticular wax crystals, viscoelastic fluids and slippery peristomes to trap arthropod prey, especially ants. However, ant densities are low in tropical montane habitats, thereby limiting the potential benefits of the carnivorous syndrome. Nepenthes lowii, a montane species from Borneo, produces two types of pitchers that differ greatly in form and function. Pitchers produced by immature plants conform to the 'typical' Nepenthes pattern, catching arthropod prey. However, pitchers produced by mature N. lowii plants lack the features associated with carnivory and are instead visited by tree shrews, which defaecate into them after feeding on exudates that accumulate on the pitcher lid. We tested the hypothesis that tree shrew faeces represent a significant nitrogen (N) source for N. lowii, finding that it accounts for between 57 and 100 per cent of foliar N in mature N. lowii plants. Thus, N. lowii employs a diversified N sequestration strategy, gaining access to a N source that is not available to sympatric congeners. The interaction between N. lowii and tree shrews appears to be a mutualism based on the exchange of food sources that are scarce in their montane habitat. PMID:19515656

  19. Tree shrew lavatories: a novel nitrogen sequestration strategy in a tropical pitcher plant

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Charles M.; Bauer, Ulrike; Lee, Ch'ien C.; Tuen, Andrew A.; Rembold, Katja; Moran, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants are typically carnivorous, producing pitchers with varying combinations of epicuticular wax crystals, viscoelastic fluids and slippery peristomes to trap arthropod prey, especially ants. However, ant densities are low in tropical montane habitats, thereby limiting the potential benefits of the carnivorous syndrome. Nepenthes lowii, a montane species from Borneo, produces two types of pitchers that differ greatly in form and function. Pitchers produced by immature plants conform to the ‘typical’ Nepenthes pattern, catching arthropod prey. However, pitchers produced by mature N. lowii plants lack the features associated with carnivory and are instead visited by tree shrews, which defaecate into them after feeding on exudates that accumulate on the pitcher lid. We tested the hypothesis that tree shrew faeces represent a significant nitrogen (N) source for N. lowii, finding that it accounts for between 57 and 100 per cent of foliar N in mature N. lowii plants. Thus, N. lowii employs a diversified N sequestration strategy, gaining access to a N source that is not available to sympatric congeners. The interaction between N. lowii and tree shrews appears to be a mutualism based on the exchange of food sources that are scarce in their montane habitat. PMID:19515656

  20. The sweet spot of a baseball bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    1998-09-01

    The sweet spot of a baseball bat, like that of a tennis racket, can be defined either in terms of a vibration node or a centre of percussion. In order to determine how each of the sweet spots influences the "feel" of the bat, measurements were made of the impact forces transmitted to the hands. Measurements of the bat velocity, and results for a freely suspended bat, were also obtained in order to assist in the interpretation of the force waveforms. The results show that both sweet spots contribute to the formation of a sweet spot zone where the impact forces on the hands are minimised. The free bat results are also of interest since they provided particularly elegant examples of wave excitation and propagation, suitable for a student demonstration or experiment.

  1. Characterizing the performance of baseball bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Alan M.

    2003-02-01

    The characterization of the performance of baseball bats is presented from a physics point of view. The goal is to define a set of laboratory measurements that can be used to predict performance in the field. The concept of a model-independent collision efficiency, which relates the post-collision ball speed to the initial ball and bat speeds, is introduced and its properties are investigated. It is shown to provide a convenient link between laboratory and field measurements. Other performance metrics are presented, related to the collision efficiency, and evaluated according to their predictive power. Using a computational model, it is shown that bat performance depends on the interplay of the elasticity of the ball-bat collision, the inertial properties of the ball and bat, and the bat swing speed. It is argued that any method of determining performance needs to take all of these factors into account. A new method is proposed and compared with commonly used existing methods.

  2. Lesson Plan for "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Provides discussion questions, activity suggestions and sample quotes to provoke further examination of the Cold War era values evidenced in the baseball subculture (see SO 515 377, "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values). (JDH)

  3. Contribution of pitcher fragrance and fluid viscosity to high prey diversity in a Nepenthes carnivorous plant from Borneo.

    PubMed

    Giusto, Bruno Di; Grosbois, Vladimir; Fargeas, Elodie; Marshall, David J; Gaume, Laurence

    2008-03-01

    Mechanisms that improve prey richness in carnivorous plants may involve three crucial phases of trapping:attraction, capture and retention. Nepenthes rafflesiana var. typica is an insectivorous pitcher plant that is widespread in northern Borneo. It exhibits ontogenetic pitcher dimorphism with the upper pitchers trapping more flying prey than the lower pitchers. While this difference in prey composition has been ascribed to differences in attraction,the contribution of capture and retention has been overlooked. This study focused on distinguishing between the prey trapping mechanisms, and assessing their relative contribution to prey diversity. Arthropod richness and diversity of both visitors and prey in the two types of pitchers were analysed to quantify the relative contribution of attraction to prey trapping. Rate of insect visits to the different pitcher parts and the presence or absence of a sweet fragrance was recorded to clarify the origin and mechanism of attraction. The mechanism of retention was studied by insect bioassays and measurements of fluid viscosity. Nepenthes rafflesiana was found to trap a broader prey spectrum than that previously described for any Nepenthes species,with the upper pitchers attracting and trapping a greater quantity and diversity of prey items than the lower pitchers. Capture efficiency was low compared with attraction or retention efficiency. Fragrance of the peristome,or nectar rim,accounted mainly for the observed non-specific, better prey attraction by the upper pitchers, while the retentive properties of the viscous fluid in these upper pitchers arguably explains the species richness of their flying prey. The pitchers of N. rafflesiana are therefore more than simple pitfall traps and the digestive fluid plays an important yet unsuspected role in the ecological success of the species. PMID:18376077

  4. Anthropometric and performance comparisons in professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Vazquez, Jose; Pichardo, Napoleon; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2009-11-01

    This study compared anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players and examined the relationship between these variables and baseball-specific performance (i.e., home runs, total bases, slugging percentage, and stolen bases). During a 2-year period, 343 professional baseball players were assessed for height, weight, body composition, grip strength, vertical jump power, 10-yard sprint speed, and agility. Subject population consisted of players on the rosters of one of the minor league affiliates (Rookie, A, AA, AAA) or major league team (MLB). All testing occurred at the beginning of spring training. Players in Rookie and A were significantly (p < 0.05) leaner than players in MLB and AAA. These same players had significantly lower lean body mass than seen in MLB, AAA, and AA players. Greater grip strength (p < 0.05) was seen in MLB and AAA than in Rookie and A. Players in MLB were also faster (p < 0.05) than players in AA, A, and Rookie. Vertical jump power measures were greater (p < 0.05) in MLB than AA, A, and Rookie. Regression analysis revealed that performance measures accounted for 25-31% of the variance in baseball-specific power performance. Anthropometric measures failed to add any additional explanation to the variance in these baseball-specific performance variables. Results indicated that both anthropometric and performance variables differed between players of different levels of competition in professional baseball. Agility, speed, and lower-body power appeared to provide the greatest predictive power of baseball-specific performance. PMID:19826310

  5. Corked bats, juiced balls, and humidors: The physics of cheating in baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Alan M.; Smith, Lloyd V.; Faber, Warren L.; Russell, Daniel A.

    2011-06-01

    Three questions of relevance to Major League Baseball are investigated from a physics perspective. Can a baseball be hit farther with a corked bat? Is there evidence that the baseball is more lively today than in earlier years? Can storing baseballs in a temperature- or humidity-controlled environment significantly affect home run production? These questions are subjected to a physics analysis, including an experiment and an interpretation of the data. The answers to the three questions are no, no, and yes, respectively.

  6. Anthropometric Characteristics of Columbia, South Carolina, Youth Baseball Players and Dixie Youth World Series Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Karen E.; Spurgeon, John H.; Nevett, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare measures of body size in two samples of youth baseball players with normative data from the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts. One sample of youth baseball players participated in a local little league. The second sample of youth baseball players were members of eight…

  7. 75 FR 39166 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game... Bay off San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion. This safety... Giants will sponsor the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion on July 16, 2010, on the...

  8. 78 FR 19799 - United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... United States Mint United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge on April 11, 2013. SUMMARY: The United States Mint announces the opening of a national kids' baseball coin design challenge on April...

  9. 78 FR 19799 - National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... United States Mint National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition... (heads side) of the 2014 National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coins. The competition, which...

  10. The Boys and Girls of Summer: Baseball Theme Programming Tips To Catch Young Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Offers suggestions for library programs with a baseball theme, including tying into hobbies such as collecting baseball cards; a young peoples book discussion; trivia contests using different reference sources; letter writing to favorite players; bibliographies and displays; hosting former players; women in baseball; and the Negro Leagues. (LRW)

  11. Temperamental Predictive Factors for Success in Korean Professional Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyoung Doo; Hannon, James C.; Hall, Morgan S.; Choi, Jae Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this five-year cohort study, we hypothesize that factors of temperament and character in professional baseball players predict the speed of obtaining success and the quality of success as well as anxiety control. Methods Participants included 120 male rookie players from the Korea Baseball Organization (KBO) and 107 male non-players with no history of playing baseball. The personality/characters and state/trait anxieties of participants were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Spielberg's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y (STAI-Y). Over the duration of five years, all the players were subsequently classified into either a success group (major leaguers) or a non-success group (non-major leaguers), depending on their status in the professional baseball league in Korea. Results The players in the group of starters had higher novelty seeking (NS) scores than those of non-starters. The reward dependence (RD) scores of the success group were higher than those of the non-success group. The state anxiety scores in the starter group were negatively correlated with NS scores. The state and trait anxieties in the non-success group were positively correlated with RD scores. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that predictive temperamental factors for success in baseball players include traits of novelty seeking and reward dependence. PMID:26508956

  12. Trap geometry in three giant montane pitcher plant species from Borneo is a function of tree shrew body size.

    PubMed

    Chin, Lijin; Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles

    2010-04-01

    *Three Bornean pitcher plant species, Nepenthes lowii, N. rajah and N. macrophylla, produce modified pitchers that 'capture' tree shrew faeces for nutritional benefit. Tree shrews (Tupaia montana) feed on exudates produced by glands on the inner surfaces of the pitcher lids and defecate into the pitchers. *Here, we tested the hypothesis that pitcher geometry in these species is related to tree shrew body size by comparing the pitcher characteristics with those of five other 'typical' (arthropod-trapping) Nepenthes species. *We found that only pitchers with large orifices and lids that are concave, elongated and oriented approximately at right angles to the orifice capture faeces. The distance from the tree shrews' food source (that is, the lid nectar glands) to the front of the pitcher orifice precisely matches the head plus body length of T. montana in the faeces-trapping species, and is a function of orifice size and the angle of lid reflexion. *Substantial changes to nutrient acquisition strategies in carnivorous plants may occur through simple modifications to trap geometry. This extraordinary plant-animal interaction adds to a growing body of evidence that Nepenthes represents a candidate model for adaptive radiation with regard to nitrogen sequestration strategies. PMID:20100203

  13. Feeding enhances photosynthetic efficiency in the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes talangensis

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Singerová, Lucia; Demko, Viktor; Hudák, Ján

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Cost–benefit models predict that carnivory can increase the rate of photosynthesis (AN) by leaves of carnivorous plants as a result of increased nitrogen absorption from prey. However, the cost of carnivory includes decreased AN and increased respiration rates (RD) of trapping organs. The principal aim of the present study was to assess the costs and benefits of carnivory in the pitcher plant Nepenthes talangensis, leaves of which are composed of a lamina and a pitcher trap, in response to feeding with beetle larvae. Methods Pitchers of Nepenthes grown at 200 µmol m−2 s−1 photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were fed with insect larvae for 2 months, and the effects on the photosynthetic processes were then assessed by simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of laminae and pitchers, which were correlated with nitrogen, carbon and total chlorophyll concentrations. Key Results AN and maximum (Fv/Fm) and effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) were greater in the fed than unfed laminae but not in the fed compared with unfed pitchers. Respiration rate was not significantly affected in fed compared with unfed plants. The unfed plants had greater non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence. Higher NPQ in unfed lamina did not compensate for their lower ΦPSII, resulting in lower photochemical quenching (QP) and thus higher excitation pressure on PSII. Biomass and nitrogen and chlorophyll concentration also increased as a result of feeding. The cost of carnivory was shown by lower AN and ΦPSII in pitchers than in laminae, but RD depended on whether it was expressed on a dry weight or a surface area basis. Correlation between nitrogen and AN in the pitchers was not found. Cost–benefit analysis showed a large beneficial effect on photosynthesis from feeding as light intensity increased from 200 to 1000 µmol m−2 s−1 PAR after which it did not increase further. All fed plants

  14. Expanding the menu for carnivorous plants: uptake of potassium, iron and manganese by carnivorous pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Steinhauser, Georg; Peroutka, Marianne; Musilek, Andreas; Sterba, Johannes H; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Bichler, Max

    2009-12-01

    Carnivorous plants use animals as fertiliser substitutes which allow them to survive on nutrient deficient soils. Most research concentrated on the uptake of the prey's nitrogen and phosphorus; only little is known on the utilisation of other elements. We studied the uptake of three essential nutrients, potassium, iron and manganese, in three species of carnivorous pitcher plants (Cephalotus follicularis LaBilladiere, Sarracenia purpureaL., Heliamphora nutans Bentham). Using relatively short-lived and gamma-emitting radiotracers, we significantly improved the sensitivity compared to conventional protocols and gained the following results. We demonstrated the uptake of trace elements like iron and manganese. In addition, we found direct evidence for the uptake of potassium into the pitcher tissue. Potassium and manganese were absorbed to virtually 100% if offered in physiological concentrations or below in Cephalotus. Analysis of pitcher fluid collected in the natural habitat showed that uptake was performed here as efficiently as in the laboratory. The absorption of nutrients is an active process depending on living glandular cells in the pitcher epidermis and can be inhibited by azide. Unphysiologically high amounts of nutrients were taken up for a short time, but after a few hours the absorbing cells were damaged, and uptake stopped. Absorption rates of pitcher leaves from plants under controlled conditions varied highly, indicating that each trap is functionally independent. The comparison of minerals in typical prey with the plants' tissues showed that a complete coverage of the plants' needs by prey capture is improbable. PMID:19428263

  15. The Food Environment of Youth Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Drury-Brown, Marcie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Sports, such as youth baseball (YB), are popular outlets for increasing activity, yet there has been no investigation of food environments surrounding them. The aim of this study was to observe the types of foods available and consumed by players and spectators at YB events. Methods: This was an observational assessment, by environmental scan, of foods consumed by players and family members at a YB field in northwest North Carolina. Results: Participants included boys from six YB teams (n=51) between 8 and 11 years of age and families. A total of 12 YB games were observed. Most team snacks (72%) consisted of high-calorie food items, including French fries, candy, and cookies; most beverages (53%) consumed by players were sugar sweetened. We observed 313 spectators and players, who consumed a total of 249 foods and 276 beverages. Most food and beverage items (89%) were purchased from the concession stand, of which 73% were considered less-healthy options. Conclusions: High-calorie snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages dominate the YB environment. Despite the benefits of participating in sports, families of children participating in sports leagues may be increasing their risk for poor nutritional habits as a result of increased exposure to unhealthy foods and disruption of meal times. PMID:24745374

  16. Hitting a baseball: a biomechanical description.

    PubMed

    Welch, C M; Banks, S A; Cook, F F; Draovitch, P

    1995-11-01

    A tremendous amount of time and energy has been dedicated to the development of conditioning programs, mechanics drills, and rehabilitation protocols for the throwing athlete. In comparison, a significantly smaller amount has been spent on the needs of the hitting athlete. Before these needs can be addressed, an understanding of mechanics and the demands placed on the body during the swing must be developed. This study uses three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data to define and quantify biomechanics during the baseball swing. The results show that a hitter starts the swing with a weight shift toward the rear foot and the generation of trunk coil. As the hitter strides forward, force applied by the front foot equal to 123% of body weight promotes segment acceleration around the axis of the trunk. The hip segment rotates to a maximum speed of 714 degrees/sec followed by a maximum shoulder segment velocity of 937 degrees/sec. The product of this kinetic link is a maximum linear bat velocity of 31 m/sec. By quantifying the hitting motion, a more educated approach can be made in developing rehabilitation, strength, and conditioning programs for the hitting athlete. PMID:8580946

  17. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club and the City of Stockton will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA. (a) Location....

  18. Development and regeneration ability of the wax coverage in Nepenthes alata pitchers: a cryo-SEM approach

    PubMed Central

    Gorb, Elena V.; Baum, Martina J.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    The morphogenesis of the composite epicuticular wax coverage and regeneration ability of the upper wax layer in Nepenthes alata pitchers were studied using a cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Examination of pitchers of different ages revealed six stages in the wax coverage development. In the first stage, wax crystals resemble those found recently in mature pitches of N. dicksoniana and N. ventricosa. Platelets of the upper wax layer originate from broadened tips of stalks during the last developmental stage. Contrary to previous hypotheses, we found that wax crystals of both layers as well as the stalks connecting them are oriented perpendicularly to the pitcher wall. No changes in the height of the wax coverage were detected in 4–8 weeks after mechanical removal of the upper wax layer from mature pitchers on plants. This indicates that the wax coverage in N. alata pitchers is unable to regenerate. PMID:24165663

  19. Baseball Aerodynamics: What do we know and how do we know it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Alan

    2009-11-01

    Baseball aerodynamics is governed by three phenomenological quantities: the coefficients of drag, lift, and moment, the latter determining the spin decay time constant. In past years, these quantities were studied mainly in wind tunnel experiments, whereby the forces on the baseball are measured directly. More recently, new tools are being used that focus on measuring accurate baseball trajectories, from which the forces can be inferred. These tools include high-speed motion analysis, video tracking of pitched baseballs (the PITCHf/x system), and Doppler radar tracking. In this contribution, I will discuss what these new tools are teaching us about baseball aerodynamics.

  20. 'Insect aquaplaning' on a superhydrophilic hairy surface: how Heliamphora nutans Benth. pitcher plants capture prey.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Ulrike; Scharmann, Mathias; Skepper, Jeremy; Federle, Walter

    2013-02-22

    Trichomes are a common feature of plants and perform important and diverse functions. Here, we show that the inward-pointing hairs on the inner wall of insect-trapping Heliamphora nutans pitchers are highly wettable, causing water droplets to spread rapidly across the surface. Wetting strongly enhanced the slipperiness and increased the capture rate for ants from 29 to 88 per cent. Force measurements and tarsal ablation experiments revealed that wetting affected the insects' adhesive pads but not the claws, similar to the 'aquaplaning' mechanism of (unrelated) Asian Nepenthes pitcher plants. The inward-pointing trichomes provided much higher traction when insects were pulled outwards. The wetness-dependent capture mechanisms of H. nutans and Nepenthes pitchers present a striking case of functional convergence, whereas the use of wettable trichomes constitutes a previously unknown mechanism to make plant surfaces slippery. PMID:23256197

  1. The pitcher plant flesh fly exhibits a mixture of patchy and metapopulation attributes.

    PubMed

    Rasic, Gordana; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the pattern of spatial genetic structure and the extent of gene flow in the pitcher plant flesh fly Fletcherimyia fletcheri, the largest member of the inquiline community of the purple pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. Using microsatellite loci, we tested the theoretical predictions of different hypothesized population models (patchy population, metapopulation, or isolated populations) among 11 bogs in Algonquin Provincial Park (Canada). Our results revealed that the pitcher plant flesh fly exhibits a mixture of patchy and metapopulation characteristics. There is significant differentiation among bogs and limited gene flow at larger spatial scales, but local populations do not experience frequent local extinctions/recolonizations. Our findings suggest a strong dispersal ability and stable population sizes in F. fletcheri, providing novel insights into the ecology of this member of a unique ecological microcosm. PMID:22878050

  2. Effects of various warm-up devices and rest period lengths on batting velocity and acceleration of intercollegiate baseball players.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jacob M; Miller, Abraham L; Szymanski, David J; Duncan, Nevine M; Andersen, Jody C; Alcantara, Zane G; Morrison, Timothy J; Bergman, Christopher J

    2012-09-01

    It is common among competitive baseball players to swing bats while in the batter's box in an attempt to improve their batting performance. Players use bats of different weights during this time, and only a few studies have evaluated the optimal bat weight to increase performance. Previous studies have not investigated the optimal rest period after a warm-up with bats of varying weights. Therefore, we tested the peak bat velocity of 16 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II intercollegiate baseball players at 1, 2, 4, and 8 minutes, after warming up with bats of 5 different weights. Measured variables were peak bat velocity at peak acceleration (PVPA), peak bat velocity of the swing (PV), peak bat acceleration (PA), and time to reach peak acceleration (TPA) using a chronograph, which measured the batting velocity in real time every 10 milliseconds throughout the swing. A repeated measure analysis of variance was run to assess group, time, and group by time interactions. If any main effects were found, a Tukey post hoc was employed to locate differences. There were significant (p ≤ 0.05) time effects for PVPA, PV, and PA but not for TPA. The PVPA, PV, and PA all increased over time, peaking from 4 to 8 minutes. There were no significant differences in any of the variables among the 5 bat weights used in the warm-up (p > 0.05). However, there were significant differences in PVPA, PV, and PA after 2, 4, and 8 minutes of rest compared with the preexperimental warm-up and 1-minute post-warm-up. From a practical standpoint, batters should warm up early and quickly in the batter's box to maximize the amount of recovery time before they swing at the plate. In addition, batters may want to take their time getting ready at the plate or take some pitches while at-bat in an attempt to maximize performance. Alternatively, the data imply that pitchers should throw their fastest pitch near the beginning of the at-bat to correspond with the potentially slower bat

  3. The immediate effect of lumbar spine patterns of neuromuscular joint facilitation in young amateur baseball players.

    PubMed

    Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kaneko, Takasumi; Naito, Daiki; Koiso, Yuta

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in baseball pitching velocity, the functional reach test (FR) and the simple reaction times (SRT) in young amateur baseball players after lumbar spine patterns of neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 11 young amateur baseball players. An NJF intervention and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) intervention were performed. The interventions were performed one after the other with one week between them. The order of the interventions was completely randomized. [Methods] The baseball pitching velocity, the FR and the SRT were evaluated before and after treatment. [Results] In the NJF group, there were significant differences in baseball pitching velocity, FR and SRT after treatment. In the PNF group, there was a significant difference in SRT after treatment. [Conclusion] NJF intervention shortens the SRT, increases the baseball pitching velocity and FR, and may be recommended to improve performance in baseball players. PMID:24409011

  4. Throwing induces substantial torsional adaptation within the midshaft humerus of male baseball players.

    PubMed

    Warden, Stuart J; Bogenschutz, Elizabeth D; Smith, Heather D; Gutierrez, Anthony R

    2009-11-01

    Athletes participating in unilateral dominant sports are useful models for investigating skeletal responses to mechanical loading as they provide controlled evidence in the absence of completing a randomized controlled trial. Throwing athletes may be an additional model for this purpose as they overload their dominant upper extremity enabling the contralateral side to act as an internal control and load the bones of the upper extremity purely via the generation of internal (i.e. muscular) forces without superposition of externally applied loads (i.e. impact with an external object). The aim of this study was to investigate upper extremity bone adaptation in throwing athletes and explore factors that predict this adaptation. Two cohorts were recruited-male baseball players (throwers; n=15) and matched controls (controls; n=15). Each subject was assessed for shoulder range and strength, and upper extremity bone mass, structure and estimated strength. Throwers had substantially greater skeletal differences between their dominant and nondominant upper extremities than controls, indicating that throwing induces greater adaptation than induced by habitual loading of the dominant upper extremity. Bone adaptation in throwers was localized to the humerus, with the midshaft humerus in the dominant upper extremity of throwers having enhanced bone mass, structure and estimated strength. The largest effect was for estimated strength of the midshaft humerus which had 30% greater polar moment of inertia (I(P)) in throwers and suggests adaptation to resist torsional loads. The skeletal effect of throwing at the midshaft humerus was influenced by playing position with pitchers and catchers displaying greater dominant-to-nondominant differences than fielders, and was predicted by years throwing and dominant-to-nondominant difference in upper arm lean cross-sectional area. The latter two variables explained 67% of the variance in dominant-to-nondominant differences in I

  5. Characterization of microsatellite loci for the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi Coq. (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Rasic, Gordana; Maxwell, Sheri A; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2009-09-01

    As a component of the inquiline community of the purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea), the pitcher plant midge Metriocneus knabi has been the subject of various ecological studies. However, very little is known about its characteristics beyond the larval stage, in particular the dispersal ability of adults. This study presents new molecular tools developed for testing of evolutionary and ecological questions in natural populations of this species. We describe a set of 12 microsatellite loci specific to M. knabi that are sufficiently polymorphic to provide insight into population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. PMID:21564915

  6. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in Sarracenia L. (pitcher plant) species

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Willie L.; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M.; Determann, Ron; Malmberg, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    Sarracenia species (pitcher plants) are carnivorous plants which obtain a portion of their nutrients from insects captured in the pitchers. Sarracenia species naturally hybridize with each other, and hybrid swarms have been identified. A number of the taxa within the genus are considered endangered. In order to facilitate evolutionary, ecological and conservation genetic analyses within the genus, we developed 25 microsatellite loci which show variability either within species or between species. Three S. purpurea populations were examined with 10 primer sets which showed within population variability. PMID:21170168

  7. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in Sarracenia L. (pitcher plant) species.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Willie L; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Determann, Ron; Malmberg, Russell L

    2010-12-01

    Sarracenia species (pitcher plants) are carnivorous plants which obtain a portion of their nutrients from insects captured in the pitchers. Sarracenia species naturally hybridize with each other, and hybrid swarms have been identified. A number of the taxa within the genus are considered endangered. In order to facilitate evolutionary, ecological and conservation genetic analyses within the genus, we developed 25 microsatellite loci which show variability either within species or between species. Three S. purpurea populations were examined with 10 primer sets which showed within population variability. PMID:21170168

  8. Proteomic analysis of secreted protein induced by a component of prey in pitcher fluid of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Naoya; Hamada, Tatsuro

    2012-08-01

    The Nepenthes species are carnivorous plants that have evolved a specialized leaf organ, the 'pitcher', to attract, capture, and digest insects. The digested insects provide nutrients for growth, allowing these plants to grow even in poor soil. Several proteins have been identified in the pitcher fluid, including aspartic proteases (nepenthesin I and II) and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins (β-1,3-glucanase, class IV chitinase, and thaumatin-like protein). In this study, we collected and concentrated pitcher fluid to identify minor proteins. In addition, we tried to identify the protein secreted in response to trapping the insect. To make a similar situation in which the insect falls into the pitcher, chitin which was a major component of the insect exoskeleton was added to the fluid in the pitcher. Three PR proteins, class III peroxidase (Prx), β-1,3-glucanase, and class III chitinase, were newly identified. Prx was induced after the addition of chitin to the pitcher fluid. Proteins in the pitcher fluid of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata probably have two roles in nutrient supply: digestion of prey and the antibacterial effect. These results suggest that the system for digesting prey has evolved from the defense system against pathogens in the carnivorous plant Nepenthes. PMID:22705321

  9. The Use of Ice in Baseball Injuries (Cryotherapy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suspenski, Thomas J.

    Cryotherapy (the use of ice and exercise to rehabilitate athletic injuries) can be an effective method of treating baseball injuries. It is generally agreed that ice is appropriate for the first 24 to 48 hours, but there is disagreement over its use beyond 72 hours. Some physicians and trainers support the use of heat with either exercise or rest,…

  10. Electromyographic analysis of lower limbs during baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Miura, Akito; Yoshie, Michiko; Kanosue, Kazuyuki; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the muscle activation pattern of lower limbs in baseball batting by recording surface electromyography (sEMG) from 8 muscles, the left and right rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. The muscle activities were compared between 10 skilled baseball players and 10 unskilled novices. The batting motion was divided into 7 phases: waiting, shifting body weight, stepping, landing, swing, impact, and follow through. The timing for these phases was analyzed by using a high-speed video camera. The onset latencies of sEMG were significantly earlier in baseball players at the left-RF (p < 0.01), right-BF (p < 0.05), and left-BF (p < 0.01). The peak amplitudes of sEMG activity were greater in skilled players at the right-RF (p < 0.01), right-BF (p < 0.01), left-BF (p < 0.01), left-TA (p < 0.01), right-MG (p < 0.01), and left-MG (p < 0.05). The timing for shifting, stepping, and landing was also significantly earlier in skilled players (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05, respectively). Our findings suggest that preparations for the swing are made earlier in skilled baseball players who recruit their lower muscles for the swing more effectively than novices. PMID:22744295

  11. Leadership styles of elite Dixie youth baseball coaches.

    PubMed

    Bennett, G; Maneval, M

    1998-12-01

    Chelladurai and Saleh's Leadership Scale for Sports was administered to 52 elite Dixie Youth baseball coaches. Analyses indicated that subjects scored high in positive feedback, training and instruction, and social support, moderate in democratic behavior, and low in autocratic behavior. These results seem to support the validity of using the scale to compare coaching behavior. PMID:9885031

  12. View of baseball back stop on sports field at intersection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of baseball back stop on sports field at intersection of South Twenty-Sixth Street and Foothill Avenue. Buildings No. 36, 37, 38, and 35, from to right. Foothill Avenue at center rear. Looking east-northeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  13. Does Education Matter? Major League Baseball Players and Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalist, David E.; Peng, Yingwei

    2007-01-01

    The authors used duration analysis to examine the longevity of Major League Baseball players. Using data on players who were born between 1945 and 1964, the authors found that the hazard rate of death for players who only attended high school was almost 2.0 times higher than those players who attended a 4-year university, evidence that the…

  14. Simplified Models for the Drag Coefficient of a Pitched Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, David; Nathan, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The classic experiment to measure the drag coefficient involves dropping coffee filters. Wouldn't it be more fun to try something different? In fact, an experiment on the drag force is conducted nearly 4000 times a day during the baseball season and you have free access to this PITCHf/x data!

  15. Is Baseball Essential?: World War I and the National Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosik, Kris Maldre; Sweeney, Jenny McMillen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how a series of National Archives documents related to professional baseball players and the military draft can launch a lesson on the American home front during World War I, as the 100th anniversary approaches.

  16. Simplified Models for the Drag Coefficient of a Pitched Baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, David; Nathan, Alan M.

    2014-05-01

    The classic experiment to measure the drag coefficient involves dropping coffee filters. Wouldn't it be more fun to try something different? In fact, an experiment on the drag force is conducted nearly 4000 times a day during the baseball season and you have free access to this PITCHf/x data!2

  17. Managing the Process of Review: Playing "Baseball" in Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Donald B.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes using a game entitled "Baseball" to help students with special needs review test questions. Students, organized into teams, use practice test questions to quiz each other. Benefits, in addition to making practice sessions enjoyable, include learning content effectively and teaching students how to self-assess their…

  18. The Economics of the Duration of the Baseball World Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Alexander E.; Lowenthal, Franklin

    2007-01-01

    This note examines some statistical features of the major league baseball World Series. We show that, based upon actual historical data, we cannot reject the hypothesis that the two World Series teams are evenly matched. Yet, we can also calculate the relative strengths of the teams that would best match the actual outcomes, and we find that those…

  19. Effects of Temperature and Humidity on Major League Baseballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstman, Victoria; Raue, Brian

    2003-11-01

    In a study inspired by the famous humidor of the Colorado Rockies of Major League Baseball, we have measured the effects of temperature and humidity on the elasticity of official Major League baseballs. The elasticity, e, also referred to as the coefficient of restitution (COR), of the baseballs was determined by dropping the balls from a fixed height onto a concrete floor and determining the speed of the ball after the initial impact. Corrections for air drag were made to the measured COR. Measurements were done for baseballs stored under a wide variety of conditions that included storage in the freezer compartment of a household refrigerator, storage in an 80^rcC oven with varying humidity conditions, and storage in a crude humidor. The balls were tested over a period of several hours after removal to nominal conditions. Our results show a linear increase of the COR with increasing temperature, as well as a nearly linear decrease in the COR as water mass is increased. Using the results of our measurements, we have determined the effects of temperature and humidity on batted-ball speeds and flight distances at the Rockies' home field.

