Science.gov

Sample records for adolescent baseball pitcher

  1. Isolated musculocutaneous neuropathy in an adolescent baseball pitcher.

    PubMed

    Henry, Dorlyne; Bonthius, Daniel J

    2011-12-01

    Injury of the musculocutaneous nerve very rarely occurs in the absence of concomitant injury to other components of the brachial plexus. Until now, the few cases of isolated musculocutaneous nerve palsies have been reported only in adults. We report a case of isolated musculocutaneous neuropathy in a uniquely talented adolescent baseball pitcher. The biomechanics underlying this adolescent's ability to throw with high velocity likely contributed to the musculocutaneous nerve injury in this case.

  2. Shoulder proprioception in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Safran, M R; Borsa, P A; Lephart, S M; Fu, F H; Warner, J J

    2001-01-01

    We examined proprioceptive differences between the dominant and nondominant shoulders of 21 collegiate baseball pitchers without a history of shoulder instability or surgery. A proprioceptive testing device was used to measure kinesthesia and joint position sense. Joint position sense was significantly (P =.05) more accurate in the nondominant shoulder than in the dominant shoulder when starting at 75% of maximal external rotation and moving into internal rotation. There were no significant differences for proprioception in the other measured positions or with kinesthesia testing. Six pitchers with recent shoulder pain had a significant (P =.04) kinesthetic deficit in the symptomatic dominant shoulder compared with the asymptomatic shoulder, as measured in neutral rotation moving into internal rotation. The net effect of training, exercise-induced laxity, and increased external rotation in baseball pitchers does not affect proprioception, although shoulder pain, possibly due to rotator cuff inflammation or tendinitis, is associated with reduced kinesthetic sensation.

  3. Difference between adolescent and collegiate baseball pitchers in the kinematics and kinetics of the lower limbs and trunk during pitching motion.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences between adolescent and collegiate baseball pitchers in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower limbs during the pitching motion. The subjects were thirty-two adolescent baseball pitchers aged 12-15 years (APG) and thirty collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18-22 years (CPG). Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground reaction forces (GRFs) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated by the inverse-dynamics computation of musculoskeletal human models using motion-capture data. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRFs data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The velocity of a pitched ball was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in CPG (35.2 ± 1.9 m·s(-1)) than in the APG (30.7 ± 2.7 m·s(-1)). Most kinematic parameters for the lower limbs were similar between the CPG and the APG. Maximum Fy (toward the throwing direction) on the pivot leg and Fy and resultant forces on the stride leg at ball release were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05). Hip and knee joint torques on the lower limbs were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05). The present study indicates that the kinematics of lower limbs during baseball pitching are similar between adolescent and collegiate pitchers, but the momentum of the lower limbs during pitching is lower in adolescent pitchers than in collegiate ones, even when the difference in body mass is considered. Key pointsCollegiate baseball pitchers can generate the hip and knee joint torques on the pivot leg for accelerating the body forward.Collegiate baseball pitchers can generate the hip and knee joint torques to control/stabilize the stride leg in order to

  4. Difference between adolescent and collegiate baseball pitchers in the kinematics and kinetics of the lower limbs and trunk during pitching motion.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences between adolescent and collegiate baseball pitchers in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower limbs during the pitching motion. The subjects were thirty-two adolescent baseball pitchers aged 12-15 years (APG) and thirty collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18-22 years (CPG). Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground reaction forces (GRFs) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated by the inverse-dynamics computation of musculoskeletal human models using motion-capture data. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRFs data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The velocity of a pitched ball was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in CPG (35.2 ± 1.9 m·s(-1)) than in the APG (30.7 ± 2.7 m·s(-1)). Most kinematic parameters for the lower limbs were similar between the CPG and the APG. Maximum Fy (toward the throwing direction) on the pivot leg and Fy and resultant forces on the stride leg at ball release were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05). Hip and knee joint torques on the lower limbs were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05). The present study indicates that the kinematics of lower limbs during baseball pitching are similar between adolescent and collegiate pitchers, but the momentum of the lower limbs during pitching is lower in adolescent pitchers than in collegiate ones, even when the difference in body mass is considered. Key pointsCollegiate baseball pitchers can generate the hip and knee joint torques on the pivot leg for accelerating the body forward.Collegiate baseball pitchers can generate the hip and knee joint torques to control/stabilize the stride leg in order to

  5. Unusual stress fracture in an adolescent baseball pitcher affecting the trochlear groove of the olecranon.

    PubMed

    Blake, Joseph J; Block, John J; Hannah, Gene A; Kan, J Herman

    2008-07-01

    Stress fractures of the proximal ulna are known to occur in throwing athletes. Most cases extend to involve the olecranon, and cases limited to the trochlear groove are rare. In this report we present a 17-year-old elite baseball pitcher with a stress fracture of the trochlear groove of the proximal ulna. Diagnosis was made by demonstration of characteristic signal changes on MRI of the elbow. The fracture occurred at the cortical notch, also known as the pseudodefect of the trochlear groove. This case suggests that the cortical notch serves as an area of weakness predisposing pitchers to development of a stress fracture.

  6. MR imaging of the elbow in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Hugue; Bredella, Miriam; Labis, John; Palmer, William E; Torriani, Martin

    2008-02-01

    Baseball pitcher throwing biomechanics are important to understanding the pathophysiology and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearances of injuries in baseball pitchers. Baseball pitchers experience repetitive excessive valgus forces at the elbow. Typical injuries are secondary to medial joint distraction, lateral joint compression, and rotatory forces at the olecranon. MR imaging is useful for evaluation of the elbow in baseball pitchers.

  7. Upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis in an adolescent baseball pitcher with an associated endocrine abnormality: a case report.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Heffernan, Michael J; Mortimer, Errol S

    2010-06-01

    Lower extremity stress fractures are relatively common among competitive athletes. Stress fractures of the upper extremity, however, are rare and most have been reported in the literature as case reports. We present a case of an adolescent baseball pitcher who had both proximal humeral and ulnar shaft stress fractures, as well as spondylolysis of the lumbar spine. This particular patient also had an underlying endocrine abnormality of secondary hyperparathyroidism with a deficiency in vitamin D. A bone mineral density panel demonstrated a high T score (+2.79 SD above the mean) and the patient's biologic bone age was noted to be 2 years ahead of his chronologic age. The patient was treated with a course of vitamin D and calcium supplementation. After treatment, both the vitamin D and parathyroid hormone returned to normal levels. The upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis were managed conservatively and he was able to return to full activity and baseball. For patients who present with multiple stress fractures not associated with consistent high levels of repeated stress, a bone mineral density panel should be considered. If vitamin D deficiency is present, a course of oral supplementation may be considered in the management. An endocrinology consult should also be considered in patients who present with multiple stress fractures. Conservative management of upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis was successful in returning this patient back to his previous activity level. PMID:20502233

  8. Upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis in an adolescent baseball pitcher with an associated endocrine abnormality: a case report.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Heffernan, Michael J; Mortimer, Errol S

    2010-06-01

    Lower extremity stress fractures are relatively common among competitive athletes. Stress fractures of the upper extremity, however, are rare and most have been reported in the literature as case reports. We present a case of an adolescent baseball pitcher who had both proximal humeral and ulnar shaft stress fractures, as well as spondylolysis of the lumbar spine. This particular patient also had an underlying endocrine abnormality of secondary hyperparathyroidism with a deficiency in vitamin D. A bone mineral density panel demonstrated a high T score (+2.79 SD above the mean) and the patient's biologic bone age was noted to be 2 years ahead of his chronologic age. The patient was treated with a course of vitamin D and calcium supplementation. After treatment, both the vitamin D and parathyroid hormone returned to normal levels. The upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis were managed conservatively and he was able to return to full activity and baseball. For patients who present with multiple stress fractures not associated with consistent high levels of repeated stress, a bone mineral density panel should be considered. If vitamin D deficiency is present, a course of oral supplementation may be considered in the management. An endocrinology consult should also be considered in patients who present with multiple stress fractures. Conservative management of upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis was successful in returning this patient back to his previous activity level.

  9. Prevention of elbow injuries in youth baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Weber, Adam; Hassell, Nina; Andrews, James R

    2009-01-01

    There is concern among sports medicine practitioners that the number of youth baseball pitchers with elbow injuries appears to be increasing. Research points to overuse as the principle risk factor. The risk of elbow pain in youth pitchers is correlated with the number of pitches thrown in a game and in a season. Adolescents who competitively pitch more than 85 pitches per game, more than 8 months out of a year, or with arm fatigue are several times more likely to require elbow surgery. Poor pitching mechanics also appear to contribute to injury risk. Existing research does not show a significant correlation between curveballs and injury. Adults should help youth pitchers avoid fatigue, overuse, and improper mechanics. If elbow pain develops, the youth pitcher should be evaluated by a sports medicine physician.

  10. Kinematic comparisons of 1996 Olympic baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, R F; Fleisig, G S; Zheng, N; Barrentine, S W; Andrews, J R

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the kinematics of baseball pitchers who participated in the 1996 XXVI Centennial Olympic Games. Two synchronized video cameras operating at 120 Hz were used to video 48 pitchers from Australia, Japan, the Netherlands, Cuba, Italy, Korea, Nicaragua and the USA. All pitchers were analysed while throwing the fastball pitch. Twenty-one kinematic parameters were measured at lead foot contact, during the arm cocking and arm acceleration phases, and at the instant of ball release. These parameters included stride length, foot angle and foot placement; shoulder abduction, shoulder horizontal adduction and shoulder external rotation; knee and elbow flexion; upper torso, shoulder internal rotation and elbow extension angular velocities; forward and lateral trunk tilt; and ball speed. A one-way analysis of variance (P < 0.01) was used to assess kinematic differences. Shoulder horizontal adduction and shoulder external rotation at lead foot contact and ball speed at the instant of ball release were significantly different among countries. The greater shoulder horizontal abduction observed in Cuban pitchers at lead foot contact is thought to be an important factor in the generation of force throughout the arm cocking and arm acceleration phases, and may in part explain why Cuban pitchers generated the greatest ball release speed. We conclude that pitching kinematics are similar among baseball pitchers from different countries.

  11. Shoulder weakness in professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, S P; Gleim, G W; Nicholas, J A

    1994-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) compare shoulder range of motion and strength in professional baseball pitchers (N = 47) compared with age-matched controls (N = 16), and 2) examine the relationship of injury history to strength and range of motion. Based on injury history pitchers were categorized as: 1) none (N = 26), 2) injury requiring conservative intervention (N = 9), or 3) injury requiring surgical intervention (N = 12). Range of motion was measured for internal rotation (IROM) and external rotation (EROM). Eccentric strength was measured by hand-held dynamometer for internal rotation (IR), external rotation (ER), abduction (ABD), and supraspinatus muscle (SUP) strength. Injury history had no effect on strength and range of motion. Dominant EROM was greater in pitchers, P < 0.0001, and controls, P < 0.05, with pitchers having greater EROM motion bilaterally, P < 0.0001. Pitchers were weaker in SUP on the dominant vs nondominant side, P < 0.0001, and on the dominant side for weight adjusted ER, ABD, P < 0.01, and SUP, P < 0.0001, compared with controls. In conclusion, dominance and pitching resulted in soft tissue adaptation. Pitchers displayed weakness in three of four tests by comparison with controls, suggesting that the demands of pitching are insufficient to produce eccentric strength gains and may in fact lead to weakness. Dominant-side SUP weakness in pitchers may reflect subclinical pathology or chronic fatigue.

  12. Asymmetric Hip Rotation in Professional Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Patrick C.; Patel, Jayesh K.; Ramkumar, Prem N.; Noble, Philip C.; Lintner, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a renewed interest in examining the association between hip range of motion and injury in athletes, and the data on baseball players are conflicting. Understanding whether asymmetrical hip rotation is a normal adaptation or a risk factor for injury will help therapists, trainers, and physicians develop rehabilitation programs to improve kinetic energy transfer and prevent injury. As our knowledge of hip pathology among baseball pitchers improves, establishing baselines for hip motion is critical in the further assessment of injury. Hypothesis: Because of the repetitive nature of throwing sports and the adaptive changes documented in the shoulder, elite baseball pitchers would have characteristic patterns of hip internal and external rotations on their dominant throwing side (stance) and their nondominant side (stride) in extension. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Computer software was used to measure passive internal and external rotations on digital photographs of 111 professional baseball pitchers. Results: In right-handed pitchers, there was significantly more internal rotation in the stance hip than the stride hip (32.2° ± 8.2° vs 30.8° ± 8.4°; P = .0349) and significantly more external rotation in the stride hip than the stance hip (36.3° ± 7.7° vs 30.8° ± 9.7°; P < .0001). While the mean difference in external rotation was 4.7°, 32% of the subjects had a >10° increase in external rotation on the stride hip relative to the stance hip. This population was statistically different from the remaining group for older age (P = .0053), lower body mass index (P = .0379), and more years in professional baseball (P = .0328). In the smaller number of left-handed pitchers, side-to-side differences in hip rotation were found but were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Pitchers showed more internal rotation on their stance hip and more external rotation on their stride hip. Although the mean

  13. Upper extremity physeal injury in young baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, Bryan M; Chalmers, Peter N; Mascarenhas, Randy; Cole, Brian J; Romeo, Anthony A

    2014-09-01

    Adolescent baseball players, especially pitchers, are at increased risk for shoulder and elbow injuries as their level of competition increases. The intersection of the adolescent growth spurt with the high levels of elbow valgus and shoulder rotational torques placed upon the arm during overhand pitching predisposes the shoulder and elbow to physeal injuries. Little League shoulder and Little League elbow syndromes most commonly represent pathology at the physeal regions of the proximal and distal humerus and proximal ulna sustained from repetitive loads caused by overhead throwing. There is a growing understanding that these injuries occur on a wide spectrum from delayed physeal closure and physeal widening to acute transphyseal fracture. Although operative intervention is infrequently required, patient and parent counseling can be complex. Health care professionals who care for adolescent baseball players also can play an important role in prevention. Appropriate counseling requires a comprehensive understanding of the clinical, radiographic, and biomechanical aspects of these injuries. This review summarizes these major concepts, focusing on the best available evidence from recent biomechanical and clinical studies on shoulder and elbow injuries in adolescent baseball pitchers.

  14. Spectrum of shoulder injuries in the baseball pitcher.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Hugue; Labis, John; Bredella, Miriam; Palmer, William E; Sheah, Kenneth; Torriani, Martin

    2008-06-01

    This review describes a range of shoulder injuries experienced by baseball pitchers. It is estimated that more than 57% of pitchers suffer some form of shoulder injury during a playing season. Knowledge of the overhead throwing cycle is crucial for our understanding of these shoulder injuries. Baseball pitchers are prone to rotator cuff tears from tensile overload and impingement. Glenoid labrum degeneration or tears are also common, due to overuse syndrome (micro-instability), internal impingement and microtrauma. An understanding of the lesions involved in overhead throwing is crucial in baseball pitchers, as long-term disability can result from these injuries, sometimes with severe financial consequences to the player.

  15. Shoulder injuries in the skeletally immature baseball pitcher and recommendations for the prevention of injury.

    PubMed

    Zaremski, Jason L; Krabak, Brian J

    2012-07-01

    Since 1996, when the first article on pitch restriction recommendations was published, the number of research articles involving skeletally immature pitchers has increased. Potential shoulder injuries in this age group are proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, glenohumeral instability, rotator cuff dysfunction, and superior labrum anteroposterior lesions. Fatigue, improper biomechanics, and overuse are the most common reasons for these injuries. In the hopes of preventing injury to young pitchers, numerous organizations, including the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee, The American Sports Medicine Institute, Little League Baseball & Softball, and the Long Term Athlete Development Program for Baseball Canada, have developed recommendations on pitching restrictions that include limits on pitch count, pitches per week, pitches per season, and rest between pitching. Awareness by sports medicine providers, coaches, and parents/guardians of the most up-to-date recommendations on injury prevention and return to play guidelines should reduce the incidence of acute and chronic injuries in adolescent baseball pitchers.

  16. Biomechanical comparison between elite female and male baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yungchien; Fleisig, Glenn S; Simpson, Kathy J; Andrews, James R

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify the biomechanical features of elite female baseball pitching. Kinematics and kinetics of eleven elite female baseball pitchers were reported and compared with eleven elite male pitchers. Results suggested that females share many similarities with males in pitching kinematics, with a few significant differences. Specifically, at the instant of stride foot contact, a female pitcher had a shorter and more open stride and less separation between pelvis orientation and upper torso orientation. From foot contact to ball release, a female pitcher produced lower peak angular velocity for throwing elbow extension and stride knee extension. Ball velocity was lower for the female. Foot contact to ball release took more time for a female pitcher. Maximal proximal forces at the shoulder and elbow joints were less for a female pitcher.

  17. Chronic pain due to Little Leaguer’s Shoulder in an adolescent baseball pitcher: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wasylynko, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of chronic Little Leaguer’s Shoulder in reference to pain presentation, physical capabilities, and recovery time. Clinical Features: A 17-year-old, junior baseball pitcher presented with shoulder pain when performing high velocity pitching. Conservative treatment for an assumed soft tissue injury failed to resolve the pain, which was regularly aggravated by pitching, and which subsequently prompted further evaluation, and eventual confirmation of Little Leaguer’s Shoulder on subsequent computerized tomography (CT) imaging. Intervention and Outcome: Prior to proper diagnosis, conservative treatment had consisted of activity modification, spinal adjusting, laser therapy, shockwave therapy, Active Release Techniques®, Kinesiotape,® and rehabilitation. Later, rehabilitation, consisting of general muscle and core strengthening, continued for a further six months under the supervision of college athletic trainers. The athlete was able to return to normal pitching duties approximately 12 months later. Summary: In this case, a potentially damaging bone injury masquerading as a simple musculo-tendinous injury created a diagnostic challenge. The patient eventually recovered with rest, time, strengthening, and eventual compliance to prescribed activity modification. PMID:26815884

  18. Hip and Shoulder Range of Motion in Youth Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Weimar, Wendi H

    2016-10-01

    Oliver, GD and Weimar, WH. Hip and shoulder range of motion in youth baseball pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2823-2827, 2016-Lack of range of motion (ROM) has long been suspected as contributing to injury in baseball pitchers. However, all previous ROM research has focused on collegiate and professional pitchers. It was thus the purpose of this study to measure and evaluate bilateral hip and throwing shoulder rotational passive range of motion (PROM) in youth baseball pitchers. Twenty-six youth baseball pitchers (11.3 ± 1.0 years; 152.4 ± 9.0 cm; 47.5 ± 11.3 kg) with no history of injury participated. Bilateral hip and throwing shoulder rotational PROM was measured. There were no significant side-to-side differences for the hip variables (p ≥ 0.05). Shoulder external rotation (ER) was significantly greater than shoulder internal rotation (IR). And the lead leg hip had significantly greater ER than IR. Shoulder ER revealed significant correlations with both lead and stance hip IR (r = 0.45, p = 0.02 and r = 0.48, p = 0.01, respectively). The youth baseball pitchers in this study displayed similar PROM patterns as collegiate and professional baseball pitchers. Additionally, our youth baseball pitchers also presented strong relationships between hip and shoulder PROM. This study reveals that the PROM patterns displayed by these youth may indicate that their available ROM could survive maturation. It is therefore suggested that clinical focus be directed to maintaining hip and shoulder rotational ROM throughout maturation in attempt to determine a possible relations between injurious mechanisms and performance enhancement.

  19. Hip and Shoulder Range of Motion in Youth Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Weimar, Wendi H

    2016-10-01

    Oliver, GD and Weimar, WH. Hip and shoulder range of motion in youth baseball pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2823-2827, 2016-Lack of range of motion (ROM) has long been suspected as contributing to injury in baseball pitchers. However, all previous ROM research has focused on collegiate and professional pitchers. It was thus the purpose of this study to measure and evaluate bilateral hip and throwing shoulder rotational passive range of motion (PROM) in youth baseball pitchers. Twenty-six youth baseball pitchers (11.3 ± 1.0 years; 152.4 ± 9.0 cm; 47.5 ± 11.3 kg) with no history of injury participated. Bilateral hip and throwing shoulder rotational PROM was measured. There were no significant side-to-side differences for the hip variables (p ≥ 0.05). Shoulder external rotation (ER) was significantly greater than shoulder internal rotation (IR). And the lead leg hip had significantly greater ER than IR. Shoulder ER revealed significant correlations with both lead and stance hip IR (r = 0.45, p = 0.02 and r = 0.48, p = 0.01, respectively). The youth baseball pitchers in this study displayed similar PROM patterns as collegiate and professional baseball pitchers. Additionally, our youth baseball pitchers also presented strong relationships between hip and shoulder PROM. This study reveals that the PROM patterns displayed by these youth may indicate that their available ROM could survive maturation. It is therefore suggested that clinical focus be directed to maintaining hip and shoulder rotational ROM throughout maturation in attempt to determine a possible relations between injurious mechanisms and performance enhancement. PMID:25486297

  20. Change in pitching biomechanics in the late-inning in Taiwanese high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Pei-Hsi Chou, Paul; Huang, Yen-Po; Gu, Yi-Hsuan; Liu, Chiang; Chen, Shen-Kai; Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Wang, Rong-Tyai; Huang, Ming-Jer; Lin, Hwai-Ting

    2015-06-01

    Repetitive overhead throwing may result in overuse injuries and a change in the pitching mechanics of a baseball pitcher. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to quantify the changes in the muscle strength and pitching motion kinematics in the late-innings stage of a baseball game. Sixteen healthy baseball pitchers (16.77 ± 0.73 years) recruited from a high school, which won the National High School Baseball Championship in Taiwan in 2011; each performed 100 pitches in a bullpen throwing session. Isometric muscle strength measurements and joint kinematic data were obtained before and after the throwing session. The mean Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion index was found to have a value of 14.14, indicating a medium-to-large degree of perceived tiredness. The results showed that the ball velocity and horizontal abduction angle decreased significantly as the pitchers became tired. Moreover, the upper torso forward tilt and knee flexion angle both increased significantly at the moment of ball release. Finally, the muscle strength of the upper extremity remained decreased 2 days after the bullpen throwing session. Overall, the results suggest that an adequate amount of rest and specific strengthening programs for the shoulder external rotator, shoulder internal rotator, shoulder flexor, shoulder extensor, shoulder adductor, and shoulder abductor muscles are recommended to the coaches and for adolescent baseball pitchers. In addition, the changes in pitching mechanics noted in this study should be carefully monitored during the course of a baseball game to minimize the risk for overuse injuries.

  1. Optimal management of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Brown, J Rodney; Hoffer, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes the elbow joint from valgus stress associated with the throwing motion. During baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to tremendous stress and injury if the force on the ulnar collateral ligament during pitching exceeds the physiological limits of the ligament. Injuries to the throwing elbow in baseball pitchers result in significant time loss and typically surgical intervention. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of current information to sports medicine clinicians on injury epidemiology, injury mechanics, injury risk factors, injury prevention, surgical interventions, nonsurgical interventions, rehabilitation, and return to play outcomes in baseball pitchers of all levels. PMID:26635490

  2. Optimal management of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Brown, J Rodney; Hoffer, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes the elbow joint from valgus stress associated with the throwing motion. During baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to tremendous stress and injury if the force on the ulnar collateral ligament during pitching exceeds the physiological limits of the ligament. Injuries to the throwing elbow in baseball pitchers result in significant time loss and typically surgical intervention. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of current information to sports medicine clinicians on injury epidemiology, injury mechanics, injury risk factors, injury prevention, surgical interventions, nonsurgical interventions, rehabilitation, and return to play outcomes in baseball pitchers of all levels. PMID:26635490

  3. Optimal management of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Brown, J Rodney; Hoffer, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes the elbow joint from valgus stress associated with the throwing motion. During baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to tremendous stress and injury if the force on the ulnar collateral ligament during pitching exceeds the physiological limits of the ligament. Injuries to the throwing elbow in baseball pitchers result in significant time loss and typically surgical intervention. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of current information to sports medicine clinicians on injury epidemiology, injury mechanics, injury risk factors, injury prevention, surgical interventions, nonsurgical interventions, rehabilitation, and return to play outcomes in baseball pitchers of all levels.

  4. Glenoid labral repair in Major League Baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Ricchetti, E T; Weidner, Z; Lawrence, J T R; Sennett, B J; Huffman, G R

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about outcomes of glenoid labral repair in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. We hypothesized that following repair, pitching performance would not be significantly different from an uninjured cohort. Fifty-one pitchers were identified who pitched in at least one MLB game prior to undergoing isolated glenoid labral repair. For the three years prior to and following surgery, demographic and performance variables were analyzed for an association with labral injury and repair, and compared to a control cohort of MLB pitchers without history of repair. Following surgery, 72.5% of pitchers returned to MLB at a mean of 13.1 months with no significant change in performance. Starting pitchers had a higher risk of labral injury requiring repair (p< or =0.05). Pitchers that returned to play averaged more innings pitched in the seasons prior to surgery and had a higher body mass index than those that did not return to play (p< or =0.05). Approximately 70% of MLB pitchers undergoing labral repair can be expected to return to competition postoperatively with no significant change in performance. Starting pitchers are more likely to undergo repair, but pitchers with greater preoperative innings pitched per season have a greater likelihood of returning to play.

  5. Change in pitching biomechanics in the late-inning in Taiwanese high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Pei-Hsi Chou, Paul; Huang, Yen-Po; Gu, Yi-Hsuan; Liu, Chiang; Chen, Shen-Kai; Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Wang, Rong-Tyai; Huang, Ming-Jer; Lin, Hwai-Ting

    2015-06-01

    Repetitive overhead throwing may result in overuse injuries and a change in the pitching mechanics of a baseball pitcher. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to quantify the changes in the muscle strength and pitching motion kinematics in the late-innings stage of a baseball game. Sixteen healthy baseball pitchers (16.77 ± 0.73 years) recruited from a high school, which won the National High School Baseball Championship in Taiwan in 2011; each performed 100 pitches in a bullpen throwing session. Isometric muscle strength measurements and joint kinematic data were obtained before and after the throwing session. The mean Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion index was found to have a value of 14.14, indicating a medium-to-large degree of perceived tiredness. The results showed that the ball velocity and horizontal abduction angle decreased significantly as the pitchers became tired. Moreover, the upper torso forward tilt and knee flexion angle both increased significantly at the moment of ball release. Finally, the muscle strength of the upper extremity remained decreased 2 days after the bullpen throwing session. Overall, the results suggest that an adequate amount of rest and specific strengthening programs for the shoulder external rotator, shoulder internal rotator, shoulder flexor, shoulder extensor, shoulder adductor, and shoulder abductor muscles are recommended to the coaches and for adolescent baseball pitchers. In addition, the changes in pitching mechanics noted in this study should be carefully monitored during the course of a baseball game to minimize the risk for overuse injuries. PMID:25474340

  6. THORACOLUMBAR RANGE OF MOTION IN BASEBALL PITCHERS AND POSITION PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Lynall, Robert; Williams, Jeffrey G.; Wong, Regan; Onuki, Takashi; Meister, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Introduction/Background: Optimal baseball throwing mechanics require a significant contribution of thoracolumbar motion, particularly in the sagittal and transverse planes. This motion is key for proper transmission of forces from the lower to upper extremity, thereby minimizing a throwing athlete's risk of injury and maximizing athletic performance. Purpose: To define the active‐assisted thoracolumbar ROM of both baseball pitchers and position players and to compare these motions both within and between groups. Methods: Fifty‐six asymptomatic, collegiate and minor league baseball pitchers and 42 position players volunteered to participate. Active‐assisted thoracolumbar flexion, extension, and bilateral rotation ROM, were measured in a standing position, using two bubble inclinometers. Two‐tailed t tests were used to determine differences in ROM between and within the pitchers and position players. Results: The pitchers had significantly more rotation to the non‐throwing arm side as compared to the position players (p = .007, effect size = .61). The pitchers also had more rotation to the non‐throwing arm side as compared to their throwing side (p = .006, effect size = .47). There were no other significant differences between the pitchers and the position players (p > .53). Furthermore, the position players did not have a side‐to‐side rotation difference (p = .99). Conclusions: Pitchers have a greater amount of rotation ROM towards the non‐throwing arm side as compared to position players. Pitchers also have a greater amount of rotation ROM to the non‐throwing arm side as compared to their throwing side rotation. Because pitchers often present with posterior shoulder tightness and subsequent altered shoulder horizontal adduction and internal rotation ROM, the increase in non‐throwing side rotation ROM may occur in response to these adaptations. More specifically, this increase in non‐throwing side trunk rotation ROM may allow such athletes to

  7. Lumbopelvic control and pitching performance of professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ajit M W; McKenzie, Christopher S; Borchers, James R; Best, Thomas M

    2011-08-01

    This study assessed the correlation between lumbopelvic control during a single-leg balancing task and in-game pitching performance in Minor-League baseball pitchers. Seventy-five healthy professional baseball pitchers performed a standing lumbopelvic control test during the last week of spring training for the 2008 and 2009 seasons while wearing a custom-designed testing apparatus, the "Level Belt." With the Level Belt secured to the waist, subjects attempted to transition from a 2-leg to a single-leg pitching stance and balance while maintaining a stable pelvic position. Subjects were graded on the maximum sagittal pelvic tilt from a neutral position during the motion. Pitching performance, number of innings pitched (IP), and injuries were compared for all subjects who pitched at least 50 innings during a season. The median Level Belt score for the study group was 7°. Two-sample t-tests with equal variances were used to determine if pitchers with a Level Belt score <7° or ≥7° were more likely to perform differently during the baseball season, and chi-square analysis was used to compare injuries between groups. Subjects scoring <7° on the Level Belt test had significantly fewer walks plus hits per inning than subjects scoring ≥7° (walks plus hits per inning pitched, 1.352 ± 0.251 vs. 1.584 ± 0.360, p = 0.013) and significantly more IP during the season (IP, 78.89 ± 38.67 vs. 53.38 ± 42.47, p = 0.043). There was no significant difference in the number of pitchers injured between groups. These data suggest that lumbopelvic control influences overall performance for baseball pitchers and that a simple test of lumbopelvic control can potentially identify individuals who have a better chance of pitching success.

  8. The relationship between age and baseball pitching kinematics in professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Dun, Shouchen; Fleisig, Glenn S; Loftice, Jeremy; Kingsley, David; Andrews, James R

    2007-01-01

    Joint range of motion and physical capacities have been shown to change with age in both throwing athletes and non-athletes. The age of professional baseball pitchers could span from late teens to mid-40s. However, the effects of age on the pitching kinematics among professional baseball pitchers are still unknown. In this study, 67 healthy professional baseball pitchers were tested using a 3D motion analysis system. Their mean age was 23.7+/-3.3 years (range 18.8-34.4). The 12 pitchers more than one standard deviation older than the mean (i.e., older than 27.0 years) were categorized into the older group, and the 10 pitchers more than one standard deviation younger than the mean (i.e., younger than 20.4 years) were defined as the younger group. In all, 18 kinematic variables (14 position and 4 velocity) were calculated, and Student's t-tests were used to compare the variables between the two groups. Six position variables were found to be significantly different between the two groups. At the instant of lead foot contact, the older group had a shorter stride, a more closed pelvis orientation, and a more closed upper trunk orientation. The older group also produced less shoulder external rotation during the arm cocking phase, more lead knee flexion at ball release, and less forward trunk tilt at ball release. Ball velocity and body segment velocity variables showed no significant differences between the two groups. Thus, differences in specific pitching kinematic variables among professional baseball pitchers of different age groups were not associated with significant differences in ball velocities between groups. The current results suggest that both biological changes and technique adaptations occur during the career of a professional baseball pitcher.

  9. Circulatory disturbances in the throwing hand of baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Y; Wakano, K; Takeda, T; Murakami, T

    1987-01-01

    Three cases of circulatory disturbance with ulcer formation in the pitching hand of baseball pitchers are reported. The pathophysiology was of an entirely new entity. In one case, the neurovascular bundles of the middle finger were entrapped by the proximal edges of Cleland's ligaments. In the other two cases, the blood vessels to the index and middle fingers were compressed within the lumbrical canal. Hypertrophy of the lumbrical muscles and/or thickening of the palmar aponeurosis were responsible for the compression of the vessels. Surgical release of Cleland's ligaments or palmar aponeurosis, including superficial transverse fiber and vertical septa, resulted in good recovery of the circulation of the involved fingers. All of the pitchers returned to professional or college league baseball without recurrence of the ulcer.

  10. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility.

  11. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility. PMID:26559562

  12. Pitcher's elbow in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grana, W A; Rashkin, A

    1980-01-01

    Intraarticular and periarticular changes of the elbow secondary to the throwing motion have been documented in pitchers of all ages, Although others have focused attention on children, this study evaluates a group of 73 older pitchers (average age 17 years). Forty-two (58%) players reported pain while throwing at the time of evaluation (before interscholastic play) or developed pain during the season. However, only four (5%) missed one or more pitching rotations. No significant relationships were found between occurrence of symptoms and number of seasons played, individual pitching traits, asymmetry on physical examination, or asymmetry on radiographic evaluation of the elbow. In the symptomatic group there tended to be a slightly greater number of seasons' experience (average 7.8 seasons vs. 6.0 seasons) and more players with asymmetry upon physical examination. We believe this study supports the concept that increasing age and exposure, along with other factors as yet unquantitated, may determine the occurrence of symptoms in pitchers.

  13. Gluteus medius and scapula muscle activations in youth baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Weimar, Wendi H; Plummer, Hillary A

    2015-06-01

    The baseball pitching motion is a total kinetic chain activity that must efficiently use both the upper and lower extremity. Of particular importance is the scapular motion, which is critical for humeral positioning and proper alignment of shoulder musculature. It was hypothesized that scapular stability is enhanced by pelvic girdle stability. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to determine the muscle activations of selected pelvic and scapular stabilizing muscles during a fastball pitch in youth baseball pitchers. Twenty youth baseball pitchers (age: 11.3 + 1.0 years; height: 152.4 + 9.0 cm; weight: 47.5 + 11.3 kg) were recorded throwing 4-seam fastballs for strikes. Data revealed moderate (20-39% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]) to moderately strong (>40% MVIC) activation of the ipsilateral (throwing arm side) gluteus medius, upper trapezius, and serratus anterior throughout phases 2 (maximum shoulder external rotation to ball release) and 3 (ball release to maximum shoulder internal rotation). Moderately strong activation (>40% MVIC) of the upper trapezius and serratus anterior was noted during phases 2 and 3 of the pitching motion. Pearson's product-moment correlation revealed significant relationships between bilateral gluteus medius and the force couples about the scapula during all 3 phases of the pitching motion. The results of this study provide important data that improve the understanding of the muscular relationship between the pelvic and scapular stabilizers during the fastball pitch. Training and rehabilitation programs should consider focusing on lumbopelvic-hip and scapular muscle strengthening as well as coordinated strengthening of the pelvic and scapular stabilizers, in baseball pitchers.

  14. An analysis of an optimal selection process for characteristics and technical performance of baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Bin; Tung, I-Wu; Chen, Mei-Jung; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2011-08-01

    Selection of a qualified pitcher has relied previously on qualitative indices; here, both quantitative and qualitative indices including pitching statistics, defense, mental skills, experience, and managers' recognition were collected, and an analytic hierarchy process was used to rank baseball pitchers. The participants were 8 experts who ranked characteristics and statistics of 15 baseball pitchers who comprised the first round of potential representatives for the Chinese Taipei National Baseball team. The results indicated a selection rate that was 91% consistent with the official national team roster, as 11 pitchers with the highest scores who were recommended as optimal choices to be official members of the Chinese Tai-pei National Baseball team actually participated in the 2009 Baseball World Cup. An analytic hierarchy can aid in selection of qualified pitchers, depending on situational and practical needs; the method could be extended to other sports and team-selection situations. PMID:21987928

  15. An analysis of an optimal selection process for characteristics and technical performance of baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Bin; Tung, I-Wu; Chen, Mei-Jung; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2011-08-01

    Selection of a qualified pitcher has relied previously on qualitative indices; here, both quantitative and qualitative indices including pitching statistics, defense, mental skills, experience, and managers' recognition were collected, and an analytic hierarchy process was used to rank baseball pitchers. The participants were 8 experts who ranked characteristics and statistics of 15 baseball pitchers who comprised the first round of potential representatives for the Chinese Taipei National Baseball team. The results indicated a selection rate that was 91% consistent with the official national team roster, as 11 pitchers with the highest scores who were recommended as optimal choices to be official members of the Chinese Tai-pei National Baseball team actually participated in the 2009 Baseball World Cup. An analytic hierarchy can aid in selection of qualified pitchers, depending on situational and practical needs; the method could be extended to other sports and team-selection situations.

  16. Lower-extremity ground reaction forces in collegiate baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Guido, John A; Werner, Sherry L

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ground reaction forces (GRF) in collegiate baseball pitchers and their relationship to pitching mechanics. Fourteen healthy collegiate baseball pitchers participated in this study. High-speed video and force plate data were collected for fastballs from each pitcher. The average ball speed was 35 ± 3 m/sec (78 ± 7 mph). Peak GRFs of 245 ± 20% body weight (BW) were generated in an anterior or braking direction to control descent. Horizontal GRFs tended to occur in a laterally directed fashion, reaching a peak of 45 ± 63% BW. The maximum vertical GRF averaged 202 ± 43% BW approximately 45 milliseconds after stride foot contact. A correlation between braking force and ball velocity was evident. Because of the downward inclination and rotation of the pitching motion, in addition to volume, shear forces may occur in the musculoskeletal tissues of the stride limb leading to many of the lower-extremity injuries seen in this athletic population. PMID:22344047

  17. Lower-extremity ground reaction forces in collegiate baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Guido, John A; Werner, Sherry L

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ground reaction forces (GRF) in collegiate baseball pitchers and their relationship to pitching mechanics. Fourteen healthy collegiate baseball pitchers participated in this study. High-speed video and force plate data were collected for fastballs from each pitcher. The average ball speed was 35 ± 3 m/sec (78 ± 7 mph). Peak GRFs of 245 ± 20% body weight (BW) were generated in an anterior or braking direction to control descent. Horizontal GRFs tended to occur in a laterally directed fashion, reaching a peak of 45 ± 63% BW. The maximum vertical GRF averaged 202 ± 43% BW approximately 45 milliseconds after stride foot contact. A correlation between braking force and ball velocity was evident. Because of the downward inclination and rotation of the pitching motion, in addition to volume, shear forces may occur in the musculoskeletal tissues of the stride limb leading to many of the lower-extremity injuries seen in this athletic population.

  18. Case Report: Meralgia Paresthetica in a Baseball Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Yoshiyasu; Tsujino, Akihito; Kikuchi, Shinichi

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of meralgia paresthetica occurring in an amateur baseball pitcher who experienced inguinal pain and dysesthesia in the anterolateral thigh during pitching practice. The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was pushed up by the iliac muscle to the inguinal ligament at the sharp ridge of its fascia and ensheathed in the tendinous origin of the sartorius muscle. Neurolysis of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and partial dissection of the inguinal ligament and sartorius muscle promptly relieved the symptoms and the patient resumed pitching 1 month later. These anatomic variations of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in the inguinal region might render the nerve susceptible to compression and irritation, and repetitive contraction of inguinal muscles during throwing motion might induce and exacerbate the neuropathy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. PMID:18509710

  19. Case report: meralgia paresthetica in a baseball pitcher.

    PubMed

    Otoshi, Kenichi; Itoh, Yoshiyasu; Tsujino, Akihito; Kikuchi, Shinichi

    2008-09-01

    We report a case of meralgia paresthetica occurring in an amateur baseball pitcher who experienced inguinal pain and dysesthesia in the anterolateral thigh during pitching practice. The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was pushed up by the iliac muscle to the inguinal ligament at the sharp ridge of its fascia and ensheathed in the tendinous origin of the sartorius muscle. Neurolysis of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and partial dissection of the inguinal ligament and sartorius muscle promptly relieved the symptoms and the patient resumed pitching 1 month later. These anatomic variations of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in the inguinal region might render the nerve susceptible to compression and irritation, and repetitive contraction of inguinal muscles during throwing motion might induce and exacerbate the neuropathy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve.

  20. Dynamic EMG analysis of torque transfer in professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Watkins, R G; Dennis, S; Dillin, W H; Schnebel, B; Schneiderman, G; Jobe, F; Farfan, H; Perry, J; Pink, M

    1989-04-01

    Fifteen professional baseball pitchers underwent active pitching motion analysis of the abdominal oblique, rectus abdominis, lumbar paraspinous and gluteus maximus muscles bilaterally via surface electrode evaluation. Baseline resting and isometric maximum values were obtained and active data referenced against these for comparison. The muscle activity then was measured during the pitching sequence and analyzed in each of the five pitching phases. The abdominal oblique, lumbar paraspinous and rectus abdominis contralateral to the pitching arm and the ipsilateral gluteus maximus all had increases in activity level of 75 to 100% during the active pitching motion. Using these data indicating specific muscle group patterns with clinical and performance data, we hope to minimize injuries and maximize pitching performance.

  1. Evaluation of elbow and shoulder problems in professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Grana, William A; Boscardin, James B; Schneider, Herman J; Takao, Scott H; Vera, Tomas; Goin, Scott G

    2007-06-01

    When a professional athlete injures an elbow or shoulder, the uninjured joint must receive as much attention as the injured joint. Is there a relationship between injury of one joint and subsequent injury of the other joint? In the prospective study reported here, we created a database (a) to determine whether injury to one joint was more likely to result in a problem with the other joint and (b) to analyze for trends and correlations. A survey was administered to all pitchers on a professional baseball team to collect data about shoulder and elbow problems during their careers. Eighty-four pitchers (737 seasons of experience, 52 index injuries) were evaluated. Of the injured players, 27 were treated surgically. Risk for later injury was 4.6 times larger for players who had an index surgery than for those who had not. Of the players who had ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction, 42% later sustained a shoulder injury. No player with rotator cuff surgery sustained a subsequent elbow or shoulder injury. There were significantly more upper extremity injuries with right-handed throwers. An elbow injury was more likely to result in shoulder problems, specifically after UCL reconstruction. Players who required surgery were almost 5 times more likely to have a later injury or surgery than players who did not require surgery.

  2. Outcomes of cervical and lumbar disk herniations in Major League Baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Roc, Gilbert J; Hsu, Wellington K

    2011-08-01

    The effects of disk herniations on the career and performance outcomes of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers are unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the outcomes after a cervical or lumbar disk herniation for MLB pitchers. Forty MLB pitchers from 1984 to 2009 with a cervical disk herniation or lumbar disk herniation were identified using a previously established protocol. Cervical disk herniation was identified in 11 pitchers, 8 of which were treated operatively. The majority of pitchers with cervical disk herniation (8/11) returned to play at an average of 11.6 months. Lumbar disk herniation was identified in 29 pitchers, 20 of which were treated operatively. All pitchers with lumbar disk herniation (29/29) returned to play at an average of 7.3 months after diagnosis.

  3. Hip and upper extremity kinematics in youth baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Holt, Taylor; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dynamic hip rotational range of motion and upper extremity kinematics during baseball pitching. Thirty-one youth baseball pitchers (10.87 ± 0.92 years; 150.03 ± 5.48 cm; 44.83 ± 8.04 kg) participated. A strong correlation was found between stance hip rotation and scapular upward rotation at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = 0.531, P = 0.002) and at ball release (r = 0.536, P = 0.002). No statistically significant correlations were found between dynamic hip rotational range of motion and passive hip range of motion. Hip range of motion deficits can constrain pelvis rotation and limit energy generation in the lower extremities. Shoulder pathomechanics can then develop as greater responsibility is placed on the shoulder to generate the energy lost from the proximal segments, increasing risk of upper extremity injury. Additionally, it appears that passive seated measurements of hip range of motion may not accurately reflect the dynamic range of motion of the hips through the progression of the pitch cycle.

  4. The effects of extended play on professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Murray, T A; Cook, T D; Werner, S L; Schlegel, T F; Hawkins, R J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate kinematic and kinetic changes as a result of extended play in baseball pitching. Seven major league baseball pitchers were videotaped with high-speed (120 Hz) cameras during multiple innings of the same game. For each athlete, two fastballs (one thrown during the initial inning of play and one from the final inning) were chosen for analysis. Twenty-one physical landmarks were manually digitized from the video data. Kinematic and kinetic parameters were subsequently calculated relative to four phases of the pitching motion: windup, cocking, acceleration, and follow-through. Paired t-tests revealed that seven parameters changed significantly between early and late innings. These included decreases in maximum external rotation of the shoulder, knee angle at ball release, ball velocity, maximum distraction force at both the shoulder and elbow, and horizontal adduction torque at both release and its maximum value. Ultimately, a decline in performance was evident by a 2 m/s (5 mph) drop in ball speed. It is unclear whether the kinematic and kinetic changes occurred because of fatigue or if protective mechanisms were adopted.

  5. Ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers: MR imaging evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mirowitz, S A; London, S L

    1992-11-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) provides stability to the medial aspect of the elbow during valgus stress. Trauma to this ligament may result from repetitive forceful throwing. Diagnosis of UCL injury has been based on clinical findings of medial joint pain and valgus instability, as direct imaging of this structure has not been available. Eleven baseball pitchers with clinical evidence of UCL injury were evaluated with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Surgical correlation was obtained in six patients, four of whom underwent UCL reconstruction. MR imaging findings in UCL injury included laxity, irregularity, poor definition, and increased signal intensity within and adjacent to the UCL. These findings reflect the presence of hemorrhage and/or edema within the UCL due to repeated microtears, which eventually lead to weakening and possible disruption of the UCL. Optimization of spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and other technical factors is critical for evaluation of the UCL due to its small size. MR imaging is useful in documenting the presence and severity of injury to the UCL and in distinguishing this entity from other causes of elbow pain.

  6. High school and college baseball pitchers response and glove movements to line drives.

    PubMed

    Young, Douglas E; Trachtman, Doris; Scher, Irving S; Schmidt, Richard A

    2006-02-01

    The timing of glove movements used by baseball pitchers to catch fast approaching balls (i.e., line drives) was examined in two tests to determine the responses and temporal characteristics of glove movements in high school and college baseball pitchers. Balls were projected toward the head of participants at 34.8 m.s-1 (78 mph) on average in an indoor test and at speeds approaching 58.1 m.s-1 (130 mph) in a field test. Pitchers caught over 80% and 15% of the projected balls in the indoor and field tests, respectively. Analyses of glove responses indicated that all pitchers could track the line drives and produce coordinated glove movements, which were initiated 160 ms (+/-47.8), on average, after the ball was launched. College pitchers made initial glove movements sooner than high school pitchers in the field test (p=0.012). In contrast, average glove velocity for pitchers increased from 1.33 (+/-0.61) to 3.45 (+/-0.86) m.s-1 across the tests, but did not differ between experience levels. Glove movement initiation and speed were unrelated, and pitchers utilized visual information throughout the ball's flight to catch balls that approached at speeds exceeding the estimated speeds in competitive situations.

  7. Kinematic and kinetic comparisons between American and Korean professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael; Fleisig, Glen; Barrentine, Steven; Andrews, James; Moorman, Claude

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare kinematic, temporal, and kinetic characteristics of American and Korean professional pitchers in order to investigate differences in pitching mechanics, performance, and injury risks among two different cultures and populations of baseball pitchers. Eleven American and eight Korean healthy professional baseball pitchers threw multiple fastball pitches off an indoor throwing mound positioned at regulation distance from home plate. A Motion Analysis three-dimensional automatic digitizing system was used to collect 200 Hz video data from four electronically synchronized cameras. Twenty kinematic, six temporal, and 11 kinetic variables were analyzed at lead foot contact, during the arm cocking and arm acceleration phases, at ball release, and during the arm deceleration phase. A radar gun was used to quantify ball velocity. At lead foot contact, the American pitchers had significantly greater horizontal abduction of the throwing shoulder, while Korean pitchers exhibited significantly greater abduction and external rotation of the throwing shoulder. During arm cocking, the American pitchers displayed significantly greater maximum shoulder external rotation and maximum pelvis angular velocity. At the instant of ball release, the American pitchers had significantly greater forward trunk tilt and ball velocity and significantly less knee flexion, which help explain why the American pitchers had 10% greater ball velocity compared to the Korean pitchers. The American pitchers had significantly greater maximum shoulder internal rotation torque and maximum elbow varus torque during arm cocking, significantly greater elbow flexion torque during arm acceleration, and significantly greater shoulder and elbow proximal forces during arm deceleration. While greater shoulder and elbow forces and torques generated in the American pitchers helped generate greater ball velocity for the American group, these greater kinetics may

  8. Advances in the management of medial elbow pain in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Salyapongse, Aaron; Hatch, Joshua D

    2003-10-01

    Overhead-throwing athletes, particularly baseball pitchers, subject their elbows to tremendous amounts of valgus stress during the throwing motion. As a result of this stress, baseball pitchers are at considerable risk for injury. The proper functioning and stability of the elbow depends upon the bony articulations and soft tissue structures. The stresses placed across the elbow joint with repetitive throwing can lead to injury. Although the majority of injuries encountered are overuse injuries, acute injuries can also occur. Proper and timely diagnosis and treatment of these throwers is critical, to allow for the athlete's successful return to competition.

  9. Hand Blisters in Major League Baseball Pitchers: Current Concepts and Management.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Andrew R; Ensell, Scott; Farley, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Friction blisters are a common sequela of many athletic activities. Their significance can range from minor annoyance to major performance disruptions. The latter is particularly true in baseball pitchers, who sustain repeated trauma between the baseball seams and the fingers of the pitching hand, predominately at the tips of the index and long fingers. Since 2010, 6 Major League Baseball (MLB) players accounted for 7 stints on the disabled list (DL) due to blisters. These injuries resulted in a total of 151 days spent on the DL. Since 2012, 8 minor league players spent time on the DL due to blisters. Moreover, there have been several documented and publicized instances of professional baseball pitchers suffering blisters that did not require placement on the DL but did result in injury time and missed starts. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology and pathophysiology of friction blisters with particular reference to baseball pitchers; provide an overview of past and current prevention methods; and discuss our experience in treating friction blisters in MLB pitchers.

  10. Hand Blisters in Major League Baseball Pitchers: Current Concepts and Management.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Andrew R; Ensell, Scott; Farley, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Friction blisters are a common sequela of many athletic activities. Their significance can range from minor annoyance to major performance disruptions. The latter is particularly true in baseball pitchers, who sustain repeated trauma between the baseball seams and the fingers of the pitching hand, predominately at the tips of the index and long fingers. Since 2010, 6 Major League Baseball (MLB) players accounted for 7 stints on the disabled list (DL) due to blisters. These injuries resulted in a total of 151 days spent on the DL. Since 2012, 8 minor league players spent time on the DL due to blisters. Moreover, there have been several documented and publicized instances of professional baseball pitchers suffering blisters that did not require placement on the DL but did result in injury time and missed starts. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology and pathophysiology of friction blisters with particular reference to baseball pitchers; provide an overview of past and current prevention methods; and discuss our experience in treating friction blisters in MLB pitchers. PMID:26991565

  11. Does Geographic Location Matter on the Prevalence of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers?

    PubMed Central

    Zaremski, Jason L.; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Donlan, Robert M.; Brisbane, Sonya Tang; Farmer, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been a significant amount of research in the prevention of throwing injuries. However, one area of research that is lacking is geographic location of play. Warm climates may permit year-round play and increased exposure to throwing arm injury risk. Hypotheses: (1) Pitchers from southern institutions would have greater rates of ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCL-R) compared with pitchers from northern institutions. (2) Pitchers originating from high school teams in warm weather states would have a greater risk of undergoing UCL-R while in college. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: This study was completed by reviewing publicly obtained records of male collegiate baseball players during the 2008 through 2014 seasons. Data were accessed through online search engines, online baseball media guides, and school websites. Results: A total of 5315 player-years and 2575 pitcher-years were identified. Fifty-eight UCL-R cases were found in collegiate pitchers, 40 of which occurred in the Southeastern Conference (SEC) and 18 in the Big Ten. More injuries (36/58) occurred in pitchers who participated in high school baseball in southern states as compared with northern states (22/58), regardless of location of collegiate participation (χ2 = 28.8, P < .05). The injury rate for pitchers who participated in high school baseball in southern states was 25.3 per 1000 player-years versus 19.1 per 1000 player-years in northern states, with a risk ratio of 1.32 (χ2 = 0.89, P = .35). The injury rate for the SEC versus Big Ten pitchers was 13.3 per 1000 player-years versus 7.8 per 1000 player-years, with a risk ratio of 1.71 (χ2 = 1.45, P = .23). Conclusion: There is a greater likelihood of undergoing UCL-R in the SEC compared with the Big Ten. There is also an increased risk for UCL-R for pitchers who played high school baseball in southern states versus northern states, irrespective of collegiate play location. Clinical Relevance

  12. Factors related to injury in youth and adolescent baseball pitching, with an eye toward prevention.

    PubMed

    Popchak, Adam; Burnett, Thomas; Weber, Nicholas; Boninger, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The baseball and medical communities have recognized injuries of the upper extremity associated with the overhead throwing motion and have examined manners in which to reduce risk. The authors examine special features of the adolescent pitcher as compared with skeletally mature pitchers and characteristics of pitch mechanics, type, velocity, fatigue, and overuse. A summary is presented on previously identified risk factors as they relate to pitching injuries. Development, use, and compliance with the most current pitching guidelines in youth baseball, based on the available evidence, will be presented and examined. In an increasingly competitive environment, identifying known risk factors and potential signs of pathology as well as implementing the current best evidence in a consistent manner are important steps in decreasing injury risk of youth baseball pitchers. More research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of pitching guidelines in the short and long term and to focus on manners in which to increase compliance with best practice procedures throughout youth baseball organizations.

  13. Dynamic sonography with valgus stress to assess elbow ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Arthur A; Winter, Thomas C; Best, Thomas M; Bernhardt, David T

    2002-11-01

    Sonography is a valuable method for imaging superficial tendons and ligaments. The ability to obtain comparison images easily with dynamic stress allows assessment of ligament and tendon integrity. We studied the medial elbow joints of two baseball pitchers using MR imaging and dynamic sonography. Both sonography and MR imaging identified the ulnar collateral ligament tears. Dynamic sonography uniquely demonstrated the medial joint instability.

  14. Differences in hip range of motion among collegiate pitchers when compared to youth and professional baseball pitcher data

    PubMed Central

    Cheatham, Scott W.; Shimamura, Kathryn Kumagai; Kolber, Morey J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure passive hip internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) range of motion (ROM) in collegiate baseball pitchers and compare to published youth and professional values. Measures were taken on the bilateral hips of 29 participants (mean age 20.0±1.4, range 18–22 years). Results identified no significant differences between the stance and stride hip in collegiate right handed pitchers for IR (p= 0.22, ES 0.23) and ER (p=.08, ES= 0.25). There was no significant difference in left handed pitchers for IR (p= 0.80, ES= 0.11) and ER (p= 0.56, ES= 0.15). When comparing youth to collegiate, IR increased in the stance (2º) and stride (5º) hip and an increase in the stance (5º) and stride (5º) hip were present for ER as well. From collegiate to professional, IR increased in the stance (4º) and stride (3º) hip whereas a decrease in the stance (9º) and stride (12º) hip was present for ER. The data suggests an increase in passive ROM from youth to collegiate and a decrease from collegiate to professional. Understanding passive hip ROM values among the different levels of pitchers may assist clinicians in developing time dependent interventions to prevent future injury and enhance performance. PMID:27713579

  15. Lumbopelvic control and days missed due to injury in professional baseball pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.; McKenzie, Christopher S.; Pan, Xueliang; Oñate, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently lumbopelvic control has been linked to pitching performance, kinematics and loading; however, poor lumbopelvic control has not been prospectively investigated as a risk factor for injury in baseball pitchers. Hypothesis Pitchers with poor lumbopelvic control during spring training are more likely to miss 30 or more days due to injury through an entire baseball season than pitchers with good lumbopelvic control. Study design Cohort study. Methods Three hundred forty-seven professional baseball pitchers were enrolled into the study during the last 2 weeks of spring training and stayed with the same team for the entire season. Lumbopelvic control was quantified by peak anterior-posterior deviation of the pelvis relative to starting position during a single leg raise test (APScore). Days missed due to injury through the entire season were recorded by each team's medical staff. Results Higher APScore was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of missing 30 days or more (Chi-Square, p=0.023). When divided into tertiles based on their APScore, participants in the highest tertile were 3.0 times and 2.2 times more likely to miss at least 30 days throughout the course of a baseball season relative to those in the lowest or middle tertiles, respectively. Higher APScore was also significantly associated with missing more days due to injury within participants who missed at least one day to injury (ANOVA, p=0.018), with the highest tertile missing significantly more days (mean=98.6 d) than the middle tertile (mean=45.8d, p=0.017) or the lowest tertile (mean=43.8, p=0.017). Conclusion This study found that poor lumbopelvic control in professional pitchers was associated with increased risk of missing significant time due to injury. PMID:25159541

  16. Assessing pitcher and catcher influences on base stealing in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Loughin, Thomas M; Bargen, Jason L

    2008-01-01

    A formal statistical analysis is performed to determine the extent to which pitchers and catchers can influence stolen-base attempts and successes. Two response proportions, attempt/opportunity and success/attempt, are modelled separately using mixed-effects logistic regression models applied to situations with a runner on first and other bases empty. Data include the first innings of all Major League Baseball games played between 1978 and 1990, which encompasses over 48,000 opportunities and 9000 attempts. Pitchers and catchers are entered as random effects and various other factors thought to influence stolen-base attempts and successes are entered as fixed effects. Variance components are estimated and hypotheses tests indicate that the population variance components for both pitchers and catchers are significant for both response proportions. The presence of variation among players at the respective positions is interpreted as evidence that stolen-base defence is a real skill exhibited to varying extents by different players. Furthermore, the variance component for pitchers is greater than that for catchers for both response proportions, indicating that pitchers have greater potential to affect stolen-base attempts and successes. Under usual conditions, it is estimated that 95% of pitchers have first-inning stolen-base success/attempt probabilities between 0.50 and 0.84, while 95% of catchers have probabilities between 0.59 and 0.79.

  17. Shoulder Antagonistic Strength Ratios: A Comparison between College-Level Baseball Pitchers and Nonpitchers.

    PubMed

    Cook, E E; Gray, V L; Savinar-Nogue, E; Medeiros, J

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the shoulder strength ratios obtained from college-level baseball pitchers and age- and sex-matched nonpitchers. Shoulder flexion/extension and externallinternal rotation strength ratios were assessed in 10 pitchers and 9 nonpitchers. Speeds selected for testing were 180 and 300 degrees /sec on the Cybex /I.@R esults indicated that both pitchers and nonpitchers generated greater peak torque values for the extensors and internal rotators than for the flexors and external rotators of the shoulder. A comparison of shoulder strength ratios between a pitcher's throwing arm and his nonthrowing arm was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for shoulder external/internal rotation at the speeds of 180 and 300 "/set. A comparison of shoulder strength ratios between pitchers and nonpitchers on the nondominant arm was not statistically significant for any of the speeds or directions tested. A comparison of the shoulder strength ratios between pitchers and nonpitchers on the dominant arm was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for all directions and speeds tested. The relationship between shoulder muscle imbalance and injury was discussed. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1987;8(9):451-461.

  18. Spontaneous rupture of the extensor pollicis brevis tendon in a baseball pitcher: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Takuya; Tanase, Yoshihiro; Oribe, Takashi; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    A 15-year-old pitcher on a boys' Little League baseball team suffered spontaneous rupture of the extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) tendon. Since the EPB tendon was, at surgery, found hypoplastic and non-functional, transfer of the extensor indicis proprius (EIP) tendon was carried out. After a 6-month period of rehabilitation and follow-up, the patient was able to resume playing baseball. Although rupture of the EPB is rare, transfer of the EIP tendon is one of the treatments of choice for such injuries.