  20. Conservative management of posterior interosseous neuropathy in an elite baseball pitcher’s return to play: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Andrew; Sajko, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    This report documents retrospectively a case of Posterior Interosseous Neuropathy (PIN) occurring in an elite baseball pitcher experiencing a deep ache in the radial aspect of the forearm and altered sensation in the dorsum of the hand on the throwing arm during his pitching motion. The initial clinical goal was to control for inflammation to the nerve and muscle with active rest, microcurrent therapy, low-level laser therapy, and cessation of throwing. Minimizing mechanosensitivity at the common extensor region of the right elbow and PIN, was achieved by employing the use of myofascial release and augmented soft tissue mobilization techniques. Neurodynamic mobilization technique was also administered to improve neural function. Implementation of a sport specific protocol for the purposes of maintaining throwing mechanics and overall conditioning was utilized. Successful resolution of symptomatology and return to pre-injury status was achieved in 5 weeks. A review of literature and an evidence-based discussion for the differential diagnoses, clinical examination, diagnosis, management and rehabilitation of PIN is presented. PMID:20037695

  1. A comparison of age level on baseball hitting kinematics.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Fleisig, Glenn S; DeRenne, Coop; Taylor, Marcus K; Moorman, Claude T; Imamura, Rodney; Barakatt, Edward; Andrews, James R

    2009-08-01

    We propose that learning proper hitting kinematics should be encouraged at a young age during youth baseball because this may help reinforce proper hitting kinematics as a player progresses to higher levels of baseball in their adult years. To enhance our understanding between youth and adult baseball hitting, kinematic and temporal analyses of baseball hitting were evaluated with a high-speed motion analysis system between 12 skilled youth and 12 skilled adult baseball players. There were only a small number of temporal differences between youth and adult hitters, with adult hitters taking significantly greater time than youth hitters during the stride phase and during the swing. Compared with youth hitters, adult hitters a) had significantly greater (p < .01) lead knee flexion when the hands started to move forward; b) flexed the lead knee over a greater range of motion during the transition phase (31 degrees versus 13 degrees); c) extended the lead knee over a greater range of motion during the bat acceleration phase (59 degrees versus 32 degrees); d) maintained a more open pelvis position at lead foot off ground; and e) maintained a more open upper torso position when the hands started to move forward and a more closed upper torso position at bat-ball contact. Moreover, adult hitters had greater peak upper torso angular velocity (857 degrees/s versus 717 degrees/s), peak left elbow extension angular velocity (752 degrees/s versus 598 degrees/s), peak left knee extension angular velocity (386 degrees/s versus 303 degrees/s), and bat linear velocity at bat-ball contact (30 m/s versus 25 m/s). The numerous differences in kinematic and temporal parameters between youth and adult hitters suggest that hitting mechanics are different between these two groups. PMID:19827470

  2. Playing Baseball/Playing "House": The Reproduction and Naturalization of "Separate Spheres" in Japanese High School Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Although Japanese schools are generally considered to be one of the most gender-equitable social institutions in Japan, they play an important role in helping to reproduce and naturalize the notion of sex-based separate spheres, through endorsing the maintenance of such separate spheres in extracurricular sports clubs, such as baseball, where…

  3. Adhesion force measurements on the two wax layers of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Gorb, Elena V.; Purtov, Julia; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    The wax coverage of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers consists of two clearly distinguishable layers, designated the upper and lower wax layers. Since these layers were reported to reduce insect attachment, they were considered to have anti-adhesive properties. However, no reliable adhesion tests have been performed with these wax layers. In this study, pull-off force measurements were carried out on both wax layers of the N. alata pitcher and on two reference polymer surfaces using deformable polydimethylsiloxane half-spheres as probes. To explain the results obtained, roughness measurements were performed on test surfaces. Micro-morphology of both surface samples and probes tested was examined before and after experiments. Pull-off forces measured on the upper wax layer were the lowest among surfaces tested. Here, contamination of probes by wax crystals detached from the pitcher surface was found. This suggests that low insect attachment on the upper wax layer is caused primarily by the breaking off of wax crystals from the upper wax layer, which acts as a separation layer between the insect pad and the pitcher surface. High adhesion forces obtained on the lower wax layer are explained by the high deformability of probes and the particular roughness of the substrate. PMID:24889352

  4. Carnivorous Nutrition in Pitcher Plants (Nepenthes spp.) via an Unusual Complement of Endogenous Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linda; Zhang, Ye; Ozar, Brittany; Sensen, Christoph W; Schriemer, David C

    2016-09-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Nepenthes are carnivorous, using specialized pitfall traps called "pitchers" that attract, capture, and digest insects as a primary source of nutrients. We have used RNA sequencing to generate a cDNA library from the Nepenthes pitchers and applied it to mass spectrometry-based identification of the enzymes secreted into the pitcher fluid using a nonspecific digestion strategy superior to trypsin in this application. This first complete catalog of the pitcher fluid subproteome includes enzymes across a variety of functional classes. The most abundant proteins present in the secreted fluid are proteases, nucleases, peroxidases, chitinases, a phosphatase, and a glucanase. Nitrogen recovery involves a particularly rich complement of proteases. In addition to the two expected aspartic proteases, we discovered three novel nepenthensins, two prolyl endopeptidases that we name neprosins, and a putative serine carboxypeptidase. Additional proteins identified are relevant to pathogen-defense and secretion mechanisms. The full complement of acid-stable enzymes discovered in this study suggests that carnivory in the genus Nepenthes can be sustained by plant-based mechanisms alone and does not absolutely require bacterial symbiosis. PMID:27436081

  5. Biogeographic barriers drive co-diversification within associated eukaryotes of the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system

    PubMed Central

    Satler, Jordan D.; Zellmer, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding if the members of an ecological community have co-diversified is a central concern of evolutionary biology, as co-diversification suggests prolonged association and possible coevolution. By sampling associated species from an ecosystem, researchers can better understand how abiotic and biotic factors influence diversification in a region. In particular, studies of co-distributed species that interact ecologically can allow us to disentangle the effect of how historical processes have helped shape community level structure and interactions. Here we investigate the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, an ecological community where many species from disparate taxonomic groups live inside the fluid-filled pitcher leaves. Direct sequencing of the eukaryotes present in the pitcher plant fluid enables us to better understand how a host plant can shape and contribute to the genetic structure of its associated inquilines, and to ask whether genetic variation in the taxa are structured in a similar manner to the host plant. We used 454 amplicon-based metagenomics to demonstrate that the pattern of genetic diversity in many, but not all, of the eukaryotic community is similar to that of S. alata, providing evidence that associated eukaryotes share an evolutionary history with the host pitcher plant. Our work provides further evidence that a host plant can influence the evolution of its associated commensals. PMID:26788436

  6. Biogeographic barriers drive co-diversification within associated eukaryotes of the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system.

    PubMed

    Satler, Jordan D; Zellmer, Amanda J; Carstens, Bryan C

    2016-01-01

    Understanding if the members of an ecological community have co-diversified is a central concern of evolutionary biology, as co-diversification suggests prolonged association and possible coevolution. By sampling associated species from an ecosystem, researchers can better understand how abiotic and biotic factors influence diversification in a region. In particular, studies of co-distributed species that interact ecologically can allow us to disentangle the effect of how historical processes have helped shape community level structure and interactions. Here we investigate the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, an ecological community where many species from disparate taxonomic groups live inside the fluid-filled pitcher leaves. Direct sequencing of the eukaryotes present in the pitcher plant fluid enables us to better understand how a host plant can shape and contribute to the genetic structure of its associated inquilines, and to ask whether genetic variation in the taxa are structured in a similar manner to the host plant. We used 454 amplicon-based metagenomics to demonstrate that the pattern of genetic diversity in many, but not all, of the eukaryotic community is similar to that of S. alata, providing evidence that associated eukaryotes share an evolutionary history with the host pitcher plant. Our work provides further evidence that a host plant can influence the evolution of its associated commensals. PMID:26788436

  7. Tests and Measurements Research Project for the Canadian National Baseball Team: Cooperative Change Agent Research by Baseball Canada and SIR/CAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor Univ. (Ontario). Faculty of Physical and Health Education.

    Results are reported of a research effort designed to provide a comprehensive profile of the characteristics of members of the Canadian National Baseball Team. The subjects of the study were candidates for the team. The control group consisted of top level amateur baseball players from Windsor. Four examinations were made: 1) physiological tests…

  8. Mouthguard BITES (behavior, impulsivity, theory evaluation study): what drives mouthguard use among high school basketball and baseball/softball athletes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Roberts, Kristin J; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Although mouthguards are effective, inexpensive, easy to use, and readily available, this form of protective equipment has been underutilized. "Impulsive delay discounting" (an index of impulsive behavior) among high school athletes may help explain their decision making regarding use of protective equipment such as mouthguards. We investigated the relationship between high school baseball, softball, and basketball players' mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and the precaution adoption process model (a behavior change theory). A convenience sample of boys' and girls' basketball and baseball/softball players at 21 high schools in the Greater Columbus, Ohio, metro area completed a self-administered survey that captured their demographic information, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and precaution adoption process model stage. We surveyed a total of 1636 students (55.9 % male, 43.8 % female, 0.3 % unknown). Only 12.3 % reported using a mouthguard either every time or sometimes during practice or competition. The primary reasons reported for not wearing mouthguards were they were not required to (65.3 %) and that the athletes could not breathe or talk while wearing one (61.5 %). These reasons were consistent across sex and sport. Most athletes reported that their coaches (87.3 %) and parents (64.5 %) had never talked to them about wearing a mouthguard. Lower precaution adoption process model stage was significantly associated with higher impulsivity (p < 0.001) and higher delayed discounting (p = 0.016) after adjusting for school, sport, and sex. Voluntary mouthguard use among high school athletes playing basketball and baseball/softball remains low despite the risk of dental injury in these sports. Effective, evidence-based, targeted, and tailored interventions to improve adolescent athletes' use of mouthguards to prevent sports-related dental injuries should be based on the specific

  9. Traps of carnivorous pitcher plants as a habitat: composition of the fluid, biodiversity and mutualistic activities

    PubMed Central

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Peroutka, Marianne; Lendl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Carnivorous pitcher plants (CPPs) use cone-shaped leaves to trap animals for nutrient supply but are not able to kill all intruders of their traps. Numerous species, ranging from bacteria to vertrebrates, survive and propagate in the otherwise deadly traps. This paper reviews the literature on phytotelmata of CPPs. Pitcher Fluid as a Habitat The volumes of pitchers range from 0·2 mL to 1·5 L. In Nepenthes and Cephalotus, the fluid is secreted by the trap; the other genera collect rain water. The fluid is usually acidic, rich in O2 and contains digestive enzymes. In some taxa, toxins or detergents are found, or the fluid is extremely viscous. In Heliamphora or Sarracenia, the fluid differs little from pure water. Inquiline Diversity Pitcher inquilines comprise bacteria, protozoa, algae, fungi, rotifers, crustaceans, arachnids, insects and amphibia. The dominant groups are protists and Dipteran larvae. The various species of CPPs host different sets of inquilines. Sarracenia purpurea hosts up to 165 species of inquilines, followed by Nepenthes ampullaria with 59 species, compared with only three species from Brocchinia reducta. Reasons for these differences include size, the life span of the pitcher as well as its fluid. Mutualistic Activities Inquilines closely interact with their host. Some live as parasites, but the vast majority are mutualists. Beneficial activities include secretion of enzymes, feeding on the plant's prey and successive excretion of inorganic nutrients, mechanical break up of the prey, removal of excessive prey and assimilation of atmospheric N2. Conclusions There is strong evidence that CPPs influence their phytotelm. Two strategies can be distinguished: (1) Nepenthes and Cephalotus produce acidic, toxic or digestive fluids and host a limited diversity of inquilines. (2) Genera without efficient enzymes such as Sarracenia or Heliamphora host diverse organisms and depend to a large extent on their symbionts for prey utilization

  10. Observations in the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum: doing gender in Cooperstown.

    PubMed

    Blinde, Elaine M; McCallister, Sarah G

    2003-09-01

    This study explored the extent and type of men and women's relationship to baseball at the end of the 20th century. Unobtrusive observations of the behaviors and comments of visitors to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, New York, were undertaken during a 7-day period to explore how men and women related to baseball. The "doing of gender" by visitors was observed in several areas: (a) historical and personal connection to baseball, (b) ability to experience a bond with others through baseball, and (c) approach to touring the Hall of Fame and Museum. Women generally were seen as outsiders and peripheral to baseball and often connected to the sport in a manner different from men. PMID:14510295

  11. Intensive baseball practice improves the Go/Nogo reaction time, but not the simple reaction time.

    PubMed

    Kida, Noriyuki; Oda, Shingo; Matsumura, Michikazu

    2005-02-01

    Baseball hitters are required to make decisions whether to swing or not as quickly as possible. Therefore, we can assume that skilled baseball players have a quicker response. To verify this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of baseball experience or skill levels on simple reaction times and Go/Nogo reaction times in 82 university students (22 baseball players, 22 tennis players, and 38 nonathletes) and 17 professional baseball players. Also, to clarify whether this ability was innate or acquired, we examined the effects of long-term practice for baseball hitting in 94 senior high school students (26 baseball players and 68 non-baseball players). There were no differences in simple reaction time either for sports experience or for skill levels. On the contrary, the Go/Nogo reaction time for baseball players was significantly shorter than that of the tennis players and nonathletes. The Go/Nogo reaction time of higher-skill baseball players was significantly shorter than that of lower-skill players, while that of the professional baseball players was the shortest. The professional players showed the highest (almost linear) correlation between the Go/Nogo reaction time and simple reaction time. A longitudinal study showed that 2 years of hitting practice improved the Go/Nogo reaction time, while the simple reaction time remained constant. A cross-sectional study of high school non-baseball players showed no differences either in the simple or Go/Nogo reaction times in relation to school year. In conclusion, intensive practice, including Go or Nogo decision making, improved the Go/Nogo reaction time, but not the simple reaction time. PMID:15653298

  12. The Coefficient of Restitution of Baseballs as a Function of Relative Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, David; Atkinson, David

    2004-09-01

    The only published scientific data on the effect of humidity on baseballs known to the authors is contained in Robert Adair's book The Physics of Baseball: "long flies hit with balls stored under conditions of extreme humidity could be expected to fall as much as 30 feet short of the distance expected for normal balls." In this paper we report on our measurements of the coefficient of restitution of baseballs as a function of the humidity at which they have been stored.

  13. Evaluation of the protective capacity of baseball helmets for concussive impacts.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew; Karton, Clara; Blaine Hoshizaki, T; Gilchrist, Michael D; Bailes, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how four different types of baseball helmets perform for baseball impacts when performance was measured using variables associated with concussion. A helmeted Hybrid III headform was impacted by a baseball, and linear and rotational acceleration as well as maximum principal strain were measured for each impact condition. The method was successful in distinguishing differences in design characteristics between the baseball helmets. The results indicated that there is a high risk of concussive injury from being hit by a ball regardless of helmet worn. PMID:25855861

  14. Origin of pitcher plant mosquitoes in Aedes (Stegomyia): a molecular phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Sota, Teiji; Mogi, Motoyoshi

    2006-09-01

    Two mosquito species of the subgenus Stegomyia (genus Aedes) (Diptera: Culicidae) on the islands of Palau and Yap (Aedes dybasi Bohart and Aedes maehleri Bohart) are adapted to aquatic habitats occupied by Nepenthes pitcher plants. To reveal the origin of these pitcher plant mosquitoes, we attempted a molecular phylogenetic analysis with 11 Stegomyia species by using sequence data from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16SrRNA genes as well as the nuclear 28SrRNA gene. Ae. dybasi, a pitcher plant specialist, was sister to Aedes palauensis Bohart within the scutellaris group from the same islands. Ae. maehleri, an opportunistic pitcher plant mosquito, was in a distinct lineage related to the scutellaris group. The adaptation to pitcher plants could have occurred independently in these two species, and recent differentiation of the pitcher plant mosquito Ae. dybasi from the nonpitcher plant mosquito Ae. palauensis was suggested by a relatively small sequence divergence between these species. We also discuss the implications of this analysis for the phylogeny of some other Stegomyia species. PMID:17017211

  15. Behavior of college baseball players in a virtual batting task.

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob

    2002-10-01

    A baseball batting simulation was used to investigate the information used to hit a baseball. Measures of spatial and temporal swing accuracy were used to test whether batters (a) use speed to estimate pitch height, (b) initiate a constant swing duration at a fixed time to contact, (c) are influenced by the history of previous pitches and pitch count, and (d) use rotation direction. Batters were experienced college players. Pitch speed variance led to predictable spatial errors, and spatial accuracy was worse than temporal accuracy. Swing duration was generally variable. The history of the previous 3 pitches and the pitch count had significant effects on accuracy, and performance improved when rotation cues were added. There were significant effects of expertise on hitting strategy. PMID:12421060

  16. Manual laterality and hitting performance in major league baseball.

    PubMed

    Grondin, S; Guiard, Y; Ivry, R B; Koren, S

    1999-06-01

    Asymmetrical hand function was examined in the context of expert sports performance: hitting in professional baseball. An archival study was conducted to examine the batting performance of all Major League Baseball players from 1871 to 1992, focusing on those who batted left (n = 1,059) to neutralize the game asymmetry. Among them, left-handers (n = 421) were more likely to hit with power and to strike out than right-handers (n = 638). One possible account, based on the idea of hand dominance and an analogy to tennis, is that batting left involves a double-handed forehand for left-handers and a weaker and more reliable double-handed backhand for right-handers. The results are also interpretable in the light of Y. Guiard's (1987) kinematic chain model of a between-hands asymmetrical division of labor, which provides a detailed account of why left batting is optimal for left-handers. PMID:10385985

  17. Personal predictors of spectator aggression at little league baseball games.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Dwight A; Schwartz, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Parents from two baseball leagues completed questionnaires regarding their likelihood of engaging in various aggressive behaviors (yelling, swearing, shoving, fighting, humiliating) toward targets at youth baseball games (other spectators, umpires, coaches, other players, their child). Overall, the likelihood of all forms of aggression was very low, particularly physical aggression and swearing. Hierarchical entry stepwise regressions were calculated to determine predictors of yelling and humiliating using demographics, trait aggression, anger, hostility, and vengeance as predictors. Parents with greater hostility reported a greater likelihood of humiliating a child's teammate, while those with elevated trait anger reported a greater likelihood of yelling at other spectators. Finally, parents with a more vengeful attitude reported a greater likelihood of humiliating umpires. PMID:17479556

  18. REASSESSMENT OF PAINFUL SHOULDERS AMONG BASEBALL PLAYERS AFTER CONSERVATIVE TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Ishioka, Fábio Eduardo; Rosa, João Roberto Polydoro; Estelles, José Renato Depari; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the rehabilitation results among baseball players who presented pain and medial rotation deficit in their shoulders. Methods: Out of 55 baseball players assessed between April and June 2009, it was observed that 20 presented pain at some instant during throwing movements. They were advised to undergo a rehabilitation program with exercises to stretch the posterior capsule and reinforce the muscles of the scapular belt, especially the lateral rotators. Eighteen patients followed the advice, while two were lost from the follow-up. The parameters evaluated were: pain, range of motion, strength before the program and strength after the end of the program. Results: Comparing the initial and final assessments, we observed mean increases as follows: 10° of elevation (p = 0.001); three vertebral levels of medial rotation (p < 0.001); 20° of medial rotation at 90° abduction (p < 0.001); and 26° of range of motion (p < 0.001). Regarding strength, elevation force increased by 3 kgf (p = 0.002) and lateral rotation force increased by 1 kgf (p = 0.020). Out of the 18 baseball players studied, the pain level improved in 16, while two continued to present pain and underwent magnetic resonance imaging, which showed lesions for surgical treatment. Conclusion: The rehabilitation program conducted among the baseball players was effective and enabled increases in medial rotation, elevation, range of motion and strength of elevation and lateral rotation, consequently producing pain improvements in most of the players. PMID:27042626

  19. Modeling Rare Baseball Events--Are They Memoryless?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Michael; Glen, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Three sets of rare baseball events--pitching a no-hit game, hitting for the cycle, and turning a triple play--offer excellent examples of events whose occurrence may be modeled as Poisson processes. That is, the time of occurrence of one of these events doesn't affect when we see the next occurrence of such. We modeled occurrences of these three…

  20. The effect of spin on the flight of batted baseballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rex, A. F.

    1985-11-01

    Distances traveled by batted baseballs with various spin types and rates have been calculated using a computer. It is found that balls hit with backspin tend to travel farther than balls hit with little spin or topspin, particularly for lower trajectories. Two types of hits are considered specifically: the long fly ball of potential home run distance and the low line drive to the outfield.

  1. Electromyographic activity of lower limbs to stop baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Miura, Akito; Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the muscle activation pattern of the lower limbs for the stopping motion of baseball batting by recording surface electromyography (EMG) from 8 muscles, the left and right rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. First, muscle activities for 'Swing' and 'Stopping' trials were examined in 10 skilled baseball players and 10 unskilled novices. Second, the characteristics of EMG activities for 'Stopping' were compared between the 2 groups. The peak latencies of EMG were significantly shorter in 'Stopping' than in 'Swing' at the right-TA, left-BF, and left-MG between both groups. The peak amplitudes of EMG activity were significantly larger in 'Swing' than in 'Stopping' at the right-TA, left-BF, and left-MG in both groups. In addition, the peak amplitudes of EMG activity for 'Stopping' were significantly larger in the players than in novices at the right-RF and right-TA. The characteristics of EMG activity clearly differed between 'Swing' and 'Stopping,' and between baseball players and nonplayers, indicating that evaluating the EMG activity in batting enables the understanding of proficiency. Our findings should help players, novices, and coaches to optimize batting performance. PMID:22614137

  2. The effect of spin on the flight of a baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Alan M.

    2008-02-01

    Measurements are presented of the Magnus force on a spinning baseball. The experiment utilizes a pitching machine to project the baseball horizontally, a high-speed motion analysis system to determine the initial velocity and angular velocity and to track the trajectory over 5m of flight, and a ruler to measure the total distance traversed. Speeds in the range v =50-110mph and spin rates ω (topspin or backspin) in the range 1500-4500rpm were utilized, corresponding to Reynolds numbers of Re =(1.1-2.4)×105 and spin factors S ≡Rω/v in the range 0.090-0.595. Least-squares fits were used to extract the initial parameters of the trajectory and to determine the lift coefficients. Comparison is made with previous measurements and parametrizations, and implications for the effect of spin on the flight of a baseball are discussed. The lift coefficient CL is found not to depend strongly on v at fixed values of S.

  3. Editorial Commentary: Does Fatigue Alter Pitching Mechanics in Adolescent Males?

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Over the course of 90 pitches to simulate an adolescent male pitching in a baseball game, there is an increase in fatigue and pain, a decrease in velocity, and some changes indicative of lower extremity fatigue without any change in upper extremity kinematics. PMID:27151449

  4. Location, Location, Location: The Transmission of Racist Ideology in Baseball Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regoli, Robert M.; Hewitt, John D.; Munoz, Robert, Jr.; Regoli, Adam M.

    2004-01-01

    While on the surface baseball cards may appear to be a mundane object of child's play, they are precious tools for examining U.S. society. Baseball cards not only hold a wealth of information regarding the players they feature they also reveal much about the state of society at the time of their production and the individuals who collect them. In…

  5. The Baseball Hall of Fame Is Not the Kiss of Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary

    2011-01-01

    E. Abel and M. Kruger (2005) reported that the median life expectancy of Major League Baseball players after election to the Baseball Hall of Fame is 5 years shorter than that of players of the same age who are not elected to the Hall of Fame. This conclusion is surprising because there is no compelling explanation for such a dramatic reduction in…

  6. Saved at Home: Christian Branding and Faith Nights in the "Church of Baseball"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Baseball has enjoyed its status as the "national pastime" in part because it has been associated with democracy. To the extent that baseball, as an institution of civil religion, fosters pluralism and inclusion, it can indeed be viewed in democratic terms. In recent years, the advent of conservative Christian events called "Faith Nights" threatens…

  7. Factors Affecting High School Baseball Coaches' Enforcement of School Tobacco Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ted; Strack, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of policy bans and recommendations against spit tobacco (ST) use, baseball athletes have demonstrated ST prevalence rates ranging from 34% to 50% in high school, 42% in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and 50% in the professional ranks. To evaluate enforcement of ST bans, high school baseball coaches in North Carolina…

  8. The Longevity of Baseball Hall of Famers Compared to Other Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared the longevity of all baseball players alive at the time of their induction into the Baseball Hall of Fame with age-matched controls who were likewise alive at the time of the Hall of Famer's induction, and also matched them for career length, player position, and body-mass index, to assess if fame in sports is associated with…

  9. Delving Deeper: Studying Baseball's Wild-Card Team Using Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Richard E.; Knapp, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The modern era of professional baseball playoffs began in 1903, when the champions of the American League and the National League played the first World Series. Except for one year, 1904, this playoff system was maintained until 1969. Beginning in 1969, each of the two leagues in Major League Baseball (MLB) was divided into two divisions to…

  10. Injuries in Little League Baseball from 1987 through 1996: Implications for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Kirby, Daniel P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined injury patterns in Little League baseball players over time, using insurance data from 17,221,210 players. Ball-related injuries were the most common. Batters had the greatest number of such injuries. One-quarter of the injuries were considered severe, and 13 players died. Though youth baseball appears to be very safe, there are areas…

  11. Of Rails and Red Stockings: A Vignette on the Extension of Baseball to the American West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Robert Knight

    During its century and a half history, baseball has been given continued impetus by the development of new technologies in communication--the telegraph, the sports page, the radio and television. Perhaps the most important in the initial spread of baseball throughout America was the railroad. The completion of the Union Pacific Railroad in 1869…

  12. A unique resource mutualism between the giant Bornean pitcher plant, Nepenthes rajah, and members of a small mammal community.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Melinda; Clarke, Charles; Lee, Ch'ien C; Gunsalam, Ansou; Clarke, Rohan H

    2011-01-01

    The carnivorous pitcher plant genus Nepenthes grows in nutrient-deficient substrates and produce jug-shaped leaf organs (pitchers) that trap arthropods as a source of N and P. A number of Bornean Nepenthes demonstrate novel nutrient acquisition strategies. Notably, three giant montane species are engaged in a mutualistic association with the mountain treeshrew, Tupaia montana, in which the treeshrew defecates into the pitchers while visiting them to feed on nectar secretions on the pitchers' lids.Although the basis of this resource mutualism has been elucidated, many aspects are yet to be investigated. We sought to provide insights into the value of the mutualism to each participant. During initial observations we discovered that the summit rat, R. baluensis, also feeds on sugary exudates of N. rajah pitchers and defecates into them, and that this behavior appears to be habitual. The scope of the study was therefore expanded to assess to what degree N. rajah interacts with the small mammal community.We found that both T. montana and R. baluensis are engaged in a mutualistic interaction with N. rajah. T .montana visit pitchers more frequently than R. baluensis, but daily scat deposition rates within pitchers do not differ, suggesting that the mutualistic relationships are of a similar strength. This study is the first to demonstrate that a mutualism exists between a carnivorous plant species and multiple members of a small mammal community. Further, the newly discovered mutualism between R. baluensis and N. rajah represents only the second ever example of a multidirectional resource-based mutualism between a mammal and a carnivorous plant. PMID:21695073

  13. A Unique Resource Mutualism between the Giant Bornean Pitcher Plant, Nepenthes rajah, and Members of a Small Mammal Community

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Melinda; Clarke, Charles; Lee, Ch'ien C.; Gunsalam, Ansou; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2011-01-01

    The carnivorous pitcher plant genus Nepenthes grows in nutrient-deficient substrates and produce jug-shaped leaf organs (pitchers) that trap arthropods as a source of N and P. A number of Bornean Nepenthes demonstrate novel nutrient acquisition strategies. Notably, three giant montane species are engaged in a mutualistic association with the mountain treeshrew, Tupaia montana, in which the treeshrew defecates into the pitchers while visiting them to feed on nectar secretions on the pitchers' lids. Although the basis of this resource mutualism has been elucidated, many aspects are yet to be investigated. We sought to provide insights into the value of the mutualism to each participant. During initial observations we discovered that the summit rat, R. baluensis, also feeds on sugary exudates of N. rajah pitchers and defecates into them, and that this behavior appears to be habitual. The scope of the study was therefore expanded to assess to what degree N. rajah interacts with the small mammal community. We found that both T. montana and R. baluensis are engaged in a mutualistic interaction with N. rajah. T .montana visit pitchers more frequently than R. baluensis, but daily scat deposition rates within pitchers do not differ, suggesting that the mutualistic relationships are of a similar strength. This study is the first to demonstrate that a mutualism exists between a carnivorous plant species and multiple members of a small mammal community. Further, the newly discovered mutualism between R. baluensis and N. rajah represents only the second ever example of a multidirectional resource-based mutualism between a mammal and a carnivorous plant. PMID:21695073

  14. Proteomic characterization of the major arthropod associates of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Gotelli, Nicholas J; Smith, Aidan M; Ellison, Aaron M; Ballif, Bryan A

    2011-06-01

    The array of biomolecules generated by a functioning ecosystem represents both a potential resource for sustainable harvest and a potential indicator of ecosystem health and function. The cupped leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, harbor a dynamic food web of aquatic invertebrates in a fully functional miniature ecosystem. The energetic base of this food web consists of insect prey, which is shredded by aquatic invertebrates and decomposed by microbes. Biomolecules and metabolites produced by this food web are actively exchanged with the photosynthesizing plant. In this report, we provide the first proteomic characterization of the sacrophagid fly (Fletcherimyia fletcheri), the pitcher plant mosquito (Wyeomyia smithii), and the pitcher-plant midge (Metriocnemus knabi). These three arthropods act as predators, filter feeders, and shredders at distinct trophic levels within the S. purpurea food web. More than 50 proteins from each species were identified, ten of which were predominantly or uniquely found in one species. Furthermore, 19 peptides unique to one of the three species were identified using an assembled database of 100 metazoan myosin heavy chain orthologs. These molecular signatures may be useful in species monitoring within heterogeneous ecosystem biomass and may also serve as indicators of ecosystem state. PMID:21538880

  15. Proteomic Characterization of the Major Arthropod Associates of the Carnivorous Pitcher Plant Sarracenia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Smith, Aidan M.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Ballif, Bryan A.

    2012-01-01

    The array of biomolecules generated by a functioning ecosystem represents both a potential resource for sustainable harvest and a potential indicator of ecosystem health and function. The cupped leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, harbor a dynamic food web of aquatic invertebrates in a fully functional miniature ecosystem. The energetic base of this food web consists of insect prey, which is shredded by aquatic invertebrates and decomposed by microbes. Biomolecules and metabolites produced by this food web are actively exchanged with the photosynthesizing plant. In this report, we provide the first proteomic characterization of the sacrophagid fly (Fletcherimyia fletcheri), the pitcher plant mosquito (Wyeomyia smithii), and the pitcher-plant midge (Metriocnemus knabi). These three arthropods act as predators, filter feeders, and shredders at distinct trophic levels within the S. purpurea food web. More than 50 proteins from each species were identified, 10 of which were predominantly or uniquely found in one species. Furthermore, 19 peptides unique to one of the three species were identified using an assembled database of 100 metazoan myosin heavy chain orthologs. These molecular signatures may be useful in species monitoring within heterogeneous ecosystem biomass and may also serve as indicators of ecosystem state. PMID:21538880

  16. Carnivorous pitcher plant uses free radicals in the digestion of prey.

    PubMed

    Chia, Tet Fatt; Aung, Hnin Hnin; Osipov, Anatoly N; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai

    2004-01-01

    A study of the involvement of free oxygen radicals in trapping and digestion of insects by carnivorous plants was the main goal of the present investigation. We showed that the generation of oxygen free radicals by pitcher fluid of Nepenthes is the first step of the digestion process, as seen by EPR spin trapping assay and gel-electrophoresis. The EPR spectrum of N. gracilis fluid in the presence of DMPO spin trap showed the superposition of the hydroxyl radical spin adduct signal and of the ascorbyl radical signal. Catalase addition decreased the generation of hydroxyl radicals showing that hydroxyl radicals are generated from hydrogen peroxide, which can be derived from superoxide radicals. Gel-electrophoresis data showed that myosin, an abundant protein component of insects, can be rapidly broken down by free radicals and protease inhibitors do not inhibit this process. Addition of myoglobin to the pitcher plant fluid decreased the concentration of detectable radicals. Based on these observations, we conclude that oxygen free radicals produced by the pitcher plant aid in the digestion of the insect prey. PMID:15606978

  17. Nutritional benefit from leaf litter utilization in the pitcher plant Nepenthes ampullaria.

    PubMed

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Slováková, Ludmila; Šantrůček, Jiří

    2011-11-01

    The pitcher plant Nepenthes ampullaria has an unusual growth pattern, which differs markedly from other species in the carnivorous genus Nepenthes. Its pitchers have a reflexed lid and sit above the soil surface in a tighly packed 'carpet'. They contain a significant amount of plant-derived materials, suggesting that this species is partially herbivorous. We tested the hypothesis that the plant benefits from leaf litter utilization by increased photosynthetic efficiency sensu stricto cost/benefit model. Stable nitrogen isotope abundance indicated that N. ampullaria derived around 41.7 ± 5.5% of lamina and 54.8 ± 7.0% of pitcher nitrogen from leaf litter. The concentrations of nitrogen and assimilation pigments, and the rate of net photosynthesis (A(N)), increased in the lamina as a result of feeding, but did not increase in the trap. However, maximal (F(v) /F(m)) and effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (Φ(PSII)) were unaffected. Our data indicate that N. ampullaria benefits from leaf litter utilization and our study provides the first experimental evidence that the unique nitrogen sequestration strategy of N. ampullaria provides benefits in term of photosynthesis and growth. PMID:21707655

  18. A Biomechanical Evaluation of the Kinetics for Multiple Pitching Techniques in College-Aged Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Solomito, Matthew J.; Garibay, Erin J.; Õunpuu, Sylvia; Tate, Janet P.; Nissen, Carl W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are a number of studies showing that fastball pitches place greater loads on the shoulder and elbow than the curveball; however, the results of these studies are inconsistent, especially in collegiate-level pitchers. There is also discussion that sliders may produce substantially greater loads than other breaking pitches, but there is little scientific evidence to support this claim. Hypothesis: The curveball and slider/cutter produce greater moments on the shoulder and elbow compared with the fastball and change-up. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Thirty-six collegiate pitchers were evaluated using motion analysis techniques. All subjects pitched a fastball and a change-up, 29 pitched a curveball, and 20 pitched a slider/cutter. Kinematic data were collected, and kinetic (joint moment) data were computed using standard protocols. A random-intercept, mixed-model regression analysis was used to assess differences in joint moments between pitch types. Results: The greatest glenohumeral and elbow moments were found when pitchers were pitching the fastball (mean ± standard deviation: 80.8 ± 15.5 and 79.2 ± 16.9 N·m, respectively) and the lowest when pitching the change-up (73.2 ± 14.5 and 71.6 ± 15.0 N·m, respectively). The moments produced by the slider/cutter and curveball were similar (74.9 ± 16.4 and 75.6 ± 15.5 N·m at the elbow, respectively) and significantly lower than the moments produced by the fastball (P < .0001). Results also indicate that the change-up produced the lowest joint moments compared with other pitch types. Conclusion: This study shows that the fastball and not the curveball or slider/cutter produced the greatest moments on the college pitcher’s glenohumeral and elbow joints, as previously believed. The study also shows that the change-up may be the safest of the 4 pitch types analyzed. Clinical Relevance: There is a long-held belief that throwing breaking pitches, specifically the slider and

  19. Effects of neuromuscular joint facilitation on baseball pitching velocity and electromechanical reaction times of the teres major of young amateur baseball players.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of baseball pitching velocity and electromechanical reaction times (EMG-RT) of the teres major of young amateur baseball players after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy males who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a control group. The NJF group consisted of 10 subjects, and the control group consisted of 8 subjects. [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. The baseball pitching velocity, the EMG-RT, the premotor time (PMT), and the motor time (MT) during shoulder internal rotation movement were measured before and after 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] There were no significant differences among the results of the control group. In the NJF group, there were significant differences in baseball pitching velocity, EMG-RT and MT after NJF treatment. [Conclusion] NJF intervention shortens not only EMG-RT but also MT, which implies that NJF is effective for motor processes. Since the baseball pitching velocity increased, NJF may be recommended for the improvement of the performance of baseball players. PMID:24396210

  20. Supply determines demand: influence of partner quality and quantity on the interactions between bats and pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Schöner, Caroline R; Schöner, Michael G; Kerth, Gerald; Grafe, T Ulmar

    2013-09-01

    Interspecific relationships such as mutualism and parasitism are major drivers of biodiversity. Because such interactions often comprise more than two species, ecological studies increasingly focus on complex multispecies systems. However, the spatial heterogeneity of multi-species interactions is often poorly understood. Here, we investigate the unusual interaction of a bat (Kerivoula hardwickii hardwickii) and two pitcher plant species (Nepenthes hemsleyana and N. bicalcarata) whose pitchers serve as roost for bats. Nepenthes hemsleyana offers roosts of higher quality, indicated by a more stable microclimate compared to N. bicalcarata but occurs at lower abundance and is less common than the latter. Whereas N. hemsleyana benefits from the roosting bats by gaining nitrogen from their feces, the bats' interaction with N. bicalcarata seems to be commensal or even parasitic. Bats stayed longer in roosts of higher quality provided by N. hemsleyana and preferred them to pitchers of N. bicalcarata in a disturbance experiment. Moreover, bats roosting only in pitchers of N. hemsleyana had a higher body condition and were less infested with parasites compared to bats roosting in pitchers of N. bicalcarata. Our study shows how the local supply of roosts with different qualities affects the behavior and status of their inhabitants and-as a consequence-how the demand of the inhabitants can influence evolutionary adaptations of the roost providing species. PMID:23436020

  1. How to catch more prey with less effective traps: explaining the evolution of temporarily inactive traps in carnivorous pitcher plants

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Ulrike; Federle, Walter; Seidel, Hannes; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Ioannou, Christos C.