  19. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)) and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)). Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces) on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). Furthermore, Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching. Key pointsHigh-ball-velocity pitchers are characterized by greater momentum of the lower limbs during pitching motion.For high-pitched-ball velocity, stabilizing lower limbs during pitching plays an important role in order to increase the rotation and forward motion of the trunk.Computation of the lower

  20. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)) and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)). Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces) on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). Furthermore, Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching. Key pointsHigh-ball-velocity pitchers are characterized by greater momentum of the lower limbs during pitching motion.For high-pitched-ball velocity, stabilizing lower limbs during pitching plays an important role in order to increase the rotation and forward motion of the trunk.Computation of the lower

  1. Relationships between throwing mechanics and shoulder distraction in collegiate baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Werner, Sherry L; Guido, John A; Stewart, Gregory W; McNeice, Ryan P; VanDyke, Travis; Jones, Deryk G

    2007-01-01

    A distraction force occurs at the shoulder joint in all throwing motions. At the professional level, the relationship between this force and pitching mechanics has been explained. Three-dimensional, high-speed (240 Hz) video data were collected on fastballs from 48 collegiate baseball pitchers. Kinematic parameters related to pitching mechanics and resultant kinetics on the throwing arm elbow and shoulder joints were calculated. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the relationships between shoulder distraction and pitching mechanics. Shoulder distraction stress averaged 81% body weight for the collegiate pitchers. The mean ball velocity was 81 mph. Ten parameters of pitching mechanics accounted for 89% of the variance in shoulder distraction. Two of the variables (maximum shoulder abduction torque and elbow angle at release) previously shown to affect shoulder distraction in professional baseball pitchers appear to be important for collegiate pitchers as well. These data provide a scientific basis for clinicians, athletes, and coaches to establish methods to reduce distraction force at the shoulder joint through modification of pitching mechanics.

  2. Relationship of biomechanical factors to baseball pitching velocity: within pitcher variation.

    PubMed

    Stodden, David F; Fleisig, Glenn S; McLean, Scott P; Andrews, James R

    2005-02-01

    To reach the level of elite, most baseball pitchers need to consistently produce high ball velocity but avoid high joint loads at the shoulder and elbow that may lead to injury. This study examined the relationship between fastball velocity and variations in throwing mechanics within 19 baseball pitchers who were analyzed via 3-D high-speed motion analysis. Inclusion in the study required each one to demonstrate a variation in velocity of at least 1.8 m/s (range 1.8-3.5 m/s) during 6 to 10 fastball pitch trials. Three mixed model analyses were performed to assess the independent effects of 7 kinetic, 11 temporal, and 12 kinematic parameters on pitched ball velocity. Results indicated that elbow flexion torque, shoulder proximal force, and elbow proximal force were the only three kinetic parameters significantly associated with increased ball velocity. Two temporal parameters (increased time to max shoulder horizontal adduction and decreased time to max shoulder internal rotation) and three kinematic parameters (decreased shoulder horizontal adduction at foot contact, decreased shoulder abduction during acceleration, and increased trunk tilt forward at release) were significantly related to increased ball velocity. These results point to variations in an individual's throwing mechanics that relate to pitched ball velocity, and also suggest that pitchers should focus on consistent mechanics to produce consistently high fastball velocities. In addition, pitchers should strengthen shoulder and elbow musculature that resist distraction as well as improve trunk strength and flexibility to maximize pitching velocity and help prevent injury.

  3. Relationship between throwing mechanics and elbow valgus in professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Werner, Sherry L; Murray, Tricia A; Hawkins, Richard J; Gill, Thomas J

    2002-01-01

    Valgus elbow stress leads to medial tension and lateral compression injuries in baseball pitchers of all ages. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between elbow stress in professional baseball pitchers and the kinematic parameters of pitching mechanics. This was done in an attempt to understand valgus extension overload better and in an effort to improve preventive and rehabilitative protocols. High-speed video data were collected on 40 professional pitchers in game situations during the 1998 and 1999 Cactus League season in Arizona, as part of Major League Baseball Spring Training. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to relate elbow valgus to kinematic parameters of pitching mechanics. The resulting analysis produced an adjusted multiple R2 value of 0.974, indicating that nearly 100% of the variance in valgus stress on the elbow was explained by the parameters in the regression equation. This ability to explain over 97% of the variance in valgus stress is significant. The parameters of pitching mechanics related to elbow valgus may be assessed and optimized, if necessary, in order to decrease the magnitude of elbow stress in pitching.

  4. Medial collateral ligament reconstruction in the baseball Pitcher's elbow.

    PubMed

    Erne, Holger C; Zouzias, Ioannis C; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2009-08-01

    Pitchers are prone to elbow injuries because of high and repetitive valgus stresses on the elbow. The anterior bundle of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MCL) of the elbow is the primary restraint and is often attenuated with time, leading to functional incompetence and ultimate failure. Pitchers with a history of medial elbow pain, reduced velocity, and loss of command may have an MCL injury in evolution. Physical examination and imaging can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment begins with rest and activity modification. All medial elbow pain is not MCL injury. Surgery is considered only for talented athletes who wish to return to competitive play and may include elite scholastic and other collegiates and professionals. The technique for MCL reconstruction was first described in 1986. Many variations have been offered since then, which can result in predictable outcomes, allowing many to return to the same level of competitive play.

  5. Valgus torque in youth baseball pitchers: A biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Sabick, Michelle B; Torry, Michael R; Lawton, Richard L; Hawkins, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical and anthropometric factors contributing to elbow valgus torque during pitching. Video data of 14 youth pitchers throwing fastballs were used to calculate shoulder and elbow kinematics and kinetics. Peak elbow valgus torque averaged 18 Nm and occurred just before maximal shoulder external rotation. The magnitude of valgus torque was most closely correlated with the thrower's weight. When subject weight and height were controlled for, maximum shoulder abduction torque and maximum shoulder internal rotation torque were most strongly associated with elbow valgus torque, accounting for 85% of its variance (P <.001). When only kinematic variables were considered, maximum shoulder external rotation accounted for 33% of the variance in valgus torque. Given that the biomechanical variables correlated with peak valgus torque are not easily modifiable, limiting the number of innings pitched is likely the best way to reduce elbow injury in youth pitchers.

  6. Prevention of arm injury in youth baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Kerut, Edmund Kenneth; Kerut, Denise Goodfellow; Fleisig, Glenn S; Andrews, James R

    2008-01-01

    The advent of youth year-round baseball has come with an increased incidence of pitching related injury and surgery, most notably involving the shoulder and elbow (ulnar collateral ligament). These injuries become evident in high school and college, but begin at the youth level. Several studies have identified baseball pitching risk factors during youth that increase likelihood for injury and surgery in subsequent years. Based on these studies, the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee has published guidelines for pitching that include limits on pitch count and pitches per week and season as well as recommendations for number of rest days between pitching. Also, recommendations include the restriction of breaking balls prior to puberty, the importance of instruction for proper pitching mechanics as early as possible in development, and at least three months of rest after a season. This review is intended to help guide primary care physicians and pediatricians when discussing youth pitching and injury prevention with parents and coaches.

  7. Should We Limit Innings Pitched Following Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Baseball Pitchers?

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Cvetanovich, Gregory; Bach, Bernard R.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure amongst major league baseball (MLB) pitchers. It is unclear if a limit on innings pitched following UCLR should be instituted to prevent revision UCLR. Purpose: To determine whether the number of innings pitched or number of pitches thrown in the first full season following UCLR, as well as the pitcher’s overall MLB career, correlated with need for a revision UCLR Hypothesis: Number of innings pitched and number of pitches thrown following UCLR will not affect whether a pitcher undergoes a revision UCLR. Methods: Methods: All MLB pitchers between 1974-2015 who pitched at least one full season following UCLR were included. Pitch counts and innings pitched for the first full season following UCLR as well as total pitch count and total innings pitched following UCLR were recorded. Pitch counts and innings pitched were compared amongst players who required revision UCLR and those who did not. Results: Results: Overall, 154 pitchers were included. Of these, 135 pitchers did not require revision UCLR while 19 underwent revision UCLR. No significant difference existed between pitchers who underwent revision UCLR and those who did not in: number of innings pitched in the season following UCLR (p=0.9016), number of pitches thrown in the season following UCLR (p=0.7337), number of innings pitched in the pitcher’s career following UCLR (p=0.6945), and number of pitches thrown in the pitcher’s career following UCLR (p=0.4789). Furthermore, no difference existed in revision rate between pitchers who pitched more or less than 180 innings in the first full season following UCLR (p=0.6678). Conclusion: Conclusion: The number of innings pitched and number of pitches thrown in the first full season as well as over a player’s career following UCLR does not appear to increase a player’s risk of revision UCLR.

  8. Little league shoulder: osteochondrosis of the proximal humeral epiphysis in boy baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Adams, J E

    1966-07-01

    Roentgenographic changes consistent with osteochondrosis of the proximal humeral epiphysis were observed in five young baseball pitchers complaining of shoulder pain in the throwing arm. The symptoms and findings were quite similar to the previously reported involvement of the medial epicondylar epiphysis or "Little Leaguer's elbow."The act of throwing a baseball hard is an abnormal whip-like action which places a forceful repetitious traction strain on the shoulder joint. Shoulder pain in youngsters engaged in organized competitive swimming programs can also be explained in this way. Since these entities became evident with the establishment of organized baseball programs for boys in this age group, better medical supervision and rule changes to limit the amount of pitching until the epiphyses close, are urgently needed.

  9. Effects of a Simulated Game on Muscle Activation in Youth Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Weimar, Wendi H; Henning, Lisa E

    2016-02-01

    It is generally accepted that playing with fatigue is a primary predictor of injury in youth baseball because muscular fatigue is believed to alter mechanics during the arm cocking and acceleration phases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively describe gluteal and upper extremity muscle activations in youth baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-three youth baseball players (11.2 ± 0.8 years; 151.4 ± 8.7 cm; 47.5 ± 10.8 kg) participated. Data were collected through a Delsys Bagnoli-8-channel electromyography system. Single differential electrodes (interelectrode distance: 10 mm) were attached to the bilateral gluteus maximus and medius and throwing side latissimus dorsi, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior and upper trapezius. After warm-up, participants were instructed to throw randomly provided game situations over a regulation distance (46 feet; 14.02 meters) to a catcher. Three, 4-seam fastballs for strikes, thrown in the first and last innings of the simulated game were selected for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences in muscle activity at the 3 phases of the throw, between first and last innings of the simulated game with an observed power of 0.274 (phase 1: foot contact to maximum shoulder external rotation), 0.297 (phase 2: maximum shoulder external rotation to ball release), and 0.226 (phase 3: ball release to maximum shoulder internal rotation). Examining muscle activations as a pitcher approaches fatigue provides information on how long a pitcher can perform before mechanical alterations occur. Although this study did not reveal significant changes, it did reiterate the fact that pitch counts may be working in possibly preventing a youth pitcher throwing to fatigue.

  10. Effects of a Simulated Game on Muscle Activation in Youth Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Weimar, Wendi H; Henning, Lisa E

    2016-02-01

    It is generally accepted that playing with fatigue is a primary predictor of injury in youth baseball because muscular fatigue is believed to alter mechanics during the arm cocking and acceleration phases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively describe gluteal and upper extremity muscle activations in youth baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-three youth baseball players (11.2 ± 0.8 years; 151.4 ± 8.7 cm; 47.5 ± 10.8 kg) participated. Data were collected through a Delsys Bagnoli-8-channel electromyography system. Single differential electrodes (interelectrode distance: 10 mm) were attached to the bilateral gluteus maximus and medius and throwing side latissimus dorsi, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior and upper trapezius. After warm-up, participants were instructed to throw randomly provided game situations over a regulation distance (46 feet; 14.02 meters) to a catcher. Three, 4-seam fastballs for strikes, thrown in the first and last innings of the simulated game were selected for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences in muscle activity at the 3 phases of the throw, between first and last innings of the simulated game with an observed power of 0.274 (phase 1: foot contact to maximum shoulder external rotation), 0.297 (phase 2: maximum shoulder external rotation to ball release), and 0.226 (phase 3: ball release to maximum shoulder internal rotation). Examining muscle activations as a pitcher approaches fatigue provides information on how long a pitcher can perform before mechanical alterations occur. Although this study did not reveal significant changes, it did reiterate the fact that pitch counts may be working in possibly preventing a youth pitcher throwing to fatigue. PMID:26815175

  11. Isokinetic strength of collegiate baseball pitchers during a season.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Linda D; Haddock, Bryan L

    2006-11-01

    Pitching is suggested to expose the arm to physical stress that may lead to a decrease in strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the isokinetic internal and external rotational shoulder strength of Division II pitchers preseason, midseason, and postseason. The 9 pitchers were 23 +/- 0.67 years of age and weighed 91.2 +/- 3.14 kg. Each subject was evaluated utilizing a Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer. Isokinetic internal and external concentric strength was assessed at 90 degrees of shoulder abduction and 90 degrees of elbow flexion at 300 and 450 degrees .s(-1) at each time point. A repeated-measures analysis of variance statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. All data are reported as mean +/- SEM. Mean internal peak torques at 300 and 450 degrees .s(-1) preseason, midseason, and postseason were 50.66 +/- 2.27, 49.70 +/- 2.54, and 51.70 +/- 2.94 N.m and 37.14 +/- 2.54, 37.36 +/- 2.74, and 38.26 +/- 2.50 N.m, respectively. Mean external peak torques at 300 and 450 degrees .s(-1) preseason, midseason, and postseason were 30.16 +/- 1.69, 29.50 +/- 2.22, and 29.79 +/- 2.08 N.m and 17.68 +/- 2.15, 16.89 +/- 2.46, and 18.20 +/- 2.35 N.m, respectively. There were no differences in isokinetic internal or external concentric shoulder rotational mean peak torque of Division II pitchers at any speed tested or time point examined.

  12. Comparison of dominant hand range of motion among throwing types in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Hwa; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Shih, Sheng-Wen; Lo, Kuo-Cheng; Su, Fong-Chin

    2013-08-01

    Previous research on baseball pitchers' wrists, elbows, and should joints contributes to our understanding of pitchers' control over delicate joint motion and ball release. However, limited research on forearm, wrist, and hand joints prevents full comprehension of the throwing mechanism. The present descriptive laboratory study quantifies angular performances of hand and wrist joints while pitching breaking balls, including fastballs, curveballs and sliders, among pitchers with different skill levels. Nineteen baseball pitchers performed required pitching tasks (10 from university and 9 from high school). A three-dimensional motion analysis system collected pitching motion data. The range of joint motion in the wrist and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the index and middle fingers were compared among fastballs, curveballs and sliders. Thirteen reflective markers were placed on selected anatomic landmarks of the wrist, middle and index fingers of the hand. Wrist flexion angle in the pitching acceleration phase was larger in fastballs (20.58±4.07°) and sliders (22.48±5.45°) than in curveballs (9.08±3.03°) (p = .001). The flexion angle of the PIP joint was significantly larger in curveballs (38.5±3.8°) than in fastballs (30.3±4.8°) and sliders (30.2±4.5°) (p=.004) of the middle finger. Abduction angle of MP joint on the middle finger was significantly larger in curveballs (15.4 ±3.6°) than in fastballs (8.9±1.2°) and sliders (6.9±2.9°) (p=.001) of the middle finger, and the abduction angle of index finger was significantly larger in sliders (13.5±15.0°) than in fastballs (7.2 ±2.8°) (p=.007). Hand and wrist motion and grip types affect the relative position between fingers and ball, which produces different types of baseball pitches. A larger extension angle of the wrist joint and the coordination of middle and index fingers are crucial when pitching a fastball. Abduction and flexion movement on the MP joint

  13. Anconeus epitrochlearis as a source of medial elbow pain in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Dines, Joshua S; Gorman, Matthew; Limpisvasti, Orr; Gambardella, Ralph; Yocum, Lou

    2012-07-01

    Medial elbow pain is reported in 18% to 69% of baseball players aged of 9 and 19 years. This is due to the large valgus stresses focused on the medial side of the elbow during overhead activities. In overhead throwers and pitchers, pain can be attributed to valgus extension overload with resultant posteromedial impingement, overuse of the flexor-pronator musculature resulting in medial epicondylitis, or occasional muscle tears or ruptures. The anconeus epitrochlearis is a known cause of cubital tunnel syndrome and has been postulated as a source of medial elbow pain in overhead athletes. This article describes the cases of 3 right-handed baseball pitchers with persistent right-sided medial elbow pain during throwing despite a prolonged period of rest, physical therapy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Two patients had symptoms of cubital tunnel syndrome as diagnosed by electromyogram and nerve conduction studies and the presence of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle per magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent isolated release of the anconeus muscle without ulnar nerve transposition and returned to their previous levels of activity. The diagnosis and treatment of pitchers who present with medial-sided elbow pain can be complex. The differential should include an enlarged or inflamed anconeus epitrochlearis muscle as a possible cause. Conservative management should be the first modality. However, surgical excision with isolated release of the muscle can be successful in returning patients with persistent pain despite a trial of conservative management to their previous levels of function.

  14. Medial elbow joint laxity in professional baseball pitchers. A bilateral comparison using stress radiography.

    PubMed

    Ellenbecker, T S; Mattalino, A J; Elam, E A; Caplinger, R A

    1998-01-01

    Injuries to the ulnar collateral ligament frequently occur in throwing athletes because of large, repetitive valgus stresses to the elbow during the cocking and acceleration phases of throwing. Identification of injury to this ligament is important in evaluating the throwing elbow. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences in medial elbow laxity exist between the dominant and nondominant extremities in uninjured baseball pitchers. Forty uninjured professional baseball pitchers were tested bilaterally with a Telos GA-IIE stress radiography device. Joint space width between the trochlea of the humerus and the coronoid process of the ulna was measured on anteroposterior radiographs obtained with no stress applied and with a 15-daN valgus stress. Results showed significant differences between the medial joint space opening of the dominant and nondominant elbows with no stress applied. With stress, the dominant elbow opened 1.20 +/- 0.97 mm, while the nondominant elbow opened 0.88 +/- 0.55 mm. A significantly greater difference in medial joint space opening between the stressed and unstressed elbows was measured in the dominant elbow compared with the nondominant elbow (0.32 +/- 0.42 mm). This study identifies increased medial elbow laxity in the dominant arm in uninjured pitchers.

  15. A biomechanical model correlating shoulder kinetics to pain in young baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Keeley, David W; Oliver, Gretchen D; Dougherty, Christopher P

    2012-10-01

    Previous work has postulated that shoulder pain may be associated with increases in both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. Unfortunately these relationships have yet to be quantified. Thus, the purpose of this study was to associate these kinetic values with reported shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. Nineteen healthy baseball pitchers participated in this study. Segment based reference systems and established calculations were utilized to identify peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. A medical history questionnaire was utilized to identify shoulder pain. Following collection of these data, the strength of the relationships between both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force and shoulder pain were analyzed. Although peak anterior force was not significantly correlated to shoulder pain, peak proximal force was. These results lead to the development of a single variable logistic regression model able to accurately predict 84.2% of all cases and 71.4% of shoulder pain cases. This model indicated that for every 1 N increase in peak proximal force, there was a corresponding 4.6% increase in the likelihood of shoulder pain. The magnitude of peak proximal force is both correlated to reported shoulder pain and capable of being used to accurately predict the likelihood of experiencing shoulder pain. It appears that those pitchers exhibiting high magnitudes of peak proximal force are significantly more likely to report experiencing shoulder pain than those who generate lower magnitudes of peak proximal force.

  16. A biomechanical model correlating shoulder kinetics to pain in young baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Keeley, David W; Oliver, Gretchen D; Dougherty, Christopher P

    2012-10-01

    Previous work has postulated that shoulder pain may be associated with increases in both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. Unfortunately these relationships have yet to be quantified. Thus, the purpose of this study was to associate these kinetic values with reported shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. Nineteen healthy baseball pitchers participated in this study. Segment based reference systems and established calculations were utilized to identify peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. A medical history questionnaire was utilized to identify shoulder pain. Following collection of these data, the strength of the relationships between both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force and shoulder pain were analyzed. Although peak anterior force was not significantly correlated to shoulder pain, peak proximal force was. These results lead to the development of a single variable logistic regression model able to accurately predict 84.2% of all cases and 71.4% of shoulder pain cases. This model indicated that for every 1 N increase in peak proximal force, there was a corresponding 4.6% increase in the likelihood of shoulder pain. The magnitude of peak proximal force is both correlated to reported shoulder pain and capable of being used to accurately predict the likelihood of experiencing shoulder pain. It appears that those pitchers exhibiting high magnitudes of peak proximal force are significantly more likely to report experiencing shoulder pain than those who generate lower magnitudes of peak proximal force. PMID:23486209

  17. Analysis of data from Reichler's (1979) The Baseball Encyclopedia: right-handed pitchers are taller and heavier than left-handed pitchers.

    PubMed

    Fudin, R; Renninger, L; Hirshon, J

    1994-06-01

    In 1989 Coren concluded right-handed Major League pitchers whose careers began up to 1975 are significantly taller and heavier than left-handed pitchers. His source of data, Reichler's 1979 edition of The Baseball Encyclopedia, however, lists heights and weights for pitchers whose careers began through 1978 and for individuals who pitched but who almost always appeared at a different position or positions. Coren did not indicate why he did not analyze all of the relevant data in Reichler nor did he explain how he decided that an individual's usual position was that of pitcher. Further, there is evidence from Topp which suggests that the era during which the pitchers began their careers should be considered when comparing their heights and weights because relatively recent rookies (from 1980 through 1986) are taller and heavier than rookies who began their careers 50 and 100 years prior to that era. Classifying an individual as a pitcher if he pitched in at least 50% of the games in which he played at a position, using all relevant data in Reichler, and considering the era during which dextral and sinistral pitchers began their careers, we found strong corroborative evidence for Coren's 1989 findings.

  18. Effects of upper trunk rotation on shoulder joint torque among baseball pitchers of various levels.

    PubMed

    Aguinaldo, Arnel L; Buttermore, Janet; Chambers, Henry

    2007-02-01

    High rotational torques during baseball pitching are believed to be linked to most overuse injuries at the shoulder. This study investigated the effects of trunk rotation on shoulder rotational torques during pitching. A total of 38 pitchers from the professional, college, high school, and youth ranks were recruited for motion analysis. Professional pitchers demonstrated the least amount of rotational torque (p = .001) among skeletally mature players, while exhibiting the ability to rotate their trunks significantly later in the pitching cycle, as compared to other groups (p = .01). It was concluded that the timing of their rotation was optimized as to allow the throwing shoulder to move with decreased joint loading by conserving the momentum generated by the trunk. These results suggest that a specific pattern in throwing can be utilized to increase the efficiency of the pitch, which would allow a player to improve performance with decreased risk of overuse injury.

  19. Performance profile-directed simulated game: an objective functional evaluation for baseball pitchers*.

    PubMed

    Coleman, A E; Axe, M J; Andrews, J R

    1987-01-01

    To objectively evaluate the function of the throwing shoulder after an injury, a preinjury performance profile should have been recorded and a simulated game based upon this profile be established for comparison. The performance profile must include a strength or power component (fastball velocity), an accuracy component (fastball-for-strike percentage), and an endurance component (the decrease in fastball velocity per inning). The simulated game requires a specific number of innings, a specific number of pitches per inning, a pitch selection ratio, a rest interval between innings, and a means to record the data. This information is not available in most circumstances. The authors have collected data from 98 starting pitchers in the National Baseball League from 1983 through 1985 to develop a profile for those pitchers lacking preinjury performance profiles. Since 1983, in 486 games, 145,886 consecutive pitches were logged using a custom data form and entered into an IBM- 360 computer. Based upon the summation of the performance profiles of these pitchers, a simulated game should be 61/3 + 1 l/3 innings with 15 + 2.4 pitches per inning. The interval between innings pitched should be a minimum of 9 minutes and one should expect a 2% or 1.5 mph decrease in the fastball velocity from the first through the sixth innings with a fastball-for-strike percentage of 64%. While this is a study of major league starting pitchers, the concept of a preinjury performance profile to define full rehabilitation is applicable from the Babe Ruth league through professional baseball. J Ortho Sports Phys Ther 1987;9(3):101-105.

  20. Aneurysms of the mid axillary artery in major league baseball pitchers--a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Todd, G J; Benvenisty, A I; Hershon, S; Bigliani, L U

    1998-10-01

    True aneurysms of the axillary artery and its branches are rarely identified. Our recent experience with successful repairs of symptomatic aneurysms of the axillary arteries at the origin of the circumflex humeral arteries in 2 major league baseball pitchers suggests a condition that may be more common than recognized previously. We report this unique experience with baseball pitchers to focus attention on a condition that should be considered in all athletes with hand pain, numbness, or signs of digital ischemia. In addition, a schedule of rehabilitation and the timing of an appropriate return to competition is presented.

  1. The relationship between balance and pitching error in college baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Darrin W; Richard, Leon A; Williams, L Alexis; Lynch, Kelly J

    2004-08-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between balance and pitching error in college baseball pitchers. Sixteen college baseball pitchers, 9 National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) and 7 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III, participated in the study. Balance ability, expressed as average sway velocity (deg.s(-1)), during dominant leg unilateral stance with eyes open and eyes closed was quantified for each subject utilizing the Balance Master System 7.04 (long force plate). Additionally, each subject underwent sensory organization testing on the SMART EquiTest System providing information regarding the effective use of the somatosensory, visual, and vestibular inputs. Pitching error was assessed with a high-speed video camera recorder during spring practice. A JUGS radar gun measured pitch velocity. The mean pitching error was 37.50 cm with a mean pitch velocity of 78 miles.h(-1) (35 m.s(-1)). No significant correlation was demonstrated between unilateral stance eyes open and pitching error (r = -0.24; p = 0.36) or unilateral stance eyes closed and pitching error (r = -0.29; p = 0.27). A significant negative correlation was demonstrated between sensory organization test 5 and pitching error (r = -0.50; p = 0.05) and between sensory organization test 5/1 and pitching error (r = -0.50; p = 0.05). Additionally, unilateral stance eyes closed demonstrated a positive correlation with pitch velocity (r = 0.52; p = 0.04). The results reveal that low levels of vestibular input utilization may lead to high levels of pitching error in college baseball pitchers. PMID:15320675

  2. The relationship between balance and pitching error in college baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Darrin W; Richard, Leon A; Williams, L Alexis; Lynch, Kelly J

    2004-08-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between balance and pitching error in college baseball pitchers. Sixteen college baseball pitchers, 9 National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) and 7 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III, participated in the study. Balance ability, expressed as average sway velocity (deg.s(-1)), during dominant leg unilateral stance with eyes open and eyes closed was quantified for each subject utilizing the Balance Master System 7.04 (long force plate). Additionally, each subject underwent sensory organization testing on the SMART EquiTest System providing information regarding the effective use of the somatosensory, visual, and vestibular inputs. Pitching error was assessed with a high-speed video camera recorder during spring practice. A JUGS radar gun measured pitch velocity. The mean pitching error was 37.50 cm with a mean pitch velocity of 78 miles.h(-1) (35 m.s(-1)). No significant correlation was demonstrated between unilateral stance eyes open and pitching error (r = -0.24; p = 0.36) or unilateral stance eyes closed and pitching error (r = -0.29; p = 0.27). A significant negative correlation was demonstrated between sensory organization test 5 and pitching error (r = -0.50; p = 0.05) and between sensory organization test 5/1 and pitching error (r = -0.50; p = 0.05). Additionally, unilateral stance eyes closed demonstrated a positive correlation with pitch velocity (r = 0.52; p = 0.04). The results reveal that low levels of vestibular input utilization may lead to high levels of pitching error in college baseball pitchers.

  3. The strength characteristics of internal and external rotator muscles in professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Wilk, K E; Andrews, J R; Arrigo, C A; Keirns, M A; Erber, D J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a data base regarding the isokinetic muscular performance characteristics of the external/internal rotator muscles of professional baseball pitchers. One hundred fifty healthy professional baseball pitchers were evaluated by use of a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. The subjects tested had a mean age of 23.4 years and a mean body weight of 199 pounds. Isokinetic tests were performed concentrically at 180 and 300 deg/sec for both the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders. Testing procedures regarding positioning and stabilization followed established guidelines. The testing protocol and actual test repetitions were standardized for each subject. Statistical analysis was performed using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation and paired t-tests. Determination of the correlation coefficient was made at the P < 0.05 level of significance. Test results for bilateral comparison of mean peak torque for the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders indicated no statistically significant difference between the internal rotators at both test speeds, or for the external rotators at 300 deg/sec. There was a significant statistical difference at the 180 deg/sec test speed for the external rotators. The external/internal rotator strength ratio indicated a 65% ratio at 180 deg/sec and a 61% ratio at 300 deg/sec. Data were also collected for mean peak torque/body weight ratios of the throwing shoulder to establish a data base in professional throwers. This study offers clinical relevance in establishing a muscle performance profile for the professional thrower. This data base can therefore be used as criteria that should be met before an injured pitcher can be returned to throwing at the professional baseball level.

  4. Changes in peak torque arm-shoulder strength of high school baseball pitchers during the season.

    PubMed

    Whitley, J D; Terrio, T

    1998-06-01

    Pre- and postseason measurements of peak torque arm strength were made at 180 deg./sec. and 300 deg./sec. on both throwing and nonthrowing arms of five male high school varsity baseball pitchers. The major findings were significant losses in adduction strength in both throwing and nonthrowing shoulders at 180 deg./ sec. and internal rotation strength for both sides at both speeds. The primary implication from these preliminary findings is that significant losses of arm-shoulder strength may be associated with injuries to the pitching arm.

  5. A ganglion cyst causing lumbar radiculopathy in a baseball pitcher: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Wisneski, R J; Lutz, G E

    2000-06-01

    This report describes a case of a professional baseball pitcher who developed acute left lumbar radicular symptoms after a baseball game and was subsequently sidelined for the rest of the season. Physical examination revealed depressed reflexes in the left posterior tibialis and left medial hamstring muscles, mild weakness in the left extensor hallucis longus, and positive dural tension signs. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an ovoid mass at the L4-L5 level, causing compression of the dura. Surgical resection of the mass resulted in resolution of his symptoms. Pathology revealed that the mass was a ganglion cyst. A ganglion cyst is a rare cause of lumbar radiculopathy and should be considered in the differential diagnosis if a patient with lumbar radiculopathy fails to respond to conservative treatment.

  6. Prevention of overuse injuries in young baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Parks, Eric D; Ray, Tracy R

    2009-11-01

    With millions of athletes participating in baseball in the United States annually, overuse injuries are common occurrences. Epidemiological studies, including surveys of orthopaedic surgeons, coaches, and athletes, indicate that injuries such as those to the ulnar collateral ligament are increasing in incidence. Many risk factors for throwing injuries have been proposed-including the immature skeleton, throwing mechanics, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit, pitch type, velocity, and counts-but little evidence is available to support the majority of these factors. Recent studies have shown that pitch volume and overuse are central factors that lead to shoulder and elbow injuries in the young throwing athlete. Pitching while fatigued and in spite of arm pain has also been implicated.

  7. Relationships between ball velocity and throwing mechanics in collegiate baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Werner, Sherry L; Suri, Misty; Guido, John A; Meister, Keith; Jones, Deryk G

    2008-01-01

    Although ball speed is considered a measure of success in baseball pitching, little is known about the relationship between ball velocity and pitching mechanics. Investigation of this relationship has been limited, and the studies carried out have varied in methodology. Three-dimensional, high-speed (240 Hz) video data were collected on fastballs from 54 collegiate baseball pitchers. Kinematic parameters related to pitching mechanics and resultant kinetics on the throwing shoulder and elbow were calculated. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to relate ball velocity and pitching mechanics. Ball velocity averaged 35 m/sec (79 mph) for the 54 college pitchers. Nearly 70% of the variability in ball speed can be explained by a combination of 10 parameters related to pitching mechanics. Body mass and 9 temporal and kinematic parameters related to pitching mechanics combine to account for 68% of the variance in ball velocity for a collegiate population of athletes. These variables can be manipulated via mechanical changes and sport-specific training to affect ball velocity. The results of the study can be used to increase ball velocity while at the same time minimizing stresses on the throwing arm elbow and shoulder. Improved training programs can begin to be developed based on these data.

  8. Eccentric and concentric strength of the shoulder and arm musculature in collegiate baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Mikesky, A E; Edwards, J E; Wigglesworth, J K; Kunkel, S

    1995-01-01

    Many pitching injuries occur during deceleration of the upper extremity when the muscles of the shoulder and arm are acting eccentrically. Published information regarding eccentric muscular strength in baseball pitchers is nonexistent. The purpose of this study was to assess bilateral isokinetic eccentric and concentric muscular strength of the shoulder's external and internal rotator muscles and the elbow's flexor and extensor muscles in a group of collegiate baseball pitchers (N = 25). Isokinetic strength was assessed at 1.6, 3.7, and 5.2 rad/sec. Our findings indicate that the internal rotator muscles were always stronger than the external rotator muscles and that the concentric and eccentric external-to-internal strength ratios ranged from 62% to 81%. The eccentric strength of the shoulder rotator muscles averaged 114% that of concentric strength. The concentric and eccentric elbow extension-to-flexion strength ratios ranged from 71% to 110%; eccentric strength averaged 33% higher than concentric strength. No differences were noted between dominant and nondominant limbs for any of the strength measures or ratios. Clinically, the findings of this study can serve as a reference during the evaluation, rehabilitation, and conditioning of throwing athletes.

  9. Concentric isokinetic shoulder internal and external rotation strength in professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Ellenbecker, T S; Mattalino, A J

    1997-05-01

    Objective measurement of shoulder internal and external rotation strength is an important part in the comprehensive evaluation and rehabilitation of athletes who perform predominantly unilateral upper extremity movement patterns. Apparatus- and population-specific descriptive data are needed to enhance the interpretation of results from isokinetic dynamometers. The primary purpose of this study was to measure isokinetically glenohumeral joint internal and external rotator peak torque and work in professional baseball pitchers and determine whether significant differences exist between the dominant (throwing) extremity and nondominant extremity. One hundred twenty-five healthy professional baseball pitchers were tested bilaterally on a Cybex 300 series isokinetic dynamometer at 210 and 300 degrees/sec for concentric internal and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint with the arm in 90 degrees of abduction. A standardized protocol and testing guidelines were strictly followed. A dependent t test was used to test for differences between extremities for peak torque and single repetition work isokinetic parameters. No significant difference between the dominant and nondominant shoulder was found for external rotation peak torque or single repetition work at either testing speed. Significantly greater (p < .001) dominant arm shoulder internal rotation was measured for both peak torque and single repetition work at 210 and 300 degrees/sec compared with the nondominant extremity. The results of this study are important for the application and interpretation of isokinetic data on unilaterally dominant upper extremity athletes. The use of a population-specific, descriptive isokinetic data profile is important in both rehabilitation and prevention of shoulder injuries.

  10. Isokinetic profile of shoulder internal and external rotators of high school aged baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Ivan J; Biddington, William B; Barnhart, Bruce D; Ellenbecker, Todd S

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine whether bilateral differences exist in concentric and eccentric shoulder internal and external rotation strength in high school aged baseball pitchers. Thirty-nine high school aged baseball pitchers were bilaterally tested for concentric and eccentric internal and external rotation muscle performance on a Kin-Com 500-H isokinetic dynamometer at 90 degrees .s(-1) and 180 degrees .s(-1). Paired t-tests were used to test for differences among extremities, speed, and ratio of external rotation to internal rotation (ER/IR ratios). Concentric peak torque internal rotation at 90 degrees .s(-1) was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the dominant arm compared with the nondominant arm. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) were found between the nondominant and dominant in concentric 90 degrees .s(-1). The nondominant arm demonstrated significantly greater eccentric strength (p < 0.05) compared with the dominant arm in ER/IR ratios at 90 degrees .s(-1) and 180 degrees .s(-1). The nondominant arm demonstrated significantly greater eccentric strength (p < 0.05) than the dominant arm in ER/IR ratio at 180 degrees .s(-1). Data demonstrated that muscular adaptations are consistent with previous research in this area. Also, muscular adaptations occur in the shoulder in the high school aged population. These data can serve as a guideline to be used by clinicians who rehabilitate shoulders in patients in this population.

  11. Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Injuries in Major League Baseball Pitchers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Syed K; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the upper extremity in baseball pitchers are not uncommon, with extensive literature on shoulder and elbow pathology. However, there is minimal literature on isolated teres major (TM) and latissimus dorsi (LD) injuries. As a result, there is no consensus on an optimal treatment method. An extensive Medline search on studies focusing on the treatment of isolated LD and TM injuries in professional baseball pitchers was performed to explore this topic. Of the 20 retrieved articles, 5 met our inclusion criteria. There were a total of 29 patients who underwent conservative treatment and 1 who underwent surgical treatment. The average time required to return to pitching was 99.8 days in the conservative group and 140 days in the surgically treated group. Five patients in the conservative group suffered from complications and/or setbacks during their treatment and rehabilitation. The lone surgical patient suffered no complications, returned to preinjury form, and was elected an all-star the following year. The goal of this review is to provide a concise summary of the current literature in order to assist physicians when discussing treatment options with their patients.

  12. Relationships between throwing mechanics and shoulder distraction in professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Werner, S L; Gill, T J; Murray, T A; Cook, T D; Hawkins, R J

    2001-01-01

    The extreme forces and torques and the high speeds and excessive ranges of motion of baseball pitching place tremendous stress on the soft tissues of the throwing shoulder. Little is known about the relationship between pitching mechanics and shoulder joint stress, especially in professional athletes. The purpose of this study was to quantify joint loads and kinematic parameters of pitching mechanics at the major league level and to study their relationships. Three-dimensional, high-speed video data were collected on 40 professional pitchers during the 1998 Cactus League spring training. A clinically significant distraction force was calculated at the shoulder joint, which reached an average peak value of 947 +/- 162 N (108% +/- 16% body weight). Descriptive statistics and a multiple linear regression analysis were used to relate shoulder distraction to kinematic and kinetic parameters of pitching mechanics. This study was undertaken not only to investigate the peak forces and torques on the shoulder, but also to identify potential areas of intervention that might prevent throwing injuries. Knowledge of joint ranges of motion, angular velocities, and joint-reaction forces can provide a scientific basis for improved preventive and rehabilitative protocols for baseball pitchers.

  13. Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Injuries in Major League Baseball Pitchers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Syed K; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the upper extremity in baseball pitchers are not uncommon, with extensive literature on shoulder and elbow pathology. However, there is minimal literature on isolated teres major (TM) and latissimus dorsi (LD) injuries. As a result, there is no consensus on an optimal treatment method. An extensive Medline search on studies focusing on the treatment of isolated LD and TM injuries in professional baseball pitchers was performed to explore this topic. Of the 20 retrieved articles, 5 met our inclusion criteria. There were a total of 29 patients who underwent conservative treatment and 1 who underwent surgical treatment. The average time required to return to pitching was 99.8 days in the conservative group and 140 days in the surgically treated group. Five patients in the conservative group suffered from complications and/or setbacks during their treatment and rehabilitation. The lone surgical patient suffered no complications, returned to preinjury form, and was elected an all-star the following year. The goal of this review is to provide a concise summary of the current literature in order to assist physicians when discussing treatment options with their patients. PMID:26991570

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder in asymptomatic professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Miniaci, Anthony; Mascia, Anthony T; Salonen, David C; Becker, Edna J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging findings in both shoulders of asymptomatic professional baseball pitchers. Fourteen pitchers who were without significant prior injury underwent a blinded clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging of both shoulders. All images were interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. The appearance of the rotator cuff tendons was graded, with additional evaluation of the biceps, labrum, and osseous structures. Ten athletes were found to have stable shoulders and painless full range of motion. Clinically, four athletes had at least a 40 degrees loss in internal rotation as compared with the nonthrowing arm. There were no significant differences in magnetic resonance imaging findings of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons between the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders. The labrum was abnormal in 79% of the 28 shoulders. Enthesopathic changes of the posterior glenoid labrum were identified in the four pitchers who had loss of internal rotation. We conclude that unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder in asymptomatic high performance throwing athletes reveals abnormalities that may encompass a spectrum of "nonclinical" findings. These data can be useful in separating symptomatic pathologic findings from these variants. Enthesopathic changes of the posterior glenoid labrum in the throwing arm may represent an early Bennett-type lesion. The cause may be excessive traction on the posterior capsule during the pitching motion, with subclinical injury to this area.

  15. Stress Sonography of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament of the Elbow in Professional Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Ciccotti, Michael G.; Atanda, Alfred; Nazarian, Levon N.; Dodson, Christopher C.; Holmes, Laurens; Cohen, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Background An injury to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow is potentially career threatening for elite baseball pitchers. Stress ultrasound (US) of the elbow allows for evaluation of both the UCL and the ulnohumeral joint space at rest and with stress. Hypothesis Stress US can identify morphological and functional UCL changes and may predict the risk of a UCL injury in elite pitchers. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A total of 368 asymptomatic professional baseball pitchers underwent preseason stress US of their dominant and non-dominant elbows over a 10-year period (2002-2012). Stress US examinations were performed in 30° of flexion at rest and with 150 N of valgus stress by a single musculoskeletal radiologist. Ligament thickness, ulnohumeral joint space width, and ligament abnormalities (hypoechoic foci and calcifications) were documented. Results There were 736 stress US studies. The mean UCL thickness in the dominant elbow (6.15 mm) was significantly greater than that in the nondominant elbow (4.82 mm) (P < .0001). The mean stressed ulnohumeral joint space width in the dominant elbow (4.56 mm) was significantly greater than that in the nondominant elbow (3.72 mm) (P < .02). In the dominant arm, hypoechoic foci and calcifications were both significantly more prevalent (28.0% vs 3.5% and 24.9% vs 1.6%, respectively; P < .001). In the 12 players who incurred a UCL injury, there were nonsignificant (P > .05) increases in baseline ligament thickness, ulnohumeral joint space gapping with stress, and incidence of hypoechoic foci and calcifications. More than 1 stress US examination was performed in 131 players, with a mean increase of 0.78 mm in joint space gapping with subsequent evaluations. Conclusion Stress US indicates that the UCL in the dominant elbow of elite pitchers is thicker, is more likely to have hypoechoic foci and/or calcifications, and has increased laxity with valgus stress over time. PMID:24473498

  16. The Impact of Fatigue on the Kinematics of Collegiate Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Grantham, W. Jeffrey; Byram, Ian R.; Meadows, Molly C.; Ahmad, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many factors are believed to contribute to throwing injuries in baseball pitchers, in particular overuse and poor throwing mechanics. The impact of fatigue on pitching biomechanics in live-game situations is not well understood. Hypothesis: Pitchers will demonstrate significant deviation in their pitching motions with increasing levels of fatigue. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Eleven National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I collegiate baseball pitchers were filmed in multiple live-game situations throughout a single season using 2 orthogonal high-speed cameras at 120 Hz. The first fastball of each inning and, when available, the fastball subsequent to the 15th and 30th pitch of each inning were recorded and analyzed for 26 kinematic parameters. Pitch count and velocity were recorded. Kinematic differences were assessed for association with pitch count and subjective fatigue measures over the course of each inning and game through the season. Results: Twenty-six games were recorded. Pitchers had a mean of 97.2 ± 16.1 pitches per start and 1079 ± 251 pitches per collegiate season. Increased hip lean at hand separation, elbow height at foot contact, and hip flexion and shoulder tilt at maximum external rotation were seen in innings lasting longer than 15 pitches. Maximum external rotation of the shoulder and elbow height at foot contact decreased over the course of a game. Hip lean at hand separation and elbow height at foot contact increased over the course of the season. Season pitch count was weakly correlated with increased shoulder external rotation and shoulder alignment at maximum external rotation and with shoulder abduction at ball release. Elbow flexion decreased with greater season pitch counts. Conclusion: Hip lean, elbow height, and shoulder external rotation were the most sensitive kinematic parameters to inning, game, and season fatigue. Pitch count and fatigue have a significant impact on live

  17. An eccentric- and concentric-strength profile of shoulder external and internal rotator muscles in professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Sirota, S C; Malanga, G A; Eischen, J J; Laskowski, E R

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a data base on the isokinetic eccentric muscular performance characteristics of external and internal rotator muscles in the shoulders of professional baseball pitchers. Concentric data are also included and compared with previously published concentric studies. Twenty-five professional baseball pitchers were evaluated with a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer. The subjects tested had a mean age of 23.5 years and a mean body weight of 199 pounds. Eccentric and concentric isokinetic tests were performed at 60 and 120 deg/sec. The testing protocol was standardized for each subject. Test results indicated no statistically significant difference in mean torque between throwing and nonthrowing shoulders for either external or internal rotator muscle groups. Eccentric strength was significantly greater than concentric strength for all muscle groups tested. The external-to-internal rotator muscle strength ratios were well above those previously published for high school through professional pitchers. Mean torque-to-lean body weight ratios were also included to establish a data base. This study establishes one of the first data bases for eccentric isokinetic muscle strength of shoulder rotator muscles in professional baseball pitchers. The data may help clinicians prevent and rehabilitate shoulder injuries in professional throwing athletes.

  18. Shoulder joint movement of the non-throwing arm during baseball pitch--comparison between skilled and unskilled pitchers.

    PubMed

    Murata, A

    2001-12-01

    The shoulder of a non-throwing arm during a baseball pitch must be in a constant position while the shoulder of the throwing arm moves in a nearly circular path around it. However, it has not been investigated whether a skilled pitch requires less shoulder-joint movement. It was hypothesized that pitchers with less shoulder movement of the non-throwing arm can be considered to have higher skill and to attain higher initial ball velocity. Nine baseball pitchers were used as subjects. The coach classified them into a skilled and an unskilled group. The pitching motions were recorded using two high-speed cameras. The time series of three-dimensional landmark coordinates of the shoulder joint of the non-throwing arm during the baseball pitch were calculated using the direct linear transformation method. The shoulder-joint movement (SJM) index, which expresses the movement (displacement) of the shoulder joint of the non-throwing arm quantitatively, was proposed to compare the SJM at different skill levels and investigate the relationship between SJM and initial ball velocity. The SJM of the skilled pitchers was smaller than that of the unskilled pitchers, and the smaller value of the SJM led to faster initial ball velocity. The data suggest that the less SJM of the non-throwing arm is required to attain a skilled pitch and higher initial ball velocity.

  19. Factors related to injury in youth and adolescent baseball pitching, with an eye toward prevention.

    PubMed

    Popchak, Adam; Burnett, Thomas; Weber, Nicholas; Boninger, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The baseball and medical communities have recognized injuries of the upper extremity associated with the overhead throwing motion and have examined manners in which to reduce risk. The authors examine special features of the adolescent pitcher as compared with skeletally mature pitchers and characteristics of pitch mechanics, type, velocity, fatigue, and overuse. A summary is presented on previously identified risk factors as they relate to pitching injuries. Development, use, and compliance with the most current pitching guidelines in youth baseball, based on the available evidence, will be presented and examined. In an increasingly competitive environment, identifying known risk factors and potential signs of pathology as well as implementing the current best evidence in a consistent manner are important steps in decreasing injury risk of youth baseball pitchers. More research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of pitching guidelines in the short and long term and to focus on manners in which to increase compliance with best practice procedures throughout youth baseball organizations. PMID:25251251

  20. First rib stress fracture in a sidearm baseball pitcher: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Takeshi; Kimura, Yasunobu; Hida, Toshiko

    2005-06-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib in athletes are rare. A 14-year-old male, a baseball pitcher who changed from an overhand to a sidearm style, with a stress fracture of the first rib, was reported. Most Stress fractures in the first rib occur at the subclavian groove, between the attachments of the scalenus anterior and scalenus medius muscles, which is the thinnest and weakest portion of the rib. However, in this case the stress fracture occurred at the uncommon region, posterior to the insertion of the scalenus medius muscle, in the first rib. The motion analysis of the pitching in this case demonstrated that the sidearm style induced much more horizontal abduction in the shoulder at the top position than did the overhand style. The findings of electromyography in the serratus anterior muscle, one of the muscles which insert on the first rib, through the pitching motion did not demonstrate any significant differences between the two styles. In this case, the repetition of horizontal over-abduction of the shoulder when sidearm pitching appears to have been the cause of the unusual stress fracture of the first rib at this site. Key PointsMost Stress fractures in the first rib occur at the subclavian groove, between the attachments of the scalenus anterior and scalenus medius muscles, which is the thinnest and weakest portion of the rib.We report the case of a young male baseball pitcher with a stress fracture of the first rib located uncommonly at the posterior portion of the rib.In this case, the repetition of horizontal over-abduction of the shoulder when sidearm pitching appears to have been the cause of the unusual stress fracture of the first rib at this site.

  1. Pelvis and torso kinematics and their relationship to shoulder kinematics in high-school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Keeley, David W

    2010-12-01

    It was the purpose of our study to examine the kinematics of the pelvis and torso and determine their relationship to the kinematics of the shoulder in high-school baseball pitchers. A single group, repeated-measures design was used to collect pelvis, torso, and shoulder kinematics throughout the pitching motion. Subjects threw a series of maximal effort fastballs to a catcher located the regulation distance (18.44m) from the pitching mound, and those data from the fastest pitch passing through the strike zone were analyzed. After test trials, kinematic data were analyzed using a series of descriptive statistics to identify outliers and determine the nature of the distribution before testing for the presence of relationships between the various parameters. Results indicated that for several parameters, the actions at and about the shoulder are strongly related to the actions of the pelvis and torso throughout the pitching motion. However, although pelvis and torso kinematics throughout the pitching motion were inversely related to both shoulder elevation and the plane of shoulder elevation, only the rate of axial torso rotation was significantly related to these shoulder parameters. More importantly, the rate of axial torso rotation is significantly related to these shoulder parameters in a way that may help explain the high rate of shoulder injury in high-school pitchers. Therefore, strength training should focus on developing a strong stable core including the gluteal musculature in an attempt to control the rate of torso rotation during the pitch. PMID:20703168

  2. Pelvis and torso kinematics and their relationship to shoulder kinematics in high-school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Keeley, David W

    2010-12-01

    It was the purpose of our study to examine the kinematics of the pelvis and torso and determine their relationship to the kinematics of the shoulder in high-school baseball pitchers. A single group, repeated-measures design was used to collect pelvis, torso, and shoulder kinematics throughout the pitching motion. Subjects threw a series of maximal effort fastballs to a catcher located the regulation distance (18.44m) from the pitching mound, and those data from the fastest pitch passing through the strike zone were analyzed. After test trials, kinematic data were analyzed using a series of descriptive statistics to identify outliers and determine the nature of the distribution before testing for the presence of relationships between the various parameters. Results indicated that for several parameters, the actions at and about the shoulder are strongly related to the actions of the pelvis and torso throughout the pitching motion. However, although pelvis and torso kinematics throughout the pitching motion were inversely related to both shoulder elevation and the plane of shoulder elevation, only the rate of axial torso rotation was significantly related to these shoulder parameters. More importantly, the rate of axial torso rotation is significantly related to these shoulder parameters in a way that may help explain the high rate of shoulder injury in high-school pitchers. Therefore, strength training should focus on developing a strong stable core including the gluteal musculature in an attempt to control the rate of torso rotation during the pitch.

  3. Evaluation of wrist and forearm motion in college-aged baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Solomito, Matthew J; Garibay, Erin J; Woods, Jessica R; Ounpuu, Sylvia; Nissen, Carl W

    2014-11-01

    Current pitching literature focuses primarily on the elbow and glenohumeral joints. This has led to a paucity of information regarding the forearm and wrist, and the limited data available are inconsistent. Therefore, this article seeks to provide a comprehensive description of the kinematics and kinetics of the wrist and forearm for the fastball, curveball, slider/cutter, and change-up for college-level baseball pitchers. Thirty-six collegiate pitchers were evaluated using motion analysis techniques. Results indicated that pitching the curveball generated the greatest forearm supination (16 ± 13°) compared with the other three pitch types (p < 0.05). The curveball and slider/cutter were pitched with less wrist extension and greater ulnar deviation compared with the fastball and change-up. The curveball was found to produce the greatest ulnar moment (7.3 ± 2.2 Nm) and was significantly different from the moments noted when pitching the fastball and change-up (5.1 ± 1.9 and 4.9 ± 1.9 Nm, respectively; p < 0.05). These results indicate that it may be possible to objectively determine pitch type from kinematic data of the wrist and forearm. It may also be possible that coaches may be able to identify abnormal pitching mechanics from more proximal segments by understanding the motion of the wrist.

  4. Unusual chest wall pain caused by thoracic disc herniation in a professional baseball pitcher.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kinshi; Yabuki, Shoji; Otani, Koji; Nikaido, Takuya; Otoshi, Ken-Ichi; Watanabe, Kazuyuki; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    Symptomatic thoracic disc herniation is clinically rare. There are few cases of disc herniation of the thoracic spine in top athletes described in the literature. We herein present a rare case of chest wall pain due to thoracic disc herniation in a professional baseball pitcher. A 30-year-old, left-handed pitcher complained of left-sided chest wall pain in the region of his lower ribs during a game. Neurological examination revealed hypoesthesia of the left side of the chest at the level of the lower thoracic spine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracic spine showed a left-sided paramedian disc herniation at the T9-T10 level. The player was initially prescribed rest, administration of pregabalin (150 mg twice a day), and subsequent physical rehabilitation. He was able to resume full training and pitching without medication 6 months after the onset. A follow-up MRI of the thoracic spine showed a reduction in the size of the herniated disc compared to the initial findings. Though relatively rare, thoracic disc herniation should be considered in cases of chest wall pain in athletes.

  5. Unusual chest wall pain caused by thoracic disc herniation in a professional baseball pitcher.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kinshi; Yabuki, Shoji; Otani, Koji; Nikaido, Takuya; Otoshi, Ken-Ichi; Watanabe, Kazuyuki; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    Symptomatic thoracic disc herniation is clinically rare. There are few cases of disc herniation of the thoracic spine in top athletes described in the literature. We herein present a rare case of chest wall pain due to thoracic disc herniation in a professional baseball pitcher. A 30-year-old, left-handed pitcher complained of left-sided chest wall pain in the region of his lower ribs during a game. Neurological examination revealed hypoesthesia of the left side of the chest at the level of the lower thoracic spine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracic spine showed a left-sided paramedian disc herniation at the T9-T10 level. The player was initially prescribed rest, administration of pregabalin (150 mg twice a day), and subsequent physical rehabilitation. He was able to resume full training and pitching without medication 6 months after the onset. A follow-up MRI of the thoracic spine showed a reduction in the size of the herniated disc compared to the initial findings. Though relatively rare, thoracic disc herniation should be considered in cases of chest wall pain in athletes. PMID:26983590

  6. Anterior translation and morphologic changes of the ulnar nerve at the elbow in adolescent baseball players.

    PubMed

    Tai, Ta-Wei; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Chau; Wang, Lin-Hwa; Chao, Shu-Yi; Huang, Christine Nai-Hui; Jou, I-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The effect of repetitive throwing on the ulnar nerve is not clear. There are no published imaging studies regarding this issue in adolescent baseball players. The purpose of this cross-sectional ultrasonographic study was to use 5- to 10-MHz frequency ultrasonography to define the anterior translation and flattening of the ulnar nerve in different elbow positions. We divided 39 adolescent baseball players into two groups, 19 pitchers and 20 fielders, according to the amount of throwing. Twenty-four non-athlete junior high school students were also included as controls. We ultrasonographically examined each participant's ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel with the elbow extended and at 45°, 90° and 120° of flexion. Anterior translation and flattening of the ulnar nerve occurred in all groups. Pitchers had larger-scale anterior translation than did controls. In pitchers, the ulnar nerve exhibited more anterior movement on the dominant side than on the non-dominant side. The anterior subluxation of the ulnar nerve occurred in players without ulnar nerve palsy and was not correlated with elbow pain. In addition to the known musculoskeletal adaptations of pitchers' elbows, ultrasonography revealed new changes in the ulnar nerve, anterior translation and subluxation, after repetitive throwing. These changes might also be physiologic adaptations of throwing elbows.

  7. Effects of varying recovery periods on muscle enzymes, soreness, and performance in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Potteiger, J A; Blessing, D L; Wilson, G D

    1992-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of varied recovery time on serum creatine kinase (CK), serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), muscle soreness, and pitch velocity in baseball pitchers. Ten males who had pitching experience participated in the study. After an 18-day training period, subjects pitched three simulated games. Game A and Game B were separated by four days of rest, while Game B and Game C were separated by two days of rest. CK, LDH, and muscle soreness were evaluated at the following times: before and immediately after exercise, and six, 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. Muscle performance was evaluated by measuring pitch velocity during the games. The CK level was elevated after each game (Game A - 249 U/l; Game B - 243 U/l; and Game C - 240 U/l); then it dropped toward baseline (pbaseball pitching. However CK values, muscle soreness, and pitch velocity are not significantly affected by changes in the amount of recovery time typically scheduled between games.

  8. Role of radiofrequency denervation in lumbar zygapophyseal joint synovitis in baseball pitchers: a clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Vad, Vijay B; Cano, William G; Basrai, Dilshaad; Lutz, Gregory E; Bhat, Atul L

    2003-07-01

    Lumbar zygapophyseal joints have long been considered a source of low back pain with or without leg pain. The objective of this prospective study was to investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of lumbar zygapophyseal joint radiofrequency denervation (RFD) followed by physical therapy, for the treatment of refractory lumbar zygapophyseal joint mediated low back pain secondary to lumbar zygapophyseal joint synovitis, in baseball pitchers. Participants included twelve male baseball pitchers with a diagnosis of lumbar zygapophyseal joint synovitis mediated low back pain and a subsequent difficulty in pitching. These athletes underwent a trial of treatment, including oral anti-inflammatory medication, physical therapy, osteopathic manipulations, and fluoroscopically guided intra-articular zygapophyseal joint injection utilizing steroid and local anesthetic agent. Failure to progress led to these athletes receiving percutaneous, fluoroscopically-guided, radiofrequency denervation of the bilateral L 4-L5 and L5-S1 zygapophyseal joints. A good response to a diagnostic medial branch block was a prerequisite for RFD treatment. In all cases, the medial branch above and below the involved level was treated. Post procedure, all athletes participated in a phased physical therapy program followed by a progressive return to pitching. Success was defined as the ability to return to pre-procedure level of baseball pitching combined with greater than 50% low back pain reduction. Pre- and post-RFD, Visual Analog (Numeric) Scale (VAS) and Roland-Morris (R-M) tests were administered. Ten out of 12 (83%) athletes were able to return to pitching at a level attained prior to RFD. All 12 patients, experienced statistically significant low back pain relief, with a mean pre-RFD VAS of 8.4; mean post-RFD VAS of 1.7; mean pre-RFD R-M score of 12.3; and mean post-RFD R-M score of 22.3. In conclusion, athletes, experiencing lumbar zygapophyseal joint mediated low back pain secondary to

  9. A Profile of Glenohumeral Internal and External Rotation Motion in the Uninjured High School Baseball Pitcher, Part II: Strength

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Wendy J.; Kaplan, Kevin M.; ElAttrache, Neal S.; Jobe, Frank W.; Morrey, Bernard F.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: A database describing the range of normal rotator cuff strength values in uninjured high school pitchers has not been established. Chronologic factors that contribute to adaptations in strength also have not been established. Objectives: To establish a normative profile of rotator cuff strength in uninjured high school baseball pitchers and to determine whether bilateral differences in rotator cuff strength are normal findings in this age group. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Baseball playing field. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 165 uninjured male high school baseball pitchers (age = 16 ± 1 years, height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m, mass = 76.8 ± 10.1 kg, pitching experience = 7 ± 2 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Isometric rotator cuff strength was measured bilaterally with a handheld dynamometer. We calculated side-to-side differences in strength (external rotation [ER], internal rotation [IR], and the ratio of ER:IR at 90° of abduction), differences in strength by age, and the influence of chronologic factors (participant age, years of pitching experience) on limb strength. Results: Side-to-side differences in strength were found for ER, IR, and ER:IR ratio at 90° of abduction. Age at the time of testing was a significant but weak predictor of both ER strength (R2 = 0.032, P = .02) and the ER:IR ratio (R2 = 0.051, P = .004) at 90° of abduction. Conclusions: We established a normative profile of rotator cuff strength for the uninjured high school baseball pitcher that might be used to assist clinicians and researchers in the interpretation of muscle strength performance in this population. These data further suggested that dominant-limb adaptations in rotator cuff strength are a normal finding in this age group and did not demonstrate that these adaptations were a consequence of the age at the time of testing or the number of years of pitching experience. PMID:21669099

  10. Stress fracture of the scapula in a professional baseball pitcher: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Levine, Benjamin D; Resnick, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 26-year-old, right-handed professional baseball pitcher who presented with gradually worsening right shoulder pain. Initial magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography demonstrated a stress fracture involving the posterior aspect of the scapula at the junction between the scapular neck and body. After a period of rest, follow-up magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography performed 3 1/2 weeks later demonstrated ongoing healing of the stress fracture.