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous Nepenthes pitcher plants capture arthropods with specialized slippery surfaces. The key trapping surface, the pitcher rim (peristome), is highly slippery when wetted by rain, nectar or condensation, but not when dry. As natural selection should favour adaptations that maximize prey intake, the evolution of temporarily inactive traps seems paradoxical. Here, we show that intermittent trap deactivation promotes ‘batch captures' of ants. Prey surveys revealed that N. rafflesiana pitchers sporadically capture large numbers of ants from the same species. Continuous experimental wetting of the peristome increased the number of non-recruiting prey, but decreased the number of captured ants and shifted their trapping mode from batch to individual capture events. Ant recruitment was also lower to continuously wetted pitchers. Our experimental data fit a simple model that predicts that intermittent, wetness-based trap activation should allow safe access for ‘scout’ ants under dry conditions, thereby promoting recruitment and ultimately higher prey numbers. The peristome trapping mechanism may therefore represent an adaptation for capturing ants. The relatively rare batch capture events may particularly benefit larger plants with many pitchers. This explains why young plants of many Nepenthes species additionally employ wetness-independent, waxy trapping surfaces. PMID:25589604

  2. How to catch more prey with less effective traps: explaining the evolution of temporarily inactive traps in carnivorous pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Ulrike; Federle, Walter; Seidel, Hannes; Grafe, T Ulmar; Ioannou, Christos C

    2015-02-22

    Carnivorous Nepenthes pitcher plants capture arthropods with specialized slippery surfaces. The key trapping surface, the pitcher rim (peristome), is highly slippery when wetted by rain, nectar or condensation, but not when dry. As natural selection should favour adaptations that maximize prey intake, the evolution of temporarily inactive traps seems paradoxical. Here, we show that intermittent trap deactivation promotes 'batch captures' of ants. Prey surveys revealed that N. rafflesiana pitchers sporadically capture large numbers of ants from the same species. Continuous experimental wetting of the peristome increased the number of non-recruiting prey, but decreased the number of captured ants and shifted their trapping mode from batch to individual capture events. Ant recruitment was also lower to continuously wetted pitchers. Our experimental data fit a simple model that predicts that intermittent, wetness-based trap activation should allow safe access for 'scout' ants under dry conditions, thereby promoting recruitment and ultimately higher prey numbers. The peristome trapping mechanism may therefore represent an adaptation for capturing ants. The relatively rare batch capture events may particularly benefit larger plants with many pitchers. This explains why young plants of many Nepenthes species additionally employ wetness-independent, waxy trapping surfaces. PMID:25589604

  3. Short-term effects of fire and competition on growth and plasticity of the yellow pitcher plant, Sarracenia alata (Sarraceniaceae).

    PubMed

    Brewer, J S

    1999-09-01

    Although recurrent fires are widely assumed to reduce competitive interference of plants of pine savannas, rarely has this assumption been tested explicitly. This 2-yr study reports on the interactive effects of fire and neighbors on short-term growth responses and plasticity in allocation patterns of a carnivorous plant, the yellow pitcher plant, Sarracenia alata. This species relies upon pitfall traps (pitchers) to attract and capture insects to obtain nutrients. Neighbors reduced the growth rate of individual ramet transplants (phytometers) in one but not both years of the study. The effect of neighbors on total (i.e., both above- and belowground) productivity of phytometers was not reduced by a winter fire. Neighbors had a greater effect on large plants than on small plants. Although fire did not affect the growth rate of phytometers in the short term, allocation patterns were greatly altered by both neighbors and fire. Allocation to pitchers increased at the expense of belowground organs following fire and in the absence of neighbors at the unburned site. Results of the current study suggest that adult pitcher plants may tolerate competition from neighboring vegetation by reducing allocation to costly pitchers during years without fire. PMID:10487814

  4. Traumatic Hyphema in an Intercollegiate Baseball Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Stilger, Vincent G.; Alt, Jeromy M.; Robinson, Todd W.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of a collegiate baseball player struck in the right eye. Background: While attempting a bunt, a 20-year-old collegiate baseball player was hit in the right eye when the ball was deflected off the bat. The athlete bled from the nose, and the right eye swelled shut from eyelid edema. Initial nasal hemorrhage was controlled, and the athlete was referred to the emergency room for further care due to pain in the inferior orbit. Differential Diagnosis: Eyelid contusion, traumatic iritis, or traumatic microhyphema to the right eye secondary to blunt trauma. Treatment: Immediate treatment consisted of controlling the nasal bleeding with sterile gauze pads. Because of palpable tenderness over the inferior orbit, the athlete was immediately transported to the emergency room. Uniqueness: Hyphema is one of the most common sport-related eye injuries: the incidence is 12.2 cases per 100,000 population, with approximately 37% resulting from sports injury. Racquet sports, baseball, and softball account for more than half of all hyphema injuries in athletics. Individuals with traumatic hyphema rarely require surgery; however, proper initial care, treatment, and referral are imperative to a good prognosis. Conclusions: Athletic trainers need to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of hyphema and seek medical evaluation immediately in order to avoid secondary complications. With proper recognition, initial care and referral, and appropriate, well-fitted protective eyewear as needed, hyphema can have minimal complications, and the athlete may be able to compete again within 1 to 2 weeks. Imagesp26-a PMID:16558544

  5. Interval Throwing and Hitting Programs in Baseball: Biomechanics and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward S; Bishop, Meghan E; Baker, Dylan; West, Robin V

    2016-01-01

    Baseball injuries from throwing and hitting generally occur as a consequence of the repetitive and high-energy motions inherent to the sport. Biomechanical studies have contributed to understanding the pathomechanics leading to injury and to the development of rehabilitation programs. Interval-based throwing and hitting programs are designed to return an athlete to competition through a gradual progression of sport-specific exercises. Proper warm-up and strict adherence to the program allows the athlete to return as quickly and safely as possible. PMID:26991569

  6. Zeroing the Baseball Indicator and the Chirality of Triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Christopher S.; Wright, Marcus

    2004-03-01

    Starting with a common baseball umpire indicator, we consider the zeroing number for two-wheel indicators with states (a,b) and three-wheel indicators with states (a,b,c). Elementary number theory yields formulae for the zeroing number. The solution in the three-wheel case involves a curiously nontrivial minimization problem whose solution determines the chirality of the ordered triple (a,b,c) of pairwise relatively prime numbers. We prove that chirality is in fact an invariant of the unordered triple {a,b,c }. We also show that the chirality of Fibonacci triples alternates between 1 and 2.

  7. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Lumbar Spine Injuries in Major League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Camp, Christopher L; Conti, Matthew S; Sgroi, Terrance; Cammisa, Frank P; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement. Linking the upper extremities to the hips and lower extremities, a healthy, strong, and stable spine and core is a prerequisite for performance in all levels of baseball. It has been well documented that baseball players with poor spinal control and stabilization are at increased risk for future injury. Common etiologies of lumbar injuries include stress fractures, muscle injury, annular tears with or without disc herniation, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and stenosis. This review discusses the epidemiology of spinal injuries in baseball. Special attention is paid to the role of the spine in baseball-related activities, common injuries, tips for making the correct diagnosis, treatment options, outcomes, rehabilitation, and injury prevention. PMID:26991566

  8. ‘Insect aquaplaning’ on a superhydrophilic hairy surface: how Heliamphora nutans Benth. pitcher plants capture prey

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Ulrike; Scharmann, Mathias; Skepper, Jeremy; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Trichomes are a common feature of plants and perform important and diverse functions. Here, we show that the inward-pointing hairs on the inner wall of insect-trapping Heliamphora nutans pitchers are highly wettable, causing water droplets to spread rapidly across the surface. Wetting strongly enhanced the slipperiness and increased the capture rate for ants from 29 to 88 per cent. Force measurements and tarsal ablation experiments revealed that wetting affected the insects' adhesive pads but not the claws, similar to the ‘aquaplaning’ mechanism of (unrelated) Asian Nepenthes pitcher plants. The inward-pointing trichomes provided much higher traction when insects were pulled outwards. The wetness-dependent capture mechanisms of H. nutans and Nepenthes pitchers present a striking case of functional convergence, whereas the use of wettable trichomes constitutes a previously unknown mechanism to make plant surfaces slippery. PMID:23256197

  9. Effect of various warm-up devices on bat velocity of intercollegiate baseball players.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; Beiser, Erik J; Bassett, Kylie E; Till, Megan E; Medlin, Greg L; Beam, Jason R; DeRenne, Coop

    2011-02-01

    A variety of warm-up devices are available to baseball players to use before their game at-bat. Past baseball research evaluating warm-up devices indicates that implements that are ±12% of standard game bat weight produce the greatest bat velocities for high school and intercollegiate players. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various warm-up devices on bat velocity (BV) of intercollegiate baseball players. Twenty-two Division I intercollegiate baseball players (age = 20.0 ± 1.5 years, height = 182.6 ± 8.3 cm, body mass = 91.4 ± 11.4 kg, lean body mass = 78.8 ± 8.9 kg, % body fat = 13.6 ± 3.8) participated in a warm-up with 1 of 10 weighted devices on separate days. Each of the 10 testing sessions consisted of a standardized warm-up, 3 dry swings as hard as possible with the assigned warm-up device, 2 comfortable dry swings with a standard game baseball bat followed by 3 game swings (20-second rest between swings) while hitting a baseball off of a batting tee with the same standard game baseball bat. Results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in BV after using any of the 10 warm-up devices. For male intercollegiate baseball players, results indicate that warm-up devices varying from 623.7 to 2,721.5 g (22-96 oz.) did not change mean BV of a standard game baseball bat, suggesting that intercollegiate players can use any of the 10 warm-up devices in the on-deck circle and maintain their BV. Therefore, personal preference as to which warm-up implement to use in the on-deck circle is advised. PMID:21240027

  10. Numerical analysis of maximal bat performance in baseball.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Rochelle L; Miller, Karol; Elliott, Bruce C

    2006-01-01

    Metal baseball bats have been experimentally demonstrated to produce higher ball exit velocity (BEV) than wooden bats. In the United States, all bats are subject to BEV tests using hitting machines that rotate the bat in a horizontal plane. In this paper, a model of bat-ball impact was developed based on 3-D translational and rotational kinematics of a swing performed by high-level players. The model was designed to simulate the maximal performance of specific models of a wooden bat and a metal bat when swung by a player, and included material properties and kinematics specific to each bat. Impact dynamics were quantified using the finite element method (ANSYS/LSDYNA, version 6.1). Maximum BEV from both a metal (61.5 m/s) and a wooden (50.9 m/s) bat exceeded the 43.1 m/s threshold by which bats are certified as appropriate for commercial sale. The lower BEV from the wooden bat was attributed to a lower pre-impact bat linear velocity, and a more oblique impact that resulted in a greater proportion of BEV being lost to lateral and vertical motion. The results demonstrate the importance of factoring bat linear velocity and spatial orientation into tests of maximal bat performance, and have implications for the design of metal baseball bats. PMID:15878593

  11. The effect of fastball backspin rate on baseball hitting accuracy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Morohoshi, Jun; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-06-01

    The effectiveness of fastballs of equivalent speed can differ; for example, one element of this difference could be due to the effect of rate and orientation of ball spin on launched ball trajectory. In the present experiment, baseball batters' accuracy in hitting fastballs with different backspin rates at a constant ball velocity of 36 m/s was examined. Thirteen skilled baseball players (professionals, semiprofessionals, and college varsity players) participated in the study. The movements of bat and ball were recorded using two synchronized high-speed video cameras. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) was calculated and used to analyze the relationship between ball backspin rate and the vertical distance between ball center and sweet spot at the moment of ball-bat impact. Ball backspin rate was positively correlated with increases in the distance from the optimal contact point of the swung bat (sweet spot) to the actual point of contact (r = .38, P < .001). Batters were most effective at the usual backspin rate for the ball velocity used. The decrease in accuracy of the batter's swing that was observed when the fastball's backspin deviated from the usual rate likely occurred because experienced batters predict ball trajectory from perceived ball speed. PMID:22923374

  12. Investigating customer racial discrimination in the secondary baseball card market.

    PubMed

    Primm, Eric; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Piquero, Alex R; Regoli, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature in a variety of disciplines has appeared over the last 20 years examining customer racial bias in the secondary sports card market; however, consensus on the matter has yet to emerge. In this article, we explore the more subtle ways that a player's race/ethnicity may affect the value of his sports card including a player's skin tone (light- to dark-skinned). Data were obtained for 383 black, Latino, and white baseball players who had received at least one vote for induction into Major League Baseball's Hall of Fame including their career performance statistics, rookie card price, card availability, Hall of Fame status, and skin tone. Findings indicate that card availability is the primary determinant of card value while a player's skin tone has no direct effect. Subsequent analysis demonstrates that a player's race (white/non-white) rather than skin tone did have an effect as it interacts with Hall of Fame status to influence his rookie card price. PMID:21337740

  13. Neuromuscular and stiffness adaptations in division I collegiate baseball players.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stephen J; Swanik, Charles B; Higginson, Jill S; Kaminski, Thomas W; Swanik, Kathleen A; Kelly, John D; Nazarian, Levon N

    2013-02-01

    To compare bi-lateral shoulder EMG, active and short range glenohumeral stiffness, and examine its correlation to posterior capsule thickness (PCT) in collegiate baseball players. Surface and fine wire EMG was recorded on shoulder and scapular musculature during stiffness testing. Posterior capsule thickness was assessed separately using a diagnostic ultrasound. Serratus anterior EMG area and peak on the dominant arm was significantly greater compared to the non-dominant arm. The dominant arm had significantly greater active and short range glenohumeral stiffness compared to the non-dominant arm. Active glenohumeral stiffness was significantly correlated with PCT, however short range glenohumeral stiffness was not significantly correlated with PCT. Healthy collegiate baseball players present with adaptations of their stiffness regulation strategies. There were also correlations between stiffness and morphologic changes. Our results support the theory that PCT has an impact on the energy absorption capabilities of the shoulder during the deceleration phase of throwing. It also seems that tightening of the series elastic component within the posterior rotator cuff may be causing the increase in short range stiffness on the dominant arm. PMID:22898532

  14. Functional characterization of a class III acid endochitinase from the traps of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus, Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Rottloff, Sandy; Stieber, Regina; Maischak, Heiko; Turini, Florian G; Heubl, Günther; Mithöfer, Axel

    2011-08-01

    Carnivory in plants is an adaptation strategy to nutrient-poor environments and soils. Carnivorous plants obtain some additional mineral nutrients by trapping and digesting prey; the genus Nepenthes is helped by its specialized pitcher traps. To make the nutrients available, the caught prey needs to be digested, a process that requires the concerted activity of several hydrolytic enzymes. To identify and investigate the various enzymes involved in this process, fluid from Nepenthes traps has been analysed in detail. In this study, a novel type of Nepenthes endochitinase was identified in the digestion fluid of closed pitchers. The encoding endochitinase genes have been cloned from eight different Nepenthes species. Among these, the deduced amino acid sequence similarity was at least 94.9%. The corresponding cDNA from N. rafflesiana was heterologously expressed, and the purified protein, NrChit1, was biochemically characterized. The enzyme, classified as a class III acid endochitinase belonging to family 18 of the glycoside hydrolases, is secreted into the pitcher fluid very probably due to the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide. Transcriptome analyses using real-time PCR indicated that the presence of prey in the pitcher up-regulates the endochitinase gene not only in the glands, which are responsible for enzyme secretion, but at an even higher level, in the glands' surrounding tissue. These results suggest that in the pitchers' tissues, the endochitinase as well as other proteins from the pitcher fluid might fulfil a different, primary function as pathogenesis-related proteins. PMID:21633084

  15. Screening for smokeless tobacco use and presence of oral lesions in major league baseball athletes.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Amy K; Hutton, Stephen B; Munnelly, Maureen; Bay, R Curtis

    2015-01-01

    The historically disproportionate use of smokeless tobacco (ST) by baseball players is well documented. Oral mucosal lesions (OML) are associated with ST use. Prevalence of ST use and OMLs was assessed among a sample of Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) athletes, while also assessing behavioral and demographic risk factors. ST-use prevalence and OML developmental risk was higher than natiornal averages. MLB policy intervention has not changed ST-use rates, and increased prevalence of ST use remains. PMID:25632515

  16. Distal Ulna Fracture With Delayed Ulnar Nerve Palsy in a Baseball Player.

    PubMed

    Pasque, Charles B; Pearson, Clark; Margo, Bradley; Ethel, Robert

    2016-02-01

    We present a case report of a college baseball player who sustained a blunt-trauma, distal-third ulna fracture from a thrown ball with delayed presentation of ulnar nerve palsy. Even after his ulna fracture had healed, the nerve injury made it difficult for the athlete to control a baseball while throwing, resulting in a delayed return to full baseball activity for 3 to 4 months. He had almost complete nerve recovery by 6 months after his injury and complete nerve recovery by 1 year after his injury. PMID:26866319

  17. Nitrogen availability alters the expression of carnivory in the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Aaron M; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2002-04-01

    Atmospheric transport and deposition of nutrients, especially nitrogen, is a global environmental problem with well-documented consequences for ecosystem dynamics. However, monitoring nitrogen deposition is relatively expensive, monitoring stations are widely spaced, and estimates and predicted impacts of nitrogen deposition are currently derived from spatial modeling and interpolation of limited data. Ombrotrophic ("rain-fed") bogs are nutrient-poor ecosystems that are especially sensitive to increasing nutrient input, and carnivorous plants, which are characteristic of these widespread ecosystem types, may be especially sensitive indicators of N deposition. Botanical carnivory is thought to have evolved in nutrient-poor and well-lit habitats such as bogs because the marginal benefits accruing from carnivory exceed the marginal photosynthetic costs associated with the maintenance of carnivorous organs. However, the production of carnivorous organs can be a phenotypically plastic trait. The northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, produces leaves specialized for prey capture and nutrient uptake (pitchers) and leaves that are more efficient at photosynthesis (phyllodia). We hypothesized that relative allocation to these two types of leaves reflects ambient nitrogen availability. We manipulated nutrient availability to plants with leaf enrichment and whole-plot fertilization experiments. Increased nitrogen, but not phosphorus, reduced production of pitchers relative to phyllodia; this result provided empirical support for the cost-benefit model of the evolution of botanical carnivory. Because this phenotypic shift in leaf production occurs in ecological time, our results suggest that S. purpurea could be a reliable and inexpensive biological indicator of nitrogen deposition rates. This suggestion is supported by field observations across a geographic gradient of nitrogen deposition. PMID:11904363

  18. Nitrogen availability alters the expression of carnivory in the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Aaron M.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    2002-01-01

    Atmospheric transport and deposition of nutrients, especially nitrogen, is a global environmental problem with well-documented consequences for ecosystem dynamics. However, monitoring nitrogen deposition is relatively expensive, monitoring stations are widely spaced, and estimates and predicted impacts of nitrogen deposition are currently derived from spatial modeling and interpolation of limited data. Ombrotrophic (“rain-fed”) bogs are nutrient-poor ecosystems that are especially sensitive to increasing nutrient input, and carnivorous plants, which are characteristic of these widespread ecosystem types, may be especially sensitive indicators of N deposition. Botanical carnivory is thought to have evolved in nutrient-poor and well-lit habitats such as bogs because the marginal benefits accruing from carnivory exceed the marginal photosynthetic costs associated with the maintenance of carnivorous organs. However, the production of carnivorous organs can be a phenotypically plastic trait. The northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, produces leaves specialized for prey capture and nutrient uptake (pitchers) and leaves that are more efficient at photosynthesis (phyllodia). We hypothesized that relative allocation to these two types of leaves reflects ambient nitrogen availability. We manipulated nutrient availability to plants with leaf enrichment and whole-plot fertilization experiments. Increased nitrogen, but not phosphorus, reduced production of pitchers relative to phyllodia; this result provided empirical support for the cost–benefit model of the evolution of botanical carnivory. Because this phenotypic shift in leaf production occurs in ecological time, our results suggest that S. purpurea could be a reliable and inexpensive biological indicator of nitrogen deposition rates. This suggestion is supported by field observations across a geographic gradient of nitrogen deposition. PMID:11904363

  19. Pitcher's elbow: medial elbow pain in the overhead-throwing athlete.

    PubMed

    Rossy, William H; Oh, Luke S

    2016-06-01

    Overhead athletes subject their elbows to significant valgus stresses throughout the throwing cycle. A steady rise in the number of medial-sided elbow injuries over the years has lead to increased awareness regarding the pathophysiology of the "pitcher's elbow." As our understanding of the functional anatomy and throwing biomechanics has become more sophisticated, we have seen a concurrent improvement in the outcomes associated with managing these injuries. Despite this improvement, continued anatomical and biomechanical research is still needed to further optimize outcomes and return to sport. PMID:27260266

  20. Fluid physico-chemical properties influence capture and diet in Nepenthes pitcher plants

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Vincent; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Marshall, David J.; Gaume, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Nepenthes pitcher plants have evolved modified leaves with slippery surfaces and enzymatic fluids that trap and digest prey, faeces and/or plant detritus. Although the fluid’s contribution to insect capture is recognized, the physico-chemical properties involved remain underexplored and may vary among species, influencing their diet type. This study investigates the contributions of acidity and viscoelasticity in the fluid’s capture efficiency of two ant and two fly species in four Nepenthes species with different nutrition strategies. Methods Four Nepenthes species were studied, namely N. rafflesiana, N. gracilis, N. hemsleyana and N. ampullaria. Fluid was collected from pitchers of varying ages from plants growing in the field and immediately transferred to glass vials, and individual ants (tribe Campotini, Fomicinae) and flies (Calliphora vomitoria and Drosophila melanogaster) were dropped in and observed for 5 min. Water-filled vials were used as controls. Survival and lifetime data were analysed using models applied to right-censored observations. Additional laboratory experiments were carried out in which C. vomitoria flies were immersed in pH-controlled aqueous solutions and observed for 5 min. Key Results Pitcher fluid differed among Nepenthes species as regards insect retention capacity and time-to-kill, with differences observed between prey types. Only the fluids of the reputedly insectivorous species were very acidic and/or viscoelastic and retained significantly more insects than the water controls. Viscoelastic fluids were fatal to flies and were able to trap the broadest diversity of insects. Younger viscoelastic fluids showed a better retention ability than older fluids, although with less rapid killing ability, suggesting that a chemical action follows a mechanical one. Insect retention increased exponentially with fluid viscoelasticity, and this happened more abruptly and at a lower threshold for flies compared with

  1. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    PubMed

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  2. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Fadde, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  3. Aerodynamics of knuckle ball: Flow-structure interaction problem on a pitched baseball without spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Hiroshi; Kiura, Toshiro

    2012-07-01

    In the game of baseball, the knuckleball—so-called because the baseball is gripped with the knuckles in a certain position—is pitched in a way that introduces nearly no rotation, resulting in erratic flight paths which confuse batters. The “knuckleball” effect is believed to be caused by asymmetric flow separation over the baseball, but little is known about its flow physics. In the experiment described in this paper, the flow near the seams of the baseball is visualized thoroughly and the velocity vector fields near the surface and in the wake are obtained with Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Depending on its position, the seam is found to trigger the boundary layer transition thus delaying the separation, or to cause separation itself. Three-dimensional wake patterns associated with specific ball orientations are identified and related to the force variations on the ball.

  4. Singing the national anthem at major league baseball stadiums raises awareness of ALS.

    PubMed

    Herreria, J

    1998-01-01

    Mark Reiman, diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), is raising awareness of the disease, better known as Lou Gehrig's disease, by singing the national anthem at all the major league baseball stadiums in the U.S. PMID:10186395

  5. The neurosurgeon as baseball fan and inventor: Walter Dandy and the batter's helmet.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Ryan; Bi, Wenya Linda; Smith, Timothy R; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2015-07-01

    Baseball maintains one of the highest impact injury rates in all athletics. A principal causative factor is the "beanball," referring to a pitch thrown directly at a batter's head. Frequent morbidities elicited demand for the development of protective gear development in the 20th century. In this setting, Dr. Walter Dandy was commissioned to design a "protective cap" in 1941. His invention became widely adopted by professional baseball and inspired subsequent generations of batting helmets. As a baseball aficionado since his youth, Walter Dandy identified a natural partnership between baseball and medical practice for the reduction of beaning-related brain injuries. This history further supports the unique position of neurosurgeons to leverage clinical insights, inform innovation, and expand service to society. PMID:26126408

  6. [Baseball during the growing years: repercussions on the cardiovascular system (echocardiographic evaluation)].

    PubMed

    Zuliani, U; Dei Cas, L; Manca, C

    1985-01-01

    The influence upon the cardiovascular system of a period (21 months) of physical training program for baseball was studied in 40 normal children (aged 8 to 10 years) in an experimental (20) and control (20) group. The echocardiographic changes observed at the end of the period proved to be substantially alike in both groups. The physiopathological involvements linked to the baseball training in the prepubescent age are discussed. PMID:2930983

  7. Hamstring Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Zachazewski, James; Silvers, Holly J.; Li, Bernard; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Insler, Stephanie; Ahmad, Christopher S.; Mandelbaum, Bert R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to test the efficacy of a hamstring injury prevention program designed to address the high incidence of acute and chronic hamstring injuries and re-injuries that occur in the sport of professional baseball. Methods: This was a prospective cluster cohort study assessing the efficacy of an injury prevention intervention designed to address hamstring injury in rookie and professional baseball players participating in Minor and Major League Baseball (N = 213). Each athlete was asked to participate and consented (Johns Hopkins Internal Review Board, Baltimore, Maryland). Those athletes who agreed to participate completed a questionnaire detailing their hamstring injury history. The hamstring injury prevention program was disseminated to each medical staff (team physician, certified athletic trainer and strength and conditioning coach) and they were instructed on how to implement the program. Weekly individual compliance with the program and injury data was collected. At the end of the season, the data were analyzed for program compliance and hamstring (HS) injury rates (both acute and reoccurrence) compared to the control data in the MLB HITS database. All data were stripped of individual and team identifiers prior to analysis. Results: For the major and minor league intervention study, one Major and Minor League organization served as the intervention (INT) team, which encompassed Rookie League, Fall Ball, Class A, AA, AAA and major league rosters (6 total teams). A total of 213 athletes consented to participate: Minor League: N = 173 players and Majors League: N = 40. Weekly compliance, injury incidence and time loss due to injury was compared to the HITS database (age, skill matched control group). The average weighted utilization of the injury prevention program was 25.30 utilizations for the uninjured group compared to 13.53 in the injured group (p=0.09). In the majors, there were 2 HS injuries in the INT vs. 79 in the CON

  8. Abner Doubleday, Marc Bloch, and the cultural significance of baseball in rural America.

    PubMed

    Vaught, David

    2011-01-01

    In 1907 baseball's promoters decreed that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday created the game in the village of Cooperstown, New York, in 1839. Baseball thus acquired a distinctly rural American origin and a romantic pastoral appeal. Skeptics have since presented irrefutable evidence that America's pastime was neither born in the United States nor was a product of rural life. But in their zeal to debunk the myth of baseball's rural beginnings, historians have fallen prey to what Annales School founder Marc Bloch famously called the "idol of origins," and all but neglected the very real phenomenon of rural baseball itself. The claim that baseball has always been "a city game for city men" does not stand up to empirical scrutiny anymore than the Doubleday myth itself, as this address demonstrates with three case studies -- Cooperstown in the 1830s, Davisville, California, in the 1880s, and Milroy, Minnesota, in the 1950s. Baseball may have been a source of rural nostalgia for city people, but it was the sport of choice for farmers and a powerful cultural agent. PMID:21313784

  9. Epistasis underlying a fitness trait within a natural population of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, William E; Haggerty, Brian P; Holzapfel, Christina M

    2005-01-01

    We selected on divergent photoperiodic response in three separate lines from a natural population of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii. Line crosses reveal that there exists within a population, diverse epistatic variation for a fitness trait that could contribute to adaptive potential following founder events or rapid climate change. PMID:15466431

  10. Epistasis Underlying a Fitness Trait Within a Natural Population of the Pitcher-Plant Mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, William E.; Haggerty, Brian P.; Holzapfel, Christina M.

    2005-01-01

    We selected on divergent photoperiodic response in three separate lines from a natural population of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii. Line crosses reveal that there exists within a population, diverse epistatic variation for a fitness trait that could contribute to adaptive potential following founder events or rapid climate change. PMID:15466431

  11. Convergent evolution: floral guides, stingless bee nest entrances, and insectivorous pitchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Giurfa, Martin; Koedam, Dirk; Potts, Simon G.; Joel, Daniel M.; Dafni, Amots

    2005-09-01

    Several recent hypotheses, including sensory drive and sensory exploitation, suggest that receiver biases may drive selection of biological signals in the context of sexual selection. Here we suggest that a similar mechanism may have led to convergence of patterns in flowers, stingless bee nest entrances, and pitchers of insectivorous plants. A survey of these non-related visual stimuli shows that they share features such as stripes, dark centre, and peripheral dots. Next, we experimentally show that in stingless bees the close-up approach to a flower is guided by dark centre preference. Moreover, in the approach towards their nest entrance, they have a spontaneous preference for entrance patterns containing a dark centre and disrupted ornamentation. Together with existing empirical evidence on the honeybee's and other insects’ orientation to flowers, this suggests that the signal receivers of the natural patterns we examined, mainly Hymenoptera, have spontaneous preferences for radiating stripes, dark centres, and peripheral dots. These receiver biases may have evolved in other behavioural contexts in the ancestors of Hymenoptera, but our findings suggest that they have triggered the convergent evolution of visual stimuli in floral guides, stingless bee nest entrances, and insectivorous pitchers.

  12. Nutrient limitation and morphological plasticity of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea in contrasting wetland environments.