  11. An inferential and descriptive statistical examination of the relationship between cumulative work metrics and injury in Major League Baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Karakolis, Thomas; Bhan, Shivam; Crotin, Ryan L

    2013-08-01

    In Major League Baseball (MLB), games pitched, total innings pitched, total pitches thrown, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game are used to measure cumulative work. Often, pitchers are allocated limits, based on pitches thrown per game and total innings pitched in a season, in an attempt to prevent future injuries. To date, the efficacy in predicting injuries from these cumulative work metrics remains in question. It was hypothesized that the cumulative work metrics would be a significant predictor for future injury in MLB pitchers. Correlations between cumulative work for pitchers during 2002-07 and injury days in the following seasons were examined using regression analyses to test this hypothesis. Each metric was then "binned" into smaller cohorts to examine trends in the associated risk of injury for each cohort. During the study time period, 27% of pitchers were injured after a season in which they pitched. Although some interesting trends were noticed during the binning process, based on the regression analyses, it was found that no cumulative work metric was a significant predictor for future injury. It was concluded that management of a pitcher's playing schedule based on these cumulative work metrics alone could not be an effective means of preventing injury. These findings indicate that an integrated approach to injury prevention is required. This approach will likely involve advanced cumulative work metrics and biomechanical assessment. PMID:23090322

  12. An inferential and descriptive statistical examination of the relationship between cumulative work metrics and injury in Major League Baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Karakolis, Thomas; Bhan, Shivam; Crotin, Ryan L

    2013-08-01

    In Major League Baseball (MLB), games pitched, total innings pitched, total pitches thrown, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game are used to measure cumulative work. Often, pitchers are allocated limits, based on pitches thrown per game and total innings pitched in a season, in an attempt to prevent future injuries. To date, the efficacy in predicting injuries from these cumulative work metrics remains in question. It was hypothesized that the cumulative work metrics would be a significant predictor for future injury in MLB pitchers. Correlations between cumulative work for pitchers during 2002-07 and injury days in the following seasons were examined using regression analyses to test this hypothesis. Each metric was then "binned" into smaller cohorts to examine trends in the associated risk of injury for each cohort. During the study time period, 27% of pitchers were injured after a season in which they pitched. Although some interesting trends were noticed during the binning process, based on the regression analyses, it was found that no cumulative work metric was a significant predictor for future injury. It was concluded that management of a pitcher's playing schedule based on these cumulative work metrics alone could not be an effective means of preventing injury. These findings indicate that an integrated approach to injury prevention is required. This approach will likely involve advanced cumulative work metrics and biomechanical assessment.

  13. Medial supracondylar stress fracture in an adolescent pitcher/.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eric Y; Fronek, Jan; Chung, Christine B

    2014-01-01

    We report the occurrence of a medial supracondylar stress fracture in an adolescent pitcher. To our knowledge, this fracture has not been described in the literature, and awareness of this entity allows initiation of therapy and precludes further unnecessary work-up. The radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging appearances are reviewed and the mechanism of injury is discussed.

  14. Stride Leg Ground Reaction Forces Predict Throwing Velocity in Adult Recreational Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    McNally, Michael P; Borstad, John D; Oñate, James A; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2015-10-01

    Ground reaction forces produced during baseball pitching have a significant impact in the development of ball velocity. However, the measurement of only one leg and small sample sizes in these studies curb the understanding of ground reaction forces as they relate to pitching. This study aimed to further clarify the role ground reaction forces play in developing pitching velocity. Eighteen former competitive baseball players with previous high school or collegiate pitching experience threw 15 fastballs from a pitcher's mound instrumented to measure ground reaction forces under both the drive and stride legs. Peak ground reaction forces were recorded during each phase of the pitching cycle, between peak knee height and ball release, in the medial/lateral, anterior/posterior, and vertical directions, and the peak resultant ground reaction force. Stride leg ground reaction forces during the arm-cocking and arm-acceleration phases were strongly correlated with ball velocity (r2 = 0.45-0.61), whereas drive leg ground reaction forces showed no significant correlations. Stepwise linear regression analysis found that peak stride leg ground reaction force during the arm-cocking phase was the best predictor of ball velocity (r2 = 0.61) among drive and stride leg ground reaction forces. This study demonstrates the importance of ground reaction force development in pitching, with stride leg forces being strongly predictive of ball velocity. Further research is needed to further clarify the role of ground reaction forces in pitching and to develop training programs designed to improve upper extremity mechanics and pitching performance through effective force development.

  15. Stride Leg Ground Reaction Forces Predict Throwing Velocity in Adult Recreational Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    McNally, Michael P; Borstad, John D; Oñate, James A; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2015-10-01

    Ground reaction forces produced during baseball pitching have a significant impact in the development of ball velocity. However, the measurement of only one leg and small sample sizes in these studies curb the understanding of ground reaction forces as they relate to pitching. This study aimed to further clarify the role ground reaction forces play in developing pitching velocity. Eighteen former competitive baseball players with previous high school or collegiate pitching experience threw 15 fastballs from a pitcher's mound instrumented to measure ground reaction forces under both the drive and stride legs. Peak ground reaction forces were recorded during each phase of the pitching cycle, between peak knee height and ball release, in the medial/lateral, anterior/posterior, and vertical directions, and the peak resultant ground reaction force. Stride leg ground reaction forces during the arm-cocking and arm-acceleration phases were strongly correlated with ball velocity (r2 = 0.45-0.61), whereas drive leg ground reaction forces showed no significant correlations. Stepwise linear regression analysis found that peak stride leg ground reaction force during the arm-cocking phase was the best predictor of ball velocity (r2 = 0.61) among drive and stride leg ground reaction forces. This study demonstrates the importance of ground reaction force development in pitching, with stride leg forces being strongly predictive of ball velocity. Further research is needed to further clarify the role of ground reaction forces in pitching and to develop training programs designed to improve upper extremity mechanics and pitching performance through effective force development. PMID:26402471

  16. Whole-body and segmental muscle volume are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yosuke; Yamashita, Daichi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Matsui, Tomoyuki; Seo, Kazuya; Azuma, Yoshikazu; Kida, Yoshikazu; Morihara, Toru; Kimura, Misaka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between pitching ball velocity and segmental (trunk, upper arm, forearm, upper leg, and lower leg) and whole-body muscle volume (MV) in high school baseball pitchers. Forty-seven male high school pitchers (40 right-handers and seven left-handers; age, 16.2 ± 0.7 years; stature, 173.6 ± 4.9 cm; mass, 65.0 ± 6.8 kg, years of baseball experience, 7.5 ± 1.8 years; maximum pitching ball velocity, 119.0 ± 9.0 km/hour) participated in the study. Segmental and whole-body MV were measured using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maximum ball velocity was measured with a sports radar gun. The MV of the dominant arm was significantly larger than the MV of the non-dominant arm (P < 0.001). There was no difference in MV between the dominant and non-dominant legs. Whole-body MV was significantly correlated with ball velocity (r = 0.412, P < 0.01). Trunk MV was not correlated with ball velocity, but the MV for both lower legs, and the dominant upper leg, upper arm, and forearm were significantly correlated with ball velocity (P < 0.05). The results were not affected by age or years of baseball experience. Whole-body and segmental MV are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers. However, the contribution of the muscle mass on pitching ball velocity is limited, thus other fundamental factors (ie, pitching skill) are also important. PMID:24379713

  17. Whole-body and segmental muscle volume are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yosuke; Yamashita, Daichi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Matsui, Tomoyuki; Seo, Kazuya; Azuma, Yoshikazu; Kida, Yoshikazu; Morihara, Toru; Kimura, Misaka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between pitching ball velocity and segmental (trunk, upper arm, forearm, upper leg, and lower leg) and whole-body muscle volume (MV) in high school baseball pitchers. Forty-seven male high school pitchers (40 right-handers and seven left-handers; age, 16.2 ± 0.7 years; stature, 173.6 ± 4.9 cm; mass, 65.0 ± 6.8 kg, years of baseball experience, 7.5 ± 1.8 years; maximum pitching ball velocity, 119.0 ± 9.0 km/hour) participated in the study. Segmental and whole-body MV were measured using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maximum ball velocity was measured with a sports radar gun. The MV of the dominant arm was significantly larger than the MV of the non-dominant arm (P < 0.001). There was no difference in MV between the dominant and non-dominant legs. Whole-body MV was significantly correlated with ball velocity (r = 0.412, P < 0.01). Trunk MV was not correlated with ball velocity, but the MV for both lower legs, and the dominant upper leg, upper arm, and forearm were significantly correlated with ball velocity (P < 0.05). The results were not affected by age or years of baseball experience. Whole-body and segmental MV are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers. However, the contribution of the muscle mass on pitching ball velocity is limited, thus other fundamental factors (ie, pitching skill) are also important. PMID:24379713

  18. Whole-body and segmental muscle volume are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yosuke; Yamashita, Daichi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Matsui, Tomoyuki; Seo, Kazuya; Azuma, Yoshikazu; Kida, Yoshikazu; Morihara, Toru; Kimura, Misaka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between pitching ball velocity and segmental (trunk, upper arm, forearm, upper leg, and lower leg) and whole-body muscle volume (MV) in high school baseball pitchers. Forty-seven male high school pitchers (40 right-handers and seven left-handers; age, 16.2 ± 0.7 years; stature, 173.6 ± 4.9 cm; mass, 65.0 ± 6.8 kg, years of baseball experience, 7.5 ± 1.8 years; maximum pitching ball velocity, 119.0 ± 9.0 km/hour) participated in the study. Segmental and whole-body MV were measured using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maximum ball velocity was measured with a sports radar gun. The MV of the dominant arm was significantly larger than the MV of the non-dominant arm (P < 0.001). There was no difference in MV between the dominant and non-dominant legs. Whole-body MV was significantly correlated with ball velocity (r = 0.412, P < 0.01). Trunk MV was not correlated with ball velocity, but the MV for both lower legs, and the dominant upper leg, upper arm, and forearm were significantly correlated with ball velocity (P < 0.05). The results were not affected by age or years of baseball experience. Whole-body and segmental MV are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers. However, the contribution of the muscle mass on pitching ball velocity is limited, thus other fundamental factors (ie, pitching skill) are also important.

  19. Biologic Augmentation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in the Elbow of a Professional Baseball Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, James K.; Protzman, Nicole M.; Malhotra, Amit D.

    2015-01-01

    Tears of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow are common injuries in overhead athletes. Although surgical reconstruction of the UCL has improved outcomes, not all athletes return to their previous level of competition and when this goal is achieved, the time required averages one to two years. Therefore, additional techniques are needed to further improve return to play and the rate of return to play in overhead athletes. A construct comprising a dermal allograft, platelet rich plasma (PRP), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to successfully improve healing in the rotator cuff. Given the promising provisional findings, we postulated that this construct could also improve healing if applied to the UCL. Therefore, the purpose of the present report was to examine the feasibility of utilizing a dermal allograft, PRP, and MSC construct to augment UCL reconstruction in a professional baseball pitcher. No complications were encountered. Although limited to minimal follow-up, the patient has demonstrated excellent progress and has returned to activity. PMID:26240769

  20. The isokinetic torque curve of shoulder instability in high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Timm, K E

    1997-09-01

    Athletes with shoulder problems are commonly referred to orthopaedic and sports physical therapists for rehabilitation. Many of these problems include some form of shoulder instability. The purpose of this study was to generate an isokinetic torque curve that is representative of the shoulder impingement syndrome that may affect high school baseball pitchers. A sample of 241 subjects, each diagnosed with an impingement syndrome in the right shoulder, was tested using a Cybex II+ dynamometer configured to duplicate the orthopaedic loose-packed and plane of the scapula positions of the shoulder complex. The subjects were tested concentrically across five maximal repetitions of internal and external rotation at the speeds of 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 degree/sec; graphic records were collected at 60 degrees/sec. Descriptively, testing revealed a distinct isokinetic torque curve for the impingement syndrome compared with the noninvolved shoulder. This information might serve as a useful complement to traditional clinical procedures for the diagnosis of the shoulder impingement syndrome.

  1. Biologic Augmentation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in the Elbow of a Professional Baseball Pitcher.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, James K; Protzman, Nicole M; Malhotra, Amit D

    2015-01-01

    Tears of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow are common injuries in overhead athletes. Although surgical reconstruction of the UCL has improved outcomes, not all athletes return to their previous level of competition and when this goal is achieved, the time required averages one to two years. Therefore, additional techniques are needed to further improve return to play and the rate of return to play in overhead athletes. A construct comprising a dermal allograft, platelet rich plasma (PRP), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to successfully improve healing in the rotator cuff. Given the promising provisional findings, we postulated that this construct could also improve healing if applied to the UCL. Therefore, the purpose of the present report was to examine the feasibility of utilizing a dermal allograft, PRP, and MSC construct to augment UCL reconstruction in a professional baseball pitcher. No complications were encountered. Although limited to minimal follow-up, the patient has demonstrated excellent progress and has returned to activity.

  2. The impact of pitch counts and days of rest on performance among major-league baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, John C; Forman, Sean L

    2012-05-01

    Although the belief that overuse can harm pitchers is widespread, there exists little evidence to show that the number of pitches thrown and the days of rest affect future performance and injury among adults. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of pitches thrown and the days of rest on pitcher performance. We examined performances of major-league baseball starting pitchers from 1988 to 2009 using fractional polynomial multiple regression to estimate the immediate and cumulative impact of pitches thrown and the days of rest on performance, while controlling for other factors that likely affect pitcher effectiveness. Estimates indicate each pitch thrown in the preceding game increased earned run average (ERA) by 0.007 in the following game. Each pitch averaged in the preceding 5 and 10 games increased the ERA by 0.014 and 0.022, respectively. Older pitchers were more sensitive to cumulative pitching loads than younger pitchers were, but they were less affected by pitches thrown in the preceding game. Rest days were weakly associated with performance. In summary, we found that there is a negative relationship between past pitches thrown and future performance that is virtually linear. The impact of the cumulative pitching load is larger than the impact of a single game. Rest days do not appear to have a large impact on performance. This study supports the popular notion that high pitching loads can dampen future performance; however, because the effect is small, pitch-count benchmarks have limited use for maintaining performance and possibly preventing injury. PMID:22344048

  3. The impact of pitch counts and days of rest on performance among major-league baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, John C; Forman, Sean L

    2012-05-01

    Although the belief that overuse can harm pitchers is widespread, there exists little evidence to show that the number of pitches thrown and the days of rest affect future performance and injury among adults. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of pitches thrown and the days of rest on pitcher performance. We examined performances of major-league baseball starting pitchers from 1988 to 2009 using fractional polynomial multiple regression to estimate the immediate and cumulative impact of pitches thrown and the days of rest on performance, while controlling for other factors that likely affect pitcher effectiveness. Estimates indicate each pitch thrown in the preceding game increased earned run average (ERA) by 0.007 in the following game. Each pitch averaged in the preceding 5 and 10 games increased the ERA by 0.014 and 0.022, respectively. Older pitchers were more sensitive to cumulative pitching loads than younger pitchers were, but they were less affected by pitches thrown in the preceding game. Rest days were weakly associated with performance. In summary, we found that there is a negative relationship between past pitches thrown and future performance that is virtually linear. The impact of the cumulative pitching load is larger than the impact of a single game. Rest days do not appear to have a large impact on performance. This study supports the popular notion that high pitching loads can dampen future performance; however, because the effect is small, pitch-count benchmarks have limited use for maintaining performance and possibly preventing injury.

  4. Relationship Between Grip, Pinch Strengths and Anthropometric Variables, Types of Pitch Throwing Among Japanese High School Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Okura, Chisa; Kanazawa, Saeko; Nagai, Ayako; Takagishi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Grip and pinch strength are crucially important attributes and standard parameters related to the functional integrity of the hand. It seems significant to investigate normative data for grip and pinch strength of baseball players to evaluate their performance and condition. Nevertheless, few reports have explained the association between grip and pinch strength and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing for baseball pitchers. Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate clinical normative data for grip and tip, key, palmar pinch strength and to assess the relationship between these data and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing among Japanese high-school baseball pitchers. Materials and Methods: One hundred-thirty three healthy high school baseball pitchers were examined and had completed a self-administered questionnaire including items related to age, hand dominance, throwing ratio of type of pitch. A digital dynamometer was used to measure grip strength and a pinch gauge to measure tip, key and palmer pinch in both dominant and nondominant side. Body composition was measured by the multi frequency segmental body composition analyzer. Results: Grip strength and tip and palmer pinch strength in dominant side were statistically greater than them in nondominant side (P < 0.05). There were significant associations between grip strength and height (r = 0.33, P < 0.001), body mass (r = 0.50, P < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.37, P < 0.001), muscle mass of upper extremity (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), fat free mass (r = 0.57, P < 0.001), fat mass (r = 0.22, P < 0.05) in dominant side. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that fat free mass and tip, palmer, key pinch strength were predictors of grip strength in dominant side. No statistical significant correlations were found between the throwing ratio of types of pitches thrown and grip strength and tip, key, palmar pinch strength. Conclusions: Our result provides

  5. RESIDENTS CASE REPORT: DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS IN A HIGH SCHOOL BASEBALL PITCHER FOLLOWING ULNAR COLLATERAL LIGAMENT (UCL) RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Craig; Conway, John

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Accurate diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in an outpatient setting is difficult; however, proper screening and prompt referral can be lifesaving. The purpose of this case report is to present the unusual findings of a Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) in an otherwise healthy young male following an upper extremity surgery. Case Description: An 18 year-old male high school baseball pitcher presented to the clinic for his four month follow up visit after Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) reconstruction surgery. Patient complained of a recent “groin strain” and “calf strain” following baseball conditioning, that upon examination demonstrated signs and symptoms consistent with a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Outcomes: Following emergent referral the patient was diagnosed with multiple emboli and was treated with Lovenox and Coumadin. Discussion: Lower extremity DVT is a serious and potentially life threatening disorder. Physical therapists need to be vigilant in their subjective and objective examination of any patient that presents with lower extremity pain and swelling. This case report presents the unlikely findings of a DVT in a young, healthy, male high school baseball pitcher after surgical repair of the UCL. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:24175133

  6. The complete type of suprapatellar plica in a professional baseball pitcher: consideration of a cause of anterior knee pain.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Nobuo; Ochi, Mitsuo; Uchio, Yuji; Kawasaki, Kenzo; Yamasaki, Keiichirou

    2004-11-01

    Abstract We report the case of a professional baseball pitcher who achieved complete relief of an anterior knee pain after resection of a complete type of suprapatellar plica under arthroscopy. The 27-year-old male professional baseball pitcher had complained of right anterior knee pain while pitching for more than 2 years. On physical examination, the mobility of his patella was limited and he complained of tenderness along the joint line of his lateral patellofemoral joint. The preoperative patellofemoral axial radiograph showed osteophyte formation on the lateral edge of the patella. On preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, a septum dividing the suprapatellar pouch was found. Arthroscopy revealed obvious cartilaginous damage on the lateral facet of the patella and facing trochlea of the femoral condyle. There was a complete type of suprapatellar plica. The suprapatellar plica seemed to be anchoring the patella, which reduced the mobility of the patella. After resecting the complete type of suprapatellar plica under arthroscopy, the mobility of the patella was improved. Because his anterior knee pain while pitching reduced rapidly postoperatively, he could return to regular baseball. We consider that the main cause of his anterior knee pain was cartilaginous damage on the patella and the trochlea, which might be accelerated by the existence of the suprapatellar plica that reduced the mobility of the patella.

  7. Isokinetic evaluation of shoulder rotational strength in high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Hinton, R Y

    1988-01-01

    Isokinetic, shoulder rotational strength was evaluated in 26 high school baseball pitchers before the start of spring practice. Using the Cybex II (Cybex, Division of Lumex, Inc., Ronkonkoma, NY), test data were gathered on the dominant and nondominant shoulders in the supine 90 degrees abducted test position (90 degrees AbTP) and the standing neutral test position (neutral TP). Tests were performed at 90 and 240 deg/sec. The HUMAC (Computer Sports Medicine, Inc., Flemington, NJ) computer system was used to analyze data. Means and standard deviations for peak torque, total work, peak torque to body weight ratios, and agonist/antagonist ratios are presented. Comparison of dominant to non-dominant sides and 90 degrees AbTP to neutral TP values are reported. Peak torque and total work values for the throwing side internal rotators were significantly higher than the nonthrowing side in all tests. Pitching side external rotators failed to show this dominance. External/internal rotation ratios for peak torque and total work were significantly lower on the pitching side, suggesting a relative imbalance of cuff musculature compared to the nonpitching shoulder. Significant differences existed between data gathered in the two different test positions. In the 90 degrees AbTP, external rotation peak torque and total work values and external/internal rotation peak torque and total work ratios were higher than the equivalent values gathered in the neutral TP. Internal rotation peak torque and total work values tended to be higher in the neutral TP than in the 90 degrees AbTP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. The Effect of Excessive Glenhumeral Internal Rotation Deficit on Subacromial Joint Space and Forward Scapular Posture among Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Laudner, Kevin G.; Wong, Regan; Latal, Jim; Meister, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Baseball pitchers frequently present with varying levels of glenohumeral internal rotation deficits (GIRD) in their throwing arms when compared to their non-throwing arms. However, excessive bilateral differences in internal rotation motion have been associated with several shoulder pathologies including both subacromial and internal impingement. Additionally, patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement commonly present with decreased subacromial joint space and increased forward scapular posture. These characteristics have not been, as of yet, evaluated and associated to those pitchers who present with excessive GIRD. The purpose of this study was to determine if a group of baseball pitchers with excessive GIRD have differences in subacromial joint space and forward scapular posture when compared to a control group. Methods: Twenty-five asymptomatic professional baseball pitchers with excessive GIRD were matched with 25 pitchers with acceptable levels of GIRD. Excessive GIRD was classified as an amount greater than 10% of the total arc of motion (i.e. dominant shoulder total arc=160°; 0.10x160°=16°; excessive GIRD=>16°). A digital inclinometer was used to measure glenohumeral internal and external rotation range of motion with participants in a supine position and their scapula stabilized. Diagnostic ultrasound was used to measure the distance of the subacromial joint space with the throwing arm resting at the side of the participant’s body (0° abduction). Bilateral forward scapular posture was assessed with each participant standing against a wall and then the distance between the wall and their anterior acromion was measured using the double square technique. The bilateral difference between these measurements was used to determine the amount of forward scapular posture for the throwing arm. Separate t-tests were run to determine significant differences between groups (p<0.05). Results: Results are summarized in Figure 1. The total arc of

  9. MRI Predictors of Failure in Non-operative Management of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries in Professional Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Thomas Sean; Frangiamore, Salvatore; Vaughn, Michael Derek; Soloff, Lonnie; Schickendantz, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Ulnar collateral injuries (UCL) of the elbow are prevalent among professional baseball pitchers. The decision on initial operative versus nonoperative management of these injuries remains subjective in many cases, with reported success rates with nonoperative management ranging from 42 to 93% in professional throwing athletes. No studies to date have identified objective characteristics specific to success or failure of nonoperative intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify radiologic predictors for success or failure in nonoperative management of ulnar collateral ligament injuries in professional pitchers. Methods: A retrospective review of pitchers sustaining UCL injuries between 2006 and 2015 from one professional baseball organization (one major league team and all minor league teams included) was performed. UCL injuries were identified in 38 players based on clinical and radiographic findings. Six players underwent initial surgical intervention without attempted nonoperative intervention and were excluded from analysis. This left 32 (84%) professional pitchers who underwent an initial trail of nonoperative treatment for partial UCL tears. Success was defined as return to same level of play (RTSP) or higher for >1 year. Failure was defined as recurrent pain or weakness requiring surgical intervention after a minimum of 3 months’ rest when attempting a return to throw rehabilitation program. MRI findings were classified as high or low grade sprains, proximal or distal location of injury, and with or without the presence of concomitant chronic findings. Results: Of the 32 patients who underwent nonoperative management, 10 (36%) failed and required subsequent ligament reconstruction. Between the success and failure groups, there was no significant difference seen in total shoulder arc of motion (P=.7776), shoulder internal rotation deficit (P=.3846) or loss in elbow extension (P=.0644) at the time of injury. When comparing MRI findings

  10. Arthroscopic Management of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears in Major League Baseball Pitchers: The Lateralized Footprint Repair Technique.

    PubMed

    Dines, Joshua S; Jones, Kristofer; Maher, Patrick; Altchek, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of surgical management of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in professional baseball players have been uniformly poor. We conducted a study to investigate return-to-play data and functional performance using a novel arthroscopic repair technique. We hypothesized that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would result in a high rate of return to professional pitching and favorable functional outcomes. We identified 6 consecutive Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who underwent surgical repair of full-thickness rotator cuff injuries using the lateralized footprint repair technique. At most recent follow-up, patients were evaluated to determine their ability to return to athletic activity. Functional outcomes were also assessed using player performance statistics. By mean follow-up of 66.7 months (range, 23.2-94.6 months), 5 (83%) of the 6 pitchers had returned to their preinjury level of competition for at least 1 full season. Despite the high rate of return to MLB play, few pitchers resumed pitching productivity at their preoperative level; mean number of innings pitched decreased from 1806.5 to 183.7. A slight performance reduction was also found in a comparison of preoperative and postoperative pitching statistics. Of note, the return rate was higher for players over age 30 years than for those under 30 years. Overhead athletes require a delicate balance of shoulder mobility and stability to meet functional demands. Anatomical adaptations at the glenohumeral joint should be considered when performing rotator cuff repair in these patients in order to preserve peak functional performance. This novel repair technique affords a high rate of return to MLB play, though elite overhead throwers should be counseled that pitching productivity might decrease after surgery.

  11. Arthroscopic Management of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears in Major League Baseball Pitchers: The Lateralized Footprint Repair Technique.

    PubMed

    Dines, Joshua S; Jones, Kristofer; Maher, Patrick; Altchek, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of surgical management of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in professional baseball players have been uniformly poor. We conducted a study to investigate return-to-play data and functional performance using a novel arthroscopic repair technique. We hypothesized that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would result in a high rate of return to professional pitching and favorable functional outcomes. We identified 6 consecutive Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who underwent surgical repair of full-thickness rotator cuff injuries using the lateralized footprint repair technique. At most recent follow-up, patients were evaluated to determine their ability to return to athletic activity. Functional outcomes were also assessed using player performance statistics. By mean follow-up of 66.7 months (range, 23.2-94.6 months), 5 (83%) of the 6 pitchers had returned to their preinjury level of competition for at least 1 full season. Despite the high rate of return to MLB play, few pitchers resumed pitching productivity at their preoperative level; mean number of innings pitched decreased from 1806.5 to 183.7. A slight performance reduction was also found in a comparison of preoperative and postoperative pitching statistics. Of note, the return rate was higher for players over age 30 years than for those under 30 years. Overhead athletes require a delicate balance of shoulder mobility and stability to meet functional demands. Anatomical adaptations at the glenohumeral joint should be considered when performing rotator cuff repair in these patients in order to preserve peak functional performance. This novel repair technique affords a high rate of return to MLB play, though elite overhead throwers should be counseled that pitching productivity might decrease after surgery. PMID:26991564

  12. A Profile of Glenohumeral Internal and External Rotation Motion in the Uninjured High School Baseball Pitcher, Part I: Motion

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Wendy J.; Kaplan, Kevin M.; ElAttrache, Neal S.; Jobe, Frank W.; Morrey, Bernard F.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: The magnitude of motion that is normal for the throwing shoulder in uninjured baseball pitchers has not been established. Chronologic factors contributing to adaptations in motion present in the thrower's shoulder also have not been established. Objectives: To develop a normative profile of glenohumeral rotation motion in uninjured high school baseball pitchers and to evaluate the effect of chronologic characteristics on the development of adaptations in shoulder rotation motion. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Baseball playing field. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 210 uninjured male high school baseball pitchers (age = 16±1.1 years, height = 1.8 + 0.1 m, mass = 77.5±11.2 kg, pitching experience = 6±2.3 years). Intervention(s): Using standard goniometric techniques, we measured passive rotational glenohumeral range of motion bilaterally with participants in the supine position. Main Outcome Measure(s): Paired t tests were performed to identify differences in motion between limbs for the group. Analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests were conducted to identify differences in motion by age. Linear regressions were performed to determine the influence of chronologic factors on limb motion. Results: Rotation motion characteristics for the population were established. We found no difference between sides for external rotation (ER) at 0° of abduction (t209 = 0.658, P = .51), but we found side-to-side differences in ER (t209 = −13.012, P<.001) and internal rotation (t209 = 15.304, P<.001) at 90° of abduction. Age at the time of testing was a significant negative predictor of ER motion for the dominant shoulder (R2 = 0.019, P = .049) because less ER motion occurred at the dominant shoulder with advancing age. We found no differences in rotation motion in the dominant shoulder across ages (F4,205 range, 0.451–1.730, P>.05). Conclusions: This range-of-motion profile might be used to assist with the interpretation of normal and atypical

  13. Cartilage degeneration at symptomatic persistent olecranon physis in adolescent baseball players.

    PubMed

    Enishi, Tetsuya; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Elbow overuse injuries are common in adolescent baseball players, but symptomatic persistent olecranon physis is rare, and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Purpose. To examine the histopathological and imaging findings of advanced persistent olecranon physis. Methods. The olecranon physes of 2 baseball pitchers, aged 14 and 15 years, were examined by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and surgical specimens were examined histologically. Results. T2-weighted MRI revealed alterations in the intrachondral signal intensity possibly related to collagen degeneration and increased free water content. Histological findings of specimens stained with hematoxylin-eosin showed complete disorganization of the cartilage structure, hypocellularity, chondrocyte cluster formation, and moderately reduced staining. All these findings are hallmarks of osteoarthritis and are suggestive of cartilage degeneration. Conclusion. Growth plate degeneration was evident in advanced cases of symptomatic persistent olecranon physis. These findings contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of this disease.

  14. Cartilage Degeneration at Symptomatic Persistent Olecranon Physis in Adolescent Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Enishi, Tetsuya; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Elbow overuse injuries are common in adolescent baseball players, but symptomatic persistent olecranon physis is rare, and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Purpose. To examine the histopathological and imaging findings of advanced persistent olecranon physis. Methods. The olecranon physes of 2 baseball pitchers, aged 14 and 15 years, were examined by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and surgical specimens were examined histologically. Results. T2-weighted MRI revealed alterations in the intrachondral signal intensity possibly related to collagen degeneration and increased free water content. Histological findings of specimens stained with hematoxylin-eosin showed complete disorganization of the cartilage structure, hypocellularity, chondrocyte cluster formation, and moderately reduced staining. All these findings are hallmarks of osteoarthritis and are suggestive of cartilage degeneration. Conclusion. Growth plate degeneration was evident in advanced cases of symptomatic persistent olecranon physis. These findings contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:25580304

  15. Comparison of pitching kinematics between youth and adult baseball pitchers: a meta-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Wicke, Jason; Keeley, David W; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2013-11-01

    Coaches teach proper mechanics at a young age in an effort to increase pitching efficiency (i.e., proper pitching mechanics). Unfortunately, the mechanics taught to beginning pitchers are based on the findings from adult pitchers and may result in techniques that are detrimental to younger pitchers. The purpose of this study was to compare kinematics published for pitchers across various ages in an effort to determine whether the pitching techniques vary across developmental periods. A meta-analysis of papers published describing pitching kinematics for youth and adult pitchers was conducted. Maximal rotational velocity of the trunk and maximum external rotation of the shoulder were observed during the arm cocking phase. Peak magnitudes for abduction, horizontal adduction, and shoulder internal rotation were observed during the deceleration phase of the movement. In addition, by comparing previously published data across youth and adult pitchers, valuable insight into the differences in mechanics was gained. The results demonstrated that there are some distinct differences between youth and adult pitching mechanics. This finding may allow increased focus to be applied to those parameters observed to differ across age, increasing the knowledge base available for coaches to properly instruct youth pitchers. PMID:24466644

  16. Comparison of pitching kinematics between youth and adult baseball pitchers: a meta-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Wicke, Jason; Keeley, David W; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2013-11-01

    Coaches teach proper mechanics at a young age in an effort to increase pitching efficiency (i.e., proper pitching mechanics). Unfortunately, the mechanics taught to beginning pitchers are based on the findings from adult pitchers and may result in techniques that are detrimental to younger pitchers. The purpose of this study was to compare kinematics published for pitchers across various ages in an effort to determine whether the pitching techniques vary across developmental periods. A meta-analysis of papers published describing pitching kinematics for youth and adult pitchers was conducted. Maximal rotational velocity of the trunk and maximum external rotation of the shoulder were observed during the arm cocking phase. Peak magnitudes for abduction, horizontal adduction, and shoulder internal rotation were observed during the deceleration phase of the movement. In addition, by comparing previously published data across youth and adult pitchers, valuable insight into the differences in mechanics was gained. The results demonstrated that there are some distinct differences between youth and adult pitching mechanics. This finding may allow increased focus to be applied to those parameters observed to differ across age, increasing the knowledge base available for coaches to properly instruct youth pitchers.

  17. Influence of Combinations of Shoulder, Elbow and Trunk Orientation on Elbow Joint Loads in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toyohiko; Inui, Hiroaki; Ninomiya, Hiroki; Muto, Tomoyuki; Nobuhara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball pitchers is a well-recognized phenomenon. Common problems in pitching mechanics that can lead to injury begin with stride foot contact. The purpose of this study was to address the relationships between the combinations of shoulder, elbow and trunk orientation at the instant of stride foot contact and elbow joint loads in youth baseball pitchers. Methods: A total of 143 Japanese male youth baseball pitchers participated in this study after providing written informed consents approved by the hospital’s institutional review board. The procedures to be performed were also explained to their parent(s) or legal guardian(s). Each participant was not currently injured or recovering from an injury at time of testing. For data collection of baseball pitching, a set of 14-mm spherical reflective markers was placed on the skin overlying 34 anatomical landmarks determined. Subsequently, a motion capture three-dimensional automatic digitizing system was used to collect 500-Hz from 7 charge-coupled-device synchronized cameras was set up around the regulation pitching mound in an indoor laboratory. After performing a preparation routine of stretching and warm-up pitching, each player pitch to 5 fastball pitches off the pitching mound to a catcher at the regulation distance of 16 m for youth pitchers. The best pitch thrown for a strike was chosen for kinematic and kinetic analysis. The local coordinate systems were used to calculate 3-dimesional rotation at the trunk, shoulder and elbow using the typical Eulerian sequence. Afterward, the standard inverse dynamic equation was used to estimate resultant joint forces and torques at throwing shoulder and elbow. In order to normalize data between subjects, forces and torques were expressed as percent using body weight and height. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to assess the combined effects of shoulder (external rotation, abduction and horizontal adduction), elbow

  18. Lower Extremity Strength and Active Range of Motion in College Baseball Pitchers: A Comparison between Stance Leg and Kick Leg.

    PubMed

    Tippett, S R

    1986-01-01

    The role of the lower extremities and torso is vital in the pitching mechanism. However, a review of the literature reveals information primarily dealing with the upper extremity's role in throwing. This pilot study was conducted to: 1) determine selected lower extremity strength and range of motion measurements in sixteen college baseball pitchers, and 2) compare measurements in the stance leg to the kick leg. When preseason profiling is not possible, clinical norms for those treating college pitchers can be valuable in proper rehabilitation of the lower extremity. Also, by determining trends in lower extremity strength and motion when comparing kick (plant) leg to stance (drive) leg, a better understanding of lower extremity kinematics in the pitching act can be appreciated. Statistically significant differences were found in the active range of motion in plantarflexion, hip internal rotation, and hip extension of the stance leg, as well as hip flexion of the kick leg. lsokinetic evaluations at slow and fast speeds revealed significant differences in the strength of ankle dorsiflexors and hip flexors at slow speeds of the kick leg. Strength of the hamstrings on the kick leg was significant at fast speeds as was strength of the hip external rotators on the stance leg. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;8(1):10-14.

  19. Influence of shoulder abduction and lateral trunk tilt on peak elbow varus torque for college baseball pitchers during simulated pitching.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2006-05-01

    Elbow varus torque is a primary factor in the risk of elbow injury during pitching. To examine the effects of shoulder abduction and lateral trunk tilt angles on elbow varus torque, we conducted simulation and regression analyses on 33 college baseball pitchers. Motion data were used for computer simulations in which two angles-shoulder abduction and lateral trunk tilt-were systematically altered. Forty-two simulated motions were generated for each pitcher, and the peak elbow varus torque for each simulated motion was calculated. A two-way analysis of variance was performed to analyze the effects of shoulder abduction and trunk tilt on elbow varus torque. Regression analyses of a simple regression model, second-order regression model, and multiple regression model were also performed. Although regression analyses did not show any significant relationship, computer simulation indicated that the peak elbow varus torque was affected by both angles, and the interaction of those angles was also significant. As trunk tilt to the contralateral side increased, the shoulder abduction angle producing the minimum peak elbow varus torque decreased. It is suggested that shoulder abduction and lateral trunk tilt may be only two of several determinants of peak elbow varus torque.

  20. The biomechanics of situational baseball: execution and perception of left-handed pitchers' simulated pick-off moves to first base.

    PubMed

    Fortenbaugh, Dave; Butcher-Mokha, Monique

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an in-depth analysis of the pick-off play in baseball. Ten collegiate left-handed pitchers and nine base-runners participated in this study. The pitchers were videotaped with four cameras to derive three-dimensional data while performing deliveries in the directions of first base and home plate in a laboratory setting. Deliveries were performed from flat ground. Differences between these deliveries were measured through ten selected joint and segment angles. The base-runners completed two distinct procedures in which they viewed video footage of left-handed pitchers and estimated the intended delivery direction. Base-runners were subsequently interviewed to determine the reasoning behind their decisions. The pitchers' data revealed differences between delivery types in nearly all of the selected angles (P < 0.01). The base-runners' data demonstrated that their ability to discriminate delivery types improved when allowed more viewing time per trial (P < 0.01). Additionally, commonalities exist among the base-runners' focal points on the pitcher while making decisions regarding delivery direction and the kinematic differences between deliveries in left-handed pitchers. The practical significance of these results, however, may be more difficult to interpret.

  1. Concurrent little leaguer's elbow and shoulder in a 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback.

    PubMed

    Domes, Christopher M; Petering, Ryan C; Chesnutt, James C; Mirarchi, Adam

    2012-01-16

    Little leaguer's elbow and Little leaguer's shoulder are overuse pathologies seen in overhead-throwing athletes. No instance of simultaneously occurring pathologies has been published. A 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback developed pain in his throwing shoulder and elbow during spring baseball, which partially resolved with several months of rest. During fall football practice, he felt a pop and pain over his medial throwing elbow. Five days after the initial injury, medial elbow tenderness, mild swelling, and decreased range of motion were noted. Radiographs revealed a Salter I avulsion fracture of the medial humeral epicondyle (Little leaguer's elbow) and a periosteal reaction along the lateral aspect of the humeral metadiaphysis with slight widening (Little leaguer's shoulder). Surgical fixation of the medial epicondyle fracture and nonoperative treatment of the shoulder pathology were performed. Two-year follow-up radiographs showed a healed medial epicondylar fracture and resolution of the periosteal reaction of the humeral metadiaphysis. The patient returned to full activity and was starting quarterback for his football team. Biomechanical forces specific to overhead-throwing activities are associated with the development of Little leaguer's elbow and shoulder. Treatments of both pathologies remain controversial, with either initial operative vs nonoperative care. In this patient, a good outcome was achieved with surgical fixation of the elbow fracture and conservative management of the shoulder pathology. Educating coaches and parents on proper throwing technique and pitching limits should be the first step in reducing the occurrence of either pathology in this population.

  2. Adolescent baseball pitching technique: lower extremity biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Milewski, Matthew D; Õunpuu, Sylvia; Solomito, Matthew; Westwell, Melany; Nissen, Carl W

    2012-11-01

    Documentation of the lower extremity motion patterns of adolescent pitchers is an important part of understanding the pitching motion and the implication of lower extremity technique on upper extremity loads, injury and performance. The purpose of this study was to take the initial step in this process by documenting the biomechanics of the lower extremities during the pitching cycle in adolescent pitchers and to compare these findings with the published data for older pitchers. Three-dimensional motion analysis using a comprehensive lower extremity model was used to evaluate the fast ball pitch technique in adolescent pitchers. Thirty-two pitchers with a mean age of 12.4 years (range 10.5-14.7 years) and at least 2 years of experience were included in this study. The pitchers showed a mean of 49 ± 12° of knee flexion of the lead leg at foot contact. They tended to maintain this position through ball release, and then extended their knee during the follow through phase (ball release to maximal internal glenohumeral rotation). The lead leg hip rapidly progressed into adduction and flexion during the arm cocking phase with a range of motion of 40 ± 10° adduction and 30 ± 13° flexion. The lead hip mean peak adduction velocity was 434 ± 83°/s and flexion velocity was 456 ± 156°/s. Simultaneously, the trailing leg hip rapidly extended approaching to a mean peak extension of -8 ± 5° at 39% of the pitch cycle, which is close to passive range of motion constraints. Peak hip abduction of the trailing leg at foot contact was -31 ± 12°, which also approached passive range of motion constraints. Differences and similarities were also noted between the adolescent lower extremity kinematics and adult pitchers; however, a more comprehensive analysis using similar methods is needed for a complete comparison. PMID:22660979

  3. Adolescent baseball pitching technique: lower extremity biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Milewski, Matthew D; Õunpuu, Sylvia; Solomito, Matthew; Westwell, Melany; Nissen, Carl W

    2012-11-01

    Documentation of the lower extremity motion patterns of adolescent pitchers is an important part of understanding the pitching motion and the implication of lower extremity technique on upper extremity loads, injury and performance. The purpose of this study was to take the initial step in this process by documenting the biomechanics of the lower extremities during the pitching cycle in adolescent pitchers and to compare these findings with the published data for older pitchers. Three-dimensional motion analysis using a comprehensive lower extremity model was used to evaluate the fast ball pitch technique in adolescent pitchers. Thirty-two pitchers with a mean age of 12.4 years (range 10.5-14.7 years) and at least 2 years of experience were included in this study. The pitchers showed a mean of 49 ± 12° of knee flexion of the lead leg at foot contact. They tended to maintain this position through ball release, and then extended their knee during the follow through phase (ball release to maximal internal glenohumeral rotation). The lead leg hip rapidly progressed into adduction and flexion during the arm cocking phase with a range of motion of 40 ± 10° adduction and 30 ± 13° flexion. The lead hip mean peak adduction velocity was 434 ± 83°/s and flexion velocity was 456 ± 156°/s. Simultaneously, the trailing leg hip rapidly extended approaching to a mean peak extension of -8 ± 5° at 39% of the pitch cycle, which is close to passive range of motion constraints. Peak hip abduction of the trailing leg at foot contact was -31 ± 12°, which also approached passive range of motion constraints. Differences and similarities were also noted between the adolescent lower extremity kinematics and adult pitchers; however, a more comprehensive analysis using similar methods is needed for a complete comparison.

  4. Gluteal muscle group activation and its relationship with pelvis and torso kinematics in high-school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Keeley, David W

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the activation patterns of the gluteal muscle group and their relationship to pelvis and torso kinematics throughout the high-school pitching motion. A single group, repeated-measures design was used to collect gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscle activity through surface electromyography for the preferred and nonpreferred sides during the various phases of the pitching motion. In addition, data describing the kinematics of the pelvis and torso were collected at foot contact, maximum shoulder external rotation, ball release, and maximum shoulder internal rotation. For all pitchers, preferred gluteus maximus activity was observed to be in excess of 100% of their maximum voluntary isometric contraction throughout the stride and arm-cocking phases of the pitching motion. The observed means for the preferred gluteus medius, nonpreferred gluteus maximus, and nonpreferred gluteus medius, although different in magnitude, were similar in pattern. From the conclusion of the stride phase, through the conclusion of the arm-cocking phase, muscle activity increased for all pitchers. In examining the relationship between the rate of axial pelvis rotation and gluteal activity, several significant relationships were observed. In contrast, no significant relationships were observed with gluteal activity parameters and the rate of axial torso rotation. However, because the pitching motion progresses sequentially from the pelvis to the torso, variability in pelvis rotation may be directly related to variability in torso rotation. The findings from this study indicate that during the baseball pitch, there is a need for greater control of gluteal activation throughout the pitching motion.

  5. An aneurysm involving the axillary artery and its branch vessels in a major league baseball pitcher. A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schneider, K; Kasparyan, N G; Altchek, D W; Fantini, G A; Weiland, A J

    1999-01-01

    Baseball pitchers appear to be prone to aneurysms of the axillary artery and its branches. The cause is probably related to repetitive compression of or tension on the vessels at the level of the pectoralis minor muscle and the humeral head, which is exacerbated by the pitching motion. The incidence of aneurysms of the axillary artery and its branches among pitchers and other athletes is not known, nor is it clear whether pitchers who are at high risk of vascular injury can be identified before irreversible damage to the vessels has occurred. Perhaps patients who have documented compression or occlusion of the vessel with the arm in the abducted, externally rotated position are at higher risk. Screening pitchers to identify those with axillary artery compression, aneurysm, or thrombosis has also not been shown to be effective. Certainly, many pitchers will have some level of compression of the axillary artery with their arm in the pitching position but will never develop any clinical abnormality requiring treatment. Screening would therefore probably lead to a high false-positive rate. It is clear, however, that pitchers who complain of ischemia-type symptoms such as early fatigue or who have evidence of emboli require a complete evaluation to rule out any abnormality of the axillary artery or one of its branches. Orthopaedic surgeons who see pitchers and other athletes involved in repetitive overhead motions need to be aware of this disorder so that they order the appropriate tests and obtain a vascular consultation--and make a prompt diagnosis. Treatment will vary depending on the type of lesion and on which vessel or vessels are involved, and should be decided on by the team of surgeons treating the patient.

  6. Axillary artery thrombosis in a major league baseball pitcher: a case report and rehabilitation guide.

    PubMed

    Zajac, John M; Angeline, Michael E; Bohon, Tiffany M; Loftus, Michael; Potter, Hollis G; Weiland, Andrew J; Thompson, Robert W; Coleman, Struan H; Altchek, David W

    2013-09-01

    This case study describes a Major League Baseball player who was diagnosed with an axillary artery thrombosis due to arterial compression from throwing. The purpose of this article is to create awareness as to the signs and symptoms associated with arterial positional compression and the rehabilitative implications to surgical intervention.

  7. Ganglion cyst and olecranon physis nonunion in a baseball pitcher: unique treatment after conservative therapy fails.

    PubMed

    Burman, Mark L; Aljassir, Fawzi; Coughlin, Larry P

    2004-06-01

    Although ganglion cysts and stress fractures occur at many joints, the presence of both disorders at the same joint is rare. In this unusual case, a 30-year-old professional pitcher had been treated conservatively for presumed olecranon bursitis in his right (throwing) arm, but, when therapy failed, he sought additional care. A thorough workup and subsequent surgery revealed a ganglion cyst and nonunion of a stress fracture of the olecranon physis. The ganglion cyst had its origin at the fracture site, and both cyst and bone fragment were excised. The patient had a full recovery and was able to resume pitching as an instructor 18 months after surgery.

  8. Posterior rotator cuff strengthening using theraband(r) in a functional diagonal pattern in collegiate baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Page, P A; Lamberth, J; Abadie, B; Boling, R; Collins, R; Linton, R

    1993-01-01

    The deceleration phase of the pitching mechanism requires forceful eccentric contraction of the posterior rotator cuff. Because traditional isotonic strengthening may not be specific to this eccentric pattern, a more effective and functional means of strengthening the posterior rotator cuff is needed. Twelve collegiate baseball pitchers performed a moderate intensity isotonic dumbbell strengthening routine for 6 weeks. Six of the 12 subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group and placed on a Theraband(R) Elastic Band strengthening routine in a functional-diagonal pattern to emphasize the eccentric contraction of the posterior rotator cuff, in addition to the isotonic routine. The control group (n = 6) performed only the isotonic exercises. Both groups were evaluated on a KIN-COM(R) isokinetic dynamometer in a functional diagonal pattern. Pretest and posttest average eccentric force production of the posterior rotator cuff was compared at two speeds, 60 and 180 degrees /s. Data were analyzed with an analysis of covariance at the .05 level with significance at 60 degrees /s. Values at 180 degrees /s, however, were not significant. Eccentric force production at 60 degrees /s increased more during training in the experimental group (+19.8%) than in the control group (-1.6%). There was no difference in the two groups at 180 degrees /s; both decreased (8 to 15%). Theraband was effective at 60 degrees /s in functional eccentric strengthening of the posterior rotator cuff in the pitching shoulder.

  9. Osseous adaptation and range of motion at the glenohumeral joint in professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Heber C; Gross, Lyndon B; Wilk, Kevin E; Schwartz, Martin L; Reed, Jamie; O'Mara, Jay; Reilly, Michael T; Dugas, Jeffery R; Meister, Keith; Lyman, Stephen; Andrews, James R

    2002-01-01

    The throwing shoulder in pitchers frequently exhibits a paradox of glenohumeral joint motion, in which excessive external rotation is present at the expense of decreased internal rotation. The object of this study was to determine the role of humeral head retroversion in relation to increased glenohumeral external rotation. Glenohumeral joint range of motion and laxity along with humeral head and glenoid version of the dominant versus nondominant shoulders were studied in 25 professional pitchers and 25 nonthrowing subjects. Each subject underwent a computed tomography scan to determine bilateral humeral head and glenoid version. The throwing group demonstrated a significant increase in the dominant shoulder versus the nondominant shoulder in humeral head retroversion, glenoid retroversion, external rotation at 90 degrees, and external rotation in the scapular plane. Internal rotation was decreased in the dominant shoulder. Total range of motion, anterior glenohumeral laxity, and posterior glenohumeral laxity were found to be equal bilaterally. The nonthrowing group demonstrated no significant difference in humeral head retroversion, glenoid retroversion, external rotation at 90 degrees or external rotation in the scapular plane between shoulders, and no difference in internal rotation at 90 degrees, total motion, or laxity. A comparison of the dominant shoulders of the two groups indicated that both external rotation at 90 degrees and humeral head retroversion were significantly greater in the throwing group.

  10. Coincidence-anticipation performance of adolescent baseball players and nonplayers.

    PubMed

    Dunham, P

    1989-06-01

    10 adolescent baseball players and 10 nonplayers made estimates of baseballs' arrival at the front edge of a home plate. Balls were projected 45 ft. by a pitching machine at speeds of 35, 40, 45, and 50 mph. Subjects made estimates with the dominant and nondominant eye closest to the oncoming ball. Analysis indicated that players were no more accurate than nonplayers but did respond significantly earlier and with consistency. Eye dominance had no effect on performance.

  11. Changes in heart rate of pitchers during semi-hard baseball practices and matches.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Inomata, Kimihiro

    2014-12-01

    High heart rate during competition is a response to both psychological and physiological stress, making it difficult to examine psychological stress in sport. The validity of a new method to extract psychological stress by subtracting heart rate during practice from that of competition was evaluated. The method was used in actual competition for eight pitchers. Most participants showed a "coasting phase," "increment phase," and "descent phase" for heart rate time-series data under both conditions. Heart rate in competitions was higher than during practice, and heart rate in both conditions showed a high correlation. Heart rate changes were significantly higher in situations in which two or three balls had already been thrown compared to zero balls thrown. Thus, psychological stress can be examined in various competition conditions using this method.

  12. Lower body predictors of glenohumeral compressive force in high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Keeley, David W; Oliver, Gretchen D; Dougherty, Christopher P; Torry, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how lower body kinematics relate to peak glenohumeral compressive force and develop a regression model accounting for variability in peak glenohumeral compressive force. Data were collected for 34 pitchers. Average peak glenohumeral compressive force was 1.72% ± 33% body weight (1334.9 N ± 257.5). Correlation coefficients revealed 5 kinematic variables correlated to peak glenohumeral compressive force (P < .01, α = .025). Regression models indicated 78.5% of the variance in peak glenohumeral compressive force (R2 = .785, P < .01) was explained by stride length, lateral pelvis flexion at maximum external rotation, and axial pelvis rotation velocity at release. These results indicate peak glenohumeral compressive force increases with a combination of decreased stride length, increased pelvic tilt at maximum external rotation toward the throwing arm side, and increased pelvis axial rotation velocity at release. Thus, it may be possible to decrease peak glenohumeral compressive force by optimizing the movements of the lower body while pitching. Focus should be on both training and conditioning the lower extremity in an effort to increase stride length, increase pelvis tilt toward the glove hand side at maximum external rotation, and decrease pelvis axial rotation at release. PMID:25734579

  13. Lower body predictors of glenohumeral compressive force in high school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Keeley, David W; Oliver, Gretchen D; Dougherty, Christopher P; Torry, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how lower body kinematics relate to peak glenohumeral compressive force and develop a regression model accounting for variability in peak glenohumeral compressive force. Data were collected for 34 pitchers. Average peak glenohumeral compressive force was 1.72% ± 33% body weight (1334.9 N ± 257.5). Correlation coefficients revealed 5 kinematic variables correlated to peak glenohumeral compressive force (P < .01, α = .025). Regression models indicated 78.5% of the variance in peak glenohumeral compressive force (R2 = .785, P < .01) was explained by stride length, lateral pelvis flexion at maximum external rotation, and axial pelvis rotation velocity at release. These results indicate peak glenohumeral compressive force increases with a combination of decreased stride length, increased pelvic tilt at maximum external rotation toward the throwing arm side, and increased pelvis axial rotation velocity at release. Thus, it may be possible to decrease peak glenohumeral compressive force by optimizing the movements of the lower body while pitching. Focus should be on both training and conditioning the lower extremity in an effort to increase stride length, increase pelvis tilt toward the glove hand side at maximum external rotation, and decrease pelvis axial rotation at release.

  14. Upper extremity blood flow in collegiate and high school baseball pitchers A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Bast, S C; Perry, J R; Poppiti, R; Vangsness, C T; Weaver, F A

    1996-01-01

    The arterial and venous volume blood flow in the dominant and nondominant upper extremities of five male pitchers, ages 16 to 21, was measured using color flow duplex ultrasound. Blood-flow measurements were obtained at baseline, after warm-up, and after each sequence of 20 pitches until 100 pitches were thrown. Blood flow was additionally determined 1 hour after the last pitch. The velocity of each pitch was recorded with a speed gun. Anthropomorphic measurements of the upper extremity were obtained at baseline and immediately after Pitch 100 using a standard measuring tape. The highest average arterial volume flow in the pitching arm occurred after 40 pitches, reaching a peak of 549 ml/min (56% increase from baseline). Thereafter, the average arterial blood flow steadily declined, reaching an average of 402 ml/min after the 100th pitch (14% increase from baseline). In contrast, the arterial blood flow in the nonpitching arm increased only slightly from baseline, reaching a maximal volume flow of 448 ml/min immediately after the warm-up period (10% increase from baseline). The volume flow then persistently fell to a level 30% below baseline after the 100th pitch. Although this small pilot study does not demonstrate causation between a decline in pitching performance and arterial blood flow, it suggests arterial flow in the dominant extremity falls as the pitch count increases.

  15. Effects of Three Recovery Protocols on Range of Motion, Heart Rate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Blood Lactate in Baseball Pitchers During a Simulated Game.

    PubMed

    Warren, Courtney D; Szymanski, David J; Landers, Merrill R

    2015-11-01

    Baseball pitching has been described as an anaerobic activity from a bioenergetics standpoint with short bouts of recovery. Depending on the physical conditioning and muscle fiber composition of the pitcher as well as the number of pitches thrown per inning and per game, there is the possibility of pitchers fatiguing during a game, which could lead to a decrease in pitching performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 recovery protocols: passive recovery, active recovery (AR), and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on range of motion (ROM), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration in baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-one Division I intercollegiate baseball pitchers (age = 20.4 ± 1.4 years; height = 185.9 ± 8.4 cm; weight = 86.5 ± 8.9 kg; percent body fat = 11.2 ± 2.6) volunteered to pitch 3 simulated 5-inning games, with a maximum of 70 fastballs thrown per game while wearing an HR monitor. Range of motion was measured pre, post, and 24 hours postpitching for shoulder internal and external rotation at 90° and elbow flexion and extension. Heart rate was recorded after each pitch and after every 30 seconds of the 6-minute recovery period. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded after the last pitch of each inning and after completing each 6-minute recovery period. Immediately after throwing the last pitch of each inning, postpitching blood lactate concentration (PPLa-) was measured. At the end of the 6-minute recovery period, before the next inning started, postrecovery blood lactate concentration (PRLa-) was measured. Pitchers were instructed to throw each pitch at or above 95% of their best-pitched fastball. This was enforced to ensure that each pitcher was throwing close to maximal effort for all 3 simulated games. All data presented represent group mean values. Results revealed that the method of recovery protocol did not significantly influence ROM (p > 0

  16. Effects of Three Recovery Protocols on Range of Motion, Heart Rate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Blood Lactate in Baseball Pitchers During a Simulated Game.

    PubMed

    Warren, Courtney D; Szymanski, David J; Landers, Merrill R

    2015-11-01

    Baseball pitching has been described as an anaerobic activity from a bioenergetics standpoint with short bouts of recovery. Depending on the physical conditioning and muscle fiber composition of the pitcher as well as the number of pitches thrown per inning and per game, there is the possibility of pitchers fatiguing during a game, which could lead to a decrease in pitching performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 recovery protocols: passive recovery, active recovery (AR), and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on range of motion (ROM), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration in baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-one Division I intercollegiate baseball pitchers (age = 20.4 ± 1.4 years; height = 185.9 ± 8.4 cm; weight = 86.5 ± 8.9 kg; percent body fat = 11.2 ± 2.6) volunteered to pitch 3 simulated 5-inning games, with a maximum of 70 fastballs thrown per game while wearing an HR monitor. Range of motion was measured pre, post, and 24 hours postpitching for shoulder internal and external rotation at 90° and elbow flexion and extension. Heart rate was recorded after each pitch and after every 30 seconds of the 6-minute recovery period. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded after the last pitch of each inning and after completing each 6-minute recovery period. Immediately after throwing the last pitch of each inning, postpitching blood lactate concentration (PPLa-) was measured. At the end of the 6-minute recovery period, before the next inning started, postrecovery blood lactate concentration (PRLa-) was measured. Pitchers were instructed to throw each pitch at or above 95% of their best-pitched fastball. This was enforced to ensure that each pitcher was throwing close to maximal effort for all 3 simulated games. All data presented represent group mean values. Results revealed that the method of recovery protocol did not significantly influence ROM (p > 0

  17. Coordination pattern of baseball pitching among young pitchers of various ages and velocity levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Liu, Chiang; Yang, Wen-Wen

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the whole-body movement coordination of pitching among 72 baseball players of various ages and velocity levels. Participants were classified as senior, junior, and little according to their age, with each group comprising 24 players. The velocity levels of the high-velocity (the top eight) and low-velocity (the lowest eight) groups were classified according to their pitching velocity. During pitching, the coordinates of 15 markers attached to the major joints of the whole-body movement system were collected for analysis. Sixteen kinematic parameters were calculated to compare the groups and velocity levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to quantify the coordination pattern of pitching movement. The results were as follows: (1) five position and two velocity parameters significantly differed among the age groups, and two position and one velocity parameters significantly differed between the high- and low-velocity groups. (2) The coordination patterns of pitching movement could be described using three components, of which the eigenvalues and contents varied according to age and velocity level. In conclusion, the senior and junior players showed greater elbow angular velocity, whereas the little players exhibited a wider shoulder angle only at the beginning of pitching. The players with high velocity exhibited higher trunk and shoulder rotation velocity. The variations among groups found using PCA and kinematics parameter analyses were consistent.

  18. Coordination pattern of baseball pitching among young pitchers of various ages and velocity levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Liu, Chiang; Yang, Wen-Wen

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the whole-body movement coordination of pitching among 72 baseball players of various ages and velocity levels. Participants were classified as senior, junior, and little according to their age, with each group comprising 24 players. The velocity levels of the high-velocity (the top eight) and low-velocity (the lowest eight) groups were classified according to their pitching velocity. During pitching, the coordinates of 15 markers attached to the major joints of the whole-body movement system were collected for analysis. Sixteen kinematic parameters were calculated to compare the groups and velocity levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to quantify the coordination pattern of pitching movement. The results were as follows: (1) five position and two velocity parameters significantly differed among the age groups, and two position and one velocity parameters significantly differed between the high- and low-velocity groups. (2) The coordination patterns of pitching movement could be described using three components, of which the eigenvalues and contents varied according to age and velocity level. In conclusion, the senior and junior players showed greater elbow angular velocity, whereas the little players exhibited a wider shoulder angle only at the beginning of pitching. The players with high velocity exhibited higher trunk and shoulder rotation velocity. The variations among groups found using PCA and kinematics parameter analyses were consistent. PMID:26757065

  19. Olecranon Stress Injury in an Adolescent Overhand Pitcher: A Case Report and Analysis of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Jason; Sahu, Novneet; Sandella, Bradley

    2015-07-01

    Upper extremity stress fractures, which are relatively rare, have become increasingly common, with olecranon stress injuries representing a subset primarily affecting throwing athletes. Olecranon stress fractures have been classified to fit specific radiographic patterns, with most of these injuries typified by a fracture line. Only a handful of olecranon stress injury cases report magnetic resonance imaging findings of osseous edema within the olecranon, as in our case of a 17-year-old competitive overhand baseball pitcher with elbow pain. The patient was treated conservatively and had resolution of pain after 6 weeks of rest, followed by a 6-week throwing progression with full return to pitching.

  20. [Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, John, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This student newsletter issue speaks to the subject of baseball. The first article, on who rules baseball, discusses the problems that the developing sport had with gambling, and the struggle between the owners and gangsters for control of the game. The article describes the scandal involving the Chicago White Sox in the 1919 World Series and the…

  1. Cubital tunnel syndrome in adolescent baseball players: a report of six cases with 3- to 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Kanaya, Kohei; Aiki, Hikono; Wada, Takuro; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Ogiwara, Naoshi

    2005-06-01

    In this case report, we describe the clinical features and surgical outcome of cubital tunnel syndrome in adolescent baseball players. Two infielders, 2 pitchers, and 2 catchers who suffered cubital tunnel syndrome during adolescence (average age, 14 years) were surgically treated. Symptoms of medial elbow pain first appeared during throwing in competition games in summer or autumn seasons. After the onset, they suffered limitation of elbow extension and weakness on grabbing balls. They could not throw because of recurrent medial elbow pain. Laxity of the medial collateral ligament was not detected by stress radiography. Duration of symptoms from the onset to surgery was less than 6 months for 2 patients, 1 year for 2, and longer than 2 years for 2 patients. Anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve relieved symptoms up to 3.3 postoperative years. Medial protrusion of the triceps muscle was observed to cause irritation of the ulnar nerve. Fibrosis surrounding the ulnar nerve was observed without pseudoneuroma. Throwing performance returned completely to competitive level in 5 months postoperatively in 5 of 6 patients. Early diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome in adolescent baseball players is very important. Anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve relieves symptoms and restores throwing function.

  2. Pitcher's arm: an electrodiagnostic enigma.

    PubMed

    Long, R R; Sargent, J C; Pappas, A M; Hammer, K

    1996-10-01

    Every major league baseball pitcher, most minor league pitchers, but only few amateur pitchers that we have studied have had reduced sensory nerve action potentials in the throwing arm. We present 6 clinical cases which demonstrate the spectrum of "pitcher's arm." These cases suggest that the phenomenon is a pathologic process, probably an example of a repetitive use syndrome affecting the brachial plexus. Although it does not appear to impact performance, it has clear implications for the interpretation of electrodiagnostic studies in symptomatic pitchers.

  3. Conservative management of posterior interosseous neuropathy in an elite baseball pitcher's return to play: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Robb, Andrew; Sajko, Sandy

    2009-12-01

    This report documents retrospectively a case of Posterior Interosseous Neuropathy (PIN) occurring in an elite baseball pitcher experiencing a deep ache in the radial aspect of the forearm and altered sensation in the dorsum of the hand on the throwing arm during his pitching motion. The initial clinical goal was to control for inflammation to the nerve and muscle with active rest, microcurrent therapy, low-level laser therapy, and cessation of throwing. Minimizing mechanosensitivity at the common extensor region of the right elbow and PIN, was achieved by employing the use of myofascial release and augmented soft tissue mobilization techniques. Neurodynamic mobilization technique was also administered to improve neural function. Implementation of a sport specific protocol for the purposes of maintaining throwing mechanics and overall conditioning was utilized. Successful resolution of symptomatology and return to pre-injury status was achieved in 5 weeks. A review of literature and an evidence-based discussion for the differential diagnoses, clinical examination, diagnosis, management and rehabilitation of PIN is presented. PMID:20037695

  4. Conservative management of posterior interosseous neuropathy in an elite baseball pitcher's return to play: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Robb, Andrew; Sajko, Sandy

    2009-12-01

    This report documents retrospectively a case of Posterior Interosseous Neuropathy (PIN) occurring in an elite baseball pitcher experiencing a deep ache in the radial aspect of the forearm and altered sensation in the dorsum of the hand on the throwing arm during his pitching motion. The initial clinical goal was to control for inflammation to the nerve and muscle with active rest, microcurrent therapy, low-level laser therapy, and cessation of throwing. Minimizing mechanosensitivity at the common extensor region of the right elbow and PIN, was achieved by employing the use of myofascial release and augmented soft tissue mobilization techniques. Neurodynamic mobilization technique was also administered to improve neural function. Implementation of a sport specific protocol for the purposes of maintaining throwing mechanics and overall conditioning was utilized. Successful resolution of symptomatology and return to pre-injury status was achieved in 5 weeks. A review of literature and an evidence-based discussion for the differential diagnoses, clinical examination, diagnosis, management and rehabilitation of PIN is presented.

  5. Performance enhancement among adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate baseball weights.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Wen; Liu, Ya-Chen; Lu, Lee-Chang; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Chou, Paul Pei-Hsi; Liu, Chiang

    2013-12-01

    Compared with regulation-weight baseballs, lightweight baseballs generate lower torque on the shoulder and elbow joints without altering the pitching movement and timing. This study investigates the throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and maximum shoulder external rotation (MSER) of adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate lightweight baseballs. We assigned 24 adolescent players to a lightweight baseball group (group L) and a regulation-weight baseball group (group R) based on their pretraining throwing velocity. Both groups received pitching training 3 times per week for 10 weeks with 4.4- and 5-oz baseballs. The players' throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and MSER were measured from 10 maximum efforts throws using a regulation-weight baseball before and after undergoing the pitching training. The results showed that the players in group L significantly increased their throwing velocity and arm swing velocity (p < 0.05) after 10 weeks of pitching training with the 4.4-oz baseball, whereas group R did not (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the percentage change in the throwing velocity and arm swing velocity of group L was significantly superior to that of group R (p < 0.05). Thus, we concluded that the 10 weeks of pitching training with an appropriate lightweight baseball substantially enhanced the arm swing velocity and throwing velocity of the adolescent baseball players. These findings suggest that using a lightweight baseball, which can reduce the risk of injury without altering pitching patterns, has positive training effects on players in the rapid physical growth and technique development stage.

  6. Performance enhancement among adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate baseball weights.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Wen; Liu, Ya-Chen; Lu, Lee-Chang; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Chou, Paul Pei-Hsi; Liu, Chiang

    2013-12-01

    Compared with regulation-weight baseballs, lightweight baseballs generate lower torque on the shoulder and elbow joints without altering the pitching movement and timing. This study investigates the throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and maximum shoulder external rotation (MSER) of adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate lightweight baseballs. We assigned 24 adolescent players to a lightweight baseball group (group L) and a regulation-weight baseball group (group R) based on their pretraining throwing velocity. Both groups received pitching training 3 times per week for 10 weeks with 4.4- and 5-oz baseballs. The players' throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and MSER were measured from 10 maximum efforts throws using a regulation-weight baseball before and after undergoing the pitching training. The results showed that the players in group L significantly increased their throwing velocity and arm swing velocity (p < 0.05) after 10 weeks of pitching training with the 4.4-oz baseball, whereas group R did not (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the percentage change in the throwing velocity and arm swing velocity of group L was significantly superior to that of group R (p < 0.05). Thus, we concluded that the 10 weeks of pitching training with an appropriate lightweight baseball substantially enhanced the arm swing velocity and throwing velocity of the adolescent baseball players. These findings suggest that using a lightweight baseball, which can reduce the risk of injury without altering pitching patterns, has positive training effects on players in the rapid physical growth and technique development stage. PMID:23603999

  7. Comparison of Shoulder Range of Motion, Strength, and Playing Time in Uninjured High School Baseball Pitchers Who Reside in Warm- and Cold-Weather Climates

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Kevin M.; ElAttrache, Neal S.; Jobe, Frank W.; Morrey, Bernard F.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; Hurd, Wendy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an assumption that baseball athletes who reside in warm-weather climates experience larger magnitude adaptations in throwing shoulder motion and strength compared with their peers who reside in cold-weather climates. Hypotheses (1) The warm-weather climate (WWC) group would exhibit more pronounced shoulder motion and strength adaptations than the cold-weather climate (CWC) group, and (2) the WWC group would participate in pitching activities for a greater proportion of the year than the CWC group, with the time spent pitching predicting throwing shoulder motion and strength in both groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods One hundred uninjured high school pitchers (50 each WWC, CWC) were recruited. Rotational shoulder motion and isometric strength were measured and participants reported the number of months per year they pitched. To identify differences between groups, t tests were performed; linear regression was used to determine the influence of pitching volume on shoulder motion and strength. Results The WWC group pitched more months per year than athletes from the CWC group, with the number of months spent pitching negatively related to internal rotation motion and external rotation strength. The WWC group exhibited greater shoulder range of motion in all planes compared with the CWC group, as well as significantly lower external rotation strength and external/internal rotation strength ratios. There was no difference in internal rotation strength between groups, nor a difference in the magnitude of side-to-side differences for strength or motion measures. Conclusion Athletes who reside in cold- and warm-weather climates exhibit differences in throwing shoulder motion and strength, related in part to the number of months spent participating in pitching activities. The amount of time spent participating in pitching activities and the magnitude of range of motion and strength adaptations in athletes who reside

  8. Cumulative Incidence of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Capitellum in Child and Adolescent Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Iwame, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    playing baseball, playing period of baseball, number of training hours per week, and history of elbow pain. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression models and presented as odds ratio (OR) and profile likelihood 95% confidence interval (CI) values. Results: The mean age that players were introduced to baseball was 6.6 ±1.1 years; the mean duration of play baseball was 2.7 ±1.1 years; and the proportion of players with elbow pain when throwing was 24.1%. There were 138 (10.8%) pitchers, 114 (8.9%) catchers, 524 (41.2%) infielders, and 499 (39.1%) outfielders. The initial ultrasonographic screening revealed an irregularity of the subchondral bone in 33 players (2.6%). Of the 33 players, all the players agreed to undergo radiography. Of them, 23 players were confirmed OCD. These results showed that cumulative incidence of OCD was 1.8%. Univariate analysis showed that OCD occurrence was significantly associated with age of 11-12 years (p<.01) and more than 3 years of experimental year (p<.01). Beginning age of playing baseball, number of training hours per week, playing position, and history of elbow pain were not significantly associated with OCD. Multivariate analysis showed that age of 11-12 years (OR, 3.96; 95% CI, 1.10-18.97) was risk factors significantly associated with OCD. Experimental year was not significantly associated with OCD occurrence. Conclusion: It is expected that 1.8% of youth baseball players have OCD each year. The age of 11 and 12, increased training hours per week are risk factors for OCD.

  9. Subscapular elastofibroma in a young pitcher. A case report.

    PubMed

    Haney, T C

    1990-01-01

    Subscapular elastofibromas and scapulothoracic bursitis can cause symptomatic masses in baseball pitchers. Both processes appear to represent reactive soft tissue responses to repetitive stress at the inferior border of the scapula. It is assumed that most masses in the subscapular area represent scapulothoracic bursitis rather than an elastofibroma. However, it is possible that some of the masses treated conservatively as scapulothoracic bursitis may be elastofibromas. A study is currently under way to evaluate the incidence of subscapular masses in college and professional pitchers in the United States. A follow-up report is anticipated when the study has been completed. The author requests information concerning any confirmed cases of elastofibroma in baseball pitchers.

  10. Investigation of Two Pitching Conditions as Determinants for Developing Fundamental Skills of Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieth, William R.

    1977-01-01

    Use of a surrogate pitcher in Mite League Baseball increased opportunities for participants to learn the fundamental skills of baseball, since the substitution reduces competitiveness and emphasis on the goal of winning. (MB)

  11. Bilateral midshaft femoral fractures in an adolescent baseball player.

    PubMed

    Ju, D G; Mogayzel, P J; Sponseller, P D; Familiari, F; McFarland, E G

    2016-07-01

    Bone disease, specifically low bone mineral density, is a common and undertreated complication that begins during childhood in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This case describes a male baseball player, aged 14years, with undiagnosed CF who sustained a left midshaft femoral fracture while running toward base; 8months later, he sustained a right midshaft femoral fracture under similar conditions. After the second fracture, further evaluation revealed low bone mineral density and CF. There is no previously published report of pathologic fractures occurring in the femoral shaft in an athlete with undiagnosed CF. Patients with CF have a higher fracture rate. Low-energy fractures of major bones in athletically active individuals should be viewed with suspicion for an underlying process.

  12. Bilateral midshaft femoral fractures in an adolescent baseball player.

    PubMed

    Ju, D G; Mogayzel, P J; Sponseller, P D; Familiari, F; McFarland, E G

    2016-07-01

    Bone disease, specifically low bone mineral density, is a common and undertreated complication that begins during childhood in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This case describes a male baseball player, aged 14years, with undiagnosed CF who sustained a left midshaft femoral fracture while running toward base; 8months later, he sustained a right midshaft femoral fracture under similar conditions. After the second fracture, further evaluation revealed low bone mineral density and CF. There is no previously published report of pathologic fractures occurring in the femoral shaft in an athlete with undiagnosed CF. Patients with CF have a higher fracture rate. Low-energy fractures of major bones in athletically active individuals should be viewed with suspicion for an underlying process. PMID:26927602

  13. A 12-week rehabilitation program improves body composition, pain sensation, and internal/external torques of baseball pitchers with shoulder impingement symptom.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jun-Youl; Kim, Jae-Hak; Hong, Ju; Choi, Young-Tae; Kim, Min-Ho; Cho, Ji-Hyun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program on body composition, shoulder pain, and isokinetic internal/external torques of pitchers with impingement syndrome. A total of 30 pitchers were divided into 2 groups: experimental group (EG, n = 16) and control group (CG, n= 14). The rehabilitation program consisted of physical therapy, warm-up, work-out, and cool-down. As results, body weight and fat mass of EG were decreased whereas muscle mass of EG was significantly increased after the experiment. The pain degrees in resting, normal daily activity, and strenuous activity on the numeric pain rating scale were significantly decreased in the EG. The internal and external peak torques (PTs) of uninvolved and involved sides of EG were increased in EG after 12 weeks. Such results provide a deficit ratio of both sides in EG close to normal values. The ratios of internal/external PTs in EG were also close to the reference values. The internal and external total works of both sides in EG were similar to the values of PT. The fatigue indices of internal and external rotators of both sides in EG were decreased. As a conclusion, a 12-week rehabilitation program reduced the shoulder pain, improved the body composition and enhanced the isokinetic shoulder internal/external rotators in EG with impingement symptoms. Also the study suggested that the rehabilitation program evened out the ratio between internal and external rotators and lowered the fatigue level after the experiment.

  14. Differential person functioning applied to baseball.

    PubMed

    Johanson, George A; Brooks, Gordon P

    2008-12-01

    The question of whether a baseball player generally hits better against a left-handed or right-handed pitcher is difficult to answer since handedness is only one of many possible attributes of pitchers. The concept of differential functioning from psychometrics is applied, considering both the effect of the handedness of the pitcher and his earned run average (the mean number of runs scored against a pitcher per 9 innings pitched excluding runs due to errors). Two interesting cases are examined, a left-handed batter and a switch-hitter. Suggestions for further research are offered.

  15. Posterior capsular fibrosis in professional baseball pitchers: case series of MR arthrographic findings in six patients with glenohumeral internal rotational deficit.

    PubMed

    Tehranzadeh, Arash D; Fronek, Jan; Resnick, Donald

    2007-01-01

    In the high-performance athlete, acquired thickening of the posterior joint capsule is a proposed etiology for glenohumeral internal rotational deficit (GIRD). The purpose of this study was to present our MR arthrographic imaging observations of posterior capsular thickening in professional baseball players who present with reduced throwing velocity related to pain and clinical findings of internal rotational deficit of the glenohumeral joint. Our observations of MR imaging features in patients with clinical and arthroscopic manifestations of GIRD lesions include articular surface partial thickness tears of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons, superoposterior subluxation of the humeral head and SLAP tears of the labrum. Although no empiric standard currently exists for the axial dimension thickness of the shoulder capsule, we have observed a thickened appearance of the posterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament in these patients.

  16. Stress fracture of the ipsilateral first rib in a pitcher.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, R; Pavlov, H; Torg, J S

    1985-01-01

    This stress fracture of the left first rib in a 17-year-old, left-handed high school baseball pitcher represents the first of its type reported in the literature. Two similar cases have been reported in pitchers, but the fracture was on the nondominant side in both cases. In contrast to most cases of this rare lesion, the stress fracture we report occurred acutely and was documented roentgenographically from onset to complete healing 9 months later.

  17. A rare cause of chronic elbow pain in an adolescent baseball player: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wasylynko, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a case of chronic elbow pain as a result of a hidden underlying osteochondral defect. Clinical Features: A 17-year old baseball player presented with chronic lateral elbow pain. Examination revealed swelling of the elbow with signs of possible ligament, muscle, and tendon injury. Diagnosis and Treatment: Although there was apparent soft-tissue injury, the elbow swelling created immediate suspicion of a more serious underlying condition. Examination revealed a swollen and tender elbow, with plain x-ray confirming a subchondral bone disorder (osteochondral defect) of the capitellum. Surgical repair was performed by an orthopedic surgeon using DeNovo NT Natural Tissue Grafts: the implantation of small pieces of juvenile joint cartilage into the affected area, using glue-like fibrin. Rehabilitation of the elbow began immediately following surgery. Summary: Examination and imaging indicated that elbow pain in an adolescent baseball player could be from multiple sources, however, the chronic swelling raised suspicion of a condition requiring immediate and further investigation. PMID:27713578

  18. Shoulder proprioception is not related to throwing speed or accuracy in elite adolescent male baseball players.

    PubMed

    Freeston, Jonathan; Adams, Roger D; Rooney, Kieron

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence throwing speed and accuracy is critical to performance in baseball. Shoulder proprioception has been implicated in the injury risk of throwing athletes, but no such link has been established with performance outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe any relationship between shoulder proprioception acuity and throwing speed or accuracy. Twenty healthy elite adolescent male baseball players (age, 19.6 ± 2.6 years), who had represented the state of New South Wales in the past 18 months, were assessed for bilateral active shoulder proprioception (shoulder rotation in 90° of arm abduction moving toward external rotation using the active movement extent discrimination apparatus), maximal throwing speed (MTS, meters per second measured via a radar gun), and accuracy (total error in centimeters determined by video analysis) at 80 and 100% of MTS. Although proprioception in the dominant and nondominant arms was significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.54, p < 0.01), no relationship was found between shoulder proprioception and performance. Shoulder proprioception was not a significant determinant of throwing performance such that high levels of speed and accuracy were achieved without a high degree of proprioception. There is no evidence to suggest therefore that this particular method of shoulder proprioception measurement should be implemented in clinical practice. Consequently, clinicians are encouraged to consider proprioception throughout the entire kinetic chain rather than the shoulder joint in isolation as a determining factor of performance in throwing athletes. PMID:24936898

  19. Shoulder proprioception is not related to throwing speed or accuracy in elite adolescent male baseball players.

    PubMed

    Freeston, Jonathan; Adams, Roger D; Rooney, Kieron

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence throwing speed and accuracy is critical to performance in baseball. Shoulder proprioception has been implicated in the injury risk of throwing athletes, but no such link has been established with performance outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe any relationship between shoulder proprioception acuity and throwing speed or accuracy. Twenty healthy elite adolescent male baseball players (age, 19.6 ± 2.6 years), who had represented the state of New South Wales in the past 18 months, were assessed for bilateral active shoulder proprioception (shoulder rotation in 90° of arm abduction moving toward external rotation using the active movement extent discrimination apparatus), maximal throwing speed (MTS, meters per second measured via a radar gun), and accuracy (total error in centimeters determined by video analysis) at 80 and 100% of MTS. Although proprioception in the dominant and nondominant arms was significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.54, p < 0.01), no relationship was found between shoulder proprioception and performance. Shoulder proprioception was not a significant determinant of throwing performance such that high levels of speed and accuracy were achieved without a high degree of proprioception. There is no evidence to suggest therefore that this particular method of shoulder proprioception measurement should be implemented in clinical practice. Consequently, clinicians are encouraged to consider proprioception throughout the entire kinetic chain rather than the shoulder joint in isolation as a determining factor of performance in throwing athletes.

  20. Indirect ultrasound measurement of humeral torsion in adolescent baseball players and non-athletic adults: reliability and significance.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Rod; Ginn, Karen; Nicholson, Leslie; Adams, Roger

    2006-08-01

    Accurate clinical interpretation of shoulder rotation range requires knowledge of the contribution of humeral torsion. This study compares the reliability of indirectly measuring humeral torsion using ultrasound visualisation with direct palpation and compares the degree of humeral torsion in a non-throwing adult population with a population of elite adolescent baseballers. The reliability of a novel method of indirectly measuring humeral torsion using palpation and ultrasound was established prior to using the ultrasound method to determine the amount of humeral torsion in both humeri of a group of 16 non-throwing subjects and 36 elite adolescent baseball players. Excellent inter-tester reliability was found for the ultrasound method of measuring humeral torsion in each arm (ICC 2,1: 0.98 and 0.94) but poor reliability for the direct palpation method (ICC 2,1: 0.51 and 0.49). Using the ultrasound method, side-to-side differences in humeral torsion ranged from 0 to 13 degrees for the non-throwing group and 0 to 29 degrees for the baseball players. This side-to-side difference was significant in the baseball players (p<0.001) but not significant in the non-throwing group (p=0.43). Whilst side-to-side differences in humeral torsion were noted between all subjects irrespective of arm dominance, only throwers demonstrated consistently greater humeral retrotorsion in their throwing arm. A reliable clinical tool for estimating humeral torsion, such as that employed in this study, will allow for a more valid prescription of interventions for the treatment of shoulder dysfunction.

  1. Neurologic injuries in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Treihaft, M M

    2000-01-01

    In baseball pitchers, injuries to the throwing arm are common due to the extreme stresses placed on the elbow and shoulder joints. These result in peripheral nerve syndromes including ulnar neuropathy at the elbow and suprascapular neuropathy at the shoulder. Recurrent trauma to the axillary artery causing aneurysm and thrombus formation may lead to distal ischemia and stroke. Careful evaluation is required to identify musculoskeletal, neurologic, and vascular causes of upper extremity symptoms in the throwing athlete.

  2. The operative treatment of scapulothoracic bursitis in professional pitchers.

    PubMed

    Sisto, D J; Jobe, F W

    1986-01-01

    Four professional pitchers with resistant scapulothoracic bursitis who have required surgical excision of the thickened bursa are reported. The average time duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 18.8 months. Conservative therapy consisting of rest, shoulder exercises, antiinflammatory medications, and cortisone injections failed to resolve the bursitis, and each pitcher was unable to compete secondary to pain. The incision was posterior, just distal to the tip of the scapula. The specimens contained cleft-like spaces lined by synovial tissue consistent with a bursa. All four pitchers returned to professional baseball the year following surgical excision of the bursa. We recommend early, aggressive, conservative therapy for scapulothoracic bursitis in the throwing athlete. Pitchers with a thickened, resistant scapulothoracic bursitis should have the bursa surgically excised.

  3. Reduced humeral torsion predicts throwing-related injury in adolescent baseballers.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Rod J; Adams, Roger D; Nicholson, Leslie L; Ginn, Karen A

    2010-07-01

    The amount of torsion in the humerus is determined by both genetic and activity-related factors, and affects the external rotation range of motion available at the shoulder. Previous research has shown athletes participating in throwing sports to have a greater amount of humeral retrotorsion in their dominant arm. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive ability of both the genetic and activity-related aspects of humeral torsion regarding throwing-related injury. The amount of humeral torsion in both arms of 35 high level adolescent male baseballers (mean age 16.6 years+/-0.6 years) was measured at study commencement. Significantly increased humeral retrotorsion in the dominant arm compared to the non-dominant arm was found (p=0.04). These athletes were followed for a period of 30 months, and any injury to their throwing arm which resulted in missing either a game or practice was recorded. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the predictive ability of humeral torsion with respect to the occurrence of injury to the throwing arm. Of the 35 athletes, 19 suffered a throwing arm injury. AUC values derived from ROC analysis showed humeral torsion in the non-dominant arm (AUC: 0.679, 95% CI: 0.502-0.857), as well as the average of the humeral torsion in both arms (0.692, 0.512-0.873), to be predictive of injury. Torsion in the dominant arm was not a significant throwing arm injury predictor. Thus non-dominant arm humeral torsion (the genetic contribution) was found to be the predictor of throwing arm injury.

  4. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball.

    PubMed

    Cheshin, Arik; Heerdink, Marc W; Kossakowski, Jolanda J; Van Kleef, Gerben A

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from the Major League Baseball World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports.

  5. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball.

    PubMed

    Cheshin, Arik; Heerdink, Marc W; Kossakowski, Jolanda J; Van Kleef, Gerben A

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from the Major League Baseball World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports. PMID:26909062

  6. Challenges to Cognitive Bases for an Especial Motor Skill at the Regulation Baseball Pitching Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jeffery P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Wilson, Gabriel J.; Theall, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We tested expert baseball pitchers for evidence of especial skills at the regulation pitching distance. Seven college pitchers threw indoors to a target placed at 60.5 feet (18.44 m) and four closer and four further distances away. Accuracy at the regulation distance was significantly better than predicted by regression on the nonregulation…

  7. Subscapularis strain from swinging a baseball bat in an adolescent with closed physis.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Brendan T; Teixeira, Rafael P; Johnson, Alan R; Carrino, John A; McFarland, Edward G

    2011-05-01

    A healthy 16-year-old female baseball player was referred by her pediatrician for evaluation of pain in her right, dominant shoulder. The pain had begun insidiously 4 weeks previously after several sessions of batting practice and had worsened until she could not participate in baseball, even with low doses of ibuprofen. She was not participating in any other sports or weight lifting and had had no previous incidents of shoulder pain, but she did have a history of being able to voluntarily subluxate the right shoulder since she was a child. Her voluntary shoulder subluxation and reduction did not reproduce or worsen her pain. Results from her physical examination and radiographs were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed edema in the subscapularis muscle consistent with acute muscle strain. She was treated with 6 weeks of rest, ice, and anti-inflammatory medication as needed. She returned to baseball and hitting during the following 6 weeks with no limitations.

  8. Subscapularis strain from swinging a baseball bat in an adolescent with closed physis.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Brendan T; Teixeira, Rafael P; Johnson, Alan R; Carrino, John A; McFarland, Edward G

    2011-05-01

    A healthy 16-year-old female baseball player was referred by her pediatrician for evaluation of pain in her right, dominant shoulder. The pain had begun insidiously 4 weeks previously after several sessions of batting practice and had worsened until she could not participate in baseball, even with low doses of ibuprofen. She was not participating in any other sports or weight lifting and had had no previous incidents of shoulder pain, but she did have a history of being able to voluntarily subluxate the right shoulder since she was a child. Her voluntary shoulder subluxation and reduction did not reproduce or worsen her pain. Results from her physical examination and radiographs were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed edema in the subscapularis muscle consistent with acute muscle strain. She was treated with 6 weeks of rest, ice, and anti-inflammatory medication as needed. She returned to baseball and hitting during the following 6 weeks with no limitations. PMID:23016019

  9. Quantum Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ivars

    1989-01-01

    An analogy from the game of baseball can be used to examine the philosophy involved in statistics surrounding quantum mechanical events. The "Strong Baseball Principle" is proposed and discussed. (CW)

  10. Do Baseball Positions Correspond with a Player's Race?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildreth, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Compares observed to expected counts of white, African American, and Hispanic major-league baseball players (n=650) in 1989. Uses chi-square values to determine that racial differences are highly significant for pitcher, catcher, shortstop, and outfielder. Includes appendix with 1993 player counts and seven suggested student activities. (SEW)

  11. A Field Study of Traditional and Nontraditional Children's Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rainer; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Younger children often have problems playing baseball using adult rules because pitchers lack ability to throw consistently and batters have trouble hitting erratically thrown balls. A modification of adult rules allowed the team coach to pitch to batters. More offensive and defensive activity occurred in the nontraditional games than in…

  12. Baseball and softball.

    PubMed

    Rice, Stephen G; Congeni, Joseph A

    2012-03-01

    Baseball and softball are among the most popular and safest sports in which children and adolescents participate. Nevertheless, traumatic and overuse injuries occur regularly, including occasional catastrophic injury and even death. Safety of the athlete is a constant focus of attention among those responsible for modifying rules. Understanding the stresses placed on the arm, especially while pitching, led to the institution of rules controlling the quantity of pitches thrown in youth baseball and established rest periods between pitching assignments. Similarly, field maintenance and awareness of environmental conditions as well as equipment maintenance and creative prevention strategies are critically important in minimizing the risk of injury. This statement serves as a basis for encouraging safe participation in baseball and softball. This statement has been endorsed by the Canadian Paediatric Society.

  13. Return to Sport Following Shoulder Surgery in the Elite Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Joshua D.; Frank, Jonathan M.; Jordan, Mark A.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Gupta, Anil K.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; McCormick, Frank M.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The ability to return to elite pitching, performance, and clinical outcomes of shoulder surgery in elite baseball pitchers are not definitively established. Objective: To determine (1) the rate of return to sport (RTS) in elite pitchers following shoulder surgery, (2) postoperative clinical outcomes upon RTS, and (3) performance upon RTS and to compare RTS rates in different types of shoulder surgery. Data Sources: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and checklist, Medline, SciVerse Scopus, SportDiscus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Study Selection: Levels I-IV evidence were eligible for inclusion if performance-based (eg, RTS) and/or clinical outcome–based reporting of outcomes were reported following surgical treatment of shoulder pathology in elite pitchers (major or minor league or collegiate). Data Extraction: Subject, shoulder, and pre- and postoperative performance-based variables of interest were extracted. All shoulder surgery types were potentially inclusive (eg, open, arthroscopic, rotator cuff, labrum, biceps, acromioclavicular joint, fracture). Study methodological quality was analyzed using the Modified Coleman Methodology Score (MCMS). Results: Six studies were analyzed (287 elite male pitchers [mean age, 27 years] who underwent shoulder surgery, with 99% on the dominant, throwing shoulder). MCMS was 38 (poor). Most pitchers were professional, with a mean career length of 6.58 years and postoperative clinical follow-up of 3.62 years. In 5 of 6 studies, multiple diagnoses were addressed concomitantly at surgery. Rate of RTS was 68% at mean 12 months following surgery. Twenty-two percent of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers never RTS in MLB. Overall performance did improve following surgery; however, this did not improve to pre-injury levels. Conclusion: In this systematic review, the rate of return to elite baseball pitching following surgery was

  14. Baseball pitching: understanding the mechanics of throwing a baseball may help protect the shoulder and elbow.

    PubMed

    2011-05-01

    Whether you are the pitcher, coach, or concerned parent, the health of the athlete's throwing arm is very important. A better understanding of the forces that occur during different types of baseball throws could lead to improved guidelines, helping to boost performance while preventing injuries. A study published in the May 2011 issue of JOSPT provides new insight into the forces placed on the shoulder and elbow during flat-ground and long-toss throws.

  15. Suprascapular neuropathy in a collegiate pitcher.

    PubMed

    Smith, A N

    1995-03-01

    A healthy, 20-year-old, highly competitive collegiate baseball pitcher developed vague pain and soreness in the dominant posterior shoulder with live pitching. The symptoms intensified, and, after a particularly poor starting performance, the athlete presented for physical examination. Examination revealed visible atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle and decreased strength in external rotation and abduction. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was inconclusive. Electromyographic examination revealed decreased suprascapular nerve conduction to the infraspinatus muscle. Our diagnosis was entrapment neuropathy from traction on the suprascapular nerve at the spinoglenoid notch, causing delayed conduction to the infraspinatus muscle. We took a conservative approach of shoulder rehabilitation and activity modification, which resulted in the athlete returning to a highly competitive level without further problems, despite the remaining atrophy and muscle weakness. Examination of injuries to the shoulder complex, especially in athletes involved in repetitive overhead motions, should take suprascapular neuropathy into consideration.

  16. Assessment of professional baseball players aerobic exercise performance depending on their positions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Won

    2014-11-01

    This study reports the average and SD of professional baseball players' cardiorespiratory endurance, maximum oxygen consumption, oxygen consumption during anaerobic threshold, maximum oxygen consumption of anaerobic threshold %, maximum heart rate, and heart rate of anaerobic threshold. We also report the comparison between pitchers and fielders. Considering the total number of results, percentile was used and results were classified into 5 grades. One professional baseball players' organization with more than 14 years of experience participated in this study. First, we observed that the average pitchers' V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was 53.64 ml·kg·min, whereas the average fielders' was 52.30 ml·kg·min. These values were lower than other sports players. Second, in case of the V[Combining Dot Above]O2AT, pitchers showed 39.35 ml·kg·min and fielders showed 39.96 ml·kg·min. %V[Combining Dot Above]O2AT showed a significant difference of 71.13% between pitchers and fielders-pitchers, whereas fielders showed 73.89% (p < 0.01). Third, maximal heart rates were measured at 188.69 b·min (pitchers) and 187.79 b·min (fielders). These were lower than college baseball players and higher than other sports players. In conclusion, both professional baseball pitchers and fielders should be aware of the necessity of systematic cardiorespiratory endurance data analysis. Moreover, baseball teams, athletic trainers, and coaches should also be aware of the importance of cardiorespiratory endurance.

  17. Binomial Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Eugene M.

    1981-01-01

    Student access to programmable calculators and computer terminals, coupled with a familiarity with baseball, provides opportunities to enhance their understanding of the binomial distribution and other aspects of analysis. (MP)

  18. Performance of older versus younger brothers: data from major league baseball.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2007-12-01

    Batting and pitching records and career lengths of 312 sets of brothers who became major league baseball players were compared. Older brothers at non-pitching positions (N = 262) had significantly higher batting averages and longer careers than their younger siblings. Differences for pitchers were not statistically significant. The results corroborate other studies that firstborns are more likely than later born siblings to be higher achievers, but different factors may be operative for pitchers.

  19. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Cheshin, Arik; Heerdink, Marc W.; Kossakowski, Jolanda J.; Van Kleef, Gerben A.

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers’ facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from the Major League Baseball World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher’s face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers’ facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports. PMID:26909062

  20. Visual search strategies and decision making in baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Takayuki; Inomata, Kimihiro

    2009-06-01

    The goal was to examine the differences in visual search strategies between expert and nonexpert baseball batters during the preparatory phase of a pitcher's pitching and accuracy and timing of swing judgments during the ball's trajectory. 14 members of a college team (Expert group), and graduate and college students (Nonexpert group), were asked to observe 10 pitches thrown by a pitcher and respond by pushing a button attached to a bat when they thought the bat should be swung to meet the ball (swing judgment). Their eye movements, accuracy, and the timing of the swing judgment were measured. The Expert group shifted their point of observation from the proximal part of the body such as the head, chest, or trunk of the pitcher to the pitching arm and the release point before the pitcher released a ball, while the gaze point of the Nonexpert group visually focused on the head and the face. The accuracy in swing judgments of the Expert group was significantly higher, and the timing of their swing judgments was significantly earlier. Expert baseball batters used visual search strategies to gaze at specific cues (the pitching arm of the pitcher) and were more accurate and relatively quicker at decision making than Nonexpert batters. PMID:19725330

  1. Visual search strategies and decision making in baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Takayuki; Inomata, Kimihiro

    2009-06-01

    The goal was to examine the differences in visual search strategies between expert and nonexpert baseball batters during the preparatory phase of a pitcher's pitching and accuracy and timing of swing judgments during the ball's trajectory. 14 members of a college team (Expert group), and graduate and college students (Nonexpert group), were asked to observe 10 pitches thrown by a pitcher and respond by pushing a button attached to a bat when they thought the bat should be swung to meet the ball (swing judgment). Their eye movements, accuracy, and the timing of the swing judgment were measured. The Expert group shifted their point of observation from the proximal part of the body such as the head, chest, or trunk of the pitcher to the pitching arm and the release point before the pitcher released a ball, while the gaze point of the Nonexpert group visually focused on the head and the face. The accuracy in swing judgments of the Expert group was significantly higher, and the timing of their swing judgments was significantly earlier. Expert baseball batters used visual search strategies to gaze at specific cues (the pitching arm of the pitcher) and were more accurate and relatively quicker at decision making than Nonexpert batters.

  2. Factors Influencing Ball-Player Impact Probability in Youth Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Philip A.; Myers, Joseph B.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Altering the weight of baseballs for youth play has been studied out of concern for player safety. Research has shown that decreasing the weight of baseballs may limit the severity of both chronic arm and collision injuries. Unfortunately, reducing the weight of the ball also increases its exit velocity, leaving pitchers and nonpitchers with less time to defend themselves. The purpose of this study was to examine impact probability for pitchers and nonpitchers. Hypothesis: Reducing the available time to respond by 10% (expected from reducing ball weight from 142 g to 113 g) would increase impact probability for pitchers and nonpitchers, and players’ mean simple response time would be a primary predictor of impact probability for all participants. Study Design: Nineteen subjects between the ages of 9 and 13 years performed 3 experiments in a controlled laboratory setting: a simple response time test, an avoidance response time test, and a pitching response time test. Methods: Each subject performed these tests in order. The simple reaction time test tested the subjects’ mean simple response time, the avoidance reaction time test tested the subjects’ ability to avoid a simulated batted ball as a fielder, and the pitching reaction time test tested the subjects’ ability to avoid a simulated batted ball as a pitcher. Results: Reducing the weight of a standard baseball from 142 g to 113 g led to a less than 5% increase in impact probability for nonpitchers. However, the results indicate that the impact probability for pitchers could increase by more than 25%. Conclusion: Pitching may greatly increase the amount of time needed to react and defend oneself from a batted ball. Clinical Relevance: Impact injuries to youth baseball players may increase if a 113-g ball is used. PMID:25984261

  3. Differences among fastball, curveball, and change-up pitching biomechanics across various levels of baseball.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Laughlin, Walter A; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Andrews, James R

    2016-06-01

    Controversy continues whether curveballs are stressful for young baseball pitchers. Furthermore, it is unproven whether professional baseball pitchers have fewer kinematic differences between fastballs and off-speed pitches than lower level pitchers. Kinematic and kinetic data were measured for 111 healthy baseball pitchers (26 youth, 21 high school, 20 collegiate, 26 minor league, and 18 major league level) throwing fastballs, curveballs, and change-ups in an indoor biomechanics laboratory with a high-speed, automated digitising system. Differences between pitch types and between competition levels were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA. Shoulder and elbow kinetics were greater in fastballs than in change-ups, while curveball kinetics were not different from the other two types of pitches. Kinematic angles at the instant of ball release varied between pitch types, while kinematic angles at the instant of lead foot contact varied between competition levels. There were no significant interactions between pitch type and competition level, meaning that kinetic and kinematic differences between pitch types did not vary by competition level. Like previous investigations, this study did not support the theory that curveballs are relatively more stressful for young pitchers. Although pitchers desire consistent kinematics, there were differences between pitch types, independent of competition level.

  4. Differences among fastball, curveball, and change-up pitching biomechanics across various levels of baseball.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Laughlin, Walter A; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Andrews, James R

    2016-06-01

    Controversy continues whether curveballs are stressful for young baseball pitchers. Furthermore, it is unproven whether professional baseball pitchers have fewer kinematic differences between fastballs and off-speed pitches than lower level pitchers. Kinematic and kinetic data were measured for 111 healthy baseball pitchers (26 youth, 21 high school, 20 collegiate, 26 minor league, and 18 major league level) throwing fastballs, curveballs, and change-ups in an indoor biomechanics laboratory with a high-speed, automated digitising system. Differences between pitch types and between competition levels were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA. Shoulder and elbow kinetics were greater in fastballs than in change-ups, while curveball kinetics were not different from the other two types of pitches. Kinematic angles at the instant of ball release varied between pitch types, while kinematic angles at the instant of lead foot contact varied between competition levels. There were no significant interactions between pitch type and competition level, meaning that kinetic and kinematic differences between pitch types did not vary by competition level. Like previous investigations, this study did not support the theory that curveballs are relatively more stressful for young pitchers. Although pitchers desire consistent kinematics, there were differences between pitch types, independent of competition level. PMID:27110899

  5. Indicators of throwing arm fatigue in elite adolescent male baseball players: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Freeston, Jonathan; Adams, Roger; Ferdinands, René E D; Rooney, Kieron

    2014-08-01

    Throwing carries an inherent risk of injury that worsens in the presence of arm fatigue. The purpose of this study was to identify markers that could facilitate the early detection of this type of fatigue, by comparing the response to bouts of throwing-specific and running-based exercise. Thirteen elite junior male baseball players were tested twice, 7 days apart with a randomized crossover design. They were assessed for shoulder proprioception, maximal throwing velocity, and throwing accuracy before and after a 10-minute bout of either throwing-specific (THROW) or general (RUN) exercise. Maximal throwing velocity was reduced similarly after both THROW and RUN bouts (-1.0 ± 0.4 vs. -0.6 ± 0.2 m·s-1, respectively; p ≤ 0.05); however, accuracy was only reduced after THROW (7.6 ± 3.4 cm; p ≤ 0.05). Arm soreness increased significantly more after THROW than RUN (3.5 ± 0.7 vs. 1.4 ± 0.5 km·h-1, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). Shoulder proprioception did not change after either exercise bout. The results suggest that throwing velocity is an indicator of general fatigue, whereas throwing accuracy and arm soreness are markers of arm fatigue. Shoulder proprioception does not seem to be a sensitive marker of either type of fatigue. Throwing velocity should be monitored to gauge overall fatigue levels, whereas accuracy and arm soreness should be closely monitored to gauge arm fatigue and throwing-induced injury risk. PMID:24513620

  6. Indicators of throwing arm fatigue in elite adolescent male baseball players: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Freeston, Jonathan; Adams, Roger; Ferdinands, René E D; Rooney, Kieron

    2014-08-01

    Throwing carries an inherent risk of injury that worsens in the presence of arm fatigue. The purpose of this study was to identify markers that could facilitate the early detection of this type of fatigue, by comparing the response to bouts of throwing-specific and running-based exercise. Thirteen elite junior male baseball players were tested twice, 7 days apart with a randomized crossover design. They were assessed for shoulder proprioception, maximal throwing velocity, and throwing accuracy before and after a 10-minute bout of either throwing-specific (THROW) or general (RUN) exercise. Maximal throwing velocity was reduced similarly after both THROW and RUN bouts (-1.0 ± 0.4 vs. -0.6 ± 0.2 m·s-1, respectively; p ≤ 0.05); however, accuracy was only reduced after THROW (7.6 ± 3.4 cm; p ≤ 0.05). Arm soreness increased significantly more after THROW than RUN (3.5 ± 0.7 vs. 1.4 ± 0.5 km·h-1, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). Shoulder proprioception did not change after either exercise bout. The results suggest that throwing velocity is an indicator of general fatigue, whereas throwing accuracy and arm soreness are markers of arm fatigue. Shoulder proprioception does not seem to be a sensitive marker of either type of fatigue. Throwing velocity should be monitored to gauge overall fatigue levels, whereas accuracy and arm soreness should be closely monitored to gauge arm fatigue and throwing-induced injury risk.

  7. Temper, temperature, and temptation: heat-related retaliation in baseball.

    PubMed

    Larrick, Richard P; Timmerman, Thomas A; Carton, Andrew M; Abrevaya, Jason

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we analyzed data from 57,293 Major League Baseball games to test whether high temperatures interact with provocation to increase the likelihood that batters will be hit by a pitch. Controlling for a number of other variables, we conducted analyses showing that the probability of a pitcher hitting a batter increases sharply at high temperatures when more of the pitcher's teammates have been hit by the opposing team earlier in the game. We suggest that high temperatures increase retaliation by increasing hostile attributions when teammates are hit by a pitch and by lowering inhibitions against retaliation. PMID:21350182

  8. Temper, temperature, and temptation: heat-related retaliation in baseball.

    PubMed

    Larrick, Richard P; Timmerman, Thomas A; Carton, Andrew M; Abrevaya, Jason

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we analyzed data from 57,293 Major League Baseball games to test whether high temperatures interact with provocation to increase the likelihood that batters will be hit by a pitch. Controlling for a number of other variables, we conducted analyses showing that the probability of a pitcher hitting a batter increases sharply at high temperatures when more of the pitcher's teammates have been hit by the opposing team earlier in the game. We suggest that high temperatures increase retaliation by increasing hostile attributions when teammates are hit by a pitch and by lowering inhibitions against retaliation.

  9. Suprascapular neuropathy in pitchers.

    PubMed

    Ringel, S P; Treihaft, M; Carry, M; Fisher, R; Jacobs, P

    1990-01-01

    The clinical features and preoperative and postoperative electrodiagnostic studies were reviewed in two professional pitchers with a suprascapular neuropathy. These studies demonstrate that denervation of the infraspinatus and/or supraspinatus muscle is not always due to entrapment of the nerve at the suprascapular or spinoglenoid notches, as is often proposed. Similar studies in healthy pitchers during spring training and again at midseason demonstrate that slowing of suprascapular nerve conduction is detectable in some cases as the season progresses. Sagittal sections of a cadaver with the arm fixed in the acceleration phase of the pitching motion demonstrate five possible sites of trauma to the suprascapular nerve. Mechanisms proposed to explain these progressive, but potentially reversible, changes include consideration of biomechanical factors as well as anatomical features. An alternative hypothesis to nerve trauma that explains this symptom complex is intimal damage to the axillary or suprascapular artery and subsequent production of microemboli which become trapped in the suprascapular nerve vasa nervorum.

  10. An electromyographic analysis of the elbow in normal and injured pitchers with medial collateral ligament insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Glousman, R E; Barron, J; Jobe, F W; Perry, J; Pink, M

    1992-01-01

    Electromyography and high-speed film were used to examine the muscle activity in the elbows of pitchers with medial collateral ligament insufficiency compared to the activity in uninjured elbows. Ten competitive baseball pitchers with medial collateral insufficiency and 30 uninjured competitive pitchers were tested while throwing the fastball and the curveball. The extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus in the injured pitchers showed greater activity than in the uninjured pitchers for both pitches. The triceps, flexor carpi radialis, and pronator teres all showed less activity in the injured pitchers during the fastball, but only the triceps had less activity during the curveball. The differences were seen during the late cocking and acceleration phases, which place the greatest stress on the medial collateral ligament. If the flexor carpi radialis and pronator teres were substituting for the deficient medial collateral ligament and functioning as dynamic stabilizers, one would expect enhanced muscle activity. However, the opposite was found. This pattern of asynchronous muscle action with medial collateral ligament injury may predispose the joint to further injury. The muscular differences seen are critical to the understanding of the pathomechanics of patients with medial collateral ligament deficiency, and provide a basis for rehabilitation.

  11. Biomechanics of the elbow during baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Werner, S L; Fleisig, G S; Dillman, C J; Andrews, J R

    1993-06-01

    By understanding pitching biomechanics, therapists can develop better preventive and rehabilitative programs for pitchers. The purpose of this study was to quantify and explain the joint motions, loads, and muscle activity that occur at the elbow during baseball pitching. Seven healthy, adult pitchers were examined with synchronized high-speed video digitization and surface electromyography. Elbow extension before ball release corresponded with a decrease in biceps activity and an increase in triceps activity. A varus torque of 120 Nm, acting to resist valgus stress, occurred near the time of maximum shoulder external rotation. Previous cadaveric research showed that the ulnar collateral ligament by itself cannot withstand a valgus load of this magnitude. Triceps, wrist flexorpronator, and anconeus activity during peak valgus stress suggests that these muscles may act as dynamic stabilizers to assist the ulnar collateral ligament in preventing valgus extension overload. PMID:8343786

  12. Biomechanics of the elbow during baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Werner, S L; Fleisig, G S; Dillman, C J; Andrews, J R

    1993-06-01

    By understanding pitching biomechanics, therapists can develop better preventive and rehabilitative programs for pitchers. The purpose of this study was to quantify and explain the joint motions, loads, and muscle activity that occur at the elbow during baseball pitching. Seven healthy, adult pitchers were examined with synchronized high-speed video digitization and surface electromyography. Elbow extension before ball release corresponded with a decrease in biceps activity and an increase in triceps activity. A varus torque of 120 Nm, acting to resist valgus stress, occurred near the time of maximum shoulder external rotation. Previous cadaveric research showed that the ulnar collateral ligament by itself cannot withstand a valgus load of this magnitude. Triceps, wrist flexorpronator, and anconeus activity during peak valgus stress suggests that these muscles may act as dynamic stabilizers to assist the ulnar collateral ligament in preventing valgus extension overload.

  13. EVALUATION OF PAINFUL SHOULDER IN BASEBALL PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Junior, Adriano Fernando Mendes; Soares, André Lopes; Aihara, Leandro Jun; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between shoulder mobility and strength and the presence of pain among baseball players. Methods: Between April and July 2009, 55 baseball players were assessed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the School of Medical Sciences, Santa Casa de Misericórdia, São Paulo. They were all males, aged between 15 and 33 years (mean of 21); they attended an average of three training sessions per week and had been doing this sport for a mean of 10 years. Results: 14 of the 55 players evaluated were pitchers, and 20 reported pain during the pitching motion. The mean values for lateral and medial rotation and range of motion (ROM) in the dominant shoulder were, respectively, 110 °, 61 ° and 171 °, with a statistically significant difference in relation to the non-dominant limb. Pitchers had greater gains in lateral rotation and deficits in medial rotation than did non-pitchers. Pain presented a statistically significant correlation with diminished ROM, greater length of time playing the sport and situations of “shoulder at risk”. Conclusions: Statistically significant differences in dominant shoulder mobility were found, with increased lateral rotation, diminished medial rotation and smaller ROM, in relation to the contralateral limb. There was a statistically significant relationship between the pitcher's position and greater gain in lateral rotation and diminished medial rotation. There were statistically significant correlations between pain and diminished ROM, greater length of time playing the sport and situations of “shoulder at risk”. There was a statistical tendency suggesting that players with diminished medial rotation of the dominant shoulder presented a relationship with pain. PMID:27028320

  14. Skinfold Estimates of Body Fat in Major League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Coleman, A E

    1981-10-01

    In brief: One hundred and thirty-seven major league baseball players and 32 coaches were tested for body composition, and comparisons were made among positions and among teams. Shortstops were the leanest players (9.2% fat), outfielders averaged 9.9%, and pitchers were the fattest (14.7% fat). The players' body composition reflected the movement patterns and defensive requirements of their positions. There were few differences among teams, and in general, the baseball players were comparable to other professional athletes.

  15. Medical Problems on a Professional Baseball Team.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, D; Talbot, A A; Clarizio, M; Young, R

    1981-07-01

    In brief: This study presents a two-season analysis of medical problems on a class A professional baseball team. On the average, one or two problems were recorded per game. Fewer injuries-but more illnesses-occurred at the ginning and end of the season. Pitchers, catchers, second basemen, and right fielders had the most injuries, and musculoskeletal problems accounted for 86.4% of all injuries. Of the 382 new injuries, 82.2% were treated by the gainer, 13.1% by the team physician, and 4.7% by specialists. The data suggest hat most problems were handled adequately by the team trainer and a Primary care physician.

  16. Dynamic stability of the elbow: electromyographic analysis of the flexor pronator group and the extensor group in pitchers with valgus instability.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, C D; Glousman, R E; Jobe, F W; Brault, J; Pink, M; Perry, J

    1996-01-01

    The medical collateral ligament is a common site of injury in baseball pitchers, causing substantial morbidity and loss of pitching time. Twenty-six skilled baseball pitchers with medial collateral ligament insufficiency were studied before surgery with high-speed cinematography and fine-wire electromyography of eight muscles around the elbow. Data from the pitchers with injured elbows were compared with data obtained from uninjured pitchers. The flexor carpi radialis muscle in the pitchers with medial collateral ligament deficiencies revealed significantly decreased firing during the acceleration and deceleration phase of the fastball when compared with that of the pitchers with normal elbows, and the flexor carpi radialis muscle was significantly depressed during the early cocking and deceleration phases. The extensor muscles revealed slightly increased activity in the injured elbows; however, this was not statistically significant. Although the muscles of the flexor pronator group (especially the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle and the flexor digitorum superficialis muscles) are anatomically positioned to provide dynamic stability of the elbow, they did not demonstrate increased electrical activity in pitchers with medial collateral ligament deficiencies. This finding suggests that the muscles on the medial side of the elbow do not supplant the role of the medial collateral ligament during the fastball pitch.

  17. The epidemiology of single season musculoskeletal injuries in professional baseball.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Zhou, Hanbing; Williams, Phillip; Steele, John J; Nguyen, Joseph; Jäger, Marcus; Coleman, Struan

    2013-02-22

    The aim of this descriptive epidemiology study was to evaluate the injury incidence, pattern and type as a function of position in one professional baseball organization for one complete season. The study was carried out in a major academic center. Participants were all major/minor league baseball players playing for one professional organization. The disabled/injury list of one single professional baseball organization (major and minor league players) was reviewed for all of the injuries and the number of total days missed secondary to each injury. All injuries were categorized into major anatomic zones that included: shoulder, elbow, wrist/hand, back, abdomen/groin, hip, knee, and ankle/foot. The data was further stratified based on the injury type and the number of days missed due to that particular injury and a statistical analysis was performed. In pitchers, elbow injuries (n=12) resulted in 466 days missed. In catchers, wrist injuries (n=4) resulted in 89 days missed. In position players, abdominal/groin injuries (n=16) resulted in 318 days missed and shoulder injuries (n=9) resulted in 527 days missed. Overall, 134 players were injured and a total of 3209 days were missed. Pitchers had 27 times and 34 times the rate of days missed due to elbow injuries compared to position players and all players, respectively. Abdominal and groin injuries caused the pitchers to have 5.6 times and 6.4 times the rate of days missed than the position and all players, respectively. Both elbow and abdominal/groin injuries are the most disabling injury pattern seen in pitchers. Among the position players, shoulder injuries resulted in the most days missed and knee injuries resulted in the highest rate of days missed in both pitchers and catchers.

  18. Frequency-dependent performance and handedness in professional baseball players (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2008-02-01

    I used data on handedness and pitching and hitting performance in annual cohorts of professional baseball players (1957-2005) to test the hypothesis that handedness among pitchers was subject to negative frequency-dependent selection. As predicted by this hypothesis, right-handed pitchers were more successful (i.e., opposing batters hit more poorly against them) when they were relatively rare in the population. Contrary to the predictions of this hypothesis, however, left-handed pitchers were more successful when they were relatively common. Both right- and left-handed batters performed better in years dominated by right-handed pitchers, despite the fact that right-handed batters perform relatively poorly against right-handed pitchers. I suggest that batters form cognitive representations based on pitcher handedness, and that these representations are strengthened by repeated exposure or priming. When the pitcher handedness polymorphism is more balanced (e.g., 67% right-handed, 33% left-handed), these cognitive representations are less effective, which leads to decreased batting averages and improved performance by all pitchers. Furthermore, these cognitive representations are likely to be more critical to the success of right-handed hitters, who have reduced visuomotor skills relative to left-handed hitters. PMID:18298283

  19. Frequency-dependent performance and handedness in professional baseball players (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2008-02-01

    I used data on handedness and pitching and hitting performance in annual cohorts of professional baseball players (1957-2005) to test the hypothesis that handedness among pitchers was subject to negative frequency-dependent selection. As predicted by this hypothesis, right-handed pitchers were more successful (i.e., opposing batters hit more poorly against them) when they were relatively rare in the population. Contrary to the predictions of this hypothesis, however, left-handed pitchers were more successful when they were relatively common. Both right- and left-handed batters performed better in years dominated by right-handed pitchers, despite the fact that right-handed batters perform relatively poorly against right-handed pitchers. I suggest that batters form cognitive representations based on pitcher handedness, and that these representations are strengthened by repeated exposure or priming. When the pitcher handedness polymorphism is more balanced (e.g., 67% right-handed, 33% left-handed), these cognitive representations are less effective, which leads to decreased batting averages and improved performance by all pitchers. Furthermore, these cognitive representations are likely to be more critical to the success of right-handed hitters, who have reduced visuomotor skills relative to left-handed hitters.

  20. Variability in baseball pitching biomechanics among various levels of competition.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, Glenn; Chu, Yungchien; Weber, Adam; Andrews, James

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare within-individual variability in baseball pitching among various levels of competition. It was hypothesized that variability decreases as level of competition increases. Five fastballs were analysed for 93 healthy male baseball pitchers (20 youth, 19 high school, 20 college, 20 Minor League, and 14 Major League level pitchers). Eleven kinematic, four temporal, and six kinetic parameters were quantified with a 240-Hz automated digitizing system. Three multiple analyses of variance were used to compare individual standard deviations for kinematic, temporal, and kinetic parameters among the five competition levels. There was a significant overall difference in kinematics and in six of the eleven kinematic parameters analysed: foot placement, knee flexion, pelvis angular velocity, elbow flexion, shoulder external rotation, and trunk forward tilt. Individual standard deviations tended to be greatest for youth pitchers, and decreased for higher levels of competition. Thus pitchers who advanced to higher levels exhibited less variability in their motions. Differences in temporal variation were non-significant; thus variability in pitching coordination was not improved at higher levels. Differences in kinetic variation were non-significant, implying no particular skill level has increased risk of injury due to variation in joint kinetics.