    PubMed

    Bott, Terry; Meyer, Gretchen A; Young, Erica B

    2008-01-01

    * Plasticity of leaf nutrient content and morphology, and macronutrient limitation were examined in the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea subsp. purpurea, in relation to soil nutrient availability in an open, neutral pH fen and a shady, acidic ombrotrophic bog, over 2 yr following reciprocal transplantation of S. purpurea between the wetlands. * In both wetlands, plants were limited by nitrogen (N) but not phosphorus (P) (N content < 2% DW(-1), N : P < 14) but photosynthetic quantum yields were high (F(V)/F(M) > 0.79). Despite carnivory, leaf N content correlated with dissolved N availability to plant roots (leaf N vs , r(2) = 0.344, P < 0.0001); carnivorous N acquisition did not apparently overcome N limitation. * Following transplantation, N content and leaf morphological traits changed in new leaves to become more similar to plants in the new environment, reflecting wetland nutrient availability. Changes in leaf morphology were faster when plants were transplanted from fen to bog than from bog to fen, possibly reflecting a more stressful environment in the bog. * Morphological plasticity observed in response to changes in nutrient supply to the roots in natural habitats complements previous observations of morphological changes with experimental nutrient addition to pitchers. PMID:18643897

  13. Functional characterization of a class III acid endochitinase from the traps of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus, Nepenthes

    PubMed Central

    Rottloff, Sandy; Stieber, Regina; Maischak, Heiko; Turini, Florian G.; Heubl, Günther; Mithöfer, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Carnivory in plants is an adaptation strategy to nutrient-poor environments and soils. Carnivorous plants obtain some additional mineral nutrients by trapping and digesting prey; the genus Nepenthes is helped by its specialized pitcher traps. To make the nutrients available, the caught prey needs to be digested, a process that requires the concerted activity of several hydrolytic enzymes. To identify and investigate the various enzymes involved in this process, fluid from Nepenthes traps has been analysed in detail. In this study, a novel type of Nepenthes endochitinase was identified in the digestion fluid of closed pitchers. The encoding endochitinase genes have been cloned from eight different Nepenthes species. Among these, the deduced amino acid sequence similarity was at least 94.9%. The corresponding cDNA from N. rafflesiana was heterologously expressed, and the purified protein, NrChit1, was biochemically characterized. The enzyme, classified as a class III acid endochitinase belonging to family 18 of the glycoside hydrolases, is secreted into the pitcher fluid very probably due to the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide. Transcriptome analyses using real-time PCR indicated that the presence of prey in the pitcher up-regulates the endochitinase gene not only in the glands, which are responsible for enzyme secretion, but at an even higher level, in the glands’ surrounding tissue. These results suggest that in the pitchers’ tissues, the endochitinase as well as other proteins from the pitcher fluid might fulfil a different, primary function as pathogenesis-related proteins. PMID:21633084

  14. Occurrence and growth characteristics of Escherichia coli and enterococci within the accumulated fluid of the northern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea L.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Byers, Stacey E.; Shively, Dawn A.; Ferguson, Donna M.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2005-01-01

    Sarracenia purpurea L., a carnivorous bog plant (also known as the pitcher plant), represents an excellent model of a well-defined, self-contained ecosystem; the individual pitchers of the plant serve as a microhabitat for a variety of micro- and macro-organisms. Previously, fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) were shown as incidental contaminants in pitcher fluid; however, whether their occurrence in pitcher fluid is incidental or common has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and growth potential of E. coli and enterococci in pitcher plant fluid from a protected bog in northwest Indiana. Escherichia coli and enterococci were recovered in pitcher fluids (n = 43 plants), with mean densities (log CFU mL-1) of 1.28 ± 0.23 and 1.97 ± 0.27, respectively. In vitro experiments showed that E. coli growth in fluid not containing insects or indigenous organisms was directly proportional to the fluid concentration (growth was 10-fold in 24 h in 100% fluid); however, in the presence of other indigenous organisms, E. coli and enterococci were only sustained for 5 days at 26 °C. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that the plant Enterococcus faecalis isolates were genetically distinct from the human isolates; identical PFGE patterns were observed among plant isolates that fell into one of six clonal groups. These findings suggest that (i) E. coli and enterococci occurrence in pitcher plants is rather common in the bog studied, although their originating source is unclear, and (ii) the pitcher fluid contains adequate nutrients, especially carbon and energy sources, to promote the growth of indicator bacteria; however, under natural conditions, the biotic factors (e.g., competition for nutrients) may restrict their growth.

  15. Occurrence and growth characteristics of Escherichia coli and enterococci within the accumulated fluid of the northern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea L.).

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard L; Byers, Stacey E; Shively, Dawn A; Ferguson, Donna M; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara

    2005-12-01

    Sarracenia purpurea L., a carnivorous bog plant (also known as the pitcher plant), represents an excellent model of a well-defined, self-contained ecosystem; the individual pitchers of the plant serve as a microhabitat for a variety of micro- and macro-organisms. Previously, fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) were shown as incidental contaminants in pitcher fluid; however, whether their occurrence in pitcher fluid is incidental or common has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and growth potential of E. coli and enterococci in pitcher plant fluid from a protected bog in northwest Indiana. Escherichia coli and enterococci were recovered in pitcher fluids (n=43 plants), with mean densities (log CFU mL-1) of 1.28+/-0.23 and 1.97+/-0.27, respectively. In vitro experiments showed that E. coli growth in fluid not containing insects or indigenous organisms was directly proportional to the fluid concentration (growth was 10-fold in 24 h in 100% fluid); however, in the presence of other indigenous organisms, E. coli and enterococci were only sustained for 5 days at 26 degrees C. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that the plant Enterococcus faecalis isolates were genetically distinct from the human isolates; identical PFGE patterns were observed among plant isolates that fell into one of six clonal groups. These findings suggest that (i) E. coli and enterococci occurrence in pitcher plants is rather common in the bog studied, although their originating source is unclear, and (ii) the pitcher fluid contains adequate nutrients, especially carbon and energy sources, to promote the growth of indicator bacteria; however, under natural conditions, the biotic factors (e.g., competition for nutrients) may restrict their growth. PMID:16462861

  16. Whole-body vibration effects on the muscle activity of upper and lower body muscles during the baseball swing in recreational baseball hitters.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Gabriel F; Dickin, D Clark; Crusat, Nolan J K; Dolny, Dennis G

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the muscle recruitment of selected upper and lower body muscles during the baseball swing. Participants were recreationally trained males (n = 16, 22 +/- 2 years, 181.4 +/- 7.4 cm, 84.7 +/- 9.0 kg), with previous baseball experience. Subjects participated in three randomized sessions on separate days, consisting of three sets of five swings offa hitting tee. Exercises (upper and lower body dynamic and static movements) with or without WBVexposure were performed between swing sets. During each swing, the gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and triceps brachii were evaluated for electromyographic (EMG) activity. EMG values were normalized to EMG measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in EMG activity across the three treatments. In addition, the results displayed a specific muscle recruitment order during the swing, starting with the lower body followed by the upper body muscles. This study was the first to report the recruitment order during the baseball swing. Although acute exposure to WBV did not significantly alter the muscle recruitment, these results may prove useful for practitioners looking to enhance baseball swing performance. PMID:22303781

  17. Baseball Throwing Mechanics as They Relate to Pathology and Performance - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, Rod

    2007-01-01

    It is a commonly held perception amongst biomechanists, sports medicine practitioners, baseball coaches and players, that an individual baseball player's style of throwing or pitching influences their performance and susceptibility to injury. With the results of a series of focus groups with baseball managers and pitching coaches in mind, the available scientific literature was reviewed regarding the contribution of individual aspects of pitching and throwing mechanics to potential for injury and performance. After a discussion of the limitations of kinematic and kinetic analyses, the individual aspects of pitching mechanics are discussed under arbitrary headings: Foot position at stride foot contact; Elbow flexion; Arm rotation; Arm horizontal abduction; Arm abduction; Lead knee position; Pelvic orientation; Deceleration-phase related issues; Curveballs; and Teaching throwing mechanics. In general, popular opinion of baseball coaching staff was found to be largely in concordance with the scientific investigations of biomechanists with several notable exceptions. Some difficulties are identified with the practical implementation of analyzing throwing mechanics in the field by pitching coaches, and with some unquantified aspects of scientific analyses. Key pointsBiomechanical analyses including kinematic and kinetic analyses allow for estimation of pitching performance and potential for injury.Some difficulties both theoretic and practical exist for the implementation and interpretation of such analyses.Commonly held opinions of baseball pitching authorities are largely held to concur with biomechanical analyses.Recommendations can be made regarding appropriate pitching and throwing technique in light of these investigations. PMID:24149219

  18. Color perception is impaired in baseball batters while performing an interceptive action.

    PubMed

    Sasada, Manami; Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ikudome, Sachi; Unenaka, Satoshi; Mori, Shiro

    2015-08-01

    In order to test the theoretical idea that experts rely more on the dorsal stream than the ventral stream during interceptive action for the interception of a moving target, the present study investigates the perception of color (dominant in ventral processing) during interceptive action in fast-ball sports. Twelve college baseball players and 12 non-baseball players performed a coincident-timing task with target color changes (from white to red, blue, or white) at various time points (at 100, 200, or 300 ms before target arrival). In this task, participants swung a bat and/or pressed a button in response to the target's arrival at a prespecified location. Participants were then asked to state the final color of the target. Baseball players, but not non-baseball players, were significantly less proficient at identifying color changes during the bat-swing condition relative to the button-press condition, irrespective of the time points of color change. These results are consistent with the idea that baseball players rely more on the dorsal stream during bat swinging for the interception of a moving target than do novices. PMID:25898899

  19. Impact injuries in baseball : prevalence, aetiology and the role of equipment performance.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Rochelle L; Elliott, Bruce C; Miller, Karol

    2004-01-01

    Baseball has one of the highest impact injury rates of all sports. These injuries are primarily attributed to impact by a ball after it has been hit, pitched or thrown. This paper will review the incidence and causal factors for impact injuries in baseball. Attention is given to the design and material properties of bats, in light of evidence suggesting balls hit into the infield from metal bats can reach velocities potentially lethal to defensive players. The distribution of bat mass along the long axis of the implement appears a major factor in the greater performance potential of metal bats over wooden bats of equal length and mass. The dynamic behaviour of baseballs has also been implicated in the severity of head and chest injuries experienced by players. Balls of greatly reduced stiffness have been introduced for junior play, but debate still remains over their performance and impact characteristics. The behaviour of the ball during high-speed impact with the bat has been the subject of relatively limited research, and the effect of manipulating baseball material properties to decrease batted-ball velocity is unclear. The value of batting helmets is evident in the observed reduction of head injuries in baseball, but the use of protective vests to decrease the incidence and severity of cardio-thoracic trauma appears to be contraindicated. PMID:14715037

  20. Baseball throwing mechanics as they relate to pathology and performance - a review.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Rod

    2007-01-01

    It is a commonly held perception amongst biomechanists, sports medicine practitioners, baseball coaches and players, that an individual baseball player's style of throwing or pitching influences their performance and susceptibility to injury. With the results of a series of focus groups with baseball managers and pitching coaches in mind, the available scientific literature was reviewed regarding the contribution of individual aspects of pitching and throwing mechanics to potential for injury and performance. After a discussion of the limitations of kinematic and kinetic analyses, the individual aspects of pitching mechanics are discussed under arbitrary headings: Foot position at stride foot contact; Elbow flexion; Arm rotation; Arm horizontal abduction; Arm abduction; Lead knee position; Pelvic orientation; Deceleration-phase related issues; Curveballs; and Teaching throwing mechanics. In general, popular opinion of baseball coaching staff was found to be largely in concordance with the scientific investigations of biomechanists with several notable exceptions. Some difficulties are identified with the practical implementation of analyzing throwing mechanics in the field by pitching coaches, and with some unquantified aspects of scientific analyses. Key pointsBiomechanical analyses including kinematic and kinetic analyses allow for estimation of pitching performance and potential for injury.Some difficulties both theoretic and practical exist for the implementation and interpretation of such analyses.Commonly held opinions of baseball pitching authorities are largely held to concur with biomechanical analyses.Recommendations can be made regarding appropriate pitching and throwing technique in light of these investigations. PMID:24149219

  1. Energy supply processes for magnetospheric substorms and solar flares - Tippy bucket model or pitcher model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, both magnetospheric substorms and solar flares have almost exclusively been discussed in terms of explosive magnetic reconnection. Such a model may conceptually be illustrated by the so-called 'tippy-bucket model', which causes sudden unloading processes, namely a sudden (catastrophic, stochastic, and unpredictable) conversion of stored magnetic energy. However, recent observations indicate that magnetospheric substorms can be understood as a result of a directly driven process which can conceptually be illustrated by the 'pitcher model' in which the output rate varies in harmony with the input rate. It is also possible that solar flare phenomena are directly driven by a photospheric dynamo. Thus, explosive magnetic reconnection may simply be an unworkable hypothesis and may not be a puzzle to be solved as the primary energy supply process for magnetospheric substorms and solar flares.

  2. Using Statistical Process Control Charts to Identify the Steroids Era in Major League Baseball: An Educational Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Stephen E.; Schvaneveldt, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an educational exercise in which statistical process control charts are constructed and used to identify the Steroids Era in American professional baseball. During this period (roughly 1993 until the present), numerous baseball players were alleged or proven to have used banned, performance-enhancing drugs. Also observed…

  3. Mechanism for rapid passive-dynamic prey capture in a pitcher plant.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Ulrike; Paulin, Marion; Robert, Daniel; Sutton, Gregory P

    2015-10-27

    Plants use rapid movements to disperse seed, spores, or pollen and catch animal prey. Most rapid-release mechanisms only work once and, if repeatable, regaining the prerelease state is a slow and costly process. We present an encompassing mechanism for a rapid, repeatable, passive-dynamic motion used by a carnivorous pitcher plant to catch prey. Nepenthes gracilis uses the impact of rain drops to catapult insects from the underside of the canopy-like pitcher lid into the fluid-filled trap below. High-speed video and laser vibrometry revealed that the lid acts as a torsional spring system, driven by rain drops. During the initial downstroke, the tip of the lid reached peak velocities similar to fast animal motions and an order of magnitude faster than the snap traps of Venus flytraps and catapulting tentacles of the sundew Drosera glanduligera. In contrast to these active movements, the N. gracilis lid oscillation requires neither mechanical preloading nor metabolic energy, and its repeatability is only limited by the intensity and duration of rainfall. The underside of the lid is coated with friction-reducing wax crystals, making insects more vulnerable to perturbations. We show that the trapping success of N. gracilis relies on the combination of material stiffness adapted for momentum transfer and the antiadhesive properties of the wax crystal surface. The impact-driven oscillation of the N. gracilis lid represents a new kind of rapid plant movement with adaptive function. Our findings establish the existence of a continuum between active and passive trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants. PMID:26438874

  4. Mechanism for rapid passive-dynamic prey capture in a pitcher plant

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Ulrike; Paulin, Marion; Robert, Daniel; Sutton, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    Plants use rapid movements to disperse seed, spores, or pollen and catch animal prey. Most rapid-release mechanisms only work once and, if repeatable, regaining the prerelease state is a slow and costly process. We present an encompassing mechanism for a rapid, repeatable, passive-dynamic motion used by a carnivorous pitcher plant to catch prey. Nepenthes gracilis uses the impact of rain drops to catapult insects from the underside of the canopy-like pitcher lid into the fluid-filled trap below. High-speed video and laser vibrometry revealed that the lid acts as a torsional spring system, driven by rain drops. During the initial downstroke, the tip of the lid reached peak velocities similar to fast animal motions and an order of magnitude faster than the snap traps of Venus flytraps and catapulting tentacles of the sundew Drosera glanduligera. In contrast to these active movements, the N. gracilis lid oscillation requires neither mechanical preloading nor metabolic energy, and its repeatability is only limited by the intensity and duration of rainfall. The underside of the lid is coated with friction-reducing wax crystals, making insects more vulnerable to perturbations. We show that the trapping success of N. gracilis relies on the combination of material stiffness adapted for momentum transfer and the antiadhesive properties of the wax crystal surface. The impact-driven oscillation of the N. gracilis lid represents a new kind of rapid plant movement with adaptive function. Our findings establish the existence of a continuum between active and passive trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants. PMID:26438874

  5. Batting cage performance of wood and nonwood youth baseball bats.

    PubMed

    Crisco, Joseph J; Rainbow, Michael J; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the batting cage performance of wood and nonwood baseball bats used at the youth level. Three wood and ten nonwood bats were swung by 22 male players (13 to 18 years old) in a batting cage equipped with a 3-dimensional motion capture (300 Hz) system. Batted ball speeds were compared using a one-way ANOVA and bat swing speeds were analyzed as a function of bat moment of inertia by linear regression. Batted ball speeds were significantly faster for three nonwood bat models (P<.001), significantly slower for one nonwood model, and not different for six nonwood bats when compared with wood bats. Bat impact speed significantly (P<.05) decreased with increasing bat moment of inertia for the 13-, 14-, and 15-year-old groups, but not for the other age groups. Ball-bat coefficients of restitution (BBCOR) for all nonwood were greater than for wood, but this factor alone did not correlate with bat performance. Our findings indicate that increases in BBCOR and swing speed were not associated with faster batted ball speeds for the bats studied whose moment of inertia was substantially less than that of a wood bat of similar length. PMID:25083683

  6. Effects of bat grip on baseball hitting kinematics.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Fleisig, Glenn S; DeRenne, Coop; Taylor, Marcus K; Moorman, Claude T; Imamura, Rodney; Barakatt, Edward; Andrews, James R

    2009-08-01

    A motion system collected 120-Hz data from 14 baseball adult hitters using normal and choke-up bat grips. Six swings were digitized for each hitter, and temporal and kinematic parameters were calculated. Compared with a normal grip, the choke-up grip resulted in 1) less time during stride phase and swing; 2) the upper torso more opened at lead foot contact; 3) the pelvis more closed and less bat linear velocity at bat-ball contact; 4) less range of motion of the upper torso and pelvis during swing; 5) greater elbow flexion at lead foot contact; and 6) greater peak right elbow extension angular velocity. The decreased time during the stride phase when using a choke-up grip implies that hitters quicken their stride when they choke up. Less swing time duration and less upper torso and pelvis rotation range of motion using the choke-up grip supports the belief of many coaches and players that using a choke-up grip results in a "quicker" swing. However, the belief that using a choke-up grip leads to a faster moving bat was not supported by the results of this study. PMID:19827469

  7. 1996 Olympic Stadium/Braves Baseball Park: Adaptive pre-use

    SciTech Connect

    Cambron, C.R.

    1996-02-01

    Converting an Olympic stadium back into a baseball park proved challenging from an HVAC standpoint because both configurations` HVAC needs were different. At first glance the HVAC requirements for an open air stadium may seem slight. Surprisingly, however, the stadium boasts nearly 300,000 sq ft of conditioned space, handled by two chillers, 22 air handling units, 37 cooking exhausts, over 150 exhaust fans, over 3 miles of ductwork, and several electric heat pumps. The approach -- design for second use, adapt for first use, and reconfigure facility to its original design. Because the designated after-use is baseball, the design must start with a first-class baseball stadium that can be expanded to meet the needs of the Olympics. After 1996, the facility can be reconfigured for its intended lifetime usage.

  8. "Markov at the bat": a model of cognitive processing in baseball batters.

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob

    2002-11-01

    Anecdotal evidence from players and coaches indicates that cognitive processing (e.g., expectations about the upcoming pitch) plays an important role in successful baseball batting, yet this aspect of hitting has not been investigated in detail. The present study provides experimental evidence that prior expectations significantly influence the timing of a baseball swing. A two-state Markov model was used to predict the effects of pitch sequence and pitch count on batting performance. The model is a hitting strategy of switching between expectancy states using a simple set of transition rules. In a simulated batting experiment, the model provided a good fit to the hitting performance of 6 experienced college baseball players, and the estimated model parameters were highly correlated with playing level. PMID:12430839

  9. Genetic Differentiation, Structure, and a Transition Zone among Populations of the Pitcher Plant Moth Exyra semicrocea: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Jessica D.; Santos, Scott R.; Folkerts, Debbie R.

    2011-01-01

    Pitcher plant bogs, or carnivorous plant wetlands, have experienced extensive habitat loss and fragmentation throughout the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, resulting in an estimated reduction to <3% of their former range. This situation has lead to increased management attention of these habitats and their carnivorous plant species. However, conservation priorities focus primarily on the plants since little information currently exists on other community members, such as their endemic arthropod biota. Here, we investigated the population structure of one of these, the obligate pitcher plant moth Exyra semicrocea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Examination of 221 individuals from 11 populations across eight southeastern US states identified 51 unique haplotypes. These haplotypes belonged to one of two divergent (∼1.9–3.0%) lineages separated by the Mississippi alluvial plain. Populations of the West Gulf Coastal Plain exhibited significant genetic structure, contrasting with similarly distanced populations east of the Mississippi alluvial plain. In the eastern portion of the Coastal Plain, an apparent transition zone exists between two regionally distinct population groups, with a well-established genetic discontinuity for other organisms coinciding with this zone. The structure of E. semicrocea appears to have been influenced by patchy pitcher plant bog habitats in the West Gulf Coastal Plain as well as impacts of Pleistocene interglacials on the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin. These findings, along with potential extirpation of E. semicrocea at four visited, but isolated, sites highlight the need to consider other endemic or associated community members when managing and restoring pitcher plant bog habitats. PMID:21829473

  10. The Pitcher Plant Sarracenia purpurea Can Directly Acquire Organic Nitrogen and Short-Circuit the Inorganic Nitrogen Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Karagatzides, Jim D.; Butler, Jessica L.; Ellison, Aaron M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the large stocks of organic nitrogen in soil, nitrogen availability limits plant growth in many terrestrial ecosystems because most plants take up only inorganic nitrogen, not organic nitrogen. Although some vascular plants can assimilate organic nitrogen directly, only recently has organic nitrogen been found to contribute significantly to the nutrient budget of any plant. Carnivorous plants grow in extremely nutrient-poor environments and carnivory has evolved in these plants as an alternative pathway for obtaining nutrients. We tested if the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea could directly take up intact amino acids in the field and compared uptake of organic and inorganic forms of nitrogen across a gradient of nitrogen deposition. We hypothesized that the contribution of organic nitrogen to the nitrogen budget of the pitcher plant would decline with increasing nitrogen deposition. Methodology and Principal Findings At sites in Canada (low nitrogen deposition) and the United States (high nitrogen deposition), individual pitchers were fed two amino acids, glycine and phenylalanine, and inorganic nitrogen (as ammonium nitrate), individually and in mixture. Plants took up intact amino acids. Acquisition of each form of nitrogen provided in isolation exceeded uptake of the same form in mixture. At the high deposition site, uptake of organic nitrogen was higher than uptake of inorganic nitrogen. At the low deposition site, uptake of all three forms of nitrogen was similar. Completeness of the associated detritus-based food web that inhabits pitcher-plant leaves and breaks down captured prey had no effect on nitrogen uptake. Conclusions and Significance By taking up intact amino acids, Sarracenia purpurea can short-circuit the inorganic nitrogen cycle, thus minimizing potential bottlenecks in nitrogen availability that result from the plant's reliance for nitrogen mineralization on a seasonally reconstructed food web operating on

  11. Genetic differentiation, structure, and a transition zone among populations of the pitcher plant moth Exyra semicrocea: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Jessica D; Santos, Scott R; Folkerts, Debbie R

    2011-01-01

    Pitcher plant bogs, or carnivorous plant wetlands, have experienced extensive habitat loss and fragmentation throughout the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, resulting in an estimated reduction to <3% of their former range. This situation has lead to increased management attention of these habitats and their carnivorous plant species. However, conservation priorities focus primarily on the plants since little information currently exists on other community members, such as their endemic arthropod biota. Here, we investigated the population structure of one of these, the obligate pitcher plant moth Exyra semicrocea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Examination of 221 individuals from 11 populations across eight southeastern US states identified 51 unique haplotypes. These haplotypes belonged to one of two divergent (∼1.9-3.0%) lineages separated by the Mississippi alluvial plain. Populations of the West Gulf Coastal Plain exhibited significant genetic structure, contrasting with similarly distanced populations east of the Mississippi alluvial plain. In the eastern portion of the Coastal Plain, an apparent transition zone exists between two regionally distinct population groups, with a well-established genetic discontinuity for other organisms coinciding with this zone. The structure of E. semicrocea appears to have been influenced by patchy pitcher plant bog habitats in the West Gulf Coastal Plain as well as impacts of Pleistocene interglacials on the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin. These findings, along with potential extirpation of E. semicrocea at four visited, but isolated, sites highlight the need to consider other endemic or associated community members when managing and restoring pitcher plant bog habitats. PMID:21829473

  12. The Baseball Hall of Fame is not the kiss of death.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gary

    2011-01-01

    E. Abel andM. Kruger (2005) reported that the median life expectancy of Major League Baseball players after election to the Baseball Hall of Fame is 5 years shorter than that of players of the same age who are not elected to the Hall of Fame. This conclusion is surprising because there is no compelling explanation for such a dramatic reduction in life expectancy. However, the data used in that study are incorrect. A robust test applied to correct data shows that there is no statistically persuasive difference in the life expectancy of players elected to the Hall of Fame and their peers. PMID:24501860

  13. Genetic diversity and geographical structure of the pitcher plant Nepenthes vieillardii in New Caledonia: A chloroplast DNA haplotype analysis.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Kaoruko; Jaffré, Tanguy; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2008-12-01

    Among the many species that grow in New Caledonia, the pitcher plant Nepenthes vieillardii (Nepenthaceae) has a high degree of morphological variation. In this study, we present the patterns of genetic differentiation of pitcher plant populations based on chloroplast DNA haplotype analysis using the sequences of five spacers. We analyzed 294 samples from 16 populations covering the entire range of the species, using 4660 bp of sequence. Our analysis identified 17 haplotypes, including one that is widely distributed across the islands, as well as regional and private haplotypes. The greatest haplotype diversity was detected on the eastern coast of the largest island and included several private haplotypes, while haplotype diversity was low in the southern plains region. The parsimony network analysis of the 17 haplotypes suggested that the genetic divergence is the result of long-term isolation of individual populations. Results from a spatial analysis of molecular variance and a cluster analysis suggest that the plants once covered the entire serpentine area of New Caledonia and that subsequent regional fragmentation resulted in the isolation of each population and significantly restricted seed flow. This isolation may have been an important factor in the development of the morphological and genetic variation among pitcher plants in New Caledonia. PMID:21628169

  14. Effects of a non-native biocontrol weevil, Larinus planus, and other emerging threats on populations of the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle, Cirsium pitcheri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, Kayri; Jolls, Claudia L.; Marik, Julie E.; Vitt, Pati; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Kind, Darcy

    2012-01-01

    Larinus planus Frabicius (Curculionidae), is a seed-eating weevil that was inadvertently introduced into the US and was subsequently distributed in the US and Canada for the control of noxious thistle species of rangelands. It has been detected recently in the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). We assayed weevil damage in a natural population of Pitcher's thistle at Whitefish Dunes State Park, Door County, WI and quantified the impact on fecundity. We then estimated the impact of this introduced weevil and other emerging threats on two natural, uninvaded populations of Pitcher's thistle for which we have long-term demographic data for 16 yr (Wilderness State Park, Emmet County, MI) and 23 yr (Miller High Dunes, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Porter County, IN). We used transition matrices to determine growth rates and project the potential effects of weevil damage, inbreeding, goldfinch predation, and vegetative succession on Pitcher's thistle population viability. Based on our models, weevil seed predation reduced population growth rate by 10–12%, but this reduction was enough to reduce time to extinction from 24 yr to 13 yr and 8 yr to 5 yr in the MI and IN population, respectively. This impact is particularly severe, given most populations of Pitcher's thistle throughout its range hover near or below replacement. This is the first report of unanticipated ecological impacts from a biocontrol agent on natural populations of Cirsium pitcheri.

  15. Baseball Stadium Design: Teaching Engineering Economics and Technical Communication in a Multi-Disciplinary Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Kevin; Newell, James

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a course at Rowan University, based on the economic design of a baseball stadium, that offers an introduction to multidisciplinary engineering design linked with formal training in technical communication. Addresses four pedagogical goals: (1) developing public speaking skills in a realistic, business setting; (2) giving students…

  16. Women Working in the Management of Professional Baseball: Getting to First Base?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hums, Mary A.; Sutton, William A.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 152 women administrators in professional baseball indicated that their greatest challenges and least-enjoyable job aspects were mostly gender-related issues: the need to gain respect and credibility, be taken seriously, overcome stereotypes, and deal with sexism and sexual harassment. Nearly half felt their compensation was less than…

  17. A Comparison of Selected Kinematic Factors in Male Baseball and Female Fast Pitch Softball Batting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spragg, Carolyn; Noble, Larry

    Six female intercollegiate varsity softball players and six male intercollegiate varsity baseball players were filmed from overhead while batting a wiffle ball off a batting tee at hip height. Movements of the hips, trunk, upper body segments, and bat were analyzed. Group comparisons indicated that males had higher peak linear and, angular…

  18. American Academy of Pediatrics: Risk of injury from baseball and softball in children.

    PubMed

    2001-04-01

    This statement updates the 1994 American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement on baseball and softball injuries in children. Current studies on acute, overuse, and catastrophic injuries are reviewed with emphasis on the causes and mechanisms of injury. This information serves as a basis for recommending safe training practices and the appropriate use of protective equipment. PMID:11335760

  19. Estimation of Rotational Velocity of Baseball Using High-Speed Camera Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takuya; Uematsu, Yuko; Saito, Hideo

    Movies can be used to analyze a player's performance and improve his/her skills. In the case of baseball, the pitching is recorded by using a high-speed camera, and the recorded images are used to improve the pitching skills of the players. In this paper, we present a method for estimating of the rotational velocity of a baseball on the basis of movies recorded by high-speed cameras. Unlike in the previous methods, we consider the original seam pattern of the ball seen in the input movie and identify the corresponding image from a database of images by adopting the parametric eigenspace method. These database images are CG Images. The ball's posture can be determined on the basis of the rotational parameters. In the proposed method, the symmetric property of the ball is also taken into consideration, and the time continuity is used to determine the ball's posture. In the experiments, we use the proposed method to estimate the rotational velocity of a baseball on the basis of real movies and movies consisting of CG images of the baseball. The results of both the experiments prove that our method can be used to estimate the ball's rotation accurately.

  20. As Cutbacks Hit College Sports, Baseball Falls behind in the Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2009-01-01

    For two weeks every June, the College World Series showcases one of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA's) most popular sports. More than 300,000 fans flock to picturesque Rosenblatt Stadium, in Omaha, with millions more tuning in on ESPN. Ticket sales, which in recent years topped $9-million, make baseball the NCAA's…

  1. Double-Play: Using Minor League Baseball to Apply Themes and Standards in Human Geography Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitler, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Growing student interest in sports provides geography teachers with a special opportunity to make connections between it and fundamental concepts in the discipline. This article examines the structure, arrangement, relationships, and distinctions among minor league baseball franchise locations, stadia, and team names, and presents examples of…

  2. Path Analysis Examining Self-Efficacy and Decision-Making Performance on a Simulated Baseball Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepler, Teri J.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between decision-making self-efficacy and decision-making performance in sport. Undergraduate students (N = 78) performed 10 trials of a decision-making task in baseball. Self-efficacy was measured before performing each trial. Decision-making performance was assessed by decision speed and…

  3. Precocity Predicts Shorter Life for Major League Baseball Players: Confirmation of Mccann's Precocity-Longevity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    We tested McCann's precocity-longevity hypothesis, which proposes that early career achievement is related to premature death, for Major League baseball players (N = 3,760). Age at debut was the definition for precocity. We controlled for possible artifacts of life expectancy selection, the "healthy worker" effect, player position, and body-mass…

  4. How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

  5. Foul Lines: Teaching Race in Jim Crow America through Baseball History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laliberte, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Far more than just recreation, baseball offers social, cultural, and political insights into history. For teachers, the goals of this article are threefold. First, this narrative is designed to provide the introductory content knowledge needed to develop a colorful lecture, structure a spirited discussion, or create a student project on the topic.…

  6. A Model of Motor Inhibition for a Complex Skill: Baseball Batting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The ability to inhibit an ongoing action in response to a signal from the environment is important for many perceptual-motor actions. This paper examines a particular example of this behavior: attempting to inhibit or "check" a swing in baseball batting. A model of motor inhibition in batting is proposed. In the model there are three different…

  7. A Pedagogical Note on Baseball Stadium Economics: "Show Me the Money!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, William L.; Kroncke, Charles O.

    2003-01-01

    For some time now, it has been the posture of major league baseball that taxpayers should bear some or all of the cost of new stadiums. They argue that the community will benefit both economically and psychologically from such an investment. A stadium, they claim, will bring new jobs, increased land values, enhanced tax collections, and perhaps…

  8. Coaches, Eying Miami's Success, Try to Turn College Baseball into a Money-Making Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Charles J.

    1988-01-01

    The University of Miami developed its debt-ridden intercollegiate baseball program into a source of substantial income and visibility, as better players and aggressive marketing helped with the increased attendance and support. Other institutions, even in more northern climates, are following Miami's example. (MSE)

  9. Effects of a Long-Term Fitness Program on Professional Baseball Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagerman, Frederick C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The article describes the development of a comprehensive conditioning and education program to ensure total fitness (including aerobic) in professional baseball players on and off season, noting that standard training keeps them fit in every way except aerobically. The program helped them improve playing performance and develop a healthy…

  10. Preventive Effects of Eccentric Training on Acute Hamstring Muscle Injury in Professional Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Seagrave, Richard A.; Perez, Luis; McQueeney, Sean; Toby, E. Bruce; Key, Vincent; Nelson, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the second most common injury causing missed days in professional baseball field players. Recent studies have shown the preventive benefit of eccentric conditioning on the hamstring muscle group in injury prevention. Specifically, Nordic-type exercises have been shown to decrease the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in professional athletes. Purpose: This was a prospective study performed in coordination with a single Major League Baseball (MLB) organization (major and minor league teams) that targeted the effects of Nordic exercises on the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in the professional-level baseball player. Study Design: Prospective cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: The daily workouts of 283 professional baseball players throughout all levels of a single MLB organization were prospectively recorded. The intervention group participated in the Nordic exercise program and was compared with a randomly selected control group of professional athletes within the organization not participating in the exercise program. The incidence of hamstring injuries in both groups was compared, and the total number of days missed due to injury was compared with the 2 previous seasons. Results: There were 10 hamstring injuries that occurred during the 2012 season among the 283 professional athletes that required removal from play. There were no injuries that occurred in the intervention group (n = 65, 0.00%; P = .0381). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent 1 hamstring injury was 11.3. The average repetitions per week of the injured group were assessed at multiple time points (2, 4, 6, and total weeks) prior to injury. There were significantly fewer repetitions per week performed in the injured group at all time points compared with overall average repetitions per week in the noninjured group (P = .0459, .0127, .0164, and .0299, respectively). After beginning the Nordic exercise program, there were 136 total days

  11. Epidemiology and Impact of Knee Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Diane L; Curriero, Frank C; Camp, Christopher L; Brophy, Robert H; Leo, Tony; Meister, Keith; Paletta, George A; Steubs, John A; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Pollack, Keshia M

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the frequency and impact of lower extremity injuries, such as those to the knee, among professional baseball players. The purpose of this study was to detail the epidemiology of knee injuries in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players during the 2011-2014 seasons. It was hypothesized that knee injuries are a common occurrence in these athletes, and represent a significant source of time away from play. The MLB Health and Injury Tracking System database was searched to identify all patients diagnosed with knee injuries during the 2011-2014 seasons. All injuries that occurred during the preseason, regular season, and postseason that resulted in time away from play were included. Injury data analyzed included total number of knee injuries, specific diagnoses, injury mechanisms, locations, player positions, and time lost. Descriptive statistics were conducted and injury rates per athlete-exposures were calculated. During the 2011-2014 seasons, a total of 2171 knee injuries occurred in MLB and MiLB players, representing 6.5% of all injuries in professional baseball. The knee injury rate across both the MLB and MiLB was 1.2 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The mean number of days missed per injury across both leagues was 16.2 with a total of 30,449 days of missed play amongst all athletes over the 4 seasons. Injuries to the knee were the fifth most common cause of missed time in all of baseball, and the fourth most common reason for missed games in the MLB alone. Approximately 12% of all injuries required surgical intervention. The most common mechanism of injury was noncontact (44%), and base runners were injured more frequently than any other position (24%). The infield (30%) and home plate (23%) were the most common locations in which injuries occurred. These data can be utilized for targeted injury prevention initiatives. PMID:26991584

  12. Isolation and characterization of novel lipases from a metagenomic library of the microbial community in the pitcher fluid of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes hybrida.