  1. Medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow in major league baseball players: Where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Bach, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-06-18

    The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is a vital structure to the overhead athlete, especially the baseball pitcher. For reasons not completely understood, UCL injuries have become increasingly more common in major league baseball (MLB) pitchers over the past 10 years. UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is the current gold standard of treatment for these injuries in MLB pitchers who wish to return to sport (RTS) at a high level and who have failed a course of non-operative treatment. Results following UCLR in MLB pitchers have been encouraging, with multiple RTS rates now cited at greater than 80%. Unfortunately, with the rising number of UCLR, there has also been a spike in the number of revision UCLR in MLB pitchers. Similar to primary UCLR, the etiology of the increase in revision UCLR, aside from an increase in the number of pitchers who have undergone a primary UCLR, remains elusive. The current literature has attempted to address several questions including those surrounding surgical technique (method of exposure, graft choice, management of the ulnar nerve, concomitant elbow arthroscopy, etc.), post-operative rehabilitation strategies, and timing of RTS following UCLR. While some questions have been answered, many remain unknown. The literature surrounding UCLR in MLB pitchers will be reviewed, and future directions regarding this injury in these high level athletes will be discussed.

  2. Medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow in major league baseball players: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J; Bach Jr, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is a vital structure to the overhead athlete, especially the baseball pitcher. For reasons not completely understood, UCL injuries have become increasingly more common in major league baseball (MLB) pitchers over the past 10 years. UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is the current gold standard of treatment for these injuries in MLB pitchers who wish to return to sport (RTS) at a high level and who have failed a course of non-operative treatment. Results following UCLR in MLB pitchers have been encouraging, with multiple RTS rates now cited at greater than 80%. Unfortunately, with the rising number of UCLR, there has also been a spike in the number of revision UCLR in MLB pitchers. Similar to primary UCLR, the etiology of the increase in revision UCLR, aside from an increase in the number of pitchers who have undergone a primary UCLR, remains elusive. The current literature has attempted to address several questions including those surrounding surgical technique (method of exposure, graft choice, management of the ulnar nerve, concomitant elbow arthroscopy, etc.), post-operative rehabilitation strategies, and timing of RTS following UCLR. While some questions have been answered, many remain unknown. The literature surrounding UCLR in MLB pitchers will be reviewed, and future directions regarding this injury in these high level athletes will be discussed. PMID:27335810

  3. Medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow in major league baseball players: Where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Bach, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-06-18

    The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is a vital structure to the overhead athlete, especially the baseball pitcher. For reasons not completely understood, UCL injuries have become increasingly more common in major league baseball (MLB) pitchers over the past 10 years. UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is the current gold standard of treatment for these injuries in MLB pitchers who wish to return to sport (RTS) at a high level and who have failed a course of non-operative treatment. Results following UCLR in MLB pitchers have been encouraging, with multiple RTS rates now cited at greater than 80%. Unfortunately, with the rising number of UCLR, there has also been a spike in the number of revision UCLR in MLB pitchers. Similar to primary UCLR, the etiology of the increase in revision UCLR, aside from an increase in the number of pitchers who have undergone a primary UCLR, remains elusive. The current literature has attempted to address several questions including those surrounding surgical technique (method of exposure, graft choice, management of the ulnar nerve, concomitant elbow arthroscopy, etc.), post-operative rehabilitation strategies, and timing of RTS following UCLR. While some questions have been answered, many remain unknown. The literature surrounding UCLR in MLB pitchers will be reviewed, and future directions regarding this injury in these high level athletes will be discussed. PMID:27335810

  4. Pitching Speed and Glenohumeral Adaptation in High School Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Keller, Robert A; Marshall, Nathan E; Mehran, Nima; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2015-08-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotational deficit and increased glenohumeral external rotation are common findings in baseball pitchers. To the authors' knowledge, no study has focused on the adaptation of glenohumeral internal rotational deficit and increased glenohumeral external rotation in relation to pitching speed. This study evaluated changes in range of motion in the throwing shoulder in high school pitchers to determine whether changes in internal and external rotation directly correlate with pitch velocity. The shoulders of 22 high school varsity pitchers were evaluated. Standard goniometric technique was used to measure passive external and internal glenohumeral range of motion in both arms. Measurements were evaluated for statistically significant differences in range of motion. Demographic features, including height, weight, and age, were assessed. Fifteen consecutive in-game pitch speeds were recorded, and the fastest pitch was used for evaluation. Pitch speeds were correlated to the player's glenohumeral internal rotational deficit, increased glenohumeral external rotation, and physical demographics. Average age was 16.9 years. Average external rotation of the throwing arm was significantly greater than that of the nonthrowing arm (143.00° vs 130.32°, P=.005). Average internal rotation of the throwing arm was significantly less than that of the nonthrowing arm (49.50° vs 65.90°, P=.006). Both shoulders had similar total arc of motion (throwing shoulder, 192.54; nonthrowing shoulder, 196.23; P=.822). Average maximum velocity was 77.7 mph (maximum, 88 mph; minimum, 66 mph). Maximum pitch velocity did not correlate with changes in glenohumeral internal rotational deficit (P=.683) or increased glenohumeral external rotation (P=.241). There was also no evidence of correlation between pitch velocity and player age, height, weight, or dominant hand. The stress of pitching creates adaptations to the throwing shoulder, even in young athletes. There appears to be

  5. Pitching Speed and Glenohumeral Adaptation in High School Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Keller, Robert A; Marshall, Nathan E; Mehran, Nima; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2015-08-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotational deficit and increased glenohumeral external rotation are common findings in baseball pitchers. To the authors' knowledge, no study has focused on the adaptation of glenohumeral internal rotational deficit and increased glenohumeral external rotation in relation to pitching speed. This study evaluated changes in range of motion in the throwing shoulder in high school pitchers to determine whether changes in internal and external rotation directly correlate with pitch velocity. The shoulders of 22 high school varsity pitchers were evaluated. Standard goniometric technique was used to measure passive external and internal glenohumeral range of motion in both arms. Measurements were evaluated for statistically significant differences in range of motion. Demographic features, including height, weight, and age, were assessed. Fifteen consecutive in-game pitch speeds were recorded, and the fastest pitch was used for evaluation. Pitch speeds were correlated to the player's glenohumeral internal rotational deficit, increased glenohumeral external rotation, and physical demographics. Average age was 16.9 years. Average external rotation of the throwing arm was significantly greater than that of the nonthrowing arm (143.00° vs 130.32°, P=.005). Average internal rotation of the throwing arm was significantly less than that of the nonthrowing arm (49.50° vs 65.90°, P=.006). Both shoulders had similar total arc of motion (throwing shoulder, 192.54; nonthrowing shoulder, 196.23; P=.822). Average maximum velocity was 77.7 mph (maximum, 88 mph; minimum, 66 mph). Maximum pitch velocity did not correlate with changes in glenohumeral internal rotational deficit (P=.683) or increased glenohumeral external rotation (P=.241). There was also no evidence of correlation between pitch velocity and player age, height, weight, or dominant hand. The stress of pitching creates adaptations to the throwing shoulder, even in young athletes. There appears to be

  6. Shoulder motion and laxity in the professional baseball player.

    PubMed

    Bigliani, L U; Codd, T P; Connor, P M; Levine, W N; Littlefield, M A; Hershon, S J

    1997-01-01

    We studied 148 professional baseball players with no history of shoulder problems to assess range of motion and laxity of their dominant and nondominant shoulders. There were 72 pitchers and 76 position players. Average external rotation with the arm in 90 degrees of abduction was statistically greater and average internal rotation was statistically less in the dominant shoulders than in the nondominant shoulders, both in pitchers and position players. There was no statistical difference in forward elevation of external rotation with the arm at the side of the body in either group. Both dominant and nondominant shoulders of pitchers had greater average range of motion in forward elevation and external rotation (both at the side and at 90 degrees of abduction) and less average internal rotation than those of position players. Regarding laxity testing, 61% of dominant shoulders in pitchers had a sulcus sign, as compared with 47% in position players. Also, this degree of inferior laxity was significantly greater in pitchers than in position players. Differences in range of motion and laxity exist in the throwing shoulder of athletes involved in overhead throwing motions and should be considered in rehabilitation protocols and surgical repair.

  7. Predicting and Preventing Injury in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players are at significant risk for both chronic, repetitive overuse injuries as well as acute traumatic injuries. Pitchers have been shown to be at higher risk for sustaining injuries, especially upper extremity injuries, than position players. The past several MLB seasons have seen a dramatic rise in the number of ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions performed in MLB pitchers. Several recent prospective studies have identified risk factors for injuries to both the shoulder and elbow in MLB pitchers. These risk factors include a lack of external rotation, a lack of total rotation, and a lack of flexion in the throwing arm. Thus far, no study has demonstrated a correlation between cumulative work (number of games pitched, total pitches thrown, total innings pitched, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game) and injuries in MLB pitchers, despite several studies showing this correlation in youth pitchers. Although many risk factors have been translated into guidelines for prevention, no study has been conducted to determine whether adherence to these guidelines effectively prevents injuries. Further studies are necessary to define exactly how injuries in MLB players can be prevented.

  8. Predicting and Preventing Injury in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players are at significant risk for both chronic, repetitive overuse injuries as well as acute traumatic injuries. Pitchers have been shown to be at higher risk for sustaining injuries, especially upper extremity injuries, than position players. The past several MLB seasons have seen a dramatic rise in the number of ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions performed in MLB pitchers. Several recent prospective studies have identified risk factors for injuries to both the shoulder and elbow in MLB pitchers. These risk factors include a lack of external rotation, a lack of total rotation, and a lack of flexion in the throwing arm. Thus far, no study has demonstrated a correlation between cumulative work (number of games pitched, total pitches thrown, total innings pitched, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game) and injuries in MLB pitchers, despite several studies showing this correlation in youth pitchers. Although many risk factors have been translated into guidelines for prevention, no study has been conducted to determine whether adherence to these guidelines effectively prevents injuries. Further studies are necessary to define exactly how injuries in MLB players can be prevented. PMID:26991568

  9. Body type and performance of elite cuban baseball players.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Wiliam; Ríos, Andrés; Echevarría, Ivis; Martínez, Miriam; Miñoso, Julio; Rodríguez, Dialvis

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Appropriate stature and adequate somatotype are not the only attributes determining athletic performance, but they are important prerequisites for sports participation and success. However, there is scant literature on baseball players' kinanthropometric profiles and their association with performance. Given that Cuban baseball players have been among the world's top performers in recent decades, characterization of their morphological features linked to their performance may contribute to developing the evidence base in this area. Objective Describe the kinanthropometric profile related to sports performance of elite Cuban baseball players, classified by playing position. Methods Body composition, somatotype, proportionality, and performance were measured in 100 elite baseball players grouped by playing position and performance. Data from the 2002-2003 baseball season was gathered for players participating in the 43rd Cuban National Baseball Series (November 2003-May 2004). Slugging percentage (SLG) was used to measure performance of all players except pitchers, whose performance was measured as end-of-season win-loss record. Mean and standard deviation values were calculated for anthropometric and performance results, presented in tables for comparison. ANOVA and MANOVA analyses were applied to determine magnitudes of difference between the variables studied, as well as statistical significance of the differences established (p≤0.05 and p≤0.01). Results Performance and body type varied by playing position, and statistically significant differences were found in performance, body composition and somatotype variables between some positions. No significant differences in proportionality were found. First basemen and outfielders (center, left, and right fielders) were the best offensive players with the highest mean SLG, body weight and muscle mass values. Infielders (second basemen, shortstops, and third basemen) had the lowest mean body weight and

  10. Quiet eye gaze behavior of expert, and near-expert, baseball plate umpires.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, Duane G; Hines, Bridget B; Smith, Melissa S

    2013-02-01

    The quiet eye gaze behavior of 4 near-expert and 4 expert baseball umpires who called balls and strikes in simulated pitch-hit situations was assessed with a mobile eye cornea tracker system. Statistical analyses of the umpires' gaze behavior (fixation/pursuit tracking, saccades, and blinks)--onset, duration, offset, and frequency--were performed between and within 4 stages (pitcher's preparation, pitcher's delivery, ball in flight, and umpire call) by umpire's skill level. The results indicated that the quiet eye of expert umpires at onset of the pitcher's release point occurred earlier and was longer in duration than near-expert umpires. Expert expert umpires. The area outside the pitcher's ball release point may be the key environment cue for the behind-the-plate umpire.

  11. Visual search strategies of baseball batters: eye movements during the preparatory phase of batting.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takaaki; Fukuda, Tadahiko

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze visual search strategies of baseball batters during the viewing period of the pitcher's motion. The 18 subjects were 9 experts and 9 novices. While subjects viewed a videotape which, from a right-handed batter's perspective, showed a pitcher throwing a series of 10 types of pitches, their eye movements were measured and analyzed. Novices moved their eyes faster than experts, and the distribution area of viewing points was also wider than that of the experts. The viewing duration of experts of the pitching arm was longer than those of novices during the last two pitching phases. These results indicate that experts set their visual pivot on the pitcher's elbow and used peripheral vision properties to evaluate the pitcher's motion and the ball trajectory.

  12. Baseball-specific conditioning.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Matthew R; Bunker, Derek

    2009-09-01

    Baseball demands speed, power, and quickness. To perform at a high level, and avoid injuries that are common among baseball players, an evaluation of current trends in strength and conditioning practices is helpful. Based on the demands of the sport and the injury risks, qualified strength and conditioning professionals can develop effective baseball-specific conditioning programs. This commentary briefly covers historical aspects of baseball conditioning, recent injury trends, current practices among elite baseball professionals, and provides suggestions for future improvements in training.

  13. Study on Impact Loading and Humerus Injury for Baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Shinobu; Oda, Juhachi; Yonemura, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Jiro

    In the United States and Japan, baseball is a very popular sport played by many people. However, the ball used is hard and moves fast. A professional baseball pitcher in good form can throw a ball at speeds upwards of 41.7m/s (150km/hr). If a ball at this speed hits the batter, serious injury can occur. In this paper we will describe our investigations on the impact of a baseball with living tissues by finite element analysis. Baseballs were projected at a load cell plate using a specialized pitching machine. The dynamic properties of the baseball were determined by comparing the wall-ball collision experimentally measuring the time history of the force and the displacement using dynamic finite element analysis software (ANSYS/ LS-DYNA). The finite element model representing a human humerus and its surrounding tissue was simulated for balls pitched at variable speeds and pitch types (knuckle and fastball). In so doing, the stress distribution and stress wave in the bone and soft tissue were obtained. From the results, the peak stress of the bone nearly yielded to the stress caused by a high fast ball. If the collision position or direction is moved from the center of the upper arm, it is assumed that the stress exuded on the humerus will be reduced. Some methods to reduce the severity of the injury which can be applied in actual baseball games are also discussed.

  14. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  15. Perception-action coupling and anticipatory performance in baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Carlton, Les G

    2007-09-01

    The authors examined 10 expert and 10 novice baseball batters' ability to distinguish between a fastball and a change-up in a virtual environment. They used 2 different response modes: (a) an uncoupled response in which the batters verbally predicted the type of pitch and (b) a coupled response in which the batters swung a baseball bat to try and hit the virtual ball. The authors manipulated visual information from the pitcher and ball in 6 visual conditions. The batters were more accurate in predicting the type of pitch when the response was uncoupled. In coupled responses, experts were better able to use the first 100 ms of ball flight independently of the pitcher's kinematics. In addition, the skilled batters' stepping patterns were related to the pitcher's kinematics, whereas their swing time was related to ball speed. Those findings suggest that specific task requirements determine whether a highly coupled perception-action environment improves anticipatory performance. The authors also highlight the need for research on interceptive actions to be conducted in the performer's natural environment. PMID:17827114

  16. Perception-action coupling and anticipatory performance in baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Carlton, Les G

    2007-09-01

    The authors examined 10 expert and 10 novice baseball batters' ability to distinguish between a fastball and a change-up in a virtual environment. They used 2 different response modes: (a) an uncoupled response in which the batters verbally predicted the type of pitch and (b) a coupled response in which the batters swung a baseball bat to try and hit the virtual ball. The authors manipulated visual information from the pitcher and ball in 6 visual conditions. The batters were more accurate in predicting the type of pitch when the response was uncoupled. In coupled responses, experts were better able to use the first 100 ms of ball flight independently of the pitcher's kinematics. In addition, the skilled batters' stepping patterns were related to the pitcher's kinematics, whereas their swing time was related to ball speed. Those findings suggest that specific task requirements determine whether a highly coupled perception-action environment improves anticipatory performance. The authors also highlight the need for research on interceptive actions to be conducted in the performer's natural environment.

  17. Data Analysis and Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talsma, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Describes an investigation that leads to one of the significant contributions that sabermetrics--new approaches to gaining information about baseball from its numerical records--has made to our understanding of baseball. (ASK)

  18. Kinematic and kinetic comparison of baseball pitching among various levels of development.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, G S; Barrentine, S W; Zheng, N; Escamilla, R F; Andrews, J R

    1999-12-01

    Proper biomechanics help baseball pitchers minimize their risk of injury and maximize performance. However previous studies involved adult pitchers only. In this study, 23 youth, 33 high school, 115 college, and 60 professional baseball pitchers were analyzed. Sixteen kinematic (11 position and five velocity), eight kinetic, and six temporal parameters were calculated and compared among the four levels of competition. Only one of the 11 kinematic position parameters showed significant differences among the four levels, while all five velocity parameters showed significant differences. All eight kinetic parameters increased significantly with competition level. None of the six temporal parameters showed significant differences. Since 16 of the 17 position and temporal parameters showed no significant differences, this study supports the philosophy that a child should be taught 'proper' pitching mechanics for use throughout a career. Kinetic differences observed suggest greater injury risk at higher competition levels. Since adult pitchers did not demonstrate different position or temporal patterns than younger pitchers, increases in joint forces and torques were most likely due to increased strength and muscle mass in the higher level athlete. The greater shoulder and elbow angular velocities produced by high-level pitchers were most likely due to the greater torques they generated during the arm cocking and acceleration phases. The combination of more arm angular velocity and a longer arm resulted in greater linear ball velocity for the higher level pitcher. Thus, it appears that the natural progression for successful pitching is to learn proper mechanics as early as possible, and build strength as the body matures.

  19. Effect of age on anthropometric and physical performance measures in professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Fragala, Maren S; Vazquez, Jose; Krause, Matthew C; Gillett, Javair; Pichardo, Napoleon

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related changes in anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players. Baseball players (n = 1,157) from several professional baseball organizations were categorized into 7 cohorts based upon age. All adolescent athletes were categorized as age group 1 (AG1), whereas the next 5 groups (AG2-AG6) consisted of players 20-22, 23-25, 26-28, 29-31, and 31-34 years, respectively. The final group (AG7) comprised athletes ≥35 years. All performance assessments were part of the athlete's normal preseason training camp testing routine. Field assessments were used to analyze lower-body power, speed, agility, grip strength, and body composition. The players were heaviest between the ages of 29 and 31 (AG5), and their body mass in that age group was 10.1% (p = 0.004) greater than that of AG1. A 7.0% increase (p = 0.000) in lean body mass occurred between AG1 and AG5. No differences in 10-yd sprint times or agility were seen across any age group or position. A 2.0 seconds (p = 0.001) slower run time for the 300-yd shuttle was seen between AG4 and AG5 for all positions combined. Elevations in grip strength were seen at AG4 compared with AG1 (p = 0.001) and AG2 (p = 0.007) for all positions combined. No other differences were noted. Lower-body power was increased for all positions combined from AG1 to AG3 (p = 0.007). This pattern was similar to that observed in position players, but a 12.4% decrease (p = 0.024) in VJMP was seen between AG7 and AG5 in pitchers. Results of this study indicate that lower-body power is maintained in baseball players until the age of 29-31, whereas speed, agility, and grip strength are maintained in players able to play past the age of 35 years. Age-related differences observed in this study suggest that athletes focus on their strength and conditioning programs to extend the length of their professional careers.

  20. A comparative electromyographic analysis of the shoulder during pitching. Professional versus amateur pitchers.

    PubMed

    Gowan, I D; Jobe, F W; Tibone, J E; Perry, J; Moynes, D R

    1987-01-01

    Dynamic, fine-wire, intramuscular electromyography (EMG) was performed on 12 different shoulder muscles in 13 normal male subjects as they pitched a baseball. Seven were major league baseball pitchers and six were amateur pitchers. The act of pitching a fast ball was filmed at 450 frames per second with the EMG signals recorded synchronously. The subscapularis, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus muscles were tested in 13 subjects, the biceps brachii muscle was tested in 12, and other shoulder muscles were tested variously among the subjects. Two groups of muscles were identified. Group I muscles, the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, deltoid, trapezius, and biceps brachii, served primarily to position the shoulder and elbow for the delivery of the pitch. These muscles were found to have greater activity during the early and late cooking stages, with less activity during acceleration. Group II muscles accelerated the arm and baseball forward in space. These muscles, the pectoralis major, serratus anterior, subscapularis, and latissimus dorsi, had stronger activity during the propulsive phase of the pitch. The professional pitchers were able to use the muscles about the shoulder in an efficient manner to achieve greater pitching velocities. The subscapularis and latissimus dorsi muscles of Group II had stronger activity among the professionals, whereas the supraspinatus, teres minor, and biceps brachii muscles of Group I had only minimal activity. The amateurs, on the other hand, continued to use all of the rotator cuff muscles and the biceps brachii muscle of Group I through the acceleration stage of the pitch.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  2. Effects of general, special, and specific resistance training on throwing velocity in baseball: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Derenne, C; Ho, K W; Murphy, J C

    2001-02-01

    Throwing velocity is a necessary requirement for success in baseball. All position players, including pitchers, may increase their defensive performance if their throwing velocity is improved. A review of the literature suggests that throwing velocity can be increased by resistance training and/or biomechanical improvement of the throwing motion. This paper reviews the 3 broad categories of resistance-training methods by which throwing velocity is increased. The results of research using general, special, and specific throwing resistance-training exercises are presented. The role and applications of these different exercises for baseball players of different ages are discussed.

  3. Dynamic stereoacuity: a test for hitting a baseball?

    PubMed

    Solomon, H; Zinn, W J; Vacroux, A

    1988-07-01

    Vision is a critical ingredient in professional sports such as baseball. It would, therefore, be logical to assume that vision testing should be able to discriminate between good and bad performance. Past attempts to establish this vision/performance relationship have not been successful. We believe the fault is anchored in the fact that all routine vision testing is static and unable to measure motion parameters. Using an instrument of our design to test dynamic stereoacuity, we have been able to detect subtle differences among individuals. The data show a segregation between major league hitters and pitchers. Such information could be used as one clue to predict hitting performance. PMID:3403900

  4. Describing baseball pitch movement with right-hand rules.

    PubMed

    Bahill, A Terry; Baldwin, David G

    2007-07-01

    The right-hand rules show the direction of the spin-induced deflection of baseball pitches: thus, they explain the movement of the fastball, curveball, slider and screwball. The direction of deflection is described by a pair of right-hand rules commonly used in science and engineering. Our new model for the magnitude of the lateral spin-induced deflection of the ball considers the orientation of the axis of rotation of the ball relative to the direction in which the ball is moving. This paper also describes how models based on somatic metaphors might provide variability in a pitcher's repertoire.

  5. Dynamic stereoacuity: a test for hitting a baseball?

    PubMed

    Solomon, H; Zinn, W J; Vacroux, A

    1988-07-01

    Vision is a critical ingredient in professional sports such as baseball. It would, therefore, be logical to assume that vision testing should be able to discriminate between good and bad performance. Past attempts to establish this vision/performance relationship have not been successful. We believe the fault is anchored in the fact that all routine vision testing is static and unable to measure motion parameters. Using an instrument of our design to test dynamic stereoacuity, we have been able to detect subtle differences among individuals. The data show a segregation between major league hitters and pitchers. Such information could be used as one clue to predict hitting performance.

  6. Effective glenoid version in professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Drakos, Mark C; Barker, Joseph U; Osbahr, Daryl C; Lehto, Scott; Rudzki, Jonas R; Potter, Hollis; Coleman, Struan H; Allen, Answorth A; Altchek, David W

    2010-07-01

    The pathomechanics of the throwing shoulder have yet to be fully elucidated. The focus of this study reported here was to further characterize the morphology of the glenoid in a population of elite throwing athletes. We obtained magnetic resonance imaging scans of 38 professional baseball players (dominant shoulders) and of 35 age matched nonthrowing control patients (17 dominant and 18 nondominant shoulders). Seven measurements were made by 3 blinded reviewers on 3 axial images per patient: version of superior glenoid, middle glenoid, inferior glenoid, superior capsulolabral junction, middle capsulolabral junction, inferior capsulolabral junction, and depth of concavity of glenoid in a middle slice. Mean age of the 38 players (24 pitchers, 14 fielders) was 26.8 years, and mean age of the 35 control patients was 27.6 years. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from .55 to .84 for the version measurements. There were no statistically significant differences between the pitchers and the fielders on any of the 7 measurements, but such differences were found between the throwers and the dominant-shoulder control patients on all 7 measurements. There were only 2 differences (version of superior glenoid, depth of concavity of glenoid in a middle slice) between dominant- and nondominant- shoulder control patients. There was significantly more retroversion in the osseous and soft tissues of the elite throwing athletes than in the nonthrowing control patients. This increased retroversion may play a role in development of internal impingement in the overhead athlete.

  7. Experience Rate of Elbow Pain and Morphological Abnormality of Humeral Medial Epicondyle among Youth Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Kotoura, Yoshihiro; Morihara, Toru; Kida, Yoshikazu; Sukenari, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryuhei; Kabuto, Yukichi; MInami, Masataka; Onishi, Okihiro; Tsujihara, Takashi; Hojo, Tatsuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the experience rate of elbow pain and to clarify the relationship between morphological abnormality of the humeral medial epicondyle and positions among baseball players in elementary school (ES), junior high school (JHS) and high school (HS). Methods: In this study, 4353 baseball players who participated in our medical screening (2008-2015) were enrolled. There were 1545 players from ES, 1934 players from JHS, and 874 players from HS. We asked them to answer the questionnaire to investigate the experience of elbow pain, and the position they played. Ultrasonography of the humeral medial epicondyle was examined and irregularity, fragmentation, and malunion of the humeral medial epicondyle. The results were analyzed statistically. P < 0.05 was considered significant for all statistical analyses. Results: The experience rates of elbow pain among players in ES, JHS, and HS were 26.0%, 27.0%, and 68.3%. The rates of abnormality of humeral medial epicondyle among players in ES, JHS, and HS were 18.2%, 36.3%, and 39.9% (Table 1). The experience rate of elbow pain among pitchers and catchers was significantly higher than the fielders in ES (Table 2), however, there were no significant differences between positions in JHS and HS (Table 3,4). According to the rate of morphological abnormalities of humeral medial epicondyle, pitchers and catchers were significantly higher than fielders in ES, while only pitchers were significantly higher than the fielders in JHS and HS (Table 2,3,4). Conclusion: The experience rate of elbow pain among baseball players rose as the age increased, and the rate in HS was almost 70%. The rates of morphological abnormality of humeral medial epicondyle among pitchers and catchers were high and the tendency was observed from a young age. The primary prevention of elbow injuries in youth baseball players of all ages should be considered.

  8. Stress reaction of the humerus in a high school baseball player.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Zapata, Alan; Familiari, Filippo; Mcfarland, Edward G

    2014-12-01

    The patient was an 18-year-old high school baseball pitcher with a chief complaint of right (dominant) arm pain in the region of his right distal humerus that began 8 weeks earlier. Conventional radiographs were obtained, which were interpreted as normal. As a result, magnetic resonance imaging was obtained, which showed a hyperintense bone marrow signal in the distal humerus on fluid-sensitive sequences, which was consistent with a stress reaction of the distal humerus.

  9. Peak athletic performance and ageing: evidence from baseball.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, John Charles

    2009-04-01

    Baseball players exhibit a pattern of improvement and decline in performance; however, differing lengths of careers and changes in rules and characteristics of the game complicate assessments of age-related effects on performance. This study attempts to isolate the impact of age on several player skills while controlling for relevant outside factors using longitudinal data from 86 seasons of Major League Baseball. The results indicate that players age in different skills in accord with studies of ageing in other athletic contests. For overall performance, multiple-regression estimates indicate that hitters and pitchers peak around the age of 29 - later than previous estimates. Athletic skills such as hitting and running peak earlier than skills that rely heavily on experience and knowledge, such as issuing and drawing walks. PMID:19308873

  10. The ballet of baseball: lessons of the game for hospice.

    PubMed

    Norlander, L; Grimmer, T

    2000-01-01

    As Yogi Berra once said, "The future ain't what it used to be." In the era of rapid change in health care, hospice and palliative care programs will survive only through organizational teamwork. Using the lessons of baseball, we present a stadium-eye perspective on how programs can take the three fundamentals of baseball--pitching, batting, and fielding--and translate them into the three fundamentals of organizational teamwork--clinical, operational, and financial. The best clinicians (pitchers) are of no use if the office operations (batting) keep the patients (fans) out of the stadium and no program can survive without the financial resources (fielding.) When you come to a fork in the road, take it.

  11. Peak athletic performance and ageing: evidence from baseball.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, John Charles

    2009-04-01

    Baseball players exhibit a pattern of improvement and decline in performance; however, differing lengths of careers and changes in rules and characteristics of the game complicate assessments of age-related effects on performance. This study attempts to isolate the impact of age on several player skills while controlling for relevant outside factors using longitudinal data from 86 seasons of Major League Baseball. The results indicate that players age in different skills in accord with studies of ageing in other athletic contests. For overall performance, multiple-regression estimates indicate that hitters and pitchers peak around the age of 29 - later than previous estimates. Athletic skills such as hitting and running peak earlier than skills that rely heavily on experience and knowledge, such as issuing and drawing walks.

  12. A Highly Miniaturized, Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit for Characterizing the Dynamics of Pitched Baseballs and Softballs

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Ryan S.; Perkins, Noel C.

    2012-01-01

    Baseball and softball pitch types are distinguished by the path and speed of the ball which, in turn, are determined by the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center at the instant of release from the pitcher's hand. While radar guns and video-based motion capture (mocap) resolve ball speed, they provide little information about how the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center develop and change during the throwing motion. Moreover, mocap requires measurements in a controlled lab environment and by a skilled technician. This study addresses these shortcomings by introducing a highly miniaturized, wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU) that is embedded in both baseballs and softballs. The resulting “ball-embedded” sensor resolves ball dynamics right on the field of play. Experimental results from ten pitches, five thrown by one softball pitcher and five by one baseball pitcher, demonstrate that this sensor technology can deduce the magnitude and direction of the ball's velocity at release to within 4.6% of measurements made using standard mocap. Moreover, the IMU directly measures the angular velocity of the ball, which further enables the analysis of different pitch types.

  13. Shoulder and elbow kinematics in throwing of young baseball players.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kazuyuki; Murata, Masahiro; Hirano, Yuichi

    2006-07-01

    In this study we compared the kinematic features of the throwing motion between young baseball players of different age groups. Forty-four Japanese baseball players aged 6.1 to 12.3 years who regularly played baseball, including pitchers and position players, had their throwing actions analyzed three-dimensionally using high speed videography. Of this sample, 26 players aged above 9 years of age were categorized as the senior group, while the remaining 18 were categorized as the junior group. Senior group throwers had greater height and body mass, and produced a greater ball speed than junior group throwers. The throwing arm movement of senior group throwers was similar to that of adult skilled players. However, in the junior group throwers, the shoulder horizontal adduction angle was larger during the arm acceleration phase, and the maximum angular velocities of elbow extension and shoulder internal rotation occurred later than in senior group throwers. These results indicate that players aged above 9 years can acquire a mature throwing arm movement, while players younger than that will use an immature motion. A possible reason why these differences were shown is that the official baseball is relatively heavy for junior group throwers; they would be better advised to use a lighter ball in throwing practice.

  14. Carthage High School Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodfin, Samantha, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This is the third issue of the magazine to focus on baseball in Panola County (Texas). The issue salutes the Carthage High School baseball program during two periods of its history. The first period was the early 1940's under Coach E. B. Morrison, whose teams were State Finalists in 1941 and 1942. The second period covered is the era of Coach…

  15. Mathematics in Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battista, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of 13 activities to explore the mathematics of baseball. Activities examine the numerical measures of player statistics and team standings and the geometry of baseball. Discusses the use of computer spreadsheets and LOGO computer simulations to study the concepts embodied in the activities. (MDH)

  16. BASEBALL IN AMERICAN FICTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRABER, RALPH S.

    BASEBALL FICTION HAS MOVED FROM THE JUVENILE STORIES OF THE TURN OF THE CENTURY TO ADULT FICTION IN WHICH THE GAME IS EXAMINED FOR THE LIGHT IT SHEDS ON THE PARADOXES OF AMERICAN LIFE. EARLY BASEBALL FICTION WAS DIRECTED TOWARD THE DIME-NOVEL AUDIENCE, BUT AFTER WORLD WAR I, SUCH WRITERS AS HEYWOOD BROUN AND RING LARDNER AIMED FOR ADULT READERS…

  17. Comparison of three baseball-specific 6-week training programs on throwing velocity in high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Ionno, Michele; deMahy, M Scott; Fleisig, Glenn S; Wilk, Kevin E; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2012-07-01

    Throwing velocity is an important baseball performance variable for baseball pitchers, because greater throwing velocity results in less time for hitters to make a decision to swing. Throwing velocity is also an important baseball performance variable for position players, because greater throwing velocity results in decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base. This study compared the effects of 3 baseball-specific 6-week training programs on maximum throwing velocity. Sixty-eight high school baseball players 14-17 years of age were randomly and equally divided into 3 training groups and a nontraining control group. The 3 training groups were the Throwers Ten (TT), Keiser Pneumatic (KP), and Plyometric (PLY). Each training group trained 3 d·wk(-1) for 6 weeks, which comprised approximately 5-10 minutes for warm-up, 45 minutes of resistance training, and 5-10 for cool-down. Throwing velocity was assessed before (pretest) and just after (posttest) the 6-week training program for all the subjects. A 2-factor repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc paired t-tests was used to assess throwing velocity differences (p < 0.05). Compared with pretest throwing velocity values, posttest throwing velocity values were significantly greater in the TT group (1.7% increase), the KP group (1.2% increase), and the PLY group (2.0% increase) but not significantly different in the control group. These results demonstrate that all 3 training programs were effective in increasing throwing velocity in high school baseball players, but the results of this study did not demonstrate that 1 resistance training program was more effective than another resistance training program in increasing throwing velocity.

  18. Comparison of three baseball-specific 6-week training programs on throwing velocity in high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Ionno, Michele; deMahy, M Scott; Fleisig, Glenn S; Wilk, Kevin E; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2012-07-01

    Throwing velocity is an important baseball performance variable for baseball pitchers, because greater throwing velocity results in less time for hitters to make a decision to swing. Throwing velocity is also an important baseball performance variable for position players, because greater throwing velocity results in decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base. This study compared the effects of 3 baseball-specific 6-week training programs on maximum throwing velocity. Sixty-eight high school baseball players 14-17 years of age were randomly and equally divided into 3 training groups and a nontraining control group. The 3 training groups were the Throwers Ten (TT), Keiser Pneumatic (KP), and Plyometric (PLY). Each training group trained 3 d·wk(-1) for 6 weeks, which comprised approximately 5-10 minutes for warm-up, 45 minutes of resistance training, and 5-10 for cool-down. Throwing velocity was assessed before (pretest) and just after (posttest) the 6-week training program for all the subjects. A 2-factor repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc paired t-tests was used to assess throwing velocity differences (p < 0.05). Compared with pretest throwing velocity values, posttest throwing velocity values were significantly greater in the TT group (1.7% increase), the KP group (1.2% increase), and the PLY group (2.0% increase) but not significantly different in the control group. These results demonstrate that all 3 training programs were effective in increasing throwing velocity in high school baseball players, but the results of this study did not demonstrate that 1 resistance training program was more effective than another resistance training program in increasing throwing velocity. PMID:22549085

  19. The abductor and adductor strength characteristics of professional baseball pitcherse.

    PubMed

    Wilk, K E; Andrews, J R; Arrigo, C A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish a data base regarding the isokinetic muscular performance characteristics of the abductor and adductor muscles of professional baseball pitchers. Eighty-three healthy professional baseball pitchers (mean age, 22.6 years; mean weight, 199 pounds) were evaluated by use of a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. Isokinetic tests were performed concentrically at 180 and 300 deg/sec for both the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders. The testing protocol and test repetitions were standardized for each subject. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test. Determination of the correlation coefficient was made at the P < 0.05 level of significance. Test results for bilateral comparisons of mean peak torque for the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders demonstrated a significant difference in adductor values between the dominant and nondominant shoulders at both test speeds. There were no significant differences between extremities for the shoulder abductor muscles. The abductor-to-adductor muscle ratios between the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders were also statistically significant at both test speeds. Throwing arm values were 82.5% at 180 deg/sec and 93.8% at 300 deg/sec compared with only 66.0% and 70.3%, respectively, for the nonthrowing shoulders.

  20. Patterns of shoulder flexibility among college baseball players.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L

    1992-01-01

    In this study, I investigated and analyzed the various joint motions in the shoulders of college baseball players. Twenty-six players (age=20.38+/-1.36 yr) from two colleges were examined for upper extremity range of motion (ROM), including shoulder flexion, extension, internal rotation at 90 degrees abduction, and external rotation at 90 degrees abduction. Joint motions were measured using a JAMAR(R), six-inch, double-arm goniometer. Pitchers demonstrated 22 degrees more shoulder flexion and 21 degrees more external rotation at 90 degrees abduction than infield position players, and 17 degrees more shoulder flexion than outfield position players. There was no significant difference between the dominant arm flexibility of infield and outfield position players. When comparing the dominant to nondominant arm relative to the position, infield position players demonstrated 5 degrees less shoulder flexion and 6 degrees more external rotation on the dominant side at 90 degrees abduction. Pitchers did not demonstrate any significant difference between the dominant and nondominant arm. There was, however, an indication that pitchers had a tendency to exhibit greater flexibility during flexion and external rotation at 90 degrees abduction in the dominant side than in the nondominant side.

  1. Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in the asymptomatic professional pitcher and its relationship to humeral retroversion.

    PubMed

    Tokish, John M; Curtin, Michael S; Kim, Young-Kyu; Hawkins, Richard J; Torry, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if glenohumeral internal rotation deficits (GIRD) exist in an asymptomatic population of professional pitchers, and to assess whether these changes are primarily a bony or soft tissue adaptation. Twenty three, active, asymptomatic professional (Major League Baseball) pitchers volunteered for the study. Clinical measures of glenohumeral ranges of motion, laxity, GIRD, as well as radiographic measures of humeral retroversion were taken by two independent orthopaedic surgeons. Data comparing side to side differences in range of motion, laxity, and humeral retroversion were analyzed for statistical significance using a paired t-test for continuous data and a Chi-squared test for ordinal data, with a significance set at 0.05. Evaluations of statistical correlations between different measurement parameters were accomplished using a Pearson product moment correlation. We hypothesized GIRD will be positively correlated with humeral retroversion (HR) in the pitching arm. All clinical and radiographic measures were made in the field, at spring training, by physicians of both private and institutional based sports medicine practices. For the entire group, significant differences were exhibited for HR, external rotation at 90° and internal rotation at 90°, for dominant vs. non-dominant arms. GIRD of greater than 25° was noted in 10/23 of pitchers. In this group, HR was significantly increased and correlated to GIRD. No such increase or correlation was noted for the non-GIRD group. GIRD is a common finding in asymptomatic professional pitchers, and is related to humeral retroversion. Thus internal rotation deficits should not be used as the sole screening tool to diagnose the disabled throwing shoulder. Key pointsGIRD is relatively common in asymptomatic baseball pitchers (35-43%).Large ranges (-45 to 5°) and a large standard deviation (±16°) were noted suggesting that GIRD is quite variable in this population.GIRD is a variable

  2. Ball Speed and Release Consistency Predict Pitching Success in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, David; Martini, Douglas N; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goulet, Grant C

    2016-07-01

    Whiteside, D, Martini, DN, Zernicke, RF, and Goulet, GC. Ball speed and release consistency predict pitching success in Major League Baseball. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2015-This study aimed to quantify how ball flight kinematics (i.e., ball speed and movement), release location, and variations therein relate to pitching success in Major League Baseball (MLB). One hundred ninety starting MLB pitchers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Ball trajectory information was collected for 76,000 pitches and inserted into a forward stepwise multiple regression model, which examined how (a) pitch selection, (b) ball speed, (c) ball movement (horizontal and lateral), (d) release location (horizontal and lateral), (e) variation in pitch speed, (f) variation in ball movement, and (g) variation in release location related to pitching success (as measured by fielding independent pitching-FIP). Pitch speed, release location variability, variation in pitch speed, and horizontal release location were significant predictors of FIP and, collectively, accounted for 24% of the variance in FIP. These findings suggest that (a) maximizing ball speed, (b) refining a consistent spatial release location, and (c) using varied pitch speeds should be primary foci for the pitching coach. However, between-pitcher variations underline how training interventions should be administered at the individual level, with consideration given to the pitcher's injury history. Finally, despite offering significant predictors of success, these three factors explained only 22% of the variance in FIP and should not be considered the only, or preeminent, indicators of a pitcher's effectiveness. Evidently, traditional pitching metrics only partly account for a pitcher's effectiveness, and future research is necessary to uncover the remaining contributors to success.

  3. Ball Speed and Release Consistency Predict Pitching Success in Major League Baseball.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, David; Martini, Douglas N; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goulet, Grant C

    2016-07-01

    Whiteside, D, Martini, DN, Zernicke, RF, and Goulet, GC. Ball speed and release consistency predict pitching success in Major League Baseball. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2015-This study aimed to quantify how ball flight kinematics (i.e., ball speed and movement), release location, and variations therein relate to pitching success in Major League Baseball (MLB). One hundred ninety starting MLB pitchers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Ball trajectory information was collected for 76,000 pitches and inserted into a forward stepwise multiple regression model, which examined how (a) pitch selection, (b) ball speed, (c) ball movement (horizontal and lateral), (d) release location (horizontal and lateral), (e) variation in pitch speed, (f) variation in ball movement, and (g) variation in release location related to pitching success (as measured by fielding independent pitching-FIP). Pitch speed, release location variability, variation in pitch speed, and horizontal release location were significant predictors of FIP and, collectively, accounted for 24% of the variance in FIP. These findings suggest that (a) maximizing ball speed, (b) refining a consistent spatial release location, and (c) using varied pitch speeds should be primary foci for the pitching coach. However, between-pitcher variations underline how training interventions should be administered at the individual level, with consideration given to the pitcher's injury history. Finally, despite offering significant predictors of success, these three factors explained only 22% of the variance in FIP and should not be considered the only, or preeminent, indicators of a pitcher's effectiveness. Evidently, traditional pitching metrics only partly account for a pitcher's effectiveness, and future research is necessary to uncover the remaining contributors to success. PMID:26677832

  4. Aerodynamics and Baseball

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is known for rocket science and airplanes, but for baseball? NASA researchers like to solve down-to-Earth problems like how far will a batted ball travel or what makes a curve ball curve? Aero...

  5. Changes in collegiate starting pitchers' range of motion after single game and season.

    PubMed

    Freehill, Michael T; Archer, Kristin R; Diffenderfer, Benjamin W; Ebel, Brian G; Cosgarea, Andrew J; McFarland, Edward G

    2014-02-01

    The relationship of changes in glenohumeral range of motion (ROM) in a pitcher's throwing shoulder to a single pitching episode is not well described, and the causes of such changes over a season are controversial. We hypothesized that in pitchers for a collegiate baseball team, external rotation (ER) would increase, internal rotation (IR) would decrease, total ROM would be maintained, and the glenohumeral IR deficit would worsen in starting pitchers' shoulders after single pitching episodes and after the season. Participants were 6 starting pitchers for all 25 home games from a Division III National Collegiate Athletic Association team during 1 regular spring season. One examiner measured glenohumeral ER, IR, and total ROM with the arm abducted 90° pregame before stretching or throwing and immediately postgame before shoulder icing. Bilateral measurements were obtained on supine pitchers via a long-arm goniometer and custom bubble inclinometer. Innings, pitch count, and types of pitches were recorded for possible associations with any glenohumeral motion changes. Paired t tests were used to compare dominant and nondominant glenohumeral differences in ROM (significance, P < 0.05). Compared with pregame values, single-start postgame glenohumeral ER significantly increased (7.9° ± 2.2°), single-start IR did not significantly change, and single-start total ROM significantly increased (7.4° ± 3.4°). Compared with preseason values, postseason glenohumeral ER significantly increased (10.2° ± 6.2°), IR significantly decreased (-17.8° ± 6.7°), and total ROM significantly decreased (-7.7° ± 5.2°). In the collegiate throwing shoulder, changes in ER and total ROM occurred after 1 episode of starting pitching, and changes in ER, IR, and total ROM occurred over the full season. There was no association between the ROM changes and innings pitched, pitch count, or types of pitches thrown. In conclusion, for collegiate pitchers, changes in glenohumeral ROM occur

  6. Elbow and Shoulder Lesions of Baseball Players*

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    George Eli Bennett was born in Claryville, NY, in the Catskill Mountains, in 1885 [3]. His parents both died by the time he was 11, leaving him the need to work while going to school, but he excelled in school and sports. He played semipro baseball at the age of 16. After high school he work in various jobs in the Midwest before he could afford to attend the University of Maryland Medical School, from which he graduated in 1908. At the age of 25 in 1910, he joined the staff at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, where he remained until his resignation in 1947. Dr. Bennett was one of a few men who served as President of both the American Orthopaedic Association and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. While Dr. Bennett made many contributions to orthopaedic surgery, including children’s and nonoperative orthopaedics, he was best known for his work in sports medicine (undoubtedly related to his being a gifted athlete). His fame extended well beyond the orthopaedic community, for he treated many famous athletes. Sports Illustrated recognized him upon his death in an article entitled, “Mender of Immortals” [4]. His intimate knowledge of sports undoubtedly contributed to his sage judgments. At an emotional dinner in 1958 many famous athletes sometimes tearfully paid tribute to Dr. Bennett. Joe Garagiola commented on the occasion, “After listening to that all-star team of players Dr. Bennett has mended, I’m sorry I didn’t break my leg” [4]. Among Dr. Bennett’s many publications, including those related to sports, we have chosen one [2] of two articles [1,2] he wrote on elbow and shoulder problems in baseball players. He described the now well-known degenerative changes and periarticular calcific deposits that occur in the elbows and shoulders of pitchers. Some of these, he suggested, were not symptomatic and he advised against treatment. Dr. Bennett commented, however, “Since professional athletes are human beings, not supermen, general health often

  7. Baseball/lacrosse injuries.

    PubMed

    Casazza, B A; Rossner, K

    1999-02-01

    With the expansion of baseball into all age groups, the game is becoming as much a recreational sport as a youth sport. Throwing arm injuries eventually limit the participation of most players. Analysis is made of these injuries with the goal of complete rehabilitation for the baseball player. Lacrosse has also seen an increase in popularity as a recreational sport. Analysis of lacrosse injuries and rehabilitation of the most common injuries is reviewed.

  8. Major League Baseball pace-of-play rules and their influence on predicted muscle fatigue during simulated baseball games.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Michael W L; Keir, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) has proposed rule changes to speed up baseball games. Reducing the time between pitches may impair recovery from fatigue. Fatigue is a known precursor to injury and may jeopardise joint stability. This study examined how fatigue accumulated during baseball games and how different pace of play initiatives may influence fatigue. Pitcher data were retrieved from a public database. A predictive model of muscle fatigue estimated muscle fatigue in 8 arm muscles. A self-selected pace (22.7 s), 12 s pace (Rule 8.04 from the MLB) and a 20 s rest (a pitch clock examined in the 2014 Arizona Fall League (AFL)) were examined. Significantly more muscle fatigue existed in both the AFL and Rule 8.04 conditions, when compared to the self-selected pace condition (5.01 ± 1.73%, 3.95 ± 1.20% and 3.70 ± 1.10% MVC force lost, respectively). Elevated levels of muscle fatigue are predicted in the flexor-pronator mass, which is responsible for providing elbow stability. Reduced effectiveness of the flexor-pronator mass may reduce the active contributions to joint rotational stiffness, increasing strain on the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and possibly increasing injury risk.

  9. Major League Baseball pace-of-play rules and their influence on predicted muscle fatigue during simulated baseball games.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Michael W L; Keir, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) has proposed rule changes to speed up baseball games. Reducing the time between pitches may impair recovery from fatigue. Fatigue is a known precursor to injury and may jeopardise joint stability. This study examined how fatigue accumulated during baseball games and how different pace of play initiatives may influence fatigue. Pitcher data were retrieved from a public database. A predictive model of muscle fatigue estimated muscle fatigue in 8 arm muscles. A self-selected pace (22.7 s), 12 s pace (Rule 8.04 from the MLB) and a 20 s rest (a pitch clock examined in the 2014 Arizona Fall League (AFL)) were examined. Significantly more muscle fatigue existed in both the AFL and Rule 8.04 conditions, when compared to the self-selected pace condition (5.01 ± 1.73%, 3.95 ± 1.20% and 3.70 ± 1.10% MVC force lost, respectively). Elevated levels of muscle fatigue are predicted in the flexor-pronator mass, which is responsible for providing elbow stability. Reduced effectiveness of the flexor-pronator mass may reduce the active contributions to joint rotational stiffness, increasing strain on the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and possibly increasing injury risk. PMID:26940036

  10. Direction of spin axis and spin rate of the pitched baseball.

    PubMed

    Jinji, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Shinji

    2006-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the direction of the spin axis and the spin rate of pitched baseballs and to estimate the associated aerodynamic forces. In addition, the effects of the spin axis direction and spin rate on the trajectory of a pitched baseball were evaluated. The trajectories of baseballs pitched by both a pitcher and a pitching machine were recorded using four synchronized video cameras (60 Hz) and were analyzed using direct linear transform (DLT) procedures. A polynomial function using the least squares method was used to derive the time-displacement relationship of the ball coordinates during flight for each pitch. The baseball was filmed immediately after ball release using a high-speed video camera (250 Hz), and the direction of the spin axis and the spin rate (omega) were calculated based on the positional changes of the marks on the ball. The lift coefficient was correlated closely with omegasinalpha (r = 0.860), where alpha is the angle between the spin axis and the pitching direction. The term omegasinalpha represents the vertical component of the velocity vector. The lift force, which is a result of the Magnus effect occurring because of the rotation of the ball, acts perpendicularly to the axis of rotation. The Magnus effect was found to be greatest when the angular and translational velocity vectors were perpendicular to each other, and the break of the pitched baseball became smaller as the angle between these vectors approached 0 degrees. Balls delivered from a pitching machine broke more than actual pitcher's balls. It is necessary to consider the differences when we use pitching machines in batting practice. PMID:16939153

  11. Direction of spin axis and spin rate of the pitched baseball.

    PubMed

    Jinji, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Shinji

    2006-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the direction of the spin axis and the spin rate of pitched baseballs and to estimate the associated aerodynamic forces. In addition, the effects of the spin axis direction and spin rate on the trajectory of a pitched baseball were evaluated. The trajectories of baseballs pitched by both a pitcher and a pitching machine were recorded using four synchronized video cameras (60 Hz) and were analyzed using direct linear transform (DLT) procedures. A polynomial function using the least squares method was used to derive the time-displacement relationship of the ball coordinates during flight for each pitch. The baseball was filmed immediately after ball release using a high-speed video camera (250 Hz), and the direction of the spin axis and the spin rate (omega) were calculated based on the positional changes of the marks on the ball. The lift coefficient was correlated closely with omegasinalpha (r = 0.860), where alpha is the angle between the spin axis and the pitching direction. The term omegasinalpha represents the vertical component of the velocity vector. The lift force, which is a result of the Magnus effect occurring because of the rotation of the ball, acts perpendicularly to the axis of rotation. The Magnus effect was found to be greatest when the angular and translational velocity vectors were perpendicular to each other, and the break of the pitched baseball became smaller as the angle between these vectors approached 0 degrees. Balls delivered from a pitching machine broke more than actual pitcher's balls. It is necessary to consider the differences when we use pitching machines in batting practice.

  12. Accuracy of qualitative analysis for assessment of skilled baseball pitching technique.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Rochelle; Fleisig, Glenn; Elliott, Bruce; Lyman, Stephen; Osinski, Edmund

    2003-07-01

    Baseball pitching must be performed with correct technique if injuries are to be avoided and performance maximized. High-speed video analysis is accepted as the most accurate and objective method for evaluation of baseball pitching mechanics. The aim of this research was to develop an equivalent qualitative analysis method for use with standard video equipment. A qualitative analysis protocol (QAP) was developed for 24 kinematic variables identified as important to pitching performance. Twenty male baseball pitchers were videotaped using 60 Hz camcorders, and their technique evaluated using the QAP, by two independent raters. Each pitcher was also assessed using a 6-camera 200 Hz Motion Analysis system (MAS). Four QAP variables (22%) showed significant similarity with MAS results. Inter-rater reliability showed agreement on 33% of QAP variables. It was concluded that a complete and accurate profile of an athlete's pitching mechanics cannot be made using the QAP in its current form, but it is possible such simple forms of biomechanical analysis could yield accurate results before 3-D methods become obligatory. PMID:14737929

  13. Accuracy of qualitative analysis for assessment of skilled baseball pitching technique.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Rochelle; Fleisig, Glenn; Elliott, Bruce; Lyman, Stephen; Osinski, Edmund

    2003-07-01

    Baseball pitching must be performed with correct technique if injuries are to be avoided and performance maximized. High-speed video analysis is accepted as the most accurate and objective method for evaluation of baseball pitching mechanics. The aim of this research was to develop an equivalent qualitative analysis method for use with standard video equipment. A qualitative analysis protocol (QAP) was developed for 24 kinematic variables identified as important to pitching performance. Twenty male baseball pitchers were videotaped using 60 Hz camcorders, and their technique evaluated using the QAP, by two independent raters. Each pitcher was also assessed using a 6-camera 200 Hz Motion Analysis system (MAS). Four QAP variables (22%) showed significant similarity with MAS results. Inter-rater reliability showed agreement on 33% of QAP variables. It was concluded that a complete and accurate profile of an athlete's pitching mechanics cannot be made using the QAP in its current form, but it is possible such simple forms of biomechanical analysis could yield accurate results before 3-D methods become obligatory.

  14. INJURY TO THE THROWING ARM. A STUDY OF TRAUMATIC CHANGES IN THE ELBOW JOINTS OF BOY BASEBALL PLAYERS.

    PubMed

    ADAMS, J E

    1965-02-01

    X-ray studies were made of both elbows of 162 boys in the 9 to 14 year age group, divided into three categories: Pitchers, non-pitchers, and a control group who had never played organized baseball. Changes involving the medial epicondylar epiphysis and opposing articular surfaces of the capitulum and head of radius in the throwing arm appeared to be in direct proportion to the amount and type of throwing. The most striking changes were in the arms of pitchers. Some degree of accelerated growth, separation and fragmentation of the medial epicondylar epiphyses was noted in the throwing arm of all 80 pitchers in the study. Five cases of traumatic osteochondritis of the capitulum and head of radius, and one case of juvenile osteochondritis of the head of the radius were also found among the pitchers. Better medical supervision and stress on prevention are needed, especially in the Southern California area where climatic conditions favor prolonged seasons and throwing practice the year around.

  15. Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Fleisig, Glenn S; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Dunning, Russell; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2010-12-01

    Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity. This study examined the effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on maximum throwing velocity. Thirty-four youth baseball players (11-15 years of age) were randomly and equally divided into control and training groups. The training group performed 3 sessions (each 75 minutes) weekly for 4 weeks, which comprised a sport specific warm-up, resistance training with elastic tubing, a throwing program, and stretching. Throwing velocity was assessed initially and at the end of the 4-week conditioning program for both control and training groups. The level of significance used was p < 0.05. After the 4-week conditioning program, throwing velocity increased significantly (from 25.1 ± 2.8 to 26.1 ± 2.8 m·s) in the training group but did not significantly increase in the control group (from 24.2 ± 3.6 to 24.0 ± 3.9 m·s). These results demonstrate that the short-term 4-week baseball conditioning program was effective in increasing throwing velocity in youth baseball players. Increased throwing velocity may be helpful for pitchers (less time for hitters to swing) and position players (decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base). PMID:21068687

  16. Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Fleisig, Glenn S; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Dunning, Russell; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2010-12-01

    Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity. This study examined the effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on maximum throwing velocity. Thirty-four youth baseball players (11-15 years of age) were randomly and equally divided into control and training groups. The training group performed 3 sessions (each 75 minutes) weekly for 4 weeks, which comprised a sport specific warm-up, resistance training with elastic tubing, a throwing program, and stretching. Throwing velocity was assessed initially and at the end of the 4-week conditioning program for both control and training groups. The level of significance used was p < 0.05. After the 4-week conditioning program, throwing velocity increased significantly (from 25.1 ± 2.8 to 26.1 ± 2.8 m·s) in the training group but did not significantly increase in the control group (from 24.2 ± 3.6 to 24.0 ± 3.9 m·s). These results demonstrate that the short-term 4-week baseball conditioning program was effective in increasing throwing velocity in youth baseball players. Increased throwing velocity may be helpful for pitchers (less time for hitters to swing) and position players (decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base).

  17. Baseball and softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quincy

    2006-05-01

    Baseball and softball injuries can be a result of both acute and overuse injuries. Soft tissue injuries include contusions, abrasions, and lacerations. Return to play is allowed when risk of further injury is minimized. Common shoulder injuries include those to the rotator cuff, biceps tendon, and glenoid labrum. Elbow injuries are common in baseball and softball and include medial epicondylitis, ulnar collateral ligament injury, and osteochondritis dissecans. Typically conservative treatment with relative rest, medication, and a rehabilitation program will allow return to play. Surgical intervention may be needed for certain injuries or conservative treatment failure.

  18. Challenges to cognitive bases for an especial motor skill at the regulation baseball pitching distance.

    PubMed

    Simons, Jeffery P; Wilson, Jacob M; Wilson, Gabriel J; Theall, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    We tested expert baseball pitchers for evidence of especial skills at the regulation pitching distance. Seven college pitchers threw indoors to a target placed at 60.5 feet (18.44 m) and four closer and four further distances away. Accuracy at the regulation distance was significantly better than predicted by regression on the nonregulation distances (p < .02), indicating an especial skill effect emerged despite the absence of normal contextual cues. Self-efficacy data failed to support confidence as a mediating factor in especial skill effect. We concluded that cognitive theories fail to fully account for the patterns of observed data, and therefore theoretical explanations of the especial skills must address noncognitive aspects of motor learning and control.

  19. Lower extremity muscle activation during baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brian M; Stodden, David F; Nixon, Megan K

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation levels of select lower extremity muscles during the pitching motion. Bilateral surface electromyography data on 5 lower extremity muscles (biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius) were collected on 11 highly skilled baseball pitchers and compared with individual maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) data. The pitching motion was divided into 4 distinct phases: phase 1, initiation of pitching motion to maximum stride leg knee height; phase 2, maximum stride leg knee height to stride foot contact (SFC); phase 3, SFC to ball release; and phase 4, ball release to 0.5 seconds after ball release (follow-through). Results indicated that trail leg musculature elicited moderate to high activity levels during phases 2 and 3 (38-172% of MVIC). Muscle activity levels of the stride leg were moderate to high during phases 2-4 (23-170% of MVIC). These data indicate a high demand for lower extremity strength and endurance. Specifically, coaches should incorporate unilateral and bilateral lower extremity exercises for strength improvement or maintenance and to facilitate dynamic stabilization of the lower extremities during the pitching motion.