    PubMed

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Manabu; Sato, Shoko; Kikuchi, Noriko; Kato, Norihiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2011-10-01

    Members of the genus Nepenthes are carnivorous plants that use the pitfall method of insect capture as a supplementary nutritional source. We extracted metagenomic DNA from the microbial community found in the pitcher fluid of Nepenthes and constructed a plasmid-based metagenomic library. An activity-based screening method enabled the isolation of two lipase genes, lip1 and lip2. Both Lip1 and Lip2 belong to a novel family or subfamily of lipases and show lipase activities in acidic conditions, such as those found in pitcher fluid. This study was conducted under the assumption that the secreted Lip1 and Lip2 were capable of enzymatic activity in the acidic pitcher fluid. PMID:21778111

  13. Hierarchical Structure and Multifunctional Surface Properties of Carnivorous Pitcher Plants Nepenthes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chiao-Peng; Lin, Yu-Min; Chen, Po-Yu

    2015-04-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes have evolved specialized leaves fulfilling the multi-functions of attracting, capturing, retaining and digesting the prey, mostly arthropods. Different capturing mechanisms have been proposed and discussed in previous works. The most important capture mechanism is the unique super-hydrophilic surface properties of the peristome. The combination of a hierarchical surface structure and nectar secretions results in an exceptional water-lubricated trapping system. Anisotropic and unidirectional wettability is attributed to the ridge-like surface and epidermal folding. The three-dimensional plate-like wax crystals in the hydrophobic waxy zone can further prevent the prey from escaping. The captured prey are then digested in the hydrophilic digestive zone. The hybrid species Nepenthes × Miranda was investigated in this study. The surface morphology and hierarchical microstructure were characterized by scanning electron microscope. Contact angle measurement and wetting efficiency tests were performed to determine the wettability of the peristome under fresh, nectar-free and sucrose-coated conditions with controlled temperature and humidity. The results showed that sucrose-coated peristome surfaces possess the best wetting efficiency. The structure-property-function relationship and the capturing mechanism of Nepenthes were elucidated, which could further lead to the design and synthesis of novel bio-inspired surfaces and potential applications.

  14. Inbreeding, outbreeding, and heterosis in the yellow pitcher plant, Sarracenia flava (Sarraceniaceae), in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, P M; Karowe, D N

    2000-11-01

    The yellow pitcher plant, Sarracenia flava, is an insectivorous plant restricted to fire-maintained wetland ecosystems in southeastern Virginia. Only four natural sites remain in the state totaling fewer than 100 clumps. Plants from sites located in Dinwiddie, Greensville, Prince George, Sussex counties, and the city of Suffolk were tested for the effects of self-pollination, intrasite outcrossing, and intersite outcrossing on offspring quantity (total seed number and total seed mass) and offspring quality (avarage seed mass, germination, and growth).Self-pollination resulted in significantly lower offspring quantity and quality. Total seed number and total seed mass for self-pollinated capsules were approximately one-fourth that of outcrossed capsules. Germination, survivorship, and growth over 5 yr were also significantly lower for offspring from self-pollinated capsules. Together, these results suggest strong inbreeding depression in this species.Relative to offspring from intrasite crosses, offspring from intersite crosses were significantly larger after 5 yr of growth. This suggests that restoration efforts for Virginia S. flava will be most successful when plants from multiple sites are used. PMID:11080113

  15. Effects of a ciliate protozoa predator on microbial communities in pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) leaves.

    PubMed

    Paisie, Taylor K; Miller, Thomas E; Mason, Olivia U

    2014-01-01

    The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria) community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems. PMID:25423622

  16. Evolutionary divergence of the genetic architecture underlying photoperiodism in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii.

    PubMed

    Lair, K P; Bradshaw, W E; Holzapfel, C M

    1997-12-01

    We determine the contribution of composite additive, dominance, and epistatic effects to the genetic divergence of photoperiodic response along latitudinal, altitudinal, and longitudinal gradients in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii. Joint scaling tests of crosses between populations showed widespread epistasis as well as additive and dominance differences among populations. There were differences due to epistasis between an alpine population in North Carolina and populations in Florida, lowland North Carolina, and Maine. Longitudinal displacement resulted in differences due to epistasis between Florida and Alabama populations separated by 300 km but not between Maine and Wisconsin populations separated by 2000 km. Genetic differences between New Jersey and Ontario did not involve either dominance or epistasis and we estimated the minimum number of effective factors contributing to a difference in mean critical photoperiod of 5 SD between them as nE = 5. We propose that the genetic similarity of populations within a broad northern region is due to their more recent origin since recession of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and that the unique genetic architecture of each population is the result of both mutation and repeated migration-founder-flush episodes during the dispersal of W. smithii in North America. Our results suggest that differences in composite additive and dominance effects arise early in the genetic divergence of populations while differences due to epistasis accumulate after more prolonged isolation. PMID:9409843

  17. Geographic variation and the evolution of reproductive allocation in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, P; Bradshaw, W E; Ruegg, K; Holzapfel, C M

    2001-02-01

    We measured the egg size of six geographic populations of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, from Florida (30 degrees N) to Ontario (49 degrees N). Populations from northern latitudes produced larger eggs than populations from southern latitudes. Egg size increased with increasing latitude more rapidly when larvae were reared under low rather than high density. One southern (30 degrees N) and one northern (49 degrees N) population of W. smithii that persisted through 10 generations of selection for increased persistence under conditions of chronic thermal- and nutrient-limiting stress (conditions similar to southern rather than northern habitats) produced smaller eggs more rapidly than unselected control lines. However, there were no differences in lifetime fecundity or fertility between control and selected lines. Thus, laboratory evolution in an environment representative of extreme southern latitudes caused evolutionary changes consistent with geographic patterns of egg size. These results implicate temperature as a selective factor influencing the geographic variation of egg size in W. smithii, and demonstrate a novel trade-off in reproductive allocation between egg size and egg maturation time. PMID:11308099

  18. Evolution in response to direct and indirect ecological effects in pitcher plant inquiline communities.

    PubMed

    terHorst, Casey P

    2010-12-01

    Ecologists have long recognized the importance of indirect ecological effects on species abundances, coexistence, and diversity. However, the evolutionary consequences of indirect interactions are rarely considered. Here I conduct selection experiments and examine the evolutionary response of Colpoda sp., a ciliated protozoan, to other members of the inquiline community of purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea). I measured the evolution of six traits in response to (1) predation by mosquito larvae, (2) competition from other ciliated protozoans, and (3) simultaneous predation and competition. The latter treatment incorporated both direct effects and indirect effects due to interactions between predators and competitors. Population growth rate and cell size evolved in response to direct effects of predators and competitors. However, trait values in the multispecies treatment were similar to those in the monoculture treatment, indicating that direct effects were offset by strong indirect effects on the evolution of traits. For most of the traits measured, indirect effects were opposed to, and often stronger than, direct effects. These indirect effects occurred as a result of behavioral changes of the predator in the presence of competitors and as a result of reduced densities of competitors in the presence of predators. Incorporating indirect effects provides a more realistic description of how species evolve in complex natural communities. PMID:20955011

  19. Effects of a Ciliate Protozoa Predator on Microbial Communities in Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia purpurea) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Paisie, Taylor K.; Miller, Thomas E.; Mason, Olivia U.

    2014-01-01

    The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria) community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems. PMID:25423622

  20. Testing successional hypotheses of stability, heterogeneity, and diversity in pitcher-plant inquiline communities.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas E; terHorst, Casey P

    2012-09-01

    Succession is a foundation concept in ecology that describes changes in species composition through time, yet many successional patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. We highlight three hypotheses about succession that are often not clearly stated or tested: (1) individual communities become more stable over time, (2) replicate communities become more similar over time, and (3) diversity peaks at mid-succession. Testing general patterns of succession requires estimates of variation in trajectories within and among replicate communities. We followed replicate aquatic communities found within leaves of purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea) to test these three hypotheses. We found that stability of individual communities initially decreased, but then increased in older communities. Predation was highest in younger leaves but then declined, while competition was likely strongest in older leaves, as resources declined through time. Higher levels of predation and competition corresponded with periods of higher stability. As predicted, heterogeneity among communities decreased with age, suggesting that communities became more similar over time. Changes in diversity depended on trophic level. The diversity of bacteria slightly declined over time, but the diversity of consumers of bacteria increased linearly and strongly throughout succession. We suggest that studies need to focus on the variety of environmental drivers of succession, which are likely to vary through time and across habitats. PMID:22430372

  1. Evolutionary Divergence of the Genetic Architecture Underlying Photoperiodism in the Pitcher-Plant Mosquito, Wyeomyia Smithii

    PubMed Central

    Lair, K. P.; Bradshaw, W. E.; Holzapfel, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    We determine the contribution of composite additive, dominance, and epistatic effects to the genetic divergence of photoperiodic response along latitudinal, altitudinal, and longitudinal gradients in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii. Joint scaling tests of crosses between populations showed wide-spread epistasis as well as additive and dominance differences among populations. There were differences due to epistasis between an alpine population in North Carolina and populations in Florida, lowland North Carolina, and Maine. Longitudinal displacement resulted in differences due to epistasis between Florida and Alabama populations separated by 300 km but not between Maine and Wisconsin populations separated by 2000 km. Genetic differences between New Jersey and Ontario did not involve either dominance or epistasis and we estimated the minimum number of effective factors contributing to a difference in mean critical photoperiod of 5 SD between them as n(E) = 5. We propose that the genetic similarity of populations within a broad northern region is due to their more recent origin since recession of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and that the unique genetic architecture of each population is the result of both mutation and repeated migration-founder-flush episodes during the dispersal of W. smithii in North America. Our results suggest that differences in composite additive and dominance effects arise early in the genetic divergence of populations while differences due to epistasis accumulate after more prolonged isolation. PMID:9409843

  2. In situ enzyme activity in the dissolved and particulate fraction of the fluid from four pitcher plant species of the genus Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yayoi; Salcher, Michaela M; Ushio, Masayuki; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Kobayashi, Masaki J; Diway, Bibian; von Mering, Christian; Pernthaler, Jakob; Shimizu, Kentaro K

    2011-01-01

    The genus Nepenthes, a carnivorous plant, has a pitcher to trap insects and digest them in the contained fluid to gain nutrient. A distinctive character of the pitcher fluid is the digestive enzyme activity that may be derived from plants and dwelling microbes. However, little is known about in situ digestive enzymes in the fluid. Here we examined the pitcher fluid from four species of Nepenthes. High bacterial density was observed within the fluids, ranging from 7×10(6) to 2.2×10(8) cells ml(-1). We measured the activity of three common enzymes in the fluid: acid phosphatases, β-D-glucosidases, and β-D-glucosaminidases. All the tested enzymes detected in the liquid of all the pitcher species showed activity that considerably exceeded that observed in aquatic environments such as freshwater, seawater, and sediment. Our results indicate that high enzyme activity within a pitcher could assist in the rapid decomposition of prey to maximize efficient nutrient use. In addition, we filtered the fluid to distinguish between dissolved enzyme activity and particle-bound activity. As a result, filtration treatment significantly decreased the activity in all enzymes, while pH value and Nepenthes species did not affect the enzyme activity. It suggested that enzymes bound to bacteria and other organic particles also would significantly contribute to the total enzyme activity of the fluid. Since organic particles are themselves usually colonized by attached and highly active bacteria, it is possible that microbe-derived enzymes also play an important role in nutrient recycling within the fluid and affect the metabolism of the Nepenthes pitcher plant. PMID:21949872

  3. In Situ Enzyme Activity in the Dissolved and Particulate Fraction of the Fluid from Four Pitcher Plant Species of the Genus Nepenthes

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Yayoi; Salcher, Michaela M.; Ushio, Masayuki; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Kobayashi, Masaki J.; Diway, Bibian; von Mering, Christian; Pernthaler, Jakob; Shimizu, Kentaro K.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Nepenthes, a carnivorous plant, has a pitcher to trap insects and digest them in the contained fluid to gain nutrient. A distinctive character of the pitcher fluid is the digestive enzyme activity that may be derived from plants and dwelling microbes. However, little is known about in situ digestive enzymes in the fluid. Here we examined the pitcher fluid from four species of Nepenthes. High bacterial density was observed within the fluids, ranging from 7×106 to 2.2×108 cells ml−1. We measured the activity of three common enzymes in the fluid: acid phosphatases, β-d-glucosidases, and β-d-glucosaminidases. All the tested enzymes detected in the liquid of all the pitcher species showed activity that considerably exceeded that observed in aquatic environments such as freshwater, seawater, and sediment. Our results indicate that high enzyme activity within a pitcher could assist in the rapid decomposition of prey to maximize efficient nutrient use. In addition, we filtered the fluid to distinguish between dissolved enzyme activity and particle-bound activity. As a result, filtration treatment significantly decreased the activity in all enzymes, while pH value and Nepenthes species did not affect the enzyme activity. It suggested that enzymes bound to bacteria and other organic particles also would significantly contribute to the total enzyme activity of the fluid. Since organic particles are themselves usually colonized by attached and highly active bacteria, it is possible that microbe-derived enzymes also play an important role in nutrient recycling within the fluid and affect the metabolism of the Nepenthes pitcher plant. PMID:21949872

  4. Disturbance in hitting accuracy by professional and collegiate baseball players due to intentional change of target position.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Morohoshi, Jun; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated bat control of skilled baseball batters during tee batting, faced with an intentional change in target position. Twelve, skilled, male baseball players (M age = 24 yr., SD = 4) participated in the study. Participants were instructed to hit a baseball off a tee 0.8 m from the ground (Hitting condition), and also to deliberately swing just above the ball (Air Swing condition). The task for the participants was to perform, in alternate order, 15 swings at a real baseball on a stationary tee and 15 swings at an imaginary ball that was said to be on top of the real baseball. The participants were instructed to hit the ball toward center field just as they would hit in a game. While most participants could hit the real ball in the sweet area of the bat, only one participant did so in the Air Swing condition. Average distances from the center of the sweet area to ball center at the moment of ball-bat contact in the Air Swing condition (85 mm) were significantly greater than the distance in the Hitting condition (38 mm). The larger error in hitting an imaginary ball in the sweet area could be due to perceptual changes following the batter's altered focus, expectation of a lack of contact, and/or lack of feedback from the swing. It was suggested that baseball batters should be aware of the possible error in hitting accurately when they intentionally shifted the target. PMID:24032335

  5. Interspecific variation in prey capture behavior by co-occurring Nepenthes pitcher plants

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Lijin; Chung, Arthur YC; Clarke, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes capture a wide range of arthropod prey for nutritional benefit, using complex combinations of visual and olfactory signals and gravity-driven pitfall trapping mechanisms. In many localities throughout Southeast Asia, several Nepenthes different species occur in mixed populations. Often, the species present at any given location have strongly divergent trap structures and preliminary surveys indicate that different species trap different combinations of arthropod prey, even when growing at the same locality. On this basis, it has been proposed that co-existing Nepenthes species may be engaged in niche segregation with regards to arthropod prey, avoiding direct competition with congeners by deploying traps that have modifications that enable them to target specific prey types. We examined prey capture among 3 multi-species Nepenthes populations in Borneo, finding that co-existing Nepenthes species do capture different combinations of prey, but that significant interspecific variations in arthropod prey combinations can often be detected only at sub-ordinal taxonomic ranks. In all lowland Nepenthes species examined, the dominant prey taxon is Formicidae, but montane Nepenthes trap few (or no) ants and 2 of the 3 species studied have evolved to target alternative sources of nutrition, such as tree shrew feces. Using similarity and null model analyses, we detected evidence for niche segregation with regards to formicid prey among 5 lowland, sympatric Nepenthes species in Sarawak. However, we were unable to determine whether these results provide support for the niche segregation hypothesis, or whether they simply reflect unquantified variation in heterogeneous habitats and/or ant communities in the study sites. These findings are used to propose improvements to the design of field experiments that seek to test hypotheses about targeted prey capture patterns in Nepenthes. PMID:24481246

  6. Evolutionary divergence of circadian and photoperiodic phenotypes in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Derrick; Reed, Laura K; Bradshaw, William E; Holzapfel, Christina M

    2006-04-01

    For decades, chronobiologists have investigated the relationship between the circadian clock that mediates daily activities and the photoperiodic timer that mediates seasonal activities. The main experiment used to infer a circadian basis for photoperiodic time measurement is the Nanda-Hamner protocol (NH). Herein, the authors compare additive and nonadditive (dominance and epistasis) genetic effects that lead to the divergence of populations of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, for critical photoperiod (CPP) and amplitude of the rhythmic response to NH for 3 temporal-geographic scales: 1) Over geological time between populations in northern and southern clades, 2) over millennial time between populations within the northern clade, and 3) over generational time between lines selected for long and short CPP from within a single population. The authors show that the pattern of additive, dominance, and epistatic effects depends on the time scale over which populations or lines have diverged. Patterns for genetic differences between populations for CPP and response to NH reveal similarities over geological and millennial time scales but differences over shorter periods of evolution. These results, and the observation that neither the period nor amplitude of the NH rhythm are significantly correlated with CPP among populations, lead the authors to conclude that the rhythmic response to NH has evolved independently of photoperiodic response in populations of W. smithii. The implication is that in this species, genetic modification of the circadian clock has not been the basis for the adaptive modification of photoperiodic time measurement over the climatic gradient of North America. PMID:16603677

  7. Evolutionary responses to environmental stress by the pitcher-plant mosquito, wyeomyia smithii

    PubMed

    Armbruster; Bradshaw; Steiner; Holzapfel

    1999-11-01

    We performed truncation selection for increased fitness (rc) under conditions of chronic stress from the combined effects of low nutrients and high temperature, representative of extremes likely to be encountered in nature by the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii. We performed selection on geographical parental populations and their hybrids to determine whether hybridization would facilitate or constrain adaptation under our selection protocol. The stressful environment decreased fitness (rc) by 54% averaged across all populations relative to near-optimal conditions. After approximately 10 generations of selection under chronically stressful conditions, exactly one-half of the parental and one-half of the hybrid populations had gone extinct. Thus hybridization had no effect on the likelihood of population persistence. Fitness (rc) of the surviving populations did not show any response to selection. Despite initial hybrid vigour under stressful conditions, the fitness (rc) of surviving hybrid populations was either equal to, or worse than, the fitness (rc) of surviving parental populations after approximately 10 generations of selection. These results suggest that outcrossing populations to augment genetic variation and facilitate adaptation to a rapidly changing environment may not be useful over longer time scales, even in cases where hybridization does initially increase fitness. Although we detected no direct response to selection for increased fitness (rc) under lifetime chronic stress, selected populations showed a strong correlated response for survivorship through transient, acute heat and desiccation shock. In evaluating how organisms might respond to future climate change, biologists must maintain a clear distinction between lifelong performance in chronically stressful environments and short-term survivorship through transient, acute stress. PMID:10620022

  8. Expert-novice differences in cognitive and skill execution components of youth baseball performance.

    PubMed

    French, K E; Spurgeon, J H; Nevett, M E

    1995-09-01

    Previous research has shown that experts exhibit superior response selection and skill execution during performance in youth sport. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in cognitive and skill execution components of game performance in young baseball players (N = 159) with varying levels of expertise. Three levels of expertise (low-, average-, and high-skilled players) were identified at each age level (7, 8, 9, and 10 years of age). Game performance was videotaped, and measures of skill execution (throwing accuracy, throwing force, fielding, catching, batting average, and batting contact) and cognitive components (positioning, decisions) were developed from observational analysis. The results indicated that baseball skill execution during game play maximally discriminated expertise levels. PMID:7481080

  9. Self-esteem and narcissism among the most and least empathetic Finnish baseball players.

    PubMed

    Kalliopuska, M

    1992-12-01

    560 girls and 819 boys, ages 8 to 16 years and actively interested in Finnish baseball, were tested in small groups in three training-camp championship games with the modified Mehrabian and Epstein's Empathy Scale, and the Battle Self-esteem Inventory, Form B. Narcissism was estimated on the 1984 Emmons scale. The hypothesis that the most empathetic players compared with the least empathetic players have better self-esteem and less narcissism was confirmed. PMID:1454500

  10. Skill-Specific Changes in Somatosensory Nogo Potentials in Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Onishi, Hideaki; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Nakazawa, Sho; Shimojo, Hirofumi; Akatsuka, Kosuke; Nakata, Hiroki; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in somatosensory evoked potentials and event-related potentials. The aim of this study was to clarify whether specific athletic training also affects somatosensory Nogo potentials related to the inhibition of movements. The Nogo potentials were recorded at nine cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, Pz, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3 and P4) in 12 baseball players (baseball group) and in 12 athletes in sports, such as track and field events and swimming, that do not require response inhibition, such as batting for training or performance (sports group). The Nogo potentials and Go/Nogo reaction times (Go/Nogo RTs) were measured under a somatosensory Go/Nogo paradigm in which subjects were instructed to rapidly push a button in response to stimulus presentation. The Nogo potentials were obtained by subtracting the Go trial from the Nogo trial. The peak Nogo-N2 was significantly shorter in the baseball group than that in the sports group. In addition, the amplitude of Nogo-N2 in the frontal area was significantly larger in the baseball group than that in the sports group. There was a significant positive correlation between the latency of Nogo-N2 and Go/Nogo RT. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the Go/Nogo RT and both the amplitude of Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3 (i.e., amplitude of the Nogo-potentials increases with shorter RT). Specific athletic training regimens may induce neuroplastic alterations in sensorimotor inhibitory processes. PMID:26600391

  11. STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn greets baseball legend Williams following a parade in Cocoa Beach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. (left) greets baseball legend Ted Williams at a reception at the Double Tree Oceanfront Hotel following a parade down State Road A1A in nearby Cocoa Beach. Organizers of the parade included the Cocoa Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, and the cities of Cape Canaveral and Cocoa Beach. The parade is reminiscent of those held after missions during the Mercury Program.

  12. The Epidemiology of Hip and Groin Injuries in Professional Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Struan H; Mayer, Stephanie W; Tyson, Jared J; Pollack, Keshia M; Curriero, Frank C

    2016-01-01

    Injuries of the hip and groin among professional baseball players can result in a significant number of disabled list days. The epidemiology of these injuries has not been delineated. The purpose of this study is to describe the incidence, mechanism, type, and rehabilitation course of hip and groin injuries among Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players. The MLB injury database for hip and groin injuries from 2011-2014 was analyzed. Occurrence of injuries was assessed based on level of play, field location, activity during which the injury occurred, mechanism of injury, and days missed. The treatment was recorded as nonoperative or surgical. The subsequent rehabilitation and return to play were recorded. Chi-square tests were used to test the hypothesis of equal proportions between the various categories of hip and groin characteristics. From 2011-2014, 1823 hip and groin injuries occurred among MLB and MiLB players, which accounted for approximately 5% of all injuries. Of these, 1514 (83%) occurred among MiLB players and 309 (17%) among MLB players; 96% of injuries were extra-articular. Among all players, a noncontact mechanism during defensive fielding was the most common activity causing injury (74%), and infielders experienced the most hip and groin injuries (34%). The majority of extra-articular injuries were treated nonoperatively (96.2%), resulting in an average of 12 days missed. Intra-articular pathology more commonly required surgery, and resulted in an average of 123 days missed. Hip and groin injuries can be debilitating and result in a significant number of days missed. Intra-articular pathology and athletic pubalgia were usually treated surgically, while the majority of extra-articular hip injuries were treated successfully with nonoperative modalities. Correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment can lead to a high rate of return to play for professional baseball players with injuries to the hip and groin. PMID:26991571

  13. Skill-Specific Changes in Somatosensory Nogo Potentials in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Onishi, Hideaki; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Nakazawa, Sho; Shimojo, Hirofumi; Akatsuka, Kosuke; Nakata, Hiroki; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in somatosensory evoked potentials and event-related potentials. The aim of this study was to clarify whether specific athletic training also affects somatosensory Nogo potentials related to the inhibition of movements. The Nogo potentials were recorded at nine cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, Pz, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3 and P4) in 12 baseball players (baseball group) and in 12 athletes in sports, such as track and field events and swimming, that do not require response inhibition, such as batting for training or performance (sports group). The Nogo potentials and Go/Nogo reaction times (Go/Nogo RTs) were measured under a somatosensory Go/Nogo paradigm in which subjects were instructed to rapidly push a button in response to stimulus presentation. The Nogo potentials were obtained by subtracting the Go trial from the Nogo trial. The peak Nogo-N2 was significantly shorter in the baseball group than that in the sports group. In addition, the amplitude of Nogo-N2 in the frontal area was significantly larger in the baseball group than that in the sports group. There was a significant positive correlation between the latency of Nogo-N2 and Go/Nogo RT. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the Go/Nogo RT and both the amplitude of Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3 (i.e., amplitude of the Nogo-potentials increases with shorter RT). Specific athletic training regimens may induce neuroplastic alterations in sensorimotor inhibitory processes. PMID:26600391

  14. A Preseason Checklist for Predicting Elbow Injury in Little League Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Yukutake, Taiki; Kuwata, Masumi; Yamada, Minoru; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite pitch count limits, the incidence of Little League elbow is increasing. A risk-evaluation tool capable of predicting which players are predisposed to throwing injury could potentially prevent injuries. Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of a risk factor checklist for predicting elbow injury in Little League baseball players during 1 season. The hypothesis was that a preseason risk-evaluation checklist could predict which players were predisposed to elbow injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A preseason risk-evaluation checklist was distributed to Little League baseball teams in Japan. Six months later, a follow-up questionnaire was mailed to determine injuries sustained during the season. Logistic regression analysis was performed, assigning presence or absence of elbow injury during the season as the dependent variable, and an injury risk score (IRS) was developed based on the statistically significant variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted to determine the predictive validity of the checklist and the optimal cutoff IRS. Results: Data from 389 Little League players were analyzed. Among them, 53 players experienced an elbow injury requiring medical treatment during the season. Six checklist items associated with a medical history of throwing injury, pitch volume, and arm fatigue were found to be significant. Responses to the items could predict the players who were susceptible to injury during the season, with a two-thirds cutoff value for a 6-item checklist (area under the curve, 0.810; sensitivity, 0.717; specificity, 0.771). Conclusion: Results from a 6-item preseason checklist can predict which Little League players are to sustain an elbow injury by the end of the season. Clinical Relevance: The ability to predict which Little League baseball players are predisposed to elbow injury allows parents and coaches to initiate preventive measures in those players

  15. Culturable bacteria present in the fluid of the hooded-pitcher plant Sarracenia minor based on 16S rDNA gene sequence data.

    PubMed

    Siragusa, Alex J; Swenson, Janice E; Casamatta, Dale A

    2007-08-01

    The culturable microbial community within the pitcher fluid of 93 Sarracenia minor carnivorous plants was examined over a 2-year study. Many aspects of the plant/bacterial/insect interaction within the pitcher fluid are minimally understood because the bacterial taxa present in these pitchers have not been identified. Thirteen isolates were characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. The Proteobacteria were the most abundant taxa and included representatives from Serratia, Achromobacter, and Pantoea. The Actinobacteria Micrococcus was also abundant while Bacillus, Lactococcus, Chryseobacterium, and Rhodococcus were infrequently encountered. Several isolates conformed to species identifiers (>98% rDNA gene sequence similarity) including Serratia marcescens (isolates found in 27.5% of pitchers), Achromobacter xylosoxidans (37.6%), Micrococcus luteus (40.9%), Bacillus cereus (isolates found in 10.2%), Bacillus thuringiensis (5.4%), Lactococcus lactis (17.2%), and Rhodococcus equi (2.2%). Species-area curves suggest that sampling efforts were sufficient to recover a representative culturable bacterial community. The bacteria present represent a diverse community probably as a result of introduction by insect vectors, but the ecological significance remains under explored. PMID:17380356

  16. Phylogeographic concordance factors quantify phylogeographic congruence among co-distributed species in the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system.

    PubMed

    Satler, Jordan D; Carstens, Bryan C

    2016-05-01

    Comparative phylogeographic investigations have identified congruent phylogeographic breaks in co-distributed species in nearly every region of the world. The qualitative assessments of phylogeographic patterns traditionally used to identify such breaks, however, are limited because they rely on identifying monophyletic groups across species and do not account for coalescent stochasticity. Only long-standing phylogeographic breaks are likely to be obvious; many species could have had a concerted response to more recent landscape events, yet possess subtle signs of phylogeographic congruence because ancestral polymorphism has not completely sorted. Here, we introduce Phylogeographic Concordance Factors (PCFs), a novel method for quantifying phylogeographic congruence across species. We apply this method to the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, a carnivorous plant with a diverse array of commensal organisms. We explore whether a group of ecologically associated arthropods have co-diversified with the host pitcher plant, and identify if there is a positive correlation between ecological interaction and PCFs. Results demonstrate that multiple arthropods share congruent phylogeographic breaks with S. alata, and provide evidence that the level of ecological association can be used to predict the degree of similarity in the phylogeographic pattern. This study outlines an approach for quantifying phylogeographic congruence, a central concept in biogeographic research. PMID:27076412

  17. Allozyme diversity in the endangered pitcher plant Sarracenia rubra ssp. Alabamensis (Sarraceniaceae) and its close relative S. rubra ssp. rubra.