  20. Biomechanical Comparison of the Interval Throwing Progression and Baseball Pitching

    PubMed Central

    Slenker, Nicholas; Limpisvasti, Orr; Mohr, Karen; ElAttrache, Neal S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The interval throwing progression is a hallmark of the rehabilitation program designed for baseball pitchers or position players returning from shoulder or elbow injury. It typically begins with flat-ground throws at a short distance and progressively increases to 180 feet or more. For pitchers, this phase is then followed by throwing off the mound, progressing from partial-effort to full-effort pitches. Theoretically, the progression of throwing phases allows an injured athlete to gradually recover his flexibility, arm strength, and mechanics while moving from less stressful activities to more stressful activities. While this throwing program has been a part of baseball rehabilitation and conditioning for decades, little is known about the biomechanical stresses generated during flat-ground throwing or variable effort pitching off the mound. Methods: Twenty-nine healthy, college baseball pitchers were analyzed using a quantitative motion analysis system. The participants threw from flat ground at distances of 60-ft, 90-ft, 120-ft, and 180-ft, being instructed to throw “hard, on a horizontal line”. The pitchers then threw fastballs from a mound at 3 different efforts: 60% effort, 80% effort, and full-effort. Biomechanical parameters of position, velocity, and kinetic values were recorded. Mean values were calculated for humeral internal rotation torque (HIRT) and elbow valgus load (EVL) for each throw type. This data was then used to compare shoulder and elbow stresses between the various throws. The differences among mean values were analyzed with a repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Post hoc paired t tests were performed when the ANOVA revealed a significant difference. Results: Statistically significant differences exist across all mound intensities (60%, 80%, and 100% effort) for nHIRT (p=0.03) and nEVL (p=0.04), as both parameters increased with percentage throwing effort. No statistically significant differences were found across

  1. Dominant-Limb Range-of-Motion and Humeral-Retrotorsion Adaptation in Collegiate Baseball and Softball Position Players

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E.; Oyama, Sakiko; Tatman, Justin; Myers, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Biomechanically, the motions used by baseball and softball pitchers differ greatly; however, the throwing motions of position players in both sports are strikingly similar. Although the adaptations to the dominant limb from overhead throwing have been well documented in baseball athletes, these adaptations have not been clearly identified in softball players. This information is important in order to develop and implement injury-prevention programs specific to decreasing the risk of upper extremity injury in softball athletes. Objective: To compare range-of-motion and humeral-retrotorsion characteristics of collegiate baseball and softball position players and of baseball and softball players to sex-matched controls. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Research laboratories and athletic training rooms at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-three collegiate baseball players, 35 collegiate softball players, 25 male controls (nonoverhead athletes), and 19 female controls (nonoverhead athletes). Intervention(s): Range of motion and humeral retrotorsion were measured using a digital inclinometer and diagnostic ultrasound. Main Outcome Measure(s): Glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, external-rotation gain, total glenohumeral range of motion, and humeral retrotorsion. Results: Baseball players had greater glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, total–range-of-motion, and humeral-retrotorsion difference than softball players and male controls. There were no differences between glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, total–range-of-motion, and humeral-retrotorsion difference in softball players and female controls. Conclusions: Few differences were evident between softball players and female control participants, although range-of-motion and humeral-retrotorsion adaptations were significantly different than baseball players. The throwing motions are similar between softball and baseball, but the

  2. Throwing patterns used by collegiate baseball players in actual games.

    PubMed

    Barrett, David D; Burton, Allen W

    2002-03-01

    The form of 3,684 throws made by 100 players in 7 collegiate baseball games was examined in relation to position, distance, and active and inactive situations. All throws made from the first pitch to the last out for 94 half innings were videotaped from the stands. The results showed that the interrater reliability of task, environment, and performance measures were all acceptable to excellent (percentage of agreement was at least 80%), indicating that qualitative aspects of throwing can be reliably measured in an actual sport context. Alternatives to the most advanced pattern were observed at least half the time for catchers and infielders at most distances in both active and inactive situations andfor pitchers and outfielders only in inactive situations.

  3. On the distribution of career longevity and the evolution of home-run prowess in professional baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Jung, Woo-Sung; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2008-09-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that the level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power law probability density functions, a hallmark of many complex systems that are driven by competition, govern career longevity in baseball. We also find similar power laws in the density functions of all major performance metrics for pitchers and batters. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has a dark history, emerging as a problem for both amateur and professional sports. We find statistical evidence consistent with performance-enhancing drugs in the analysis of home runs hit by players in the last 25 years. This is corroborated by the findings of the Mitchell Report (2007), a two-year investigation into the use of illegal steroids in Major League Baseball, which recently revealed that over 5 percent of Major League Baseball players tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs in an anonymous 2003 survey.

  4. Baseball Monte Carlo Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houser, Larry L.

    1981-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods are used to simulate activities in baseball such as a team's "hot streak" and a hitter's "batting slump." Student participation in such simulations is viewed as a useful method of giving pupils a better understanding of the probability concepts involved. (MP)

  5. Models of baseball bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Howard

    1990-08-01

    By observing the vibrations of a hand-held baseball bat, it is possible to show that the bat behaves as if it were a free body at the impact of the bat and the ball. The hand-held bat shows none of the behavior of a bat with one end firmly clamped in a vise.

  6. Changes in baseball batters' brain activity with increased pitch choice.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Kim, Jingu; Ali, Asif; Kim, Woojong; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    In baseball, one factor necessary for batters to decide whether to swing or not depends on what type of pitch is thrown. Oftentimes batters will look for their pitch (i.e., waiting for a fastball). In general, when a pitcher has many types of pitches in his arsenal, batters will have greater difficulty deciding upon the pitch thrown. Little research has been investigated the psychophysiology of a batters decision-making processes. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine how brain activation changes according to an increase in the number of alternatives (NA) available. A total of 15 male college baseball players participated in this study. The stimuli used in this experiment were video clips of a right-handed pitcher throwing fastball, curve, and slider pitches. The task was to press a button after selecting the fastball as the target stimulus from two pitch choices (fastball and curve), and then from three possibilities (fastball, curve, and slider). Functional and anatomic image scanning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) runs took 4 and 5[Formula: see text]min, respectively. According to our analysis, the right precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were activated when the NA was one. The supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortex were activated when there were two alternatives to choose from and the inferior orbitofrontal gyrus was specifically activated with three alternatives. Contrary to our expectations, the NA was not a critical factor influencing the activation of related decision making areas when the NA was compared against one another. These findings highlight that specific brain areas related to decision making were activated as the NA increased.

  7. Changes in baseball batters' brain activity with increased pitch choice.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Kim, Jingu; Ali, Asif; Kim, Woojong; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    In baseball, one factor necessary for batters to decide whether to swing or not depends on what type of pitch is thrown. Oftentimes batters will look for their pitch (i.e., waiting for a fastball). In general, when a pitcher has many types of pitches in his arsenal, batters will have greater difficulty deciding upon the pitch thrown. Little research has been investigated the psychophysiology of a batters decision-making processes. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine how brain activation changes according to an increase in the number of alternatives (NA) available. A total of 15 male college baseball players participated in this study. The stimuli used in this experiment were video clips of a right-handed pitcher throwing fastball, curve, and slider pitches. The task was to press a button after selecting the fastball as the target stimulus from two pitch choices (fastball and curve), and then from three possibilities (fastball, curve, and slider). Functional and anatomic image scanning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) runs took 4 and 5[Formula: see text]min, respectively. According to our analysis, the right precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were activated when the NA was one. The supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortex were activated when there were two alternatives to choose from and the inferior orbitofrontal gyrus was specifically activated with three alternatives. Contrary to our expectations, the NA was not a critical factor influencing the activation of related decision making areas when the NA was compared against one another. These findings highlight that specific brain areas related to decision making were activated as the NA increased. PMID:26227537

  8. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of baseball pitching in acceleration phase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y T; Ford, H T; Ford, H T; Shin, D M

    1995-02-01

    To examine the relationships of pitching performance to maximum external rotation of the shoulder and to time in the acceleration phase, 3 male baseball pitchers were tested using three-dimensional cinematography. Analysis indicated that increasing maximum external rotation of the shoulder at the very beginning of the acceleration phase would help to generate a higher pitching ball velocity since a greater linear and angular displacement could be used to accelerate the throwing forearm. Slowing the wrist action just before ball-release may be a key technique to increasing pitching velocity of the ball.

  9. Fastball velocity trends in short-season minor league baseball.

    PubMed

    Crotin, Ryan L; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Tom; Ramsey, Dan K

    2013-08-01

    Diminishing baseball velocities are objective measures to delineate pitching fatigue. Yet, velocity changes over the course of a competitive season vs. a single game remain unknown. This study examined fastball velocity (FBV) trends of minor league pitchers over an 8-game span. We assumed that accumulation of pitches would cause similar velocity decreases within games to produce velocity decreases between games pitched. Retrospective analysis of major league-affiliated pitching charts indicated mean FBVs, game pitches thrown, game innings pitched, rest days, and pitching work to rest ratios (PWRRs) for 12 pitchers over 8 games. Regression analyses (p < 0.05) were performed using the ordinary least squares method. The FBV was the dependent variable, where the explanatory variable was the game number (representing cumulative workload). Further analyses were performed on ball velocity differences predicted by days rest and PWRRs. The FBV increased linearly for the first 8 games of the season (R = 0.91, F(1,7) = 64.67, p < 0.001). Over the 8 - game period, mean FBVs increased 0.25 m/s (0.56 mph) with the greatest velocity increase occurring between the first and eighth game at 1.97 m/s (4.4 mph). Days rest and PWRRs did not impact FBV differences. When compared with previous research, minor league pitchers at the Class A Short Season level did not show similar exertion responses to cumulative workloads (pitches and innings pitched). Recovery factors (rest days, PWRRs, and training) also did not impact FBVs. Velocity increases may be attributable to biomechanical compensations, skill development, strength and conditioning regimens, multistarter rotations, and other performance-related factors. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of ball velocity trends, as apparent changes may infer neuromuscular fatigue and increased injury susceptibility, which require in-season training modifications. PMID:23222081

  10. Fastball velocity trends in short-season minor league baseball.

    PubMed

    Crotin, Ryan L; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Tom; Ramsey, Dan K

    2013-08-01

    Diminishing baseball velocities are objective measures to delineate pitching fatigue. Yet, velocity changes over the course of a competitive season vs. a single game remain unknown. This study examined fastball velocity (FBV) trends of minor league pitchers over an 8-game span. We assumed that accumulation of pitches would cause similar velocity decreases within games to produce velocity decreases between games pitched. Retrospective analysis of major league-affiliated pitching charts indicated mean FBVs, game pitches thrown, game innings pitched, rest days, and pitching work to rest ratios (PWRRs) for 12 pitchers over 8 games. Regression analyses (p < 0.05) were performed using the ordinary least squares method. The FBV was the dependent variable, where the explanatory variable was the game number (representing cumulative workload). Further analyses were performed on ball velocity differences predicted by days rest and PWRRs. The FBV increased linearly for the first 8 games of the season (R = 0.91, F(1,7) = 64.67, p < 0.001). Over the 8 - game period, mean FBVs increased 0.25 m/s (0.56 mph) with the greatest velocity increase occurring between the first and eighth game at 1.97 m/s (4.4 mph). Days rest and PWRRs did not impact FBV differences. When compared with previous research, minor league pitchers at the Class A Short Season level did not show similar exertion responses to cumulative workloads (pitches and innings pitched). Recovery factors (rest days, PWRRs, and training) also did not impact FBVs. Velocity increases may be attributable to biomechanical compensations, skill development, strength and conditioning regimens, multistarter rotations, and other performance-related factors. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of ball velocity trends, as apparent changes may infer neuromuscular fatigue and increased injury susceptibility, which require in-season training modifications.

  11. Characteristic ground-reaction forces in baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    MacWilliams, B A; Choi, T; Perezous, M K; Chao, E Y; McFarland, E G

    1998-01-01

    Overhand throwing requires contributions from and interaction between all limb segments. Most previous investigations have concentrated on the throwing arm itself, yet poor mechanics at the arm may originate in the lower extremities. Multicomponent ground-reaction forces of both the push-off and landing limbs were measured in six collegiate and one high school level baseball pitchers. Full body kinematics were simultaneously recorded to correlate phases in the pitching cycle with the force data. Pitchers were found to generate shear forces of 0.35 body weight in the direction of the pitch with the push-off leg and to resist forces of 0.72 body weight with the landing leg. Wrist velocity was found to correlate highly with increased leg drive. This study validates the clinical impression that the lower extremity is an important contributor to the throwing motion. Based on this study, strengthening of the lower extremities could be inferred to be important both to enhance performance and to avoid injury.

  12. Safety Tips: Baseball (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and base runners and fielders frequently collide while running at top speed. Gear Guidelines As with all ... player is at bat, waiting to bat, or running the bases. Some leagues may even require pitchers ...

  13. Differences in physical characteristics in collegiate baseball players. A descriptive position by position analysis.

    PubMed

    Carda, R D; Looney, M A

    1994-12-01

    Physical characteristics including height, weight, body composition, and somatotype of NCAA Division II baseball players were evaluated to determine if differences in physical profiles exist by position at this level of competition. Differences in height, weight, lean body weight and somatoplots were found among various players. Pitchers were found to be taller that infielders and outfielders and displayed more endomorphy and less mesomorphy than the outfielders. Among the infielders, first basemen were taller than second basemen and third basemen while shortstops were found to be taller than second basemen. With respect to weight, first basemen and catchers were found to be heavier than second basemen. The second basemen had less lean body mass than all other infield groups. The data reveal more than a general description is warranted when describing the physical characteristics of baseball players at this level of play.

  14. Baseball bat assault injuries.

    PubMed

    Groleau, G A; Tso, E L; Olshaker, J S; Barish, R A; Lyston, D J

    1993-03-01

    The baseball bat, according to Baltimore City police crime statistics, is a commonly used weapon. To assess the severity of injuries inflicted by this modern-day club, we retrospectively reviewed 75 charts of patients treated at the University of Maryland Medical Systems Hospital for baseball bat injuries from January 1990 through July 1991. Multisystem trauma was documented, with craniocerebral injury being the most frequent and the most frequent cause of death. Of the victims struck on the head, 26% sustained an intracranial hemorrhage. In our series, the history of loss of consciousness and the Glasgow Coma Scale score failed to reliably identify the patients with serious injuries. Seventeen percent of our patients with intracranial hemorrhages had both a negative or uncertain history of loss of consciousness and a normal Glasgow Coma Scale score on arrival.

  15. Baseball and Canadian Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humber, William

    2005-01-01

    Baseball research generally acts as a window into the game--a means as it were to understand its underlying order and disorder, its hidden beauty and historic complexity. Less common is the view from the other side of the window in which the patterns of the game are a lens as it were into the outside world, a channel for making sense of a…

  16. Real Time Baseball Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  17. Trunk axial rotation in baseball pitching and batting.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Hsu, Wellington K; Fortenbaugh, Dave; Cordover, Andrew; Press, Joel M

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify trunk axial rotation and angular acceleration in pitching and batting of elite baseball players. Healthy professional baseball pitchers (n = 40) and batters (n = 40) were studied. Reflective markers attached to each athlete were tracked at 240 Hz with an eight-camera automated digitizing system. Trunk axial rotation was computed as the angle between the pelvis and the upper trunk in the transverse plane. Trunk angular acceleration was the second derivative of axial rotation. Maximum trunk axial rotation (55 +/- 6 degrees) and angular acceleration (11,600 +/- 3,100 degrees/s2) in pitching occurred before ball release, approximately at the instant the front foot landed. Maximum trunk axial rotation (46 +/- 9 degrees) and angular acceleration (7,200 +/- 2,800 degrees/s2) in batting occurred in the follow-through after ball contact. Thus, the most demanding instant for the trunk and spine was near front foot contact for pitching and after ball contact for batting. PMID:24466645

  18. Trunk axial rotation in baseball pitching and batting.

    PubMed

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Hsu, Wellington K; Fortenbaugh, Dave; Cordover, Andrew; Press, Joel M

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify trunk axial rotation and angular acceleration in pitching and batting of elite baseball players. Healthy professional baseball pitchers (n = 40) and batters (n = 40) were studied. Reflective markers attached to each athlete were tracked at 240 Hz with an eight-camera automated digitizing system. Trunk axial rotation was computed as the angle between the pelvis and the upper trunk in the transverse plane. Trunk angular acceleration was the second derivative of axial rotation. Maximum trunk axial rotation (55 +/- 6 degrees) and angular acceleration (11,600 +/- 3,100 degrees/s2) in pitching occurred before ball release, approximately at the instant the front foot landed. Maximum trunk axial rotation (46 +/- 9 degrees) and angular acceleration (7,200 +/- 2,800 degrees/s2) in batting occurred in the follow-through after ball contact. Thus, the most demanding instant for the trunk and spine was near front foot contact for pitching and after ball contact for batting.

  19. Anthropometric characteristics of Columbia, South Carolina, youth baseball players and Dixie Youth World Series players.

    PubMed

    French, Karen E; Spurgeon, John H; Nevett, Michael E

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare measures of body size in two samples of youth baseball players with normative data from the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts. One sample of youth baseball players participated in a local little league. The second sample of youth baseball players were members of eight of the twelve teams participating in the 1995 Dixie Youth World Series. Normative data for the United States (NCHS) were used as comparative data. Two trained anthropometrists measured standing height, sitting height, lower limb height, upper limb length, arm girth, calf girth, tricep skinfold, and abdomen skinfold on all participants. In both samples, pitchers, short stops, and first basemen were a more highly skilled group and exhibited larger body size (greater standing height, sitting height, lower limb height, upper limb length) than children who played at other positions. The standing height of local little league players was similar to the median of reference data at ages 7, 8, and 9 years. The standing height and weight of skilled players in both samples approximated the 75th percentile for standing height and weight at ages 10, 11, 12, and 13 years. The results suggest that baseball players exhibit larger body size than the normal population at young ages. Body size may be an important criterion used by coaches to select and assign young players to certain positions.

  20. Risk Stratification for Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury in Major League Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    DeFroda, Steven F.; Kriz, Peter K.; Hall, Amber M.; Zurakowski, David; Fadale, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury has become increasingly common in Major League Baseball (MLB) players in recent years. Hypothesis: There is a significant difference in preinjury fastball velocity between MLB pitchers with tears and matched controls without UCL injury. Pitchers with injuries are throwing harder and getting injured earlier in their MLB careers. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: From 2007 to 2014, a total of 170 documented UCL injuries (156 pitchers, 14 position players) occurred in MLB. Inclusion criteria for this study consisted of any player who tore his UCL in MLB during this time frame. There were 130 regular-season tears (April-September). From this group, 118 players who pitched more than 100 innings prior to tear were matched to subjects with no tear and were compared using a logistic regression analysis. A subgroup of “early tear” players who threw less than 100 career innings (n = 37) was also identified and compared with the larger tear group using a logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 130 tears that occurred during the regular season, a significantly larger number (62%) occurred in the first 3 months (P = .011). The rate of UCL tears per MLB player (P = .001) was statistically significant. In the group of 118 matched tears, the mean fastball velocity was greater in the tear group (91.7 mph) compared with the control group (91.0 mph; P = .014). Furthermore, relief pitchers made up a greater percentage of the early tear group (<100 innings) compared with the later tear group (P = .011). Sixteen of the 170 UCL tears (9.4%) were recurrent tears, with 5 of 16 experiencing both tear and retear within the past 4 years. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant difference in the mean fastball velocity of pitchers who injure their UCL. Small increases in pitcher fastball velocity are a main contribution to the increased rate of tear in MLB. In addition, there has been an increased

  1. Baseball and American Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan exploring social values and historical periods as it is reflected in the sport of baseball. Suggests that teachers start with an overview of the game's history and rules in the nineteenth century. Includes four sets of quotes relating to baseball and race, capitalism, community, and cultural context. (DK)

  2. Fantasy Baseball with a Statistical Twist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koban, Lori; McNelis, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Fantasy baseball, a game invented in 1980, allows baseball fans to become managers of pretend baseball teams. In most fantasy baseball leagues, participants choose teams consisting of major league players who they believe will do well in five offensive categories (batting average, home runs, runs batted in, stolen bases, and runs scored) or in…

  3. Intersegmental dynamics of 3D upper arm and forearm longitudinal axis rotations during baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kozo; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Norimasa; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    The shoulder internal rotation (IR) and forearm pronation (PR) are important elements for baseball pitching, however, how rapid rotations of IR and PR are produced by muscular torques and inter-segmental forces is not clear. The aim of this study is to clarify how IR and PR angular velocities are maximized, depending on muscular torque and interactive torque effects, and gain a detailed knowledge about inter-segmental interaction within a multi-joint linked chain. The throwing movements of eight collegiate baseball pitchers were recorded by a motion capture system, and induced-acceleration analysis was used to assess the respective contributions of the muscular (MUS) and interactive torques associated with gyroscopic moment (GYR), and Coriolis (COR) and centrifugal forces (CEN) to maximum angular velocities of IR (MIRV) and PR (MPRV). The results showed that the contribution of MUS account for 98.0% of MIRV, while that contribution to MPRV was indicated as negative (-48.1%). It was shown that MPRV depends primarily on the interactive torques associated with GYR and CEN, but the effects of GYR, COR and CEN on MIRV are negligible. In conclusion, rapid PR motion during pitching is created by passive-effect, and is likely a natural movement which arises from 3D throwing movement. Applying the current analysis to IR and PR motions is helpful in providing the implications for improving performance and considering conditioning methods for pitchers.

  4. Intersegmental dynamics of 3D upper arm and forearm longitudinal axis rotations during baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kozo; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Norimasa; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    The shoulder internal rotation (IR) and forearm pronation (PR) are important elements for baseball pitching, however, how rapid rotations of IR and PR are produced by muscular torques and inter-segmental forces is not clear. The aim of this study is to clarify how IR and PR angular velocities are maximized, depending on muscular torque and interactive torque effects, and gain a detailed knowledge about inter-segmental interaction within a multi-joint linked chain. The throwing movements of eight collegiate baseball pitchers were recorded by a motion capture system, and induced-acceleration analysis was used to assess the respective contributions of the muscular (MUS) and interactive torques associated with gyroscopic moment (GYR), and Coriolis (COR) and centrifugal forces (CEN) to maximum angular velocities of IR (MIRV) and PR (MPRV). The results showed that the contribution of MUS account for 98.0% of MIRV, while that contribution to MPRV was indicated as negative (-48.1%). It was shown that MPRV depends primarily on the interactive torques associated with GYR and CEN, but the effects of GYR, COR and CEN on MIRV are negligible. In conclusion, rapid PR motion during pitching is created by passive-effect, and is likely a natural movement which arises from 3D throwing movement. Applying the current analysis to IR and PR motions is helpful in providing the implications for improving performance and considering conditioning methods for pitchers. PMID:25303496

  5. The effects of forearm fatigue on baseball fastball pitching, with implications about elbow injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Hwa; Lo, Kuo-Cheng; Jou, I-Ming; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Tai, Ta-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of flexor muscles to the forearm through fatigue; therefore, the differences in forearm mechanisms on the pitching motion in fastball were analysed. Fifteen baseball pitchers were included in this study. Ultrasonographical examination of participants' ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel with the elbow extended and at 45°, 90° and 120° of flexion was carried. A three-dimensional motion analysis system with 14 reflective markers attached on participants was used for motion data collection. The electromyography system was applied over the flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis muscles of the dominant arm. Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activity showed a significant difference during the acceleration phase, with a peak value during fastball post-fatigue (P = 0.02). Significant differences in the distance between ulnar nerve and medial condyle on throwing arm and non-throwing arm were observed as the distance increased with the elbow movement from 0° to 120° of flexion (P = 0.01). The significant increase of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activity might be responsible for maintaining the stability of the wrist joint. The increased diameter might compress the ulnar nerve and cause several pathological changes. Therefore, fatigue in baseball pitchers still poses a threat to the ulnar nerve because the flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi radialis all originate from the medial side of the elbow, and the swelling tendons after fatigue might be a key point.

  6. Effect of three different between-inning recovery methods on baseball pitching performance.

    PubMed

    Warren, Courtney D; Brown, Lee E; Landers, Merrill R; Stahura, Kurt A

    2011-03-01

    A decrease in blood hydrogen ions (H) may allow for the recovery of a muscle, which should allow for greater performance in subsequent activity. The purpose of this study was to determine which of 3 forms of recovery were the most effective after an inning of pitching in baseball. Three different measurements were used to determine which recovery method was most effective; the difference in blood lactate (BLa) levels was used as a biological measurement, average pitching speed was the physiological measurement, and the psychological measurement was done on how the pitchers perceived their pitching and recovery. The recovery methods that were used were passive recovery (PR), active recovery (AR), and electromuscular stimulation (EMS). Seven college men aged 21 (±2 years) who were National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II college baseball pitchers were assessed during game play simulations. Blood lactate levels decreased significantly from the premeasurement to the postmeasurement with the EMS recovery method (p < 0.0005); however, BLa did not change for PR (p = 0.017) or AR (p = 0.134). Perceived recovery was also found to be best in the EMS and PR conditions. These findings suggest that EMS is an effective recovery method between innings of pitching.

  7. Correctable elbow lesions in professional baseball players: a review of 25 cases.

    PubMed

    Indelicato, P A; Jobe, F W; Kerlan, R K; Carter, V S; Shields, C L; Lombardo, S J

    1979-01-01

    In a retrospective study, 20 of 25 professional baseball pitchers (mean age, 24 years; range, 19 to 28 years) who had had a reconstructive surgical procedure on the dominant elbow had satisfactory results (able to return to competitive throwing for one full season or more after surgery). Gentle motion wasinitiated 1 week after the operation on each patient. Exercises for mobilization and muscle strengthening of grip, arm, and shoulder were increased until throwing was initiated 10 to 12 weeks postoperatively. Throwing was gradually increased over several weeks from 30 feet at no more than half speed for 15 min to 60 feet at three-quarter speed. Pitchers were instructed to warm up before throwing and warm down and to continue this practice after they began competitive throwing. The longest period of follow-up had been 4 years (mean, 2.8 years). Four of the 25 pitchers had unsatisfactory results (released from their team in less than one full season because of ineffective pitching and were not picked up by another team). The cause of the release of the other patient-player is controversial. This 25-patient group is too small and the follow-up period is too short for definite conclusions. Our evidence does suggest that surgical procedures directed at medial soft tissue and posterior intra-articular changes carry better prognosis for competitive throwers than other procedures. The radiohumeral articular condition should be evaluated at surgery.

  8. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Watanabe, Masakazu; Isaka, Tadao; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms) after the ball release (R+150), occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150), and a condition with no occlusion (NO). Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1). Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat’s long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat’s short axis direction than in the bat’s long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001), additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat’s short axis direction (p < 0.05). The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay. PMID:26848742

  9. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Watanabe, Masakazu; Isaka, Tadao; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms) after the ball release (R+150), occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150), and a condition with no occlusion (NO). Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1). Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat's long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat's short axis direction than in the bat's long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001), additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat's short axis direction (p < 0.05). The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay.

  10. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Watanabe, Masakazu; Isaka, Tadao; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms) after the ball release (R+150), occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150), and a condition with no occlusion (NO). Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1). Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat's long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat's short axis direction than in the bat's long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001), additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat's short axis direction (p < 0.05). The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay. PMID:26848742

  11. Evaluation of the peak torque, total work, average power of flexor-estensor and prono-supinator muscles of the elbow in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Cosimo; Vaienti, Enrico; Pogliacomi, Francesco

    2003-08-01

    The Authors, after a short analysis on biomechanics of the elbow during throwing in baseball, show the movements of the elbow during the different phases of the throw and the stabilizing action of the ulnar collateral ligament, flexor-pronator muscles of the wrist, anconeus and brachial triceps muscles. Aim of this study is the evaluation of the peak torque, total work and average power of the flexor-extensor and pronator-supinator muscles of the elbows in professional baseball players. Isokinetic test data show that a mayor peak torque in flexo-extension at power and resistance test in the pitchers compared to the strikers. Whereas the strikers show a higher peak torque in pronation at the resistance test. This may happen because during a baseball match the ball is hit many times by the bat and the pronator muscle of the wrist are notably stimulated and reinforced.

  12. The Effect of Intermittent Arm and Shoulder Cooling on Baseball Pitching Velocity.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Ryan, Gregory A; Katica, Charles P; Bishop, Phillip A

    2016-04-01

    The throwing arm of a baseball pitcher is subjected to high stress as a result of the repetitive activity of pitching. Intermittent cryotherapy may facilitate recovery from this repeated high stress, but few researchers have investigated cryotherapy's efficacy in an ecologically valid setting. This study investigated the effects of intermittent cryotherapy on pitching velocity and subjective measures of recovery and exertion in a simulated baseball game. Trained college-aged male baseball pitchers (n = 8) threw 12 pitches (1 pitch every 20 seconds) per inning for 5 total innings during a simulated pitching start. Between each inning, pitchers received shoulder and arm cooling (AC) or, on a separate occasion, no cooling (NC). All sessions took place in a temperate environment (18.3 ± 2.8° C; 49 ± 4% relative humidity). Pitch speeds were averaged for each participant each inning and overall for 5 innings. Perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) was recorded at the end of each simulated inning. Perceived recovery (perceived recovery scale [PRS]) was recorded after treatment between each inning. Mean pitching velocity for all-innings combined was higher (p = 0.04) for shoulder and elbow cooling (AC) (31.2 ± 2.1 m·s) than for no cooling (NC) (30.6 ± 2.1 m·s). Average pitch speed was significantly higher in the fourth (p = <0.01) and fifth (p = 0.02) innings in AC trial (31.3 ± 2 m·s for both innings) compared with NC trial (30.0 ± 2.22 m·s and 30.4 ± 1.99 m·s, for the fourth and fifth innings, respectively. AC resulted in a significantly lower RPE (p ≤ 0.01) and improved PRS (p ≤ 0.01) compared with NC. Intermittent cryotherapy attenuated velocity loss in baseball pitching, decreased RPE, and facilitated subjective recovery during a 5-inning simulated game. PMID:24077378

  13. The Effect of Intermittent Arm and Shoulder Cooling on Baseball Pitching Velocity.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Ryan, Gregory A; Katica, Charles P; Bishop, Phillip A

    2016-04-01

    The throwing arm of a baseball pitcher is subjected to high stress as a result of the repetitive activity of pitching. Intermittent cryotherapy may facilitate recovery from this repeated high stress, but few researchers have investigated cryotherapy's efficacy in an ecologically valid setting. This study investigated the effects of intermittent cryotherapy on pitching velocity and subjective measures of recovery and exertion in a simulated baseball game. Trained college-aged male baseball pitchers (n = 8) threw 12 pitches (1 pitch every 20 seconds) per inning for 5 total innings during a simulated pitching start. Between each inning, pitchers received shoulder and arm cooling (AC) or, on a separate occasion, no cooling (NC). All sessions took place in a temperate environment (18.3 ± 2.8° C; 49 ± 4% relative humidity). Pitch speeds were averaged for each participant each inning and overall for 5 innings. Perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) was recorded at the end of each simulated inning. Perceived recovery (perceived recovery scale [PRS]) was recorded after treatment between each inning. Mean pitching velocity for all-innings combined was higher (p = 0.04) for shoulder and elbow cooling (AC) (31.2 ± 2.1 m·s) than for no cooling (NC) (30.6 ± 2.1 m·s). Average pitch speed was significantly higher in the fourth (p = <0.01) and fifth (p = 0.02) innings in AC trial (31.3 ± 2 m·s for both innings) compared with NC trial (30.0 ± 2.22 m·s and 30.4 ± 1.99 m·s, for the fourth and fifth innings, respectively. AC resulted in a significantly lower RPE (p ≤ 0.01) and improved PRS (p ≤ 0.01) compared with NC. Intermittent cryotherapy attenuated velocity loss in baseball pitching, decreased RPE, and facilitated subjective recovery during a 5-inning simulated game.

  14. Carnivorous pitcher plants: insights in an old topic.

    PubMed

    Mithöfer, Axel

    2011-09-01

    Plant insect interactions are usually recognized as a scenario where herbivorous insects feed on a host plant. However, also the opposite situation is known, where plants feed on insects. Carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes as well as other pitcher plants obtain many nutrients from caught insect prey. Special features of the pitcher traps' surface are responsible for attraction and trapping insects. Once caught, the prey is digested in the fluid of the pitchers to release nutrients and make them available for the plant. Nutrients are taken up by special glands localized on the inner surface of the pitchers. These glands also secrete the hydrolyzing enzymes into the digestion fluid. Although this is known for more than 100 years, our knowledge of the pitcher fluid composition is still limited. Only in recent years some enzymes have been purified from the pitcher fluid and their corresponding genes could be identified. Among them, many pathogenesis-related proteins have been identified, most of which exhibiting hydrolytic activities. The role of these proteins as well as the role of secondary metabolites, which have been identified in the pitcher fluid, is discussed in general and in the context of further studies on carnivorous plants that might give answers to basic questions in plant biology.

  15. Performance of baseball headgear.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, W; Kabo, J M

    1982-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to ascertain the effectiveness of commercially available baseball headgear in a simulated environment where the head of the batter is struck. Using a compressed air cannon, baseballs were fired at an instrumented headform at frontal and temporal locations with and without a helmet. Striking velocities ranged from 50 to 120 mph and rebound velocities were 1/3 to 1/2 of that of the initial speed. Additional impact tests were conducted on equivalent flat helmet sections backed by a rigid steel plate, the results of which seemed to indicate that the materials and configurations currently employed do little to dissipate the energy of the striker. Head accelerations in excess of 1,000 G were measured, but quantitative injury potential could not be assessed since no applicable tolerances currently exist. We concluded that the incorporation of additional external padding on the plastic shell of the helmet and/or modifications of the suspension would significantly improve the energy absorption capabilities of the helmet and further minimize the possibility of head trauma.

  16. On the potential of a chemical Bonds: Possible effects of steroids on home run production in baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years several baseball players have hit a remarkable number of home runs, and there has been speculation that their achievements were enhanced by the use of anabolic steroids. Basic mechanics and physiology, combined with simple but reasonable models, show that steroid use by a player who is already highly skilled could produce such dramatic increases in home run production. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even modest changes in bat speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 50-100%. The possible effect of steroid use by pitchers is briefly considered.

  17. Clinical Measures of Shoulder Mobility in the Professional Baseball Player.

    PubMed

    Downar, Jacquelyn M; Sauers, Eric L

    2005-03-01

    Context: Professional baseball players must achieve a delicate balance between shoulder mobility and stability to attain optimal sports performance. The sport-specific demands of repetitive overhead throwing may result in an altered mobility-stability relationship.Objective: To evaluate clinical measures of shoulder mobility in professional baseball players in order to examine differences between the throwing and the nonthrowing shoulders and to describe chronic adaptations to throwing.Design: Descriptive.Setting: The athletic training room at Maryvale Baseball Park, Phoenix, AZ.Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven professional baseball players (20 pitchers, 7 position players; age = 20 +/- 1.6 years, height = 190.5 +/- 4.8 cm, mass = 91.6 +/- 9.6 kg) with no previous history of shoulder or elbow injury.Main Outcome Measure(s): We recorded scapular upward rotation at 4 levels of humeral elevation in the scapular plane (rest, 60 degrees , 90 degrees , 120 degrees ); posterior shoulder tightness; and passive, isolated glenohumeral joint internal and external range of motion.Results: Scapular upward rotation was significantly greater in the throwing shoulder (14.2 +/- 6.5 degrees ) than in the nonthrowing shoulder (10.6 +/- 6.1 degrees ) at 90 degrees of humeral elevation (P = .04). We observed no statistically significant difference in posterior shoulder tightness between the throwing (30.2 +/- 4.6 cm) and the nonthrowing (28.0 +/- 4.8 cm) shoulder (P = .09). In addition, the throwing shoulder exhibited a statistically significant decrease in isolated glenohumeral internal rotation (56.6 +/- 12.5 degrees ) compared with the nonthrowing shoulder (68.6 +/- 12.6 degrees ) (P = .001), with a concomitant increase in isolated glenohumeral external rotation (throwing = 108.9 +/- 9.0 degrees , nonthrowing = 101.9 +/- 5.9 degrees , P = .0014). An analysis of the total arc of motion (internal rotation + external rotation) revealed no statistically significant

  18. Female collegiate windmill pitchers: influences to injury incidence.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jennifer L; Humphries, Brendan; Weidner, Thomas; Newton, Robert U

    2004-08-01

    Few studies have examined fast-pitch softball pitchers and associated injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate injuries occurring to collegiate softball pitchers and associated influential factors. A web-based survey of 181 Division I (n = 45), II (n = 30), and III (n = 54) collegiate softball pitchers was conducted. The survey involved self-reported data from the previous year that addressed (a) demographic information, (b) pitching and game data, (c) training program information, and (d) injury reporting. Demographic information, pitching and game data, and training program information were not statistically significant (p < 0.05) in relation to injury. Descriptive statistics were used to report totals and percentages of pitchers surveyed. Among 131 reported injuries, 36 were acute, 92 chronic/overuse, and 3 unspecified. Of the total injuries, 80 were directly from pitching, with 33 shoulder-related and 16 related to the lower back. Among injured pitchers, 109 took nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 140 used modalities, 11 received surgeries, and 95 saw additional specialists. Pitchers are at a risk for injury, with 72.8% of surveyed pitchers being injured during the 2001-02 year.

  19. Suprascapular nerve entrapment at the spinoglenoid notch in a professional baseball pitcher.

    PubMed

    Cummins, C A; Bowen, M; Anderson, K; Messer, T

    1999-01-01

    Suprascapular nerve injuries at the spinoglenoid notch are uncommon. The true incidence of this lesion is unknown; however, it appears to be more common in athletes who participate in sports involving overhead activities. When a patient is being evaluated for posterior shoulder pain and infraspinatus muscle weakness, electrodiagnostic studies are an essential part of the evaluation. Electromyography will identify an injury to the suprascapular nerve as well as assist in localizing the site of injury. In addition, imaging studies are also indicated to help exclude other diagnoses that can mimic a suprascapular nerve injury. The initial management should consist of cessation of the aggravating activity along with an organized shoulder rehabilitation program. If the patient fails to improve with 6 months to 1 year of nonoperative management, surgical exploration of the suprascapular nerve should be considered. Release of the spinoglenoid ligament with resultant suprascapular nerve decompression may result in relief of pain and a return of normal shoulder function.

  20. Differences in the head movement during baseball batting between skilled players and novices.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Miura, Akito; Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the pattern of head movement during baseball batting in 8 skilled players and 9 unskilled novices, using a high-speed video camera. The 2 directions of head movement were analyzed as an X-axis (from the home plate to the pitcher's plate) and Z-axis (vertical downward). On the X-axis, peak latency, peak value, the distance from the peak to the value at bat-ball impact, and data variability were compared between the 2 groups. On the Z-axis, peak latency, downward distance, and data variability were analyzed. Peak latency on the X-axis occurred significantly earlier in baseball players than in novices (p < 0.001), and the difference between the minimum peak and impact was significantly larger in the players (p < 0.05). The variability in peak latency on the X-axis was significantly larger in the novices (p < 0.05). The variability in peak value on the Z-axis was also significantly larger in the novices (p < 0.05). Our findings showed that the significant differences in head movement between the 2 groups should help baseball players, beginners, coaches, and strength and conditioning professionals to improve performance, be effectively applied to actual practice, and enhance coaching for batting. PMID:22130405

  1. Factors determining the spin axis of a pitched fastball in baseball.

    PubMed

    Jinji, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Shinji; Hirano, Yuichi

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we wished to investigate the factors that determine the direction of the spin axis of a pitched baseball. Nineteen male baseball pitchers were recruited to pitch fastballs. The pitching motion was recorded with a three-dimensional motion analysis system (1000 Hz), and the orientations of the hand segment in a global coordinate system were calculated using Euler rotation angles. Reflective markers were attached to the ball, and the direction of the spin axis was calculated on the basis of their positional changes. The spin axis directions were significantly correlated with the orientations of the hand just before ball release. The ball is released from the fingertip and rotates on a plane that is formed by the palm and fingers; the spin axis of the ball is parallel to this plane. The lift force of the pitched baseball is largest when the angular and translational velocity vectors are mutually perpendicular. Furthermore, to increase the lift forces for the fastballs, the palm must face home plate.

  2. Differences in the head movement during baseball batting between skilled players and novices.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Miura, Akito; Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the pattern of head movement during baseball batting in 8 skilled players and 9 unskilled novices, using a high-speed video camera. The 2 directions of head movement were analyzed as an X-axis (from the home plate to the pitcher's plate) and Z-axis (vertical downward). On the X-axis, peak latency, peak value, the distance from the peak to the value at bat-ball impact, and data variability were compared between the 2 groups. On the Z-axis, peak latency, downward distance, and data variability were analyzed. Peak latency on the X-axis occurred significantly earlier in baseball players than in novices (p < 0.001), and the difference between the minimum peak and impact was significantly larger in the players (p < 0.05). The variability in peak latency on the X-axis was significantly larger in the novices (p < 0.05). The variability in peak value on the Z-axis was also significantly larger in the novices (p < 0.05). Our findings showed that the significant differences in head movement between the 2 groups should help baseball players, beginners, coaches, and strength and conditioning professionals to improve performance, be effectively applied to actual practice, and enhance coaching for batting.

  3. Youth baseball injuries: recognition, treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ray, Tracy R

    2010-01-01

    Baseball is a very popular and safe sport for children and adolescents. Understanding bone maturation and risk factors for overuse will guide the practitioner to manage these athletes properly. Overuse injury risk can be minimized by limiting pitch counts, ensuring adequate recovery, developing proper mechanics, and allowing for early evaluation and intervention. Rest, albeit difficult for the athlete, is the mainstay of treatment for many of the maladies affecting this age group of throwers. Individualized approaches to treatment for this population are advised. Structural damage that may lead to surgery is rare but may need consideration if there is no response to conservative measures. Several resources are available to educate players, coaches, and parents regarding safe play.

  4. Pick-up of early visual information to guide kinetics and kinematics within a group of highly skilled baseball batters.

    PubMed

    MüLler, Sean; Lalović, Alex; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Rosalie, Simon M; Harbaugh, Allen G

    2014-10-01

    This pilot study integrated sport expertise and biomechanics methodologies within a baseball batting task. Purpose was to examine differences within a highly skilled group of baseball batters to use visual information to guide weight transfer and bat movements. One batter who played at Major League Baseball (MLB) level was compared to five batters who played at Australian Baseball League (ABL) level in a case-control design. Batters faced pitchers in a simulated competition and attempted to hit pitches, while vision was temporally occluded during ball flight or not occluded. Time of weight transfer (kinetics), as well as bat downswing initiation and duration (kinematics) from the point of ball release, were compared between the MLB batter and ABL batters. Results indicated that the MLB batter coordinated his striking pattern by completing his weight transfer earlier than the ABL batters. His bat downswing was also initiated earlier than some ABL batters, but there was no difference in duration of bat downswing between batters. All batters initiated bat downswing prior to completion of weight transfer. Understanding of motor expertise is furthered using a novel methodology.

  5. Pick-up of early visual information to guide kinetics and kinematics within a group of highly skilled baseball batters.

    PubMed

    MüLler, Sean; Lalović, Alex; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Rosalie, Simon M; Harbaugh, Allen G

    2014-10-01

    This pilot study integrated sport expertise and biomechanics methodologies within a baseball batting task. Purpose was to examine differences within a highly skilled group of baseball batters to use visual information to guide weight transfer and bat movements. One batter who played at Major League Baseball (MLB) level was compared to five batters who played at Australian Baseball League (ABL) level in a case-control design. Batters faced pitchers in a simulated competition and attempted to hit pitches, while vision was temporally occluded during ball flight or not occluded. Time of weight transfer (kinetics), as well as bat downswing initiation and duration (kinematics) from the point of ball release, were compared between the MLB batter and ABL batters. Results indicated that the MLB batter coordinated his striking pattern by completing his weight transfer earlier than the ABL batters. His bat downswing was also initiated earlier than some ABL batters, but there was no difference in duration of bat downswing between batters. All batters initiated bat downswing prior to completion of weight transfer. Understanding of motor expertise is furthered using a novel methodology. PMID:25244553

  6. The Flight of a Baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Alan

    2010-03-01

    The trajectory of a baseball moving through the air is very different from the one we teach in our introductory classes in which the only force is that due to gravity. In reality, the aerodynamic drag force (which retards the motion) and the Magnus force on a spinning baseball (which causes the ball to curve) play very important roles that are crucial to many of the subtleties of the game. These forces are governed by three phenomenological quantities: the coefficients of drag, lift, and moment, the latter determining the spin decay time constant. In past years, these quantities were studied mainly in wind tunnel experiments, whereby the forces on the baseball are measured directly. More recently, new tools have been developed that focus on measuring accurate baseball trajectories, from which the forces can be inferred. These tools include high-speed motion analysis, video tracking (the so-called PITCHf/x and HITf/x systems), and Doppler radar tracking via the TrackMan system. In this talk, I will discuss how these new tools work, what they are teaching us about baseball aerodynamics, and how they have the potential to revolutionize the analysis of the game itself.

  7. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-03-16

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf.

  8. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf. PMID:25774486

  9. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf. PMID:25774486

  10. Bilateral osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow in a female pitcher.

    PubMed

    Williamson, L R; Albright, J P

    1996-11-01

    We report a case of a 17-year-old female pitcher with bilateral elbow osteochondritis dissecans. Osteochondritis of the elbow is a well-known disorder affecting pitchers and other individuals who sustain repetitive microtrauma to the elbow. Elbow osteochondritis has been described infrequently in female athletes. The incidence and reporting patterns of this disease are likely to increase as more female athletes participate in organized sports.

  11. Upper extremity range of motion and isokinetic strength of the internal and external shoulder rotators in major league baseball players.

    PubMed

    Brown, L P; Niehues, S L; Harrah, A; Yavorsky, P; Hirshman, H P

    1988-01-01

    Forty-one professional baseball players volunteered for upper extremity range of motion measurements and isokinetic testing for internal and external shoulder rotation. Pitchers demonstrated 9 degrees more external shoulder rotation with the arm abducted, 5 degrees more forearm pronation, and 9 degrees less shoulder extension on the dominant side compared with the dominant side of position players. Pitchers also demonstrated 9 degrees more external rotation in abduction, 5 degrees less shoulder flexion, 11 degrees less horizontal extension, 15 degrees less internal rotation in abduction, 6 degrees less elbow extension, 4 degrees less elbow flexion, and 5 degrees less forearm supination on the dominant side compared with their nondominant side. Position players demonstrated 8 degrees more external rotation in abduction, 14 degrees less horizontal extension, and 8 degrees less elbow extension on the dominant side compared with their nondominant side. Greater torque was produced by pitchers compared with position players for the dominant and nondominant arm at all test speeds for both mean peak and mean average torque. Greater torque was produced by the dominant arm compared with the nondominant arm also at all test speeds for both of these measurements. No difference was found between the rotation ratios for either arm, for either group, for all speeds.

  12. lsokinetic Shoulder Strength of High School and College-Aged Pitchers*.

    PubMed

    Alderink, G J; Kuck, D J

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the isokinetic strength of the shoulders of high school and college-aged baseball pitchers. Twenty-four athletes ranging from 14 to 21 years of age volunteered for this study. The Cybex(R) II and U.B.X. T. were utilized to test the strength of the shoulder abductors/adductors, flexors/extensors, horizontal abductors/adductors, and external/internal rotators at 90, 120, 2 10, and 300 degrees /sec. There were no consistent differences between dominant and nondominant arm strength, except for the shoulder adductors and shoulder extensors. The shoulder abductors and flexors were approximately 50% as strong as the adductors and extensors, respectively. There was a 1:1 ratio between the horizontal abductors/ adductors. The external rotators were approximately two-thirds as strong as the internal rotators. A positive correlation was found between total body weight and shoulder strength. This information is relatively new to the literature and should provide clinicians with some training and rehabilitation guidelines. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;7(4):163-172.

  13. Switch hitting in baseball: apparent rule-following, not matching.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Weeden, Marc A; Redner, Ryan; Foster, T Mary

    2011-09-01

    Many studies, including some dealing with shot selection in basketball and play selection in football, demonstrate that the generalized matching equation provides a good description of the allocation of time and effort to alternative responses as a function of the consequences of those alternatives. We examined whether it did so with respect to left- and right-handed at bats (alternative responses) and left- and right-handed total bases earned, runs batted in, and home runs (three consequences) for the outstanding baseball switch-hitters Mickey Mantle, Eddie Murray, and Pete Rose. With all hitters, undermatching, suggesting insensitivity to the consequences of behavior (reinforcement), was evident and there was substantial bias towards left-handed at bats. These players apparently chose handedness based on the rule "bat opposite the pitcher," not on differential consequences obtained in major league games. The present findings are significant in representing a counter-instance of demonstrations of a matching relationship in sports in particular and in human behavior in general and in calling attention to the need for further study of the variables that affect choice. PMID:21909169

  14. Switch hitting in baseball: apparent rule-following, not matching.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Weeden, Marc A; Redner, Ryan; Foster, T Mary

    2011-09-01

    Many studies, including some dealing with shot selection in basketball and play selection in football, demonstrate that the generalized matching equation provides a good description of the allocation of time and effort to alternative responses as a function of the consequences of those alternatives. We examined whether it did so with respect to left- and right-handed at bats (alternative responses) and left- and right-handed total bases earned, runs batted in, and home runs (three consequences) for the outstanding baseball switch-hitters Mickey Mantle, Eddie Murray, and Pete Rose. With all hitters, undermatching, suggesting insensitivity to the consequences of behavior (reinforcement), was evident and there was substantial bias towards left-handed at bats. These players apparently chose handedness based on the rule "bat opposite the pitcher," not on differential consequences obtained in major league games. The present findings are significant in representing a counter-instance of demonstrations of a matching relationship in sports in particular and in human behavior in general and in calling attention to the need for further study of the variables that affect choice.

  15. Surgical treatment for posterior ossifications of the glenoid in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, J; Tomita, Y; Nakagawa, Y; Tamai, S

    1992-03-01

    Seven baseball pitchers with symptomatic posterior glenoid osteophytes were operated on between 1982 and 1988 and were followed for an average of 5.2 years. Five and two patients had ossifications on the posteroinferior glenoid rim and on the infraglenoid tubercle, respectively. Ossifications on the posteroinferior glenoid rim were associated with posterior glenohumeral impingement, posterior glenoid labrum tears, and axillary neuropathy. Ossifications on the infraglenoid tubercle were associated with axillary nerve entrapment by the osteophytes and the thickened long head of the triceps muscle. Histologic study showed the coexistence of reactive new bone formation and bone necrosis. Preoperative and postoperative pain, sensory loss, muscle strength, and throwing distance were assessed. After surgical resection of the osteophytes and release of the axillary nerve entrapment, improvement in all parameters was observed in all patients.

  16. Rotator Interval Lesion and Damaged Subscapularis Tendon Repair in a High School Baseball Player

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Tomoyuki; Ninomiya, Hiroki; Inui, Hiroaki; Komai, Masahiko; Nobuhara, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, a 16-year-old baseball pitcher visited Nobuhara Hospital complaining of shoulder pain and limited range of motion in his throwing shoulder. High signal intensity in the rotator interval (RI) area (ball sign), injured subscapularis tendon, and damage to both the superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments were identified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Repair of the RI lesion and partially damaged subscapularis tendon was performed in this pitcher. During surgery, an opened RI and dropping of the subscapularis tendon were observed. The RI was closed in a 90° externally rotated and abducted position. To reconfirm the exact repaired state of the patient, arthroscopic examination was performed from behind. However, suture points were not visible in the >30° externally rotated position, which indicates that the RI could not be correctly repaired with the arthroscopic procedure. One year after surgery, the patient obtained full function of the shoulder and returned to play at a national convention. Surgical repair of the RI lesion should be performed in exactly the correct position of the upper extremity. PMID:26618017

  17. An inferential investigation into how stride length influences temporal parameters within the baseball pitching delivery.

    PubMed

    Crotin, Ryan L; Bhan, Shivam; Ramsey, Dan K

    2015-06-01

    Motion analyses of lower body mechanics offer new schemas to address injury prevention strategies among baseball pitchers, where the influence of stride length remains unknown. This study examined the temporal effect of stride length at constituent pitching events and phases. Nineteen competitive pitchers (15 collegiate, 4 high school) were randomly assigned to pitch two simulated, 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An integrated, three-dimensional motion capture system recorded each pitch. Paired t-tests were used to determine whether differences between stride conditions at respective events and within phases were significantly different. The results demonstrate the shorter strides mediated earlier onset of stride foot contact, reduced time in single support whereas double support intervals increased (p<.001). The opposite was observed with the longer strides. However, the acceleration phase, which comprises the highest throwing arm kinematics and kinetics, remained unchanged. The interaction between stride length, stride foot contact onsets, and time in single support is inferentially evidenced. The equivalent acceleration phases suggest stride length alone influenced time in single and double support by altering the onset of stride foot contact, which perhaps affects the mechanics in preparing the throwing arm for maximal external shoulder rotation.

  18. Rotator Interval Lesion and Damaged Subscapularis Tendon Repair in a High School Baseball Player.

    PubMed

    Muto, Tomoyuki; Ninomiya, Hiroki; Inui, Hiroaki; Komai, Masahiko; Nobuhara, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, a 16-year-old baseball pitcher visited Nobuhara Hospital complaining of shoulder pain and limited range of motion in his throwing shoulder. High signal intensity in the rotator interval (RI) area (ball sign), injured subscapularis tendon, and damage to both the superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments were identified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Repair of the RI lesion and partially damaged subscapularis tendon was performed in this pitcher. During surgery, an opened RI and dropping of the subscapularis tendon were observed. The RI was closed in a 90° externally rotated and abducted position. To reconfirm the exact repaired state of the patient, arthroscopic examination was performed from behind. However, suture points were not visible in the >30° externally rotated position, which indicates that the RI could not be correctly repaired with the arthroscopic procedure. One year after surgery, the patient obtained full function of the shoulder and returned to play at a national convention. Surgical repair of the RI lesion should be performed in exactly the correct position of the upper extremity.

  19. Aerodynamics of the curve-ball: An investigation of the effects of angular velocity on baseball trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaways, Leroy Ward

    In this dissertation the aerodynamic force and initial conditions of pitched baseballs are estimated from high-speed video data. Fifteen parameters are estimated including the lift coefficient, drag coefficient and the angular velocity vector using a parameter estimation technique that minimizes the residual error between measured and estimated trajectories of markers on the ball's surface and the center of mass of pitched baseballs. Studies are carried out using trajectory data acquired from human pitchers and, in a more controlled environment, with a pitching machine. In all 58 pitch trajectories from human pitchers and 20 pitching machine pitches with spin information are analyzed. In the pitching machine trials four markers on the ball are tracked over the first 4 ft (1.22 m) and the center of mass of the ball is tracked over the last 13 ft (3.96 m) of flight. The estimated lift coefficients are compared to previous measured lift coefficients of Sikorsky (Alaways & Lightfoot, 1998) and Watts & Ferrer (1987) and show that significant differences exists in the lift coefficients of two- and four-seam curve balls at lower values of spin parameter, S. As S increased the two- and four-seam lift coefficients merge becoming statistically insignificant. The estimated drag coefficients are compared to drag coefficients of smooth spheres and golf-balls and show that these data sets bound the drag-coefficient of the baseball. Finally, it is shown that asymmetries of the ball associated with the knuckleball can influence the trajectory of the more common curve and fastball.

  20. Radiology of athletic injuries: baseball.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, J W; McDonnell, E J

    1975-09-01

    The radiographs and medical records of 29 professional basebell players from several teams were reviewed. Each player had been selected because of radiographic abnormalities. Abduction views of the shoulder were employed in pitchers and outfielders who complained of shoulder pain. Upper extremity abnormalities predominated and accounted for 22 injuries including avulsion injuries of the origin of the long head of the triceps at the infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula and traction injuries at the origin of the pronator muscles at the medial epicondyle of the humerus. Trauma to the lower extremities was caused by collision with a fixed barrier in one man and by running and sliding in 13 others.

  1. Carnivorous Syndrome in Asian Pitcher Plants of the Genus Nepenthes

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Masarovičová, Elena; Hudák, Ján

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Pitcher plants Nepenthes alata and N. mirabilis are carnivorous species with leaves composed of a photosynthetic part (lamina) and a pitcher trap. This characteristic permitted direct physiological and anatomical comparison between these two distinct parts of the leaves to determine those features involved in the ‘carnivorous syndrome’, which include low net photosynthetic assimilation rate (AN) and low photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). Methods Photosynthetic rate (AN) and respiration rate (Rd) were measured gasometrically, chlorophyll concentration was determined spectrophotometrically and nitrogen concentration was determined using a CHN elemental analyser in lamina and trap separately. Anatomy of N. alata was observed using light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. AN, foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll concentration were also compared with values for other carnivorous plant species (genera Sarracenia, Drosera) that combine both autotrophic and carnivorous functions into the same physical organ. Key Results It was found that the AN in Nepenthes lamina was low and PNUE was only slightly higher or similar in comparison with other carnivorous plants. It was not observed that the pitcher had a higher Rd than the lamina, but AN in the pitcher was significantly lower than in the lamina. Nepenthes possesses a cluster of characters that could result in reduced photosynthesis in the pitcher and be responsible for carnivorous function of the leaf: replacement of chlorophyll-containing cells with digestive glands, low chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration, compact mesophyll with a small portion of intercellular spaces, absence of palisade parenchyma and low stomatal density. Conclusion Low photosynthetic capacity, nitrogen efficiency, chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration of Nepenthes pitchers was found, together with a set of features that characterized the carnivorous syndrome. Dual use of leaves for photosynthesis and

  2. A relative age effect in men's but not women's professional baseball: 1943-1954.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael M; Pandya, Kalyani

    2011-08-01

    Birthdates of professional female and male baseball players active from 1943 to 1954 (the beginning and final years for professional female leagues) were matched for year of birth and league years and then compared by birth quarters, with a cutoff date beginning August 1. A relative age effect was noted for males, as there was a significantly different distribution of players across birth quarter, but there was no such effect for female professionals. Since players were matched for birth year and league play, the difference was unlikely to be due to seasonality differences in birth. Instead, the absence of a "relative age" effect for female players can be attributed to the absence of organized adolescent baseball for girls prior to the establishment of professional baseball leagues for women. PMID:22049668

  3. A relative age effect in men's but not women's professional baseball: 1943-1954.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael M; Pandya, Kalyani

    2011-08-01

    Birthdates of professional female and male baseball players active from 1943 to 1954 (the beginning and final years for professional female leagues) were matched for year of birth and league years and then compared by birth quarters, with a cutoff date beginning August 1. A relative age effect was noted for males, as there was a significantly different distribution of players across birth quarter, but there was no such effect for female professionals. Since players were matched for birth year and league play, the difference was unlikely to be due to seasonality differences in birth. Instead, the absence of a "relative age" effect for female players can be attributed to the absence of organized adolescent baseball for girls prior to the establishment of professional baseball leagues for women.