    PubMed

    Godt, M; Hamrick, J

    1998-06-01

    Genetic variability in the federally endangered pitcher plant Sarracenia rubra ssp. alabamensis was assessed in eight Alabama populations using starch gel electrophoresis. Ten populations of the more widespread Sarracenia rubra ssp. rubra were sampled in the southeastern United States for comparison. Fifteen allozyme loci representing 13 enzyme systems were scored for each species. In contrast to S. oreophila and S. jonesii, two previously analyzed endangered pitcher plants, genetic diversity was high for both S. rubra subspecies. Within ssp. alabamensis the percentage polymorphic loci (Ps) was 80.0, the mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus was (APs) = 2.58, and expected heterozygosity (Hes) was 0.209. Genetic diversity was slightly lower for ssp. rubra (Ps = 73.3, APs = 2.91, and Hes = 0.177). The proportion of total genetic diversity found among populations was fairly low for both species (GST = 0.09 for ssp. alabamensis and 0.14 for ssp. rubra). Little genetic divergence has occurred between the two subspecies as indicated by the lack of diagnostic alleles, the proportion of total genetic diversity between taxa (GST = 0.09), and the genetic identity estimate (I = 0.90). The relatively high genetic diversity found for ssp. alabamensis indicates that the maintenance of its evolutionary potential is possible if population sizes are maintained or increased. Low levels of genetic diversity found within small Georgia ssp. rubra populations indicate that genetic erosion may increase extinction risks for these populations. PMID:21684964

  18. Effects of focus of attention on baseball batting performance in players of differing skill levels.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Brooke; Gray, Rob

    2007-02-01

    This study addressed the question, what should baseball players focus their attention on while batting? Less-skilled and highly skilled (college) baseball players participated in four dual-task conditions in a baseball batting simulation: two that directed attention to skill execution (skill/internal [movement of the hands] and skill/external [movement of the bat]) and two that directed attention to the environment (environmental/irrelevant [auditory tones] and environmental/external [the ball leaving the bat]). Batting performance for highly skilled players was best in the environmental/external condition and worst in the skill/internal condition. Performance of less-skilled batters was significantly better in the two skill conditions than in either of the two environmental conditions. We conclude that the optimal focus of attention for highly skilled batters is one that does not disrupt proceduralized knowledge and permits attention to the perceptual effect of the action, whereas the optimal focus of attention for less-skilled batters is one that allows attention to the step-by-step execution of the swing. PMID:17556776

  19. Knowledge representation and problem solution in expert and novice youth baseball players.

    PubMed

    French, K E; Nevett, M E; Spurgeon, J H; Graham, K C; Rink, J E; McPherson, S L

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in knowledge representation and problem solutions in expert and novice youth baseball players. Ninety-four players in two age divisions, 7-8 years of age and 9-10 years of age, were assigned to three levels of expertise: high; average; and low skilled. Each subject participated in an interview session to elicit knowledge representation and solutions to five different defensive game situations. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for content, solution to the problem, errors in problem solution, and qualitative trends. The frequency of advanced solutions to each of the five situations were analyzed in separate chi-square tests for age and expertise. Differences among the levels of expertise were found for the accuracy of solutions to three complex situations. Age was significant for only one situation. Patterns of knowledge content accessed during advanced and less advanced responses indicated both experts and novices were in a beginning stage of developing baseball knowledge structures. Errors in problem solutions indicated children had difficulty monitoring critical conditions and making correct inferences. Players' and teammates' ability to execute baseball skills seemed to influence the content and structure of tactical knowledge accessed during problem solution. PMID:9016480

  20. On-task distractors associated with totball baseball games: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Mead, Tim P; Broussard, Carmen D; Rosenthal, Gary T; Boudreaux, Dwight L; Cooley, Amanda M; Hammerli, Walt W

    2007-08-01

    Two totball baseball leagues in southern Louisiana were monitored to judge what type of parental involvement yielded the highest on-task behaviors among participants. 39 children ages 3 to 5 years participated in 3- or 4-inning baseball games with parents on the field. In the Parent on Bases League, a parent stood on first, second, and third base only. In the Parent with Every Child League, a parent stood next to every child on the field. Children were observed on the field at three different dates at 1-min. intervals during the first two innings of one game in both leagues. On-task behaviors were defined as standing in the correct field position and watching the ball. Off-task behaviors consisted of sitting, rolling on the field, talking to a coach or parent, and not watching the ball. A statistically significant difference in the percent of time children spent on-task favored the Parents on Bases League (75.7) versus the other league (50.3). Having fewer parents on the field in these baseball games kept players on-task more effectively than having a parent with each child. PMID:17918565

  1. Skill-specific changes in somatosensory-evoked potentials and reaction times in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Onishi, Hideaki; Yoshida, Takuya; Horiuchi, Yoko; Nakazawa, Sho; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2013-03-01

    Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in short-latency somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs). The aim of this study is to clarify whether specific training in athletes affects the long-latency SEPs related to information processing of stimulation. The long-latency SEPs P100 and N140 were recorded at midline cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, and Pz) in response to stimulation of the index finger of the dominant hand in fifteen baseball players (baseball group) and in fifteen athletes in sports such as swimming, track and field events, and soccer (sports group) that do not require fine somatosensory discrimination or motor control of the hand. The long-latency SEPs were measured under a passive condition (no response required) and a reaction time (RT) condition in which subjects were instructed to rapidly push a button in response to stimulus presentation. The peak P100 and peak N140 latencies and RT were significantly shorter in the baseball group than the sports group. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between RT and both the peak P100 and the peak N140 latencies. Specific athletic training regimens that involve the hand may induce neuroplastic alterations in the cortical hand representation areas playing a vital role in rapid sensory processing and initiation of motor responses. PMID:23224701

  2. Rehabilitation programs and prevention strategies in adolescent throwing athletes.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Edward G; Ireland, Mary Lloyd

    2003-01-01

    A specific and early diagnosis must be made in the injured skeletally immature throwing athlete. A well-outlined program of rest, rehabilitation, and proper throwing techniques should be implemented and continued. Overuse injuries are preventable when biomechanics are sound and pitch counts are done with the limits enforced. Guidelines for inning limits, number of pitches, rest intervals, and throwing programs should be followed for adolescent pitchers because adolescents differ from adults. Information is included for specifications of the ball and helmet, as well as chest protective equipment. The goal should be for the Little League players to have fun and be injury free as they are competing, which gives them the best experience and allows continuation of athletic activities for a lifetime. PMID:12690839

  3. Effect of warm-up with different weighted bats on normal baseball bat velocity.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Brian S; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Zinder, Steven M

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, baseball players have used a heavy bat for warm-up before competition. Because bat velocity is an essential component to hitting a baseball, and because players warm up differently, there is a need to investigate the best way to maximize post warm-up bat velocity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of warm-up with different weighted bats on normal baseball bat velocity. Nineteen recreational male baseball players (age, 24.5 +/- 3.9 years; height, 181.1 +/- 8.4 cm; body mass, 87.9 +/- 18.4 kg) participated in this study. Three different randomized warm-up conditions were completed and analyzed for velocity and for their effect on post warm-up normal baseball bat velocity. Subjects were instructed to perform 5 maximal swings with each of 3 different weighted bats-light (LB = 9.6 oz), normal (NB = 31.5 oz), and heavy (HB = 55.2 oz)-followed by 30-second rest and then 5 swings of the NB. Analysis of variance revealed that warm-up velocity of the LB (63.57 +/- 3.58 mph) was significantly (p < 0.05) faster than that of NB (51.25 +/- 3.01 mph) and HB (41.79 +/- 3.01 mph), whereas warm-up velocity of NB was also significantly faster than that of HB. For post warm-up, LB (52.29 +/- 2.68 mph) and NB (50.60 +/- 3.04 mph) produced significantly faster velocity of the normal bat than the HB (48.26 +/- 2.98 mph). Warming up with 5 swings of a light or normal bat appears to increase post warm-up velocity of the normal bat when compared with warming up with a heavy bat after a rest period of 30 seconds. Within the bat weight spectrum of this study, it is suggested that when preparing to hit, 5 warm-up swings with either a light or normal bat will allow a player to achieve the greatest velocity of their normal bat. PMID:19593220

  4. Risk of Fragments in Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries Of Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Furushima, Kozo; Itoh, Yoshiyasu; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Kusano, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Many baseball players with UCL injuries have avulsed persistent fragments by throwing disorder in the youth. The presence of fragments results in discontinuity of the medial elbow joint support structures; therefore, a ligament with fragments is considered more fragile than the normal ligament. This study compared three types (fragment, malunion, and normal) of throwing-related UCL injuries and prospectively examined the risk of surgical treatment. Methods: The total subjects were 439 baseball players (age 14-30 years; mean age, 17.5 years) diagnosed with UCL injuries at our hospital between November 2009 and June 2013. At the time of the initial examination, the medial epicondyle was assessed on plain frontal radiographs with the elbow flexed at 45°. Based on this assessment, subjects were divided into three groups: group with persistent fragments (fragment [F] group), group with complete union following avulsion fracture (malunion [M] group), and a group with no history of avulsion fracture (normal [N] group). Each patient’s ability to return to playing baseball was assessed after at least 3 months of systematic rehabilitation. Subjects who failed to comply with rehabilitation, played only recreationally, or with pain in sites other than the elbow were excluded. In this series, 220 cases were left for investigation. The Conway-Jobe scale was used as a standard to assess the return to playing after conservative therapy; subjects with excellent or good ratings were deemed able to return to playing baseball, whereas those with fair or poor ratings were deemed unable to return to playing baseball. The return rates were calculated for the F, M, and N groups respectively. The Magnetic resonance (MR) images consisted of three slices along the long axis of the anterior oblique ligament; these images were used to classify injuries as severe or mild, which were then compared with each other. SPSS 20.0 was used to perform the statistical analysis. Results: A

  5. Knowing when not to swing: EEG evidence that enhanced perception-action coupling underlies baseball batter expertise.

    PubMed

    Muraskin, Jordan; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Given a decision that requires less than half a second for evaluating the characteristics of the incoming pitch and generating a motor response, hitting a baseball potentially requires unique perception-action coupling to achieve high performance. We designed a rapid perceptual decision-making experiment modeled as a Go/No-Go task yet tailored to reflect a real scenario confronted by a baseball hitter. For groups of experts (Division I baseball players) and novices (non-players), we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed the task. We analyzed evoked EEG single-trial variability, contingent negative variation (CNV), and pre-stimulus alpha power with respect to the expert vs. novice groups. We found strong evidence for differences in inhibitory processes between the two groups, specifically differential activity in supplementary motor areas (SMA), indicative of enhanced inhibitory control in the expert (baseball player) group. We also found selective activity in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and orbital gyrus in the expert group, suggesting an enhanced perception-action coupling in baseball players that differentiates them from matched controls. In sum, our results show that EEG correlates of decision formation can be used to identify neural markers of high-performance athletes. PMID:26299795

  6. Evolution of photoperiodic time measurement is independent of the circadian clock in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Kevin J.; Dake, Sabrina J.; Bradshaw, William E.; Holzapfel, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    For over 70 years, researchers have debated whether the ability to use day length as a cue for the timing of seasonal events (photoperiodism) is related to the endogenous circadian clock that regulates the timing of daily events. Models of photoperiodism include two components: (1) a photoperiodic timer that measures the length of the day, and (2) a photoperiodic counter that elicits the downstream photoperiodic response after a threshold number of days has been counted. Herein, we show that there is no geographical pattern of genetic association between the expression of the circadian clock and the photoperiodic timer or counter. We conclude that the photoperiodic timer and counter have evolved independently of the circadian clock in the pitcher-plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii and hence, the evolutionary modification of photoperiodism throughout the range of W. smithii has not been causally mediated by a corresponding evolution of the circadian clock. PMID:19190920

  7. Geographic and developmental variation in expression of the circadian rhythm gene, timeless, in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii.

    PubMed

    Mathias, D; Jacky, L; Bradshaw, W E; Holzapfel, C M

    2005-06-01

    Expression of the circadian rhythm gene timeless was investigated in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii (Coq.), and was found to vary with time of day, instar of diapause, and latitude of origin. The temporal pattern of timeless expression differed between the two diapausing instars and was significantly higher in southern (38-40 degrees N) than in northern (50 degrees N) populations, when diapausing instar was held constant. Expression of timeless is therefore both developmentally and evolutionarily variable. This result provides the first example of a latitudinal difference in the expression of timeless, suggesting that, along with evidence from other insects, timeless has the potential to affect photoperiodic response and its adaptive evolution in temperate seasonal environments. PMID:15979087

  8. Epistasis and the Genetic Divergence of Photoperiodism between Populations of the Pitcher-Plant Mosquito, Wyeomyia Smithii

    PubMed Central

    Hard, J. J.; Bradshaw, W. E.; Holzapfel, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    Parallel crosses between each of two southern (ancestral) and one northern (derived) population of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, were made to determine the genetic components of population divergence in critical photoperiod, a phenological trait that measures adaptation to seasonality along a climatic gradient. Joint scaling tests were used to analyze means and variances of first- and second-generation hybrids in order to determine whether nonadditive genetic variance, especially epistatic variance, contributed to divergence in critical photoperiod. In both crosses, digenic epistatic effects were highly significant, indicating that genetic divergence cannot have resulted solely from differences in additively acting loci. For one cross that could be tested directly for such effects, higher order epistasis and/or linkage did not contribute to the divergence of critical photoperiod between the constituent populations. PMID:1353737

  9. Evolution of photoperiodic time measurement is independent of the circadian clock in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Kevin J; Dake, Sabrina J; Bradshaw, William E; Holzapfel, Christina M

    2009-04-01

    For over 70 years, researchers have debated whether the ability to use day length as a cue for the timing of seasonal events (photoperiodism) is related to the endogenous circadian clock that regulates the timing of daily events. Models of photoperiodism include two components: (1) a photoperiodic timer that measures the length of the day, and (2) a photoperiodic counter that elicits the downstream photoperiodic response after a threshold number of days has been counted. Herein, we show that there is no geographical pattern of genetic association between the expression of the circadian clock and the photoperiodic timer or counter. We conclude that the photoperiodic timer and counter have evolved independently of the circadian clock in the pitcher-plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii and hence, the evolutionary modification of photoperiodism throughout the range of W. smithii has not been causally mediated by a corresponding evolution of the circadian clock. PMID:19190920

  10. Circadian rhythmicity and photoperiodism in the pitcher-plant mosquito: can the seasonal timer evolve independently of the circadian clock?

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, W E; Holzapfel, C M; Mathias, D

    2006-04-01

    The two major rhythms of the biosphere are daily and seasonal; the two major adaptations to these rhythms are the circadian clock, mediating daily activities, and the photoperiodic timer, mediating seasonal activities. The mechanistic connection between the circadian clock and the photoperiodic timer remains unresolved. Herein, we show that the rhythmic developmental response to exotic light:dark cycles, usually used to infer a causal connection between the circadian clock and the photoperiodic timer, has evolved independently of the photoperiodic timer in the pitcher-plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii across the climatic gradient of eastern North America from Florida to Canada and from the coastal plain to the mountains. We conclude that the photoperiodic timing of seasonal events can evolve independently of the daily circadian clock. PMID:16671002

  11. Epistasis and the genetic divergence of photoperiodism between populations of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii.

    PubMed

    Hard, J J; Bradshaw, W E; Holzapfel, C M

    1992-06-01

    Parallel crosses between each of two southern (ancestral) and one northern (derived) population of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, were made to determine the genetic components of population divergence in critical photoperiod, a phenological trait that measures adaptation to seasonality along a climatic gradient. Joint scaling tests were used to analyze means and variances of first- and second-generation hybrids in order to determine whether nonadditive genetic variance, especially epistatic variance, contributed to divergence in critical photoperiod. In both crosses, digenic epistatic effects were highly significant, indicating that genetic divergence cannot have resulted solely from differences in additively acting loci. For one cross that could be tested directly for such effects, higher order epistasis and/or linkage did not contribute to the divergence of critical photoperiod between the constituent populations. PMID:1353737

  12. Reproductive value in a complex life cycle: heat tolerance of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii.

    PubMed

    Zani, P A; Cohnstaedt, L W; Corbin, D; Bradshaw, W E; Holzapfel, C M

    2005-01-01

    Because mortality accumulates with age, Fisher proposed that the strength of selection acting on survival should increase from birth up to the age of first reproduction. Hamilton later theorized that the strength of selection acting on survival should not change from birth to age at first reproduction. As organisms in nature do not live in uniform environments but, rather, experience periodic stress, we hypothesized that resistance to environmental stress should increase (Fisher) or remain constant (Hamilton) from birth to age at first reproduction. Using the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, we imposed heat stress by simulating the passage of a warm-weather front at different pre-adult and adult stages. Contrary to either Fisher or Hamilton, stress tolerance declined from embryos to larvae to pupae to adults. Consequently, reproductive value appears to have been of little consequence in the evolution of stage-specific tolerance of heat stress in W. smithii. PMID:15669965

  13. Relationship between upper-body strength and bat swing speed in high-school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Miyaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Demura, Shinich

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to clarify the relationship between upper-body strength and bat swing speed in high-school baseball players and to examine the physical characteristics of home run hitters (sluggers). The subjects were 30 male high-school baseball players with national tournament experience at the Koshien Stadium. Bat swing speed exerted by full effort was measured with a microwave-type speed-measuring instrument. One-repetition maximum (1RM) of a bench press (BP), BP power (bench power) using a light load (30 kg), and isokinetic chest press (0.4, 0.8, 1.2 m·s(-1)) were measured as upper-body strength. The relationships between bat swing speed and upper-body strength values were examined. Additionally, the t-test was used to reveal the mean differences between 14 home run hitters (group A) and 16 mediocre hitters (group B) for each measurement value. The bat swing speed showed significant and middle correlations with the 1RM BP (r = 0.59), bench power (0.41), and isokinetic chest press (0.48-0.55). Group A had significantly higher values in bench power and isokinetic chest press (high-speed) per kilogram of body weight than did group B. The swing speed showed significant correlations (r = 0.62) with the 1RM BP in group B but not in group A. In conclusion, to improve the hitting power of high-school baseball players, it may also be important to develop bench power with light loads in addition to 1RM BP. PMID:21921820

  14. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  15. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...

  16. Adductor pollicis jamming injuries in the professional baseball player: 2 case reports.

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Grant G; Ruchelsman, David E; Belsky, Mark R; Graham, Thomas; Asnis, Peter; Leibman, Matthew I

    2013-06-01

    We characterize a mechanism of injury, injury pattern, and treatment algorithm for adductor pollicis myotendinous injuries in 2 professional baseball players. Similar to myotendinous eccentric injuries in other anatomical areas, the adductor pollicis sustains a sudden forceful eccentric load during a jammed swing, resulting in intramuscular strain or tendon rupture. Based on the reported injury mechanism, and magnetic resonance imaging features of these myotendinous injuries, the thumb of the top hand during a jammed swing was suddenly and forcefully eccentrically abducted from a contracted and adducted position, resulting in injury patterns. PMID:23707017

  17. Retired NASA F-18 being lowered on to pedestal mount at Lancaster California Municipal Baseball Stad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A large crane gingerly lowers an F/A-18 Hornet aircraft onto a 28-foot-tall pedestal in front of the municipal baseball stadium in the city of Lancaster, California. The blue-and-white F/A-18 was recently loaned to the city by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. NASA Dryden had flown the twin-jet aircraft as a safety chase and support aircraft over the past nine years. The stadium, known as 'The Hangar,' is the home field of the Lancaster Jethawks, a Class-A farm team of the Seattle Mariners.

  18. Retired NASA F-18 being lowered on to pedestal mount at Lancaster California Municipal Baseball Stad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As news media and city officials watch from the balcony of the city baseball stadium in Lancaster, California, a crane gently positions an F/A-18 Hornet aircraft for mounting on a steel pedestal. The F/A-18 was recently retired by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after being flown as a safety chase and support aircraft over the past nine years. The aircraft is now mounted nose skyward on the 28-foot-tall pedestal in front of the Lancaster Municipal Stadium, know as 'The Hangar.' The stadium is the home field of the Lancaster Jethawks, a Class-A farm team of the Seattle Mariners.

  19. Retired NASA F-18 being mounted on pedestal mount at Lancaster California Municipal Baseball Stadium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An F/A-18 Hornet aircraft formerly flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is sandwiched between two groups of workers as they mount it atop a pedestal at the municipal baseball stadium in the city of Lancaster, California. NASA Dryden had flown the blue-and-white twin-jet as a safety chase and support aircraft for about nine years prior to its recent retirement. The aircraft is now in loan to the city for public display. Known as 'The Hangar,' the stadium is the home field of the Lancaster Jethawks, a Class-A farm team of the Seattle Mariners.

  20. Retired NASA F-18 being mounted on pedestal mount at Lancaster California Municipal Baseball Stadium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Workers carefully align a mounting bracket attached to an F/A-18 Hornet aircraft with the top of a pedestal in front of the municipal baseball stadium in the city of Lancaster, California. The Blue-and-white twin-jet aircraft, formerly flown as a safety chase and support aircraft by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was loaned to the city for display following its recent retirement. Known as 'The Hangar,' the stadium is the home field of the Lancaster Jethawks, a Class-A farm team of the Seattle Mariners.

  1. From broadscale patterns to fine-scale processes: habitat structure influences genetic differentiation in the pitcher plant midge across multiple spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Rasic, Gordana; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2012-01-01

    The spatial scale at which samples are collected and analysed influences the inferences that can be drawn from landscape genetic studies. We examined genetic structure and its landscape correlates in the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi, an inhabitant of the purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, across several spatial scales that are naturally delimited by the midge's habitat (leaf, plant, cluster of plants, bog and system of bogs). We analysed 11 microsatellite loci in 710 M. knabi larvae from two systems of bogs in Algonquin Provincial Park (Canada) and tested the hypotheses that variables related to habitat structure are associated with genetic differentiation in this midge. Up to 54% of variation in individual-based genetic distances at several scales was explained by broadscale landscape variables of bog size, pitcher plant density within bogs and connectivity of pitcher plant clusters. Our results indicate that oviposition behaviour of females at fine scales, as inferred from the spatial locations of full-sib larvae, and spatially limited gene flow at broad scales represent the important processes underlying observed genetic patterns in M. knabi. Broadscale landscape features (bog size and plant density) appear to influence oviposition behaviour of midges, which in turn influences the patterns of genetic differentiation observed at both fine and broad scales. Thus, we inferred linkages among genetic patterns, landscape patterns and ecological processes across spatial scales in M. knabi. Our results reinforce the value of exploring such links simultaneously across multiple spatial scales and landscapes when investigating genetic diversity within a species. PMID:21929541

  2. How do batters use visual, auditory, and tactile information about the success of a baseball swing?

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob

    2009-09-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation between the point of contact and "sweet spot") was compared for no feedback (N), visual alone, auditory alone, and tactile alone. Swings were more accurate for all single-modality combinations as compared to no feedback, and visual produced the greatest accuracy. In Experiment 2, the congruency between visual, tactile, and auditory was varied so that in some trials, the different modalities indicated that the simulated ball contacted the bat at different points. Results indicated that batters combined information but gave more weight to visual. Batting training manuals, which typically only discuss visual cues, should emphasize the importance of auditory and tactile feedback in baseball batting. PMID:19791635

  3. A model of motor inhibition for a complex skill: baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob

    2009-06-01

    The ability to inhibit an ongoing action in response to a signal from the environment is important for many perceptual-motor actions. This paper examines a particular example of this behavior: attempting to inhibit or "check" a swing in baseball batting. A model of motor inhibition in batting is proposed. In the model there are three different inhibition signals (out of range launch angle, early expected-actual trajectory discrepancy, and late expected-actual trajectory discrepancy) resulting in four possible response outcomes for the batter's swing (full swing, inhibited swing, partial response, or interrupted swing). The predictions of the model were compared with the actual batting performance of 20 baseball players using a high-fidelity batting simulator. The proportions of the different response outcomes could be explained by the inhibition model for 17/20 of the batters in the study. These findings suggest that models of motor inhibition developed for simple, discrete tasks can be applied to complex, multistage behaviors. This batting inhibition model could be used to provide a quantitative measure of a player's bat control for training and player-screening purposes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19586249

  4. Changes in physical size among major league baseball players and its attribution to elite offensive performance.

    PubMed

    Crotin, Ryan L; Forsythe, Charles M; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players have not been longitudinally examined for changes in physical size. Height, weight, and body mass indices (BMIs) were examined among offensive league leaders (OLL) and MLB reference cohorts at 1970, 1990, and 2010. Anthropometric values were expected to increase successively, where OLL were expected to be larger at each respective time point. A Mixed Model analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) examined anthropometric differences over time within and between groups. Mass and BMI increased over successive years with the largest effect seen between 1990 and 2010 (p < 0.001). A significant height reduction was shown for OLL from 1970 to 1990 (p ≤ 0.05), being the only significant decrease in physical size; yet, leaders were heavier and taller compared with the MLB reference population (p < 0.014). Results show that physical size has evolved in MLB, with the OLL being the largest players shown at each year in succession. Professional baseball scouts may have been influenced by greater offensive prowess shown by larger athletes; yet, increased secular anthropometrics must also be factored in greater heights, weights, BMIs shown over time in MLB. It is possible that greater participation in strength and conditioning programs at an earlier age, advances in sport nutrition, and potential abuse of anabolic drugs are factors perpetuating growth rates at present. PMID:24714544

  5. Developing and Implementing Major League Baseball's Health and Injury Tracking System.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Keshia M; D'Angelo, John; Green, Gary; Conte, Stan; Fealy, Stephen; Marinak, Chris; McFarland, Edward; Curriero, Frank C

    2016-03-01

    In 2010, Major League Baseball and the Major League Baseball Players Association reached an agreement regarding the development and implementation of an electronic medical record system and a new league-wide injury surveillance system. The systems were developed to create a more efficient method to track medical histories of players longitudinally as they move across Major and Minor league affiliates, as well as to identify and monitor injury trends in the sport, identify areas of specific concern, and conduct epidemiologic research to better optimize player health and safety. The resulting injury surveillance system, the Health and Injury Tracking System (HITS), is a robust system that includes all players from the both the Major and Minor Leagues. HITS also allows for data linkage with other player- and game-level data to inform the development of injury prevention policies and programs. In the present article, we document the development and implementation of HITS; describe its utility for epidemiologic research; illustrate the potential analytic strength of the surveillance system and its ability to inform policy change; and note the potential for this new surveillance system to advance the field of sports injury epidemiology. PMID:26874305

  6. Conceptual continuity and the science of baseball: using informal science literacy to promote students' science learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Bryan A.; Kloser, Matt

    2009-12-01

    This project explores conceptual continuity as a framework for understanding students' native ways of understanding and describing. Conceptual continuity suggests that the relationship between the use of words in one genre and the scientific genre can exist at varying levels of association. This perspective can reveal the varied relationships between ideas explained in everyday or vernacular genres and their association to scientific explanations. We conducted a 2-year study involving 15 high school baseball players' understanding of the physics involved in baseball. First, we conducted a quantitative assessment of their science understanding by administering a test prior to season one (2006) and season two (2007). Second, we examined the types of linguistic resources students used to explain their understanding. Third, we revisited our data by using conceptual continuity to identify similarities between students' conceptual understanding in the informal contexts and their similarities to canonical scientific ideas. The results indicated students' performance on the multiple-choice questions suggested no significant improvement. The qualitative analyses revealed that students were able to accurately explain different components of the idea by using a diversity of scientific and non-scientific genres. These results call attention to the need to reconstruct our vision of science learning to include a more language sensitive approach to teaching and learning.

  7. Sports Adaptations for Unilateral and Bilateral Upper-Limb Amputees: Archery/Badminton/Baseball/Softball/Bowling/Golf/Table Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Jim

    1979-01-01

    The booklet discusses sports adaptations for unilateral and bilateral upper limb amputees. Designs for adapted equipment are illustrated and information on adaptations are described for archery (including an archery release aid and a stationary bow holder); badminton (serving tray); baseball/softball (adaptations for catching, throwing, and…

  8. The development of sport-specific planning, rehearsal, and updating of plans during defensive youth baseball game performance.

    PubMed

    Nevett, M E; French, K E

    1997-09-01

    The development of planning, rehearsal, and updating of defensive baseball plans was investigated in this study. Thirty-two male shortstops (seven 8-year-olds, eight 10-year-olds, nine 12-year-olds, and eight high school youths) were trained to perform a concurrent talk-aloud procedure before a pitch was thrown to the opposing batter. Participants completed a 40-item baseball knowledge test. Players' ages were highly correlated with their baseball knowledge (omega 2 = .88). Any subsequent age differences reflect differences in players' knowledge. Shortstops ages 12 years or younger frequently did not produce: (a) advanced defensive plans, (b) active rehearsal of plans, or (c) updating of defensive plans. When the young players did produce these strategies, the quality was generally poor; High school shortstops produced all these sport-specific strategies with advanced quality. The younger players' production and quality deficits in sport-specific strategy use may be related to their lack of a highly developed knowledge representation and the types of practice and game experiences they have had playing baseball. PMID:9294874

  9. The Impact of Baseball Participation on the Educational Experiences of Black Student-Athletes at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawrysiak, Edward Joseph; Cooper, Joseph N.; Hawkins, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of baseball participation on the educational experiences of black student-athletes at two Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the southeastern United States (US). HBCUs were selected for this study because of the limited amount of research on student-athletes at these…

  10. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  11. Forgotten Americans and the National Pastime: Bibliographical Guide to Literature on Baseball's Cultural Diversity--Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarkman, Peter C.

    1992-01-01

    Continues a series by presenting a representative list of fiction and nonfiction titles on the topic of baseball and cultural diversity. Sources and novels on African-American, Latin American, and Jewish ballplayers are listed, for a total of 246 references. (SLD)

  12. In support of a hot hand in professional basketball and baseball.

    PubMed

    Shea, Stephen

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have found little empirical evidence to suggest that National Basketball Association (NBA) and Major League Baseball (MLB) players have hot streaks. This has led some to suggest that hot hands do not exist and that offensive and defensive strategies adjusting to perceived hot hands are suboptimal. We study the MLB's Home Run Derby and the NBA's 3-point Shootout. When there is no defense, extended time between shots has been removed, and shot or swing selection is constant, we find evidence that player performance is nonstationary. Our results are consistent with beliefs long held by players, coaches, and fans, research on the importance of self-efficacy in sports, and studies that support the existence of hot streaks in sports with no or limited defense. PMID:26271767

  13. Baseball-bat collisions and the resulting trajectories of spinning balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Robert G.; Baroni, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The collision between a baseball and a bat has been analyzed using the classical theory of rigid body collisions. Also computed are the ranges of batted balls for a variety of launch angles and rotation rates, accounting for both drag and lift forces. If the coefficient of friction is not too small, the batter can give the ball fairly large backspin without fouling it off by swinging under the ball by as much as 1 to 2.5 cm. The increased range resulting from backspin is large, of the order of several tens of meters. The effect of the weather on the ranges has been analyzed briefly and it is found that under extreme conditions it can be surprisingly large.

  14. Aerodynamics of the knuckleball pitch: Experimental measurements on slowly rotating baseballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, John P.; Morrissey, Michael P.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we characterize the lift and lateral forces on a two-seam versus four-seam knuckleball and measure the viscous shear stress. We believe these measurements to be the first reported for slowly rotating baseballs. Our findings indicate the seam acts to either delay or advance separation depending upon the ball angle; these results are supported with flow visualization. The combined effect produces significant lift and lateral forces that can rapidly change as the ball rotates. Furthermore, we found the shear stress to be asymmetric which can result in significant in-flight torque. Together, asymmetries in force and shear stress produce the complicated flight trajectories that can confound the hapless batter.

  15. Retired NASA F-18 being mounted on pedestal mount at Lancaster California Municipal Baseball Stadium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    While workers on the ground steady the craft with guy ropes, workers atop a high-lift truck align the mounting plates as an F/A-18 Hornet airplane formerly flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center is mounted on a 28-foot-tall pedestal in front of the municipal baseball stadium in the city of Lancaster, California. The aircraft was loaned to the city for pulbic display after its recent retirement by Dryden, which is located at nearby Edwards, California. The blue-and-white twin-jet aircraft was flown as a safety chase and support aircraft by NASA Dryden for about nine years before being retired. Known as 'The Hangar,' the stadium is the home field of the Lancaster Jethawks, a Class-A farm team of the Seattle Mariners.

  16. Hitting the Fast Ball and Shaggin' Flies: a Physicist Considers Batting and Fielding in Baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, Robert

    2003-03-01

    I describe some of the information processing that batters and fielders use to hit and field in baseball. The decision to hit the fast ball must be made using information from the first 15 feet of the ball's travel and the batter might as well not scan the last half of the flight. The procedures an outfielder uses to field a fly ball, adopted instinctively by 9 year old Little Leaguers, follows from mechanisms designed for the tracking of prey by predator and the avoidance of predators by prey. To this we add the utility of the acoustics of the bat-ball collision for balls hit directly at outfielders, and strategies for the avoidance of errors on ground balls to infielders.

  17. A functional modulation for timing a movement: a coordinative structure in baseball hitting.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Hiromu

    2007-02-01

    In baseball hitting, a powerful bat-swing needs to be produced by utilizing ground reaction force (GRF) and it should also be temporally coordinated relative to the flight of the pitch. The temporal organization of hitting movements associated with these task requirements was investigated by analyzing GRF during hitting slow and fast pitches. The timing of stepping with a front foot and shifting weight forward was modulated relative to the pitch's speed. The temporal relation between successive motion phases was compensatory and timing variability progressively reduced up to ball-bat contact. These results demonstrated the coordinative structure of the hitting movement for timing the bat-swing relative to the pitch's flight. PMID:17204344

  18. Round numbers as goals: evidence from baseball, SAT takers, and the lab.

    PubMed

    Pope, Devin; Simonsohn, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Where do people's reference points come from? We conjectured that round numbers in performance scales act as reference points and that individuals exert effort to perform just above rather than just below such numbers. In Study 1, we found that professional baseball players modify their behavior as the season is about to end, seeking to finish with a batting average just above rather than below .300. In Study 2, we found that high school students are more likely to retake the SAT after obtaining a score just below rather than above a round number. In Study 3, we conducted an experiment employing hypothetical scenarios and found that participants reported a greater desire to exert more effort when their performance was just short of rather than just above a round number. PMID:21148460

  19. Slippery liquid-infused porous surface bio-inspired by pitcher plant for marine anti-biofouling application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Dun; Lu, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Marine biofouling, caused by the adhesion of microorganism, is a worldwide problem in marine systems. In this research work, slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS), inspired by Nepenthes pitcher plant, was constructed over aluminum for marine anti-biofouling application. The as-fabricated SLIPS was characterized with SEM, AFM, and contact angle meter. Its anti-biofouling performance was evaluated with settlement experiment of a typical marine biofouling organism Chlorella vulgaris in both static and dynamic conditions. The effect of solid substrate micro-structure on anti-biofouling property of SLIPS was studied. It was suggested that the micro-structure with low length scale and high degree of regularity should be considered for designing stable SLIPS with exceptional anti-biofouling property. The liquid-like property is proven to be the main contributor for the exceptional anti-biofouling performance of SLIPS in both static and dynamic conditions. The low roughness, which facilitates removing the settled C. vulgaris under shear force, is also a main contributor for the anti-biofouling performance of SLIPS in dynamic condition. PMID:26402422

  20. Replicate Phylogenies and Post-Glacial Range Expansion of the Pitcher-Plant Mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, in North America

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Clayton; Catchen, Julian M.; Hanson-Smith, Victor; Emerson, Kevin J.; Bradshaw, William E.; Holzapfel, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    Herein we tested the repeatability of phylogenetic inference based on high throughput sequencing by increased taxon sampling using our previously published techniques in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii in North America. We sampled 25 natural populations drawn from different localities nearby 21 previous collection localities and used these new data to construct a second, independent phylogeny, expressly to test the reproducibility of phylogenetic patterns. Comparison of trees between the two data sets based on both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood with Bayesian posterior probabilities showed close correspondence in the grouping of the most southern populations into clear clades. However, discrepancies emerged, particularly in the middle of W. smithii's current range near the previous maximum extent of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, especially concerning the most recent common ancestor to mountain and northern populations. Combining all 46 populations from both studies into a single maximum parsimony tree and taking into account the post-glacial historical biogeography of associated flora provided an improved picture of W. smithii's range expansion in North America. In a more general sense, we propose that extensive taxon sampling, especially in areas of known geological disruption is key to a comprehensive approach to phylogenetics that leads to biologically meaningful phylogenetic inference. PMID:24039746

  1. Quantitative trait loci associated with photoperiodic response and stage of diapause in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Derrick; Jacky, Lucien; Bradshaw, William E; Holzapfel, Christina M

    2007-05-01

    A wide variety of temperate animals rely on length of day (photoperiodism) to anticipate and prepare for changing seasons by regulating the timing of development, reproduction, dormancy, and migration. Although the molecular basis of circadian rhythms regulating daily activities is well defined, the molecular basis for the photoperiodic regulation of seasonal activities is largely unknown. We use geographic variation in the photoperiodic control of diapause in the pitcher-plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii to create the first QTL map of photoperiodism in any animal. For critical photoperiod (CPP), we detect QTL that are unique, a QTL that is sex linked, QTL that overlap with QTL for stage of diapause (SOD), and a QTL that interacts epistatically with the circadian rhythm gene, timeless. Results presented here confirm earlier studies concluding that CPP is under directional selection over the climatic gradient of North America and that the evolution of CPP is genetically correlated with SOD. Despite epistasis between timeless and a QTL for CPP, timeless is not located within any detectable QTL, indicating that it plays an ancillary role in the evolution of photoperiodism in W. smithii. Finally, we highlight one region of the genome that includes loci contributing to CPP, SOD, and hormonal regulation of development. PMID:17339202

  2. Replicate phylogenies and post-glacial range expansion of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, in North America.

    PubMed

    Merz, Clayton; Catchen, Julian M; Hanson-Smith, Victor; Emerson, Kevin J; Bradshaw, William E; Holzapfel, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Herein we tested the repeatability of phylogenetic inference based on high throughput sequencing by increased taxon sampling using our previously published techniques in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii in North America. We sampled 25 natural populations drawn from different localities nearby 21 previous collection localities and used these new data to construct a second, independent phylogeny, expressly to test the reproducibility of phylogenetic patterns. Comparison of trees between the two data sets based on both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood with Bayesian posterior probabilities showed close correspondence in the grouping of the most southern populations into clear clades. However, discrepancies emerged, particularly in the middle of W. smithii's current range near the previous maximum extent of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, especially concerning the most recent common ancestor to mountain and northern populations. Combining all 46 populations from both studies into a single maximum parsimony tree and taking into account the post-glacial historical biogeography of associated flora provided an improved picture of W. smithii's range expansion in North America. In a more general sense, we propose that extensive taxon sampling, especially in areas of known geological disruption is key to a comprehensive approach to phylogenetics that leads to biologically meaningful phylogenetic inference. PMID:24039746

  3. The genetic basis of photoperiodism and its evolutionary divergence among populations of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii.

    PubMed

    Hard, J J; Bradshaw, W E; Holzapfel, C M

    1993-09-01

    We measured the additive genetic variance within populations and the composite additive, dominance, and epistatic effects contributing to differentiation of photoperiodic response between two southern (ancestral) and each of four progressively more northern (derived) populations of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii. Critical photoperiod and its additive genetic variance but not its heritability increased with latitude. Directional selection on critical photoperiod during the northward divergence of W. smithii has therefore not eroded the additive genetic variance underlying this trait. Joint scaling tests of crosses between populations showed that epistatic effects, especially additive x additive and dominance x dominance interactions, overwhelm composite additive and dominance effects on critical photoperiod. The presence of substantial epistasis suggests that multiple founder events during the northward divergence of W. smithii may have been responsible for the release of progressively greater additive genetic variance in derived populations, despite directional and stabilizing selection to reduce it. If epistasis makes a similar contribution to the genetic differentiation of populations in other species, then current models of adaptive evolution that consider only additive genetic variation and covariation within populations may be of limited value in predicting how natural populations differentiate in life history. PMID:19425986

  4. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Photoperiodic Response and Stage of Diapause in the Pitcher-Plant Mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Derrick; Jacky, Lucien; Bradshaw, William E.; Holzapfel, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of temperate animals rely on length of day (photoperiodism) to anticipate and prepare for changing seasons by regulating the timing of development, reproduction, dormancy, and migration. Although the molecular basis of circadian rhythms regulating daily activities is well defined, the molecular basis for the photoperiodic regulation of seasonal activities is largely unknown. We use geographic variation in the photoperiodic control of diapause in the pitcher-plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii to create the first QTL map of photoperiodism in any animal. For critical photoperiod (CPP), we detect QTL that are unique, a QTL that is sex linked, QTL that overlap with QTL for stage of diapause (SOD), and a QTL that interacts epistatically with the circadian rhythm gene, timeless. Results presented here confirm earlier studies concluding that CPP is under directional selection over the climatic gradient of North America and that the evolution of CPP is genetically correlated with SOD. Despite epistasis between timeless and a QTL for CPP, timeless is not located within any detectable QTL, indicating that it plays an ancillary role in the evolution of photoperiodism in W. smithii. Finally, we highlight one region of the genome that includes loci contributing to CPP, SOD, and hormonal regulation of development. PMID:17339202

  5. Biochemical characterization of a recombinant plant class III chitinase from the pitcher of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata.

    PubMed

    Ishisaki, Kana; Arai, Sachiko; Hamada, Tatsuro; Honda, Yuji

    2012-11-01

    A class III chitinase belonging to the GH18 family from Nepenthes alata (NaCHIT3) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme exhibited hydrolytic activity toward colloidal chitin, ethylene glycol chitin, and (GlcNAc)(n) (n=5 and 6). The enzyme hydrolyzed the fourth glycosidic linkage from the non-reducing end of (GlcNAc)(6). The anomeric form of the products indicated it was a retaining enzyme. The colloidal chitin hydrolytic reaction displayed high activity between pH 3.9 and 6.9, but the pH optimum of the (GlcNAc)(6) hydrolytic reaction was 3.9 at 37 °C. The optimal temperature for activity was 65 °C in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 3.9). The pH optima of NaCHIT3 and NaCHIT1 might be related to their roles in chitin degradation in the pitcher fluid. PMID:23026711

  6. High-Performance Vision Training Improves Batting Statistics for University of Cincinnati Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Joseph F.; Ellis, James K.; Bench, Johnny; Khoury, Jane; Graman, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Baseball requires an incredible amount of visual acuity and eye-hand coordination, especially for the batters. The learning objective of this work is to observe that traditional vision training as part of injury prevention or conditioning can be added to a team's training schedule to improve some performance parameters such as batting and hitting. Methods All players for the 2010 to 2011 season underwent normal preseason physicals and baseline testing that is standard for the University of Cincinnati Athletics Department. Standard vision training exercises were implemented 6 weeks before the start of the season. Results are reported as compared to the 2009 to 2010 season. Pre season conditioning was followed by a maintenance program during the season of vision training. Results The University of Cincinnati team batting average increased from 0.251 in 2010 to 0.285 in 2011 and the slugging percentage increased by 0.033. The rest of the Big East's slugging percentage fell over that same time frame 0.082. This produces a difference of 0.115 with 95% confidence interval (0.024, 0.206). As with the batting average, the change for University of Cincinnati is significantly different from the rest of the Big East (p = 0.02). Essentially all batting parameters improved by 10% or more. Similar differences were seen when restricting the analysis to games within the Big East conference. Conclusion Vision training can combine traditional and technological methodologies to train the athletes' eyes and improve batting. Vision training as part of conditioning or injury prevention can be applied and may improve batting performance in college baseball players. High performance vision training can be instituted in the pre-season and maintained throughout the season to improve batting parameters. PMID:22276103

  7. Sprint Accelerations to First Base Among Major League Baseball Players With Different Years of Career Experience.

    PubMed

    Coleman, A Eugene; Amonette, William E

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article was to compare times to first base in Major League Baseball games to determine whether running velocity decreases to the foul line and first base among players with differing years of playing experience. From 1998 to 2012, 1,185 sprint times to first base were analyzed: 469 outfielders, 601 infielders, and 115 catchers. The players were divided into differing experience categories depending on their years of service in Major League Baseball: 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-20+ years. Velocity at the foul line and first base was compared and interval accelerations were reported. Comparisons were completed by playing position, and within left- and right-handed batters. Left-handed outfielders exhibited reduced velocities at 6-10 (p = 0.04), 11-15 (p = 0.004), and 16-20 years (p < 0.001) compared with 1-5 years; there were no statistical differences in velocity at the foul line. Right-handed outfielders exhibited significantly reduced velocities at first base in 6-10 (p = 0.002) and 11-15 years (p = 0.001); they also had a reduced velocities at the foul line in 6-10 (p = 0.004) and 11-15 years (p = 0.009). Right-handed infielders had reduced velocities at first base in 11-15 years (p < 0.001). No other differences were observed within infielders at first base or the foul line. There were no differences within the compared variables for catchers. Decreases in running velocity to first base with experience are seen in outfielders but are less prominent in infielders and catchers. Although physical capabilities for sprinting may decline with age, it is possible that through repetition more experienced players perfect the skill-related component of running to first base, thus preserving speed. PMID:25353082

  8. A 15-Year-Old Male Baseball Player With a Mass in the Brachialis Muscle.

    PubMed

    Golub, Ivan J; Garcia, Roberto A; Wittig, James C

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with a mass in his right arm after suffering a minor injury playing baseball. He had been diagnosed with a hematoma. There was no other outstanding medical/surgical history. Magnetic resonance images showed a heterogeneous mass arising from the brachialis muscle that mainly enhanced peripherally with extremely scant internal nodular enhancement. Core needle biopsy cells were positive for CD31 and CD34, markers for atypical endothelial cells, as well as MIB-1 and p53. The final diagnosis was an angiosarcoma of the brachialis muscle. Pediatric angiosarcoma, particularly within deep tissue, is exceedingly rare. Histological and immunohistochemical modalities led to the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images suggested a mass with a large cystic/hemorrhagic space that could have been misconstrued as a hematoma had there been absolutely no nodular or septal enhancement. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation before undergoing limb-sparing surgery that included resection of the mass with the brachialis muscle and short head of the biceps muscle. Neoadjuvant treatment was deemed successful due to a drastic reduction in the size of the tumor and 95% tumor necrosis. The patient was disease free 2 years postoperatively. There had been no local/systemic recurrences. He was pain free, had normal elbow function, and had returned to playing baseball. It is important to be extremely suspicious when a patient presents with a hemorrhagic, painless, enlarging mass after sustaining minor trauma. A careful and meticulous biopsy must be completed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium is recommended for evaluation because these masses can be often misinterpreted as hematomas. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e545-e548.]. PMID:27045482

  9. Does Fatigue Alter Pitching Mechanics?

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Peter Nissen; Erickson, Brandon J.; Sgroi, Terrance; Vignona, Peter; Lesniak, Matthew; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Background: Injuries of the adolescent shoulder and elbow are common in baseball pitchers. Fatigue has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for injury. Purpose: To determine if shoulder and elbow kinematics, pitching velocity, accuracy, and pain change during a simulated full baseball game in adolescent pitchers. Methods: Methods: Adolescent pitchers between the ages of 13-16 were recruited to throw a 90 pitch simulated game. Shoulder range of motion was assessed before and after the game. Velocity and accuracy were measured for every pitch and every 15th pitch was videotaped from two orthogonal views in high definition at 240 Hz. Quantitative and qualitative mechanics were measured from these videos. Perceived fatigue and pain were assessed after each inning using the visual analog scale. Data was statistically analyzed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Results: Twenty-eight elite adolescent pitchers were included. These pitchers, on average, were 14.6±0.9 years old (mean ± standard deviation), had been pitching for 6.3±1.7 years, and threw 94±58 pitches per week. Our experimental model functioned as expected in that pitchers became progressively more fatigued and painful and pitched with a lower velocity as pitch number increased (p<0.001, 0.001, and <0.001 respectively). Knee flexion at ball release progressively increased with pitch number (p=0.008). Hip and shoulder separation significantly decreased as pitch number increased, from 90%±40% at pitch 15 to 40%±50% at pitch 90 (p0.271 in all cases, 91% power for elbow flexion at ball release). External rotation and total range of motion in the pitching shoulder significantly increased post-pitching (p=0.007 and 0.047 respectively). Conclusion: Conclusion: As pitchers progress through a simulated game they throw lower velocity pitches and become fatigued and painful. Core and leg musculature becomes fatigued before upper extremity kinematics change. Based upon these

  10. Radio-ulnar joint supinates around ball release during baseball fastball pitching.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Jinji, Tsutomu; Hirayama, Daisaku; Nasu, Daiki; Ozaki, Hiroki

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether a supination phase of the forearm exists around ball release (BRL), and, if present, to determine whether this supination is explained by a reaction force or by the body configuration required for this task. A 16-camera motion analysis system with a sampling frequency of 1,000 Hz recorded 20 healthy male semi-professional pitchers pitching from an indoor pitching mound. A short supination phase around BRL was confirmed for all participants in the current study. Correlation analyses revealed that the supination angle at BRL had significant relationships with several measurements of shoulder movement kinematics. Mechanical work analysis of the forearm's longitudinal axis revealed several variations in joint power curve and various patterns of mechanical work among the participants, suggesting that a reaction force originating from accelerating a ball might not be the main cause of supination. The raw data also were down-sampled to a sampling frequency of 250 Hz, to match previous studies and to investigate the discrepancy among previous studies concerning the existence of the supination phase. The experience of participants and methodological differences, such as the definition of BRL and the time-normalisation technique, influenced whether the supination phase was observed. PMID:27111583

  11. [Physiological adolescence, pathological adolescence].

    PubMed

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Gourion, David; Canceil, Olivier; Lôo, Henri

    2006-11-01

    The uncertainties of looming adulthood, nostalgia for childhood, and a general malaise explain the crisis of adolescence. Rebellion, conflict, occasional failure at school or in society, and at-risk behaviors are not always signs of future psychiatric illness. In contrast, the physician must be in a position to identify tell-tale signs such as dysmorphophobia, existential anxiety, a feeling of emptiness, and school or social breakdown. Most psychiatric disorders that begin in adolescence are only diagnosed several years after onset. Yet early diagnosis is of utmost importance, as treatment becomes less effective and the long-term prognosis worsens with time. Suicide is the second cause of death during adolescence. All signs of suicidal behavior require hospitalization and evaluation in a psychiatric unit. Antidepressants may be necessary in adolescence. The recent controversy concerning a possible increase in the suicidal risk during antidepressant treatment should not mask the fact that the real public health issue is depression, and not antidepressants. Eating disorders are especially frequent among adolescent girls; it is important to identify psychiatric comorbidities such as schizophrenia, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders, and to assess the vital risk. Illicit drug and alcohol consumption are frequent during adolescence; for example, close to half of all French adolescents have tried cannabis at least once. Once again, it is important to detect psychiatric comorbidities in substance-abusing adolescents. Phobia is an underdiagnosed anxiety disorder among adolescents; it may become chronic if proper treatment is not implemented, leading to suffering and disability. Finally, two major psychiatric disorders--schizophrenia and bipolar disorder--generally begin in adolescence. Treatment efficacy and the long-term prognosis both depend on early diagnosis. Treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. "Borderline" states are over

  12. ACUTE EFFECTS OF INSTRUMENT ASSISTED SOFT TISSUE MOBILIZATION FOR IMPROVING POSTERIOR SHOULDER RANGE OF MOTION IN COLLEGIATE BASEBALL PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Bryce D.; McLoda, Todd A.; Walters, Chris M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to the repetitive rotational and distractive forces exerted onto the posterior shoulder during the deceleration phase of the overhead throwing motion, limited glenohumeral (GH) range of motion (ROM) is a common trait found among baseball players, making them prone to a wide variety of shoulder injuries. Although utilization of instrument‐assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM), such as the Graston® Technique, has proven effective for various injuries and disorders, there is currently no empirical data regarding the effectiveness of this treatment on posterior shoulder tightness. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of IASTM in improving acute passive GH horizontal adduction and internal rotation ROM in collegiate baseball players. Methods: Thirty‐five asymptomatic collegiate baseball players were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Seventeen participants received one application of IASTM to the posterior shoulder in between pretest and posttest measurements of passive GH horizontal adduction and internal rotation ROM. The remaining 18 participants did not receive a treatment intervention between tests, serving as the controls. Data were analyzed using separate 2× 2 mixed‐model analysis of variance, with treatment group as the between‐subjects variable and time as the within‐subjects variable. Results: A significant group‐by‐time interaction was present for GH horizontal adduction ROM with the IASTM group showing greater improvements in ROM (11.1°) compared to the control group (‐0.12°) (p <0.001). A significant group‐by‐time interaction was also present for GH internal rotation ROM with the IASTM group having greater improvements (4.8°) compared to the control group (‐0.14°) (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that an application of IASTM to the posterior shoulder provides acute improvements in both GH horizontal adduction ROM and internal rotation ROM among baseball players. Level of

  13. Relationship between Lower Extremity Tightness and Star Excursion Balance Test Performance in Junior High School Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lower extremity tightness and lower extremity balance, measured by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), in junior high school baseball players. [Subjects] Thirty-three male students belonging to baseball clubs in 2 junior high schools participated in this study. [Methods] For the SEBT, we chose to examine the anterior (ANT), posterior (POS), lateral (LAT), and medial (MED) directions. Regarding muscle tightness measurement, the angle of each joint of the bilateral iliopsoas, quadriceps, hamstring, gastrocnemius, hip internal rotator, and hip external rotator was measured. [Results] The ANT direction of the SEBT was significantly negatively correlated with gastrocnemius tightness. The MED direction of the SEBT was significantly positively correlated with hip internal rotator tightness and hamstrings tightness and significantly negatively correlated with gastrocnemius tightness. The LAT direction of the SEBT was significantly negatively correlated with iliopsoas tightness and gastrocnemius tightness. [Conclusion] Since the rate of upper extremity injury is high in these subjects and this could be due to tightness and instability of the lower extremity from a kinetic viewpoint, the SEBT could be used as a standard evaluation test when examining upper extremity injuries in young baseball players. PMID:24926127

  14. Are Trade-Offs Among Species’ Ecological Interactions Scale Dependent? A Test Using Pitcher-Plant Inquiline Species

    PubMed Central

    Kneitel, Jamie M.

    2012-01-01

    Trade-offs among species’ ecological interactions is a pervasive explanation for species coexistence. The traits associated with trade-offs are typically measured to mechanistically explain species coexistence at a single spatial scale. However, species potentially interact at multiple scales and this may be reflected in the traits among coexisting species. I quantified species’ ecological traits associated with the trade-offs expected at both local (competitive ability and predator tolerance) and regional (competitive ability and colonization rate) community scales. The most common species (four protozoa and a rotifer) from the middle trophic level of a pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) inquiline community were used to link species traits to previously observed patterns of species diversity and abundance. Traits associated with trade-offs (competitive ability, predator tolerance, and colonization rate) and other ecological traits (size, growth rate, and carrying capacity) were measured for each of the focal species. Traits were correlated with one another with a negative relationship indicative of a trade-off. Protozoan and rotifer species exhibited a negative relationship between competitive ability and predator tolerance, indicative of coexistence at the local community scale. There was no relationship between competitive ability and colonization rate. Size, growth rate, and carrying capacity were correlated with each other and the trade-off traits: Size was related to both competitive ability and predator tolerance, but growth rate and carrying capacity were correlated with predator tolerance. When partial correlations were conducted controlling for size, growth rate and carrying capacity, the trade-offs largely disappeared. These results imply that body size is the trait that provides the basis for ecological interactions and trade-offs. Altogether, this study showed that the examination of species’ traits in the context of coexistence at different

  15. Are trade-offs among species' ecological interactions scale dependent? A test using pitcher-plant inquiline species.

    PubMed

    Kneitel, Jamie M

    2012-01-01

    Trade-offs among species' ecological interactions is a pervasive explanation for species coexistence. The traits associated with trade-offs are typically measured to mechanistically explain species coexistence at a single spatial scale. However, species potentially interact at multiple scales and this may be reflected in the traits among coexisting species. I quantified species' ecological traits associated with the trade-offs expected at both local (competitive ability and predator tolerance) and regional (competitive ability and colonization rate) community scales. The most common species (four protozoa and a rotifer) from the middle trophic level of a pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) inquiline community were used to link species traits to previously observed patterns of species diversity and abundance. Traits associated with trade-offs (competitive ability, predator tolerance, and colonization rate) and other ecological traits (size, growth rate, and carrying capacity) were measured for each of the focal species. Traits were correlated with one another with a negative relationship indicative of a trade-off. Protozoan and rotifer species exhibited a negative relationship between competitive ability and predator tolerance, indicative of coexistence at the local community scale. There was no relationship between competitive ability and colonization rate. Size, growth rate, and carrying capacity were correlated with each other and the trade-off traits: Size was related to both competitive ability and predator tolerance, but growth rate and carrying capacity were correlated with predator tolerance. When partial correlations were conducted controlling for size, growth rate and carrying capacity, the trade-offs largely disappeared. These results imply that body size is the trait that provides the basis for ecological interactions and trade-offs. Altogether, this study showed that the examination of species' traits in the context of coexistence at different scales

  16. The acute and chronic effects of isometric contraction conditioning on baseball bat velocity.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Anderson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the acute change in bat velocity (BV) following three types of warm-up procedures for baseball hitting (experiment 1), and (b) the effect of an 8-week training program of isometric contraction conditioning (ISO) on BV (experiment 2). In experiment 1, the BV of 24 collegiate baseball players was measured before and after one of the three warm-up procedures; five standard bat (mass = 850.5 g) dry swings (SBS), five weighted bat (mass = 850.5 g + 680.4 g) dry swings (WBS), and four sets of 5-second maximal voluntary isometric contractions mimicking the bat swing movement pattern (ISO). BV was measured just before ball-bat impact. Experiment 2 followed experiment 1 and used only the ISO warm-up. Twelve of the 24 subjects formed the experimental group and underwent an 8-week training program (3 days per week) of ISO training. Results of experiment 1 indicated (a) no significant change in post-SBS BV (-0.33 m·s-¹), (b) a significant decrease in post-WBS BV (-0.89 m·s-¹; p < 0.05), and (c) a significant increase in post-ISO BV (+0.39 m·s-¹; p < 0.05). In experiment 2, there was a significant increase in baseline BV after the 8-week training period (30.21 ± 1.83 m·s -¹ to 31.15 ± 1.57 m·s-¹). A comparison of BV before and after ISO warm-up revealed that change was significantly greater after the training period (100.17 ± 3.18% vs. 103.75 ± 1.91%). Our results suggest that warm-up with WBS does not increase BV and that using the ISO has both acute and chronic positive effects on BV as a warm-up procedure to improve BV. PMID:23254491

  17. Effect of grip strength and grip strengthening exercises on instantaneous bat velocity of collegiate baseball players.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Shawn S; Lyons, Brian C; Mayo, Jerry J

    2004-05-01

    Bat velocity is considered to be an important factor for successful hitting. The relationship between grip strength and bat velocity has not been conclusively established. The purposes of this study were to determine the relationship of grip strength to bat velocity and to ascertain whether the performance of resistance training exercises designed to specifically target the forearms and grip would significantly alter bat velocity. The subjects for this study were 23 male members (mean +/- SD, age = 19.7 +/- 1.3 years, height = 182.5 +/- 5.9 cm, weight = 85.4 +/- 15.5 kg, experience = 14.4 +/- 1.7 years) of a varsity baseball team at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II school. The Jamar hand dynamometer was used to test grip strength, and the SETPRO Rookie was used to measure instantaneous bat velocity at the point of contact with the ball. Subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. For 6 weeks, both groups participated in their usual baseball practice sessions, but the experimental group also performed extra forearm and grip strengthening exercises, whereas the control group did not. Pretest and posttest correlations between grip strength and bat velocity revealed no significant relationship between grip strength and bat velocity (pretest r = 0.054, p = 0.807; posttest r = 0.315, p = 0.145). A dependent t-test performed on all subjects revealed that a significant (p = 0.001) increase in bat velocity did occur over the course of the study. A covariate analysis, employing pretest bat velocity as the covariate, revealed no significant difference (p = 0.795) in posttest bat velocity scores between the experimental and control groups. Thus, increases in bat velocity occurred, but the differences were similar for both the experimental and control groups. The findings of this study suggest that grip strength and bat velocity are not significantly related, and that the allocation of time and energy for added training

  18. Recovery of Upper Extremity Sensorimotor System Acuity in Baseball Athletes After a Throwing-Fatigue Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Brady L; Yochem, Eric M; Uhl, Timothy L

    2007-01-01

    Context: Research indicates that upper extremity fatigue hampers sensorimotor system acuity. However, no investigators have observed recovery of upper extremity acuity after fatigue. Objective: To observe recovery of active position reproduction acuity in overhead throwers after a throwing-fatigue protocol. Design: Single-session, repeated-measures design. Setting: University musculoskeletal laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen healthy collegiate baseball players (age = 21.0 ± 1.6 years, height = 175.8 ± 10.2 cm, mass = 82.8 ± 4.3 kg). Intervention(s): Subjects threw a baseball with maximum velocity (every 5 seconds) from a single knee. Every 20 throws, subjects rated their upper extremity exertion on a Borg scale until reporting a level of more than 14. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used an electromagnetic tracking system to measure active multijoint position reproduction acuity at 5 intervals: prefatigue; immediately postfatigue; and after 4, 7, and 10 minutes of recovery. Blindfolded subjects reproduced their arm-cocked and ball-release positions. Dependent variables were 3-dimensional variable errors of scapulothoracic, glenohumeral, elbow, and wrist joints; endpoint (ie, hand) position error represented overall upper extremity acuity. The independent variable was time (measured prefatigue and at 4 postfatigue intervals). Results: Fatigue significantly affected acuity of scapulothoracic, glenohumeral, and elbow joints and endpoint error for both positions (P < .001). Fatigue significantly affected wrist acuity only for ball release (P < .001). For arm-cocked reproduction, each measure of acuity, except that of the glenohumeral joint, recovered by 7 minutes; for ball release, each measure of acuity recovered within 4 minutes (P > .05). Conclusions: The sensorimotor system deficits that we observed after fatigue recovered within 7 minutes in most upper extremity joints. Glenohumeral arm-cocked position reproduction acuity failed to recover within

  19. Structure and properties of the glandular surface in the digestive zone of the pitcher in the carnivorous plant Nepenthes ventrata and its role in insect trapping and retention.

    PubMed

    Gorb, Elena; Kastner, Victoria; Peressadko, Andrei; Arzt, Eduard; Gaume, Laurence; Rowe, Nick; Gorb, Stanislav

    2004-08-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes grow in nutrient-poor habitats and have evolved specialised trapping organs, known as pitchers. These are composed of different surface zones serving the functions of attraction, capture and digestion of insects, which represent a main source of nitrogen. To investigate the role of the glandular digestive zone in the trapping mechanism of the pitcher, structural, mechanical and physico-chemical studies were applied to N. ventrata and combined with insect behavioural experiments. It was found that the glandular surface is microscopically rough since it is regularly structured with multicellular glands situated in epidermal depressions. The presence of downward-directed 'hoods' over the upper part of glands and sloped depressions in the proximal direction of the pitcher causes a marked anisotropy of the surface. The glandular zone surface is composed of relatively stiff material (Young's modulus, 637.19+/-213.44 kPa). It is not homogeneous, in terms of adhesive properties, and contains numerous areas without adhesion as well as adhesive areas differing greatly in tenacity values (range, 1.39-28.24 kPa). The surface is readily wettable with water (contact angle, 31.9-36.0 degrees C) and has a high surface free energy (56.84-61.93 mN m(-1)) with a relatively high polar component (33.09-52.70 mN m(-1)). To examine the effect of the glandular secretion on attachment systems of insects having hairy and smooth adhesive pads, forces generated on different surfaces by Calliphora vicina flies and Pyrrhocoris apterus bugs, respectively, were measured. Flies attached equally well to both fresh and air-dried glandular surfaces whereas bugs generated a significantly lower force on the fresh glandular surface compared with the air-dried one. It is assumed that the contribution of the glandular surface to insect retention, due to its effect on insect attachment, differs depending on insect weight and the type of insect attachment system

  20. Kinesthetic aftereffects induced by a weighted tool on movement correction in baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Ohta, Yoichi

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the kinesthetic aftereffects of a weighted tool on interceptive performance. Eight college baseball players performed three warm-ups before the interceptive task: a normal warm-up, a recalibrated warm-up with a standard 850-g bat and a 1200-g weighted bat, and a weighted warm-up with a 1200-g bat. For the interceptive task, subjects were asked to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival and position of a moving target. After the warm-ups with the weighted bat, participants felt that the bat was lighter and swung faster. When participants needed to correct their swings to the target's velocity change, larger timing errors were produced in the weighted than in the normal practice condition. These results indicate that warm-ups with a weighted tool create adverse effects for the movement (re)programming processes in interceptive action. This suggests that warm-ups with a weighted tool for an interceptive task affect the central nervous system and not the peripheral system. PMID:22698835

  1. The effect of pitch type on ground reaction forces in the baseball swing.

    PubMed

    Fortenbaugh, Dave; Fleisig, Glenn; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Asfour, Shihab

    2011-11-01

    Coaches have identified the batter's weight shift as a critical component for promoting proper timing and balance in a baseball swing. Analysing the weight shift through maximum horizontal (Fx) and vertical (Fz) ground reaction forces (GRFs) of professional batters (N = 29; height = 185 +/- 6 cm; mass = 92 +/- 9 kg), the purpose of this study was to compare GRFs among swings against fastballs and changeups. General linear models were used to compare three conditions of interest: successful results against fastballs, successful results against changeups, and unsuccessful results against changeups. Batters had a similar loading mechanism and initial weight transfer from back foot to front foot regardless of pitch type, but peak front foot GRFx and GRFz occurred with significantly different magnitudes and at significantly different times, depending on the pitch type and hit result. Peak front foot GRFs were greater for successful swings against fastballs compared to both successful and unsuccessful swings against changeups. Peak front foot GRFs of unsuccessful swings against changeups occurred, on average, 15-20 ms earlier than successful swings against changeups and 30-35 ms earlier than successful swings against fastballs, quantifying how a changeup can disrupt the coordination of a hitter's weight shift. PMID:22303780

  2. The relationship between gluteal muscle activation and throwing kinematics in baseball and softball catchers.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Hillary A; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between gluteal muscle activation and pelvis and trunk kinematics when catchers throw to second base. Forty-two baseball and softball catchers (14.74 ± 4.07 years; 161.85 ± 15.24 cm; 63.38 ± 19.98 kg) participated in this study. Muscle activity of the bilateral gluteus maximus and medius as well as pelvis and trunk kinematics throughout the throwing motion were analyzed. It was discovered that at foot contact, there were 2 significant inverse relationships between stride leg gluteus maximus activity and pelvis axial rotation (r = -0.31, r2 = 0.10, p = 0.05), and between trunk axial rotation and pelvis lateral flexion (r = -0.34, r2= 0.12, p = 0.03). In addition, at foot contact, a significant positive relationship between the drive leg (throwing arm side) and trunk flexion (r = 0.33, r2 = 0.11, p = 0.04) was present. The results of this study provide evidence of gluteal activation both concentrically and eccentrically, in attempt to control the pelvis and trunk during the throwing motion of catchers. The gluteal muscles play a direct role in maintaining the stability of the pelvis, and catchers should incorporate strengthening of the entire lumbopelvic-hip complex into their training regimen. Incorporating concentric and eccentric gluteal exercises will help to improve musculoskeletal core stability, thereby assisting in upper extremity injury prevention. PMID:23591952

  3. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of baseball bats and golf clubs. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Kirsch, F.W.; Maginn, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Center (WMAC) at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing baseball bats and golf clubs -- approximately 1,500,000 bats/yr and 550,000 golf clubs/yr. To make the bats, wood billets are oven-dried and machined to a standard dimension. After sanding they are branded and finished. The golf clubs are made by finishing and assembling purchased heads and shafts. The team's report detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the most waste, other than rinse water discharged to the publicly owned treatment works (POTW) and wood turnings which are sold, consists of scrap cardboard and paper from the shop and offices, and that the greatest savings, including new income, could be obtained by segregating the cardboard and paper wastes for sale to a local recycler.

  4. The effects of baseball bat mass properties on swing mechanics, ground reaction forces, and swing timing.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, Walter A; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle T; Diffendaffer, Alek Z

    2016-01-01

    Swing trajectory and ground reaction forces (GRF) of 30 collegiate baseball batters hitting a pitched ball were compared between a standard bat, a bat with extra weight about its barrel, and a bat with extra weight in its handle. It was hypothesised that when compared to a standard bat, only a handle-weighted bat would produce equivalent bat kinematics. It was also hypothesised that hitters would not produce equivalent GRFs for each weighted bat, but would maintain equivalent timing when compared to a standard bat. Data were collected utilising a 500 Hz motion capture system and 1,000 Hz force plate system. Data between bats were considered equivalent when the 95% confidence interval of the difference was contained entirely within ±5% of the standard bat mean value. The handle-weighted bat had equivalent kinematics, whereas the barrel-weighted bat did not. Both weighted bats had equivalent peak GRF variables. Neither weighted bat maintained equivalence in the timing of bat kinematics and some peak GRFs. The ability to maintain swing kinematics with a handle-weighted bat may have implications for swing training and warm-up. However, altered timings of kinematics and kinetics require further research to understand the implications on returning to a conventionally weighted bat. PMID:26836969

  5. Kinematic comparison of baseball batting off of a tee among various competition levels.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Brittany; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2016-09-01

    Determining and understanding baseball batting mechanics at various competition levels may help players and coaches identify key kinematics crucial to being a successful hitter. The purpose of this study was to compare batting kinematics across competition levels. Kinematic and temporal data were analysed for 170 male batters (youth n = 33; high school n = 69; college n = 22; professional n = 46) using 3D motion capture (480 Hz). The results showed differences in angular positions between competition levels during the five phases of the swing, with the greatest differences seen between the youth and professional batters. At the instant of ball contact, professional batters held the bat farther away from their body, with greater back shoulder abduction (35°) and less back elbow flexion (78°) compared to youth (27° and 89°, respectively). These differences were associated with greater back elbow extension velocity for professionals (1539°/s) compared to youth (1174°/s). Additionally, higher level batters had higher bat angular and linear velocities compared to the youth batters. As batters progress through their career, they should focus on their back arm by keeping their elbow up and their arm extended in front of them. PMID:27278749

  6. Bat speed, trajectory, and timing for collegiate baseball batters hitting a stationary ball.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Noriyuki; Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Hashizume, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether batters hit stationary balls at the time of peak speed of the bat head and whether the impact occurs at the lowest point of the bat trajectory. Eight university baseball players hit three balls, each hung with a string; each ball was made of a different material and was different in weight. Bat movement was captured by four 240-Hz infrared cameras and analysed three-dimensionally. Time for peak speed of the bat head varied according to the conditions. When stationary balls of standard weight were used, the bat head was at maximum speed at impact with the ball; then, it decelerated drastically owing to the impact. In contrast, maximum speed was obtained after impact when lightweight stationary balls were used. The time-speed profile of the bat head before impact in the lightweight ball condition was identical with that in the standard weight ball condition. Regardless of conditions, the timing of the lowest point of the bat head was nearly identical for each batter and most participants hit the stationary balls at about the lowest point of the bat trajectory. PMID:17542175

  7. How to hit home runs: Optimum baseball bat swing parameters for maximum range trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, Gregory S.; Hubbard, Mont; Stronge, William J.