  4. Musculoskeletal trauma: the baseball bat.

    PubMed

    Bryant, D D; Greenfield, R; Martin, E

    1992-11-01

    Between July 1987 and December 1990 in Washington, DC, 116 patients sustained 146 fractures and seven dislocations due to an assault with a baseball bat. The ulna was the most common site of trauma (61 fractures), followed by the hand (27 injuries) and the radius (14 injuries). Forty-two of the 146 fractures were significantly displaced and required open reduction and internal fixation to restore satisfactory alignment. Twenty-nine of the 146 fractures were open fractures. Treatment protocol for open fractures consisted of irrigation and debridement, antibiotic therapy, and bone stabilization with either internal or external fixation, or casting. Recognition of the severity of the soft tissue and bone damage is important in the management of musculoskeletal trauma secondary to the baseball bat.

  5. Musculoskeletal trauma: the baseball bat.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, D. D.; Greenfield, R.; Martin, E.

    1992-01-01

    Between July 1987 and December 1990 in Washington, DC, 116 patients sustained 146 fractures and seven dislocations due to an assault with a baseball bat. The ulna was the most common site of trauma (61 fractures), followed by the hand (27 injuries) and the radius (14 injuries). Forty-two of the 146 fractures were significantly displaced and required open reduction and internal fixation to restore satisfactory alignment. Twenty-nine of the 146 fractures were open fractures. Treatment protocol for open fractures consisted of irrigation and debridement, antibiotic therapy, and bone stabilization with either internal or external fixation, or casting. Recognition of the severity of the soft tissue and bone damage is important in the management of musculoskeletal trauma secondary to the baseball bat. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1460683

  6. Digital ischemia in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, M; Ogino, T; Minami, A; Ishii, S

    1986-01-01

    Eight baseball players developed digital ischemia as a result of repetitive ball impact. Symptoms and signs were coolness, numbness, cyanosis, paleness, and a positive reaction to the digital Allen's test. Seven of the eight players developed digital ischemia between the ages of 16 and 17. Angiograms of four patients with an occluded index digital artery are presented. Thermograms of four patients with a cool area of the left index finger are also presented. We investigated the incidence of digital ischemia by administration of a questionnaire. The respondents were 578 players belonging to clubs in junior high schools, high schools, and colleges. No digital ischemia was found in 207 junior high school baseball players. The incidence increased in high school (66 of 299) and college (29 of 72). The probability of developing digital ischemia corresponded to the accumulated playing time. Digital ischemia occurred characteristically in the left index finger.

  7. Baseball injuries to the hand.

    PubMed

    Dawson, W J; Pullos, N

    1981-06-01

    We conducted an epidemiological and etiological study of softball injuries to the hand in order to inform emergency medicine personnel of the high frequency and causative factors of these injuries. Injuries to the hand and fingers from baseball and softball comprised 2.2% of emergency department visits during this study. Most frequent injuries were: 1) sprain and sprain-fracture of the proximal IP joint (31.6%); and 2) the so-called "mallet" or "baseball finger" injury to the distal joint (18.9%). The 16-inch softball was the cause of more than two-thirds of all these injuries, most of which occurred in patients between the ages of 11 and 30. Treatment recommendations are beyond the scope of this article.

  8. Evidence for alternative trapping strategies in two forms of the pitcher plant, Nepenthes rafflesiana

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Ulrike; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Nepenthes pitchers are specialized leaves that function as insect traps. Several pitcher components may contribute to trapping, including the pitcher fluid, slippery wax crystals and downward-pointing epidermal cells on the inner pitcher wall, and the wetness-dependent pitcher rim (peristome), but the relative importance of these traits is unclear. Mechanisms of prey capture and retention in the field were investigated by quantifying the effect of ‘knock-out’ manipulations of individual pitcher structures, and by testing the ability of pitcher fluids and water to retain insects. Two forms of Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack (‘elongate’ and ‘typical’) with contrasting combinations of pitcher traits were compared. Wax crystals on the inner pitcher wall were found to be the most important trapping structure in the elongate form, whereas the typical form relied primarily on the peristome. The pitcher fluids of both forms, differing markedly in the degree of viscoelasticity, retained significantly more ants than water. The present results show that pitcher plants utilize several mechanisms for prey capture and retention, varying in efficiency and relative importance between forms. It is proposed that these differences represent alternative prey capture strategies that may provide a mechanism to reduce competition and facilitate species co-existence in nutrient-limited habitats. PMID:21459766

  9. Differential expressed protein in developing stages of Nepenthes gracilis Korth. pitcher.

    PubMed

    Pinthong, Krit; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Tanee, Tawatchai; Sudmoon, Runglawan; Mokkamul, Piya

    2009-03-15

    Nepenthes gracilis Korth. is a member of carnivorous plants in family Nepenthaceae. The plants have beautiful and economically important pitchers. It is interesting to study the protein(s) correlated with the pitcher. Crude proteins were extracted from leaf, leaf with developing pitcher and developed pitcher of the same plant and analyzed by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Two protein bands with molecular weights of 42.7 and 38 kDa were obtained from young leaf and leaf with developing pitcher, respectively. The 42.7 kDa protein was identified as phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) by Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), but the 38 kDa band is an unknown protein. Both proteins were differentially expressed in each developing stage of the pitcher, thus may be powerful candidates play role in development pathway of leaf and pitcher.

  10. Computing muscle, ligament, and osseous contributions to the elbow varus moment during baseball pitching

    PubMed Central

    Buffi, James H.; Werner, Katie; Kepple, Tom; Murray, Wendy M.

    2014-01-01

    Baseball pitching imposes a dangerous valgus load on the elbow that puts the joint at severe risk for injury. The goal of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal modeling approach to enable evaluation of muscle-tendon contributions to mitigating elbow injury risk in pitching. We implemented a forward dynamic simulation framework that used a scaled biomechanical model to reproduce a pitching motion recorded from a high school pitcher. The medial elbow muscles generated substantial, protective, varus elbow moments in our simulations. For our subject, the triceps generated large varus moments at the time of peak valgus loading; varus moments generated by the flexor digitorum superficialis were larger, but occurred later in the motion. Increasing muscle-tendon force output, either by augmenting parameters associated with strength and power or by increasing activation levels, decreased the load on the ulnar collateral ligament. Published methods have not previously quantified the biomechanics of elbow muscles during pitching. This simulation study represents a critical advancement in the study of baseball pitching and highlights the utility of simulation techniques in the study of this difficult problem. PMID:25281409

  11. Computing muscle, ligament, and osseous contributions to the elbow varus moment during baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Buffi, James H; Werner, Katie; Kepple, Tom; Murray, Wendy M

    2015-02-01

    Baseball pitching imposes a dangerous valgus load on the elbow that puts the joint at severe risk for injury. The goal of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal modeling approach to enable evaluation of muscle-tendon contributions to mitigating elbow injury risk in pitching. We implemented a forward dynamic simulation framework that used a scaled biomechanical model to reproduce a pitching motion recorded from a high school pitcher. The medial elbow muscles generated substantial, protective, varus elbow moments in our simulations. For our subject, the triceps generated large varus moments at the time of peak valgus loading; varus moments generated by the flexor digitorum superficialis were larger, but occurred later in the motion. Increasing muscle-tendon force output, either by augmenting parameters associated with strength and power or by increasing activation levels, decreased the load on the ulnar collateral ligament. Published methods have not previously quantified the biomechanics of elbow muscles during pitching. This simulation study represents a critical advancement in the study of baseball pitching and highlights the utility of simulation techniques in the study of this difficult problem.

  12. Ion fluxes across the pitcher walls of three Bornean Nepenthes pitcher plant species: flux rates and gland distribution patterns reflect nitrogen sequestration strategies

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Jonathan A.; Hawkins, Barbara J.; Gowen, Brent E.; Robbins, Samantha L.

    2010-01-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plant species differ in their prey capture strategies, prey capture rates, and pitcher longevity. In this study, it is investigated whether or not interspecific differences in nutrient sequestration strategy are reflected in the physiology and microstructure of the pitchers themselves. Using a non-invasive technique (MIFE), ion fluxes in pitchers of Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, Nepenthes bicalcarata Hook.f., and Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack were measured. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to characterize the distribution of glandular and other structures on the inner pitcher walls. The results demonstrate that nutrient sequestration strategy is indeed mirrored in pitcher physiology and microstructure. Species producing long-lived pitchers with low prey capture rates (N. ampullaria, N. bicalcarata) showed lower rates of NH4+ uptake than N. rafflesiana, a species producing short-lived pitchers with high capture rates. Crucially, species dependent upon aquatic commensals (N. ampullaria, N. bicalcarata) actively manipulated H+ fluxes to maintain less acid pitcher fluid than found in ‘typical’ species; in addition, these species lacked the lunate cells and epicuticular waxes characteristic of ‘typical’ insectivorous congeners. An unexpected finding was that ion fluxes occurred in the wax-covered, non-glandular zones in N. rafflesiana. The only candidates for active transport of aqueous ions in these zones appear to be the epidermal cells lying beneath the lunate cells, as these are the only sites not visibly coated with epicuticular waxes. PMID:20150519

  13. [A study on the effects of physical load on high school baseball players during midsummer games].

    PubMed

    Kurakake, S; Nakaji, S; Sugawara, K; Okamura, N; Ohshita, Y; Umeda, T

    1995-06-01

    This study attempted to measure the physical load on high school baseball players during games played under extremely hot and humid conditions in the summer. The factors used to determine physical load were the following: body weight, oral temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, and serum biochemical elements. These were measured before and after the game. One hundred twenty-six baseball players from 7 high schools participated in this study. All the games were played under conditions of high temperature 34 degrees Celsius dry-bulb, 26 degrees Celsius wet-bulb, 41 degrees Celsius black-globe, 30 degrees WBGT, which are likely to cause heat-related illnesses. The results were as follows. 1) The physical load of baseball players during the game showed a 1.8 percent decrease in average body weight due to perspiration, a 0.35 degrees C increase in oral temperature and an increase in the heart rate. Examination of the serum biochemical elements showed that muscle deviation ferment changed due to muscular activity and blood condensed due to perspiration. The physical load levels of baseball players were influenced more by extreme heat than by exercise during the game. 2) The group of starting players showed higher body weight loss, oral temperature, heart rate, blood condensation and muscle deviation ferment levels than the group of players on the bench due to the difference in the length of exposure to summer heat and the amount of physical exertion. The changes in physical load levels during the game for the group of starting players were greater than those for the group for players on the bench. 3) Considering the changes in body weight, blood condensation and muscle deviation ferment, we can say that physical loads of players differed according to their positions, the pitcher having the greatest load, followed in descending order by the catcher, infielders, and outfielders. It has been recommended that high school baseball players should take different kinds of rest

  14. Le Golf, El Golf, and Le Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Philip

    Three bilingual booklets are presented listing technical terms for golf and baseball. The golf terms are in French-English and Spanish-English lists; the baseball terms are in French-English. The French terms are taken from French-Canadian newspapers, books, and periodicals, while the Spanish terms are taken from Mexican newspapers, books, and…

  15. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  16. Microbiome and Biocatalytic Bacteria in Monkey Cup (Nepenthes Pitcher) Digestive Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Xin-Yue; Hong, Kar-Wai; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Tropical carnivorous plant, Nepenthes, locally known as “monkey cup”, utilises its pitcher as a passive trap to capture insects. It then secretes enzymes into the pitcher fluid to digest the insects for nutrients acquisition. However, little is known about the microbiota and their activity in its pitcher fluid. Eighteen bacteria phyla were detected from the metagenome study in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria are the dominant phyla in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. We also performed culturomics approach by isolating 18 bacteria from the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. Most of the bacterial isolates possess chitinolytic, proteolytic, amylolytic, and cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Fifteen putative chitinase genes were identified from the whole genome analysis on the genomes of the 18 bacteria isolated from Nepenthes pitcher fluid and expressed for chitinase assay. Of these, six clones possessed chitinase activity. In conclusion, our metagenome result shows that the Nepenthes pitcher fluid contains vast bacterial diversity and the culturomic studies confirmed the presence of biocatalytic bacteria within the Nepenthes pitcher juice which may act in symbiosis for the turn over of insects trapped in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. PMID:26817720

  17. Microbiome and Biocatalytic Bacteria in Monkey Cup (Nepenthes Pitcher) Digestive Fluid.

    PubMed

    Chan, Xin-Yue; Hong, Kar-Wai; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Tropical carnivorous plant, Nepenthes, locally known as "monkey cup", utilises its pitcher as a passive trap to capture insects. It then secretes enzymes into the pitcher fluid to digest the insects for nutrients acquisition. However, little is known about the microbiota and their activity in its pitcher fluid. Eighteen bacteria phyla were detected from the metagenome study in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria are the dominant phyla in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. We also performed culturomics approach by isolating 18 bacteria from the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. Most of the bacterial isolates possess chitinolytic, proteolytic, amylolytic, and cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Fifteen putative chitinase genes were identified from the whole genome analysis on the genomes of the 18 bacteria isolated from Nepenthes pitcher fluid and expressed for chitinase assay. Of these, six clones possessed chitinase activity. In conclusion, our metagenome result shows that the Nepenthes pitcher fluid contains vast bacterial diversity and the culturomic studies confirmed the presence of biocatalytic bacteria within the Nepenthes pitcher juice which may act in symbiosis for the turn over of insects trapped in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. PMID:26817720

  18. Shoulder adaptive changes in youth baseball players.

    PubMed

    Levine, William N; Brandon, Mark L; Stein, Beth Shubin; Gardner, Thomas R; Bigliani, Louis U; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2006-01-01

    Shoulder adaptive changes in response to overhand throwing have been observed in adults, but the age of onset and progression of these adaptive changes have not been established. Two-hundred ninety-eight youth baseball players (8- to 28-year-olds) were studied to determine whether shoulder range of motion and laxity differences between the dominant and non-dominant shoulders exist between different age groups. The subjects were separated into 3 different age groups of 100 8- to 12-year-olds (Group 1), 100 13- to-14 year-olds (Group 2), and 98 15- to 28-year-olds (Group 3). For dominant shoulder external rotation with the humerus in abduction, all groups were significantly different from each other, with Group 2 having the greatest range and Group 1 having the smallest range (P < .05). When comparing dominant shoulder internal rotation in abduction among different groups, Group 3 and Group 2 motion was significantly less than that for Group 1 (P < .05.) When comparing dominant to non-dominant shoulder motion within each group, a significant increase in dominant shoulder external rotation in abduction was found in all 3 age groups (P < .05). Comparison of the differences in external rotation in abduction between the dominant and non-dominant shoulders demonstrated an increase with increasing age, Group 1 (1.5 +/- 6.8 degrees), Group 2 (9.6 +/- 15.3 degrees), and Group 3 (15.0 +/- 11.2 degrees; P < .05). Comparison of differences in internal rotation in abduction between dominant and non-dominant shoulders demonstrated a decrease with increasing age, Group 1 (4.6 +/- 8.2 degrees), Group 2 (8.4 +/- 14.5 degrees), and Group 3 (15.5 +/- 11.7 degrees; P < .05). For shoulder laxity, Groups 2 and 3 had significantly more inferior shoulder laxity when compared to Group 1. In summary, our results indicate that shoulder range of motion and laxity of youth baseball players are caused by adaptive changes that manifest during adolescence.

  19. Purple Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and Partial Community Disassembly following Experimental Storm Surge in a Coastal Pitcher Plant Bog

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Matthew J.; Battaglia, Loretta L.

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

  20. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Matthew J; Battaglia, Loretta L

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

  1. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Matthew J; Battaglia, Loretta L

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change.

  2. Ulnar nerve entrapment syndrome in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Del Pizzo, W; Jobe, F W; Norwood, L

    1977-01-01

    Ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow has been described in the literature. This paper deals with 19 skeletally mature baseball players with ulnar nerve entrapment who underwent surgery for correction of the problem. The surgery consisted of anterior transfer of the nerve and placement deep to the flexor muscles. Six players quit baseball because of continuing elbow problems, nine returned to playing, and four were lost to follow-up. Ulnar nerve entrapment is thought to represent one syndrome in a spectrum of diseases involving the medial side of the elbow in baseball players. The lesion is amenable to surgery.

  3. Autogenous dermis-fat "baseball" orbital implant.

    PubMed

    Bullock, J D

    1987-01-01

    A new procedure has been devised for the construction of an autogenous dermis-fat orbital implant, in which two figure-eight-shaped dermis-fat grafts are sutured together into a baseball shape. Correct implant size can be determined by preplacement of different-sized Mule spheres and testing for accurate fit. The "baseball" implant eliminates deep orbital fat which is distant from a vascular supply, and because it is covered with dermis, it maximizes graft vascularization, thus promoting survival of the implanted tissues. In eight patients, followed postoperatively for as long as 28 months, baseball implants have produced highly satisfactory results.

  4. Are Seven-Game Baseball Playoffs Fairer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, E. Lee, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Presents mathematical models to determine whether seven-game baseball playoff series are significantly fairer than five-game series. Compares the results obtained from the models to actual playoff results. (MDH)

  5. Longevity of major league baseball players.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether major league baseball players live lontger than the general public. Ages of death of major league baseball players who debuted between 1900 and 1950 were obtained, and differences between ages of death and age-adjusted life expectancies were determined by analysis of variance and t-tests, taking into account player position. Correlational analysis also was conducted to determine if career length affected longevity. Baseball players lived an average of four years longer than age-matched controls from the general public. Career length did not affect longevity among players. We concluded that professional athletes, as represented by major league baseball players, have increased life expectancies. This increase cannot be explained by increased fitness associated with working as a professionral athlete, but is likely the result of an initial selection process for becoming a professional athlete.

  6. A Viscoelastic Deadly Fluid in Carnivorous Pitcher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gaume, Laurence; Forterre, Yoel

    2007-01-01

    Background The carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes, widely distributed in the Asian tropics, rely mostly on nutrients derived from arthropods trapped in their pitcher-shaped leaves and digested by their enzymatic fluid. The genus exhibits a great diversity of prey and pitcher forms and its mechanism of trapping has long intrigued scientists. The slippery inner surfaces of the pitchers, which can be waxy or highly wettable, have so far been considered as the key trapping devices. However, the occurrence of species lacking such epidermal specializations but still effective at trapping insects suggests the possible implication of other mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a combination of insect bioassays, high-speed video and rheological measurements, we show that the digestive fluid of Nepenthes rafflesiana is highly viscoelastic and that this physical property is crucial for the retention of insects in its traps. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements. Conclusions/Significance This finding challenges the common classification of Nepenthes pitchers as simple passive traps and is of great adaptive significance for these tropical plants, which are often submitted to high rainfalls and variations in fluid concentration. The viscoelastic trap constitutes a cryptic but potentially widespread adaptation of Nepenthes species and could be a homologous trait shared through common ancestry with the sundew (Drosera) flypaper plants. Such large production of a highly viscoelastic biopolymer fluid in permanent pools is nevertheless unique in the plant kingdom and suggests novel applications for pest control. PMID:18030325

  7. Predicting zygoma fractures from baseball impact.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Joseph M; Stitzel, Joel D; Hurst, William J; Porta, David J; Jones, Jeryl; Duma, Stefan M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop injury risk functions that predict zygoma fracture based on baseball type and impact velocity. Zygoma fracture strength data from published experiments were mapped with the force exerted by a baseball on the orbit as a function of ball velocity. Using a normal distribution, zygoma fracture risk functions were developed. Experimental evaluation of these risk functions was performed using six human cadaver tests and two baseballs of different stiffness values. High speed video measured the baseball impact velocity. Post test analysis of the cadaver skulls was performed using CT imaging including three-dimensional reconstruction as well as autopsy. The developed injury risk functions accurately identify the risk of zygoma fracture as a result of baseball impact. The experimental results validated the zygoma risk functions at the lower and upper levels. The injuries observed in the post test analysis included fractures of the zygomatic arch, frontal process and the maxilla, zygoma suture, with combinations of these creating comminuted, tripod fractures of the zygoma. Tests with a softer baseball did result in injury but these had fewer resulting zygoma bone fragments and occurred at velocities 50% higher than the major league ball.

  8. Predicting zygoma fractures from baseball impact.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Joseph M; Stitzel, Joel D; Hurst, William J; Porta, David J; Jones, Jeryl; Duma, Stefan M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop injury risk functions that predict zygoma fracture based on baseball type and impact velocity. Zygoma fracture strength data from published experiments were mapped with the force exerted by a baseball on the orbit as a function of ball velocity. Using a normal distribution, zygoma fracture risk functions were developed. Experimental evaluation of these risk functions was performed using six human cadaver tests and two baseballs of different stiffness values. High speed video measured the baseball impact velocity. Post test analysis of the cadaver skulls was performed using CT imaging including three-dimensional reconstruction as well as autopsy. The developed injury risk functions accurately identify the risk of zygoma fracture as a result of baseball impact. The experimental results validated the zygoma risk functions at the lower and upper levels. The injuries observed in the post test analysis included fractures of the zygomatic arch, frontal process and the maxilla, zygoma suture, with combinations of these creating comminuted, tripod fractures of the zygoma. Tests with a softer baseball did result in injury but these had fewer resulting zygoma bone fragments and occurred at velocities 50% higher than the major league ball. PMID:16817599

  9. A novel type of nutritional ant-plant interaction: ant partners of carnivorous pitcher plants prevent nutrient export by dipteran pitcher infauna.

    PubMed

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G; Grafe, T Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect-plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant-plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated (15)N/(14)N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ(15)N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants' nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a (15)N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ(15)N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers' trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna). Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants' prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant.

  10. Different pitcher shapes and trapping syndromes explain resource partitioning in Nepenthes species.

    PubMed

    Gaume, Laurence; Bazile, Vincent; Huguin, Maïlis; Bonhomme, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants display interspecific diversity in pitcher form and diets. This species-rich genus might be a conspicuous candidate for an adaptive radiation. However, the pitcher traits of different species have never been quantified in a comparative study, nor have their possible adaptations to the resources they exploit been tested. In this study, we compare the pitcher features and prey composition of the seven Nepenthes taxa that grow in the heath forest of Brunei (Borneo) and investigate whether these species display different trapping syndromes that target different prey. The Nepenthes species are shown to display species-specific combinations of pitcher shapes, volumes, rewards, attraction and capture traits, and different degrees of ontogenetic pitcher dimorphism. The prey spectra also differ among plant species and between ontogenetic morphotypes in their combinations of ants, flying insects, termites, and noninsect guilds. According to a discriminant analysis, the Nepenthes species collected at the same site differ significantly in prey abundance and composition at the level of order, showing niche segregation but with varying degrees of niche overlap according to pairwise species comparisons. Weakly carnivorous species are first characterized by an absence of attractive traits. Generalist carnivorous species have a sweet odor, a wide pitcher aperture, and an acidic pitcher fluid. Guild specializations are explained by different combinations of morpho-functional traits. Ant captures increase with extrafloral nectar, fluid acidity, and slippery waxy walls. Termite captures increase with narrowness of pitchers, presence of a rim of edible trichomes, and symbiotic association with ants. The abundance of flying insects is primarily correlated with pitcher conicity, pitcher aperture diameter, and odor presence. Such species-specific syndromes favoring resource partitioning may result from local character displacement by competition and/or previous

  11. Effects of acute static stretching of the throwing shoulder on pitching performance of national collegiate athletic association division III baseball players.

    PubMed

    Haag, Samuel J; Wright, Glenn A; Gillette, Cordial M; Greany, John F

    2010-02-01

    Stretching is a common component of an athletic warm-up even though many studies have demonstrated that pre-event static stretching can decrease strength and power performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute static stretching of the throwing shoulder on pitching velocity and accuracy of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III baseball players. Twelve collegiate baseball players, including 6 pitchers and 6 position players, participated in the study. Each participant completed 2 separate testing protocols over a span of 4-6 days. In the experimental condition (SS), 6 static stretches were applied to the throwing shoulder after an active warm-up. After a rest period of 5-10 minutes, participants were allowed 5 warm-up pitches from a pitching mound. Participants then threw 10 pitches measured for velocity and accuracy. The control condition (NS) followed the same procedure but did not include the 6 static stretches. Testing was conducted in an indoor practice facility during normal team practice. No significant differences were found in average velocity, maximum velocity, or accuracy measures when comparing the SS and NS conditions. These results suggest that acute static stretching of the throwing shoulder does not have a significant impact on baseball pitching performance. Static stretching of the shoulder may be performed during a warm-up before a throwing activity. PMID:20072054

  12. Effects of acute static stretching of the throwing shoulder on pitching performance of national collegiate athletic association division III baseball players.

    PubMed

    Haag, Samuel J; Wright, Glenn A; Gillette, Cordial M; Greany, John F

    2010-02-01

    Stretching is a common component of an athletic warm-up even though many studies have demonstrated that pre-event static stretching can decrease strength and power performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute static stretching of the throwing shoulder on pitching velocity and accuracy of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III baseball players. Twelve collegiate baseball players, including 6 pitchers and 6 position players, participated in the study. Each participant completed 2 separate testing protocols over a span of 4-6 days. In the experimental condition (SS), 6 static stretches were applied to the throwing shoulder after an active warm-up. After a rest period of 5-10 minutes, participants were allowed 5 warm-up pitches from a pitching mound. Participants then threw 10 pitches measured for velocity and accuracy. The control condition (NS) followed the same procedure but did not include the 6 static stretches. Testing was conducted in an indoor practice facility during normal team practice. No significant differences were found in average velocity, maximum velocity, or accuracy measures when comparing the SS and NS conditions. These results suggest that acute static stretching of the throwing shoulder does not have a significant impact on baseball pitching performance. Static stretching of the shoulder may be performed during a warm-up before a throwing activity.

  13. Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Maintaining that baseball presents a view of American society in microcosm, this article reviews the Cold War history of American baseball, showing how the statements and concerns of the players and managers reflected popular values of that era. (JDH)

  14. With a Flick of the Lid: A Novel Trapping Mechanism in Nepenthes gracilis Pitcher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Ulrike; Di Giusto, Bruno; Skepper, Jeremy; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants capture prey with modified leaves (pitchers), using diverse mechanisms such as ‘insect aquaplaning’ on the wet pitcher rim, slippery wax crystals on the inner pitcher wall, and viscoelastic retentive fluids. Here we describe a new trapping mechanism for Nepenthes gracilis which has evolved a unique, semi-slippery wax crystal surface on the underside of the pitcher lid and utilises the impact of rain drops to ‘flick’ insects into the trap. Depending on the experimental conditions (simulated ‘rain’, wet after ‘rain’, or dry), insects were captured mainly by the lid, the peristome, or the inner pitcher wall, respectively. The application of an anti-slip coating to the lower lid surface reduced prey capture in the field. Compared to sympatric N. rafflesiana, N. gracilis pitchers secreted more nectar under the lid and less on the peristome, thereby directing prey mainly towards the lid. The direct contribution to prey capture represents a novel function of the pitcher lid. PMID:22719998

  15. Comparative Study of Bacterial Communities in Nepenthes Pitchers and Their Correlation to Species and Fluid Acidity.

    PubMed

    Kanokratana, Pattanop; Mhuanthong, Wuttichai; Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Kruetreepradit, Trongtham; Mayes, Shawn; Champreda, Verawat

    2016-08-01

    Pitchers are specialized digestive organs of carnivorous plants which evolved for trapping prey and represent a unique environment harboring hidden diversity of unexplored microbes forming transient hydrolytic microcosms. In this study, the diversity of bacterial communities in the pitcher fluids of seven local Nepenthes found in Thailand was assessed by tagged 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing on an Ion PGM™ platform. A total of 1,101,000 filtered sequences were obtained which were taxonomically classified into 20 phyla, 48 classes, 72 orders, 153 families, and 442 genera while the remainder (1.43 %) could not be assigned to any existing taxa. Proteobacteria represented the predominant members in closed pitchers and more diversified bacterial taxa particularly Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria, showed increasing abundance in open pitchers containing insect bodies. Principal coordinate analysis revealed that distribution of bacterial taxa was not significantly related to the Nepenthes species but strongly correlated to the pH of the pitcher fluids (pH 1.7-6.7). Acidicella was a highly dominant bacterial genus in acidic pitcher fluids while Dyella and Mycobacterium were also common genera in most pitchers. A unique microbial community structure was found in Nepenthes ampullaria which could reflect their adaptation to digest leaf litter, in addition to insect prey. The work revealed the highly unexplored nature of bacterial microcosms in Nepenthes pitcher fluids and provides insights into their community structure in this unique ecological system. PMID:27287538

  16. Did Babe Ruth Have a Comparative Advantage as a Pitcher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Advocates using baseball statistics to illustrate the advantages of specialization in production. Using Babe Ruth's record as an analogy, suggests a methodology for determining a player's comparative advantage as a teaching illustration. Includes the team's statistical profile in five tables to explain comparative advantage and profit maximizing.…

  17. Proteome analysis of pitcher fluid of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Naoya; Hamada, Tatsuro

    2008-02-01

    The genus Nepenthes comprises carnivorous plants that digest insects in pitcher fluid to supplement their nitrogen uptake. In a recent study, two acid proteinases (nepenthesins I and II) were purified from the pitcher fluid. However, no other enzymes involved in prey digestion have been identified, although several enzyme activities have been reported. To identify all the proteins involved, we performed a proteomic analysis of Nepenthes pitcher fluid. The secreted proteins in pitcher fluid were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and several protein bands were detected by silver staining. The proteins were identified by in-gel tryptic digestion, de novo peptide sequencing, and homology searches against public databases. The proteins included homologues of beta-D-xylosidase, beta-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and thaumatin-like protein, most of which are designated "pathogenesis-related proteins". These proteins presumably inhibit bacterial growth in the pitcher fluid to ensure sufficient nutrients for Nepenthes growth. PMID:18183948

  18. Going, Going, Gone! The Making of a Baseball Bat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Diana

    2012-01-01

    From little league players to professional athletes, baseball has become a sport that is not only fun to play and watch, but also a sport driven by innovation and technology. One particular piece of baseball equipment that has undergone many changes is the baseball bat. Prior to the early 1970s, wooden bats were the only choice available. Today,…

  19. Baseball, Popular Music, and Twentieth-Century American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, B. Lee; Walker, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that using popular recordings that feature baseball imagery is an innovative way to introduce students to the pluralistic nature of U.S. life. Outlines a variety of themes that use baseball history to develop concepts about social change, cultural values, and individual achievement. Lists audio recordings that have baseball themes. (DB)

  20. A Novel Type of Nutritional Ant–Plant Interaction: Ant Partners of Carnivorous Pitcher Plants Prevent Nutrient Export by Dipteran Pitcher Infauna

    PubMed Central

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G.; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect–plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant–plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated 15N/14N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ15N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants’ nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a 15N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ15N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers’ trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna). Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants’ prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant. PMID:23717446

  1. A Viscoelastic Deadly Fluid in Carnivorous Pitcher Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaume, Laurence; Forterre, Yoel

    2008-07-01

    We study the rheology of the digestive fluid secreted by the carnivorous pitcher plants Nepenthes rafflesiana and its role in the mechanism of insects trapping. Using a combination of physical measurements (surface tension, wetting properties, extensional and shear rheometry), insects bioessays and high-speed video, we show that the digestive fluid of Nepenthes rafflesiana is a highly viscoelastic fluid and that this property is crucial for the retention of insect in its trap. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements (large Deborah numbers).

  2. Persistence of the olecranon physis in baseball players: Results following operative management.

    PubMed

    Charlton, William P H; Chandler, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the results of operative management for pain associated with persistence of the olecranon physis in baseball players. Five maturing adolescent baseball players (4 male and 1 female) with pain associated with persistence of the olecranon physis underwent operative stabilization and autogenous bone grafting with second-stage hardware removal. All 5 patients remained symptomatic after a variable length of conservative management. At a mean follow-up of 32 months (range, 7-84 months), all 5 were satisfied with their results. All returned to or surpassed their previous level of performance. Operative management is recommended for a symptomatic, persistent olecranon physis in the high-demand, skeletally mature overhead athlete in whom conservative management has failed. Operative stabilization with internal fixation and autogenous iliac crest bone grafting results in the resolution of symptoms and a high rate of return to previous throwing performance.

  3. Scattering of a baseball by a bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod; Nathan, Alan M.

    2006-10-01

    A ball can be hit faster if it is projected without spin, but it can be hit farther if it is projected with backspin. Measurements of the tradeoff between the speed and spin for a baseball impacting a baseball bat are presented. The results are inconsistent with a collision model in which the ball rolls off the bat and instead imply tangential compliance in the ball, the bat, or both. If the results are extrapolated to the higher speeds that are typical of the game of baseball, they suggest that a curveball can be hit with greater backspin than a fastball, but by an amount that is less than would be the case in the absence of tangential compliance.

  4. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-10-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as swing weight.2-3 A number of recent field studies4-7 have confirmed that the speed with which a player can swing a baseball or softball bat depends more on the bat's moment of inertia than on its mass. In this paper we investigate the moment of inertia (swing weight) of a variety of baseball and softball bats.

  5. The prevention of baseball and softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Janda, David H

    2003-04-01

    Forty million individuals participate in organized softball leagues each year in the United States. Eighteen million additional student athletes and young adults also participate in organized baseball league play. In addition to being two of the most popular team sports in the United States, they also are responsible for a significant percentage of sports-related injuries that are sustained in the United States. Fortunately, numerous interventions independently have been shown to be effective at reducing the injury scenario, which has grown to be of epidemic proportion. Interventions such as break-away bases, batting helmets, face shields on helmets, lighter mass baseballs, and teaching and reiteration of the fundamentals of softball and baseball all have been effective in preventing millions of injuries and billions of dollars in healthcare costs each year in the United States.

  6. Influence of a humidor on the aerodynamics of baseballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Edmund R.; Bohn, John L.

    2008-11-01

    We investigate whether storing baseballs in a controlled humidity environment significantly affects their aerodynamic properties. We measure the change in diameter and weight of baseballs as a function of relative humidity in which the balls are stored. The trajectories of pitched and batted baseballs are modeled to assess the difference between those stored at 30% relative humidity versus 50% relative humidity. We find that a drier baseball will curve slightly more than a humidified one for a given pitch velocity and rotation rate. We also find that aerodynamics alone would add 2ft to the distance a wetter baseball ball is hit. This increased distance is compensated by a 6ft reduction in the batted distance due to the change in the coefficient of restitution of the ball. We discuss consequences of these results for baseball played at Coors Field in Denver, where baseballs have been stored in a humidor at 50% relative humidity since 2002.

  7. The carnivorous pale pitcher plant harbors diverse, distinct, and time-dependent bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Margaret M; Fuselier, Danielle M; Hird, Sarah; Carstens, Bryan C

    2010-03-01

    The ability of American carnivorous pitcher plants (Sarracenia) to digest insect prey is facilitated by microbial associations. Knowledge of the details surrounding this interaction has been limited by our capability to characterize bacterial diversity in this system. To describe microbial diversity within and between pitchers of one species, Sarracenia alata, and to explore how these communities change over time as pitchers accumulate and digest insect prey, we collected and analyzed environmental sequence tag (454 pyrosequencing) and genomic fingerprint (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) data. Microbial richness associated with pitcher plant fluid is high; more than 1,000 unique phylogroups were identified across at least seven phyla and 50 families. We documented an increase in bacterial diversity and abundance with time and observed repeated changes in bacterial community composition. Pitchers from different plants harbored significantly more similar bacterial communities at a given time point than communities coming from the same genetic host over time. The microbial communities in pitcher plant fluid also differ significantly from those present in the surrounding soil. These findings indicate that the bacteria associated with pitcher plant leaves are far from random assemblages and represent an important step toward understanding this unique plant-microbe interaction.

  8. The carnivorous pale pitcher plant harbors diverse, distinct, and time-dependent bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Margaret M; Fuselier, Danielle M; Hird, Sarah; Carstens, Bryan C

    2010-03-01

    The ability of American carnivorous pitcher plants (Sarracenia) to digest insect prey is facilitated by microbial associations. Knowledge of the details surrounding this interaction has been limited by our capability to characterize bacterial diversity in this system. To describe microbial diversity within and between pitchers of one species, Sarracenia alata, and to explore how these communities change over time as pitchers accumulate and digest insect prey, we collected and analyzed environmental sequence tag (454 pyrosequencing) and genomic fingerprint (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) data. Microbial richness associated with pitcher plant fluid is high; more than 1,000 unique phylogroups were identified across at least seven phyla and 50 families. We documented an increase in bacterial diversity and abundance with time and observed repeated changes in bacterial community composition. Pitchers from different plants harbored significantly more similar bacterial communities at a given time point than communities coming from the same genetic host over time. The microbial communities in pitcher plant fluid also differ significantly from those present in the surrounding soil. These findings indicate that the bacteria associated with pitcher plant leaves are far from random assemblages and represent an important step toward understanding this unique plant-microbe interaction. PMID:20097807

  9. Bacterial diversity and composition in the fluid of pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yayoi; Chaffron, Samuel; Salcher, Michaela M; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Kobayashi, Masaki J; Diway, Bibian; von Mering, Christian; Pernthaler, Jakob; Shimizu, Kentaro K

    2015-07-01

    Pitchers are modified leaves used by carnivorous plants for trapping prey. Their fluids contain digestive enzymes from the plant and they harbor abundant microbes. In this study, the diversity of bacterial communities was assessed in Nepenthes pitcher fluids and the composition of the bacterial community was compared to that in other environments, including the phyllosphere of Arabidopsis, animal guts and another pitcher plant, Sarracenia. Diversity was measured by 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 232,823 sequences were obtained after chimera and singleton removal that clustered into 3260 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (3% dissimilarity), which were taxonomically distributed over 17 phyla, 25 classes, 45 orders, 100 families, and 195 genera. Pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization yielded similar estimates of community composition. Most pitchers contained high proportions of unique OTUs, and only 22 OTUs (<0.6%) were shared by ≥14/16 samples, suggesting a unique bacterial assemblage in each pitcher at the OTU level. Diversity analysis at the class level revealed that the bacterial communities of both opened and unopened pitchers were most similar to that of Sarracenia and to that in the phyllosphere. Therefore, the bacterial community in pitchers may be formed by environmental filtering and/or by phyllosphere bacteria. PMID:26138047

  10. The Carnivorous Pale Pitcher Plant Harbors Diverse, Distinct, and Time-Dependent Bacterial Communities▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, Margaret M.; Fuselier, Danielle M.; Hird, Sarah; Carstens, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of American carnivorous pitcher plants (Sarracenia) to digest insect prey is facilitated by microbial associations. Knowledge of the details surrounding this interaction has been limited by our capability to characterize bacterial diversity in this system. To describe microbial diversity within and between pitchers of one species, Sarracenia alata, and to explore how these communities change over time as pitchers accumulate and digest insect prey, we collected and analyzed environmental sequence tag (454 pyrosequencing) and genomic fingerprint (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) data. Microbial richness associated with pitcher plant fluid is high; more than 1,000 unique phylogroups were identified across at least seven phyla and 50 families. We documented an increase in bacterial diversity and abundance with time and observed repeated changes in bacterial community composition. Pitchers from different plants harbored significantly more similar bacterial communities at a given time point than communities coming from the same genetic host over time. The microbial communities in pitcher plant fluid also differ significantly from those present in the surrounding soil. These findings indicate that the bacteria associated with pitcher plant leaves are far from random assemblages and represent an important step toward understanding this unique plant-microbe interaction. PMID:20097807

  11. Bacterial diversity and composition in the fluid of pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yayoi; Chaffron, Samuel; Salcher, Michaela M; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Kobayashi, Masaki J; Diway, Bibian; von Mering, Christian; Pernthaler, Jakob; Shimizu, Kentaro K

    2015-07-01

    Pitchers are modified leaves used by carnivorous plants for trapping prey. Their fluids contain digestive enzymes from the plant and they harbor abundant microbes. In this study, the diversity of bacterial communities was assessed in Nepenthes pitcher fluids and the composition of the bacterial community was compared to that in other environments, including the phyllosphere of Arabidopsis, animal guts and another pitcher plant, Sarracenia. Diversity was measured by 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 232,823 sequences were obtained after chimera and singleton removal that clustered into 3260 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (3% dissimilarity), which were taxonomically distributed over 17 phyla, 25 classes, 45 orders, 100 families, and 195 genera. Pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization yielded similar estimates of community composition. Most pitchers contained high proportions of unique OTUs, and only 22 OTUs (<0.6%) were shared by ≥14/16 samples, suggesting a unique bacterial assemblage in each pitcher at the OTU level. Diversity analysis at the class level revealed that the bacterial communities of both opened and unopened pitchers were most similar to that of Sarracenia and to that in the phyllosphere. Therefore, the bacterial community in pitchers may be formed by environmental filtering and/or by phyllosphere bacteria.

  12. Ball flight kinematics, release variability and in-season performance in elite baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, D; McGinnis, R S; Deneweth, J M; Zernicke, R F; Goulet, G C

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify ball flight kinematics (ball speed, spin rate, spin axis orientation, seam orientation) and release location variability in the four most common pitch types in baseball and relate them to in-season pitching performance. Nine NCAA Division I pitchers threw four pitching variations (fastball, changeup, curveball, and slider) while a radar gun measured ball speed and a 600-Hz video camera recorded the ball trajectory. Marks on the ball were digitized to measure ball flight kinematics and release location. Ball speed was highest in the fastball, though spin rate was similar in the fastball and breaking pitches. Two distinct spin axis orientations were noted: one characterizing the fastball and changeup, and another, the curveball and slider. The horizontal release location was significantly more variable than the vertical release location. In-season pitching success was not correlated to any of the measured variables. These findings are instructive for inferring appropriate hand mechanics and spin types in each of the four pitches. Coaches should also be aware that ball flight kinematics might not directly relate to pitching success at the collegiate level. Therefore, talent identification and pitching evaluations should encompass other (e.g., cognitive, psychological, and physiological) factors.

  13. Ball flight kinematics, release variability and in-season performance in elite baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, D; McGinnis, R S; Deneweth, J M; Zernicke, R F; Goulet, G C

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify ball flight kinematics (ball speed, spin rate, spin axis orientation, seam orientation) and release location variability in the four most common pitch types in baseball and relate them to in-season pitching performance. Nine NCAA Division I pitchers threw four pitching variations (fastball, changeup, curveball, and slider) while a radar gun measured ball speed and a 600-Hz video camera recorded the ball trajectory. Marks on the ball were digitized to measure ball flight kinematics and release location. Ball speed was highest in the fastball, though spin rate was similar in the fastball and breaking pitches. Two distinct spin axis orientations were noted: one characterizing the fastball and changeup, and another, the curveball and slider. The horizontal release location was significantly more variable than the vertical release location. In-season pitching success was not correlated to any of the measured variables. These findings are instructive for inferring appropriate hand mechanics and spin types in each of the four pitches. Coaches should also be aware that ball flight kinematics might not directly relate to pitching success at the collegiate level. Therefore, talent identification and pitching evaluations should encompass other (e.g., cognitive, psychological, and physiological) factors. PMID:25809339

  14. Relation Between Lift Force and Ball Spin for Different Baseball Pitches.

    PubMed

    Nagami, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nakata, Hiroki; Yanai, Toshimasa; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-04-01

    Although the lift force (F(L)) on a spinning baseball has been analyzed in previous studies, no study has analyzed such forces over a wide variety of spins. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between F(L) and spin for different types of pitches thrown by collegiate pitchers. Four high-speed video cameras were used to record flight trajectory and spin for 7 types of pitches. A total of 75 pitches were analyzed. The linear kinematics of the ball was determined at 0.008-s intervals during the flight, and the resultant fluid force acting on the ball was calculated with an inverse dynamics approach. The initial angular velocity of the ball was determined using a custom-made apparatus. Equations were derived to estimate the F(L) using the effective spin parameter (ESp), which is a spin parameter calculated using a component of angular velocity of the ball with the exception of the gyro-component. The results indicate that F(L) could be accurately explained from ESp and also that seam orientation (4-seam or 2-seam) did not produce a uniform effect on estimating F(L) from ESp. PMID:26576060

  15. Case reports: unusual cause of shoulder pain in a collegiate baseball player.

    PubMed

    Ligh, Cassandra A; Schulman, Brian L; Safran, Marc R

    2009-10-01

    The objective of reporting this case was to introduce a unique cause of shoulder pain in a high-level Division I NCAA collegiate baseball player. Various neurovascular causes of shoulder pain have been described in the overhead athlete, including quadrilateral space syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, effort thrombosis, and suprascapular nerve entrapment. All of these syndromes are uncommon and frequently are missed as a result of their rarity and the need for specialized tests to confirm the diagnosis. This pitcher presented with nonspecific posterior shoulder pain that was so severe he could not throw more than 50 feet. Eventually, intermittent axillary artery compression with the arm in abduction resulting from hypertrophy of the pectoralis minor and scalene muscles was documented by performing arteriography with the arm in 120 degrees abduction. MRI-MR angiographic evaluation revealed no anatomic abnormalities. The patient was treated successfully with a nonoperative rehabilitation program and after 6 months was able to successfully compete at the same level without pain.

  16. Relation Between Lift Force and Ball Spin for Different Baseball Pitches.

    PubMed

    Nagami, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nakata, Hiroki; Yanai, Toshimasa; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-04-01

    Although the lift force (F(L)) on a spinning baseball has been analyzed in previous studies, no study has analyzed such forces over a wide variety of spins. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between F(L) and spin for different types of pitches thrown by collegiate pitchers. Four high-speed video cameras were used to record flight trajectory and spin for 7 types of pitches. A total of 75 pitches were analyzed. The linear kinematics of the ball was determined at 0.008-s intervals during the flight, and the resultant fluid force acting on the ball was calculated with an inverse dynamics approach. The initial angular velocity of the ball was determined using a custom-made apparatus. Equations were derived to estimate the F(L) using the effective spin parameter (ESp), which is a spin parameter calculated using a component of angular velocity of the ball with the exception of the gyro-component. The results indicate that F(L) could be accurately explained from ESp and also that seam orientation (4-seam or 2-seam) did not produce a uniform effect on estimating F(L) from ESp.

  17. Avoiding the Negative: Blue Jeans Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggard, Bob

    1978-01-01

    Blue Jeans Baseball, for eight- to twelve-year old children, is based on the concept that everyone plays. No coaches are allowed; everyone bats once per inning; defensive players rotate positions. These and other rules reduce the emphasis on competition and increase the emphasis on skill development. (MJB)

  18. Batter Up: Baseball for Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Dorothy K.; Fredericks, H. D. Bud

    1980-01-01

    The parents of a 13-year-old boy with moderate mental retardation (due to Down's syndrome) describe their experiences with their son's participation in Little League baseball. With much parental coaching and practice, he was able to play on a team with children one year younger and was accepted by players and coaches alike. (PHR)

  19. Dynamic and Performance Characteristics of Baseball Bats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Fred O.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic and performance characteristics of wooden and aluminum baseball bats were investigated in two phases; the first dealing with the velocity of the batted balls, and the second with a study of centers of percussion and impulse response at the handle. (MJB)

  20. The Shape of a Baseball Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Milton P.

    1993-01-01

    Uses conic sections, trigonometric functions, and polar coordinates to solve the problem of determining the shape of a baseball outfield fence, given the distances along the foul lines and to straightaway center field. Graphing programs and calculators are utilized to plot different solutions. (MDH)

  1. No Dummies: Deafness, Baseball, and American Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, R. A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This article begins by examining the historical and social factors that led to 1901 being the "deafest" year in major league baseball history with four deaf players. In particular, the author discusses the career of William Ellsworth "Dummy" Hoy, a deaf man from Ohio who became the most celebrated deaf player in history and explores the reasons…

  2. Baseball adaptation for below-elbow prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Truong, X T; Erickson, R; Galbreath, R

    1986-06-01

    A baseball bat adaptation to improve the handling with below-elbow prosthesis is described. The adaptation consists of a ball and socket joint unit interposed between wrist and hand prostheses. A patient who had forearm amputation successfully used the adaptation to play softball.

  3. Myocardial contusion caused by a baseball.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, M; Hirose, K; Mori, T; Kusukawa, J; Tomioka, N; Watanabe, Y

    1996-10-01

    Myocardial contusion is a rare type of sports injury. We report a case of myocardial contusion caused by a baseball. In this patient, arrhythmias were induced by an exercise test 1 week after injury. That patients with myocardial contusion but without arrhythmias at rest need to be treated carefully is emphasized.

  4. What Research Tells the Coach About Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Guy G.

    This document presents discussions of research findings on different aspects of baseball. Discussions of fundamentals and specific skills are presented; selected references follow each chapter. In the chapter on batting the importance of body mechanics, grip, and body rotation to the need for power is discussed. Pitching considerations that are…

  5. Modeling deformation behavior of the baseball.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Rochelle Llewelyn; Miller, Karol; Elliott, Bruce C

    2005-02-01

    Regulating ball response to impact is one way to control ball exit velocity in baseball. This is necessary to reduce injuries to defensive players and maintain the balance between offense and defense in the game. This paper presents a model for baseball velocity-dependent behavior. Force-displacement data were obtained using quasi-static compression tests to 50% of ball diameter (n = 70 baseballs). The force-displacement curves for a very stiff baseball (Model B) and a softer type (Model C) were characterized by a Mooney-Rivlin model using implicit finite element analysis (ANSYS software, version 6.1). Agreement between experimental and numerical results was excellent for both Model B (C(10) = 0, C(01) = 3.7e(6) Pa) and Model C (C(10) = 0, C(01) = 2.6e(6) Pa). However, this material model was not available in the ANSYS/LSDYNA explicit dynamic software (version 6.1) used to quantify the transient behavior of the ball. Therefore the modeling process was begun again using a linear viscoelastic material. G(infinity), the long-term shear modulus of the material, was determined by the same implicit FEA procedure. Explicit FEA was used to quantify the time-dependent response of each ball in terms of instantaneous shear modulus (G0) and a decay term (beta). The results were evaluated with respect to published experimental data for the ball coefficient of restitution at five velocities (13.4-40.2 ms(-1)) and were in agreement with the experimental values. The model forms the basis for future research on baseball response to impact with the bat. PMID:16131702

  6. Modeling deformation behavior of the baseball.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Rochelle Llewelyn; Miller, Karol; Elliott, Bruce C

    2005-02-01

    Regulating ball response to impact is one way to control ball exit velocity in baseball. This is necessary to reduce injuries to defensive players and maintain the balance between offense and defense in the game. This paper presents a model for baseball velocity-dependent behavior. Force-displacement data were obtained using quasi-static compression tests to 50% of ball diameter (n = 70 baseballs). The force-displacement curves for a very stiff baseball (Model B) and a softer type (Model C) were characterized by a Mooney-Rivlin model using implicit finite element analysis (ANSYS software, version 6.1). Agreement between experimental and numerical results was excellent for both Model B (C(10) = 0, C(01) = 3.7e(6) Pa) and Model C (C(10) = 0, C(01) = 2.6e(6) Pa). However, this material model was not available in the ANSYS/LSDYNA explicit dynamic software (version 6.1) used to quantify the transient behavior of the ball. Therefore the modeling process was begun again using a linear viscoelastic material. G(infinity), the long-term shear modulus of the material, was determined by the same implicit FEA procedure. Explicit FEA was used to quantify the time-dependent response of each ball in terms of instantaneous shear modulus (G0) and a decay term (beta). The results were evaluated with respect to published experimental data for the ball coefficient of restitution at five velocities (13.4-40.2 ms(-1)) and were in agreement with the experimental values. The model forms the basis for future research on baseball response to impact with the bat.

  7. Loss of glenohumeral internal rotation in little league pitchers: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Nakamizo, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yasuo; Nobuhara, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Tetsuji

    2008-01-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is a significant shoulder problem for throwing athletes. GIRD, however, has not been reported in little league pitchers. The purpose of this study was to investigate GIRD in little leaguers. The range of motion of both shoulders was measured in 25 male little league pitchers. All pitchers underwent motion analyses of their pitching to evaluate shoulder kinematics. GIRD was found in 10 of the 25 pitchers. External rotation in the dominant arm in the GIRD group was not significantly different compared to the contralateral or dominant arm in the non-GIRD group. This biomechanical study showed that the GIRD group had increased external rotation while throwing compared to the non-GIRD group. These findings indicate that GIRD can occur prior to development of the increased external rotation in the dominant arm seen in adult throwers.

  8. Understanding shoulder and elbow injuries in baseball.

    PubMed

    Limpisvasti, Orr; ElAttrache, Neal S; Jobe, Frank W

    2007-03-01

    Repetitive overhead throwing exerts significant mechanical stress on the shoulder and elbow joint; this stress can lead to developmental anatomic changes in the young thrower. Asymptomatic pathology in the shoulder and elbow joint is prevalent and, with overuse, can progress to disabling injury. Joint injury occurs as a result of the body's inability to properly coordinate motion segments during the pitching delivery, leading to further structural damage. Identifying and preventing overuse is the key to avoiding injury, particularly in the young pitcher. Injury prevention and rehabilitation should center on optimizing pitching mechanics, core strength, scapular control, and joint range of motion.

  9. Tuberculosis in a young baseball player.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Cooper, A; Wasik, M; Jernigan, J; McFarland, E G

    1997-09-01

    This report of a 19-year-old pitcher with chest pain illustrates how an atypical presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis in an athlete can delay diagnosis. In addition to a history, physical examination, and chest radiographs, the tuberculin skin test is the key to diagnosis of this disease. Laboratory work includes blood tests, liver and renal function studies, analysis of aspirated fluids, and sputum cultures. Treatment generally consists of daily doses of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol or streptomycin. Screening close contacts such as teammates is essential; prophylaxis using isoniazid must be initiated for those who test positive.

  10. Injuries to pitchers in women's collegiate fast-pitch softball.

    PubMed

    Loosli, A R; Requa, R K; Garrick, J G; Hanley, E

    1992-01-01

    An injury survey of eight college softball teams ranked among the top 15 during the 1989 women's NCAA tournament championship by their athletic trainers found 26 injuries and complaints in 20 of 24 players. There were 15 grade I (nontime-loss) injuries, all musculotendinous except for a leg contusion and an ankle sprain. The 6 grade II injuries (altered play) were also musculotendinous except for 2 sprains to the hand and wrist. The 5 grade III (stopped play) injuries were somewhat more varied in type and resulted in an average of almost 7 weeks of time lost per injured player. Eighty-two percent of the time-loss injuries (grades II and III) involved the upper extremity. This survey suggests that there are likely to be a significant number of injuries involving loss of time from practice or games among elite women's fast-pitch softball pitchers.

  11. Musculocutaneous nerve injury in a high school pitcher.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Luke; Kinderknecht, James J; Wen, Dennis Y

    2014-11-01

    : Nontraumatic musculocutaneous nerve palsy is a rare injury that can occur in throwers. We present a case of musculocutaneous nerve injury in a high school pitcher, which has rarely been previously reported. The unique electromyography findings add to the overall spectrum seen with musculocutaneous nerve injuries in throwers. Sensory abnormalities may not be present at initial evaluation, but rather weakness or pain of the biceps is the most common presenting concern. Electrodiagnostic evaluation is paramount for confirmation of diagnosis, yet the timing of this study is critical for its accuracy. Rest and progressive physical therapy remain as the current treatment of choice. Resolution of symptoms, although time consuming, is complete in the majority of cases, including ours.

  12. Lower-extremity ground reaction forces in youth windmill softball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Guido, John A; Werner, Sherry L; Meister, Keith

    2009-09-01

    Ground reaction forces are important in pitching given that the only external contact a pitcher has is between the foot and the ground. Windmill softball pitchers are routinely seen clinically for injuries to the lower extremities, and lower-extremity kinetics have not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ground reaction forces and throwing mechanics in youth windmill pitchers and to provide a scientific basis for the improvement of preventive and rehabilitative protocols. Fifty-three youth softball pitchers were tested in an indoor facility. High-speed video and force plate data were collected for fastballs from each pitcher. Average ball speed was 25 m/sec. Peak vertical ground reaction force averaged 139 % body weight (BW), peak anterior force averaged 24 %BW, and the medially directed component of the ground reaction force averaged 42 %BW. Loading rates to peak force in all 3 directions were high. Preventive and rehabilitative protocols for windmill softball pitchers can begin to be improved on the basis of knowledge of the magnitudes and times to peak forces under the stride foot.

  13. How baseball players prepare to bat: tactical knowledge as a mediator of expert performance in baseball.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Sue; MacMahon, Clare

    2008-12-01

    Our understanding of the role of tactical knowledge in baseball batting preparation is scarce, thereby limiting training guidelines. We examined the verbal reports of baseball players and nonplayers when told to view different edited video sequences of a half-inning of baseball competition under different task conditions: to prepare to bat (problem solve); recall as much information as possible (intentional recall); or prepare to bat, with an unexpected recall (incidental recall). Separate mixed-model ANOVAs (Expertise x Instruction conditions) on verbal report measures indicated that nonplayers used general strategies for recalling baseball events and lacked the tactical skills to use such information for their upcoming times at bat. In contrast, players used baseball-specific strategies to encode and retrieve pertinent game events from long-term memory (LTM) to develop tactics for their upcoming times at bat and to recall as much information as possible. Recommendations for training tactical skills are presented as some players exhibited deficiencies in the LTM structures that mediate batting decisions.

  14. Traveling baseball players' problem in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyang Min; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Younguk; Kim, Aaram J.; Eun, Jonghyoun; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-08-01

    We study the so-called traveling tournament problem (TTP) to find an optimal tournament schedule. Differently from the original TTP, in which the total travel distance of all the participants is the objective function to minimize, we instead seek to maximize the fairness of the round robin tournament schedule of the Korean Baseball League. The standard deviation of the travel distances of teams is defined as the energy function, and the Metropolis Monte-Carlo method combined with the simulated annealing technique is applied to find the ground-state configuration. The resulting tournament schedule is found to satisfy all the constraint rules set by the Korean Baseball Organization, but with drastically increased fairness in traveling distances.

  15. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered.

  16. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered. PMID:26654988

  17. Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies.

    PubMed

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Rogers, Richard G; Krueger, Patrick M

    2008-07-17

    OBJECTIVE: We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. METHODS: We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. RESULTS: Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population.

  18. Human face structure correlates with professional baseball performance: insights from professional Japanese baseball players

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimura, Hikaru; Banissy, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In our daily lives, we use faces as a major source of information about other people. Recent work has begun to highlight how one's facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is linked to a number of behaviours (e.g. deception, aggression and financial performance in firms). fWHR has also been linked to several factors that may be beneficial for sport (e.g. achievement drive, winning mentality and aggression). Despite this, few studies have examined the relationship between fWHR and sports performance, and these have focused on Caucasian sportsmen. Here, we investigated the relationship between fWHR and baseball performance in professional Japanese baseball players. We show that fWHR is positively related with home run performance across two consecutive seasons. The findings provide the first evidence linking fWHR to baseball performance and linking fWHR to behavioural outcomes in Asian participants. PMID:23576779

  19. Human face structure correlates with professional baseball performance: insights from professional Japanese baseball players.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Hikaru; Banissy, Michael J

    2013-06-23

    In our daily lives, we use faces as a major source of information about other people. Recent work has begun to highlight how one's facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is linked to a number of behaviours (e.g. deception, aggression and financial performance in firms). fWHR has also been linked to several factors that may be beneficial for sport (e.g. achievement drive, winning mentality and aggression). Despite this, few studies have examined the relationship between fWHR and sports performance, and these have focused on Caucasian sportsmen. Here, we investigated the relationship between fWHR and baseball performance in professional Japanese baseball players. We show that fWHR is positively related with home run performance across two consecutive seasons. The findings provide the first evidence linking fWHR to baseball performance and linking fWHR to behavioural outcomes in Asian participants.

  20. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  1. Pearl Harbor: A Failure for Baseball?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepeau, Richard C.