    2003-11-01

    Improved models for the pitch, batting, and post-impact flight phases of a baseball are used in an optimal control context to find bat swing parameters that produce maximum range. The improved batted flight model incorporates experimental lift and drag profiles (including the drag crisis). An improved model for bat-ball impact includes the dependence of the coefficient of restitution on the approach relative velocity and the dependence of the incoming pitched ball angle on speed. The undercut distance and bat swing angle are chosen to maximize the range of the batted ball. The sensitivity of the maximum range is calculated for all model parameters including bat and ball speed, bat and ball spin, and wind speed. Post-impact conditions are found to be independent of the ball-bat coefficient of friction. The lift is enhanced by backspin produced by undercutting the ball during batting. An optimally hit curve ball will travel farther than an optimally hit fastball or knuckleball due to increased lift during flight.

  8. THE LAUNCH WINDOW HYPOTHESIS AND THE SPEED-ACCURACY TRADE-OFF IN BASEBALL THROWING.

    PubMed

    Freeston, Jonathan; Ferdinands, Rene E D; Rooney, Kieron

    2015-08-01

    The speed-accuracy trade-off in throwing has been well described, but its cause is poorly understood. The popular impulse-variability hypothesis lacks relevance to throwing, while the launch window hypothesis has explanatory potential but has not been empirically tested. The current study therefore aimed to quantify the speed-accuracy trade-off and launch window during a throwing task at two different speeds. Nine elite junior baseball players (M age=19.6 yr.; M height=1.80 m; M weight=75.5 kg) threw 10 fastballs at 80 and 100% of maximal throwing speed (MTS) toward a 7 cm target from a distance of 20 m. A 3D motion analysis system measured ball speed and trajectory. A speed-accuracy trade-off occurred, mediated by increased vertical error. This can be attributed to the launch window, which was significantly smaller, particularly its vertical component, during 100% MTS. Maximal throwing speed correlated negatively with launch window size. The launch window hypothesis explained the observed speed-accuracy trade-off, providing a framework within which aspects of technique can be identified and altered to improve performance. PMID:26270853

  9. A Survey Examining the Correlations Between Japanese Little League Baseball Coaches’ Knowledge of and Compliance With Pitch Count Recommendations and Player Elbow Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yukutake, Taiki; Yamada, Minoru; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2013-01-01

    Background: With the incidence of Little League elbow increasing, pitch limit recommendations for preventing throwing injuries have been developed in both the United States and Japan. However, levels of knowledge of and compliance with these recommendations among coaches of young baseball teams in Japan remain unknown. The relationship between these levels and elbow pain among players has not been adequately studied. Hypothesis: Knowledge of and compliance with these recommendations is similar in the United States and Japan. Greater knowledge and higher levels of compliance have a significant correlation with reduced elbow pain in Little League baseball players. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Coaches of youth baseball teams in Kyoto, Japan, completed a questionnaire assessing knowledge of and compliance with recommendations. Team variables and coach-related factors concerning elbow pain among young baseball players were surveyed, and the questionnaire investigated demographic data and elbow pain history in the previous 12 months. Results: In total, 123 baseball coaches and 654 baseball players aged 6 to 12 years participated in this study; data were analyzed for 113 coaches and 339 players. Among coaches, 39.8% had accurate knowledge of the recommendations (similar to the US data) and 28.3% complied with them (lower than the US data). There was no correlation between elbow pain and knowledge of and compliance with the recommendations, but coaches’ opinions on the number of games were indicated as a significant risk factor for elbow pain; the more coaches considered the number of games played, the fewer the number of players who experienced elbow pain. Conclusion: The level of knowledge of recommendations in Japan was similar to that in the United States, but compliance levels were far lower. There was no correlation between elbow pain and knowledge and compliance. Clinical Relevance: The Little League elbow problem should be addressed at global and

  10. SCREENING FOR REFERRAL BY A SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPIST REVEALS AN EFFORT THROMBOSIS IN A COLLEGIATE PITCHER: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Pinerola, Jase; Ogle, Karen Craig; Wallmann, Harvey W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and Purpose Screening for referral, regardless of setting, is the responsibility of all physical therapists. A serious condition that sports physical therapists may encounter is upper extremity (UE) deep venous thrombosis (DVT), which can result in the important and sometimes fatal complication of pulmonary embolism. Case Description A 22 year-old male right-hand dominant collegiate pitcher was referred for physical therapist evaluation and treatment secondary to acute right UE pain and swelling. The athlete described the onset of these symptoms as insidious, denying any form of trauma. The athlete had undergone testing, which included UE Doppler ultrasound of the bilateral UE veins and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest without contrast; both of which were deemed negative. He was subsequently diagnosed with thoracic outlet syndrome and referred to the team physical therapist. After examination, the physical therapist hypothesized the athlete was presenting with a possible vascular compromise. Findings leading to this decision were: 1) insidious onset, 2) inability to account for the athlete's pain with ROM, strength, neurological, or provocation testing, 3) significant swelling of the right UE (arm and forearm), 4) increased discomfort with palpation in the supraclavicular region, and 5) history of strenuous UE use. Outcomes The athlete was referred back to the orthopedist. A venogram CT was ordered, which revealed an axillary and subclavian DVT and the presence of venous collaterals. The athlete was referred to a vascular surgeon who performed a right first rib removal. The athlete was able to complete post-operative rehabilitation and successfully return to competitive throwing the following spring. Discussion The delay in the initial diagnosis may have been due to the vague symptomology associated with venous complications and negative findings upon initial diagnostic testing. Conclusion This case report highlights the importance

  11. Correlation of throwing velocity to the results of lower-body field tests in male college baseball players.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Graeme; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

    2013-04-01

    Baseball-specific athleticism, potential, and performance have been difficult to predict. Increased muscle strength and power can increase throwing velocity but the majority of research has focused on the upper body. The present study sought to determine if bilateral or unilateral lower-body field testing correlates with throwing velocity. Baseball throwing velocity scores were correlated to the following tests: medicine ball (MB) scoop toss and squat throw, bilateral and unilateral vertical jumps, single and triple broad jumps, hop and stop in both directions, lateral to medial jumps, 10- and 60-yd sprints, and both left and right single-leg 10-yd hop for speed in 42 college baseball players. A multiple regression analysis (forward method), assessing the relationship between shuffle and stretch throwing velocities and lower-body field test results determined that right-handed throwing velocity from the stretch position was most strongly predicted by lateral to medial jump right (LMJR) and body weight (BW; R = 0.322), whereas lateral to medial jump left (LMJL; R = 0.688) predicted left stretch throw. Right-handed shuffle throw was most strongly predicted by LMJR and MB scoop (R = 0.338), whereas LMJL, BW, and LMJR all contributed to left-handed shuffle throw (R = 0.982). Overall, this study found that lateral to medial jumps were consistently correlated with high throwing velocity in each of the throwing techniques, in both left-handed and right-handed throwers. This is the first study to correlate throwing velocity with a unilateral jump in the frontal plane, mimicking the action of the throwing stride. PMID:22706576

  12. Muscle activation characteristics of the front leg during baseball swings with timing correction for sudden velocity decrease.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yoichi; Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Takahashi, Kyohei; Shima, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle in the front leg during timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of a target during baseball swings. Eleven male collegiate baseball players performed coincident timing tasks that comprised constant velocity of 8 m/s (unchanged) and a sudden decrease in velocity from 8 to 4 m/s (decreased velocity). Electromyography (EMG) revealed that the muscle activation was typically monophasic when responding unchanged conditions. The type of muscle activation during swings in response to decreased velocity condition was both monophasic and biphasic. When biphasic activation appeared in response to decreased velocity, the impact time and the time to peak EMG amplitude were significantly prolonged and the timing error was significantly smaller than that of monophasic activation. However, the EMG onset from the target start was consistent both monophasic and biphasic activation in response to conditions of decreased velocity. In addition, batters with small timing errors in response to decreased velocity were more likely to generate biphasic EMG activation. These findings indicated that timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of an oncoming target is achieved by modifying the muscle activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle of front leg from monophasic to biphasic to delay reaching peak muscle activation and thus prolong impact time. Therefore, the present findings suggests that the extent of timing errors in response to decreased velocity is influenced by the ability to correct muscle activation after its initiation rather than by delaying the initiation timing of muscle activation during baseball swings. PMID:25918848

  13. Muscle Activation Characteristics of the Front Leg During Baseball Swings with Timing Correction for Sudden Velocity Decrease

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Yoichi; Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Takahashi, Kyohei; Shima, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle in the front leg during timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of a target during baseball swings. Eleven male collegiate baseball players performed coincident timing tasks that comprised constant velocity of 8 m/s (unchanged) and a sudden decrease in velocity from 8 to 4 m/s (decreased velocity). Electromyography (EMG) revealed that the muscle activation was typically monophasic when responding unchanged conditions. The type of muscle activation during swings in response to decreased velocity condition was both monophasic and biphasic. When biphasic activation appeared in response to decreased velocity, the impact time and the time to peak EMG amplitude were significantly prolonged and the timing error was significantly smaller than that of monophasic activation. However, the EMG onset from the target start was consistent both monophasic and biphasic activation in response to conditions of decreased velocity. In addition, batters with small timing errors in response to decreased velocity were more likely to generate biphasic EMG activation. These findings indicated that timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of an oncoming target is achieved by modifying the muscle activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle of front leg from monophasic to biphasic to delay reaching peak muscle activation and thus prolong impact time. Therefore, the present findings suggests that the extent of timing errors in response to decreased velocity is influenced by the ability to correct muscle activation after its initiation rather than by delaying the initiation timing of muscle activation during baseball swings. PMID:25918848

  14. Injury Trends in Major League Baseball Over 18 Seasons: 1998-2015.

    PubMed

    Conte, Stan; Camp, Christopher L; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    Since Major League Baseball (MLB) expanded to its current size of 30 teams in 1998, a comprehensive and longitudinal study of injury trends has not been performed. The purpose of this work is to report the epidemiology of injuries in MLB over that time utilizing disabled list (DL) data. Additionally, we sought to determine the financial impact of these injuries for MLB teams. During this analysis, we focused special attention on injuries of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) and conducted a comprehensive review of all MUCL reconstructions ever performed on MLB players. Over the study period, there were a total of 8357 DL designations (mean of 464 annually). Players lost a total of 460,432 days (25,186 days annually) due to injury. Both the number of DL assignments and number of DL days increased from year to year (P < .001 and P = .003, respectively). Average length of DL assignments remained steady over time at 55.1 days (P = .647). Although shoulder injuries decreased (P = .023), this was met with a reciprocal increase in elbow injuries (P = .015). The average annual cost of designating players to the DL was $423,267,634 and a total of $7,618,817,407 was spent over the entire 18 seasons. Regarding MUCL injuries, a total of 400 MUCL reconstructions were performed in MLB players between 1974 and 2015, and the mean time to return to MLB competition was 17.1 months. The annual incidence of MUCL reconstructions increased dramatically from year to year (P < .001) and nearly one-third (n = 131, 32.8%) of all procedures performed over the 42-year period occurred in the last 5 years (2011 to 2015). In summary, overall injury rates and DL assignments continue to rise. Although shoulder injuries are declining, this improvement is countered by increasing elbow injuries, and these injuries continue to represent a significant source of lost revenue. PMID:26991562

  15. Birth order and risk taking in athletics: a meta-analysis and study of major league baseball.

    PubMed

    Sulloway, Frank J; Zweigenhaft, Richard L

    2010-11-01

    According to expectations derived from evolutionary theory, younger siblings are more likely than older siblings to participate in high-risk activities. The authors test this hypothesis by conducting a meta-analysis of 24 previous studies involving birth order and participation in dangerous sports. The odds of laterborns engaging in such activities were 1.48 times greater than for firstborns (N = 8,340). The authors also analyze performance data on 700 brothers who played major league baseball. Consistent with their greater expected propensity for risk taking, younger brothers were 10.6 times more likely to attempt the high-risk activity of base stealing and 3.2 times more likely to steal bases successfully (odds ratios). In addition, younger brothers were significantly superior to older brothers in overall batting success, including two measures associated with risk taking. As expected, significant heterogeneity among various performance measures for major league baseball players indicated that older and younger brothers excelled in different aspects of the game. PMID:20435800

  16. Warm-up with baseball bats of varying moments of inertia: effect on bat velocity and swing pattern.

    PubMed

    Southard, Dan; Groomer, Levi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if warm-up with baseball bats of different moments of inertia has an effect on swing pattern and bat velocity. Ten experienced baseball players (ages 20-25 years) voluntarily participated in this study. Each participant was required to complete 10 dry swings (5 warm-up and 5 postwarm-up) at maximum effort within 3 different conditions. Post warm-up was always with a standard bat (I = .27 kgm2; 83.8 cm, 9.1 N). Warm-up for Condition 1 was with the standard bat. Condition 2 required participants to warm up with a standard bat plus a 6.1 N lead donut (I = .49 kgm2, 83.8 cm, 15.6 N). Condition 3 required participants to warm up with a hollow plastic bat (I = .08 kgm2; 83.8 cm, 3.34 N). Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicated that following warm-up with the weighted bat (largest moment of inertia), swing pattern was significantly altered, and post warm-up velocity was the lowest of the three conditions. PMID:14510291

  17. The changes in shoulder rotation strength ratio for various shoulder positions and speeds in the scapular plane between baseball players and non-players

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hwai-Ting; Ko, Hsing-Tsen; Lee, Kung-Che; Chen, Ying-Cheng; Wang, Dean-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of shoulder positions and speeds on internal and external rotation torque of college baseball players and age-matched non-players. [Subjects] Twenty first-level collegiate baseball players and 19 college students were recruited. [Methods] A dynamometer system was used to evaluate the shoulder rotation strength in sitting postures. Three testing positions, namely shoulder abduction of 45°, 70°, and 90° in the scapular plane, were combined with three testing speeds at 60°/s, 120°/s, and 210°/s. [Results] The maximum external and internal rotation torques both occurred at shoulder abduction of 70°. However, only external rotation torque was affected by the speed, with the peak value observed at 60°/s. The internal rotation torque of baseball players was larger than that of the control group under all testing conditions, but the external rotation did not show any difference. The ratio of external to internal rotation torque changed with the testing positions and speeds in both groups. The ratio in the control group was greater than that in the player group. [Conclusion] The shoulder position could affect the rotational strength, and the baseball players could strengthen their external rotators for better performance and injury prevention. PMID:26157263

  18. Social Emotional Needs: On the Social and Emotional Lives of Gifted Students: Using a Baseball Metaphor to Illustrate the Opportunities of Gifted Students from Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    In this column, the author uses the analogy of baseball to describe the lives of gifted children as a vehicle to think about similarities and differences. The author states that he has experienced how educators often gloss over the powerful and all-inclusive living conditions of high-ability students from financially impoverished backgrounds. In…

  19. A SIR/CAR Systems Analysis of the Longitudinal Changes in Little League Baseball Comparing Windsor with the Rest of Ontario and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarebski, John; Moriarty, Dick

    The trends and changes occurring in Windsor District 5 Little League Baseball between 1971 and 1978 were closely monitored in order for researchers to discern the results of Sports Institute for Research/Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) intervention in these programs. Comparisons of the 1972, 1976, and 1978 studies reveal that the values focus of…

  20. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Men's Baseball Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Randall; Sauers, Eric L; Agel, Julie; Keuter, Greg; Marshall, Stephen W; McCarty, Kenneth; McFarland, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for men's baseball and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: Prevention and management of collegiate baseball injuries may be facilitated through injury research aimed at defining the nature of injuries inherent in the sport. Through the NCAA Injury Surveillance System, 16 years of collegiate baseball data were collected for the academic years 1988–1989 through 2003–2004. Main Results: College baseball has a relatively low rate of injury compared with other NCAA sports, but 25% of injuries are severe and result in 10+ days of time loss from participation. The rate of injury was 3 times higher in a game situation than in practice (5.78 versus 1.85 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures [A-Es], rate ratio = 3.1, 95% confidence interval = 3.0, 3.3, P < .01). Practice injury rates were almost twice as high in the preseason as in the regular season (2.97 versus 1.58 per 1000 A-Es, rate ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.8, 2.0, P < .01). A total of 10% of all game injuries occurred from impact with a batted ball, an injury rate of 0.56 injuries per 1000 game A-Es. Sliding was involved in 13% of game injuries. Recommendations: Proper preseason conditioning is important to reduce injuries. Athletic trainers covering practices and games should be prepared to deal with serious, life-threatening injuries from batted balls and other injury mechanisms. Further study of batted-ball injuries is warranted, and the use of breakaway bases to prevent sliding injuries should be supported in college baseball. PMID:17710166

  1. Horseshoe pitchers' hot hands.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gary

    2003-09-01

    Gilovich, Vallone, and Tversky's (1985) analysis of basketball data indicates that a player's chances of making a shot are not affected by the results of earlier shots. However, their basketball data do not control for several confounding influences. An analysis of horseshoe pitching, which does not have these defects, indicates that players do have modest hot and cold spells. PMID:14620374

  2. [Adolescent pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Fatichi, B

    1991-10-01

    This exploration of adolescent pregnancy focuses on adolescents whose pregnancies are undesired. The physical and psychic transformations of puberty and adolescence may be experienced differently in different social contexts. The prolongation of school attendance in Western societies means that most adolescents remain financially dependent on their parents. But greater sexual freedom in the society at large has been reflected in an increase in early sexual activity among adolescents. Wider use of contraception has not completely eliminated prenatal pregnancy among adolescents. Adolescent pregnancies have actually declined in France as a proportion of all pregnancies carried to term, from 4% to 1.5-2% in the past 10 or 15 years. But in 1986, 42.5% of all induced abortions were performed on adolescents. Among causes of unwanted pregnancy in adolescents are their frequent inability to believe that they may be at risk of pregnancy, or that pregnancy can result from the 1st sexual intercourse. The episodic nature of sexual relations, the lack of ready availability of contraception, and specific shortcomings of different methods are factors in the frequent failure of adolescents to protect themselves against undesired pregnancy. Adolescents may become pregnant out of loneliness or to prove that they are women, or as a result of incest or prostitution. Adolescents who seek abortions are those who have discovered and acknowledged their pregnancies before the 12th week and had the courage to inform their parents and obtain legal permission for the abortion. Pregnancy terminations are more frequent in more advantaged societal sectors with more structured family life. The moral shock and sense of failure associated with abortion are often deeply felt by adolescents. Their experience is greatly influenced by the attitudes of those around them. Adolescents who carry their pregnancies to term are those who have not sought abortion in the 1st 12 weeks. Often they refuse to admit

  3. Counseling adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yamuna, Srinivasan

    2013-11-01

    Skills for counseling adolescents are acquired over a period of time by all practitioners of adolescent health. Though the principles of counseling remain the same the process of counseling an adolescent differs considerably from that of a child or an adult. Adolescents are in their transition between childhood and adulthood with physical, emotional and social challenges to face. The maturity level of each adolescent differs and that decides the pace and contents of each session. The counselor sets the context in a non judgmental manner so that the adolescent feels the ease and eagerness to self disclose. Privacy and confidentiality are two key issues that have to be taken care of during counseling. PMID:23888379

  4. Potential Utility of a Combined Approach with US and MR Arthrography to Image Medial Elbow Pain in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Roedl, Johannes B; Gonzalez, Felix M; Zoga, Adam C; Morrison, William B; Nevalainen, Mika T; Ciccotti, Michael G; Nazarian, Levon N

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To evaluate a combined imaging approach with both ultrasonography (US; conventional US and valgus stress US) and magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography in baseball players with medial elbow pain. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained and the requirement for informed consent was waived. The study is compliant with HIPAA. Baseball players with medial elbow pain underwent US in addition to MR arthrography. Findings were assessed with each modality alone and both combined in this retrospective investigation. For the evaluation of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears with stress US, the interval gapping of the medial elbow joint was measured between rest and valgus stress both at the injured and at the uninjured (contralateral) elbow. Surgical or arthroscopic correlation was available as the so-called gold standard. McNemar tests compared the accuracies of the imaging modalities. Results In this study, 144 baseball players had 191 findings of medial elbow pain, including 53 UCL tears. With stress US, joint gapping at the injured elbow greater than 1.0 mm compared with the contralateral elbow yielded a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 96%, 81%, and 87%, respectively, for diagnosing UCL tears. With MR arthrography, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for UCL tears were 81%, 91%, and 88%, respectively, and increased to 96% (P = .013, McNemar test), 99% (P = .023), and 98% (P < .001), respectively, when combined with US to a dual modality MR and US approach. For 31 patients with ulnar neuritis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy increased from 74%, 92%, and 88%, respectively, with MR arthrography alone to 90% (P = .07, McNemar test), 100% (P < .001), and 98% (P < .001) combined with US. For the 59 myotendinous and the 48 osteochondral diagnoses, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy with MR arthrography alone were 93%, 93%, and 93%, and 94%, 98%, and 97%, respectively, with no additional diagnostic value

  5. The Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Medial Epicondyle Apophysitis in Juvenile Baseball Player - Ultrasonographic Assessment of 2,926 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Otoshi, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Apophysitis of humeral medial epicondyle, often referred to as “Little Leaguer’s Elbow, is one of the major throwing injuries in juvenile baseball players as common as osteochondritis dissecans of humeral capitellum. Repetitive valgus stress to the skeletally immature elbow can result in fragmentation, hypertrophy, or separation of the medial epicondyle apophysis, and these injuries may induce elbow pain and adversely influence on elbow function and throwing performance. Although several reports have described various morphological variations of the medial epicondyle apophysis, little is known about the natural course and clinical significance of these variations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of these variations in each age group and clarify the association with elbow pain using the large epidemiologic data from medical check-ups of juvenile baseball players. Methods: Of 3,626 juvenile baseball players aged 6 to 17 years, 2,926 players were enrolled in this study. Experience of elbow pain was rated by self-completed questionnaires. Ultrasonographic assessment was used to assess the morphological variations of the antero-inferior medial epicondyle (MEC) and humeral capitellum. Regarding MEC lesion, enthesis of medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) was classified into four types: normal, irregular (IR), fragmentation (FG), and hypertrophy (HT). Osteochondral lesion (OCL) of humeral capitellum was judged by the irregularity or fragmentation of subchondral bone. The prevalence of these lesions was investigated in each age group and evaluated the influence on elbow pain using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: The overall prevalence of MEC lesions and capitellum OCL was 49.9% (IR:6.7%, FG:11.7%, HT:31.5%) and 2.1%, respectively. The prevalence of IR and FG gradually increased until reaching its highest at 11-12 years of age. At 12-17 years of age, the prevalence of IR was decreased with age, whereas that

  6. You Can't Think and Hit at the Same Time: Neural Correlates of Baseball Pitch Classification.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Jason; Muraskin, Jordan; Sajda, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Hitting a baseball is often described as the most difficult thing to do in sports. A key aptitude of a good hitter is the ability to determine which pitch is coming. This rapid decision requires the batter to make a judgment in a fraction of a second based largely on the trajectory and spin of the ball. When does this decision occur relative to the ball's trajectory and is it possible to identify neural correlates that represent how the decision evolves over a split second? Using single-trial analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) we address this question within the context of subjects discriminating three types of pitches (fastball, curveball, slider) based on pitch trajectories. We find clear neural signatures of pitch classification and, using signal detection theory, we identify the times of discrimination on a trial-to-trial basis. Based on these neural signatures we estimate neural discrimination distributions as a function of the distance the ball is from the plate. We find all three pitches yield unique distributions, namely the timing of the discriminating neural signatures relative to the position of the ball in its trajectory. For instance, fastballs are discriminated at the earliest points in their trajectory, relative to the two other pitches, which is consistent with the need for some constant time to generate and execute the motor plan for the swing (or inhibition of the swing). We also find incorrect discrimination of a pitch (errors) yields neural sources in Brodmann Area 10, which has been implicated in prospective memory, recall, and task difficulty. In summary, we show that single-trial analysis of EEG yields informative distributions of the relative point in a baseball's trajectory when the batter makes a decision on which pitch is coming. PMID:23267311

  7. Kibbutz Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazor, Aviva, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This special issue on adolescence in the Israeli kibbutz contains a series of seven papers that seek to advance thought and research regarding the relationship between a communal way of life and individual developmental processes in adolescence and early adulthood. The articles represent a transitional era as the kibbutz evolves. (SLD)

  8. Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…

  9. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  10. Adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In the introduction to this report our committee, with its focus on adolescent development, expressed its concern that adolescent suicidal behavior represented a grave crisis in the adolescent, a crisis not only in the development of the adolescent but one that endangers the existence of the adolescent. The possibility of a fatal outcome is abhorrent to us as physicians and psychiatrists, as it is to all those entrusted with the care and development of our fellow human beings. Consequently, we explored the ways in which developmental and other forces lead to adolescent suicide and the measures that can be taken to prevent it. We first considered the historical and cross-cultural aspects of suicidal behaviors. Societal and cultural stresses arise from parental attitudes, beliefs, expectations, and childrearing practices that evolve from the social and economic needs in each culture. If unbalanced by growth-sustaining supports, they may compromise or constrict the existential adaptive ability of the developing adolescent and place the adolescent at risk for suicide. Research into vulnerability in adolescence has revealed gender, ethnic, and geographic differences in the dimension of the problem and has indicated the social, psychological, and biological conditions that increase the likelihood that adolescents will resort to suicidal behaviors. Research is still needed to distinguish those adolescents who commit suicide from those adolescents with similar conditions who do not. Research has only begun to explore the ways in which the interaction of specific individual dynamics, precipitating events, and personal characteristics result in an adolescent's attempt of suicide. We discussed the strengths that adolescents acquire, but we emphasized the weaknesses that ensue as adolescents are faced with the impact of the thrust of their own biological, psychological, and social development with the forces inherent in their cultures. Adolescents progress through this period

  11. Softball Pitching and Injury.

    PubMed

    Lear, Aaron; Patel, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries. PMID:27618243

  12. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  13. Self-Reported Responses to Player Profile Questions Show Consistency with the Use of Complex Attentional Strategies by Expert Horseshoe Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Fairbrother, Jeffrey T.; Post, Phillip G.; Whalen, Sam J.

    2016-01-01

    The advantages on an external focus of attention have been demonstrated for a variety of sport tasks. The constrained action hypothesis (Wulf et al., 2001) argues that focusing externally on the movement effect results in the use of automated processes for movement control. In contrast, focusing internally in an attempt to control the movements of the body disrupts normally automated processes and degrades performance. Research on experts, however, suggests that they may adopt more complex attentional strategies. The present study provided a unique opportunity to examine expert horseshoe players’ attentional strategies as indicated by their self-reported responses to questions included in a National Horseshoe Pitchers Association (NHPA) player profile questionnaire. Responses submitted by 83 top NHPA players were examined to determine the frequency of references to the use of internal and external focus points and identify categories related to attentional strategies. Results indicated that the large majority of players reported using focus points that are consistent with an external focus of attention and that their thoughts corresponded to one or more categories related to technique, mental focus or concentration, general success, use of external focus cues, and emotional control. The findings are consistent with the view that experts may adopt complex attentional strategies that encompass both an external focus and thoughts about a variety of other performance related factors. PMID:27458419

  14. The Effect of Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit on the Isokinetic Strength, Pain, and Quality of Life in Male High School Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinyoung; Song, Hongsun; Kim, Sunghwan; Woo, Seungseok

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) on the isokinetic strength, body pain, and the quality of life in male high school baseball players of Korea. Methods Fifty-six male high school baseball players were divided into either group A (GIRD≥20°, n=12) or group B (GIRD<20°, n=44). The range of motion in the shoulder and the isokinetic strength were measured. Questionnaires were administered regarding the body pain location by using the visual analogue scale, and the quality of life was measured by using the SF-36 Form. Results All subjects had increased external rotation range of motion and decreased internal rotation in the throwing shoulder. The incidence of GIRD (≥20°) was 21.43% in the present study. In the isokinetic strength test, a significantly weaker muscular state at an angular velocity of 180°/s was observed in group A, compared to group B. For the comparison of the pain, the frequency of shoulder pain was higher (33.93%) than other body pain, among the study subjects. Conclusion GIRD is one of the main risk factors of glenohumeral joint damage, and it is correlated with reduced isokinetic strength and quality of life. High school baseball players will need appropriate shoulder rehabilitation programs for the improvement in their quality of life and performance. PMID:25932414

  15. Similar photoperiod-related birth seasonalities among professional baseball players and lesbian women with an opposite seasonality among gay men: Maternal melatonin may affect fetal sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Marzullo, Giovanni

    2014-05-30

    Based on pre-mid-20th-century data, the same photoperiod-related birth seasonality previously observed in schizophrenia was also recently found in neural-tube defects and in extreme left-handedness among professional baseball players. This led to a hypothesis implicating maternal melatonin and other mediators of sunlight actions capable of affecting 4th-embryonic-week developments including neural-tube closure and left-right differentiation of the brain. Here, new studies of baseball players suggest that the same sunlight actions could also affect testosterone-dependent male-female differentiation in the 4-month-old fetus. Independently of hand-preferences, baseball players (n=6829), and particularly the stronger hitters among them, showed a unique birth seasonality with an excess around early-November and an equally significant deficit 6 months later around early-May. In two smaller studies, north-American and other northern-hemisphere born lesbians showed the same strong-hitter birth seasonality while gay men showed the opposite seasonality. The sexual dimorphism-critical 4th-fetal-month testosterone surge coincides with the summer-solstice in early-November births and the winter-solstice in early-May births. These coincidences are discussed and a "melatonin mechanism" is proposed based on evidence that in seasonal breeders maternal melatonin imparts "photoperiodic history" to the newborn by direct inhibition of fetal testicular testosterone synthesis. The present effects could represent a vestige of this same phenomenon in man. PMID:24612972

  16. Correlation of shoulder and elbow injuries with muscle tightness, core stability, and balance by longitudinal measurements in junior high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The present study longitudinally investigated injury occurrences and the risk factors for muscle tightness, core stability, and dynamic standing balance among junior high school student baseball players. [Subjects] Thirty-nine male students, belonging to baseball clubs at 2 junior high schools, participated in this study. [Methods] Study measurements were obtained twice, once in the early stage of the baseball season (March) and once at the end of the season (July). All subjects underwent muscle tightness testing, the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), and trunk endurance testing during each measurement session. [Results] Fifteen players experienced episodes of elbow or shoulder pain while throwing. Players in the pain group demonstrated a significant increase in the tightness of their shoulder internal rotators, axis-leg quadriceps, and axis-leg hamstrings. There was no clear evidence of differences of changes in core stability and dynamic standing balance between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that lower extremity muscle tightness early in a season and the subsequent decline in the flexibility of the axis-leg quadriceps and hamstrings during the season may be due to an increased upper extremity load while throwing, thus producing shoulder and elbow pain. PMID:24926133

  17. Adolescent Prostitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Bernie; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Explores the conditions which lead to teenagers' becoming prostitutes, including alienation, abuse, lack of education and employment, and family problems. Discusses the role of the justice system and institutions and the need for improving adolescents' self-image. (JAC)

  18. Adolescent Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Thomasina H.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)

  19. Rotator cuff injuries in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jennifer M; Arkader, Alexandre; Wells, Lawrence M; Ganley, Theodore J

    2013-03-01

    The cause of rotator cuff injuries in the young athlete has been described as an overuse injury related to internal impingement. Abduction coupled with external rotation is believed to impinge on the rotator cuff, specifically the supraspinatus, and lead to undersurface tears that can progress to full-thickness tears. This impingement is believed to be worsened with increased range of motion and instability in overhead athletes. A retrospective review of seven patients diagnosed with rotator cuff injuries was performed to better understand this shoulder injury pattern. The type of sport played, a history of trauma, diagnosis, treatment method, and outcome were noted. Six patients were male and one was a female. Baseball was the primary sport for four patients, basketball for one, gymnastics for one, and wrestling for one. The following injury patterns were observed: two patients tore their subscapularis tendon, two sustained avulsion fractures of their lesser tuberosity, one tore his rotator interval, one tore his supraspinatus, and one avulsed his greater tuberosity. Only four patients recalled a specific traumatic event. Three patients were treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, three with miniopen repair, and one was treated with rehabilitation. Six of the seven patients returned to their preinjury level of sport after treatment. Rotator cuff tears are rare in the adolescent age group. The injury patterns suggest that acute trauma likely accounts for many rotator cuff tears and their equivalents in the young patient. Adolescents with rotator cuff tears reliably return to sports after treatment. The possibility of rotator cuff tears in skeletally immature athletes should be considered. The prognosis is very good once this injury is identified and treated. PMID:22668571

  20. Adolescent substance abuse. Assessment in the office.

    PubMed

    Dias, Philomena J

    2002-04-01

    There are no gold-standard tests for evaluating a teen suspected of abusing substances. Awareness of the high prevalence of substance abuse in youth, a high index of suspicion, and a firm desire to be a part of the solution are all that is required to address the problem of substance abuse in youth. In an age of "dotcoms" and societal complexity that fosters an emotionally "disconnected" atmosphere by uniting adolescents only by what they buy, plug into, click on, or blast away, teens need trusted medical homes where caring pediatricians are available to give youth accurate and authoritative facts and care to help them build inner resilience and connect them to the pain and hurt of the people in their lives. Until now, the "three strikes and you're out" maxim has been applied in medical care. This maxim may work for baseball, Clintonomics, and practical office management strategies but is not recommended for addressing the needs of substance using or abusing youth who are prey to advertising strategies. The size of the marketing and advertising budgets of the alcohol and cigarette industries is an indication of the relentless marketing directed toward vulnerable youth. Pediatricians would be doing teens a disservice if they fail to countermand this marketing effect by not using the "rule of seven"--the "seven 'S' screen," seven education attempts, seven different ways over 7 years, and persistence over seven attempts of chemically dependent adolescents to quit. It has been said by Osler that "These are our methods--to carefully observe the phenomena of life in all its stages, to cultivate the reasoning of the faculty so as to be able to know the true from the false. This is our work--to prevent disease, to relieve suffering, to heal the sick," and provide HOPE always. PMID:11993283