    The history of sports is closely tied to the larger history of the society in which they are played. Baseball in the United States in the 1920's and l930's assumed a major role in spreading the ideals of fair play, sportsmanship, and democracy to the Far East, with tours by amateur athletes and professionals such as Lou Gehrig and Babe Ruth. Even…

  2. Valgus Extension Overload in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Franklin E; Villacis, Diego C; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive throwing, such as in baseball pitching, applies massive stress on the elbow. This can often lead to a predictable constellation of elbow injuries, such as valgus extension overload syndrome (VEO). The following review of VEO provides an understanding of relevant anatomy, explanation of pathomechanics, key aspects to clinical evaluation, effective treatment options, and indications for surgery. In addition, we provide the senior author's (CSA) preferred arthroscopic technique for cases of VEO refractory to conservative management.

  3. The rising fastball: baseball's impossible pitch.

    PubMed

    McBeath, M K

    1990-01-01

    Batters in professional baseball are confronted with pitches that appear to curve, dip, wobble, or rise. The rising fastball is a pitch where the ball appears to hop up as much as a third of a meter with a sudden increase in speed. Physics experiments confirm that many reported trajectories are possible, but not the rising fastball. The present paper shows how the apparent rise may be explained as a perceptual illusion due to the hitter underestimating original speed of the pitch.

  4. An analysis of 100 symptomatic baseball players.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D A; Tullos, H S

    1978-01-01

    The management of baseball elbow injuries, both operative and nonoperative, was usually successful, permitting continued high-level athletic participation. Surgery was particularly effective in those cases with loose bodies. In the shoulder, symptoms occurred in the anterior and posterior regions. Each area presented difficulties in accurate diagnosis. The management of anterior symptoms was primarily nonoperative, surgery being reserved as a salvage procedure. In the posterior capsular syndrome, the source of pain is still unclear.

  5. Valgus Extension Overload in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Franklin E; Villacis, Diego C; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive throwing, such as in baseball pitching, applies massive stress on the elbow. This can often lead to a predictable constellation of elbow injuries, such as valgus extension overload syndrome (VEO). The following review of VEO provides an understanding of relevant anatomy, explanation of pathomechanics, key aspects to clinical evaluation, effective treatment options, and indications for surgery. In addition, we provide the senior author's (CSA) preferred arthroscopic technique for cases of VEO refractory to conservative management. PMID:26991567

  6. Understanding baseball team standings and streaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sire, C.; Redner, S.

    2009-02-01

    Can one understand the statistics of wins and losses of baseball teams? Are their consecutive-game winning and losing streaks self-reinforcing or can they be described statistically? We apply the Bradley-Terry model, which incorporates the heterogeneity of team strengths in a minimalist way, to answer these questions. Excellent agreement is found between the predictions of the Bradley-Terry model and the rank dependence of the average number team wins and losses in major-league baseball over the past century when the distribution of team strengths is taken to be uniformly distributed over a finite range. Using this uniform strength distribution, we also find very good agreement between model predictions and the observed distribution of consecutive-game team winning and losing streaks over the last half-century; however, the agreement is less good for the previous half-century. The behavior of the last half-century supports the hypothesis that long streaks are primarily statistical in origin with little self-reinforcing component. The data further show that the past half-century of baseball has been more competitive than the preceding half-century.

  7. Evaluation of Hip Internal and External Rotation Range of Motion as an Injury Risk Factor for Hip, Abdominal and Groin Injuries in Professional Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Richard; Zhou, Hanbing; Thompson, Matthew; Dawson, Courtney; Nguyen, Joseph; Coleman, Struan

    2015-01-01

    Normal hip range of motion (ROM) is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc) and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201) in one professional organization (major and minor league) during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011). Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201) with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37). Both pitchers (N=93) and catchers (N=22) had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86). Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries. PMID:26793294

  8. Evaluation of Hip Internal and External Rotation Range of Motion as an Injury Risk Factor for Hip, Abdominal and Groin Injuries in Professional Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Ma, Richard; Zhou, Hanbing; Thompson, Matthew; Dawson, Courtney; Nguyen, Joseph; Coleman, Struan

    2015-12-28

    Normal hip range of motion (ROM) is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc) and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201) in one professional organization (major and minor league) during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011). Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201) with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37). Both pitchers (N=93) and catchers (N=22) had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86). Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries.

  9. Evaluation of Hip Internal and External Rotation Range of Motion as an Injury Risk Factor for Hip, Abdominal and Groin Injuries in Professional Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Ma, Richard; Zhou, Hanbing; Thompson, Matthew; Dawson, Courtney; Nguyen, Joseph; Coleman, Struan

    2015-12-28

    Normal hip range of motion (ROM) is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc) and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201) in one professional organization (major and minor league) during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011). Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201) with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37). Both pitchers (N=93) and catchers (N=22) had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86). Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries. PMID:26793294

  10. Transporters for ammonium, amino acids and peptides are expressed in pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Schulze, W; Frommer, W B; Ward, J M

    1999-03-01

    Insect capture and digestion contribute substantially to the nitrogen budget of carnivorous plants. In Nepenthes, insect-derived nitrogenous compounds are imported from the pitcher fluid and transported throughout the plant via the vascular tissue to support growth. Import and distribution of nutrients may require transmembrane nitrogen transporters. Representatives of three classes of genes encoding transporters for the nitrogenous compounds ammonium, amino acids and peptides were identified in Nepenthes pitchers. The expression at the cellular level of an ammonium transporter gene, three amino acid transporter genes, and one peptide transporter gene were investigated in the insect trapping organs of Nepenthes. Expression of the ammonium transporter gene NaAMT1 was detected in the head cells of digestive glands in the lower part of the pitcher where NaAMT1 may function in ammonium uptake from the pitcher fluid. One amino acid transporter gene, NaAAP1, was expressed in bundle sheath cells surrounding the vascular tissue. To understand the locations where transmembrane transport could be required within the pitcher, symplasmic and apoplasmic continuity was probed using fluorescent dyes. Symplasmic connections were not found between cortical cells and vascular bundles. Therefore, the amino acid transporter encoded by NaAAP1 may be involved in transport of amino acids into the vascular tissue. In contrast, expression of the peptide transporter gene NaNTR1 was detected in phloem cells of the vascular tissue within pitchers. NaNTR1 may function in the export of nitrogen from the pitcher by loading peptides into the phloem. PMID:10230062

  11. Contribution of pitcher fragrance and fluid viscosity to high prey diversity in a Nepenthes carnivorous plant from Borneo.

    PubMed

    Giusto, Bruno Di; Grosbois, Vladimir; Fargeas, Elodie; Marshall, David J; Gaume, Laurence

    2008-03-01

    Mechanisms that improve prey richness in carnivorous plants may involve three crucial phases of trapping:attraction, capture and retention. Nepenthes rafflesiana var. typica is an insectivorous pitcher plant that is widespread in northern Borneo. It exhibits ontogenetic pitcher dimorphism with the upper pitchers trapping more flying prey than the lower pitchers. While this difference in prey composition has been ascribed to differences in attraction,the contribution of capture and retention has been overlooked. This study focused on distinguishing between the prey trapping mechanisms, and assessing their relative contribution to prey diversity. Arthropod richness and diversity of both visitors and prey in the two types of pitchers were analysed to quantify the relative contribution of attraction to prey trapping. Rate of insect visits to the different pitcher parts and the presence or absence of a sweet fragrance was recorded to clarify the origin and mechanism of attraction. The mechanism of retention was studied by insect bioassays and measurements of fluid viscosity. Nepenthes rafflesiana was found to trap a broader prey spectrum than that previously described for any Nepenthes species,with the upper pitchers attracting and trapping a greater quantity and diversity of prey items than the lower pitchers. Capture efficiency was low compared with attraction or retention efficiency. Fragrance of the peristome,or nectar rim,accounted mainly for the observed non-specific, better prey attraction by the upper pitchers, while the retentive properties of the viscous fluid in these upper pitchers arguably explains the species richness of their flying prey. The pitchers of N. rafflesiana are therefore more than simple pitfall traps and the digestive fluid plays an important yet unsuspected role in the ecological success of the species.

  12. "Chief": The American Indian Integration of Baseball, 1897-1945.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers-Beck, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Beginning in 1897, American Indians endured their own integration experience in professional baseball. The experience was propelled by government boarding schools, which used baseball as a tool for assimilation and for prestige and profit. But the players on boarding-school teams often found in the sport their own means of cultural resistance and…

  13. Expert Baseball Batters Have Greater Sensitivity in Making Swing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This study used signal detection theory to conceptualize the problem a baseball batter faces when deciding whether or not to swing at a pitch. It examined the launch angle (LA) criteria used by expert (college players) and less experienced (recreational league players) batters using a baseball batting simulation. This study showed that, although…

  14. Designing IS Curricula for Practical Relevance: Applying Baseball's "Moneyball" Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surendra, Nanda C.; Denton, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Baseball's "Moneyball" theory states that the baseball market undervalues some attributes (and players with these attributes) that are key contributors to wins while overvaluing other attributes. Teams who correctly evaluate attributes that contribute to wins have higher winning percentages with relatively low payrolls. We applied the Moneyball…

  15. Training the Baseball Hitter: What Does Research Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Robin J.; Heefner, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Former baseball star Jim Lefebvre (1983) claimed that hitting a baseball may be the most talked about but least understood skill in all of sports. Historically, hitting instruction has been based on intuitive thinking by "hitting gurus," rather than on scientific fact, which has contributed to this lack of understanding (DeRenne, Stellar, &…

  16. Baseball/Beisbol. Spanish-English, English-Spanish. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Philip

    The bilingual glossary, in both English-to-Spanish and Spanish-to-English, defines words and phrases related to the game of baseball as it is reported by Spanish-language newspapers and magazines in Mexico and the United States. A list of U.S. and Mexican baseball league teams is appended. (MSE)

  17. Women's Baseball in Colleges and Clubs Prior to 1940.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.

    This paper reviews the literature on women's baseball prior to the establishment of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League by P. K. Wrigley in 1943. Around the turn of the century, women had fewer opportunities for participation in sports and long standing stereotypes permeated the thoughts and ideals of society with respect to women…

  18. Teaching with Documents. It's in the Cards: Archives and Baseball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, John, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the history of baseball cards and their use in the classroom as historical documents. Includes five exercises which deal with trading cards and the game itself. Provides a blown-up version of a 1950's Minnie Minoso baseball card to be used with one of the exercises. (GEA)

  19. 76 FR 37007 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July... Stockton Ports Baseball Club will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display... read as follows: Sec. 165.T11-422 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July...

  20. Sports-specific concerns in the young athlete: baseball.

    PubMed

    Yen, K L; Metzl, J D

    2000-06-01

    The sport of baseball is played by millions of children across America and around the world. Although generally considered a safe activity, it is estimated that there are over 100,000 acute baseball injuries yearly in the 5- to 14-year age range in the United States, many of which present to the emergency department. Acute injuries often involve ball impact to the face and hands; baseball is the leading cause of sport-related eye injury. Ball impact particularly to the chest results in a small but steady number of fatalities each year, many of which are widely publicized events. In addition to acute injury, many young baseball players are affected by chronic and acute conditions of the elbow. In this article, we review the history, epidemiology, and common injury patterns that are specific to baseball. Case reports are included, as well as a section on the physical examination of the elbow.

  1. Expanding the menu for carnivorous plants: uptake of potassium, iron and manganese by carnivorous pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Steinhauser, Georg; Peroutka, Marianne; Musilek, Andreas; Sterba, Johannes H; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Bichler, Max

    2009-12-01

    Carnivorous plants use animals as fertiliser substitutes which allow them to survive on nutrient deficient soils. Most research concentrated on the uptake of the prey's nitrogen and phosphorus; only little is known on the utilisation of other elements. We studied the uptake of three essential nutrients, potassium, iron and manganese, in three species of carnivorous pitcher plants (Cephalotus follicularis LaBilladiere, Sarracenia purpureaL., Heliamphora nutans Bentham). Using relatively short-lived and gamma-emitting radiotracers, we significantly improved the sensitivity compared to conventional protocols and gained the following results. We demonstrated the uptake of trace elements like iron and manganese. In addition, we found direct evidence for the uptake of potassium into the pitcher tissue. Potassium and manganese were absorbed to virtually 100% if offered in physiological concentrations or below in Cephalotus. Analysis of pitcher fluid collected in the natural habitat showed that uptake was performed here as efficiently as in the laboratory. The absorption of nutrients is an active process depending on living glandular cells in the pitcher epidermis and can be inhibited by azide. Unphysiologically high amounts of nutrients were taken up for a short time, but after a few hours the absorbing cells were damaged, and uptake stopped. Absorption rates of pitcher leaves from plants under controlled conditions varied highly, indicating that each trap is functionally independent. The comparison of minerals in typical prey with the plants' tissues showed that a complete coverage of the plants' needs by prey capture is improbable.

  2. Expanding the menu for carnivorous plants: uptake of potassium, iron and manganese by carnivorous pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Steinhauser, Georg; Peroutka, Marianne; Musilek, Andreas; Sterba, Johannes H; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Bichler, Max

    2009-12-01

    Carnivorous plants use animals as fertiliser substitutes which allow them to survive on nutrient deficient soils. Most research concentrated on the uptake of the prey's nitrogen and phosphorus; only little is known on the utilisation of other elements. We studied the uptake of three essential nutrients, potassium, iron and manganese, in three species of carnivorous pitcher plants (Cephalotus follicularis LaBilladiere, Sarracenia purpureaL., Heliamphora nutans Bentham). Using relatively short-lived and gamma-emitting radiotracers, we significantly improved the sensitivity compared to conventional protocols and gained the following results. We demonstrated the uptake of trace elements like iron and manganese. In addition, we found direct evidence for the uptake of potassium into the pitcher tissue. Potassium and manganese were absorbed to virtually 100% if offered in physiological concentrations or below in Cephalotus. Analysis of pitcher fluid collected in the natural habitat showed that uptake was performed here as efficiently as in the laboratory. The absorption of nutrients is an active process depending on living glandular cells in the pitcher epidermis and can be inhibited by azide. Unphysiologically high amounts of nutrients were taken up for a short time, but after a few hours the absorbing cells were damaged, and uptake stopped. Absorption rates of pitcher leaves from plants under controlled conditions varied highly, indicating that each trap is functionally independent. The comparison of minerals in typical prey with the plants' tissues showed that a complete coverage of the plants' needs by prey capture is improbable. PMID:19428263

  3. Relationship between performance variables and baseball ability in youth baseball players.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Kiwako; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the relationship of performance variables and anthropometric measurements on baseball ability in 164 youth baseball players (age: 6.4-15.7 years). To evaluate their baseball performance, ball speeds in pitching and batting were recorded and kinetic energies of the pitched and hit balls were calculated. To record anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics, height and weight were measured and a battery of physical fitness tests covering standing long jump, side steps, sit-ups, 10-m sprint, trunk flexion, back strength, and grip strengths of both hands were conducted. The results of a multiple regression analysis revealed several significant predictors: age, body mass index (BMI), standing long jump, 10-m sprint, and grip strength for pitched ball kinetic energy and age, BMI, standing long jump, and back strength for hit ball kinetic energy. This study provides scientific evidence that relates certain specific physical performance tests and body characteristics with high achievement in the actual performance of pitching and batting. Youth players, their parents, coaches, and trainers would benefit by addressing these characteristics when planning training programs to improve the baseball performance of youth players.

  4. Form follows function: morphological diversification and alternative trapping strategies in carnivorous Nepenthes pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Ulrike; Clemente, C J; Renner, T; Federle, W

    2012-01-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes have evolved a striking diversity of pitcher traps that rely on specialized slippery surfaces for prey capture. With a comparative study of trap morphology, we show that Nepenthes pitcher plants have evolved specific adaptations for the use of either one of two distinct trapping mechanisms: slippery wax crystals on the inner pitcher wall and 'insect aquaplaning' on the wet upper rim (peristome). Species without wax crystals had wider peristomes with a longer inward slope. Ancestral state reconstructions identified wax crystal layers and narrow, symmetrical peristomes as ancestral, indicating that wax crystals have been reduced or lost multiple times independently. Our results complement recent reports of nutrient source specializations in Nepenthes and suggest that these specializations may have driven speciation and rapid diversification in this genus.

  5. Form follows function: morphological diversification and alternative trapping strategies in carnivorous Nepenthes pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Ulrike; Clemente, C J; Renner, T; Federle, W

    2012-01-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes have evolved a striking diversity of pitcher traps that rely on specialized slippery surfaces for prey capture. With a comparative study of trap morphology, we show that Nepenthes pitcher plants have evolved specific adaptations for the use of either one of two distinct trapping mechanisms: slippery wax crystals on the inner pitcher wall and 'insect aquaplaning' on the wet upper rim (peristome). Species without wax crystals had wider peristomes with a longer inward slope. Ancestral state reconstructions identified wax crystal layers and narrow, symmetrical peristomes as ancestral, indicating that wax crystals have been reduced or lost multiple times independently. Our results complement recent reports of nutrient source specializations in Nepenthes and suggest that these specializations may have driven speciation and rapid diversification in this genus. PMID:22023155

  6. The dynamical theory of the baseball bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, L. L.

    1992-02-01

    A theory of the elastic behavior of an irregularly shaped, cylindrically symmetric object is developed and applied to the study of the familiar baseball bat. The normal mode, standing wave patterns of elastic vibrations are obtained and displayed graphically. The lowest 20 normal modes, extending in frequency up to about 3 kHz, are used to study and display the elastic response of the bat in the first few milliseconds after striking a ball. The contribution of the normal mode elastic vibrations to the hit ball speed is also developed, and the consequences for the batter (and fielders) are explored.

  7. The rising fastball: baseball's impossible pitch.

    PubMed

    McBeath, M K

    1990-01-01

    Batters in professional baseball are confronted with pitches that appear to curve, dip, wobble, or rise. The rising fastball is a pitch where the ball appears to hop up as much as a third of a meter with a sudden increase in speed. Physics experiments confirm that many reported trajectories are possible, but not the rising fastball. The present paper shows how the apparent rise may be explained as a perceptual illusion due to the hitter underestimating original speed of the pitch. PMID:2096372

  8. Throwing speed and accuracy in baseball and cricket players.

    PubMed

    Freeston, Jonathan; Rooney, Kieron

    2014-06-01

    Throwing speed and accuracy are both critical to sports performance but cannot be optimized simultaneously. This speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO) is evident across a number of throwing groups but remains poorly understood. The goal was to describe the SATO in baseball and cricket players and determine the speed that optimizes accuracy. 20 grade-level baseball and cricket players performed 10 throws at 80% and 100% of maximal throwing speed (MTS) toward a cricket stump. Baseball players then performed a further 10 throws at 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of MTS toward a circular target. Baseball players threw faster with greater accuracy than cricket players at both speeds. Both groups demonstrated a significant SATO as vertical error increased with increases in speed; the trade-off was worse for cricketers than baseball players. Accuracy was optimized at 70% of MTS for baseballers. Throwing athletes should decrease speed when accuracy is critical. Cricket players could adopt baseball-training practices to improve throwing performance.

  9. Sox and Drugs: Baseball, Steroids and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The sports world is in an uproar over performance-enhancing drugs. In the United States steroids in baseball have received the most attention, in part because the purported effects are much more dramatic than in any other sport. From 1995-2003 a few players hit home runs at rates 20-50% higher than the best sluggers of the preceding century. Could steroids really increase home-run performance that much? I will describe a model that combines estimates of the physiological effects of steroids, known baseball physics, and reasonable models of batting effectiveness for highly skilled hitters. A 10% increase in muscle mass, which can reasonably be expected from steroid use, increases the speed of a batted ball by 3%. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even this modest change in ball speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 30 -- 70%, enough to account for the record-shattering performances of the recent past. I will also describe some of the attention -- both welcome and not -- that comes to the unsuspecting physicist who wades into such emotionally troubled waters.

  10. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Gretchen; Weimar, Wendi

    2015-01-01

    Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly. PMID:26839605

  11. Dynamics of the baseball-bat collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Alan M.

    2000-11-01

    A model is developed for the collision between the baseball and bat, taking into account the transverse bending vibrations of the bat. By coupling the flexible bat to the ball via a parametrized force that each mutually exerts on the other, a complete description of the collision process is obtained, including the exit speed of the ball vf. It is shown that vibrations play an important role in determining vf. The model is in excellent agreement with experimental data at low impact velocities. At the higher velocities more appropriate to the game of baseball, vf is shown to coincide with the rigid-body value only over a very small region in the barrel of the bat and to drop off sharply for impacts removed from that region. Some interesting insights into the collision process are obtained, including the observation that for impacts in the barrel of the bat, the momentum transferred to the ball is essentially complete by the time the elastic wave first arrives at the handle and that any clamping action of the hands will affect the bat at the impact point only after the ball and bat have separated. This suggests that vf is independent of the size, shape, and method of support of the bat at distances far from the impact location.

  12. Disability days in major league baseball.

    PubMed

    Conte, S; Requa, R K; Garrick, J G

    2001-01-01

    We have examined the injury experience in Major League Baseball as reflected by the disabled list, based on data presented by American Specialty Companies in their publications, to examine any changes in injury rates over the past 11 years. It is reasonable to expect that improvements in training and conditioning, diagnostic methods, and surgical treatment over the last 11 years would have reduced injuries and resulted in fewer players on the disabled list. Yet, such does not appear to be the case. There is no evidence that the number of injuries in Major League Baseball has declined over the last decade; on the contrary, it appears that both the number of players and player days on the disabled list have increased. Team membership, injury location, and position do not appear to be related to the increase. Nor does it appear that the increase in injuries is a result of more sensitive diagnostic tests allowing the diagnoses of previously unrecognized injuries. Whatever the reason, it is significant that publicly available data, when viewed over an 11-year period, reveal a gradual and consistent increase in reported injuries--suggesting a problem that deserves attention.

  13. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen; Weimar, Wendi

    2015-12-22

    Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.

  14. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen; Weimar, Wendi

    2015-12-22

    Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly. PMID:26839605

  15. A Comprehensive Preseason Fitness Evaluation for Professional Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Gurry, M; Pappas, A; Michaels, J; Maher, P; Shakman, A; Goldberg, R; Rippe, J

    1985-06-01

    In brief: Preseason health and fitness evaluations were performed on 40 professional baseball players to assess level of conditioning, potential for injury, and health-related lifestyle habits. Group means for coronary risk profile, muscular endurance, flexibility, and maximum aerobic capacity were normal, but screening identified many players with problems or potential problems. Test findings resulted in at least one training or life-style recommendation in every player tested. This information provides a comprehensive physiological profile of one professional baseball team. Further research is needed to define sport-specific testing for the professional baseball player.

  16. Proteomic analysis of secreted protein induced by a component of prey in pitcher fluid of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Naoya; Hamada, Tatsuro

    2012-08-01

    The Nepenthes species are carnivorous plants that have evolved a specialized leaf organ, the 'pitcher', to attract, capture, and digest insects. The digested insects provide nutrients for growth, allowing these plants to grow even in poor soil. Several proteins have been identified in the pitcher fluid, including aspartic proteases (nepenthesin I and II) and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins (β-1,3-glucanase, class IV chitinase, and thaumatin-like protein). In this study, we collected and concentrated pitcher fluid to identify minor proteins. In addition, we tried to identify the protein secreted in response to trapping the insect. To make a similar situation in which the insect falls into the pitcher, chitin which was a major component of the insect exoskeleton was added to the fluid in the pitcher. Three PR proteins, class III peroxidase (Prx), β-1,3-glucanase, and class III chitinase, were newly identified. Prx was induced after the addition of chitin to the pitcher fluid. Proteins in the pitcher fluid of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata probably have two roles in nutrient supply: digestion of prey and the antibacterial effect. These results suggest that the system for digesting prey has evolved from the defense system against pathogens in the carnivorous plant Nepenthes.

  17. Concussions experienced by Major League Baseball catchers and umpires: field data and experimental baseball impacts.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jeffrey A; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-01-01

    Some reports have shown that head injuries in baseball may comprise up to 18.5% of all competitive sports-related head injuries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of catcher and umpire masks to impacts at these different regions to discover the impact conditions that represent the greatest risk of injury. A series of 10 events in which a catcher or umpire in Major League Baseball, who experienced a foul ball to the mask that resulted in a concussion, were analyzed through video and data on pitch characteristics. It was found that the impacts were distributed across the face, and the median plate speed was approximately 38 m/s (84 mph). To determine the relative severity of each identified impact location, an instrumented Hybrid III head outfitted with a catcher or umpire mask was impacted with baseballs. Testing at 27 and 38 m/s (60 and 84 mph) suggested that impacts to the center-eyebrow and chin locations were the most severe. Peak linear and rotational accelerations were found to be lower than the suggested injury thresholds. While impacts to a mask result in head accelerations which are near or below levels commonly associated with the lower limits for head injury, the exact injury mechanism is unclear, as concussions are still experienced by the mask wearers. PMID:22012084

  18. Concussions experienced by Major League Baseball catchers and umpires: field data and experimental baseball impacts.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jeffrey A; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-01-01

    Some reports have shown that head injuries in baseball may comprise up to 18.5% of all competitive sports-related head injuries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of catcher and umpire masks to impacts at these different regions to discover the impact conditions that represent the greatest risk of injury. A series of 10 events in which a catcher or umpire in Major League Baseball, who experienced a foul ball to the mask that resulted in a concussion, were analyzed through video and data on pitch characteristics. It was found that the impacts were distributed across the face, and the median plate speed was approximately 38 m/s (84 mph). To determine the relative severity of each identified impact location, an instrumented Hybrid III head outfitted with a catcher or umpire mask was impacted with baseballs. Testing at 27 and 38 m/s (60 and 84 mph) suggested that impacts to the center-eyebrow and chin locations were the most severe. Peak linear and rotational accelerations were found to be lower than the suggested injury thresholds. While impacts to a mask result in head accelerations which are near or below levels commonly associated with the lower limits for head injury, the exact injury mechanism is unclear, as concussions are still experienced by the mask wearers.

  19. Effects of throwing overweight and underweight baseballs on throwing velocity and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, R F; Speer, K P; Fleisig, G S; Barrentine, S W; Andrews, J R

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to determine how throwing overweight and underweight baseballs affects baseball throwing velocity and accuracy. Two studies examined how a warm-up with overweight baseballs affected throwing velocity and accuracy of 5 oz regulation baseballs. One of these studies showed significant increases in throwing velocity and accuracy, while the other study found no significant differences. Three training studies (6 to 12 weeks in duration) using overweight baseballs were conducted to determine how they affected ball accuracy while throwing regulation baseballs. No significant differences were found in any study. From these data it is concluded that warming up or training with overweight baseballs does not improve ball accuracy. Seven overweight and 4 underweight training studies (6 to 12 weeks in duration) were conducted to determine how throwing velocity of regulation baseballs was affected due to training with these overweight and underweight baseballs. The overweight baseballs ranged in weight from 5.25 to 17 oz, while the underweight baseballs were between 4 and 4.75 oz. Data from these training studies strongly support the practice of training with overweight and underweight baseballs to increase throwing velocity of regulation baseballs. Since no injuries were reported throughout the training studies, throwing overweight and underweight baseballs may not be more stressful to the throwing arm compared to throwing regulation baseballs. However, since currently there are no injury data related to throwing overweight and underweight baseballs, this should be the focus of subsequent studies. In addition, research should be initiated to determine whether throwing kinematics and kinetics are different between throwing regulation baseballs and throwing overweight and underweight baseballs.

  20. The Integration of Baseball: An Annotated Bibliography of Nonfiction Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Ron

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of nonfiction books on the integration of baseball focuses on the Negro leagues, books for young readers, individual teams, autobiographies and biographies of the pioneers, and autobiographies and biographies of the African American major leaguers. (SM)

  1. Baseball field looking North from same camera station as previous ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Baseball field looking North from same camera station as previous view - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  2. 2. Missile Alert Facility, south side, view from baseball bleachers. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Missile Alert Facility, south side, view from baseball bleachers. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  3. Motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using forearm electrical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takao; Kusuhara, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    The extroversion or hyperextension of elbow joint cause disorders of elbow joint in throwing a baseball. A method, which is easy handling and to measure motion objectively, can be useful for evaluation of throwing motion. We investigated a possibility of motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using electrical impedance method. The parameters of frequency characteristics (Cole-Cole arc) of forearm electrical impedance were measured during four types of throwing a baseball. Multiple discriminant analysis was used and the independent variables were change ratios of 11 parameters of forearm electrical impedance. As results of 120 data with four types of throwing motion in three subjects, hitting ratio was very high and 95.8%. We can expect to discriminate throwing a baseball using multiple discriminant analysis of impedance parameters.

  4. The healthy worker effect in major league baseball revisited.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the "healthy worker effect" (HWE) in major league baseball. Ages of death of major league baseball players who debuted between 1900 and 1939 were obtained and differences between those ages and age-adjusted life expectancies were examined to determine if longevity increased with career length, controlling for decade in which a player debuted, player position, and handedness. Major league baseball players (N = 4,492) lived an average of 4.8 (+/- 15.0 Standard deviation [SD]) years longer than age-matched controls from the general public. Career length significantly and incrementally increased longevity of players from an average of 4.1 years for players playing one season to 7.4 years for players playing 11 or more years. None of the other factors, nor any of the interactions, was statistically significant. These data provide strong support for the HWE in professional baseball.

  5. Major league baseball career length in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Witnauer, William D; Rogers, Richard G; Saint Onge, Jarron M

    2007-08-01

    Although baseball is considered "the" American pastime, little is known about the career prospects of the individuals who play the game. This study fills that void by examining the careers of baseball players over the last century. Between 1902 and 1993, 5,989 position players started their careers and played 33,272 person years of major league baseball. A rookie position player can expect to play 5.6 years; one in five position players will have only a single-year career, and at every point of a player's career, the chance of exiting is at least 11%. Position players who start younger and begin their career in more recent decades all have longer and more stable careers; nevertheless, baseball careers are not compressed versions of normal careers, but are substantially skewed toward early exit.

  6. Biogeographic barriers drive co-diversification within associated eukaryotes of the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system.

    PubMed

    Satler, Jordan D; Zellmer, Amanda J; Carstens, Bryan C

    2016-01-01

    Understanding if the members of an ecological community have co-diversified is a central concern of evolutionary biology, as co-diversification suggests prolonged association and possible coevolution. By sampling associated species from an ecosystem, researchers can better understand how abiotic and biotic factors influence diversification in a region. In particular, studies of co-distributed species that interact ecologically can allow us to disentangle the effect of how historical processes have helped shape community level structure and interactions. Here we investigate the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, an ecological community where many species from disparate taxonomic groups live inside the fluid-filled pitcher leaves. Direct sequencing of the eukaryotes present in the pitcher plant fluid enables us to better understand how a host plant can shape and contribute to the genetic structure of its associated inquilines, and to ask whether genetic variation in the taxa are structured in a similar manner to the host plant. We used 454 amplicon-based metagenomics to demonstrate that the pattern of genetic diversity in many, but not all, of the eukaryotic community is similar to that of S. alata, providing evidence that associated eukaryotes share an evolutionary history with the host pitcher plant. Our work provides further evidence that a host plant can influence the evolution of its associated commensals. PMID:26788436

  7. Carnivorous Nutrition in Pitcher Plants (Nepenthes spp.) via an Unusual Complement of Endogenous Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linda; Zhang, Ye; Ozar, Brittany; Sensen, Christoph W; Schriemer, David C

    2016-09-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Nepenthes are carnivorous, using specialized pitfall traps called "pitchers" that attract, capture, and digest insects as a primary source of nutrients. We have used RNA sequencing to generate a cDNA library from the Nepenthes pitchers and applied it to mass spectrometry-based identification of the enzymes secreted into the pitcher fluid using a nonspecific digestion strategy superior to trypsin in this application. This first complete catalog of the pitcher fluid subproteome includes enzymes across a variety of functional classes. The most abundant proteins present in the secreted fluid are proteases, nucleases, peroxidases, chitinases, a phosphatase, and a glucanase. Nitrogen recovery involves a particularly rich complement of proteases. In addition to the two expected aspartic proteases, we discovered three novel nepenthensins, two prolyl endopeptidases that we name neprosins, and a putative serine carboxypeptidase. Additional proteins identified are relevant to pathogen-defense and secretion mechanisms. The full complement of acid-stable enzymes discovered in this study suggests that carnivory in the genus Nepenthes can be sustained by plant-based mechanisms alone and does not absolutely require bacterial symbiosis.

  8. Biogeographic barriers drive co-diversification within associated eukaryotes of the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system

    PubMed Central

    Satler, Jordan D.; Zellmer, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding if the members of an ecological community have co-diversified is a central concern of evolutionary biology, as co-diversification suggests prolonged association and possible coevolution. By sampling associated species from an ecosystem, researchers can better understand how abiotic and biotic factors influence diversification in a region. In particular, studies of co-distributed species that interact ecologically can allow us to disentangle the effect of how historical processes have helped shape community level structure and interactions. Here we investigate the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, an ecological community where many species from disparate taxonomic groups live inside the fluid-filled pitcher leaves. Direct sequencing of the eukaryotes present in the pitcher plant fluid enables us to better understand how a host plant can shape and contribute to the genetic structure of its associated inquilines, and to ask whether genetic variation in the taxa are structured in a similar manner to the host plant. We used 454 amplicon-based metagenomics to demonstrate that the pattern of genetic diversity in many, but not all, of the eukaryotic community is similar to that of S. alata, providing evidence that associated eukaryotes share an evolutionary history with the host pitcher plant. Our work provides further evidence that a host plant can influence the evolution of its associated commensals. PMID:26788436

  9. Adhesion force measurements on the two wax layers of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Gorb, Elena V.; Purtov, Julia; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    The wax coverage of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers consists of two clearly distinguishable layers, designated the upper and lower wax layers. Since these layers were reported to reduce insect attachment, they were considered to have anti-adhesive properties. However, no reliable adhesion tests have been performed with these wax layers. In this study, pull-off force measurements were carried out on both wax layers of the N. alata pitcher and on two reference polymer surfaces using deformable polydimethylsiloxane half-spheres as probes. To explain the results obtained, roughness measurements were performed on test surfaces. Micro-morphology of both surface samples and probes tested was examined before and after experiments. Pull-off forces measured on the upper wax layer were the lowest among surfaces tested. Here, contamination of probes by wax crystals detached from the pitcher surface was found. This suggests that low insect attachment on the upper wax layer is caused primarily by the breaking off of wax crystals from the upper wax layer, which acts as a separation layer between the insect pad and the pitcher surface. High adhesion forces obtained on the lower wax layer are explained by the high deformability of probes and the particular roughness of the substrate. PMID:24889352

  10. Carnivorous Nutrition in Pitcher Plants (Nepenthes spp.) via an Unusual Complement of Endogenous Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linda; Zhang, Ye; Ozar, Brittany; Sensen, Christoph W; Schriemer, David C

    2016-09-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Nepenthes are carnivorous, using specialized pitfall traps called "pitchers" that attract, capture, and digest insects as a primary source of nutrients. We have used RNA sequencing to generate a cDNA library from the Nepenthes pitchers and applied it to mass spectrometry-based identification of the enzymes secreted into the pitcher fluid using a nonspecific digestion strategy superior to trypsin in this application. This first complete catalog of the pitcher fluid subproteome includes enzymes across a variety of functional classes. The most abundant proteins present in the secreted fluid are proteases, nucleases, peroxidases, chitinases, a phosphatase, and a glucanase. Nitrogen recovery involves a particularly rich complement of proteases. In addition to the two expected aspartic proteases, we discovered three novel nepenthensins, two prolyl endopeptidases that we name neprosins, and a putative serine carboxypeptidase. Additional proteins identified are relevant to pathogen-defense and secretion mechanisms. The full complement of acid-stable enzymes discovered in this study suggests that carnivory in the genus Nepenthes can be sustained by plant-based mechanisms alone and does not absolutely require bacterial symbiosis. PMID:27436081

  11. Adhesion force measurements on the two wax layers of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers.

    PubMed

    Gorb, Elena V; Purtov, Julia; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-06-03

    The wax coverage of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers consists of two clearly distinguishable layers, designated the upper and lower wax layers. Since these layers were reported to reduce insect attachment, they were considered to have anti-adhesive properties. However, no reliable adhesion tests have been performed with these wax layers. In this study, pull-off force measurements were carried out on both wax layers of the N. alata pitcher and on two reference polymer surfaces using deformable polydimethylsiloxane half-spheres as probes. To explain the results obtained, roughness measurements were performed on test surfaces. Micro-morphology of both surface samples and probes tested was examined before and after experiments. Pull-off forces measured on the upper wax layer were the lowest among surfaces tested. Here, contamination of probes by wax crystals detached from the pitcher surface was found. This suggests that low insect attachment on the upper wax layer is caused primarily by the breaking off of wax crystals from the upper wax layer, which acts as a separation layer between the insect pad and the pitcher surface. High adhesion forces obtained on the lower wax layer are explained by the high deformability of probes and the particular roughness of the substrate.

  12. Influence of pelvis rotation styles on baseball pitching mechanics.

    PubMed

    Wight, Jeff; Richards, James; Hall, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Efficient, sequential timing is essential for upper level pitching. Interestingly, pitchers vary considerably in timing related elements of pitching style including pelvis rotation, arm cocking, stride leg behaviour, and pitch delivery time. The purpose of this study was to determine whether relationships exist among these elements by examining the overall style of pitchers exhibiting different pelvis rotation patterns. Pitching styles were defined by pelvis orientation at the instant of stride foot contact. Pitchers demonstrating a pelvis orientation greater than 30 degrees were designated as 'early rotators', while pitchers demonstrating a pelvis orientation less than 30 degrees were designated as 'late rotators'. Kinematic and temporal differences were associated with the two styles. During the arm cocking phase, early rotators showed significantly greater shoulder external rotation at the instant of stride foot contact, earlier occurrence of maximum pelvis rotation angular velocity, and shorter time taken to complete the phase. However, by the instant of maximum shoulder external rotation, early and late rotators appeared remarkably similar as no significant difference occurred in pelvis and arm orientations. Therefore, it appears that early and late rotators used different methods to achieve similar results, including throwing velocity. Significant differences in throwing arm kinetics were also found for 10 of the 11 measures in the study. As the pelvis assumed a more open position at stride foot contact, maximum kinetic values were found to both decrease in magnitude and occur at an earlier time within the pitch.

  13. Medical management of youth baseball and softball tournaments.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Matthew; Ray, Tracy R

    2013-01-01

    The medical management of youth baseball and softball tournaments requires both proper planning and a basic awareness of commonly seen sport-specific injuries. While youth sporting events are designed to be a fun experience for all, injuries and emergencies will occur. With proper planning, and supplies, the impact of these issues can be minimized. This article will outline some basic principles for the medical personnel that may be involved in youth baseball and softball events.

  14. Medical management of youth baseball and softball tournaments.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Matthew; Ray, Tracy R

    2013-01-01

    The medical management of youth baseball and softball tournaments requires both proper planning and a basic awareness of commonly seen sport-specific injuries. While youth sporting events are designed to be a fun experience for all, injuries and emergencies will occur. With proper planning, and supplies, the impact of these issues can be minimized. This article will outline some basic principles for the medical personnel that may be involved in youth baseball and softball events. PMID:23669084

  15. The sweet spot of a baseball bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    1998-09-01

    The sweet spot of a baseball bat, like that of a tennis racket, can be defined either in terms of a vibration node or a centre of percussion. In order to determine how each of the sweet spots influences the "feel" of the bat, measurements were made of the impact forces transmitted to the hands. Measurements of the bat velocity, and results for a freely suspended bat, were also obtained in order to assist in the interpretation of the force waveforms. The results show that both sweet spots contribute to the formation of a sweet spot zone where the impact forces on the hands are minimised. The free bat results are also of interest since they provided particularly elegant examples of wave excitation and propagation, suitable for a student demonstration or experiment.

  16. Characterizing the performance of baseball bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Alan M.

    2003-02-01

    The characterization of the performance of baseball bats is presented from a physics point of view. The goal is to define a set of laboratory measurements that can be used to predict performance in the field. The concept of a model-independent collision efficiency, which relates the post-collision ball speed to the initial ball and bat speeds, is introduced and its properties are investigated. It is shown to provide a convenient link between laboratory and field measurements. Other performance metrics are presented, related to the collision efficiency, and evaluated according to their predictive power. Using a computational model, it is shown that bat performance depends on the interplay of the elasticity of the ball-bat collision, the inertial properties of the ball and bat, and the bat swing speed. It is argued that any method of determining performance needs to take all of these factors into account. A new method is proposed and compared with commonly used existing methods.

  17. Experimental determination of baseball spin and lift.

    PubMed

    Alaways, L W; Hubbard, M

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new method for the determination of lift on spinning baseballs. Inertial trajectories of (a) ball surface markers during the first metre of flight and (b) the centre of mass trajectory near home-plate were measured in a pitch using high-speed video. A theoretical model was developed, incorporating aerodynamic Magnus-Robins lift, drag and cross forces, which predicts the centre of mass and marker trajectories. Parameters including initial conditions and aerodynamic coefficients were estimated iteratively by minimizing the error between predicted and measured trajectories. We compare the resulting lift coefficients and spin parameter values with those of previous studies. Lift on four-seam pitches can be as much as three times that of two-seam pitches, although this disparity is reduced for spin parameters greater than 0.4.

  18. Peripheral nerve injuries in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Craig A; Schneider, David S

    2009-02-01

    Baseball players place significant stress across their shoulders and elbows during the throwing motion, causing unique patterns of injuries in the overhead throwing athlete. Specific nerve injuries include suprascapular neuropathy, quadrilateral space syndrome, and cubital tunnel syndrome. Nonoperative treatment includes cessation of throwing and symptom management. As symptoms improve, athletes should start rehabilitation, focusing on restoring shoulder and trunk flexibility and strength. The final rehabilitation phase involves an interval throwing program with attention directed at proper mechanics, with the goal of returning the athlete to competitive throwing. Surgery may assist in a positive outcome in particular patients who fail to improve with nonoperative treatment. Additional indications for surgery may include more profound neuropathy and nerve compression by a mass lesion.

  19. Peripheral nerve injuries in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Craig A; Schneider, David S

    2008-02-01

    Baseball players place significant stress across their shoulders and elbows during the throwing motion, causing unique patterns of injuries in the overhead throwing athlete. Specific nerve injuries include suprascapular neuropathy, quadrilateral space syndrome, and cubital tunnel syndrome. Nonoperative treatment includes cessation of throwing and symptom management. As symptoms improve, athletes should start rehabilitation, focusing on restoring shoulder and trunk flexibility and strength. The final rehabilitation phase involves an interval throwing program with attention directed at proper mechanics, with the goal of returning the athlete to competitive throwing. Surgery may assist in a positive outcome in particular patients who fail to improve with nonoperative treatment. Additional indications for surgery may include more profound neuropathy and nerve compression by a mass lesion.

  20. Traps of carnivorous pitcher plants as a habitat: composition of the fluid, biodiversity and mutualistic activities

    PubMed Central

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Peroutka, Marianne; Lendl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Carnivorous pitcher plants (CPPs) use cone-shaped leaves to trap animals for nutrient supply but are not able to kill all intruders of their traps. Numerous species, ranging from bacteria to vertrebrates, survive and propagate in the otherwise deadly traps. This paper reviews the literature on phytotelmata of CPPs. Pitcher Fluid as a Habitat The volumes of pitchers range from 0·2 mL to 1·5 L. In Nepenthes and Cephalotus, the fluid is secreted by the trap; the other genera collect rain water. The fluid is usually acidic, rich in O2 and contains digestive enzymes. In some taxa, toxins or detergents are found, or the fluid is extremely viscous. In Heliamphora or Sarracenia, the fluid differs little from pure water. Inquiline Diversity Pitcher inquilines comprise bacteria, protozoa, algae, fungi, rotifers, crustaceans, arachnids, insects and amphibia. The dominant groups are protists and Dipteran larvae. The various species of CPPs host different sets of inquilines. Sarracenia purpurea hosts up to 165 species of inquilines, followed by Nepenthes ampullaria with 59 species, compared with only three species from Brocchinia reducta. Reasons for these differences include size, the life span of the pitcher as well as its fluid. Mutualistic Activities Inquilines closely interact with their host. Some live as parasites, but the vast majority are mutualists. Beneficial activities include secretion of enzymes, feeding on the plant's prey and successive excretion of inorganic nutrients, mechanical break up of the prey, removal of excessive prey and assimilation of atmospheric N2. Conclusions There is strong evidence that CPPs influence their phytotelm. Two strategies can be distinguished: (1) Nepenthes and Cephalotus produce acidic, toxic or digestive fluids and host a limited diversity of inquilines. (2) Genera without efficient enzymes such as Sarracenia or Heliamphora host diverse organisms and depend to a large extent on their symbionts for prey utilization

  1. Biomechanics of baseball pitching. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Pappas, A M; Zawacki, R M; Sullivan, T J

    1985-01-01

    Fifteen professional major league pitchers were filmed with high speed cinematography. One hundred forty-seven pitches were analyzed using an electromagnetic digitizer and a microcomputer. Three phases of throwing were studied: cocking, acceleration, and follow-through. The cocking phase is the period of time between the initiation of the windup and the moment at which the shoulder is in maximum external rotation. This phase occurs in approximately 1500 ms, and the shoulder is brought into an extreme position of external rotation. The acceleration phase and the initial stages of the follow-through phase produce extraordinary demands on the shoulder and elbow. The acceleration phase begins with the throwing shoulder in the position of maximum external rotation and terminates with ball release. This phase occurs in approximately 50 ms, and peak angular velocities averaging 6,180 deg/sec for shoulder internal rotation and 4,595 deg/sec for elbow extension were measured. The follow-through phase begins at ball release and continues until the motion of throwing has ceased. This phase occurs in approximately 350 ms.

  2. Injury reduction and bounce characteristics of safety baseballs and acceptability by youth leagues.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, L G; Inaba, A S; Okamura, D M; Yamamoto, J A; Yamamoto, J B

    2001-04-01

    The only reasonable way to reduce the potential for ball-related youth baseball injuries sustained by the defensive players (the majority of ball-related injuries) is to make the ball less injurious. The American Academy of Pediatrics' 1994 statement on youth baseball injuries in this regard reads, "Consideration should be given to utilizing low-impact NOCSAE-approved baseballs and softballs for children 5 to 14 years of age, if these balls demonstrate satisfactory playing characteristics and reduce injury risk. A variety of studies should be undertaken to determine the efficacy of low-impact balls in reducing serious impact injuries." The purpose of this study, in accordance with this AAP policy, is to investigate the following: A) injury reduction potential of softer baseballs, B) their bounce characteristics, and C) their acceptability by youth leagues. Six simple injury models were studied, baseball bounce characteristics were analyzed, and attitudes of safety baseballs among statewide Little League district presidents were surveyed. Injury models demonstrated less injury potential with safety baseballs compared to that with standard hard baseballs. Safety baseballs bounced higher after vertical drops and slow throws, but during fast throws (with the greatest injury potential), the bounce heights were similar for all ball types. Of 27 survey cards sent out, 13 were returned. While 9 respondents indicated that they were already using safety baseballs for the younger players, none of the 13 respondents indicated that they were planning to expand the use of safety baseballs in their leagues. In conclusion, safety baseballs are less injurious in these models. The bounce characteristics of safety baseballs are satisfactory. Youth baseball league officials are not very willing to expand the use of safety baseballs. We recommend using safety baseballs as a standard for all youth baseball leagues because these balls are safer.

  3. Lesson Plan for "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Provides discussion questions, activity suggestions and sample quotes to provoke further examination of the Cold War era values evidenced in the baseball subculture (see SO 515 377, "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values). (JDH)

  4. Anthropometric and performance comparisons in professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Vazquez, Jose; Pichardo, Napoleon; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2009-11-01

    This study compared anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players and examined the relationship between these variables and baseball-specific performance (i.e., home runs, total bases, slugging percentage, and stolen bases). During a 2-year period, 343 professional baseball players were assessed for height, weight, body composition, grip strength, vertical jump power, 10-yard sprint speed, and agility. Subject population consisted of players on the rosters of one of the minor league affiliates (Rookie, A, AA, AAA) or major league team (MLB). All testing occurred at the beginning of spring training. Players in Rookie and A were significantly (p < 0.05) leaner than players in MLB and AAA. These same players had significantly lower lean body mass than seen in MLB, AAA, and AA players. Greater grip strength (p < 0.05) was seen in MLB and AAA than in Rookie and A. Players in MLB were also faster (p < 0.05) than players in AA, A, and Rookie. Vertical jump power measures were greater (p < 0.05) in MLB than AA, A, and Rookie. Regression analysis revealed that performance measures accounted for 25-31% of the variance in baseball-specific power performance. Anthropometric measures failed to add any additional explanation to the variance in these baseball-specific performance variables. Results indicated that both anthropometric and performance variables differed between players of different levels of competition in professional baseball. Agility, speed, and lower-body power appeared to provide the greatest predictive power of baseball-specific performance.

  5. Functional characterization of a class III acid endochitinase from the traps of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus, Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Rottloff, Sandy; Stieber, Regina; Maischak, Heiko; Turini, Florian G; Heubl, Günther; Mithöfer, Axel

    2011-08-01

    Carnivory in plants is an adaptation strategy to nutrient-poor environments and soils. Carnivorous plants obtain some additional mineral nutrients by trapping and digesting prey; the genus Nepenthes is helped by its specialized pitcher traps. To make the nutrients available, the caught prey needs to be digested, a process that requires the concerted activity of several hydrolytic enzymes. To identify and investigate the various enzymes involved in this process, fluid from Nepenthes traps has been analysed in detail. In this study, a novel type of Nepenthes endochitinase was identified in the digestion fluid of closed pitchers. The encoding endochitinase genes have been cloned from eight different Nepenthes species. Among these, the deduced amino acid sequence similarity was at least 94.9%. The corresponding cDNA from N. rafflesiana was heterologously expressed, and the purified protein, NrChit1, was biochemically characterized. The enzyme, classified as a class III acid endochitinase belonging to family 18 of the glycoside hydrolases, is secreted into the pitcher fluid very probably due to the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide. Transcriptome analyses using real-time PCR indicated that the presence of prey in the pitcher up-regulates the endochitinase gene not only in the glands, which are responsible for enzyme secretion, but at an even higher level, in the glands' surrounding tissue. These results suggest that in the pitchers' tissues, the endochitinase as well as other proteins from the pitcher fluid might fulfil a different, primary function as pathogenesis-related proteins.

  6. Corked bats, juiced balls, and humidors: The physics of cheating in baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Alan M.; Smith, Lloyd V.; Faber, Warren L.; Russell, Daniel A.

    2011-06-01

    Three questions of relevance to Major League Baseball are investigated from a physics perspective. Can a baseball be hit farther with a corked bat? Is there evidence that the baseball is more lively today than in earlier years? Can storing baseballs in a temperature- or humidity-controlled environment significantly affect home run production? These questions are subjected to a physics analysis, including an experiment and an interpretation of the data. The answers to the three questions are no, no, and yes, respectively.

  7. 78 FR 19799 - National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... United States Mint National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition... (heads side) of the 2014 National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coins. The competition, which...

  8. 75 FR 39166 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game... Bay off San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion. This safety... Giants will sponsor the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion on July 16, 2010, on the...

  9. Anthropometric Characteristics of Columbia, South Carolina, Youth Baseball Players and Dixie Youth World Series Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Karen E.; Spurgeon, John H.; Nevett, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare measures of body size in two samples of youth baseball players with normative data from the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts. One sample of youth baseball players participated in a local little league. The second sample of youth baseball players were members of eight…

  10. The Boys and Girls of Summer: Baseball Theme Programming Tips To Catch Young Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Offers suggestions for library programs with a baseball theme, including tying into hobbies such as collecting baseball cards; a young peoples book discussion; trivia contests using different reference sources; letter writing to favorite players; bibliographies and displays; hosting former players; women in baseball; and the Negro Leagues. (LRW)

  11. Forgotten Americans and the National Pastime: Literature on Baseball's Ethnic, Racial, and Religious Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarkman, Peter C.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the participation of various ethnic groups in baseball, and suggests that librarians and teachers can explore the richness and diversity of the American immigrant experience through the growing world of baseball nonfiction. The high-interest material of baseball literature portrays the vibrant and evolving American society. (SLD)

  12. Black Players and Baseball Cards: Exploring Racial Integration with Popular Culture Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Donald E.; Cooper, B. Lee

    1991-01-01

    Illustrates the use of baseball cards as cultural artifacts and how to make sociological inferences and historical generalizations from them. Focuses on Black players and the issue of racial integration in major league baseball. Includes chronologies of racial integration on teams and inductions of Black players into the Baseball Hall of Fame. (NL)

  13. Temperamental Predictive Factors for Success in Korean Professional Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyoung Doo; Hannon, James C.; Hall, Morgan S.; Choi, Jae Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this five-year cohort study, we hypothesize that factors of temperament and character in professional baseball players predict the speed of obtaining success and the quality of success as well as anxiety control. Methods Participants included 120 male rookie players from the Korea Baseball Organization (KBO) and 107 male non-players with no history of playing baseball. The personality/characters and state/trait anxieties of participants were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Spielberg's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y (STAI-Y). Over the duration of five years, all the players were subsequently classified into either a success group (major leaguers) or a non-success group (non-major leaguers), depending on their status in the professional baseball league in Korea. Results The players in the group of starters had higher novelty seeking (NS) scores than those of non-starters. The reward dependence (RD) scores of the success group were higher than those of the non-success group. The state anxiety scores in the starter group were negatively correlated with NS scores. The state and trait anxieties in the non-success group were positively correlated with RD scores. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that predictive temperamental factors for success in baseball players include traits of novelty seeking and reward dependence. PMID:26508956

  14. Upper and lower body strength in relation to underhand pitching speed by experienced and inexperienced pitchers.

    PubMed

    Pugh, S F; Kovaleski, J E; Heitman, R J; Pearsall, A W

    2001-12-01

    The relation of legs, arms, shoulders, and grip strength with underhand pitching speed of experienced and inexperienced female pitchers was investigated. For 16 experienced female underhand pitchers and 16 inexperienced women with no softball experience (control group) leg and arm strength were measured using a Hydrafitness exercise machine. Grip strength was measured with a handgrip dynamometer. Underhand throwing speed was measured with a radar gun. Regression analysis showed arm and grip strength correlated with throwing speed (p < or = .05) for the experienced group. For the inexperienced control group, the only correlate of throwing speed was arm strength (p < or = .05). There was a significant difference between the two groups on all measures of strength and ball speed in favor of the experienced group (p < or = .05).

  15. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club and the City of Stockton will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA. (a) Location....

  16. Hitting a baseball: a biomechanical description.

    PubMed

    Welch, C M; Banks, S A; Cook, F F; Draovitch, P

    1995-11-01

    A tremendous amount of time and energy has been dedicated to the development of conditioning programs, mechanics drills, and rehabilitation protocols for the throwing athlete. In comparison, a significantly smaller amount has been spent on the needs of the hitting athlete. Before these needs can be addressed, an understanding of mechanics and the demands placed on the body during the swing must be developed. This study uses three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data to define and quantify biomechanics during the baseball swing. The results show that a hitter starts the swing with a weight shift toward the rear foot and the generation of trunk coil. As the hitter strides forward, force applied by the front foot equal to 123% of body weight promotes segment acceleration around the axis of the trunk. The hip segment rotates to a maximum speed of 714 degrees/sec followed by a maximum shoulder segment velocity of 937 degrees/sec. The product of this kinetic link is a maximum linear bat velocity of 31 m/sec. By quantifying the hitting motion, a more educated approach can be made in developing rehabilitation, strength, and conditioning programs for the hitting athlete. PMID:8580946

  17. Sonographic evaluations in elite college baseball athletes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsing-Kuo; Lin, Jau-Jia; Pan, Shin-Liang; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2005-02-01

    This study compared the thickness of the biceps and supraspinatus tendons, the widths of the subacromial space in the frontal and scapular planes, and abnormal sonographic findings in the shoulders of injured, and uninjured elite college baseball athletes and healthy controls. This study recruited two groups of 42 and 12 athletes, with and without histories of shoulder injuries, respectively, as well as one control group of 16 college students who were matched for physical characteristics but not involved in sports. The results showed that the thickness of the biceps and supraspinatus tendons and the subacromial space widths at 0 degrees and 90 degrees shoulder abduction in the frontal plane were significantly greater in the athletes than in the controls (P-values <0.004). The occurrences of the acromioclavicular joint bulging, bicep tendon degeneration, infraspinatus tendon degeneration and infraspinatus cortical irregularity differ significantly between the injured athlete and the group of uninjured athletes and controls (P-values <0.05). However, only infraspinatus tendon degeneration corresponded to the injury histories. There was a high similarity of sonographic spectrum of abnormal findings among the groups. Longitudinal follow-ups are required to determine the clinical importance of the sonographic spectrums and the occurrences of abnormal finding in asymptomatic athletes' shoulders.

  18. The 'baseball' orbital implant: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Leatherbarrow, B; Kwartz, J; Sunderland, S; Brammar, R; Nichol, E

    1994-01-01

    The 'baseball' orbital implant was described by Frueh and Felker in 1976. Although this implant was originally described for use as a secondary implant, it has also been widely used as a primary implant at the time of enucleation. This prospective study evaluated the effectiveness of this implant used both primarily and secondarily. Forty-four patients were implanted between April 1990 and May 1991, 19 of the implants being primary and 25 secondary. A standardised operative and post-operative protocol was followed. The mean follow-up time was 31 months (range 24-36 months). The patients were evaluated for the degree of volume replacement, implant and associated prosthesis motility, secondary eyelid and socket problems, patient satisfaction, the need for further surgery and post-operative complications. The overall results achieved by primary implantation were superior to those of secondary implantation. Our results suggest that this implant provides a satisfactory functional and cosmetic rehabilitation of the anophthalmic patient with few complications.

  19. A replay of the baseball data.

    PubMed

    Coren, S; Halpern, D F

    1993-04-01

    Fudin, Renninger, Lembessis, and Hirshon (1993) reported a nonsignificant longevity advantage for right-handers in their analysis of archival baseball data, although the absolute values are still in the predicted direction. Differences in specific data entries and analyses are difficult to resolve; however, there is some indication that the data base that they analyzed differs from that in our study. Further, their use of parametric statistics, given distributional problems and grossly unequal group sizes, may account for the nonsignificance they observed, when compared to the nonparametric analyses that we used. While we considered our original study a pilot project, the literature now contains hundreds of studies that show that left-handedness is associated with a wide range of health-risk factors including serious accidents, immune system disorders, and birth-related complications that involve reduced oxygen. A recent study of the archival records of over 3000 cricket players showed a significant advantage of over 2 years in longevity for right-handed cricket players. On the basis of these findings, we still believe that left-handedness is a marker for reduced longevity.

  20. Hitting a baseball: a biomechanical description.

    PubMed

    Welch, C M; Banks, S A; Cook, F F; Draovitch, P

    1995-11-01

    A tremendous amount of time and energy has been dedicated to the development of conditioning programs, mechanics drills, and rehabilitation protocols for the throwing athlete. In comparison, a significantly smaller amount has been spent on the needs of the hitting athlete. Before these needs can be addressed, an understanding of mechanics and the demands placed on the body during the swing must be developed. This study uses three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data to define and quantify biomechanics during the baseball swing. The results show that a hitter starts the swing with a weight shift toward the rear foot and the generation of trunk coil. As the hitter strides forward, force applied by the front foot equal to 123% of body weight promotes segment acceleration around the axis of the trunk. The hip segment rotates to a maximum speed of 714 degrees/sec followed by a maximum shoulder segment velocity of 937 degrees/sec. The product of this kinetic link is a maximum linear bat velocity of 31 m/sec. By quantifying the hitting motion, a more educated approach can be made in developing rehabilitation, strength, and conditioning programs for the hitting athlete.